Science.gov

Sample records for access protocol soap

  1. A SOAP Web Service for accessing MODIS land product subsets

    SciTech Connect

    SanthanaVannan, Suresh K; Cook, Robert B; Pan, Jerry Yun; Wilson, Bruce E

    2011-01-01

    Remote sensing data from satellites have provided valuable information on the state of the earth for several decades. Since March 2000, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on board NASA s Terra and Aqua satellites have been providing estimates of several land parameters useful in understanding earth system processes at global, continental, and regional scales. However, the HDF-EOS file format, specialized software needed to process the HDF-EOS files, data volume, and the high spatial and temporal resolution of MODIS data make it difficult for users wanting to extract small but valuable amounts of information from the MODIS record. To overcome this usability issue, the NASA-funded Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) for Biogeochemical Dynamics at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed a Web service that provides subsets of MODIS land products using Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP). The ORNL DAAC MODIS subsetting Web service is a unique way of serving satellite data that exploits a fairly established and popular Internet protocol to allow users access to massive amounts of remote sensing data. The Web service provides MODIS land product subsets up to 201 x 201 km in a non-proprietary comma delimited text file format. Users can programmatically query the Web service to extract MODIS land parameters for real time data integration into models, decision support tools or connect to workflow software. Information regarding the MODIS SOAP subsetting Web service is available on the World Wide Web (WWW) at http://daac.ornl.gov/modiswebservice.

  2. PUG-SOAP and PUG-REST: web services for programmatic access to chemical information in PubChem.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunghwan; Thiessen, Paul A; Bolton, Evan E; Bryant, Stephen H

    2015-07-01

    PubChem (http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) is a public repository for information on chemical substances and their biological activities, developed and maintained by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH). PubChem contains more than 180 million depositor-provided chemical substance descriptions, 60 million unique chemical structures and 225 million bioactivity assay results, covering more than 9000 unique protein target sequences. As an information resource for the chemical biology research community, it routinely receives more than 1 million requests per day from an estimated more than 1 million unique users per month. Programmatic access to this vast amount of data is provided by several different systems, including the US National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)'s Entrez Utilities (E-Utilities or E-Utils) and the PubChem Power User Gateway (PUG)-a common gateway interface (CGI) that exchanges data through eXtended Markup Language (XML). Further simplifying programmatic access, PubChem provides two additional general purpose web services: PUG-SOAP, which uses the simple object access protocol (SOAP) and PUG-REST, which is a Representational State Transfer (REST)-style interface. These interfaces can be harnessed in combination to access the data contained in PubChem, which is integrated with the more than thirty databases available within the NCBI Entrez system.

  3. PUG-SOAP and PUG-REST: web services for programmatic access to chemical information in PubChem.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunghwan; Thiessen, Paul A; Bolton, Evan E; Bryant, Stephen H

    2015-07-01

    PubChem (http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) is a public repository for information on chemical substances and their biological activities, developed and maintained by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH). PubChem contains more than 180 million depositor-provided chemical substance descriptions, 60 million unique chemical structures and 225 million bioactivity assay results, covering more than 9000 unique protein target sequences. As an information resource for the chemical biology research community, it routinely receives more than 1 million requests per day from an estimated more than 1 million unique users per month. Programmatic access to this vast amount of data is provided by several different systems, including the US National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)'s Entrez Utilities (E-Utilities or E-Utils) and the PubChem Power User Gateway (PUG)-a common gateway interface (CGI) that exchanges data through eXtended Markup Language (XML). Further simplifying programmatic access, PubChem provides two additional general purpose web services: PUG-SOAP, which uses the simple object access protocol (SOAP) and PUG-REST, which is a Representational State Transfer (REST)-style interface. These interfaces can be harnessed in combination to access the data contained in PubChem, which is integrated with the more than thirty databases available within the NCBI Entrez system. PMID:25934803

  4. Direct data access protocols benchmarking on DPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furano, Fabrizio; Devresse, Adrien; Keeble, Oliver; Mancinelli, Valentina

    2015-12-01

    The Disk Pool Manager is an example of a multi-protocol, multi-VO system for data access on the Grid that went though a considerable technical evolution in the last years. Among other features, its architecture offers the opportunity of testing its different data access frontends under exactly the same conditions, including hardware and backend software. This characteristic inspired the idea of collecting monitoring information from various testbeds in order to benchmark the behaviour of the HTTP and Xrootd protocols for the use case of data analysis, batch or interactive. A source of information is the set of continuous tests that are run towards the worldwide endpoints belonging to the DPM Collaboration, which accumulated relevant statistics in its first year of activity. On top of that, the DPM releases are based on multiple levels of automated testing that include performance benchmarks of various kinds, executed regularly every day. At the same time, the recent releases of DPM can report monitoring information about any data access protocol to the same monitoring infrastructure that is used to monitor the Xrootd deployments. Our goal is to evaluate under which circumstances the HTTP-based protocols can be good enough for batch or interactive data access. In this contribution we show and discuss the results that our test systems have collected under the circumstances that include ROOT analyses using TTreeCache and stress tests on the metadata performance.

  5. Resilient packet ring media access protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thepot, Frederic

    2001-07-01

    The discussion will cover the new initiative to create a new MAC layer standard for resilient packet rings: IEEE 802.17 RPR. The key aspects of the presentation will include a preliminary address of the Metro Area Network today and the current networking technologies such as SONET/SDH which are not optimized to carry IP traffic over Metro MAN. The next segment will cover the options which could change the traditional and expensive layered networking model, and address the real benefits of marrying several technologies like Ethernet, SONET/SDH and IP into one technology. The next part of the discussion will detail the technical advantages a new MAC will bring to the services providers. Lastly a summary of the view and strategy about the acceptance and deployment of this new technology in the next 12 months, specifically, now one defines and develops standards for a Resilient Packet Ring Access Protocol for use in Local, Metropolitan, and Wide Area Networks for transfer of data packets at rates scalable to multiple gigabits per second; specifically address the data transmission requirements of carriers that have present and planned fiber optic physical infrastructure in a ring topology; and, defining and developing detailed specifications for using existing and/or new physical layers at appropriate data rates that will support transmission of this access protocol.

  6. Accessing SDO data in a pipeline environment using the VSO WSDL/SOAP interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez Sola, F. I.; Hourcle, J. A.; Amezcua, A.; Bogart, R.; Davey, A. R.; Gurman, J. B.; Hill, F.; Hughitt, V. K.; Martens, P. C.; Spencer, J.; Vso Team

    2010-12-01

    As part of the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO) effort to support the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) data, the VSO has worked on bringing up to date its WSDL document and SOAP interface to make it compatible with most widely used web services core engines. (E.g. axis2, jws, etc.) In this presentation we will explore the possibilities available for searching and/or fetching data within pipeline code. We will explain some of the WSDL/VSO-SDO interface intricacies and show how the vast amount of data that is available via the VSO can be tapped via IDL, Java, Perl or C in an uncomplicated way.

  7. Analyzing the effect of routing protocols on media access control protocols in radio networks

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, C. L.; Drozda, M.; Marathe, A.; Marathe, M. V.

    2002-01-01

    We study the effect of routing protocols on the performance of media access control (MAC) protocols in wireless radio networks. Three well known MAC protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA are considered. Similarly three recently proposed routing protocols: AODV, DSR and LAR scheme 1 are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of our experiments was to study how the routing protocols affect the performance of the MAC protocols when the underlying network and traffic parameters are varied. The performance of the protocols was measured w.r.t. five important parameters: (i) number of received packets, (ii) average latency of each packet, (iii) throughput (iv) long term fairness and (v) number of control packets at the MAC layer level. Our results show that combinations of routing and MAC protocols yield varying performance under varying network topology and traffic situations. The result has an important implication; no combination of routing protocol and MAC protocol is the best over all situations. Also, the performance analysis of protocols at a given level in the protocol stack needs to be studied not locally in isolation but as a part of the complete protocol stack. A novel aspect of our work is the use of statistical technique, ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) to characterize the effect of routing protocols on MAC protocols. This technique is of independent interest and can be utilized in several other simulation and empirical studies.

  8. Spacelab system analysis: The modified free access protocol: An access protocol for communication systems with periodic and Poisson traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingels, Frank; Owens, John; Daniel, Steven

    1989-01-01

    The protocol definition and terminal hardware for the modified free access protocol, a communications protocol similar to Ethernet, are developed. A MFA protocol simulator and a CSMA/CD math model are also developed. The protocol is tailored to communication systems where the total traffic may be divided into scheduled traffic and Poisson traffic. The scheduled traffic should occur on a periodic basis but may occur after a given event such as a request for data from a large number of stations. The Poisson traffic will include alarms and other random traffic. The purpose of the protocol is to guarantee that scheduled packets will be delivered without collision. This is required in many control and data collection systems. The protocol uses standard Ethernet hardware and software requiring minimum modifications to an existing system. The modification to the protocol only affects the Ethernet transmission privileges and does not effect the Ethernet receiver.

  9. Distributed reservation control protocols for random access broadcasting channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, E. P.; Ephremides, A.

    1981-01-01

    Attention is given to a communication network consisting of an arbitrary number of nodes which can communicate with each other via a time-division multiple access (TDMA) broadcast channel. The reported investigation is concerned with the development of efficient distributed multiple access protocols for traffic consisting primarily of single packet messages in a datagram mode of operation. The motivation for the design of the protocols came from the consideration of efficient multiple access utilization of moderate to high bandwidth (4-40 Mbit/s capacity) communication satellite channels used for the transmission of short (1000-10,000 bits) fixed length packets. Under these circumstances, the ratio of roundtrip propagation time to packet transmission time is between 100 to 10,000. It is shown how a TDMA channel can be adaptively shared by datagram traffic and constant bandwidth users such as in digital voice applications. The distributed reservation control protocols described are a hybrid between contention and reservation protocols.

  10. Control with a random access protocol and packet dropouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liyuan; Guo, Ge

    2016-08-01

    This paper investigates networked control systems whose actuators communicate with the controller via a limited number of unreliable channels. The access to the channels is decided by a so-called group random access protocol, which is modelled as a binary Markov sequence. Data packet dropouts in the channels are modelled as independent Bernoulli processes. For such systems, a systematic characterisation for controller synthesis is established and stated in terms of the transition probabilities of the Markov protocol and the packet dropout probabilities. The results are illustrated via a numerical example.

  11. Accessibility in Public Buildings: Efficiency of Checklist Protocols.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Jonas E; Skehan, Terry

    2016-01-01

    In Sweden, governmental agencies and bodies are required to implement a higher level of accessibility in their buildings than that stipulated by the National Building and Planning Act (PBL). The Swedish Agency for Participation (MFD, Myndigheten för delaktighet) develops holistic guidelines in order to conceptualize this higher level of accessibility. In conjunction to these guidelines, various checklist protocols have been produced. The present study focuses on the efficiency of such checklist protocols. The study revolved around the use of a checklist protocol in assessments of two buildings in Stockholm: the new head office for the National Authority for Social Insurances (ASI) and the School of Architecture at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH). The study included three groups: Group 1 and Group 2 consisted of 50 real estate managers employed by the ASI, while Group 3 consisted of three participants in a course at the KTH. The results were similar in all of the groups. The use of the checklist protocol generated queries, which related mainly to two factors: (1) the accompanying factsheet consisted of textual explanations with no drawings, photographs or illustrations and (2) the order of the questions in the checklist protocol was difficult to correlate with the two buildings' spatial logic of accessing, egressing and making use of the built space. PMID:27534293

  12. Reporting Soaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Gary; Prowse, Jane

    1999-01-01

    A family literacy program used television soap operas as a starting point for investigating home and community literacy practices. Parents participated as co-researchers, comparing media portrayals of literacy events with their own everyday practices. (SK)

  13. [Monitoring protocol of native vascular accesses for haemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Armada, E; Trillo, M; Pérez Melón, C; Molina Herrero, J; Gayoso, P; Camba, M; Morcillo Esteban, J; Otero, A

    2005-01-01

    Vascular access failure is an important cause of morbidity and mortality for patients on haemodialysis. We have prospectively studied, with a 5 years follow up, a monitoring protocol of native vascular accesses, using the available methods in every haemodialysis unit. All the native vascular accesses, created from 1- 1998 to XII-2001, with a posterior follow up until XII-2002, were monitored. Monitoring was based on physical examination, dificulty for blood flow greater than 300 ml/min, and in a monthly basis: dynamic venous pressure, urea recirculation and urea kinetic model. Abnormalities suggestive of fistulogram were a priori defined. During the recruitment period, a total of 164 accesses were created in 144 patients. Of these only 3 were grafts, 28 native vascular accesses were never functioning (primary failure rate 17. 1%), and 127 native accesses created in 113 patients (age 63.3 +/- 12.4 years; 18 % diabetics), were monitored (83% cephalic vein). Monitoring findings indicated realization of fistulogram in 35% and percutaneus angioplasty in 25% of the accesses. In order to maintain patency, the surgical intervention rate was 0.03 procedures/patient/year, the radiological 0.10 and the total 0.13. During the 5 years of the study occurred 41 thrombosis episodes in 40 accesses (0.07 thrombosis/patient/year), with percutaneus repermeabilization in 30%. Primary (unassisted) survival was 30.3 months (Confidence Interval 95% 25.6, 35.0) and secondary (assisted) survival 42.8 months (Confidence Interval 95%: 38.7, 46.9). Logistic regression analysis showed that presence of a central catheter at the time of creating the vascular access posses a greater risk for thrombosis (Relative Risk 5.6 if in subclavian vein), whereas age, diabetes, time to canulation, number of previous accesses and anatomic type do not increase that risk. In conclusion, in an old haemodialysis population, with an important diabetes prevalence, it is possible to create functioning native

  14. Simple Line Access Protocol Version 1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osuna, Pedro; Salgado, Jesus; Guainazzi, Matteo; Barbarisi, Isa; Dubernet, Marie-Lise; Tody, Doug; Osuna, Pedro; Salgado, Jesus

    2010-12-01

    The Simple Line Access Protocol (SLAP) is an IVOA Data Access protocol which defines a protocol for retrieving spectral lines coming from various Spectral Line Data Collections through a uniform interface within the VO framework. These lines can be either observed or theoretical and will be typically used to identify emission or absorption features in astronomical spectra. It makes use of the Simple Spectral Line Data Model (SSLDM [1]) to characterize spectral lines through the use of uTypes [14]. Physical quantities of units are described by using the standard Units DM [15]. SLAP services can be registered in an IVOA Registry of Resources using the VOResource [12] Extension standard, having a unique ResourceIdentifier [13] in the Registry. The SLAP interface is meant to be reasonably simple to implement by service providers. A basic query will be done in a wavelength range for the different services. The service returns a list of spectral lines formatted as a VOTable. Thus, an implementation of the service may support additional search parameters (some which may be custom to that particular service) to more finely control the selection of spectral lines. The specification also describes how the search on extra parameters has to be done, making use of the support provided by the Simple Spectral Line Data Model (SSLDM [1])

  15. Table Access Protocol Applied to the SIMBAD Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantelet, G.; Wenger, M.; Michel, L.

    2012-09-01

    We have implemented in the SIMBAD service the Table Access Protocol (TAP), a standard of the Virtual Observatory defining a protocol for accessing astronomical catalogs and database tables using queries written in the Astronomical Data Query Language (ADQL), another VO standard. Implementing TAP requires several steps: the definition of a database schema with the data exposed to the users, the translation of ADQL queries into regular SQL language performing the queries in SIMBAD, and the implementation of the Universal Worker Service (UWS) standard to manage asynchronous queries, useful for long queries, either by their duration or their output size. These standards were implemented as much as possible in a generic way, allowing them to be reused in other services, as it has already been done in the database generator SAADA. The ADQL to SQL translator uses callbacks to implement the specific routines for a given service. All these libraries have been designed as autonomous packages, easy to reuse with very few specific developments. The whole development is in the Java language.

  16. Remote Memory Access Protocol Target Node Intellectual Property

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, Omar

    2013-01-01

    The MagnetoSpheric Multiscale (MMS) mission had a requirement to use the Remote Memory Access Protocol (RMAP) over its SpaceWire network. At the time, no known intellectual property (IP) cores were available for purchase. Additionally, MMS preferred to implement the RMAP functionality with control over the low-level details of the design. For example, not all the RMAP standard functionality was needed, and it was desired to implement only the portions of the RMAP protocol that were needed. RMAP functionality had been previously implemented in commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) products, but the IP core was not available for purchase. The RMAP Target IP core is a VHDL (VHSIC Hardware Description Language description of a digital logic design suitable for implementation in an FPGA (field-programmable gate array) or ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit) that parses SpaceWire packets that conform to the RMAP standard. The RMAP packet protocol allows a network host to access and control a target device using address mapping. This capability allows SpaceWire devices to be managed in a standardized way that simplifies the hardware design of the device, as well as the development of the software that controls the device. The RMAP Target IP core has some features that are unique and not specified in the RMAP standard. One such feature is the ability to automatically abort transactions if the back-end logic does not respond to read/write requests within a predefined time. When a request times out, the RMAP Target IP core automatically retracts the request and returns a command response with an appropriate status in the response packet s header. Another such feature is the ability to control the SpaceWire node or router using RMAP transactions in the extended address range. This allows the SpaceWire network host to manage the SpaceWire network elements using RMAP packets, which reduces the number of protocols that the network host needs to support.

  17. Bubble bath soap poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002762.htm Bubble bath soap poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bubble bath soap poisoning occurs when someone swallows bubble bath soap. ...

  18. Modelling high data rate communication network access protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khanna, S.; Foudriat, E. C.; Paterra, Frank; Maly, Kurt J.; Overstreet, C. Michael

    1990-01-01

    Modeling of high data rate communication systems is different from the low data rate systems. Three simulations were built during the development phase of Carrier Sensed Multiple Access/Ring Network (CSMA/RN) modeling. The first was a model using SIMCRIPT based upon the determination and processing of each event at each node. The second simulation was developed in C based upon isolating the distinct object that can be identified as the ring, the message, the node, and the set of critical events. The third model further identified the basic network functionality by creating a single object, the node which includes the set of critical events which occur at the node. The ring structure is implicit in the node structure. This model was also built in C. Each model is discussed and their features compared. It should be stated that the language used was mainly selected by the model developer because of his past familiarity. Further the models were not built with the intent to compare either structure or language but because the complexity of the problem and initial results contained obvious errors, so alternative models were built to isolate, determine, and correct programming and modeling errors. The CSMA/RN protocol is discussed in sufficient detail to understand modeling complexities. Each model is described along with its features and problems. The models are compared and concluding observations and remarks are presented.

  19. SOAP-based services provided by the European Bioinformatics Institute

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, S.; Silventoinen, V.; Kallio, K.; Senger, M.; Sobhany, S.; Tate, J.; Velankar, S.; Golovin, A.; Henrick, K.; Rice, P.; Stoehr, P.; Lopez, R.

    2005-01-01

    SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) () based Web Services technology () has gained much attention as an open standard enabling interoperability among applications across heterogeneous architectures and different networks. The European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) is using this technology to provide robust data retrieval and data analysis mechanisms to the scientific community and to enhance utilization of the biological resources it already provides [N. Harte, V. Silventoinen, E. Quevillon, S. Robinson, K. Kallio, X. Fustero, P. Patel, P. Jokinen and R. Lopez (2004) Nucleic Acids Res., 32, 3–9]. These services are available free to all users from . PMID:15980463

  20. Soap and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKinnon, Gregory R.

    1998-01-01

    Outlines an activity centered around the soap-making process in which soap is made via demonstration. Students are asked to develop an acid-base classification table and discuss various acid-base indicators. (DDR)

  1. A protocol for satellite access via use of spot-beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramseier, Stefan; Ephremides, Anthony

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a new protocol for multiple access to a GEO-satellite that utilizes an electronically-switched spot-beam. The emphasis is on an integrated voice/data protocol which takes advantage of the propagation latency and which offers centralized control with excellent delay and throughput characteristics. The protocol also allows full exploitation of the advantages of a hopping beam satellite, such as smaller earth stations and frequency re-use.

  2. Do Soaps Teach Sex?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantor, Muriel G.; Cantor, Joel M.

    1984-01-01

    Traces historical development of soap operas and presents results of surveys conducted with college students to determine how viewing affects their behavior, attitudes, and beliefs. Results indicate students neither seek nor take advice from soap operas whereas early radio soap opera listeners sought practical explanations of appropriate behavior…

  3. Broadband passive optical network media access control protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quayle, Alan

    1996-11-01

    Most telecommunication operators are currently deciding on how to respond to customers' needs stimulated by the synergy between compression coding of multimedia and the emergence of broadband digital networks. This paper describes a range of broadband access architectures under consideration in the full services access network initiative. All architectures have a common requirement for a broadband ATM PON. A common broadband PON applicable to many operators increases the world-wide market for the product. With greater production volumes manufacturers' costs reduce because of the experience curve effect making broadband access systems economic.

  4. A Comparative experimental study of media access protocols for wireless radio networks

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, C. L.; Drozda, M.; Marathe, M. V.

    2001-05-24

    We conduct a comparative experimental analysis of three well known media access protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA for wireless radio networks. Both fixed and ad-hoc networks are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of experiments was to study how (i) the size of the network, (ii) number of open connections, (iii) the spatial location of individual connections, (iv) speed with which individual nodes move and (v) protocols higher up in the protocol stack (e,g. routing layer) affect the performance of the media access sublayer protocols. The performance of the protocols was measured w.r.t. three important parameters: (1) number of received packets, (2) average latency of each packet, and (3) throughput. The following general qualitative conclusions were obtained; some of the conclusions reinforce the earlier claims by other researchers. (1) Although 802.11 performs better than the other two protocols with respect to fairness of transmission, packets dropped, and latency, its performance is found to (i) show a lot of variance with changing input parameters and (ii) the overall performance still leaves a lot of room for improvement. (2) CSMA does not perform too well under the fairness criteria, however, was the best in terms of the latency criteria. (3) MACA also shows fairness problems and has poor performance at high packet injection rates. (4) Protocols in the higher level of the protocol stack affect the MAC layer performance. The main general implications of our work is two folds: (1) No single protocol dominated the other protocols across various measures of efficiency. This motivates the design of a new class of parameterized protocols that adapt to changes in the network connectivity and loads. We refer to these class of protocols as parameterized dynamically adaptive efficient protocols and as a first step suggest key design requirements for such a class of protocols. (2

  5. A simple, effective media access protocol system for integrated, high data rate networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foudriat, E. C.; Maly, K.; Overstreet, C. M.; Khanna, S.; Zhang, L.

    1992-01-01

    The operation and performance of a dual media access protocol for integrated, gigabit networks are described. Unlike other dual protocols, each protocol supports a different class of traffic. The Carrier Sensed Multiple Access-Ring Network (CSMA/RN) protocol and the Circulating Reservation Packet (CRP) protocol support asynchronous and synchronous traffic, respectively. The two protocols operate with minimal impact upon each other. Performance information demonstrates that they support a complete range of integrated traffic loads, do not require call setup/termination or a special node for synchronous traffic control, and provide effective pre-use and recovery. The CRP also provides guaranteed access and fairness control for the asynchronous system. The paper demonstrates that the CSMA-CRP system fulfills many of the requirements for gigabit LAN-MAN networks most effectively and simply. To accomplish this, CSMA-CRP features are compared against similar ring and bus systems, such as Cambridge Fast Ring, Metaring, Cyclic Reservation Multiple Access, and Distributed Dual Queue Data Bus (DQDB).

  6. Peer-review and publication of research protocols and proposals: a role for open access journals.

    PubMed

    Eysenbach, Gunther

    2004-09-30

    Peer-review and publication of research protocols offer several advantages to all parties involved. Among these are the following opportunities for authors: external expert opinion on the methods, demonstration to funding agencies of prior expert review of the protocol, proof of priority of ideas and methods, and solicitation of potential collaborators. We think that review and publication of protocols is an important role for Open Access journals. Because of their electronic form, openness for readers, and author-pays business model, they are better suited than traditional journals to ensure the sustainability and quality of protocol reviews and publications. In this editorial, we describe the workflow for investigators in eHealth research, from protocol submission to a funding agency, to protocol review and (optionally) publication at JMIR, to registration of trials at the International eHealth Study Registry (IESR), and to publication of the report. One innovation at JMIR is that protocol peer reviewers will be paid a honorarium, which will be drawn partly from a new submission fee for protocol reviews. Separating the article processing fee into a submission and a publishing fee will allow authors to opt for "peer-review only" (without subsequent publication) at reduced costs, if they wish to await a funding decision or for other reasons decide not to make the protocol public. PMID:15471763

  7. Soap film gas flowmeter

    SciTech Connect

    Lalin, H.S.; Bermudez, J.E.; Fleming, W.T.

    1987-09-08

    A soap film gas flowmeter is described comprising: a flow tube having a hollow body with opposite open ends through which a soap film is propelled and a first closed chamber housing a soap solution. It also includes means for supporting the flow tube in a substantially vertical position with the open bottom end of the flow tube disposed in the first chamber above the soap solution; a second closed chamber into which the open top end of the flow tube extends and gas inlet means for introducing gas into the first chamber at a flow rate to be measured using the flowmeters. A gas exit means is included for discharging the gas introduced into the first chamber through the second chamber. Plus there are means for generating a single soap bubble from the soap solution substantially at the bottom end of the flow tube and a relatively large opening in the flowtube for providing an open passageway for inlet gas to pass through the flowtube when the bottom open end of the flowtube is covered by the soap solution.

  8. A universal data access and protocol integration mechanism for smart home

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Pengfei; Yang, Qi; Zhang, Xuan

    2013-03-01

    With the lack of standardized or completely missing communication interfaces in home electronics, there is no perfect solution to address every aspect in smart homes based on existing protocols and technologies. In addition, the central control unit (CCU) of smart home system working point-to-point between the multiple application interfaces and the underlying hardware interfaces leads to its complicated architecture and unpleasant performance. A flexible data access and protocol integration mechanism is required. The current paper offers a universal, comprehensive data access and protocol integration mechanism for a smart home. The universal mechanism works as a middleware adapter with unified agreements of the communication interfaces and protocols, offers an abstraction of the application level from the hardware specific and decoupling the hardware interface modules from the application level. Further abstraction for the application interfaces and the underlying hardware interfaces are executed based on adaption layer to provide unified interfaces for more flexible user applications and hardware protocol integration. This new universal mechanism fundamentally changes the architecture of the smart home and in some way meets the practical requirement of smart homes more flexible and desirable.

  9. Laser Soap Fountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, Tyler; Pegram, Matthew; Jenkins, Zachary; Hester, Brooke C.; Burris, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed an eye-catching demonstration that showcases a variety of physics topics from total internal reflection to electrostatics to non-Newtonian fluid dynamics, including the Kaye effect. The essential components of the demonstration include a vertical stream of liquid soap in which a laser pointer is internally reflected, and which subsequently hits an inclined plane. As the liquid soap, a non-Newtonian fluid, begins to accumulate into a pile, its shear properties change and the incoming fluid rebounds from the pile, forming striking parabolic arcs. We present here a readily reproducible and inexpensive version of a laser soap fountain.

  10. Soap Bubbles and Logic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Shellie-helane; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Introduces questions and activities involving soap bubbles which provide students with experiences in prediction and logic. Examines commonly held false conceptions related to the shapes that bubbles take and provides correct explanations for the phenomenon. (ML)

  11. Chemistry in Soap Bubbles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Albert W. M.; Wong, A.; Lee, H. W.; Lee, H. Y.; Zhou, Ning-Huai

    2002-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experiment in which common chemical gases are trapped inside soap bubbles. Examines the physical and chemical properties of the gases such as relative density and combustion. (Author/MM)

  12. Experimental Investigation on Transmission Control Protocol Throughput Behavior in Optical Fiber Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tego, Edion; Matera, Francesco; del Buono, Donato

    2016-03-01

    This article describes an experimental investigation on the behavior of transmission control protocol in throughput measurements to be used in the verification of the service-level agreement between the Internet service provider and user in terms of line capacity for ultra-broadband access networks typical of fiber-to-the-x architectures. It is experimentally shown different conditions in high bandwidth-delay product links where the estimation of the line capacity based on a single transmission control protocol session results are unreliable. Simple equations reported in this work, and experimentally verified, point out the conditions in terms of packet loss, time delay, and line capacity, that allow consideration of the reliability of the measurement carried out with a single transmission control protocol session test by adopting a suitable measurement time duration.

  13. Tolcapone suppresses ethanol intake in alcohol preferring rats performing a novel cued access protocol

    PubMed Central

    McCane, Aqilah M.; Czachowski, Cristine L.; Lapish, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Dopamine (DA) has been shown to play a central role in regulating motivated behavior and encoding reward. Chronic drug abuse elicits a state of hypodopaminergia in the mesocorticolimbic (MCL) system in both humans and preclinical rodent models of addiction, including those modeling alcohol use disorders (AUD). Methods Working under the hypothesis that reductions in the bioavailability of DA play an integral role in the expression of the excessive drinking phenotype, the COMT inhibitor Tolcapone was used as a means to amplify cortical DA efflux and drinking behaviors were then assessed. Sucrose and ethanol consumption were measured in P and Wistar rats in both a free choice drinking protocol and a novel cued access protocol. Results Tolcapone attenuated the consumption of ethanol, and to a lesser extent sucrose, in P rats in the cued access protocol, while no effect was observed in the free choice drinking protocol. Tolcapone also decreased ethanol consumption in high drinking Wistar rats. A follow-up experiment using the DA agonist D-amphetamine (AMPH) showed no change in ethanol consumption. Conclusions Collectively, these data suggest that COMT inhibitors may be capable of alleviating the extremely motivating or salient nature of stimuli associated with alcohol. The hypothesis is put forth that the relative specificity of Tolcapone for cortical DA systems may mediate the suppression of the high seeking/drinking phenotype. PMID:25257296

  14. Adaptive MAC-layer protocol for multiservice digital access via tree and branch communication networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotikalapudi, Sriram; Li, Chia-Chang; Magill, Peter D.; Whitaker, Norman A.; Dail, James E.; Dajer, Miguel A.; Siller, Curtis A., Jr.

    1995-11-01

    Described here is an adaptive MAC-layer protocol that supports multiservice (STM and ATM) applications in the context of subscriber access to tree and branch (e.g., fiber-coaxial cable) networks. The protocol adapts to changing demands for a mix of circuit and cell mode applications, and efficiently allocates upstream and downstream bandwidth to a variety of bursty and isochronous traffic sources. In the case of a hybrid fiber-coaxial (HFC) network the protocol resides in customer premises equipment and a common head-end controller. A medium-access control (MAC) processor provides for dividing the time domain for a given digital bitstream into successive frames, each with multiple STM and ATM time slots. Within the STM region of a frame, variable length time slots are allocated to calls (e.g., telephony, video telephony) requiring different amounts of bandwidth. A contention access signaling channel is also provided in this region for call control and set-up requests. Within the ATM region fixed-length time slots accommodate one individual ATM cell. These ATM time slots may be reserved for a user for the duration of a call or burst of successive ATM cells, or shared via a contention process. At least one contention time slot is available for signaling messages related to ATM call control and set-up requests. Further, the fixed-length ATM time slots may be reserved by a user for the duration of a call, or shared through a contention process. This paper describes the MAC-layer protocol, its relation to circuit- and ATM- amenable applications, and its performance with respect to signaling throughput and latency, and bandwidth efficiency for several service scenarios.

  15. A carrier sensed multiple access protocol for high data base rate ring networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foudriat, E. C.; Maly, Kurt J.; Overstreet, C. Michael; Khanna, S.; Paterra, Frank

    1990-01-01

    The results of the study of a simple but effective media access protocol for high data rate networks are presented. The protocol is based on the fact that at high data rates networks can contain multiple messages simultaneously over their span, and that in a ring, nodes used to detect the presence of a message arriving from the immediate upstream neighbor. When an incoming signal is detected, the node must either abort or truncate a message it is presently sending. Thus, the protocol with local carrier sensing and multiple access is designated CSMA/RN. The performance of CSMA/RN with TTattempt and truncate is studied using analytic and simulation models. Three performance factors, wait or access time, service time and response or end-to-end travel time are presented. The service time is basically a function of the network rate, it changes by a factor of 1 between no load and full load. Wait time, which is zero for no load, remains small for load factors up to 70 percent of full load. Response time, which adds travel time while on the network to wait and service time, is mainly a function of network length, especially for longer distance networks. Simulation results are shown for CSMA/RN where messages are removed at the destination. A wide range of local and metropolitan area network parameters including variations in message size, network length, and node count are studied. Finally, a scaling factor based upon the ratio of message to network length demonstrates that the results, and hence, the CSMA/RN protocol, are applicable to wide area networks.

  16. Energy-efficient boarder node medium access control protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Razaque, Abdul; Elleithy, Khaled M

    2014-03-12

    This paper introduces the design, implementation, and performance analysis of the scalable and mobility-aware hybrid protocol named boarder node medium access control (BN-MAC) for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which leverages the characteristics of scheduled and contention-based MAC protocols. Like contention-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC achieves high channel utilization, network adaptability under heavy traffic and mobility, and low latency and overhead. Like schedule-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC reduces idle listening time, emissions, and collision handling at low cost at one-hop neighbor nodes and achieves high channel utilization under heavy network loads. BN-MAC is particularly designed for region-wise WSNs. Each region is controlled by a boarder node (BN), which is of paramount importance. The BN coordinates with the remaining nodes within and beyond the region. Unlike other hybrid MAC protocols, BN-MAC incorporates three promising models that further reduce the energy consumption, idle listening time, overhearing, and congestion to improve the throughput and reduce the latency. One of the models used with BN-MAC is automatic active and sleep (AAS), which reduces the ideal listening time. When nodes finish their monitoring process, AAS lets them automatically go into the sleep state to avoid the idle listening state. Another model used in BN-MAC is the intelligent decision-making (IDM) model, which helps the nodes sense the nature of the environment. Based on the nature of the environment, the nodes decide whether to use the active or passive mode. This decision power of the nodes further reduces energy consumption because the nodes turn off the radio of the transceiver in the passive mode. The third model is the least-distance smart neighboring search (LDSNS), which determines the shortest efficient path to the one-hop neighbor and also provides cross-layering support to handle the mobility of the nodes. The BN-MAC also incorporates a semi

  17. Energy-Efficient Boarder Node Medium Access Control Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Razaque, Abdul; Elleithy, Khaled M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the design, implementation, and performance analysis of the scalable and mobility-aware hybrid protocol named boarder node medium access control (BN-MAC) for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which leverages the characteristics of scheduled and contention-based MAC protocols. Like contention-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC achieves high channel utilization, network adaptability under heavy traffic and mobility, and low latency and overhead. Like schedule-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC reduces idle listening time, emissions, and collision handling at low cost at one-hop neighbor nodes and achieves high channel utilization under heavy network loads. BN-MAC is particularly designed for region-wise WSNs. Each region is controlled by a boarder node (BN), which is of paramount importance. The BN coordinates with the remaining nodes within and beyond the region. Unlike other hybrid MAC protocols, BN-MAC incorporates three promising models that further reduce the energy consumption, idle listening time, overhearing, and congestion to improve the throughput and reduce the latency. One of the models used with BN-MAC is automatic active and sleep (AAS), which reduces the ideal listening time. When nodes finish their monitoring process, AAS lets them automatically go into the sleep state to avoid the idle listening state. Another model used in BN-MAC is the intelligent decision-making (IDM) model, which helps the nodes sense the nature of the environment. Based on the nature of the environment, the nodes decide whether to use the active or passive mode. This decision power of the nodes further reduces energy consumption because the nodes turn off the radio of the transceiver in the passive mode. The third model is the least-distance smart neighboring search (LDSNS), which determines the shortest efficient path to the one-hop neighbor and also provides cross-layering support to handle the mobility of the nodes. The BN-MAC also incorporates a semi

  18. Bearer channel control protocol for the dynamic VB5.2 interface in ATM access networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragoulopoulos, Stratos K.; Mavrommatis, K. I.; Venieris, Iakovos S.

    1996-12-01

    In the multi-vendor systems, a customer connected to an Access network (AN) must be capable of selecting a specific Service Node (SN) according to the services the SN provides. The multiplicity of technologically varying AN calls for the definition of a standard reference point between the AN and the SN widely known as the VB interface. Two versions are currently offered. The VB5.1 is simpler to implement but is not as flexible as the VB5.2, which supports switched connections. The VB5.2 functionality is closely coupled to the Broadband Bearer Channel Connection Protocol (B-BCCP). The B-BCCP is used for conveying the necessary information for dynamic resource allocation, traffic policing and routing in the AN as well as for information exchange concerning the status of the AN before a new call is established by the SN. By relying on such a protocol for the exchange of information instead of intercepting and interpreting signalling messages in the AN, the architecture of the AN is simplified because the functionality related to processing is not duplicated. In this paper a prominent B- BCCP candidate is defined, called the Service node Access network Interaction Protocol.

  19. Bursting of soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Debashish; Stauffer, Dietrich

    1992-07-01

    Soap films consist of thin films of water in between two monolayers of amphiphilic molecules. Newton black films (NBFs) are the thinnest possible soap films. We have developed a microscopic model of NBFs; this model is a variant of the Widom model for microemulsions. By carrying out Monte Carlo simulations of this model, we have investigated the dependence of the lifetime of the NBFs on (a) the initial concentration of the amphiphilic molecules, (b) the temperature and (c) the bending rigidity of the constituent amphiphilic monolayers. We compare our results with the corresponding experimental observations and suggest further specific experiments. We establish that the “edge energy” of the model bilayer tends to stabilize the NBF; a similar mechanism leads to the well known phenomenon of “self-healing” of small enough holes in pierced vesicles. We also review the laws of growth of holes in soap films during rupture. Finally, we speculate on some other possible applications of our ideas.

  20. Advertisement-Based Energy Efficient Medium Access Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Surjya Sarathi

    One of the main challenges that prevents the large-scale deployment of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is providing the applications with the required quality of service (QoS) given the sensor nodes' limited energy supplies. WSNs are an important tool in supporting applications ranging from environmental and industrial monitoring, to battlefield surveillance and traffic control, among others. Most of these applications require sensors to function for long periods of time without human intervention and without battery replacement. Therefore, energy conservation is one of the main goals for protocols for WSNs. Energy conservation can be performed in different layers of the protocol stack. In particular, as the medium access control (MAC) layer can access and control the radio directly, large energy savings is possible through intelligent MAC protocol design. To maximize the network lifetime, MAC protocols for WSNs aim to minimize idle listening of the sensor nodes, packet collisions, and overhearing. Several approaches such as duty cycling and low power listening have been proposed at the MAC layer to achieve energy efficiency. In this thesis, I explore the possibility of further energy savings through the advertisement of data packets in the MAC layer. In the first part of my research, I propose Advertisement-MAC or ADV-MAC, a new MAC protocol for WSNs that utilizes the concept of advertising for data contention. This technique lets nodes listen dynamically to any desired transmission and sleep during transmissions not of interest. This minimizes the energy lost in idle listening and overhearing while maintaining an adaptive duty cycle to handle variable loads. Additionally, ADV-MAC enables energy efficient MAC-level multicasting. An analytical model for the packet delivery ratio and the energy consumption of the protocol is also proposed. The analytical model is verified with simulations and is used to choose an optimal value of the advertisement period

  1. Advertisement-Based Energy Efficient Medium Access Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Surjya Sarathi

    One of the main challenges that prevents the large-scale deployment of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is providing the applications with the required quality of service (QoS) given the sensor nodes' limited energy supplies. WSNs are an important tool in supporting applications ranging from environmental and industrial monitoring, to battlefield surveillance and traffic control, among others. Most of these applications require sensors to function for long periods of time without human intervention and without battery replacement. Therefore, energy conservation is one of the main goals for protocols for WSNs. Energy conservation can be performed in different layers of the protocol stack. In particular, as the medium access control (MAC) layer can access and control the radio directly, large energy savings is possible through intelligent MAC protocol design. To maximize the network lifetime, MAC protocols for WSNs aim to minimize idle listening of the sensor nodes, packet collisions, and overhearing. Several approaches such as duty cycling and low power listening have been proposed at the MAC layer to achieve energy efficiency. In this thesis, I explore the possibility of further energy savings through the advertisement of data packets in the MAC layer. In the first part of my research, I propose Advertisement-MAC or ADV-MAC, a new MAC protocol for WSNs that utilizes the concept of advertising for data contention. This technique lets nodes listen dynamically to any desired transmission and sleep during transmissions not of interest. This minimizes the energy lost in idle listening and overhearing while maintaining an adaptive duty cycle to handle variable loads. Additionally, ADV-MAC enables energy efficient MAC-level multicasting. An analytical model for the packet delivery ratio and the energy consumption of the protocol is also proposed. The analytical model is verified with simulations and is used to choose an optimal value of the advertisement period

  2. A Cloud-Assisted Random Linear Network Coding Medium Access Control Protocol for Healthcare Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kartsakli, Elli; Antonopoulos, Angelos; Alonso, Luis; Verikoukis, Christos

    2014-01-01

    Relay sensor networks are often employed in end-to-end healthcare applications to facilitate the information flow between patient worn sensors and the medical data center. Medium access control (MAC) protocols, based on random linear network coding (RLNC), are a novel and suitable approach to efficiently handle data dissemination. However, several challenges arise, such as additional delays introduced by the intermediate relay nodes and decoding failures, due to channel errors. In this paper, we tackle these issues by adopting a cloud architecture where the set of relays is connected to a coordinating entity, called cloud manager. We propose a cloud-assisted RLNC-based MAC protocol (CLNC-MAC) and develop a mathematical model for the calculation of the key performance metrics, namely the system throughput, the mean completion time for data delivery and the energy efficiency. We show the importance of central coordination in fully exploiting the gain of RLNC under error-prone channels. PMID:24618727

  3. Optical Shared Memory Computing and Multiple Access Protocols for Photonic Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kuang-Yu.

    In this research we investigate potential applications of optics in massively parallel computer systems, especially focusing on design issues in three-dimensional optical data storage and free-space photonic networks. An optical implementation of a shared memory uses a single photorefractive crystal and can realize the set of memory modules in a digital shared memory computer. A complete instruction set consists of R sc EAD, W sc RITE, S sc ELECTIVE E sc RASE, and R sc EFRESH, which can be applied to any memory module independent of (and in parallel with) instructions to the other memory modules. In addition, a memory module can execute a sequence of R sc EAD operations simultaneously with the execution of a W sc RITE operation to accommodate differences in optical recording and readout times common to optical volume storage media. An experimental shared memory system is demonstrated and its projected performance is analyzed. A multiplexing technique is presented to significantly reduce both grating- and beam-degeneracy crosstalk in volume holographic systems, by incorporating space, angle, and wavelength as the multiplexing parameters. In this approach, each hologram, which results from the interference between a single input node and an object array, partially overlaps with the other holograms in its neighborhood. This technique can offer improved interconnection density, optical throughput, signal fidelity, and space-bandwidth product utilization. Design principles and numerical simulation results are presented. A free-space photonic cellular hypercube parallel computer, with emphasis on the design of a collisionless multiple access protocol, is presented. This design incorporates wavelength-, space-, and time-multiplexing to achieve multiple access, wavelength reuse, dense connectivity, collisionless communications, and a simple control mechanism. Analytic models based on semi-Markov processes are employed to analyze this protocol. The performance of the

  4. Soap Films and Bubbles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Karen

    1986-01-01

    Develops and explains a format for a workshop which focuses on soap films and bubbles. The plan consists of: a discussion to uncover what children know about bubbles; explanations of the demonstration equipment; the presentation itself; the assembly of the workshop kit; and time to play with the bubbles. (ML)

  5. MATCH PLAY, SOAP HOPE.

    PubMed

    Rigby, Perry G; Gururaja, Ramnarayan Paragi; Hilton, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The Medical Education Commission (MEC) has published Graduate Medical Education (GME) data since 1997, including the National Residency Matching Program (NRMP) and the Supplemental Offer and Acceptance Program (SOAP), and totals all GME in Louisiana for annual publication. The NRMP provides the quotas and filled positions by institution. Following the NRMP, SOAP attempts to place unmatched candidates with slots that are unfilled. The NRMP Fellowship match also comes close to filling quotas and has a significant SOAP. Thus, an accurate number of total filled positions is best obtained in July of the same match year. All GME programs in Louisiana are represented for 2014, and the number trend 2005 to 2014 shows that the only dip was post-Katrina in 2005-2006. The March match after SOAP 2014 is at the peak for both senior medical students and post graduate year one (PGY-1) residents. A significant and similar number stay in Louisiana GME institutions after graduation. Also noteworthy is that a lower percentage are staying in state, due to increased enrollment in all Louisiana medical schools. PMID:27159458

  6. Television's "Soap" Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stutzman, Brent

    The situation comedy, "Soap," television's first prime-time sex farce, stirred controversy months before its premiere, and subsequent pressure on advertisers forced the network to change the show's concept from an adult comedy to a "whodunit." This report summarizes the controversy, recounts reactions to the series, and lists the implications of…

  7. Laser Soap Fountain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Tyler; Pegram, Matthew; Jenkins, Zachary; Hester, Brooke C.; Burris, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed an eye-catching demonstration that showcases a variety of physics topics from total internal reflection to electrostatics to non-Newtonian fluid dynamics, including the Kaye effect. The essential components of the demonstration include a vertical stream of liquid soap in which a laser pointer is internally reflected, and which…

  8. Soap Bubble Spectra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddons, Colin

    1984-01-01

    Describes an apparatus (called the "Rainbow Cup") used for demonstrating the colored rings produced by constructive interference in soap films. Discusses construction of the Rainbow Cup and gives hints for its use in the classroom, especially in relation to classroom humidity. (JM)

  9. FLOSYS--a web-accessible workflow system for protocol-driven biomolecular sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Badidi, E; Lang, B F; Burger, G

    2004-11-01

    FLOSYS is an interactive web-accessible bioinformatics workflow system designed to assist biologists in multi-step data analyses. FLOSYS allows the user to create complex analysis pathways (protocols) graphically, similar to drawing a flowchart: icons representing particular bioinformatics tools are dragged and dropped onto a canvas and lines connecting those icons are drawn to specify the relationships between the tools. In addition, FLOSYS permits to select input-data, execute the protocol and store the results in a personal workspace. The three-tier architecture of FLOSYS has been implemented in Java and uses a relational database system together with new technologies for distributed and web computing such as CORBA, RMI, JSP and JDBC. The prototype of FLOSYS, which is part of the bioinformatics workbench AnaBench, is accessible on-line at http://malawimonas.bcm.umontreal.ca: 8091/anabench. The entire package is available on request to academic groups who wish to have a customized local analysis environment for research or teaching.

  10. Based on asynchronous communication protocol of geographic space information service access mechanism research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Zhao, J.; Gu, M.; Li, D.

    2014-04-01

    At present, the traditional way of accessing to classified network in geographic spatial information services is using network gatekeeper and firewall etc. to ensure public and classified network communications links. However, the physical isolation between classified network and public network is crossed, which is bound to cause classified network potential security hazard. In Yunnan province space Land dynamic monitoring integration project, it proposed the point to point text message communication protocol and asynchronous transmission mechanism. Using geo-spatial information encryption processing and data compression processing method, it reduced the risk of data sensitivity and monitored, namely to ensure data security, which realized geographic spatial information services data communication effectively between classified network and public network in the rigid field conditions.

  11. Using the Remote Access Protocol for usability evaluation in X Windows

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T.; Bauer, K.; Allen, H.

    1996-12-31

    The automatic evaluation of graphical user interfaces can help reduce development costs in the creation of new designs or modification of existing designs. Several standards for the X Window System have been proposed or implemented that could greatly reduce the time spent evaluating GUIs. We implemented a User Interface Testbed (UseIT) based on the proposed Remote Access Protocol (RAP) standard. UseIT was created to automatically record an end user`s interaction with a Motif GUI application without modification or re-linking of existing code. The recorded interaction could then be replayed or displayed visually for interpretation by a human factors specialist. The end goal was to recreate the GUI and automatically recommend design changes based upon the interactions.

  12. Extending OPeNDAP's Data-Access Protocol to Include Enhanced Pre-Retrieval Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulker, D. W.

    2013-12-01

    We describe plans to extend OPeNDAP's Web-services protocol as a Building Block for NSF's EarthCube initiative. Though some data-access services have offered forms of subset-selection for decades, other pre-retrieval operations have been unavailable, in part because their benefits (over equivalent post-retrieval actions) are only now becoming fully evident. This is due in part to rapid growth in the volumes of data that are pertinent to the geosciences, exacerbated by limitations such as Internet speeds and latencies as well as pressures toward data usage on ever-smaller devices. In this context, as recipients of a "Building Blocks" award from the most recent round of EarthCube funding, we are launching the specification and prototype implementation of a new Open Data Services Invocation Protocol (ODSIP), by which clients may invoke a newly rich set of data-acquisition services, ranging from statistical summarization and criteria-driven subsetting to re-gridding/resampling. ODSIP will be an extension to DAP4, the latest version of OPeNDAP's widely used data access protocol, which underpins a number of open-source, multilingual, client-server systems (offering data access as a Web service), including THREDDS, PyDAP, GrADS, ERDAP and FERRET, as well as OPeNDAP's own Hyrax servers. We are motivated by the idea that key parts of EarthCube can be built effectively around clients and servers that employ a common and conceptually rich protocol for data acquisition. This concept extends 'data provision' to include pre-retrieval operations that, even when invoked by remote clients, exhibit efficiencies of data-proximate computation. Our aim for ODSIP is to embed a largely domain-neutral algebra of server functions that, despite being deliberately compact, can fulfill a broad range of user needs for pre-retrieval operations. To that end, our approach builds upon languages and tools that have proven effective in multi-domain contexts, and we will employ a user-centered design

  13. Adaptive Code Division Multiple Access Protocol for Wireless Network-on-Chip Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayakumaran, Vineeth

    Massive levels of integration following Moore's Law ushered in a paradigm shift in the way on-chip interconnections were designed. With higher and higher number of cores on the same die traditional bus based interconnections are no longer a scalable communication infrastructure. On-chip networks were proposed enabled a scalable plug-and-play mechanism for interconnecting hundreds of cores on the same chip. Wired interconnects between the cores in a traditional Network-on-Chip (NoC) system, becomes a bottleneck with increase in the number of cores thereby increasing the latency and energy to transmit signals over them. Hence, there has been many alternative emerging interconnect technologies proposed, namely, 3D, photonic and multi-band RF interconnects. Although they provide better connectivity, higher speed and higher bandwidth compared to wired interconnects; they also face challenges with heat dissipation and manufacturing difficulties. On-chip wireless interconnects is one other alternative proposed which doesn't need physical interconnection layout as data travels over the wireless medium. They are integrated into a hybrid NOC architecture consisting of both wired and wireless links, which provides higher bandwidth, lower latency, lesser area overhead and reduced energy dissipation in communication. However, as the bandwidth of the wireless channels is limited, an efficient media access control (MAC) scheme is required to enhance the utilization of the available bandwidth. This thesis proposes using a multiple access mechanism such as Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) to enable multiple transmitter-receiver pairs to send data over the wireless channel simultaneously. It will be shown that such a hybrid wireless NoC with an efficient CDMA based MAC protocol can significantly increase the performance of the system while lowering the energy dissipation in data transfer. In this work it is shown that the wireless NoC with the proposed CDMA based MAC protocol

  14. Formats and Network Protocols for Browser Access to 2D Raster Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesea, L.

    2015-12-01

    Tiled web maps in browsers are a major success story, forming the foundation of many current web applications. Enabling tiled data access is the next logical step, and is likely to meet with similar success. Many ad-hoc approaches have already started to appear, and something similar is explored within the Open Geospatial Consortium. One of the main obstacles in making browser data access a reality is the lack of a well-known data format. This obstacle also represents an opportunity to analyze the requirements and possible candidates, applying lessons learned from web tiled image services and protocols. Similar to the image counterpart, a web tile raster data format needs to have good intrinsic compression and be able to handle high byte count data types including floating point. An overview of a possible solution to the format problem, a 2D data raster compression algorithm called Limited Error Raster Compression (LERC) will be presented. In addition to the format, best practices for high request rate HTTP services also need to be followed. In particular, content delivery network (CDN) caching suitability needs to be part of any design, not an after-thought. Last but not least, HTML 5 browsers will certainly be part of any solution since they provide improved access to binary data, as well as more powerful ways to view and interact with the data in the browser. In a simple but relevant application, digital elevation model (DEM) raster data is served as LERC compressed data tiles which are used to generate terrain by a HTML5 scene viewer.

  15. Soap in the Language Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Bruce I.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the use of soap opera in a language laboratory. Each soap opera episode incorporates a vocabulary list from the course text. The list is supplemented by translation exercises and by a discussion of the particular grammatical principles involved, and the episode is followed by a listening comprehension test. (SED)

  16. Lost-Soap Aluminum Casting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihalow, Paula

    1980-01-01

    Lost-wax casting in sterling silver is a costly experience for the average high school student. However, this jewelry process can be learned at no cost if scrap aluminum is used instead of silver, and soap bars are used instead of wax. This lost-soap aluminum casting process is described. (Author/KC)

  17. Soaps, Sex, and College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Bradley S.; Heeter, Carrie

    To investigate the relationship between soap opera viewership and sexual and relational perceptions, telephone interviews were conducted with 209 female college students. Quota sampling was used to complete a ratio of two telephone interviews with soap opera viewers for every one with a nonviewer. For sampling purposes, a viewer was defined as…

  18. Evolution of the Data Access Protocol in Response to Community Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, J.; Caron, J. L.; Davis, E.; Fulker, D.; Heimbigner, D.; Holloway, D.; Howe, B.; Moe, S.; Potter, N.

    2012-12-01

    Under the aegis of the OPULS (OPeNDAP-Unidata Linked Servers) Project, funded by NOAA, version 2 of OPeNDAP's Data Access Protocol (DAP2) is being updated to version 4. DAP4 is the first major upgrade in almost two decades and will embody three main areas of advancement. First, the data-model extensions developed by the OPULS team focus on three areas: Better support for coverages, access to HDF5 files and access to relational databases. DAP2 support for coverages (defined as a sampled functions) was limited to simple rectangular coverages that work well for (some) model outputs and processed satellite data but that cannot represent trajectories or satellite swath data, for example. We have extended the coverage concept in DAP4 to remove these limitations. These changes are informed by work at Unidata on the Common Data Model and also by the OGC's abstract coverages specification. In a similar vein, we have extended DAP2's support for relations by including the concept of foreign keys, so that tables can be explicitly related to one another. Second, the web interfaces - web services - that provides access to data using via DAP will be more clearly defined and use other (, orthogonal), standards where they are appropriate. An important case is the XML interface, which provides a cleaner way to build other response media types such as JSON and RDF (for metadata) and to build support for Atom, thus simplify the integration of DAP servers with tools that support OpenSearch. Input from the ESIP federation and work performed with IOOS have informed our choices here. Last, DAP4-compliant servers will support richer data-processing capabilities than DAP2, enabling a wider array of server functions that manipulate data before returning values. Two projects currently are exploring just what can be done even with DAP2's server-function model: The MIIC project at LARC and OPULS itself (with work performed at the University of Washington). Both projects have demonstrated that

  19. Oscillations of soap bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornek, U.; Müller, F.; Harth, K.; Hahn, A.; Ganesan, S.; Tobiska, L.; Stannarius, R.

    2010-07-01

    Oscillations of droplets or bubbles of a confined fluid in a fluid environment are found in various situations in everyday life, in technological processing and in natural phenomena on different length scales. Air bubbles in liquids or liquid droplets in air are well-known examples. Soap bubbles represent a particularly simple, beautiful and attractive system to study the dynamics of a closed gas volume embedded in the same or a different gas. Their dynamics is governed by the densities and viscosities of the gases and by the film tension. Dynamic equations describing their oscillations under simplifying assumptions have been well known since the beginning of the 20th century. Both analytical description and numerical modeling have made considerable progress since then, but quantitative experiments have been lacking so far. On the other hand, a soap bubble represents an easily manageable paradigm for the study of oscillations of fluid spheres. We use a technique to create axisymmetric initial non-equilibrium states, and we observe damped oscillations into equilibrium by means of a fast video camera. Symmetries of the oscillations, frequencies and damping rates of the eigenmodes as well as the coupling of modes are analyzed. They are compared to analytical models from the literature and to numerical calculations from the literature and this work.

  20. Impact of genetic drift on access and benefit sharing under the Nagoya protocol: The case of the Meishan pig

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Convention on Biological Diversity developed the Nagoya Protocol (NP) on access and benefit sharing (ABS) for international exchange of genetic resources. Concerns are NP will impose new costs for exchanging livestock genetic resources and interfere with commonly used private treaty contracts. N...

  1. Development of SRS.php, a Simple Object Access Protocol-based library for data acquisition from integrated biological databases.

    PubMed

    Barbosa-Silva, A; Pafilis, E; Ortega, J M; Schneider, R

    2007-12-11

    Data integration has become an important task for biological database providers. The current model for data exchange among different sources simplifies the manner that distinct information is accessed by users. The evolution of data representation from HTML to XML enabled programs, instead of humans, to interact with biological databases. We present here SRS.php, a PHP library that can interact with the data integration Sequence Retrieval System (SRS). The library has been written using SOAP definitions, and permits the programmatic communication through webservices with the SRS. The interactions are possible by invoking the methods described in WSDL by exchanging XML messages. The current functions available in the library have been built to access specific data stored in any of the 90 different databases (such as UNIPROT, KEGG and GO) using the same query syntax format. The inclusion of the described functions in the source of scripts written in PHP enables them as webservice clients to the SRS server. The functions permit one to query the whole content of any SRS database, to list specific records in these databases, to get specific fields from the records, and to link any record among any pair of linked databases. The case study presented exemplifies the library usage to retrieve information regarding registries of a Plant Defense Mechanisms database. The Plant Defense Mechanisms database is currently being developed, and the proposal of SRS.php library usage is to enable the data acquisition for the further warehousing tasks related to its setup and maintenance.

  2. A Brief Survey of Media Access Control, Data Link Layer, and Protocol Technologies for Lunar Surface Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallett, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper surveys and describes some of the existing media access control and data link layer technologies for possible application in lunar surface communications and the advanced wideband Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DSCDMA) conceptual systems utilizing phased-array technology that will evolve in the next decade. Time Domain Multiple Access (TDMA) and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) are standard Media Access Control (MAC) techniques that can be incorporated into lunar surface communications architectures. Another novel hybrid technique that is recently being developed for use with smart antenna technology combines the advantages of CDMA with those of TDMA. The relatively new and sundry wireless LAN data link layer protocols that are continually under development offer distinct advantages for lunar surface applications over the legacy protocols which are not wireless. Also several communication transport and routing protocols can be chosen with characteristics commensurate with smart antenna systems to provide spacecraft communications for links exhibiting high capacity on the surface of the Moon. The proper choices depend on the specific communication requirements.

  3. Making Usable, Quality Opaque or Transparent Soap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabrouk, Suzanne T.

    2005-01-01

    The experiment to make opaque and transparent soap, using cold and semi boiled processes respectively, and surfactant tests that measure the pH of the prepared soap, is introduced. The experiment shows an easy method to make soap by giving a choice to select oils and scents for the soap, which can be used at home.

  4. Wireless access to a pharmaceutical database: A demonstrator for data driven Wireless Application Protocol applications in medical information processing

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Michael Schacht

    2001-01-01

    Background The Wireless Application Protocol technology implemented in newer mobile phones has built-in facilities for handling much of the information processing needed in clinical work. Objectives To test a practical approach we ported a relational database of the Danish pharmaceutical catalogue to Wireless Application Protocol using open source freeware at all steps. Methods We used Apache 1.3 web software on a Linux server. Data containing the Danish pharmaceutical catalogue were imported from an ASCII file into a MySQL 3.22.32 database using a Practical Extraction and Report Language script for easy update of the database. Data were distributed in 35 interrelated tables. Each pharmaceutical brand name was given its own card with links to general information about the drug, active substances, contraindications etc. Access was available through 1) browsing therapeutic groups and 2) searching for a brand name. The database interface was programmed in the server-side scripting language PHP3. Results A free, open source Wireless Application Protocol gateway to a pharmaceutical catalogue was established to allow dial-in access independent of commercial Wireless Application Protocol service providers. The application was tested on the Nokia 7110 and Ericsson R320s cellular phones. Conclusions We have demonstrated that Wireless Application Protocol-based access to a dynamic clinical database can be established using open source freeware. The project opens perspectives for a further integration of Wireless Application Protocol phone functions in clinical information processing: Global System for Mobile communication telephony for bilateral communication, asynchronous unilateral communication via e-mail and Short Message Service, built-in calculator, calendar, personal organizer, phone number catalogue and Dictaphone function via answering machine technology. An independent Wireless Application Protocol gateway may be placed within hospital firewalls, which may be an

  5. Guaranteeing synchronous message deadlines with the timed token medium access control protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, Gopal; Chen, Baio; Zhao, Wei; Davari, Sadegh

    1992-01-01

    We study the problem of guaranteeing synchronous message deadlines in token ring networks where the timed token medium access control protocol is employed. Synchronous capacity, defined as the maximum time for which a node can transmit its synchronous messages every time it receives the token, is a key parameter in the control of synchronous message transmission. To ensure the transmission of synchronous messages before their deadlines, synchronous capacities must be properly allocated to individual nodes. We address the issue of appropriate allocation of the synchronous capacities. Several synchronous capacity allocation schemes are analyzed in terms of their ability to satisfy deadline constraints of synchronous messages. We show that an inappropriate allocation of the synchronous capacities could cause message deadlines to be missed even if the synchronous traffic is extremely low. We propose a scheme called the normalized proportional allocation scheme which can guarantee the synchronous message deadlines for synchronous traffic of up to 33 percent of available utilization. To date, no other synchronous capacity allocation scheme has been reported to achieve such substantial performance. Another major contribution of this paper is an extension to the previous work on the bounded token rotation time. We prove that the time elapsed between any consecutive visits to a particular node is bounded by upsilon TTRT, where TTRT is the target token rotation time set up at system initialization time. The previous result by Johnson and Sevcik is a special case where upsilon = 2. We use this result in the analysis of various synchronous allocation schemes. It can also be applied in other similar studies.

  6. Honest broker protocol streamlines research access to data while safeguarding patient privacy.

    PubMed

    Silvey, Scott A; Silvey, Scott Andrew; Schulte, Janet; Smaltz, Detlev H; Smaltz, Detlev Herb; Kamal, Jyoti

    2008-11-06

    At Ohio State University Medical Center, The Honest Broker Protocol provides a streamlined mechanism whereby investigators can obtain de-identified clinical data for non-FDA research without having to invest the significant time and effort necessary to craft a formalized protocol for IRB approval.

  7. A novel user authentication and key agreement protocol for accessing multi-medical server usable in TMIS.

    PubMed

    Amin, Ruhul; Biswas, G P

    2015-03-01

    Telecare Medical Information System (TMIS) makes an efficient and convenient connection between patient(s)/user(s) at home and doctor(s) at a clinical center. To ensure secure connection between the two entities (patient(s)/user(s), doctor(s)), user authentication is enormously important for the medical server. In this regard, many authentication protocols have been proposed in the literature only for accessing single medical server. In order to fix the drawbacks of the single medical server, we have primarily developed a novel architecture for accessing several medical services of the multi-medical server, where a user can directly communicate with the doctor of the medical server securely. Thereafter, we have developed a smart card based user authentication and key agreement security protocol usable for TMIS system using cryptographic one-way hash function. We have analyzed the security of our proposed authentication scheme through both formal and informal security analysis. Furthermore, we have simulated the proposed scheme for the formal security verification using the widely-accepted AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool and showed that the scheme is secure against the replay and man-in-the-middle attacks. The informal security analysis is also presented which confirms that the protocol has well security protection on the relevant security attacks. The security and performance comparison analysis confirm that the proposed protocol not only provides security protection on the above mentioned attacks, but it also achieves better complexities along with efficient login and password change phase. PMID:25681100

  8. Science and Art--Rotating and Vibrating Soap Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramme, Goran

    1993-01-01

    Describes activities concerning interference phenomena derived from illuminated rotating soap films. Suggests reflecting incident light off of the soap film onto a projection screen. Discusses several possible experiments, how to make soap solutions, and vibrating soap films. (MVL)

  9. Rationale and protocol of SOAP: a phase II study to evaluate the efficacy of sorafenib as second-line treatment after pazopanib in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Iacovelli, Roberto; Verzoni, Elena; Grassi, Paolo; Farcomeni, Alessio; de Braud, Filippo; Procopio, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of agents targeting vascular endothelial grow factors has radically changed the approach to metastatic renal cell carcinoma; however, cure is not within definitive reach. In many cases, the tumor will progress several months after the start of first-line therapy and new lines of therapy are required. Pazopanib and sorafenib are two frequently used targeted agents, and no sound data are currently available for patients who relapsed after pazopanib. In this paper we illustrate the SOAP study, which was designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of sorafenib in terms of progression free-survival in 44 patients treated in 10 Italian centers who had relapsed after first-line pazopanib. Standard treatment with sorafenib will be administered until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Secondary endpoints include the evaluation of overall survival, safety and quality of life. A subanalysis to evaluate toxicities as predictive factors has also been planned.

  10. Soaps and Detergents--A 'Social' Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rust, S. C.

    1979-01-01

    Describes how social aspects of science can be incorporated into teaching soap and detergents in British secondary chemistry and general science courses. Historical background to the use and production of soap and the development of detergents are also presented. (HM)

  11. Improving accessibility of trust guidelines and protocols at the Great Western Hospital, Swindon

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Ian; Smith, Abigail; Tucker, Jennifer; Cilia, Erica; Chen, Kangni; Marion, Rose; Nesbitt, Julian; Ramcharitar, Steve; Cathiavadi Greamspet, Mala

    2014-01-01

    Trust guidelines and policies outline recommendations for the management of common clinical and non-clinical situations, serving to standardise best practice. Prior to this project, there was no consolidated location for these documents. Lack of organisational structure and inadequate search functionality within the trust intranet led to time wasted locating information, acting outside of recognised best practice, and ultimately potentially compromising patient safety. We surveyed 55 junior doctors, 95% of respondents were dependent on guidelines on a daily basis. 20% spending greater than 5 minutes to locate protocols and 38% unable to locate some relevant documents at all. We analysed the time taken for junior doctors to locate six randomly selected protocols. Pre-intervention mean time was 133 seconds (on six occasions doctors were unable to locate the guideline). All trust guidelines and protocols currently available on the intranet were collated, consolidated, and renamed according to content. These were then re-alphabetised and new search terms linked to each document. Existing links were then uploaded and a single web page made available via the trust intranet homepage. The new page was publicised by email, posters and interdepartmental presentations. In our post intervention survey, 97% of respondents were aware of the project and had made use of the page. All protocols were located during re-testing with 90% of those resurveyed stating it was easier to locate protocols. Overall, a reduction in the time and number of clicks required to locate protocols was demonstrated: mean time 16 seconds vs 133 seconds pre-intervention (n=60). 53% of guidelines located in <30s and 86% <2 minutes. PMID:26732607

  12. Partial coalescence of soap bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Daniel M.; Pucci, Giuseppe; Bush, John W. M.

    2015-11-01

    We present the results of an experimental investigation of the merger of a soap bubble with a planar soap film. When gently deposited onto a horizontal film, a bubble may interact with the underlying film in such a way as to decrease in size, leaving behind a smaller daughter bubble with approximately half the radius of its progenitor. The process repeats up to three times, with each partial coalescence event occurring over a time scale comparable to the inertial-capillary time. Our results are compared to the recent numerical simulations of Martin and Blanchette and to the coalescence cascade of droplets on a fluid bath.

  13. Sex on the Soap Operas: Afternoon Delight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Bradley S.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Examines the portrayal of intimate sexual behavior on soap operas and concludes that soap operas have more sexual content than do prime-time programs, but the types of intimacies differ. Notes that soap operas are potentially a major force in the transmission of values and sexual information to youthful viewers. (PD)

  14. Rupture of vertical soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rio, Emmanuelle

    2014-11-01

    Soap films are ephemeral and fragile objects. They tend to thin under gravity, which gives rise to the fascinating variations of colors at their interfaces but leads systematically to rupture. Even a child can create, manipulate and admire soap films and bubbles. Nevertheless, the reason why it suddenly bursts remains a mystery although the soap chosen to stabilize the film as well as the humidity of the air seem very important. One difficulty to study the rupture of vertical soap films is to control the initial solution. To avoid this problem we choose to study the rupture during the generation of the film at a controlled velocity. We have built an experiment, in which we measure the maximum length of the film together with its lifetime. The generation of the film is due to the presence of a gradient of surface concentration of surfactants at the liquid/air interface. This leads to a Marangoni force directed toward the top of the film. The film is expected to burst only when its weight is not balanced anymore by this force. We will show that this leads to the surprising result that the thicker films have shorter lifetimes than the thinner ones. It is thus the ability of the interface to sustain a surface concentration gradient of surfactants which controls its stability.

  15. Presentation Extensions of the SOAP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnright, Robert; Stodden, David; Coggi, John

    2009-01-01

    A set of extensions of the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP) enables simultaneous and/or sequential presentation of information from multiple sources. SOAP is used in the aerospace community as a means of collaborative visualization and analysis of data on planned spacecraft missions. The following definitions of terms also describe the display modalities of SOAP as now extended: In SOAP terminology, View signifies an animated three-dimensional (3D) scene, two-dimensional still image, plot of numerical data, or any other visible display derived from a computational simulation or other data source; a) "Viewport" signifies a rectangular portion of a computer-display window containing a view; b) "Palette" signifies a collection of one or more viewports configured for simultaneous (split-screen) display in the same window; c) "Slide" signifies a palette with a beginning and ending time and an animation time step; and d) "Presentation" signifies a prescribed sequence of slides. For example, multiple 3D views from different locations can be crafted for simultaneous display and combined with numerical plots and other representations of data for both qualitative and quantitative analysis. The resulting sets of views can be temporally sequenced to convey visual impressions of a sequence of events for a planned mission.

  16. [Enzymatic utilization of cotton soap stock].

    PubMed

    Davranov, K D; Guliamova, K A; Alimova, B Kh; Turapova, N M

    2000-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of neutral fat of cotton oil soap stock with a nonspecific lipase produced by Oospora lactis F-500 was designed. The culture liquid and a preparation of enzyme obtained by precipitation with isopropanol from a filtrate of the culture liquid were used. Utilization of cotton oil soap stock as the only source of carbon during cultivation of the fungus was studied. The rate of hydrolysis of soap stock fat strongly depended on the way of biological conversion of cotton oil soap stock. The most effective utilization was observed during cultivation of the fungus in the medium containing soap stock.

  17. Access to Transplantation and Transplant Outcome Measures (ATTOM): study protocol of a UK wide, in-depth, prospective cohort analysis

    PubMed Central

    Oniscu, Gabriel C; Ravanan, Rommel; Wu, Diana; Gibbons, Andrea; Li, Bernadette; Tomson, Charles; Forsythe, John L; Bradley, Clare; Cairns, John; Dudley, Christopher; Watson, Christopher J E; Bolton, Eleanor M; Draper, Heather; Robb, Matthew; Bradbury, Lisa; Pruthi, Rishi; Metcalfe, Wendy; Fogarty, Damian; Roderick, Paul; Bradley, J Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is significant intercentre variability in access to renal transplantation in the UK due to poorly understood factors. The overarching aims of this study are to improve equity of access to kidney and kidney–pancreas transplantation across the UK and to optimise organ allocation to maximise the benefit and cost-effectiveness of transplantation. Methods and analysis 6844 patients aged 18–75 years starting dialysis and/or receiving a transplant together with matched patients active on the transplant list from all 72 UK renal units were recruited between November 2011 and March 2013 and will be followed for at least 3 years. The outcomes of interest include patient survival, access to the transplant list, receipt of a transplant, patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) including quality of life, treatment satisfaction, well-being and health status on different forms of renal replacement therapy. Sociodemographic and clinical data were prospectively collected from case notes and from interviews with patients and local clinical teams. Qualitative process exploration with clinical staff will help identify unit-specific factors that influence access to renal transplantation. A health economic analysis will explore costs and outcomes associated with alternative approaches to organ allocation. The study will deliver: (1) an understanding of patient and unit-specific factors influencing access to renal transplantation in the UK, informing potential changes to practices and policies to optimise outcomes and reduce intercentre variability; (2) a patient-survival probability model to standardise access to the renal transplant list and (3) an understanding of PROMs and health economic impact of kidney and kidney–pancreas transplantation to inform the development of a more sophisticated and fairer organ allocation algorithm. Ethics and dissemination The protocol has been independently peer reviewed by National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) and

  18. Bernoulli Suction Effect on Soap Bubble Blowing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, John; Ryu, Sangjin

    2015-11-01

    As a model system for thin-film bubble with two gas-liquid interfaces, we experimentally investigated the pinch-off of soap bubble blowing. Using the lab-built bubble blower and high-speed videography, we have found that the scaling law exponent of soap bubble pinch-off is 2/3, which is similar to that of soap film bridge. Because air flowed through the decreasing neck of soap film tube, we studied possible Bernoulli suction effect on soap bubble pinch-off by evaluating the Reynolds number of airflow. Image processing was utilized to calculate approximate volume of growing soap film tube and the volume flow rate of the airflow, and the Reynolds number was estimated to be 800-3200. This result suggests that soap bubbling may involve the Bernoulli suction effect.

  19. Generating Soap Bubbles by Blowing on Soap Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salkin, Louis; Schmit, Alexandre; Panizza, Pascal; Courbin, Laurent

    2016-02-01

    Making soap bubbles by blowing air on a soap film is an enjoyable activity, yet a poorly understood phenomenon. Working either with circular bubble wands or long-lived vertical soap films having an adjustable steady state thickness, we investigate the formation of such bubbles when a gas is blown through a nozzle onto a film. We vary film size, nozzle radius, space between the film and nozzle, and gas density, and we measure the gas velocity threshold above which bubbles are formed. The response is sensitive to containment, i.e., the ratio between film and jet sizes, and dissipation in the turbulent gas jet, which is a function of the distance from the film to the nozzle. We rationalize the observed four different regimes by comparing the dynamic pressure exerted by the jet on the film and the Laplace pressure needed to create the curved surface of a bubble. This simple model allows us to account for the interplay between hydrodynamic, physicochemical, and geometrical factors.

  20. Generating Soap Bubbles by Blowing on Soap Films.

    PubMed

    Salkin, Louis; Schmit, Alexandre; Panizza, Pascal; Courbin, Laurent

    2016-02-19

    Making soap bubbles by blowing air on a soap film is an enjoyable activity, yet a poorly understood phenomenon. Working either with circular bubble wands or long-lived vertical soap films having an adjustable steady state thickness, we investigate the formation of such bubbles when a gas is blown through a nozzle onto a film. We vary film size, nozzle radius, space between the film and nozzle, and gas density, and we measure the gas velocity threshold above which bubbles are formed. The response is sensitive to containment, i.e., the ratio between film and jet sizes, and dissipation in the turbulent gas jet, which is a function of the distance from the film to the nozzle. We rationalize the observed four different regimes by comparing the dynamic pressure exerted by the jet on the film and the Laplace pressure needed to create the curved surface of a bubble. This simple model allows us to account for the interplay between hydrodynamic, physicochemical, and geometrical factors.

  1. Generating Soap Bubbles by Blowing on Soap Films.

    PubMed

    Salkin, Louis; Schmit, Alexandre; Panizza, Pascal; Courbin, Laurent

    2016-02-19

    Making soap bubbles by blowing air on a soap film is an enjoyable activity, yet a poorly understood phenomenon. Working either with circular bubble wands or long-lived vertical soap films having an adjustable steady state thickness, we investigate the formation of such bubbles when a gas is blown through a nozzle onto a film. We vary film size, nozzle radius, space between the film and nozzle, and gas density, and we measure the gas velocity threshold above which bubbles are formed. The response is sensitive to containment, i.e., the ratio between film and jet sizes, and dissipation in the turbulent gas jet, which is a function of the distance from the film to the nozzle. We rationalize the observed four different regimes by comparing the dynamic pressure exerted by the jet on the film and the Laplace pressure needed to create the curved surface of a bubble. This simple model allows us to account for the interplay between hydrodynamic, physicochemical, and geometrical factors. PMID:26943558

  2. Perspectives of People Living with HIV on Access to Health Care: Protocol for a Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Maybank, Allison; Hurley, Oliver; Modir, Hilary; Farrell, Alison; Marshall, Zack; Kendall, Claire; Johnston, Sharon; Hogel, Matthew; Rourke, Sean B; Liddy, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Background Strategies to improve access to health care for people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) have demonstrated limited success. Whereas previous approaches have been informed by the views of health providers and decision-makers, it is believed that incorporating patient perspectives into the design and evaluations of health care programs will lead to improved access to health care services. Objective We aim to map the literature on the perspectives of PLHIV concerning access to health care services, to identify gaps in evidence, and to produce an evidence-informed research action plan to guide the Living with HIV program of research. Methods This scoping review includes peer-reviewed and grey literature from 1946 to May 2014 using double data extraction. Variations of the search terms “HIV”, “patient satisfaction”, and “health services accessibility” are used to identify relevant literature. The search strategy is being developed in consultation with content experts, review methodologists, and a librarian, and validated using gold standard studies identified by those stakeholders. The inclusion criteria are (1) the study includes the perspectives of PLHIV, (2) study design includes qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods, and (3) outcome measures are limited to patient satisfaction, their implied needs, beliefs, and desires in relation to access to health care. The papers are extracted by two independent reviewers, including quality assessment. Data is then collated, summarized, and thematically analyzed. Results A total of 12,857 references were retrieved, of which 326 documents were identified as eligible in pre-screening, and 64 articles met the inclusion criteria (56% qualitative studies, 38% quantitative studies and 6% mixed-method studies). Only four studies were conducted in Canada. Data synthesis is in progress and full results are expected in June, 2016. Conclusions This scoping review will record and characterize the

  3. Analyzing performance with computer access technology using unconstrained text entry protocol.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jennifer M; Simpson, Richard C

    2009-01-01

    Recent work in human-computer interaction has demonstrated the use of unconstrained text entry protocols, which provide a more natural environment for research participants. We demonstrate the application of this approach to the analysis of word completion. Eleven participants (five nondisabled and six with disabilities) were recruited and asked to transcribe sentences using an on-screen keyboard both with and without word completion while time-stamped keystroke data were collected. The subsequent analysis demonstrates how the entire input stream (including erroneous keystrokes and the keystrokes used to correct errors) can be included in evaluation of performance with a text entry device or keystroke reduction method. Three new measures of keystroke savings are introduced, and the application of these measures is demonstrated. PMID:20157863

  4. Partial coalescence of soap bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pucci, G.; Harris, D. M.; Bush, J. W. M.

    2015-06-01

    We present the results of an experimental investigation of the merger of a soap bubble with a planar soap film. When gently deposited onto a horizontal film, a bubble may interact with the underlying film in such a way as to decrease in size, leaving behind a smaller daughter bubble with approximately half the radius of its progenitor. The process repeats up to three times, with each partial coalescence event occurring over a time scale comparable to the inertial-capillary time. Our results are compared to the recent numerical simulations of Martin and Blanchette ["Simulations of surfactant effects on the dynamics of coalescing drops and bubbles," Phys. Fluids 27, 012103 (2015)] and to the coalescence cascade of droplets on a fluid bath.

  5. Health: the soap opera version.

    PubMed

    Harris, C

    1993-01-01

    Watching soap opera is a favorite pastime of millions of Egyptians. Since the spring of 1992, the soap opera "The Family House" has reached audiences with messages on AIDS, drugs, child spacing, home accidents, and hygiene. The shows are the brainchild of the Director of the Center for Development Communication (CDC) in Egypt, Dr. El Kamel; the shows capture the novel and unique concept of both the communication of information and entertainment. Between 1983 and 1990, the CDC has been creating 130 short soap opera episodes on subjects such as the prevention of dehydration from diarrhea and the use of oral rehydration salt (ORS) packets to save children's lives. The ORS episodes were 15 minutes in length and showed the dramatic tension between a baby suffering from diarrhea and the mother's helping to overcome the difficulty. Surveys conducted in 1983 and 1986 on knowledge, attitudes, and practices found that in 1986 98% knew about ORS and 70% had used it compared with 3% knowledge and 50% practice in 1983. "The Family House" will be similar but expand on the number of issues considered and will pretest audience knowledge, attitudes, and practice before and after airing on specific issues. This soap opera also will be the first to be a daily series with an unending story. "The main character is Amina, who is an artisan in her late 40s who raised 4 children by herself." The series of 45-minute long shows will depict urban and rural settings and everyday Egyptian culture: language, clothing, life styles, and moral standards. Distribution is anticipated for other Arabic countries in Africa and the Middle East, which already air many Egyptian television series.

  6. Health: the soap opera version.

    PubMed

    Harris, C

    1993-01-01

    Watching soap opera is a favorite pastime of millions of Egyptians. Since the spring of 1992, the soap opera "The Family House" has reached audiences with messages on AIDS, drugs, child spacing, home accidents, and hygiene. The shows are the brainchild of the Director of the Center for Development Communication (CDC) in Egypt, Dr. El Kamel; the shows capture the novel and unique concept of both the communication of information and entertainment. Between 1983 and 1990, the CDC has been creating 130 short soap opera episodes on subjects such as the prevention of dehydration from diarrhea and the use of oral rehydration salt (ORS) packets to save children's lives. The ORS episodes were 15 minutes in length and showed the dramatic tension between a baby suffering from diarrhea and the mother's helping to overcome the difficulty. Surveys conducted in 1983 and 1986 on knowledge, attitudes, and practices found that in 1986 98% knew about ORS and 70% had used it compared with 3% knowledge and 50% practice in 1983. "The Family House" will be similar but expand on the number of issues considered and will pretest audience knowledge, attitudes, and practice before and after airing on specific issues. This soap opera also will be the first to be a daily series with an unending story. "The main character is Amina, who is an artisan in her late 40s who raised 4 children by herself." The series of 45-minute long shows will depict urban and rural settings and everyday Egyptian culture: language, clothing, life styles, and moral standards. Distribution is anticipated for other Arabic countries in Africa and the Middle East, which already air many Egyptian television series. PMID:12318007

  7. Protocol for ACCESS: a qualitative study exploring barriers and facilitators to accessing the emergency contraceptive pill from community pharmacies in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Hussainy, Safeera Yasmeen; Ghosh, Ayesha; Taft, Angela; Mazza, Danielle; Black, Kirsten Isla; Clifford, Rhonda; Mc Namara, Kevin Peter; Ryan, Kath; Jackson, John Keith

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The rate of unplanned pregnancy in Australia remains high, which has contributed to Australia having one of the highest abortion rates of developed countries with an estimated 1 in 5 women having an abortion. The emergency contraceptive pill (ECP) offers a safe way of preventing unintended pregnancy after unprotected sex has occurred. While the ECP has been available over-the-counter in Australian pharmacies for over a decade, its use has not significantly increased. This paper presents a protocol for a qualitative study that aims to identify the barriers and facilitators to accessing the ECP from community pharmacies in Australia. Methods and analysis Data will be collected through one-on-one interviews that are semistructured and in-depth. Partnerships have been established with 2 pharmacy groups and 2 women's health organisations to aid with the recruitment of women and pharmacists for data collection purposes. Interview questions explore domains from the Theoretical Domains Framework in order to assess the factors aiding and/or hindering access to ECP from community pharmacies. Data collected will be analysed using deductive content analysis. The expected benefits of this study are that it will help develop evidence-based workforce interventions to strengthen the capacity and performance of community pharmacists as key ECP providers. Ethics and dissemination The findings will be disseminated to the research team and study partners, who will brainstorm ideas for interventions that would address barriers and facilitators to access identified from the interviews. Dissemination will also occur through presentations and peer-reviewed publications and the study participants will receive an executive summary of the findings. The study has been evaluated and approved by the Monash Human Research Ethics Committee. PMID:26656987

  8. Doughnut-shaped soap bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Préve, Deison; Saa, Alberto

    2015-10-01

    Soap bubbles are thin liquid films enclosing a fixed volume of air. Since the surface tension is typically assumed to be the only factor responsible for conforming the soap bubble shape, the realized bubble surfaces are always minimal area ones. Here, we consider the problem of finding the axisymmetric minimal area surface enclosing a fixed volume V and with a fixed equatorial perimeter L . It is well known that the sphere is the solution for V =L3/6 π2 , and this is indeed the case of a free soap bubble, for instance. Surprisingly, we show that for V <α L3/6 π2 , with α ≈0.21 , such a surface cannot be the usual lens-shaped surface formed by the juxtaposition of two spherical caps, but is rather a toroidal surface. Practically, a doughnut-shaped bubble is known to be ultimately unstable and, hence, it will eventually lose its axisymmetry by breaking apart in smaller bubbles. Indisputably, however, the topological transition from spherical to toroidal surfaces is mandatory here for obtaining the global solution for this axisymmetric isoperimetric problem. Our result suggests that deformed bubbles with V <α L3/6 π2 cannot be stable and should not exist in foams, for instance.

  9. Doughnut-shaped soap bubbles.

    PubMed

    Préve, Deison; Saa, Alberto

    2015-10-01

    Soap bubbles are thin liquid films enclosing a fixed volume of air. Since the surface tension is typically assumed to be the only factor responsible for conforming the soap bubble shape, the realized bubble surfaces are always minimal area ones. Here, we consider the problem of finding the axisymmetric minimal area surface enclosing a fixed volume V and with a fixed equatorial perimeter L. It is well known that the sphere is the solution for V=L(3)/6π(2), and this is indeed the case of a free soap bubble, for instance. Surprisingly, we show that for V<αL(3)/6π(2), with α≈0.21, such a surface cannot be the usual lens-shaped surface formed by the juxtaposition of two spherical caps, but is rather a toroidal surface. Practically, a doughnut-shaped bubble is known to be ultimately unstable and, hence, it will eventually lose its axisymmetry by breaking apart in smaller bubbles. Indisputably, however, the topological transition from spherical to toroidal surfaces is mandatory here for obtaining the global solution for this axisymmetric isoperimetric problem. Our result suggests that deformed bubbles with V<αL(3)/6π(2) cannot be stable and should not exist in foams, for instance. PMID:26565252

  10. Health inequity in access to bariatric surgery: a protocol for a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bariatric surgery is the only weight-loss treatment available that results in both sustained weight loss and improvements of obesity-related comorbidities. Individuals who meet the eligibility criteria for bariatric surgery are generally older, come from racial or ethnic minorities, are economically disadvantaged, and have low levels of education. However, the population who actually receives bariatric surgery does not reflect the individuals who need it the most. The objective is to conduct a systematic review of the literature exploring the inequities to the access of bariatric surgery. Methods/Design EMBASE and Medline databases will be searched for observational studies that compared at least one of the PROGRESS-PLUS sociodemographic characteristics of patients eligible for bariatric surgery to those who actually received the procedure. Articles published in the year 1980 to present with no language restrictions will be included. For inclusion, studies must only include adults (≥18 years old) who meet National Institutes of Health (NIH) eligibility criteria for bariatric surgery defined as having either (1) a body mass index (BMI) of 40 kg/m2 or greater; or (2) BMI of 35 kg/m2 or greater with significant weight-related comorbidities. Eligible interventions will include malabsorptive, restrictive, and mixed bariatric procedures. Discussion There appears to be inequities in access to bariatric surgery. In order to resolve the health inequity in the treatment of obesity, a synthesis of the literature is needed to explore and identify barriers to accessing bariatric surgery. It is anticipated that the results from this systematic review will have important implications for advancing solutions to minimize inequities in the utilization of bariatric surgery. http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42013004920. PMID:24559394

  11. Conflict resolution protocols for random multiple-access channels with binary feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, T.; Mehravari, N.

    The problem of conflict resolution in a random multiple-access, time-slotted, packet-switched channel with binary feedback is considered. Conflict resolution algorithms (CRA) for two different types of binary feedback which informs the users only about whether or not there was a collision in the previous slot achieves a throughput of 0.442. The CRA proposed for the case in which the feedback informs the users about whether or not the previous slot was empty achieves a throughput of 0.279.

  12. Advancing Migrant Access to Health Services in Europe (AMASE): Protocol for a Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-del Arco, Débora; Monge, Susana; Copas, Andrew J; Gennotte, Anne-Francoise; Volny-Anne, Alain; Göpel, Siri; Touloumi, Giota; Prins, Maria; Barros, Henrique; Staehelin, Cornelia; del Amo, Julia; Burns, Fiona M

    2016-01-01

    Background Migrants form a substantial proportion of the population affected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in Europe, yet HIV prevention for this population is hindered by poor understanding of access to care and of postmigration transmission dynamics. Objective We present the design and methods of the advancing Migrant Access to health Services in Europe (aMASE) study, the first European cross-cultural study focused on multiple migrant populations. It aims to identify the structural, cultural, and financial barriers to HIV prevention, diagnosis, and treatment and to determine the likely country of HIV acquisition in HIV-positive migrant populations. Methods We delivered 2 cross-sectional electronic surveys across 10 countries (Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, and United Kingdom). A clinic survey aimed to recruit up to 2000 HIV-positive patients from 57 HIV clinics in 9 countries. A unique study number linked anonymized questionnaire data to clinical records data (viral loads, CD4 cell counts, viral clades, etc). This questionnaire was developed by expert panel consensus and cognitively tested, and a pilot study was carried out in 2 countries. A Web-based community survey (n=1000) reached those living with HIV but not currently accessing HIV clinics, as well as HIV-negative migrants. It was developed in close collaboration with a community advisory group (CAG) made up of representatives from community organizations in 9 of the participating countries. The CAG played a key role in data collection by promoting the survey to higher-risk migrant groups (sub-Saharan Africans, Latin Americans, men who have sex with men, and people who inject drugs). The questionnaires have considerable content overlap, allowing for comparison. Questions cover ethnicity, migration, immigration status, HIV testing and treatment, health-seeking behavior, sexual risk, and drug use. The electronic questionnaires

  13. Analysis of longitudinal trials with protocol deviation: a framework for relevant, accessible assumptions, and inference via multiple imputation.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, James R; Roger, James H; Kenward, Michael G

    2013-01-01

    Protocol deviations, for example, due to early withdrawal and noncompliance, are unavoidable in clinical trials. Such deviations often result in missing data. Additional assumptions are then needed for the analysis, and these cannot be definitively verified from the data at hand. Thus, as recognized by recent regulatory guidelines and reports, clarity about these assumptions and their implications is vital for both the primary analysis and framing relevant sensitivity analysis. This article focuses on clinical trials with longitudinal quantitative outcome data. For the target population, we define two estimands, the de jure estimand, "does the treatment work under the best case scenario," and the de facto estimand, "what would be the effect seen in practice." We then carefully define the concept of a deviation from the protocol relevant to the estimand, or for short a deviation. Each patient's postrandomization data can then be divided into predeviation data and postdeviation data. We set out an accessible framework for contextually appropriate assumptions relevant to de facto and de jure estimands, that is, assumptions about the joint distribution of pre- and postdeviation data relevant to the clinical question at hand. We then show how, under these assumptions, multiple imputation provides a practical approach to estimation and inference. We illustrate with data from a longitudinal clinical trial in patients with chronic asthma. PMID:24138436

  14. A scheduling-function-based distributed access protocol that uses CDM to relay control information in a network with hidden nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, Y.I.; Franta, W.R.

    1987-05-01

    The authors introduce a method for broadcasting control information (such as the information essential for correct operation of SOSAM and other scheduling-function-based access protocols) in stationary networks with ''hidden'' nodes (multihop networks). Control information is transmitted as short bit-parallel control messages on a separate control channel whose capacity is shared among the bits of a control message using code division multiplexing (CDM). The CDM method takes advantage of spread-spectrum signal properties that allow, in particular, high accuracy of time-of-arrival measurement and relatively easy separation of multipath copies of a control message. Generalized versions of SOSAM's scheduling function and the protocol algorithm are also provided. The generalized protocol, which applies the new method for broadcasting control information, provides distributed collision-free channel-access control, and allows prioritized access with high channel utilization and small expected message delay.

  15. TCP/IP Interface for the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnright, Robert; Stodden, David; Coggi, John

    2009-01-01

    The Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet protocol (TCP/IP) interface for the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP) provides the means for the software to establish real-time interfaces with other software. Such interfaces can operate between two programs, either on the same computer or on different computers joined by a network. The SOAP TCP/IP module employs a client/server interface where SOAP is the server and other applications can be clients. Real-time interfaces between software offer a number of advantages over embedding all of the common functionality within a single program. One advantage is that they allow each program to divide the computation labor between processors or computers running the separate applications. Secondly, each program can be allowed to provide its own expertise domain with other programs able to use this expertise.

  16. Global system data bus using the Digital Autonomous Terminal Access Communication protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, David C. E.

    1986-01-01

    Modern digital avionic systems with distributed processing require networking to connect the many elements. Digital Autonomous Terminal Access Communication (DATAC) is one of many such networks. DATAC has been implemented on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV), a Boeing 737 aircraft operated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program Office (ATOPS). This paper presents the TSRV implementation of the DATAC bus, a description of the DATAC system, a synchronization mechanism, details of data flow throughout the system, and a discussion of the modes available with DATAC. Numerous flight tests have been conducted using DATAC as the only means of communication between systems with outstanding results. DATAC is now an integral part of the TSRV and is expected to satisfy near term as well as future requirements for growth and flexibility.

  17. Reverse draining of a magnetic soap film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulton, D. E.; Pelesko, J. A.

    2010-04-01

    We investigate the draining of a vertical magnetic soap film in the presence of a strong, nonuniform magnetic field. A colloidal suspension of magnetic nanoparticles in a regular soap solution yields a magnetic soap solution, from which a soap film is formed across an isolated frame. Experiments demonstrate that with a strong magnet placed above the frame, the film may be made to flow upward against gravity. The amount of film draining upward is altered by varying the distance between the frame and magnet. A first mathematical model is developed for the evolution of the film. Simulations demonstrate qualitative agreement with the experiment.

  18. Soap bubbles in paintings: Art and science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behroozi, F.

    2008-12-01

    Soap bubbles became popular in 17th century paintings and prints primarily as a metaphor for the impermanence and fragility of life. The Dancing Couple (1663) by the Dutch painter Jan Steen is a good example which, among many other symbols, shows a young boy blowing soap bubbles. In the 18th century the French painter Jean-Simeon Chardin used soap bubbles not only as metaphor but also to express a sense of play and wonder. In his most famous painting, Soap Bubbles (1733/1734) a translucent and quavering soap bubble takes center stage. Chardin's contemporary Charles Van Loo painted his Soap Bubbles (1764) after seeing Chardin's work. In both paintings the soap bubbles have a hint of color and show two bright reflection spots. We discuss the physics involved and explain how keenly the painters have observed the interaction of light and soap bubbles. We show that the two reflection spots on the soap bubbles are images of the light source, one real and one virtual, formed by the curved surface of the bubble. The faint colors are due to thin film interference effects.

  19. Energy-Efficiency Analysis of a Distributed Queuing Medium Access Control Protocol for Biomedical Wireless Sensor Networks in Saturation Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Otal, Begonya; Alonso, Luis; Verikoukis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    The aging population and the high quality of life expectations in our society lead to the need of more efficient and affordable healthcare solutions. For this reason, this paper aims for the optimization of Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols for biomedical wireless sensor networks or wireless Body Sensor Networks (BSNs). The hereby presented schemes always have in mind the efficient management of channel resources and the overall minimization of sensors’ energy consumption in order to prolong sensors’ battery life. The fact that the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC does not fully satisfy BSN requirements highlights the need for the design of new scalable MAC solutions, which guarantee low-power consumption to the maximum number of body sensors in high density areas (i.e., in saturation conditions). In order to emphasize IEEE 802.15.4 MAC limitations, this article presents a detailed overview of this de facto standard for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), which serves as a link for the introduction and initial description of our here proposed Distributed Queuing (DQ) MAC protocol for BSN scenarios. Within this framework, an extensive DQ MAC energy-consumption analysis in saturation conditions is presented to be able to evaluate its performance in relation to IEEE 802.5.4 MAC in highly dense BSNs. The obtained results show that the proposed scheme outperforms IEEE 802.15.4 MAC in average energy consumption per information bit, thus providing a better overall performance that scales appropriately to BSNs under high traffic conditions. These benefits are obtained by eliminating back-off periods and collisions in data packet transmissions, while minimizing the control overhead. PMID:22319351

  20. Sensitivities of Soap Solutions in Leak Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuck, D.; Lam, D. Q.; Daniels, C.

    1985-01-01

    Document describes method for determining minimum leak rate to which soap-solution leak detectors sensitive. Bubbles formed at smaller leak rates than previously assumed. In addition to presenting test results, document discusses effects of joint-flange configurations, properties of soap solutions, and correlation of test results with earlier data.

  1. Impact of genetic drift on access and benefit sharing under the Nagoya Protocol: the case of the Meishan pig.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, H D; Plante, Y; Rohrer, G; Welch, E W; Paiva, S R

    2014-04-01

    Genetic drift (GD) randomly impacts small breeds and imported populations. Therefore, it can impact policies that affect conservation of animal genetic resources. This paper evaluates GD for a population of Meishan pigs imported into the United States and explores the ramifications of GD on access and benefit sharing of genetic resources under the Nagoya Protocol (NP) of the United Nations' Convention on Biological Diversity. The NP was motivated by concerns about fair and equitable benefit sharing of genetic resources across life forms. In this experiment, 35 microsatellite markers were used to quantify the level of GD that occurred between Meishan pigs (Meishan-China; n = 22) imported into the United States in the late 1980s and contemporary Meishan (Meishan-US; n = 42), which have been randomly bred since importation. The Meishan-US consisted of 2 subpopulations (Meishan-MARC and Meishan-ISU). Five other breeds were also included in the analysis to serve as reference populations: Fengjing and Minzhu, which were imported with Meishan-China, and Duroc, Berkshire, and Yorkshire from the United States. Mean shift in allele frequency was 0.11 (SE = 0.019) due to GD for Meishan-US vs. Meishan-China with some loci having changed allele frequencies by greater than 0.20. Principle coordinate analysis confirmed divergence among the Meishan populations. Model-based clustering tended to place the U.S. and Chinese breeds into 2 distinct clusters, likely due to differences in allele frequencies between U.S. and Chinese breeds. Contemporary Meishan-US has become differentiated from the original imported animals due to GD. Attributing future performance of Meishan-US to Meishan-China, as set forth by NP, is problematic due to GD. As an imported breed becomes established there will be an increasing number of breeders who may have different selection goals and private treaty contracts will govern the exchange of stock between them. Therefore, considering biological phenomena and

  2. Impact of genetic drift on developing access and benefit sharing guidelines under the Nagoya Protocol: The case of Meishan pigs imported into the US

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Convention on Biological Diversity developed the Nagoya Protocol (NP) on access and benefit sharing (ABS) for international exchange of genetic resources across life forms. Concerns are NP will be cumbersome, stifle research, and not accommodate diverse life forms, such as livestock. NP was deve...

  3. Clinical study protocol for the ARCH project - computational modeling for improvement of outcome after vascular access creation.

    PubMed

    Bode, Aron; Caroli, Anna; Huberts, Wouter; Planken, Nils; Antiga, Luca; Bosboom, Marielle; Remuzzi, Andrea; Tordoir, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Despite clinical guidelines and the possibility of diagnostic vascular imaging, creation and maintenance of a vascular access (VA) remains problematic: avoiding short- and long-term VA dysfunction is challenging. Although prognostic factors for VA dysfunction have been identified in previous studies, their potential interplay at a systemic level is disregarded. Consideration of multiple prognostic patient specific factors and their complex interaction using dedicated computational modeling tools might improve outcome after VA creation by enabling a better selection of VA configuration. These computational modeling tools are developed and validated in the ARCH project: a joint initiative of four medical centers and three industrial partners (FP7-ICT-224390). This paper reports the rationale behind computational modeling and presents the clinical study protocol designed for calibrating and validating these modeling tools. The clinical study is based on the pre-operative collection of structural and functional data at a vascular level, as well as a VA functional evaluation during the follow-up period. The strategy adopted to perform the study and for data collection is also described here. PMID:21667457

  4. Soaps and shampoos in pediatric practice.

    PubMed

    Morelli, J G; Weston, W L

    1987-11-01

    Cleansing of the skin and hair is part of the daily routine of all neonates, infants, toddlers, children, and adolescents. Numerous soap and shampoo products are available to the consumer. The pediatrician is often asked to comment on the safety and efficacy of these products. Little information is available to help the pediatrician make a rational decision. The list of ingredients on the package are seldom useful and can be confusing. The theoretical and practical considerations leading to the addition of the major constituents of soaps and shampoos are reviewed and guidelines for the use of soaps and shampoos under normal circumstances and in a few selected conditions are suggested.

  5. Do Aloe vera and Ageratum conyzoides enhance the anti-microbial activity of traditional medicinal soft soaps (Osedudu)?

    PubMed

    Moody, J O; Adebiyi, O A; Adeniyi, B A

    2004-05-01

    The Nigerian traditional soft soaps prepared using varied locally sourced raw materials such as cocoa pod ash (Theobroma cacao) palm kernel shaft ash (Elaies guineensis) have been evaluated for their physico-chemical properties and anti-microbial activities using standard pharmacopoeia protocols and an in-vitro agar diffusion bioassay method. The anti-microbial evaluation was done with and without incorporation of Aloe vera and Ageratum conyzoides extractives into the soap samples. Results showed that the physico-chemical properties of the soaps are dependent on the raw materials utilised. The incorporated medicinal plants used in this study, however, did not show any significant effect on the anti-microbial activities exhibited by the various soaps against the bacterial and fungal test organisms.

  6. Gelling nature of aluminum soaps in oils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaorong; Rackaitis, Mindaugas

    2009-03-15

    Aluminum soaps are notable for their ability to form soap-hydrocarbon gels of high viscosity. For more than half a century, it has been believed that the gelling mechanism is due to a formation of polymeric chains of aluminum molecules with the aluminum atoms linking along the axis and with the fatty acid chain extended sideways. Here we report results from an investigation using high-resolution electron microscopy and rheology measurements that clearly resolve the ambiguity. Our results reveal that the gelling mechanism stems from the formation of spherical nano-sized micelles from aluminum soap molecules, and those colloidal micelle particles then aggregate into networks of highly fractal and jammed structures. The earlier proposed polymer chain-like structure is definitely incorrect. The discovery of aluminum soap particles could expand application of these materials to new technologies.

  7. The Soap-Bubble-Geometry Contest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Frank; Melnick, Edward R.; Nicholson, Ramona

    1997-01-01

    Presents an activity on soap-bubble geometry using a guessing contest, explanations, and demonstrations that allow students to mesh observation and mathematical reasoning to discover that mathematics is much more than just number crunching. (ASK)

  8. FDA Cracks Down on Antibacterial Soaps

    MedlinePlus

    ... The ban covers soaps and body washes containing triclosan and triclocarban, the two most common antibacterial ingredients, ... ingredients. For example, recent studies have shown that triclosan can affect the thyroid, estrogen and testosterone systems ...

  9. Communication networks, soap films and vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    The problem of constructing the least-cost network of connections between arbitrarily placed points is one that is common and which can be very important financially. The network may consist of motorways between towns, a grid of electric power lines, buried gas or oil pipe lines or telephone cables. Soap films trapped between parallel planes with vertical pins between them provide a 'shortest path' network and Isenberg (1975) has suggested that soap films of this sort be used to model communication networks. However soap films are unable to simulate the different costs of laying, say, a three-lane motorway instead of a two-lane one or of using a larger pipeline to take the flow from two smaller ones. Soap films, however, have considerable intrinsic interest. In the article the emphasis is on the use of soap films and communication networks as a practical means of illustrating the importance of vector and matrix methods in geometry. The power of vector methods is illustrated by the fact that given any soap film network the total length of the film can be written down by inspection if the vector positions of the pins are known. It is also possible to predict the boundaries at which 'catastrophes' occur and to decide which network has the least total length. In the field of communication networks a method is given of designing the minimum cost network linking, say, a number of oilwells, which produce at different rates to an outlet terminal.

  10. How are soap bubbles blown? Fluid dynamics of soap bubble blowing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, John; Lambert, Lori; Sherman, Erica; Wei, Timothy; Ryu, Sangjin

    2013-11-01

    Soap bubbles are a common interfacial fluid dynamics phenomenon having a long history of delighting not only children and artists but also scientists. In contrast to the dynamics of liquid droplets in gas and gas bubbles in liquid, the dynamics of soap bubbles has not been well documented. This is possibly because studying soap bubbles is more challenging due to there existing two gas-liquid interfaces. Having the thin-film interface seems to alter the characteristics of the bubble/drop creation process since the interface has limiting factors such as thickness. Thus, the main objective of this study is to determine how the thin-film interface differentiates soap bubbles from gas bubbles and liquid drops. To investigate the creation process of soap bubbles, we constructed an experimental model consisting of air jet flow and a soap film, which consistently replicates the conditions that a human produces when blowing soap bubbles, and examined the interaction between the jet and the soap film using the high-speed videography and the particle image velocimetry.

  11. Soap Operas and Telenovelas: An Intercultural Critique of Soap Operas as Feminine Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Elizabeth

    This paper questions some of the assumptions that permeate the current literature about soap operas and television, examining particularly the model according to which soap operas are the expression of an "essential" and universal feminine nature. The paper suggests the pertinence of a crosscultural approach to the study of melodrama as well as…

  12. Hard Water and Soft Soap: Dependence of Soap Performance on Water Hardness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osorio, Viktoria K. L.; de Oliveira, Wanda; El Seoud, Omar A.; Cotton, Wyatt; Easdon, Jerry

    2005-01-01

    The demonstration of the performance of soap in different aqueous solutions, which is due to water hardness and soap formulation, is described. The demonstrations use safe, inexpensive reagents and simple glassware and equipment, introduce important everyday topics, stimulates the students to consider the wider consequences of water hardness and…

  13. An ultra low-power and traffic-adaptive medium access control protocol for wireless body area network.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2012-06-01

    Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) consists of low-power, miniaturized, and autonomous wireless sensor nodes that enable physicians to remotely monitor vital signs of patients and provide real-time feedback with medical diagnosis and consultations. It is the most reliable and cheaper way to take care of patients suffering from chronic diseases such as asthma, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Some of the most important attributes of WBAN is low-power consumption and delay. This can be achieved by introducing flexible duty cycling techniques on the energy constraint sensor nodes. Stated otherwise, low duty cycle nodes should not receive frequent synchronization and control packets if they have no data to send/receive. In this paper, we introduce a Traffic-adaptive MAC protocol (TaMAC) by taking into account the traffic information of the sensor nodes. The protocol dynamically adjusts the duty cycle of the sensor nodes according to their traffic-patterns, thus solving the idle listening and overhearing problems. The traffic-patterns of all sensor nodes are organized and maintained by the coordinator. The TaMAC protocol is supported by a wakeup radio that is used to accommodate emergency and on-demand events in a reliable manner. The wakeup radio uses a separate control channel along with the data channel and therefore it has considerably low power consumption requirements. Analytical expressions are derived to analyze and compare the performance of the TaMAC protocol with the well-known beacon-enabled IEEE 802.15.4 MAC, WiseMAC, and SMAC protocols. The analytical derivations are further validated by simulation results. It is shown that the TaMAC protocol outperforms all other protocols in terms of power consumption and delay.

  14. Coalescence of soap bubbles: petals and fractals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Beng Hau; Gonzalez Avila, Silvestre Roberto; Ohl, Claus-Dieter

    2013-11-01

    The coalescence of thin film bubbles, i.e. soap bubbles, is determined by successive ruptures of the two films approaching each other. Ruptures in isolated thin films have been studied experimentally in detail and their dynamics is well understood theoretically; less so for the coalescence of soap bubbles. In this case, the film rupture occurs in very close proximity to a second film. The interaction between one quickly retracting film with a stationary film leads to complex dynamics. High-speed photography of the events occurring on a microscopic scale is conducted. We find that within the first 100 microseconds radially symmetric fingering and fractal structures are created at the rupture site. The first film retraction may induce the rupture of the second film. Later the retracting soap film causes the entrainment of a ring of secondary bubbles and possibly droplets along its circumference. Some first modelling will be presented, too.

  15. The irritancy of soaps and syndets.

    PubMed

    Strube, D D; Nicoll, G

    1987-06-01

    The use of soaps and synthetic detergent (syndet) bars has been associated with skin dryness and aggravation of dermatologic conditions. A number of factors, including chemical structure, pH, and cleansing ability, have been implicated in this phenomenon. Many bars contain agents designed to ameliorate the irritancy of the bar and/or provide a skin benefit. Clinical studies have shown that soaps are generally quite irritating while syndets can range from mild to harsh. The addition of skin benefit/mildness agents such as glycerin, cocoa butter, mineral oil, or lanolin has little effect on the irritancy potential of a bar since minimal amounts of these agents are deposited on the skin. The excessive removal of skin lipids by harsh soaps and detergents can result in superficial dryness. The key to gentle cleansing is to start with a mild cleansing product and avoid overuse.

  16. Environmental dermatitis. Contact dermatitis from perfumes in soap.

    PubMed

    Burry, J N

    Perfumes in soaps cause nondescript patterns of contact dermatitis. Patch testing with balsam of Peru and a fragrance mixture can confirm a sensitivity to a perfume. The use of additive-free soaps determines its clinical relevance.

  17. Colorful Demos with a Long-Lasting Soap Bubble.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behroozi, F.; Olson, D. W.

    1994-01-01

    Describes several demonstrations that feature interaction of light with soap bubbles. Includes directions about how to produce a long-lasting stationary soap bubble with an easily changeable size and describes the interaction of white light with the bubble. (DDR)

  18. Light guiding properties of soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emile, Janine; Emile, Olivier; Casanova, Federico

    2013-02-01

    The injection of a laser beam from the side in a horizontal free-standing draining soap film is reported. We observe the self-deflection of the beam that varies in a random way. The film thinning is affected by the injection and depends on the polarization of the light beam, not on the laser power. The liquid in the soap film is ejected towards the meniscus, without modifying its molecular structure. Besides, this injection seems to stabilize the film near the light beam propagation and to destabilize the film in the other zones. Consequences and applications are then discussed.

  19. Elasticity of a soap film junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, F.; Janiaud, E.; Bacri, J.-C.; Andreotti, B.

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the elasticity of an isolated, threefold junction of soap films (Plateau border), which displays static undulations when liquid rapidly flows into it. By analyzing the shape of the Plateau border (thickness R and transverse displacement) as a function of the liquid flow rate Q, we show experimentally and theoretically that the elasticity of the Plateau border is dominated by the bending of the soap films pulling on the Plateau border. In this asymptotic regime, the undulation wavelength obeys the scaling law ˜Q2 R-2 and the decay length ˜Q2 R-4.

  20. Cylinder wakes in flowing soap films

    SciTech Connect

    Vorobieff, P.; Ecke, R.E. ); Vorobieff, P. )

    1999-09-01

    We present an experimental characterization of cylinder wakes in flowing soap films. From instantaneous velocity and thickness fields, we find the vortex-shedding frequency, mean-flow velocity, and mean-film thickness. Using the empirical relationship between the Reynolds and Strouhal numbers obtained for cylinder wakes in three dimensions, we estimate the effective soap-film viscosity and its dependence on film thickness. We also compare the decay of vorticity with that in a simple Rankine vortex model with a dissipative term to account for air drag. [copyright] [ital 1999] [ital The American Physical Society

  1. Delay analysis of an integrated voice and data access protocol with collision detection for multimedia satellite networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Charles C. K.; Suda, Tatsuya

    1992-03-01

    The novel multiple-access scheme for multimedia satellite networks presented is based on a combination of FDMA and TDMA, integrating both circuit and packet-switching techniques. While the circuit-switching method is used to transmit such stream-type traffic as real-time voice communications, packet-switching is used to transmit such 'bursty' traffic as interactive data. A ground radio network is assumed for control signaling; the tone sense multiple access/partial collision detection scheme is implemented on this network to enhance the integrated access scheme's performance.

  2. A novel protocol for the one-pot borylation/Suzuki reaction provides easy access to hinge-binding groups for kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hooper, A; Zambon, A; Springer, C J

    2016-01-21

    The one-pot borylation/Suzuki reaction is a very efficient means of accessing cross-coupling products of two aryl-halide partners that generally requires the use of specific catalysts or ligands and/or relatively long reaction times. This new microwave-assisted method provides a quick one-pot borylation/Suzuki reaction protocol that we applied to the synthesis of various bi- or poly-aryl scaffolds, including a variety of aryl and heteroaryl ring systems and the core frameworks of kinase inhibitors vemurafenib and GDC-0879. PMID:26620576

  3. Soap Films and the Joy of Bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saecker, Mary E.

    2005-10-01

    As a celebration of this year's National Chemistry Week theme, the cover of this issue tries to capture the joy of playing with bubbles. There is nothing quite like the kaleidoscopic rainbow of colors and wetly wild elastic behavior of soap films and bubbles for experiencing the pure joy of a "toy".

  4. Videotaping the Lifespan of a Soap Bubble.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramme, Goran

    1995-01-01

    Describes how the use of a videotape to record the history of a soap bubble allows a study of many interesting events in considerable detail including interference fringes, convection and turbulence patterns on the surface, formation of black film, and the ultimate explosion of the bubble. (JRH)

  5. Interoperative fundus image and report sharing in compliance with integrating the healthcare enterprise conformance and web access to digital imaging and communication in medicine persistent object protocol

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hui-Qun; Lv, Zheng-Min; Geng, Xing-Yun; Jiang, Kui; Tang, Le-Min; Zhou, Guo-Min; Dong, Jian-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    AIM To address issues in interoperability between different fundus image systems, we proposed a web eye-picture archiving and communication system (PACS) framework in conformance with digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) and health level 7 (HL7) protocol to realize fundus images and reports sharing and communication through internet. METHODS Firstly, a telemedicine-based eye care work flow was established based on integrating the healthcare enterprise (IHE) Eye Care technical framework. Then, a browser/server architecture eye-PACS system was established in conformance with the web access to DICOM persistent object (WADO) protocol, which contains three tiers. RESULTS In any client system installed with web browser, clinicians could log in the eye-PACS to observe fundus images and reports. Multipurpose internet mail extensions (MIME) type of a structured report is saved as pdf/html with reference link to relevant fundus image using the WADO syntax could provide enough information for clinicians. Some functions provided by open-source Oviyam could be used to query, zoom, move, measure, view DICOM fundus images. CONCLUSION Such web eye-PACS in compliance to WADO protocol could be used to store and communicate fundus images and reports, therefore is of great significance for teleophthalmology. PMID:24392341

  6. Medicinal and cosmetics soap production from Jatropha oil.

    PubMed

    Shahinuzzaman, M; Yaakob, Zahira; Moniruzzaman, M

    2016-06-01

    Soap is the most useful things which we use our everyday life in various cleansing and cosmetics purposes. Jatropha oil is nonedible oil which has more benefits to soap making. It has also cosmetics and medicinal properties. But the presence of toxic Phorbol esters in Jatropha oil is the main constrains to use it. So it is necessary to search a more suitable method for detoxifying the Jatropha oil before the use as the main ingredient of soap production. This review implies a more suitable method for removing phorbol esters from Jatropha oil. Several parameters such as the % yield of pure Jatropha oil soap, TFM value of soap, total alkali content, free caustic alkalinity content, pH, the antimicrobial activity, and CMC value of general soap should be taken into consideration for soap from detoxified Jatropha oil. PMID:26777540

  7. Medicinal and cosmetics soap production from Jatropha oil.

    PubMed

    Shahinuzzaman, M; Yaakob, Zahira; Moniruzzaman, M

    2016-06-01

    Soap is the most useful things which we use our everyday life in various cleansing and cosmetics purposes. Jatropha oil is nonedible oil which has more benefits to soap making. It has also cosmetics and medicinal properties. But the presence of toxic Phorbol esters in Jatropha oil is the main constrains to use it. So it is necessary to search a more suitable method for detoxifying the Jatropha oil before the use as the main ingredient of soap production. This review implies a more suitable method for removing phorbol esters from Jatropha oil. Several parameters such as the % yield of pure Jatropha oil soap, TFM value of soap, total alkali content, free caustic alkalinity content, pH, the antimicrobial activity, and CMC value of general soap should be taken into consideration for soap from detoxified Jatropha oil.

  8. The antimicrobial assessment of some Nigerian herbal soap.

    PubMed

    Igbeneghu, O A

    2013-01-01

    Twenty samples of herbal soaps were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeast of significance in skin infections with the aim to provide some justification for the continued use of the soaps in the management of superficial skin infections. All the soaps were found to possess antimicrobial activity in a concentration and organism dependent manner. The soaps were more active against the gram positive organisms than the Gram negative organisms while none of the soaps had activity against the tested yeasts. Only 35% of the soaps were appropriately packaged with adequate directions for use and storage. The study showed that the tested soaps possessed antimicrobial properties and they can contribute to the treatment and management of skin infections caused by bacteria if well prepared with the appropriate plant materials to target specific causative organisms and packaged with appropriate directions for use and storage.

  9. Evaluating the accessibility and utility of HIV-related point-of-care diagnostics for maternal health in rural South Africa: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Mashamba-Thompson, T P; Drain, P K; Sartorius, B

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Poor healthcare access is a major barrier to receiving antenatal care and a cause of high maternal mortality in South Africa (SA). ‘Point-of-care’ (POC) diagnostics is a powerful emerging healthcare approach to improve healthcare access. This study focuses on evaluating the accessibility and utility of POC diagnostics for maternal health in rural SA primary healthcare (PHC) clinics in order to generate a model framework of implementation of POC diagnostics in rural South African clinics. Method and analyses We will use several research methods, including a systematic review, quasi-experiments, survey, key informant interviews and audits. We will conduct a systematic review and experimental study to determine the impact of POC diagnostics on maternal health. We will perform a cross-sectional case study of 100 randomly selected rural primary healthcare clinics in KwaZulu-Natal to measure the context and patterns of POC diagnostics access and usage by maternal health providers and patients. We will conduct interviews with relevant key stakeholders to determine the reasons for POC deficiencies regarding accessibility and utility of HIV-related POC diagnostics for maternal health. We will also conduct a vertical audit to investigate all the quality aspects of POC diagnostic services including diagnostic accuracy in a select number of clinics. On the basis of information gathered, we will propose a model framework for improved implementation of POC diagnostics in rural South African public healthcare clinics. Statistical (Stata-13) and thematic (NVIVO) data analysis will be used in this study. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the University of KwaZulu-Natal (BE 484/14) and the KwaZulu-Natal Department of Health based on the Helsinki Declaration (HRKM 40/15). Findings of this study will be disseminated electronically and in print. They will be presented to conferences related to HIV/AIDS, diagnostics

  10. The iceLogo web server and SOAP service for determining protein consensus sequences.

    PubMed

    Maddelein, Davy; Colaert, Niklaas; Buchanan, Iain; Hulstaert, Niels; Gevaert, Kris; Martens, Lennart

    2015-07-01

    The iceLogo web server and SOAP service implement the previously published iceLogo algorithm. iceLogo builds on probability theory to visualize protein consensus sequences in a format resembling sequence logos. Peptide sequences are compared against a reference sequence set that can be tailored to the studied system and the used protocol. As such, not only over- but also underrepresented residues can be visualized in a statistically sound manner, which further allows the user to easily analyse and interpret conserved sequence patterns in proteins. The web application and SOAP service can be found free and open to all users without the need for a login on http://iomics.ugent.be/icelogoserver/main.html.

  11. Soap Films as 1D waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emile, Olivier; Emile, Janine

    2014-01-01

    Laser light is injected in a free standing horizontal draining soap film through the glass frame sustaining the film. Two propagation regimes are clearly identified depending on the film thickness. At the beginning of the drainage, the soap film behaves as a multimode-one dimensional optofiuidic waveguide. In particular, we observe that the injected light creates a bottleneck in the film and part of the injected light is refracted leading to whiskers. At the end of the drainage where the film thickness is below 1μm, there is a strong selection among the various possible optical modes in the film, and part of the light is defiected. This leads to a self selection of the mode propagation inside the film.

  12. Jet impact on a soap film.

    PubMed

    Kirstetter, Geoffroy; Raufaste, Christophe; Celestini, Franck

    2012-09-01

    We experimentally investigate the impact of a liquid jet on a soap film. We observe that the jet never breaks the film and that two qualitatively different steady regimes may occur. The first one is a refractionlike behavior obtained at small incidence angles when the jet crosses the film and is deflected by the film-jet interaction. For larger incidence angles, the jet is absorbed by the film, giving rise to a new class of flows in which the jet undulates along the film with a characteristic wavelength. Besides its fundamental interest, this paper presents a different way to guide a micrometric flow of liquid in the inertial regime and to probe foam stability submitted to violent perturbations at the soap film scale. PMID:23031009

  13. Memory effects in soap film arrangements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandewalle, Nicolas; Dorbolo, Stephane; Lumay, Geoffroy; Schockmel, Julien; Noirhomme, Martial

    2012-02-01

    We report experiments on soap film configurations in a triangular prism for which the shape factor can be changed continuously. Two stable configurations can be observed for a range of the shape factor h. A hysteretic behaviour is found, due to the occurence of another local minima in the free energy. Experiments demonstrate that soap films can be trapped in a particular configuration being different from a global surface minimization. This metastability can be evidenced from a geometrical model based on idealized structures. Depending on the configuration, providing clues on the structural relaxations taking place into 3D foams, such as T1 rearrangements. The composition of the liquid is also investigated leading to dynamical picture of the transition. (Phys. Rev. E 83, 021403 (2011))

  14. Jet impact on a soap film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirstetter, Geoffroy; Raufaste, Christophe; Celestini, Franck

    2012-09-01

    We experimentally investigate the impact of a liquid jet on a soap film. We observe that the jet never breaks the film and that two qualitatively different steady regimes may occur. The first one is a refractionlike behavior obtained at small incidence angles when the jet crosses the film and is deflected by the film-jet interaction. For larger incidence angles, the jet is absorbed by the film, giving rise to a new class of flows in which the jet undulates along the film with a characteristic wavelength. Besides its fundamental interest, this paper presents a different way to guide a micrometric flow of liquid in the inertial regime and to probe foam stability submitted to violent perturbations at the soap film scale.

  15. Jet impact on a soap film.

    PubMed

    Kirstetter, Geoffroy; Raufaste, Christophe; Celestini, Franck

    2012-09-01

    We experimentally investigate the impact of a liquid jet on a soap film. We observe that the jet never breaks the film and that two qualitatively different steady regimes may occur. The first one is a refractionlike behavior obtained at small incidence angles when the jet crosses the film and is deflected by the film-jet interaction. For larger incidence angles, the jet is absorbed by the film, giving rise to a new class of flows in which the jet undulates along the film with a characteristic wavelength. Besides its fundamental interest, this paper presents a different way to guide a micrometric flow of liquid in the inertial regime and to probe foam stability submitted to violent perturbations at the soap film scale.

  16. The California Student Opportunity and Access Program. A Final Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento.

    The overall development of the California Student Opportunity and Access (Cal-SOAP) Program and its achievement of legislatively-established objectives are reviewed, along with the objectives and accomplishments of five pilot projects. Cal-Soap is an experimental program that promotes interinstitutional efforts to increase postsecondary…

  17. The California Student Opportunity and Access Program: An Initial Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento.

    An evaluation of the California Student Opportunity and Access Program (Cal-SOAP) by the Postsecondary Education Commission is presented. The Cal-SOAP is a competitive-grants program designed to encourage cooperative, interinstitutional projects to increase the enrollment of low-income high school students in postsecondary institutions and to…

  18. The formation of soap bubbles created by blowing on soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salkin, Louis; Schmit, Alexandre; Panizza, Pascal; Courbin, Laurent

    2015-11-01

    Using either circular bubble wands or long-lasting vertically falling soap films having an adjustable steady state thickness, we study the formation of soap bubbles created when air is blown through a nozzle onto a soap film. We vary nozzle radius, film size, space between the film and nozzle, and gas density, and we measure the gas velocity threshold above which bubbles are generated. The response is sensitive to confinement, that is, the ratio between film and jet sizes, and dissipation in the turbulent gas jet which is a function of the distance from the nozzle to the film. We observe four different regimes that we rationalize by comparing the dynamic pressure of a jet on the film and the Laplace pressure needed to create the curved surface of a bubble.

  19. Improving Post-Hospitalization Transition Outcomes through Accessible Health Information Technology and Caregiver Support: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Piette, John D; Striplin, Dana; Marinec, Nicolle; Chen, Jenny; Gregory, Lynn A; Sumerlin, Denise L; DeSantis, Angela M; Gibson, Carolyn; Crause, Ingrid; Rouse, Marylena; Aikens, James E

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goal of this trial is to evaluate a novel intervention designed to improve post-hospitalization support for older adults with chronic conditions via: (a) direct tailored communication to patients using regular automated calls post discharge, (b) support for informal caregivers outside of the patient’s household via structured automated feedback about the patient’s status plus advice about how caregivers can help, and (c) support for care management including a web-based disease management tool and alerts about potential problems. Methods 846 older adults with common chronic conditions are being identified upon hospital admission. Patients are asked to identify a “CarePartner” (CP) living outside their household, i.e., an adult child or other social network member willing to play an active role in their post-discharge transition support. Patient-CP pairs are randomized to the intervention or usual care. Intervention patients receive automated assessment and behavior change calls, and their CPs receives structured feedback and advice via email and automated calls following each assessment. Clinical teams have access to assessment results via the web and receive automated reports about urgent health problems. Patients complete surveys at baseline, 30 days, and 90 days post discharge; utilization data is obtained from hospital records. CPs, other caregivers, and clinicians are interviewed to evaluate intervention effects on processes of self-care support, caregiver stress and communication, and the intervention’s potential for broader implementation. The primary outcome is 30-day readmission rates; other outcomes measured at 30 days and 90 days include functional status, self-care behaviors, and mortality risk. Conclusion This trial uses accessible health technologies and coordinated communication among informal caregivers and clinicians to fill the growing gap between what discharged patients need and available resources. A unique feature of

  20. Stability conditions and mechanism of cream soaps: role of glycerol.

    PubMed

    Sagitani, Hiromichi

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids, fatty acid potassium soaps, glycerol and water are essential ingredients in the production of stable cream soaps. In this study, the behavior of these components in solution was investigated to elucidate the stability conditions and mechanism of cream soaps. It was determined that the cream soaps were a dispersion of 1:1 acid soap (1:1 molar ratio of potassium soap/fatty acid) crystals in the lamellar gel phase, which has confirmed from the phase behavior diagrams and small angle X-ray scattering data. Glycerol was crucial ingredient in the formation of the lamellar gel phase. The cleansing process of the cream soaps was also evaluated using the same diagrams. The structure of the continuous phase in cream soaps changed from lamellar gel to a micellar aqueous solution upon the addition of water. This structural change during the washing process is important in producing the foaming activity of acid soaps to wash away dirt or excess fats from the skin surface.

  1. Stability conditions and mechanism of cream soaps: role of glycerol.

    PubMed

    Sagitani, Hiromichi

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids, fatty acid potassium soaps, glycerol and water are essential ingredients in the production of stable cream soaps. In this study, the behavior of these components in solution was investigated to elucidate the stability conditions and mechanism of cream soaps. It was determined that the cream soaps were a dispersion of 1:1 acid soap (1:1 molar ratio of potassium soap/fatty acid) crystals in the lamellar gel phase, which has confirmed from the phase behavior diagrams and small angle X-ray scattering data. Glycerol was crucial ingredient in the formation of the lamellar gel phase. The cleansing process of the cream soaps was also evaluated using the same diagrams. The structure of the continuous phase in cream soaps changed from lamellar gel to a micellar aqueous solution upon the addition of water. This structural change during the washing process is important in producing the foaming activity of acid soaps to wash away dirt or excess fats from the skin surface. PMID:24671023

  2. Central venous Access device SeCurement And Dressing Effectiveness (CASCADE) in paediatrics: protocol for pilot randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Victoria; Long, Debbie A; Williams, Tara; Hallahan, Andrew; Mihala, Gabor; Cooke, Marie; Rickard, Claire M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Paediatric central venous access devices (CVADs) are associated with a 25% incidence of failure. Securement and dressing are strategies used to reduce failure and complication; however, innovative technologies have not been evaluated for their effectiveness across device types. The primary aim of this research is to evaluate the feasibility of launching a full-scale randomised controlled efficacy trial across three CVAD types regarding CVAD securement and dressing, using predefined feasibility criteria. Methods and analysis Three feasibility randomised, controlled trials are to be undertaken at the Royal Children's Hospital and the Lady Cilento Children's Hospital, Brisbane, Australia. CVAD securement and dressing interventions under examination compare current practice with sutureless securement devices, integrated securement dressings and tissue adhesive. In total, 328 paediatric patients requiring a peripherally inserted central catheter (n=100); non-tunnelled CVAD (n=180) and tunnelled CVAD (n=48) to be inserted will be recruited and randomly allocated to CVAD securement and dressing products. Primary outcomes will be study feasibility measured by eligibility, recruitment, retention, attrition, missing data, parent/staff satisfaction and effect size. CVAD failure and complication (catheter-associated bloodstream infection, local infection, venous thrombosis, occlusion, dislodgement and breakage) will be compared between groups. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval to conduct the research has been obtained. All dissemination will be undertaken using the CONSORT Statement recommendations. Additionally, the results will be sent to the relevant organisations which lead CVAD focused clinical practice guidelines development. Trial registration numbers ACTRN12614001327673; ACTRN12615000977572; ACTRN12614000280606. PMID:27259529

  3. TogoWS: integrated SOAP and REST APIs for interoperable bioinformatics Web services.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Toshiaki; Nakao, Mitsuteru; Takagi, Toshihisa

    2010-07-01

    Web services have become widely used in bioinformatics analysis, but there exist incompatibilities in interfaces and data types, which prevent users from making full use of a combination of these services. Therefore, we have developed the TogoWS service to provide an integrated interface with advanced features. In the TogoWS REST (REpresentative State Transfer) API (application programming interface), we introduce a unified access method for major database resources through intuitive URIs that can be used to search, retrieve, parse and convert the database entries. The TogoWS SOAP API resolves compatibility issues found on the server and client-side SOAP implementations. The TogoWS service is freely available at: http://togows.dbcls.jp/.

  4. Thin soap films are quasi-2D fluids and thick soap films are not

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivek, Skanda; Weeks, Eric R.

    2012-11-01

    We use microrheology to measure the 2D (interfacial) viscosity of soap films. Microrheology uses the diffusive motion of tracer particles suspended in the soap film to infer the viscosity. Our particles are colloids of diameter d = 0 . 5 μm. We measure the interfacial viscosity of soap films ranging in thickness from h = 0 . 5 μm to 2.0 μm. The thickness of these films is measured using the infrared absorbance of the water based soap films, based on a previous setup [X. L. Wu, R. Levine, M. A. Rutgers, H. Kellay, W.I. Goldburg, Rev. Sci. Inst. 72, 2467 (2001)]. From the knowledge of the film thickness and the viscosity of the fluid used to make the film, we can infer the interfacial viscosity due to the surfactant layers at the film/air interfaces. Consistent results are found for thin films (h / d < 3) whereas for thicker films inconsistent and unphysical results are found indicating 3D effects begin to play a role. The transition from 2D to 3D properties as a function of h / d is sharp.

  5. Surface tension profiles in vertical soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adami, N.; Caps, H.

    2015-01-01

    Surface tension profiles in vertical soap films are experimentally investigated. Measurements are performed by introducing deformable elastic objets in the films. The shape adopted by those objects once set in the film is related to the surface tension value at a given vertical position by numerically solving the adapted elasticity equations. We show that the observed dependency of the surface tension versus the vertical position is predicted by simple modeling that takes into account the mechanical equilibrium of the films coupled to previous thickness measurements.

  6. SOAP based web services and their future role in VO projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topf, F.; Jacquey, C.; Génot, V.; Cecconi, B.; André, N.; Zhang, T. L.; Kallio, E.; Lammer, H.; Facsko, G.; Stöckler, R.; Khodachenko, M.

    2011-10-01

    Modern state-of-the-art web services are from crucial importance for the interoperability of different VO tools existing in the planetary community. SOAP based web services assure the interconnectability between different data sources and tools by providing a common protocol for communication. This paper will point out a best practice approach with the Automated Multi-Dataset Analysis Tool (AMDA) developed by CDPP, Toulouse and the provision of VEX/MAG data from a remote database located at IWF, Graz. Furthermore a new FP7 project IMPEx will be introduced with a potential usage example of AMDA web services in conjunction with simulation models.

  7. The essential SOAP note in an EHR age.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Patricia F; Ferguson, Laurie Anne; George, Gwen S; Langford, Cynthia A

    2016-02-18

    This article reviews the traditional Subjective, Objective, Assessment, and Plan (SOAP) note documentation format. The information in the SOAP note is useful to both providers and students for history taking and physical exam, and highlights the importance of including critical documentation details with or without an electronic health record.

  8. Guanidine Soaps As Vehicles For Coating Ceramic Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipp, Warren H.; Veitch, Lisa C.; Jaskowiak, Martha H.

    1994-01-01

    Soaps made from strong organic base guanidine and organic fatty acids serve as vehicles and binders for coating ceramic fibers, various smooth substrates, and other problematic surfaces with thin precious-metal or metal-oxide films. Films needed to serve as barriers to diffusion in fiber/matrix ceramic composite materials. Guanidine soaps entirely organic and burn off, leaving no residues.

  9. Building an Automated SOAP Classifier for Emergency Department Reports

    PubMed Central

    Mowery, Danielle; Wiebe, Janyce; Visweswaran, Shyam; Harkema, Hendrik; Chapman, Wendy W.

    2011-01-01

    Information extraction applications that extract structured event and entity information from unstructured text can leverage knowledge of clinical report structure to improve performance. The SOAP (Subjective, Objective, Assessment, Plan) framework, used to structure progress notes to facilitate problem-specific, clinical decision making by physicians, is one example of a well-known, canonical structure in the medical domain. Although its applicability to structuring data is understood, its contribution to information extraction tasks has not yet been determined. The first step to evaluating the SOAP framework’s usefulness for clinical information extraction is to apply the model to clinical narratives and develop an automated SOAP classifier that classifies sentences from clinical reports. In this quantitative study, we applied the SOAP framework to sentences from emergency department reports, and trained and evaluated SOAP classifiers built with various linguistic features. We found the SOAP framework can be applied manually to emergency department reports with high agreement (Cohen’s kappa coefficients over 0.70). Using a variety of features, we found classifiers for each SOAP class can be created with moderate to outstanding performance with F1 scores of 93.9 (subjective), 94.5 (objective), 75.7 (assessment), and 77.0 (plan). We look forward to expanding the framework and applying the SOAP classification to clinical information extraction tasks. PMID:21925286

  10. Building an automated SOAP classifier for emergency department reports.

    PubMed

    Mowery, Danielle; Wiebe, Janyce; Visweswaran, Shyam; Harkema, Henk; Chapman, Wendy W

    2012-02-01

    Information extraction applications that extract structured event and entity information from unstructured text can leverage knowledge of clinical report structure to improve performance. The Subjective, Objective, Assessment, Plan (SOAP) framework, used to structure progress notes to facilitate problem-specific, clinical decision making by physicians, is one example of a well-known, canonical structure in the medical domain. Although its applicability to structuring data is understood, its contribution to information extraction tasks has not yet been determined. The first step to evaluating the SOAP framework's usefulness for clinical information extraction is to apply the model to clinical narratives and develop an automated SOAP classifier that classifies sentences from clinical reports. In this quantitative study, we applied the SOAP framework to sentences from emergency department reports, and trained and evaluated SOAP classifiers built with various linguistic features. We found the SOAP framework can be applied manually to emergency department reports with high agreement (Cohen's kappa coefficients over 0.70). Using a variety of features, we found classifiers for each SOAP class can be created with moderate to outstanding performance with F(1) scores of 93.9 (subjective), 94.5 (objective), 75.7 (assessment), and 77.0 (plan). We look forward to expanding the framework and applying the SOAP classification to clinical information extraction tasks.

  11. 6. FOURTH FLOOR, DETAIL OF HOTEL SOAP LINE TO NORTH: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. FOURTH FLOOR, DETAIL OF HOTEL SOAP LINE TO NORTH: AMERICAN CAR & FOUNDRY COMPANY MANUAL SOAP CUTTER INSTALLED 1932 (FOREGROUND); CONVEYORS; AND R.A. JONES & COMPANY HORIZONTAL PRESS INSTALLED 1931 (BACKGROUND) - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-15, 90-96 Greene Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  12. Green Soap: An Extraction and Saponification of Avocado Oil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutheimer, Susan; Caster, Jacqueline M.; Smith, Simone H.

    2015-01-01

    An introductory level green chemistry experiment is described that places a new twist on soap-making in lab. In this experiment, oil is extracted from an avocado, after which the oil is saponified to produce bars of green craft soap. Commonly used extraction solvents, such as petroleum ether, methylene chloride, and hexane, are replaced with safer…

  13. The essential SOAP note in an EHR age.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Patricia F; Ferguson, Laurie Anne; George, Gwen S; Langford, Cynthia A

    2016-02-18

    This article reviews the traditional Subjective, Objective, Assessment, and Plan (SOAP) note documentation format. The information in the SOAP note is useful to both providers and students for history taking and physical exam, and highlights the importance of including critical documentation details with or without an electronic health record. PMID:26795838

  14. Modelling the atom by rotating and vibrating soap bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rämme, Göran

    1994-09-01

    Demonstrations of rotating and vibrating soap bubbles are described. The vibrational patterns observed are similar to those obtained by vibrating liquid droplets. The resonance structure of a vibrating soap bubble can be used as a model to discuss certain fundamental aspects of introductory quantum chemistry.

  15. The Live Access Server Scientific Product Generation Through Workflow Orchestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankin, S.; Calahan, J.; Li, J.; Manke, A.; O'Brien, K.; Schweitzer, R.

    2006-12-01

    The Live Access Server (LAS) is a well-established Web-application for display and analysis of geo-science data sets. The software, which can be downloaded and installed by anyone, gives data providers an easy way to establish services for their on-line data holdings, so their users can make plots; create and download data sub-sets; compare (difference) fields; and perform simple analyses. Now at version 7.0, LAS has been in operation since 1994. The current "Armstrong" release of LAS V7 consists of three components in a tiered architecture: user interface, workflow orchestration and Web Services. The LAS user interface (UI) communicates with the LAS Product Server via an XML protocol embedded in an HTTP "get" URL. Libraries (APIs) have been developed in Java, JavaScript and perl that can readily generate this URL. As a result of this flexibility it is common to find LAS user interfaces of radically different character, tailored to the nature of specific datasets or the mindset of specific users. When a request is received by the LAS Product Server (LPS -- the workflow orchestration component), business logic converts this request into a series of Web Service requests invoked via SOAP. These "back- end" Web services perform data access and generate products (visualizations, data subsets, analyses, etc.). LPS then packages these outputs into final products (typically HTML pages) via Jakarta Velocity templates for delivery to the end user. "Fine grained" data access is performed by back-end services that may utilize JDBC for data base access; the OPeNDAP "DAPPER" protocol; or (in principle) the OGC WFS protocol. Back-end visualization services are commonly legacy science applications wrapped in Java or Python (or perl) classes and deployed as Web Services accessible via SOAP. Ferret is the default visualization application used by LAS, though other applications such as Matlab, CDAT, and GrADS can also be used. Other back-end services may include generation of Google

  16. Soap film vibration: origin of the dissipation.

    PubMed

    Acharige, Sébastien Kosgodagan; Elias, Florence; Derec, Caroline

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the complex dispersion relationship of a transverse antisymmetric wave on a horizontal soap film. Experimentally, the complex wave number k at a fixed forcing frequency is determined by measuring the vibrating amplitude of the soap film: the wavelength (linked to the real part of k) is determined by the spatial variation of the amplitude; the decay length (linked to the imaginary part of k) is determined by analyzing the resonance curves of the vibrating wave as a function of frequency. Theoretically, we compute the complex dispersion relationship taking into account the physical properties of the bulk liquid and gas phase, and of the gas-liquid interfaces. The comparison between the computation (developed to the leading order under our experimental conditions) and the experimental results confirms that the phase velocity is fixed by the interplay between surface tension, and liquid and air inertia, as reported in previous studies. Moreover, we show that the attenuation of the transverse antisymmetric wave originates from the viscous dissipation in the gas phase surrounding the liquid film. This result is an important step in understanding the propagation of an acoustic wave in liquid foam, using a bottom-up approach. PMID:25197982

  17. Dynamics of charged hemispherical soap bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, J. E.; van der Net, A.

    2009-04-01

    Raising the potential of a charged hemispherical soap bubble over a critical limit causes deformation of the bubble into a cone and ejection of a charged liquid jet. This is followed by a mode which has not previously been observed in bubbles, in which a long cylindrical liquid film column is created and collapses due to a Rayleigh-Plateau instability creating child bubbles. We show that the formation of the column and subsequent creation of child bubbles is due to a drop in potential caused by the ejection of charge from the system via the jet. Similar dynamics may occur in microscopic charged liquid droplets (electrospray processes), causing the creation of daughter droplets and long liquid spindles.

  18. Soap Films Burst Like Flapping Flags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhuissier, Henri; Villermaux, Emmanuel

    2009-07-01

    When punctured, a flat soap film bursts by opening a hole driven by liquid surface tension. The hole rim does not, however, remain smooth but soon develops indentations at the tip of which ligaments form, ultimately breaking and leaving the initially connex film into a mist of disjointed drops. We report on original observations showing that these indentations result from a flaglike instability between the film and the surrounding atmosphere inducing an oscillatory motion out of its plane. Just like a flag edge flaps in the wind, the film is successively accelerated on both sides perpendicularly to its plane, inducing film thickness modulations and centrifuging liquid ligaments that finally pinch off to form the observed spray. This effect exemplifies how the dynamics of fragile objects such as thin liquid films is sensitive to their embedding medium.

  19. Stability Conditions and Mechanism of Cream Soaps: Effect of Polyols.

    PubMed

    Sagitani, Hiromichi; Komoriya, Masumi

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acids, fatty acid potassium soaps, polyols and water are essential ingredients for producing stable cream soaps. The solution behavior of the above four components system has been studied to elucidate the effect of four sorts of polyols (glycerol, 1,3-butylene glycol, polyethylene glycol 400 and dipropylene glycol) on the stability of cream soaps. It has been revealed that the lamellar liquid crystalline one-phase converted to a two-phase of a lamellar phase and an isotropic aqueous solution by the addition of a few percent of 1,3-butylene glycol, polyethylene glycol 400 and dipropylene glycol, whereas the lamellar one-phase was remained by about 50 wt% of glycerol in the aqueous solution. The X-ray data at room temperature showed that the existence of 1:1 acid soap (1:1 mole ratio of potassium soap/fatty acid) crystals in the 1,3-butylene glycol, polyethylene glycol 400 and dipropylene glycol systems, whereas that the coexistence of 1:1 acid soap crystal and a lamellar gel phase (swelled lamellar gel structure) in the glycerol system. The phase transition peaks from coagel to gel (Tgel) and from gel to liquid state (Tc) were appeared in the above four polyol systems by DSC measurements. It was confirmed from the combined data of SAXS and DSC that the existence of anhydrous 1:1 acid soap gels (or with small amount of bound water) in the all polyol systems, whereas the coexistence of the anhydrate gel and the swelled gel with a lot of intermediate water in the only glycerol system. This swelled gel structure would be contributed to stabilize the dispersed anhydrate acid soap crystals in cream soaps.

  20. Stability Conditions and Mechanism of Cream Soaps: Effect of Polyols.

    PubMed

    Sagitani, Hiromichi; Komoriya, Masumi

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acids, fatty acid potassium soaps, polyols and water are essential ingredients for producing stable cream soaps. The solution behavior of the above four components system has been studied to elucidate the effect of four sorts of polyols (glycerol, 1,3-butylene glycol, polyethylene glycol 400 and dipropylene glycol) on the stability of cream soaps. It has been revealed that the lamellar liquid crystalline one-phase converted to a two-phase of a lamellar phase and an isotropic aqueous solution by the addition of a few percent of 1,3-butylene glycol, polyethylene glycol 400 and dipropylene glycol, whereas the lamellar one-phase was remained by about 50 wt% of glycerol in the aqueous solution. The X-ray data at room temperature showed that the existence of 1:1 acid soap (1:1 mole ratio of potassium soap/fatty acid) crystals in the 1,3-butylene glycol, polyethylene glycol 400 and dipropylene glycol systems, whereas that the coexistence of 1:1 acid soap crystal and a lamellar gel phase (swelled lamellar gel structure) in the glycerol system. The phase transition peaks from coagel to gel (Tgel) and from gel to liquid state (Tc) were appeared in the above four polyol systems by DSC measurements. It was confirmed from the combined data of SAXS and DSC that the existence of anhydrous 1:1 acid soap gels (or with small amount of bound water) in the all polyol systems, whereas the coexistence of the anhydrate gel and the swelled gel with a lot of intermediate water in the only glycerol system. This swelled gel structure would be contributed to stabilize the dispersed anhydrate acid soap crystals in cream soaps. PMID:26179000

  1. Laundry Soap from Waste Cooking Oil. What We Make. Science and Technology Education in Philippine Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philippines Univ., Quezon City. Inst. for Science and Mathematics Education Development.

    This module provides instructions for clarifying cooking oil and using it with either wood ash lye or commercial lye to make laundry soap. It also provides (in appendices): a discussion of oils and soaps, including the history of soap; instructions for preparing an 18 percent lye solution; instructions for preparing soap using lye from wood ash;…

  2. Hydrodynamics of soap films probed by two-particle microrheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Vikram; Weeks, Eric R.

    2007-11-01

    A soap film consists of a thin water layer that is separated from two bulk air phases above and below it by surfactant monolayers. The flow fields in the soap film created in response to a perturbation depend on coupling between these different phases, the exact nature of which is unknown. In order to determine this coupling, we use polystyrene spheres as tracer particles and track their diffusive motions in the soap film. The correlated Brownian motion of pairs of particles (two-particle microrheology) maps out the flow field, and provides a measure of the surface viscosity of the soap film as well. This measured surface viscosity agrees well with the value obtained from self diffusion of single particles (one-particle microrheology) in the film.

  3. Surface tension profiles in vertical soap films: an intrusive measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adami, Nicolas; Dorbolo, Stéphane; Caps, Hervé; Grasp Team

    2012-11-01

    Soap films are known to be the basic constituent of complex fluid objects such as bubbles and foams. In order for their weight to be counterbalanced, those objects need to exhibit vertical surface tension profiles, which can only exist due to the presence of surfactant molecules at their interfaces. We here present a method that aims to probe vertical soap films surface tension profiles by use of elasto-capillary deformations. Both cases of free-draining and entertained soap films are investigated, leading the spatio-temporal behavior of the surface tension. We show that this behavior is highly dependent on the nature of the surfactant used to create soap films, emphasizing the influence of the physico-chemistry on the global behavior of the system. We propose order of magnitude calculations, which are in good agreement with experimental data.

  4. 7. FOURTH FLOOR, DETAIL OF HOTEL SOAP LINE TO WEST: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. FOURTH FLOOR, DETAIL OF HOTEL SOAP LINE TO WEST: FERGUSON & HAAS AUTOMATIC WRAPPING MACHINE INSTALLED BY 1929 - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-15, 90-96 Greene Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  5. 5. FOURTH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINES TO NORTHWEST: PRESS (LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. FOURTH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINES TO NORTHWEST: PRESS (LEFT CENTER), MANUAL CUTTERS (CENTER, RIGHT CENTER) - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-15, 90-96 Greene Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  6. 4. THIRD FLOOR CENTER BAY TO NORTH; SOAP KETTLES TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. THIRD FLOOR CENTER BAY TO NORTH; SOAP KETTLES TO LEFT AND RIGHT, TWO-STORY TANK AT CENTER REAR - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-13, 48-50 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  7. Bow and Oblique Shock Formation in Soap Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ildoo; Mandre, Shreyas; Sane, Aakash

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, soap films have been exploited primarily to approximate two-dimensional flows while their three-dimensional character is relatively unattended. An example of the three-dimensional character of the flow in a soap film is the observed Marangoni shock wave when the flow speed exceeds the wave speed. In this study, we investigated the formation of bow and oblique shocks in soap films generated by wedges with different deflection angles. When the wedge deflection angle is small and the film flows fast, oblique shocks are observed. When the oblique shock cannot exists, bow shock is formed upstream the wedge. We characterized the oblique shock angle as a function of the wedge deflection angle and the flow speed, and we also present the criteria for transition between bow and oblique Marangoni shocks in soap films.

  8. Fibrillar films obtained from sodium soap fibers and polyelectrolyte multilayers.

    PubMed

    Zawko, Scott A; Schmidt, Christine E

    2011-08-01

    An objective of tissue engineering is to create synthetic polymer scaffolds with a fibrillar microstructure similar to the extracellular matrix. Here, we present a novel method for creating polymer fibers using the layer-by-layer method and sacrificial templates composed of sodium soap fibers. Soap fibers were prepared from neutralized fatty acids using a sodium chloride crystal dissolution method. Polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) of polystyrene sulfonate and polyallylamine hydrochloride were deposited onto the soap fibers, crosslinked with glutaraldehyde, and then the soap fibers were leached with warm water and ethanol. The morphology of the resulting PEM structures was a dense network of fibers surrounded by a nonfibrillar matrix. Microscopy revealed that the PEM fibers were solid structures, presumably composed of polyelectrolytes complexed with residual fatty acids. These fibrillar PEM films were found to support the attachment of human dermal fibroblasts.

  9. Clean Chemistry: Entertaining and Educational Activities with Soap Bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Kathryn R.

    2002-10-01

    Past issues of JCE contain a number of activities with soap bubbles. The projects will entertain and educate young children and high school/beginning college students, as well as grown-ups with a variety of backgrounds.

  10. MANCHESTER MILLS, PRINT WORKS: BLUE DYE AND SOAPING; PRINTING AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MANCHESTER MILLS, PRINT WORKS: BLUE DYE AND SOAPING; PRINTING AND BLEACHING BUILDINGS. PHOTOCOPY OF c. 1905 VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST. From the collection of Mr. George Durette, Photographer, Manchester, N. H. - Amoskeag Millyard, Canal Street, Manchester, Hillsborough County, NH

  11. A High Performance SOAP Engine for Grid Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ning; Welzl, Michael; Zhang, Liang

    Web Service technology still has many defects that make its usage for Grid computing problematic, most notably the low performance of the SOAP engine. In this paper, we develop a novel SOAP engine called SOAPExpress, which adopts two key techniques for improving processing performance: SCTP data transport and dynamic early binding based data mapping. Experimental results show a significant and consistent performance improvement of SOAPExpress over Apache Axis.

  12. [Physicians in the TV soap--a study of ER].

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Rune; Baerheim, Anders

    2005-12-15

    Health providers are constantly exposed to patients' cultural expressions. Television is a central agent forming our cultural surroundings. The aim of this study has been to elucidate how a specific genre - the medical soap opera - represents the health system, and shape our expectations of it. The first part of the study is a genre analysis based on media science, literary theory and narrative-based medicine. The second part of the study applies these theoretical elements on the series Emergency Room (ER). Using text analysis, one episode was reviewed in detail. The medical soap opera is a genre characterised by qualities such as a narration, its focus on the physician in her professional role and as a private individual, and by a glamour medical reality. These theoretical considerations support how soap operas focus on the physician as a type and a causally stringent construction of the narrative. The narrative qualities of the soap opera are found to satisfy people's desire for more causality in daily life. Wish fulfillment is a central function of the soap opera. In sum, medical soap operas fulfill a desire for a more comprehensive health system, showing health actors as human beings rather than just white coats.

  13. Soaps and detergents: understanding their composition and effect.

    PubMed

    Kirsner, R S; Froelich, C W

    1998-03-01

    Soaps have been used for thousands of years as part of religious ceremonies and daily life. Derived from fatty acids or triglycerides (fats or oils) into their alkali derivatives through a process called saponification, soaps are important for healthcare professionals in preventing the spread of disease. Partly due to their alkaline nature, soaps are limited by their irritancy to the skin and their tendency to form insoluble and inactive salts when combined with either hard water or sea water. Therefore, soap alternatives or synthetic detergents have been developed. Detergents are classified into four groups: anionic, cationic, amphoteric, and non-ionic. These four groups are based on the hydrophilic qualities and surfactants they possess. Each group has characteristics that pertain to its main uses, irritancy, and toxicity. Understanding soaps and detergents may assist clinicians in making intelligent choices when using these agents on their patients as either skin cleansers or wound cleansers. Understanding the characteristics of soaps and detergents is especially important when dealing with at-risk patients such as the elderly.

  14. Evaluation and remediation of bulk soap dispensers for biofilm.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Lindsey A; Ramsay, Bradley D; Goeres, Darla M; Fields, Matthew W; Zapka, Carrie A; Macinga, David R

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies evaluating bulk soap in public restroom soap dispensers have demonstrated up to 25% of open refillable bulk-soap dispensers were contaminated with ~ 6 log(10)(CFU ml(-1)) heterotrophic bacteria. In this study, plastic counter-mounted, plastic wall-mounted and stainless steel wall-mounted dispensers were analyzed for suspended and biofilm bacteria using total cell and viable plate counts. Independent of dispenser type or construction material, the bulk soap was contaminated with 4-7 log(10)(CFU ml(-1)) bacteria, while 4-6 log(10)(CFU cm(-2)) biofilm bacteria were isolated from the inside surfaces of the dispensers (n = 6). Dispenser remediation studies, including a 10 min soak with 5000 mg l(-1) sodium hypochlorite, were then conducted to determine the efficacy of cleaning and disinfectant procedures against established biofilms. The testing showed that contamination of the bulk soap returned to pre-test levels within 7-14 days. These results demonstrate biofilm is present in contaminated bulk-soap dispensers and remediation studies to clean and sanitize the dispensers are temporary.

  15. The IMPEx Protocol - building bridges between scientific databases and online tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ubaidi, T.; Khodachenko, M. L.; Kallio, E. J.; Génot, V.; Modolo, R.; Hess, S.; Schmidt, W.; Scherf, M.; Topf, F.; Alexeev, I. I.; Gangloff, M.; Budnik, E.; Bouchemit, M.; Renard, B.; Bourrel, N.; Penou, E.; André, N.; Belenkaya, E. S.

    2014-04-01

    The FP7-SPACE project IMPEx (http://impex-fp7.oeaw.ac.at) was established as a result of scientific collaboration between research teams from Austria, Finland, France, and Russia, working on the integration of a set of data mining, analysis and modeling tools in the field of space plasma and planetary physics. The primary goal of the project is to bridge the gap between spacecraft measurements and up-to-date computational models of planetary environments, enabling their joint operation for a better understanding of related physical phenomena. The IMPEx Protocol constitutes one of the cornerstones of the integration effort. While the IMPEx Data Model assures that the information exchanged can be 'understood' and hence processed by every participating tool or database system, the protocol provides the means to leverage specific functionalities of the respective host system in conjunction with the data provided. Examples thereof would be services for calculating field lines and particle trajectories, on-the-fly modeling runs with specific parameters and so forth. Additionally there are also utility methods available that allow to e.g. access specific data files or support search interfaces by providing ranked lists of stored modeling runs for a given set of (upstream) parameters. The presentation offers an overview of the IMPEx protocol and addresses the motivation for some of the (technical)design decisions taken during the development process. Further the resulting SOAP based web service interface is discussed and individual services and their applications are addressed specifically. Last but not least the first available implementations of the protocol are presented and a brief overview of tools already leveraging the IMPEx protocol is provided. The presentation closes with an outlook on possible future applications as well as extensions of the IMPEx protocol, including information on how to get started when implementing the IMPEx protocol, in order to join the

  16. Sudden Thickening in Flowing Soap Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldburg, Walter; Steers, Stanley; Hartman, Nikolaus

    2007-11-01

    There is no difficulty in creating soap films that flow vertically downward under gravity at speeds of the order of a m/s. If the height of the film L0 is of the order of 1 m or less, the film thickness h(x) is a few microns (The coordinate x increases downward below the injection point at x = 0.) However if L0 is of the order of 2 m, one finds that h abruptly increases at a sharply defined value of x =L. In the experiments to be described, L ˜ =.9 m. As expected, the vertical film velocity vx(x) correspondingly drops to a small fraction of its upstream value at x ˜L. In the narrow transition region from thin to thick film at x=L, both h(x) and the vx(x) oscillate at a well-defined frequency of the order of 1 Hz. The abrupt thickening is expected on the basis of singular perturbation theory (T. Tran, following paper).

  17. Thermal convection in vertically suspended soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie

    In normal fluids, a temperature difference can create a density difference. In the presence of the gravitational field, denser fluid will fall and lighter fluid will rise, causing fluid motion known as thermal convection. This type of convection can occur on different scales, from a single growing crystal to mantle movement inside the earth. Although many experiments have been conducted in unstably stratified fluids, there have been few laboratory experiments studying convective turbulence in stably stratified fluids, which is more common in nature. Here I present a two-dimensional (2D) convection in a stably stratified vertical soap film. It was found that the interaction between the gravitational potential energy, due to the 2D density fluctuation, and the kinetic energy is important. This interplay between the two energy sources manifests itself in the statistical properties of velocity and 2D density fluctuations in the system. Our experimental findings shed new lights to a turbulent system that strongly couples to a non-passive field.

  18. Soap and sand: construction tools for nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Edler, Karen J

    2004-12-15

    Nanotechnology is the science of making and using very small structures. As the scales of the constructions become smaller, the existing methods of making these structures--lithography, etching and micromoulding--although constantly improving, will reach physical limits. To overcome the limitations and create smaller, designed and ordered structures, a so-called 'bottom-up' approach must be used. In bottom-up manufacture, self-assembly and nanocasting using molecular assemblies is a burgeoning area of research producing promising materials with current and future applications. In particular, the use of amphiphilic molecules, such as surfactants, which are familiar to most people as the soap bubbles in their kitchen sink, form a range of very uniform structures in the 1-100 nm size range that can be used to direct the structure of other materials. This paper reviews the use of surfactant templating to create nanoscale structures focusing on recent advances in the understanding of how the ordered nanostructures form, and the developing appreciation of how emergent larger-scale structures made of these materials come about.

  19. Soap and sand: construction tools for nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Edler, Karen J

    2004-12-15

    Nanotechnology is the science of making and using very small structures. As the scales of the constructions become smaller, the existing methods of making these structures--lithography, etching and micromoulding--although constantly improving, will reach physical limits. To overcome the limitations and create smaller, designed and ordered structures, a so-called 'bottom-up' approach must be used. In bottom-up manufacture, self-assembly and nanocasting using molecular assemblies is a burgeoning area of research producing promising materials with current and future applications. In particular, the use of amphiphilic molecules, such as surfactants, which are familiar to most people as the soap bubbles in their kitchen sink, form a range of very uniform structures in the 1-100 nm size range that can be used to direct the structure of other materials. This paper reviews the use of surfactant templating to create nanoscale structures focusing on recent advances in the understanding of how the ordered nanostructures form, and the developing appreciation of how emergent larger-scale structures made of these materials come about. PMID:15539362

  20. A randomised controlled non-inferiority trial of primary care-based facilitated access to an alcohol reduction website (EFAR Spain): the study protocol

    PubMed Central

    López-Pelayo, Hugo; Wallace, Paul; Segura, Lidia; Miquel, Laia; Díaz, Estela; Teixidó, Lidia; Baena, Begoña; Struzzo, Pierliugio; Palacio-Vieira, Jorge; Casajuana, Cristina; Colom, Joan; Gual, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Early identification (EI) and brief interventions (BIs) for risky drinkers are effective tools in primary care. Lack of time in daily practice has been identified as one of the main barriers to implementation of BI. There is growing evidence that facilitated access by primary healthcare professionals (PHCPs) to a web-based BI can be a time-saving alternative to standard face-to-face BIs, but there is as yet no evidence about the effectiveness of this approach relative to conventional BI. The main aim of this study is to test non-inferiority of facilitation to a web-based BI for risky drinkers delivered by PHCP against face-to-face BI. Method and analysis A randomised controlled non-inferiority trial comparing both interventions will be performed in primary care health centres in Catalonia, Spain. Unselected adult patients attending participating centres will be given a leaflet inviting them to log on to a website to complete the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) alcohol screening questionnaire. Participants with positive results will be requested online to complete a trial module including consent, baseline assessment and randomisation to either face-to-face BI by the practitioner or BI via the alcohol reduction website. Follow-up assessment of risky drinking will be undertaken online at 3 months and 1 year using the full AUDIT and D5-EQD5 scale. Proportions of risky drinkers in each group will be calculated and non-inferiority assessed against a specified margin of 10%. Assuming reduction of 30% of risky drinkers receiving standard intervention, 1000 patients will be required to give 90% power to reject the null hypothesis. Ethics and dissemination The protocol was approved by the Ethics Commmittee of IDIAP Jordi Gol i Gurina P14/028. The findings of the trial will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, national and international conference presentations. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02082990. PMID

  1. Efficacy of waterless hand hygiene compared with handwashing with soap: a field study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Amy J; Boehm, Alexandria B; Mwanjali, Mathew; Davis, Jennifer

    2010-02-01

    Effective handwashing with soap requires reliable access to water supplies. However, more than three billion persons do not have household-level access to piped water. This research addresses the challenge of improving hand hygiene within water-constrained environments. The antimicrobial efficacy of alcohol-based hand sanitizer, a waterless hand hygiene product, was evaluated and compared with handwashing with soap and water in field conditions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Hand sanitizer use by mothers resulted in 0.66 and 0.64 log reductions per hand of Escherichia coli and fecal streptococci, respectively. In comparison, handwashing with soap resulted in 0.50 and 0.25 log reductions per hand of E. coli and fecal streptococci, respectively. Hand sanitizer was significantly better than handwashing with respect to reduction in levels of fecal streptococci (P = 0.01). The feasibility and health impacts of promoting hand sanitizer as an alternative hand hygiene option for water-constrained environments should be assessed. PMID:20134005

  2. Efficacy of Waterless Hand Hygiene Compared with Handwashing with Soap: A Field Study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Amy J.; Boehm, Alexandria B.; Mwanjali, Mathew; Davis, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Effective handwashing with soap requires reliable access to water supplies. However, more than three billion persons do not have household-level access to piped water. This research addresses the challenge of improving hand hygiene within water-constrained environments. The antimicrobial efficacy of alcohol-based hand sanitizer, a waterless hand hygiene product, was evaluated and compared with handwashing with soap and water in field conditions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Hand sanitizer use by mothers resulted in 0.66 and 0.64 log reductions per hand of Escherichia coli and fecal streptococci, respectively. In comparison, handwashing with soap resulted in 0.50 and 0.25 log reductions per hand of E. coli and fecal streptococci, respectively. Hand sanitizer was significantly better than handwashing with respect to reduction in levels of fecal streptococci (P = 0.01). The feasibility and health impacts of promoting hand sanitizer as an alternative hand hygiene option for water-constrained environments should be assessed. PMID:20134005

  3. Synthesis of Exotic Soaps in the Chemistry Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phanstiel, Otto, IV; Dueno, Eric; Xianghong Wang, Queenie

    1998-05-01

    A variety of different triglyceride sources ranging from Vietnamese garlic oil to a local restaurant's grill sludge were saponified to generate a series of exotic soaps. Students did not quantify their results, but described their products in terms of color, texture and odor. Their results were compared with existing data on the triglyceride content for each source used (when possible). Soap texture seemed to be related to the degree of unsaturation present in the starting triglyceride. However, texture alterations due to occluded impurities could not be ruled out. In general, fats and oils high in saturated fats (butter) gave hard, chunky, and waxlike soaps, while those high in unsaturated fats gave flaky and easily crumbled soaps (olive, corn, peanut and sunflower oils). Soap color was not consistent with triglyceride unsaturation levels during the time frame studied. Odor changes were dramatic and were explained in terms of a change in chemical structure (i.e. conversion from an ester to a carboxylate salt). In general, the experiment was well received by students and stressed the importance of making precise qualitative observations during the experiment.

  4. Cryptanalysis on Cheng et al. protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Tejeshwari

    2016-06-01

    Deployment of new node in any wireless sensor network is a sensitive task. This is the reason why, an Access Control Protocol is required in WSN. In this paper, we demonstrate that Access Control Protocol proposed by Cheng et al.[1] for Wireless Sensor Network is insecure. The reason is that this protocol fails to resist the active attack.

  5. Characterising the phase behaviour of stearic acid and its triethanolamine soap and acid-soap by infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pudney, Paul D A; Mutch, Kevin J; Zhu, Shiping

    2009-07-01

    The behaviour of stearic acid neutralised by triethanolamine to form soap and its acid-soap has been examined by infrared spectroscopy. It was found that not only could the neutralisation behaviour be characterised, but the thermotropic behaviour could also be followed. The neutralisation confirmed the formation of a fixed stoichiometeric ratio, 2 : 1, acid-soap. When following the thermotropic behaviour the break up of the acid-soap could be followed along with various disordering and melting transitions of the alkyl chain tail. This allowed all the thermal transitions that have been observed to be characterised in terms of the type of molecular rearrangement that was occurring and also the transition temperature at which they occurred. This allowed the binary phase diagram to be plotted and understood for this system. This is the first time IR has been used to measure a whole phase diagram of this type. The nature of the acid-soap complex itself was also characterised, with very short hydrogen bonds being present as well as a free, non-hydrogen bonded, hydroxyl group.

  6. SOAP to SNOCAMP: improving the medical record format.

    PubMed

    Larimore, W L; Jordan, E V

    1995-10-01

    Not since the development of the SOAP note in the problem-oriented medical record has there been a significant need to alter the format of medical record documentation. With the intrusion of third-party audits, malpractice attorney subpoenas, medical guidelines, and reimbursement code criteria into the practice of medicine, there is a need to expand the traditional SOAP note. This article proposes a new acronym, "SNOCAMP," for medical record documentation. SNOCAMP retains the SOAP format, which includes subjective, objective, assessment, and plan of treatment, with the addition of nature of the presenting complaint, counseling, and medical decision-making. It is hoped that this new, more explicit format will prove successful in meeting the divergent needs of practicing physicians, the patients they serve, and the inquiring minds that look over their shoulders.

  7. Gravity-driven soap film dynamics in subcritical regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auliel, M. I.; Castro, F.; Sosa, R.; Artana, G.

    2015-10-01

    We undertake the analysis of soap-film dynamics with the classical approach of asymptotic expansions. We focus our analysis in vertical soap film tunnels operating in subcritical regimes with elastic Mach numbers Me=O(10-1) . Considering the associated set of nondimensional numbers that characterize this flow, we show that the flow behaves as a two-dimensional (2D) divergence free flow with variable mass density. When the soap film dynamics agrees with that of a 2D and almost constant mass density flow, the regions where the second invariant of the velocity gradient is non-null correspond to regions where the rate of change of film thickness is non-negligible.

  8. [Identification of bacterial contamination in liquid soap for hospital use].

    PubMed

    Caetano, Joselany Afio; Lima, Maria Alzete; Di Ciero Miranda, Maira; Serufo, José Carlos; Ponte, Paulo Roberto Lins

    2011-03-01

    This study performed a bacteriological analysis of the liquid soap in dispensers that health professionals use for hand washing. This exploratory, cross-sectional study was developed at the hospitalization units of a medium-sized hospital in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Data were collected between May and July 2007. Fifty-nine liquid soap dispensers were analyzed, of which 33 contained the following microorganisms: Burkholderia cepacia (14), Pseudomonas putidas (9), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3), Klebsiella pneumoniae (3), Enterobacter clocae (2), and Pseudomonas luteola (2). The units with the largest number of contaminated samples were the surgical (n=7) and the dermatological clinics (n=4). Contamination was also found in an original flask of the same lot of liquid soap used to fill up the dispensers. In conclusion, there is a need to regulate and control the quality of these products in the production lines as well as during use in hospital services, mainly because they are used to prevent hospital infection.

  9. Social uses of commercial soap operas: a conversation with Miguel Sabido.

    PubMed

    Singhal, A; Obregon, R

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an interview with Miguel Sabido, a writer-producer-director of theater and soap operas in Mexico concerning the social uses of commercial soap operas. According to Sabido, television soap operas can play multiple roles in educating the public: 1) melodramatic soap operas represent a mediation between good and bad; 2) soap operas allow people to gossip on different characters, their dilemmas, and create a climate for social change, especially if it centers on key social issues; and 3) soap operas provide role models to emulate. Sabido stressed the importance of a theory-based method for producing drama and mentioned how theoreticians Bentley, Bandura, Maclean, and Jung influenced his writing and production of soap operas. According to Sabido, the social uses of commercial television are possible with socially responsible soap operas.

  10. SPICE Module for the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coggi, John; Carnright, Robert; Hildebrand, Claude

    2008-01-01

    A SPICE module for the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP) precisely represents complex motion and maneuvers in an interactive, 3D animated environment with support for user-defined quantitative outputs. (SPICE stands for Spacecraft, Planet, Instrument, Camera-matrix, and Events). This module enables the SOAP software to exploit NASA mission ephemeris represented in the JPL Ancillary Information Facility (NAIF) SPICE formats. Ephemeris types supported include position, velocity, and orientation for spacecraft and planetary bodies including the Sun, planets, natural satellites, comets, and asteroids. Entire missions can now be imported into SOAP for 3D visualization, playback, and analysis. The SOAP analysis and display features can now leverage detailed mission files to offer the analyst both a numerically correct and aesthetically pleasing combination of results that can be varied to study many hypothetical scenarios. The software provides a modeling and simulation environment that can encompass a broad variety of problems using orbital prediction. For example, ground coverage analysis, communications analysis, power and thermal analysis, and 3D visualization that provide the user with insight into complex geometric relations are included. The SOAP SPICE module allows distributed science and engineering teams to share common mission models of known pedigree, which greatly reduces duplication of effort and the potential for error. The use of the software spans all phases of the space system lifecycle, from the study of future concepts to operations and anomaly analysis. It allows SOAP software to correctly position and orient all of the principal bodies of the Solar System within a single simulation session along with multiple spacecraft trajectories and the orientation of mission payloads. In addition to the 3D visualization, the user can define numeric variables and x-y plots to quantitatively assess metrics of interest.

  11. The Marangoni convection induced by acetone desorption from the falling soap film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha, Yong; Li, Zhangyun; Wang, Yongyi; Huang, Jiali

    2012-05-01

    By means of the falling soap film tunnel and the Schlieren optical method, the Marangoni convection were observed directly in the immediate interfacial neighborhood during the desorption process of acetone from the falling soap film. Moreover, the hydraulic characteristics of the falling soap film tunnel, the acetone concentration, the surface tension of the soap liquid and the mass transfer has been investigated in details through the experimental or theoretical method.

  12. Proton tunneling in fatty acid/soap crystals?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitta, A. Marco; Klein, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    Fatty acids and acid/soap crystals have a bilayer structure, which is held together by hydrogen bonding between head groups. The present ab initio Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics calculations suggest that proton tunneling or sharing along such hydrogen bonds could be the key structural features in the acid/soap crystal but not in the pure acid. This effect seems to be due to sodium cations, which induce a dramatic shortening of the hydrogen bond and its signature should be visible in the experimental vibrational spectra.

  13. Contamination of liquid soap for hospital use with Raoultella planticola.

    PubMed

    García-San Miguel, L; Sáez-Nieto, J A; Medina, M J; López Hernández, S; Sánchez-Romero, I; Ganga, B; Asensio, Á

    2014-03-01

    This article reports the contamination of a batch of liquid soap for hospital use with Raoultella planticola. The micro-organism was first identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae due to the inability of automated systems to characterize this species. There is a need to strengthen the inspection of cosmetic products to be used in the hospital setting. It is recommended that hospitalized patients at the highest risk of infection should use antimicrobial soaps for personal hygiene. The incidence of infections due to R. planticola is unknown as it is usually misclassified as Klebsiella spp. by automated systems. PMID:24559578

  14. Experimental study of flapping jets in a soap film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Julia; Kim, Ildoo; Mandre, Shreyas

    2015-11-01

    Plateau and Rayleigh's observation and explanation on jet instability have inspired us over the years and there has been a significant advance in understanding the jet dynamics. Here, we present a quasi-two-dimensional experimental study of flapping jets in a soap film. Newtonian and non-Newtonian solutions are injected in a flowing soap film. Thinning, break-ups, and beads-on-a-string of the jets, and axisymmetric vortices shredded from the flapping jets are visualized. We employ PIV of the flow motion around the jets to gain an understanding of the roles of instabilities in the flow.

  15. Thermal convection and emergence of isolated vortices in soap bubbles.

    PubMed

    Seychelles, F; Amarouchene, Y; Bessafi, M; Kellay, H

    2008-04-11

    A novel thermal convection cell consisting of half a soap bubble heated at the equator is introduced to study thermal convection and the movement of isolated vortices. The soap bubble, subject to stratification, develops thermal convection at its equator. A particular feature of this cell is the emergence of isolated vortices. These vortices resemble hurricanes or cyclones and similarities between our observed structures and these natural objects are found. This is brought forth through a study of the mean square displacement of these objects showing signs of superdiffusion. PMID:18518038

  16. Contamination of liquid soap for hospital use with Raoultella planticola.

    PubMed

    García-San Miguel, L; Sáez-Nieto, J A; Medina, M J; López Hernández, S; Sánchez-Romero, I; Ganga, B; Asensio, Á

    2014-03-01

    This article reports the contamination of a batch of liquid soap for hospital use with Raoultella planticola. The micro-organism was first identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae due to the inability of automated systems to characterize this species. There is a need to strengthen the inspection of cosmetic products to be used in the hospital setting. It is recommended that hospitalized patients at the highest risk of infection should use antimicrobial soaps for personal hygiene. The incidence of infections due to R. planticola is unknown as it is usually misclassified as Klebsiella spp. by automated systems.

  17. Thermal convection and emergence of isolated vortices in soap bubbles.

    PubMed

    Seychelles, F; Amarouchene, Y; Bessafi, M; Kellay, H

    2008-04-11

    A novel thermal convection cell consisting of half a soap bubble heated at the equator is introduced to study thermal convection and the movement of isolated vortices. The soap bubble, subject to stratification, develops thermal convection at its equator. A particular feature of this cell is the emergence of isolated vortices. These vortices resemble hurricanes or cyclones and similarities between our observed structures and these natural objects are found. This is brought forth through a study of the mean square displacement of these objects showing signs of superdiffusion.

  18. Soap films as two-dimensional classical fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chomaz, J. M.; Cathalau, B.

    1990-02-01

    We present a theoretical derivation of the equations governing the motion of liquid soap film taking into account the physical dynamic as well as the chemical one. Generally, the behavior is specific to soap film, but we define some domains of the parameter space where its dynamic corresponds to classical two-dimensional incompressible flows. In this case we give an equation for the thickness of the membrane. We then simulate on a computer various regimes to explain how the thickness is linked to the internal motion.

  19. Evaluation of proposed Skylab and SSP soap products.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durfee, R. L.; Spurlock, J. M.; Whitmore, F. C.

    1973-01-01

    Four candidate cleansing agents evaluated in terms of potential hazards to crew members included two soaps (Neutrogena bar soap and Olive Leaf Liquid), one nonfoaming surfactant (Miranol JEM), and one laundry detergent (sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate). None of the four exhibited adverse dermatological effects from skin patch tests or supported growth of potentially pathogenic microorganisms. Aqueous solutions of Neutrogena did support a mold species. Neutrogena and Miranol JEM were used in a simulated Skylab personal hygiene regimen with no adverse effects on skin or skin microflora. Based on our results, each of these agents appear to be a promising candidate material for the use intended.

  20. Access to Medications and Medical Care After Participation in HIV Clinical Trials: A Systematic Review of Trial Protocols and Informed Consent Documents

    PubMed Central

    Ciaranello, Andrea L.; Walensky, Rochelle P.; Sax, Paul E.; Chang, Yuchiao; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Weissman, Joel S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Expectations regarding receipt of medications and medical care after clinical trials conclude may inform decisions about trial participation. We describe the frequency with which these posttrial services are described in the protocols and informed consent forms (ICFs) of antiretroviral drug (ARV) trials. Method We systematically reviewed protocols and ICFs from Phase 3 and 4 antiretroviral trials in adults (≥12 years) from 1987 to 2006. Pharmaceutical industry-sponsored trials were selected from US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) documentation and Clinicaltrials.gov. Trials administered by the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) were selected from the ACTG online registry. ACTG- and industry-provided protocols and ICFs were reviewed in full. The primary outcome was any mention of posttrial services, defined as any text regarding posttrial medications or medical care. Results Complete trial documents were available for 31 (48%) of 65 trials meeting inclusion criteria. Documents from 14 trials (45%) mentioned any posttrial service: 12 (39%) mentioned medications, and 5 (16%) mentioned medical care. Payment for trial participation (74%) and for care for trial-related injury (94%) were mentioned more often than were posttrial services. Conclusions Posttrial medications or medical care was mentioned in the trial documents of <50% of reviewed antiretroviral trials. Improved efforts are needed to clearly describe posttrial services in clinical trial protocols and ICFs. and ICFs. PMID:19362992

  1. Mother Courage and Her Soaps: "Incendies, Weeds, Nurse Jackie," and Daytime Drama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    The decline of the soap opera as a major form of popular culture highlights the importance of that form in creating and maintaining a shared subculture for women. Soap operas are contrasted with recent television and film works that present the struggles of women in a different way, highlighting the distinctive features of soap operas as women's…

  2. 9. 5TH FLOOR, INTERIOR DETAIL TO EAST OF SOAP BIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. 5TH FLOOR, INTERIOR DETAIL TO EAST OF SOAP BIN No. 4: UPPER SCREWS MOVED SOAP CHIPS HORIZONTALLY FROM BIN TO BIN; LOWER LEFT-AND RIGHT-HAND SCREWS MOVED CHIPS TO CHUTE LEADING TO 3RD FLOOR SOAP MILLS - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-14, 54-58 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  3. 40 CFR 417.80 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of liquid soaps subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... manufacture of liquid soaps subcategory. 417.80 Section 417.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Soaps Subcategory § 417.80 Applicability; description of the manufacture...

  4. 40 CFR 467.60 - Applicability; description of the drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory. 467.60 Section 467.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Drawing With Emulsions or Soaps Subcategory § 467.60 Applicability; description of the drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges of pollutants to waters of...

  5. 40 CFR 417.70 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of bar soaps subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... manufacture of bar soaps subcategory. 417.70 Section 417.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Bar Soaps Subcategory § 417.70 Applicability; description of the manufacture of...

  6. 40 CFR 467.60 - Applicability; description of the drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory. 467.60 Section 467.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Drawing With Emulsions or Soaps Subcategory § 467.60 Applicability; description of the drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges of pollutants to waters of...

  7. 40 CFR 467.60 - Applicability; description of the drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory. 467.60 Section 467.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Drawing With Emulsions or Soaps Subcategory § 467.60 Applicability; description of the drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges of pollutants to waters of...

  8. 40 CFR 467.60 - Applicability; description of the drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory. 467.60 Section 467.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Drawing With Emulsions or Soaps Subcategory § 467.60 Applicability; description of the drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges of pollutants to waters of the...

  9. 40 CFR 417.80 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of liquid soaps subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... manufacture of liquid soaps subcategory. 417.80 Section 417.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Soaps Subcategory § 417.80 Applicability; description of the manufacture...

  10. Use Primary Sources to Develop a Soap Opera: As the Civil War Turns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ronald V.

    2002-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a social studies class activity that uses primary sources to develop a soap opera based on the American Civil War. In the soap opera activity, students can watch historical characters as they grow, develop, and change. Not only do people in the soap opera develop over a long period, but their accumulated…

  11. 40 CFR 467.60 - Applicability; description of the drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory. 467.60 Section 467.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Drawing With Emulsions or Soaps Subcategory § 467.60 Applicability; description of the drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges of pollutants to waters of the...

  12. 40 CFR 417.70 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of bar soaps subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... manufacture of bar soaps subcategory. 417.70 Section 417.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Bar Soaps Subcategory § 417.70 Applicability; description of the manufacture of...

  13. 40 CFR 417.60 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of soap flakes and powders subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... manufacture of soap flakes and powders subcategory. 417.60 Section 417.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Soap Flakes and Powders Subcategory § 417.60...

  14. 40 CFR 417.70 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of bar soaps subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacture of bar soaps subcategory. 417.70 Section 417.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Bar Soaps Subcategory § 417.70 Applicability; description of the manufacture of...

  15. 40 CFR 417.80 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of liquid soaps subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacture of liquid soaps subcategory. 417.80 Section 417.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Soaps Subcategory § 417.80 Applicability; description of the manufacture...

  16. 40 CFR 417.60 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of soap flakes and powders subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacture of soap flakes and powders subcategory. 417.60 Section 417.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Soap Flakes and Powders Subcategory § 417.60...

  17. Efficacy of Instant Hand Sanitizers against Foodborne Pathogens Compared with Hand Washing with Soap and Water in Food Preparation Settings: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Foddai, Antonio C G; Grant, Irene R; Dean, Moira

    2016-06-01

    Hands can be a vector for transmitting pathogenic microorganisms to foodstuffs and drinks, and to the mouths of susceptible hosts. Hand washing is the primary barrier to prevent transmission of enteric pathogens via cross-contamination from infected persons. Conventional hand washing involves the use of water, soap, and friction to remove dirt and microorganisms. The availability of hand sanitizing products for use when water and soap are unavailable has increased in recent years. The aim of this systematic review was to collate scientific information on the efficacy of hand sanitizers compared with washing hands with soap and water for the removal of foodborne pathogens from the hands of food handlers. An extensive literature search was carried out using three electronic databases: Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed. Twenty-eight scientific publications were ultimately included in the review. Analysis of this literature revealed various limitations in the scientific information owing to the absence of a standardized protocol for evaluating the efficacy of hand products and variation in experimental conditions. However, despite conflicting results, scientific evidence seems to support the historical skepticism about the use of waterless hand sanitizers in food preparation settings. Water and soap appear to be more effective than waterless products for removal of soil and microorganisms from hands. Alcohol-based products achieve rapid and effective inactivation of various bacteria, but their efficacy is generally lower against nonenveloped viruses. The presence of food debris significantly affects the microbial inactivation rate of hand sanitizers.

  18. Efficacy of Instant Hand Sanitizers against Foodborne Pathogens Compared with Hand Washing with Soap and Water in Food Preparation Settings: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Foddai, Antonio C G; Grant, Irene R; Dean, Moira

    2016-06-01

    Hands can be a vector for transmitting pathogenic microorganisms to foodstuffs and drinks, and to the mouths of susceptible hosts. Hand washing is the primary barrier to prevent transmission of enteric pathogens via cross-contamination from infected persons. Conventional hand washing involves the use of water, soap, and friction to remove dirt and microorganisms. The availability of hand sanitizing products for use when water and soap are unavailable has increased in recent years. The aim of this systematic review was to collate scientific information on the efficacy of hand sanitizers compared with washing hands with soap and water for the removal of foodborne pathogens from the hands of food handlers. An extensive literature search was carried out using three electronic databases: Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed. Twenty-eight scientific publications were ultimately included in the review. Analysis of this literature revealed various limitations in the scientific information owing to the absence of a standardized protocol for evaluating the efficacy of hand products and variation in experimental conditions. However, despite conflicting results, scientific evidence seems to support the historical skepticism about the use of waterless hand sanitizers in food preparation settings. Water and soap appear to be more effective than waterless products for removal of soil and microorganisms from hands. Alcohol-based products achieve rapid and effective inactivation of various bacteria, but their efficacy is generally lower against nonenveloped viruses. The presence of food debris significantly affects the microbial inactivation rate of hand sanitizers. PMID:27296611

  19. Accessing and Sharing Data Using the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarboton, D. G.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Whiteaker, T. L.; Maidment, D. R.; Zaslavsky, I.

    2008-12-01

    The Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc (CUAHSI) has a Hydrologic Information System (HIS) project, which is developing infrastructure to support the sharing of hydrologic data through web services and tools for data discovery, access and publication. Centralized data services support access to National Datasets such as the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) and SNOTEL, in a standard way. Distributed data services allow users to establish their own server and publish their data through CUAHSI HIS web services. Once such a data service is registered within HIS Central, it becomes searchable and accessible through the centralized discovery and data access tools. The HIS is founded upon an information model for observations at stationary points that supports its data services. This is implemented as both XML and relational database schema for transmission and storage of data respectively. WaterML is the XML based data transmission model that underlies the machine to machine communications, while the Observations Data Model (ODM) is a relational database model for persistent data storage. Web services support access to hydrologic data stored in ODM and transmitted using WaterML directly from applications software such as Excel, MATLAB and ArcGIS that have Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) capability. A significant value of web services derives from the capability to use them from within a user's preferred analysis environment, rather than requiring a user to learn new software. This allows a user to work with data from national and academic sources, almost as though it was on their local disk. This poster will be computer-based with internet access for demonstration of HIS tools and functionality.

  20. Teaching handwashing with soap for schoolchildren in a multi-ethnic population in northern rural Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Rheinländer, Thilde; Hoat, Luu Ngoc; Dalsgaard, Anders; Konradsen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    working away from home in the fields. Access to soap and water at the household level did not seem a barrier for the uptake of HWWS but continuous access to these might be a challenge at schools. Conclusions This study demonstrated that it is feasible to engage teachers and implement active teaching methods for behaviour change of HWWS in a group of multi-ethnic primary schoolchildren without the need for major investments in water and hygiene infrastructures. However, in those areas there was limited transfer of practice from school promotion to home. Continuous access to soaps at schools needs to be invested. PMID:23618342

  1. Satellite Communications Using Commercial Protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Griner, James H.; Dimond, Robert; Frantz, Brian D.; Kachmar, Brian; Shell, Dan

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has been working with industry, academia, and other government agencies in assessing commercial communications protocols for satellite and space-based applications. In addition, NASA Glenn has been developing and advocating new satellite-friendly modifications to existing communications protocol standards. This paper summarizes recent research into the applicability of various commercial standard protocols for use over satellite and space- based communications networks as well as expectations for future protocol development. It serves as a reference point from which the detailed work can be readily accessed. Areas that will be addressed include asynchronous-transfer-mode quality of service; completed and ongoing work of the Internet Engineering Task Force; data-link-layer protocol development for unidirectional link routing; and protocols for aeronautical applications, including mobile Internet protocol routing for wireless/mobile hosts and the aeronautical telecommunications network protocol.

  2. Learning To Write Case Notes Using the SOAP Format.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Susan; turtle-song, imani

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to use the SOAP (subjective, objective, assessment, and plan) note format to provide clear and concise documentation of the client's continuum of care. This format allow for thorough documentation and it also assists the counselor in representing client concerns in a holistic framework, thus permitting a better understanding of the…

  3. The Systems SOAP Note: A Systems Learning Tool

    PubMed Central

    Young, John Q; Leary, Mark; Dilley, James; Mangurian, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Objective Systems-based practice (SBP) is the only Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) competency concerned with public health and is relatively neglected in residency curricula. A tool was developed and pilot-tested to improve SBP learning on inpatient psychiatry rotations. Methods A four-step approach was used: (1) literature review, (2) expert consultation, (3) tool development, and (4) pilot testing on four cases and evaluation for completion time and preliminary efficacy. Results Out of 51 SBP articles, six (12%) focused on psychiatric residency programs, and none had a practical SBP learning tool. The “systems SOAP (subjective, objective, assessment, plan) note” (S-SOAP) was structured after a clinical SOAP note and was easy to use (mean completion time=60 min), and residents self-reported more insight into systems issues. Conclusions The S-SOAP tool was effectively integrated into clinical experience and provided insight into systemic complexities. Future research should assess SBP knowledge acquisition after the use of such tools. PMID:24838822

  4. Wire Frame Holds Water-Soap Film in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Expedition 6 astronaut Dr. Don Pettit photographed a cube shaped wire frame supporting a thin film made from a water-soap solution during his Saturday Morning Science aboard the International Space Station's (ISS) Destiny Laboratory. Food coloring was added to several faces to observe the effects of diffusion within the film.

  5. 12. DETAIL OF REMOVED PLODDER (UPPER HALF) FROM HOTEL SOAP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL OF REMOVED PLODDER (UPPER HALF) FROM HOTEL SOAP LINE No. 6 STORED IN G BLOCK (HAER No. NJ-71-NN) - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-14, 54-58 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  6. 13. DETAIL OF REMOVED PLODDER (LOWER HALF) FROM HOTEL SOAP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL OF REMOVED PLODDER (LOWER HALF) FROM HOTEL SOAP LINE No. 6 STORED IN G BLOCK (HAER No. NJ-71-NN) - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-14, 54-58 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  7. Evaluating Sustainability: Soap versus Biodiesel Production from Plant Oils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Nicola L. B.; Streff, Jennifer M.; Brokman, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Herein we describe a series of experiments for the undergraduate organic laboratory curriculum in which various plant oils (soybean, rapeseed, and olive) are subjected to saponification and transesterification reactions to create a set of compounds that can function as soaps or as fuels. The experiments introduce students to and asks them to…

  8. Catastrophic Changes in Soap Bubbles Subjected to Deformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramme, Goran

    1991-01-01

    A technique for studying various properties of soap bubbles subjected to deformation, accompanied by some representative experiments to illustrate the versatility of the method, is presented. The measurement of the change of force that occurs when a bubble is stretched is calculated. (KR)

  9. Visualization of Sound Waves Using Regularly Spaced Soap Films

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, F.; Hutzler, S.; Ferreira, M. S.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a novel demonstration experiment for the visualization and measurement of standing sound waves in a tube. The tube is filled with equally spaced soap films whose thickness varies in response to the amplitude of the sound wave. The thickness variations are made visible based on optical interference. The distance between two antinodes is…

  10. Soaps and Suspicious Activity: Dramatic Experiences in British Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferree, Angela M.

    2001-01-01

    Offers examples of dramatic experiences (student produced soap operas) in two classrooms in British comprehensive secondary schools. Concludes that students in other countries would find such experiences as meaningful and enjoyable as their British counterparts. Notes that the two teachers managed to be flexible, appropriating effective…

  11. Soap Operas and Captioning in the EFL Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Donald T.

    A teacher describes the use of closed-caption decoding of television melodramas to teach English as a second language (ESL). The approach uses evening soap operas that afford a range of English usage and accents, realistic dialogue, entertainment, and coverage of current social issues and are closed-captioned for the hearing-impaired. The programs…

  12. Foam structure :from soap froth to solid foams.

    SciTech Connect

    Kraynik, Andrew Michael

    2003-01-01

    The properties of solid foams depend on their structure, which usually evolves in the fluid state as gas bubbles expand to form polyhedral cells. The characteristic feature of foam structure-randomly packed cells of different sizes and shapes-is examined in this article by considering soap froth. This material can be modeled as a network of minimal surfaces that divide space into polyhedral cells. The cell-level geometry of random soap froth is calculated with Brakke's Surface Evolver software. The distribution of cell volumes ranges from monodisperse to highly polydisperse. Topological and geometric properties, such as surface area and edge length, of the entire foam and individual cells, are discussed. The shape of struts in solid foams is related to Plateau borders in liquid foams and calculated for different volume fractions of material. The models of soap froth are used as templates to produce finite element models of open-cell foams. Three-dimensional images of open-cell foams obtained with x-ray microtomography allow virtual reconstruction of skeletal structures that compare well with the Surface Evolver simulations of soap-froth geometry.

  13. On the nature of laser polariton tracks in soap films

    SciTech Connect

    Startsev, Aleksandr V; Stoilov, Yurii Yu

    2004-06-30

    The results of the study of narrow laser tracks in soap films with the divergence below the diffraction-limited value are presented, and the mechanism of formation of narrow channels (spatial polariton solitons) based on laser dielectrophoresis in films is proposed. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  14. Fluid instabilities and wakes in a soap-film tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Vorobieff, P.; Ecke, R.E.

    1999-05-01

    We present a compact, low-budget two-dimensional hydrodynamic flow visualization system based on a tilted, gravity-driven soap film tunnel. This system is suitable for demonstrations and studies of a variety of fluid mechanics problems, including turbulent wakes past bluff bodies and lifting surfaces, Kelvin{endash}Helmholtz instability, and grid turbulence. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Association of Physics Teachers.}

  15. A Discovery Experiment: Carbon Dioxide Soap Bubble Dynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millikan, Roger C.

    1978-01-01

    The observation of soap bubbles in a beaker of carbon dioxide gas helps students to feel the pleasure that comes from understanding nature, from applying that understanding to real problems, and from making unexpected discoveries that yield to analysis. (Author/BB)

  16. Influence of soap cation on extreme-pressure and antiwear properties of lubricating greases

    SciTech Connect

    Nakonechnaya, M.B.; Khalyavka, E.P.; Lyubinin, I.A.; Mnishchenko, G.G.

    1983-11-01

    In investigating the tribological properties of greases for the purpose of selecting optimal additive packages it has been found that soap has the dual function of thickening agent and an antiwear and extreme-pressure component. This paper aims at establishing the relationship between the nature of the soap cation and the extreme-pressure and antiwear properties of the soap-based grease. It is determined by tests that soap thickening improves the tribological properties of the dispersion medium and that variations of the soap concentration have practically no effect on the extreme-pressure properties of the greases.

  17. Conducting fluid dynamics experiments with vertically falling soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutgers, M. A.; Wu, X. L.; Daniel, W. B.

    2001-07-01

    This article gives a detailed description of an apparatus in which flowing soap films are used to perform two dimensional fluid dynamics experiments. We have previously reported scientific findings made with the apparatus, but never carefully described the technique, or its full potential. A brief introduction is given on the nature of soap films as fluids and then all the details necessary for creating robust flowing films are listed. Typical parameters for the system are: flow speeds from 0.5 to 4 m/s, film thickness between 1 and 10 μm, and typical film sizes are 3 m tall and 10 cm wide although films of 20 m tall and 4 m wide have also been made. A vacuum apparatus is also described in which the air drag on the film can be reduced by a factor of 5-10. Finally, a large number of techniques for measuring flow and thickness are outlined and referenced.

  18. The elasticity of soap bubbles containing wormlike micelles.

    PubMed

    Sabadini, Edvaldo; Ungarato, Rafael F S; Miranda, Paulo B

    2014-01-28

    Slow-motion imaging of the rupture of soap bubbles generally shows the edges of liquid films retracting at a constant speed (known as the Taylor-Culick velocity). Here we investigate soap bubbles formed from simple solutions of a cationic surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide - CTAB) and sodium salicylate. The interaction of salicylate ions with CTAB leads to the formation of wormlike micelles (WLM), which yield a viscoelastic behavior to the liquid film of the bubble. We demonstrate that these elastic bubbles collapse at a velocity up to 30 times higher than the Taylor-Culick limit, which has never been surpassed. This is because during the bubble inflation, the entangled WLM chains stretch, storing elastic energy. This extra energy is then released during the rupture of the bubble, yielding an additional driving force for film retraction (besides surface tension). This new mechanism for the bursting of elastic bubbles may have important implications to the breakup of viscoelastic sprays in industrial applications.

  19. Laser-induced vibration of a thin soap film.

    PubMed

    Emile, Olivier; Emile, Janine

    2014-09-21

    We report on the vibration of a thin soap film based on the optical radiation pressure force. The modulated low power laser induces a counter gravity flow in a vertical free-standing draining film. The thickness of the soap film is then higher in the upper region than in the lower region of the film. Moreover, the lifetime of the film is dramatically increased by a factor of 2. Since the laser beam only acts mechanically on the film interfaces, such a film can be employed in an optofluidic diaphragm pump, the interfaces behaving like a vibrating membrane and the liquid in-between being the fluid to be pumped. Such a pump could then be used in delicate micro-equipment, in chips where temperature variations are detrimental and even in biological systems. PMID:25017934

  20. The elasticity of soap bubbles containing wormlike micelles.

    PubMed

    Sabadini, Edvaldo; Ungarato, Rafael F S; Miranda, Paulo B

    2014-01-28

    Slow-motion imaging of the rupture of soap bubbles generally shows the edges of liquid films retracting at a constant speed (known as the Taylor-Culick velocity). Here we investigate soap bubbles formed from simple solutions of a cationic surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide - CTAB) and sodium salicylate. The interaction of salicylate ions with CTAB leads to the formation of wormlike micelles (WLM), which yield a viscoelastic behavior to the liquid film of the bubble. We demonstrate that these elastic bubbles collapse at a velocity up to 30 times higher than the Taylor-Culick limit, which has never been surpassed. This is because during the bubble inflation, the entangled WLM chains stretch, storing elastic energy. This extra energy is then released during the rupture of the bubble, yielding an additional driving force for film retraction (besides surface tension). This new mechanism for the bursting of elastic bubbles may have important implications to the breakup of viscoelastic sprays in industrial applications. PMID:24401119

  1. Laser-induced vibration of a thin soap film.

    PubMed

    Emile, Olivier; Emile, Janine

    2014-09-21

    We report on the vibration of a thin soap film based on the optical radiation pressure force. The modulated low power laser induces a counter gravity flow in a vertical free-standing draining film. The thickness of the soap film is then higher in the upper region than in the lower region of the film. Moreover, the lifetime of the film is dramatically increased by a factor of 2. Since the laser beam only acts mechanically on the film interfaces, such a film can be employed in an optofluidic diaphragm pump, the interfaces behaving like a vibrating membrane and the liquid in-between being the fluid to be pumped. Such a pump could then be used in delicate micro-equipment, in chips where temperature variations are detrimental and even in biological systems.

  2. Soap from Nutmeg: An Integrated Introductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mattos, Marcio C. S.; Nicodem, David E.

    2002-01-01

    The extraction of trimyristin from nutmeg, its purification, and its conversion to a soap (sodium myristate) are described. Concepts such as the isolation of a natural product, recrystallization, identification of a solid, solubility, acidity and basicity, and organic reaction can be presented to students using integrated experiments in an introductory experimental chemistry laboratory. These experiments can easily be done in three class periods of four hours.

    See Letter re: this article.

  3. Collapse of the soap-film bridge - Quasistatic description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cryer, Steven A.; Steen, Paul H.

    1992-01-01

    Observations of the collapse of a soap-film bridge from a connected to a disconnected state are recorded. The equilibrium framework for this nonequilibrium event is classical. Experiments confirm predictions of stable and unstable equilibria. A quasistatic description is introduced for the dynamic states to extend the static theory. It is found to adequately describe the collapse trajectory while the bridge is still connected.

  4. Soap film dynamics and topological jumps under continuous deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffatt, Keith

    2015-11-01

    Consider the dynamics of a soap-film bounded by a flexible wire (or wires) which can be continuously and slowly deformed. At each instant the soap-film relaxes in quasi-static manner to a minimum-area (i.e. minimum-energy) state compatible with the boundary configuration. This can however pass through a critical configuration at which a topological jump is inevitable. We have studied an interesting example of this behaviour: the jump of a one-sided (Möbius strip) soap-film to a two-sided film as the boundary is unfolded and untwisted from the double cover of a circle. The nature of this jump will be demonstrated and explained. More generally, dynamical systems have a natural tendency to relax through dissipative processes to a minimum-energy state, subject to any relevant constraints. An example is provided by the relaxation of a magnetic field in a perfectly conducting but viscous fluid, subject to the constraint that the magnetic field lines are frozen in the fluid. One may infer the existence of magnetostatic equilibria (and analogous steady Euler flows) of arbitrary field-line topology. In general, discontinuities (current sheets) appear during this relaxation process, and this is where reconnection of field-lines (with associated change of topology) can occur. Just as for the soap film, slow change of boundary conditions can lead to critical conditions in which such topological jumps are inevitable. (Work in collaboration with Ray Goldstein, Adriana Pesci, Renzo Ricca and Gareth Alexander.) This work was supported by Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council Grant EP/I036060/1.

  5. Soap bubbles: two years old and sixty centimeters in diameter.

    PubMed

    Grosse, A V

    1969-04-18

    Soap bubbles of long life (over 2 years) and large size (over 60 centimeters in diameter, 100 liters volume) have been produced from bubble solutions improved by the addition of water-soluble synthetic organic polymers such as polyvinyl alcohol or polyoxyethylene. The natural life can be defined as the time it takes for the bubble, if left undisturbed, to contract from the original size to a flat film. PMID:17812083

  6. A public study of the lifetime distribution of soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, S. T.; Meagher, A. J.; Bulfin, B.; Möbius, M.; Hutzler, S.

    2011-08-01

    We present data for the lifetime distribution of soap films made from commercial dish-washing solution and contained in sealed cylinders. Data for over 2500 films were gathered during a 2-month exhibition on the science and art of bubbles and foams in Dublin's Science Gallery. Visitors to the gallery were invited to create 10-20 parallel soap films in acrylic tubes which were sealed with cork stoppers. Individual film bursts occurred at random and were uncorrelated. The total number of remaining films in the tubes was recorded every day. Visitors could monitor the status of their soap film tube and the daily updated histogram of the lifetime of all films. The histogram of the bubble lifetimes is well described by a Weibull distribution, which indicates that the failure rate is not constant and increases over time. Unsealed cylinders show drastically reduced film lifetimes. This experiment illustrates the difference between the unpredictability of the lifetime of individual films and the existence of a well-defined lifetime distribution for the ensemble.

  7. Numerical Analysis of Transient Temperature Response of Soap Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Seiichi; Tatesaku, Akihiro; Dantsuka, Yuki; Fujiwara, Seiji; Kunimine, Kanji

    2015-11-01

    Measurements of thermophysical properties of thin liquid films are important to understand interfacial phenomena due to film structures composed of amphiphilic molecules in soap film, phospholipid bilayer of biological cell and emulsion. A transient hot-wire technique for liquid films less than 1 \\upmu m thick such as soap film has been proposed to measure the thermal conductivity and diffusivity simultaneously. Two-dimensional heat conduction equations for a solid cylinder with a liquid film have been solved numerically. The temperature of a thin wire with liquid film increases steeply with its own heat generation. The feasibility of this technique is verified through numerical experiments for various thermal conductivities, diffusivities, and film thicknesses. Calculated results indicate that the increase in the volumetric average temperature of the thin wire sufficiently varies with the change of thermal conductivity and diffusivity of the soap film. Therefore, the temperature characteristics could be utilized to evaluate both the thermal conductivity and diffusivity using the Gauss-Newton method.

  8. Boundary singularities produced by the motion of soap films.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Raymond E; McTavish, James; Moffatt, H Keith; Pesci, Adriana I

    2014-06-10

    Recent work has shown that a Möbius strip soap film rendered unstable by deforming its frame changes topology to that of a disk through a "neck-pinching" boundary singularity. This behavior is unlike that of the catenoid, which transitions to two disks through a bulk singularity. It is not yet understood whether the type of singularity is generally a consequence of the surface topology, nor how this dependence could arise from an equation of motion for the surface. To address these questions we investigate experimentally, computationally, and theoretically the route to singularities of soap films with different topologies, including a family of punctured Klein bottles. We show that the location of singularities (bulk or boundary) may depend on the path of the boundary deformation. In the unstable regime the driving force for soap-film motion is the mean curvature. Thus, the narrowest part of the neck, associated with the shortest nontrivial closed geodesic of the surface, has the highest curvature and is the fastest moving. Just before onset of the instability there exists on the stable surface the shortest closed geodesic, which is the initial condition for evolution of the neck's geodesics, all of which have the same topological relationship to the frame. We make the plausible conjectures that if the initial geodesic is linked to the boundary, then the singularity will occur at the boundary, whereas if the two are unlinked initially, then the singularity will occur in the bulk. Numerical study of mean curvature flows and experiments support these conjectures.

  9. Soap film flow visualization investigations of oscillating wing energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschmeier, Benjamin; Bryant, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    With increasing population and proliferation of wireless electronics, significant research attention has turned to harvesting energy from ambient sources such as wind and water flows at scales ranging from micro-watt to mega-watt levels. One technique that has recently attracted attention is the application of bio-inspired flapping wings for energy harvesting. This type of system uses a heaving and pitching airfoil to extract flow energy and generate electricity. Such a device can be realized using passive devices excited by aeroelastic flutter phenomena, kinematic mechanisms driven by mechanical linkages, or semi-active devices that are actively controlled in one degree of freedom and passively driven in another. For these types of systems, numerical simulations have showed strong dependence on efficiency and vortex interaction. In this paper we propose a new apparatus for reproducing arbitrary pitch-heave waveforms to perform flow visualization experiments in a soap film tunnel. The vertically falling, gravity driven soap film tunnel is used to replicate flows with a chord Reynolds number on the order of 4x104. The soap film tunnel is used to investigate leading edge vortex (LEV) and trailing edge vortex (TEV) interactions for sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal waveforms. From a qualitative analysis of the fluid structure interaction, we have been able to demonstrate that the LEVs for non-sinusoidal motion convect faster over the airfoil compared with sinusoidal motion. Signifying that optimal flapping frequency is dependent on the motion profile.

  10. Communications protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Xiaoming (Inventor); Baras, John S. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to an improved communications protocol which increases the efficiency of transmission in return channels on a multi-channel slotted Alohas system by incorporating advanced error correction algorithms, selective retransmission protocols and the use of reserved channels to satisfy the retransmission requests.

  11. One-pot SSA-catalyzed β-elimination: An efficient and inexpensive protocol for easy access to the glycal of sialic acid

    PubMed Central

    Paragas, Erickson M.; Monreal, I. Abrrey; Vasil, Chris M.; Saludes, Jonel P.

    2014-01-01

    Neu5Ac2en1Me per-OAc, the fully protected glycal of sialic acid, is a key intermediate in the discovery of therapeutics and diagnostics, including anti-influenza drugs and proteolysis resistant peptidomimetic foldamers. The synthesis of this sialic acid derivative, however, still relies on standard sugar chemistry that utilizes multi-step methodologies. Herein we report a facile and highly efficient microwave-assisted preparation of Neu5Ac1Me using silica sulfuric acid (SSA) as solid-supported acid catalyst that is one- to two-orders of magnitude faster than standard procedures. We also describe the microwave-assisted and SSA-catalyzed one-pot, rapid, solvent free reaction that combines both peracetylation and β-elimination reactions in one step to generate the glycal from Neu5Ac1Me. We coined the term One-pot SSA-catalyzed Technology for β-Elimination Protocol (OneSTEP) to describe this least laborious, most efficient, and practical preparation to date of Neu5Ac2en1Me per-OAc in terms of yield, time, reagent cost, and waste generation. PMID:25497336

  12. Child toy safety: An interdisciplinary approach to unravel the microbiological hazard posed by soap bubbles.

    PubMed

    Amoruso, Irene; Bertoncello, Chiara; Caravello, Gianumberto; Giaccone, Valerio; Baldovin, Tatjana

    2015-11-01

    In 2012 some children developed sepsis after playing together with a soap bubble toy. Microbiological testing revealed heavy contamination of the soap solution, which reasonably represented the vehicle of infection. We investigated the issue with a multidisciplinary approach: review of toy safety legislation; microbiological testing of additional samples; query of the RAPEX database for non-compliant soap bubbles; identification of major manufacturing districts. Microbiological contamination of industrial soap bubbles was widespread. Sixty-three notifications of batches contaminated by environmental microorganisms and opportunistic pathogens had been reported. The Chinese had a virtual monopoly of the soap bubble market. We identified two main manufacturing districts in Guangdong Province, both notable for degradation of their water resources. The use of untreated water for the industrial production of soap bubbles may explain the bacterial contamination. Existing legislation provides an unsatisfactory approach for managing microbiological hazards in sensitive toy categories and for identifying responsible parties in import and export of the products. PMID:26424202

  13. Child toy safety: An interdisciplinary approach to unravel the microbiological hazard posed by soap bubbles.

    PubMed

    Amoruso, Irene; Bertoncello, Chiara; Caravello, Gianumberto; Giaccone, Valerio; Baldovin, Tatjana

    2015-11-01

    In 2012 some children developed sepsis after playing together with a soap bubble toy. Microbiological testing revealed heavy contamination of the soap solution, which reasonably represented the vehicle of infection. We investigated the issue with a multidisciplinary approach: review of toy safety legislation; microbiological testing of additional samples; query of the RAPEX database for non-compliant soap bubbles; identification of major manufacturing districts. Microbiological contamination of industrial soap bubbles was widespread. Sixty-three notifications of batches contaminated by environmental microorganisms and opportunistic pathogens had been reported. The Chinese had a virtual monopoly of the soap bubble market. We identified two main manufacturing districts in Guangdong Province, both notable for degradation of their water resources. The use of untreated water for the industrial production of soap bubbles may explain the bacterial contamination. Existing legislation provides an unsatisfactory approach for managing microbiological hazards in sensitive toy categories and for identifying responsible parties in import and export of the products.

  14. Larvicidal activity of synthetic disinfectants and antibacterial soaps against mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Xue, Rui-De; Qualls, Whitney A

    2013-01-01

    Seven commercial synthetic disinfectant and antibacterial soap products were evaluated as mosquito larvicides against Culex quinquefasciatus Say in the laboratory. Three aerosol disinfectant products, at 0.01% concentration resulted in 58-76% mortality of laboratory-reared fourth instar mosquito larvae at 24 h posttreatment. Four antibacterial soap products at 0.0001% concentration resulted in 88-100% larval mortality at 24 h posttreatment. The active ingredient of the antibacterial soap products, triclosan (0.1%) resulted in 74% larval mortality. One of the antibacterial soap products, Equate caused the highest mosquito larval mortality in the laboratory. Equate antibacterial soap at the application rate of 0.000053 ppm resulted in 90% mortality of the introduced fourth instar larvae of Cx. quinquesfasicatus in the outdoor pools. In laboratory and field bioassays, the antibacterial soap resulted in significant larval mosquito mortality.

  15. Larvicidal activity of synthetic disinfectants and antibacterial soaps against mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Xue, Rui-De; Qualls, Whitney A

    2013-01-01

    Seven commercial synthetic disinfectant and antibacterial soap products were evaluated as mosquito larvicides against Culex quinquefasciatus Say in the laboratory. Three aerosol disinfectant products, at 0.01% concentration resulted in 58-76% mortality of laboratory-reared fourth instar mosquito larvae at 24 h posttreatment. Four antibacterial soap products at 0.0001% concentration resulted in 88-100% larval mortality at 24 h posttreatment. The active ingredient of the antibacterial soap products, triclosan (0.1%) resulted in 74% larval mortality. One of the antibacterial soap products, Equate caused the highest mosquito larval mortality in the laboratory. Equate antibacterial soap at the application rate of 0.000053 ppm resulted in 90% mortality of the introduced fourth instar larvae of Cx. quinquesfasicatus in the outdoor pools. In laboratory and field bioassays, the antibacterial soap resulted in significant larval mosquito mortality. PMID:23427662

  16. Channel Access in Erlang

    SciTech Connect

    Nicklaus, Dennis J.

    2013-10-13

    We have developed an Erlang language implementation of the Channel Access protocol. Included are low-level functions for encoding and decoding Channel Access protocol network packets as well as higher level functions for monitoring or setting EPICS process variables. This provides access to EPICS process variables for the Fermilab Acnet control system via our Erlang-based front-end architecture without having to interface to C/C++ programs and libraries. Erlang is a functional programming language originally developed for real-time telecommunications applications. Its network programming features and list management functions make it particularly well-suited for the task of managing multiple Channel Access circuits and PV monitors.

  17. Bacterial hand contamination and transfer after use of contaminated bulk-soap-refillable dispensers.

    PubMed

    Zapka, Carrie A; Campbell, Esther J; Maxwell, Sheri L; Gerba, Charles P; Dolan, Michael J; Arbogast, James W; Macinga, David R

    2011-05-01

    Bulk-soap-refillable dispensers are prone to extrinsic bacterial contamination, and recent studies demonstrated that approximately one in four dispensers in public restrooms are contaminated. The purpose of this study was to quantify bacterial hand contamination and transfer after use of contaminated soap under controlled laboratory and in-use conditions in a community setting. Under laboratory conditions using liquid soap experimentally contaminated with 7.51 log(10) CFU/ml of Serratia marcescens, an average of 5.28 log(10) CFU remained on each hand after washing, and 2.23 log(10) CFU was transferred to an agar surface. In an elementary-school-based field study, Gram-negative bacteria on the hands of students and staff increased by 1.42 log(10) CFU per hand (26-fold) after washing with soap from contaminated bulk-soap-refillable dispensers. In contrast, washing with soap from dispensers with sealed refills significantly reduced bacteria on hands by 0.30 log(10) CFU per hand (2-fold). Additionally, the mean number of Gram-negative bacteria transferred to surfaces after washing with soap from dispensers with sealed-soap refills (0.06 log(10) CFU) was significantly lower than the mean number after washing with contaminated bulk-soap-refillable dispensers (0.74 log(10) CFU; P < 0.01). Finally, significantly higher levels of Gram-negative bacteria were recovered from students (2.82 log(10) CFU per hand) than were recovered from staff (2.22 log(10) CFU per hand) after washing with contaminated bulk soap (P < 0.01). These results demonstrate that washing with contaminated soap from bulk-soap-refillable dispensers can increase the number of opportunistic pathogens on the hands and may play a role in the transmission of bacteria in public settings.

  18. Alternative hand contamination technique to compare the activities of antimicrobial and nonantimicrobial soaps under different test conditions.

    PubMed

    Fuls, Janice L; Rodgers, Nancy D; Fischler, George E; Howard, Jeanne M; Patel, Monica; Weidner, Patrick L; Duran, Melani H

    2008-06-01

    Antimicrobial hand soaps provide a greater bacterial reduction than nonantimicrobial soaps. However, the link between greater bacterial reduction and a reduction of disease has not been definitively demonstrated. Confounding factors, such as compliance, soap volume, and wash time, may all influence the outcomes of studies. The aim of this work was to examine the effects of wash time and soap volume on the relative activities and the subsequent transfer of bacteria to inanimate objects for antimicrobial and nonantimicrobial soaps. Increasing the wash time from 15 to 30 seconds increased reduction of Shigella flexneri from 2.90 to 3.33 log(10) counts (P = 0.086) for the antimicrobial soap, while nonantimicrobial soap achieved reductions of 1.72 and 1.67 log(10) counts (P > 0.6). Increasing soap volume increased bacterial reductions for both the antimicrobial and the nonantimicrobial soaps. When the soap volume was normalized based on weight (approximately 3 g), nonantimicrobial soap reduced Serratia marcescens by 1.08 log(10) counts, compared to the 3.83-log(10) reduction caused by the antimicrobial soap (P < 0.001). The transfer of Escherichia coli to plastic balls following a 15-second hand wash with antimicrobial soap resulted in a bacterial recovery of 2.49 log(10) counts, compared to the 4.22-log(10) (P < 0.001) bacterial recovery on balls handled by hands washed with nonantimicrobial soap. This indicates that nonantimicrobial soap was less active and that the effectiveness of antimicrobial soaps can be improved with longer wash time and greater soap volume. The transfer of bacteria to objects was significantly reduced due to greater reduction in bacteria following the use of antimicrobial soap.

  19. AIDS soap opera generates massive interest. Eye witness: Cote d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Dodd, R

    1995-12-01

    SIDA Dans La Cite (AIDS in the City) is a popular weekly soap opera first broadcast in Cote d'Ivoire in 1991 with 11 15-minute episodes. The series is part of a campaign by Population Services International (PSI) to raise awareness about AIDS among Ivorian youth. Actors worked for a nominal fee, editing studios were provided at substantial discounts, and filming equipment was borrowed for next to nothing. Production director realized how important the soap opera had become after the fourth episode. A study of 700 households in Abidjan found that of the 75% who had access to a television, two-thirds had seen at least one episode. Cote d'Ivoire may be one of the most religiously conservative countries in Africa. 10% of the adult population, however, is infected with HIV. All sectors of society therefore understand the need to openly understand and discuss sexual issues in the context of such high HIV prevalence. Studies indicate that virtually everyone in Cote d'Ivoire has heard of AIDS and knows that it is a sexually transmitted disease, but persuading people to change their behavior is difficult. PSI sells approximately 750,000 of its subsidized Prudence condoms. Prudence has the same brand recognition in the country as Nescafe and Toyota. A recent survey of sexually active teens found that 30% of girls and 45% of boys used condoms. A weekly radio show is broadcast live from one of the poorest ghettos of Abidjan. Guests include popular singers, comedians, and television personalities. The actors are often from SIDA Dans La Cite. PMID:12319960

  20. Early intervention for depression and anxiety in 16-18-year-olds: Protocol for a feasibility cluster randomised controlled trial of open-access psychological workshops in schools (DISCOVER).

    PubMed

    Michelson, Daniel; Sclare, Irene; Stahl, Daniel; Morant, Nicola; Bonin, Eva-Maria; Brown, June S L

    2016-05-01

    Adolescence is a vulnerable period for the development of mental health problems. The DISCOVER intervention aims to provide accessible, acceptable and cost-effective psychological support for stressed adolescents in inner-city secondary schools. The intervention uses age-appropriate cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) methods and materials, delivered in an interactive 1-day workshop with additional telephone support. An open-access entry route allows students to self-refer. This protocol describes a feasibility cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing DISCOVER with a waitlist control condition. The study will run across 10 clusters (secondary schools) in the inner London Boroughs of Southwark and Lambeth. Participants are students aged over 16years who are seeking help with anxiety and/or depressive symptoms. Key feasibility parameters relate to the proportion of students willing to participate in the research following publicity events; the proportion of students who complete the intervention; and response rates for outcome measures. Outcome variance estimates and intra-cluster correlations will be obtained for future power calculations. Qualitative methods will be used to explore the acceptability of the intervention and research procedures for students and school staff. The feasibility of an economic evaluation will also be examined. The results will (i) determine the appropriateness of proceeding to a definitive full-scale trial; and (ii) inform the development of an optimised version of the DISCOVER intervention that can be tested within feasible parameters. PMID:26883283

  1. Determination of surface tension from the measurement of internal pressure of mini soap bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behroozi, F.; Behroozi, P. S.

    2011-11-01

    We review the elementary theory that gives the internal pressure of a soap bubble in terms of its radius and surface tension. The theory is generalized to relate the pressure difference across any element of a soap film to its local curvature. This result is used to introduce the concept of the mean curvature of a surface element and is applied to a double soap bubble to obtain the relation between the three radii that characterize its geometry. We also describe a simple setup, suitable for the undergraduate laboratory, to produce mini bubbles and to obtain the surface tension of the soap solution by measuring the radius and internal pressure of the bubbles.

  2. Increasing Access to Mental Health Care With Breathe, an Internet-Based Program for Anxious Adolescents: Study Protocol for a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wozney, Lori; Bagnell, Alexa; Fitzpatrick, Eleanor; Curtis, Sarah; Jabbour, Mona; Johnson, David; Rosychuk, Rhonda J; Young, Michael; Ohinmaa, Arto; Joyce, Anthony; McGrath, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a demand to make first-line treatments, including cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for adolescent anxiety disorders, more widely available. Internet-based CBT is proposed to circumvent access and availability barriers and reduce health care system costs. Recent reviews suggest more evidence is needed to establish the treatment effects of Internet-based CBT in children and adolescents and to determine related economic impacts. Objective This pilot trial aims to collect the necessary data to inform the planning of a full-scale RCT to test the effectiveness of the Internet-based CBT program Breathe (Being Real, Easing Anxiety: Tools Helping Electronically). Methods We are conducting a 27-month, 2-arm parallel-group, pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT). Outcomes will inform the planning of a full-scale RCT aimed to test the effectiveness of Internet-based CBT with a population of adolescents with moderate to mild anxiety problems. In the pilot RCT we will: (1) define a minimal clinically important difference (MCID) for the primary outcome measure (total anxiety score using the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children); (2) determine a sample size for the full-scale RCT; (3) estimate recruitment and retention rates; (4) measure intervention acceptability to inform critical intervention changes; (5) determine the use of co-interventions; and (6) conduct a cost-consequence analysis to inform a cost-effectiveness analysis in the full-scale RCT. Adolescents aged 13-17 years seeking care for an anxiety complaint from a participating emergency department, mobile or school-based crisis team, or primary care clinic are being screened for interest and eligibility. Enrolled adolescents are being randomly allocated to either 8 weeks of Internet-based CBT with limited telephone and e-mail support, or a control group with access to a static webpage listing anxiety resources. Adolescents are randomly assigned using a computer generated allocation

  3. Antimicrobial Activity of Medicated Soaps Commonly Used By Dar es Salaam Residents in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mwambete, K D; Lyombe, F

    2011-01-01

    An in vitro evaluation of the anti-microbial activity of medicated soaps was conducted using ditch-plate and hand washing techniques. Strains of reference microbes namely Candida albicans (ATCC90028), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923), Pseudomonas aureginosa (ATCC27853) and Escherichia coli (ATCC25922) were tested at three different soaps' concentrations (1.0, 4.0 and 8.0 mg/ml). A total of 16 medicated soaps were assayed for their antimicrobial efficacy. Of these, 13 were medicated and 3 non-medicated soaps, which served as control. Ciprofloxacin and ketaconazole were employed as positive controls. Label disclosure for the soaps' ingredients and other relevant information were absorbed. The most common antimicrobial active ingredients were triclosan, trichloroxylenol and trichlorocarbanilide. ANOVA for means of zones of inhibition revealed variability of antimicrobial activity among the medicated soaps. Positive correlation (r=0.318; P<0.01) between zones of inhibition and soaps' concentrations was evidenced. Hand washing frequencies positively correlated with microbial counts. Roberts(®) soap exhibited the largest zone of inhibition (34 mm) on S. aureus. Candida albicans was the least susceptible microbe. Regency(®) and Dalan(®) exhibited the least zone of inhibition on the tested bacteria. Protex(®), Roberts(®), Family(®) and Protector(®) were equally effective (P<0.01) against S. aureus. In conclusion, majority of the assayed medicated soaps have satisfactory antibacterial activity; though lack antifungal effect with exception of Linda(®) liquid soap. The hand washing technique has proved to be inappropriate for evaluation of soaps' antimicrobial efficacy due to presence of the skin microflora. PMID:22131630

  4. Numerical simulations of a filament in a flowing soap film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnell, D. J. J.; David, T.; Barton, D. C.

    2004-01-01

    Experiments concerning the properties of soap films have recently been carried out and these systems have been proposed as experimental versions of theoretical two-dimensional liquids. A silk filament introduced into a flowing soap film, was seen to demonstrate various stable modes, and these were, namely, a mode in which the filament oscillates and one in which the filament is stationary and aligns with the flow of the liquid. The system could be forced from the oscillatory mode into the non- oscillatory mode by varying the length of the filament. In this article we use numerical and computational techniques in order to simulate the strongly coupled behaviour of the filament and the fluid. Preliminary results are presented for the specific case in which the filament is seen to oscillate continuously for the duration of our simulation. We also find that the filament oscillations are strongly suppressed when we reduce the effective length of the filament. We believe that these results are reminiscent of the different oscillatory and non-oscillatory modes observed in experiment. The numerical solutions show that, in contrast to experiment, vortices are created at the leading edge of the filament and are preferentially grown in the curvature of the filament and are eventually released from the trailing edge of the filament. In a similar manner to oscillating hydrofoils, it seems that the oscillating filaments are in a minimal energy state, extracting sufficient energy from the fluid to oscillate. In comparing numerical and experimental results it is possible that the soap film does have an effect on the fluid flow especially in the boundary layer where surface tension forces are large.

  5. Boundary singularities produced by the motion of soap films.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Raymond E; McTavish, James; Moffatt, H Keith; Pesci, Adriana I

    2014-06-10

    Recent work has shown that a Möbius strip soap film rendered unstable by deforming its frame changes topology to that of a disk through a "neck-pinching" boundary singularity. This behavior is unlike that of the catenoid, which transitions to two disks through a bulk singularity. It is not yet understood whether the type of singularity is generally a consequence of the surface topology, nor how this dependence could arise from an equation of motion for the surface. To address these questions we investigate experimentally, computationally, and theoretically the route to singularities of soap films with different topologies, including a family of punctured Klein bottles. We show that the location of singularities (bulk or boundary) may depend on the path of the boundary deformation. In the unstable regime the driving force for soap-film motion is the mean curvature. Thus, the narrowest part of the neck, associated with the shortest nontrivial closed geodesic of the surface, has the highest curvature and is the fastest moving. Just before onset of the instability there exists on the stable surface the shortest closed geodesic, which is the initial condition for evolution of the neck's geodesics, all of which have the same topological relationship to the frame. We make the plausible conjectures that if the initial geodesic is linked to the boundary, then the singularity will occur at the boundary, whereas if the two are unlinked initially, then the singularity will occur in the bulk. Numerical study of mean curvature flows and experiments support these conjectures. PMID:24843162

  6. Effects of soap-water wash on human epidermal penetration.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hanjiang; Jung, Eui-Chang; Phuong, Christina; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard

    2016-08-01

    Skin decontamination is a primary interventional method used to decrease dermal absorption of hazardous contaminants, including chemical warfare agents, pesticides and industrial pollutants. Soap and water wash, the most common and readily available decontamination system, may enhance percutaneous absorption through the "wash-in effect." To understand better the effect of soap-water wash on percutaneous penetration, and provide insight to improving skin decontamination methods, in vitro human epidermal penetration rates of four C(14) -labeled model chemicals (hydroquinone, clonidine, benzoic acid and paraoxon) were assayed using flow-through diffusion cells. Stratum corneum (SC) absorption rates of these chemicals at various hydration levels (0-295% of the dry SC weights) were determined and compared with the results of the epidermal penetration study to clarify the effect of SC hydration on skin permeability. Results showed accelerated penetration curves of benzoic acid and paraoxon after surface wash at 30 min postdosing. Thirty minutes after washing (60 min postdosing), penetration rates of hydroquinone and benzoic acid decreased due to reduced amounts of chemical on the skin surface and in the SC. At the end of the experiment (90 min postdosing), a soap-water wash resulted in lower hydroquinone penetration, greater paraoxon penetration and similar levels of benzoic acid and clonidine penetration compared to penetration levels in the non-wash groups. The observed wash-in effect agrees with the enhancement effect of SC hydration on the SC chemical absorption rate. These results suggest SC hydration derived from surface wash to be one cause of the wash-in effect. Further, the occurrence of a wash-in effect is dependent on chemical identity and elapsed time between exposure and onset of decontamination. By reducing chemical residue quantity on skin surface and in the SC reservoir, the soap-water wash may decrease the total quantity of chemical absorbed in the

  7. Giant optical activity of sugar in thin soap films.

    PubMed

    Emile, Janine; Emile, Olivier; Ghoufi, Aziz; Moréac, Alain; Casanova, Federico; Ding, Minxia; Houizot, Patrick

    2013-10-15

    We report on enhanced experimental optical activity measurements of thin soap films in the presence of sugar. This unusual optical activity is linked to the intramolecular chiral conformation of the glucose molecules at the air/liquid interface. Choosing sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) as a model surfactant and glucose as model sugar, favorable interactions between the anionic group -OSO3(-)- and the glucose molecules are highlighted. This induces an interfacial anchoring of glucose molecules leading to a perturbing influence of the asymmetric chiral environment. PMID:23932406

  8. Marangoni Shocks in Unobstructed Soap-Film Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Tuan; Chakraborty, Pinaki; Gioia, Gustavo; Steers, Stanley; Goldburg, Walter

    2009-09-01

    It is widely thought that in steady, gravity-driven, unobstructed soap-film flows, the velocity increases monotonically downstream. Here we show experimentally that the velocity increases, peaks, drops abruptly, then lessens gradually downstream. We argue theoretically and verify experimentally that the abrupt drop in velocity corresponds to a Marangoni shock, a type of shock related to the elasticity of the film. Marangoni shocks induce locally intense turbulent fluctuations and may help elucidate the mechanisms that produce two-dimensional turbulence away from boundaries.

  9. Effects of soap-water wash on human epidermal penetration.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hanjiang; Jung, Eui-Chang; Phuong, Christina; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard

    2016-08-01

    Skin decontamination is a primary interventional method used to decrease dermal absorption of hazardous contaminants, including chemical warfare agents, pesticides and industrial pollutants. Soap and water wash, the most common and readily available decontamination system, may enhance percutaneous absorption through the "wash-in effect." To understand better the effect of soap-water wash on percutaneous penetration, and provide insight to improving skin decontamination methods, in vitro human epidermal penetration rates of four C(14) -labeled model chemicals (hydroquinone, clonidine, benzoic acid and paraoxon) were assayed using flow-through diffusion cells. Stratum corneum (SC) absorption rates of these chemicals at various hydration levels (0-295% of the dry SC weights) were determined and compared with the results of the epidermal penetration study to clarify the effect of SC hydration on skin permeability. Results showed accelerated penetration curves of benzoic acid and paraoxon after surface wash at 30 min postdosing. Thirty minutes after washing (60 min postdosing), penetration rates of hydroquinone and benzoic acid decreased due to reduced amounts of chemical on the skin surface and in the SC. At the end of the experiment (90 min postdosing), a soap-water wash resulted in lower hydroquinone penetration, greater paraoxon penetration and similar levels of benzoic acid and clonidine penetration compared to penetration levels in the non-wash groups. The observed wash-in effect agrees with the enhancement effect of SC hydration on the SC chemical absorption rate. These results suggest SC hydration derived from surface wash to be one cause of the wash-in effect. Further, the occurrence of a wash-in effect is dependent on chemical identity and elapsed time between exposure and onset of decontamination. By reducing chemical residue quantity on skin surface and in the SC reservoir, the soap-water wash may decrease the total quantity of chemical absorbed in the

  10. Turbulence in Flowing Soap Films: Velocity, Vorticity, and Thickness Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, M.; Vorobieff, P.; Ecke, R.E.

    1998-08-01

    We report experimental measurements of the velocity, vorticity, and thickness fields of turbulent flowing soap films using a modified particle-image velocimetry technique. These data yield the turbulent energy and enstrophy of the two-dimensional flows with microscale Reynolds numbers of about 100 and demonstrate the effects of compressibility arising from variations in film thickness. Despite the compressibility of the flow, real-space correlations of velocity, vorticity, and enstrophy flux are consistent with theoretical predictions for two-dimensional turbulence. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society }

  11. Protocols.io: Virtual Communities for Protocol Development and Discussion.

    PubMed

    Teytelman, Leonid; Stoliartchouk, Alexei; Kindler, Lori; Hurwitz, Bonnie L

    2016-08-01

    The detailed know-how to implement research protocols frequently remains restricted to the research group that developed the method or technology. This knowledge often exists at a level that is too detailed for inclusion in the methods section of scientific articles. Consequently, methods are not easily reproduced, leading to a loss of time and effort by other researchers. The challenge is to develop a method-centered collaborative platform to connect with fellow researchers and discover state-of-the-art knowledge. Protocols.io is an open-access platform for detailing, sharing, and discussing molecular and computational protocols that can be useful before, during, and after publication of research results.

  12. 40 CFR 417.60 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of soap flakes and powders subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the manufacture of soap flakes and powders subcategory. 417.60 Section 417.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT...

  13. 40 CFR 417.80 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of liquid soaps subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the manufacture of liquid soaps subcategory. 417.80 Section 417.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT...

  14. 40 CFR 417.60 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of soap flakes and powders subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the manufacture of soap flakes and powders subcategory. 417.60 Section 417.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT...

  15. 40 CFR 417.60 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of soap flakes and powders subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the manufacture of soap flakes and powders subcategory. 417.60 Section 417.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT...

  16. 40 CFR 417.80 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of liquid soaps subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the manufacture of liquid soaps subcategory. 417.80 Section 417.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT...

  17. 40 CFR 417.70 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of bar soaps subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the manufacture of bar soaps subcategory. 417.70 Section 417.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT...

  18. 40 CFR 417.70 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of bar soaps subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the manufacture of bar soaps subcategory. 417.70 Section 417.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT...

  19. 16. 3RD FLOOR, J.M. LEHMANN CO. FIVEROLL TOILET SOAP MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. 3RD FLOOR, J.M. LEHMANN CO. FIVE-ROLL TOILET SOAP MILL INSTALLED 1950, TO WEST; BUCKET CONVEYOR AT RIGHT MOVED WASTE FROM 2ND FLOOR SOAP PRESSES TO 5TH FLOOR RE-MANUFACTURE - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-14, 54-58 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  20. 40 CFR 417.10 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by batch kettle subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... manufacturing by batch kettle subcategory. 417.10 Section 417.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Batch Kettle Subcategory § 417.10 Applicability; description of the...

  1. 40 CFR 417.10 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by batch kettle subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... manufacturing by batch kettle subcategory. 417.10 Section 417.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Batch Kettle Subcategory § 417.10 Applicability; description of the...

  2. 40 CFR 417.10 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by batch kettle subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... manufacturing by batch kettle subcategory. 417.10 Section 417.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Batch Kettle Subcategory § 417.10 Applicability; description of the...

  3. 40 CFR 417.10 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by batch kettle subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacturing by batch kettle subcategory. 417.10 Section 417.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Batch Kettle Subcategory § 417.10 Applicability; description of the...

  4. 40 CFR 417.10 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by batch kettle subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... manufacturing by batch kettle subcategory. 417.10 Section 417.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Batch Kettle Subcategory § 417.10 Applicability; description of the...

  5. The crystallization of metal soaps and fatty acids in oil paint model systems.

    PubMed

    Hermans, Joen J; Keune, Katrien; van Loon, Annelies; Iedema, Piet D

    2016-04-28

    The formation and crystallization of metal soaps in oil paint layers is an important issue in the conservation of oil paintings. The chemical reactions and physical processes that are involved in releasing metal ions from pigments and fatty acids from the oil binder to form crystalline metal soap deposits have so far remained poorly understood. We have used a combination of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) on model mixtures of palmitic acid, lead palmitate or zinc palmitate and linseed oil to study the transition from amorphous material to crystalline fatty acid or metal soap. This transition forms the final stage in the cascade of processes leading to metal soap-related oil paint degradation. Palmitic acid as well as the metal soaps showed nearly ideal solubility behavior. However, it was found that, near room temperature, both lead and zinc palmitate are practically insoluble in both liquid and partially polymerized linseed oil. Interestingly, the rate of metal soap and fatty acid crystallization decreased rapidly with the degree of linseed oil polymerization, possibly leading to systems where metal soaps are kinetically trapped in a semi-crystalline state. To explain the various morphologies of metal soap aggregates observed in oil paint layers, it is proposed that factors affecting the probability of crystal nucleation and the rate of crystal growth play a crucial role, like exposure to heat or cleaning solvents and the presence of microcracks. PMID:27039879

  6. The crystallization of metal soaps and fatty acids in oil paint model systems.

    PubMed

    Hermans, Joen J; Keune, Katrien; van Loon, Annelies; Iedema, Piet D

    2016-04-28

    The formation and crystallization of metal soaps in oil paint layers is an important issue in the conservation of oil paintings. The chemical reactions and physical processes that are involved in releasing metal ions from pigments and fatty acids from the oil binder to form crystalline metal soap deposits have so far remained poorly understood. We have used a combination of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) on model mixtures of palmitic acid, lead palmitate or zinc palmitate and linseed oil to study the transition from amorphous material to crystalline fatty acid or metal soap. This transition forms the final stage in the cascade of processes leading to metal soap-related oil paint degradation. Palmitic acid as well as the metal soaps showed nearly ideal solubility behavior. However, it was found that, near room temperature, both lead and zinc palmitate are practically insoluble in both liquid and partially polymerized linseed oil. Interestingly, the rate of metal soap and fatty acid crystallization decreased rapidly with the degree of linseed oil polymerization, possibly leading to systems where metal soaps are kinetically trapped in a semi-crystalline state. To explain the various morphologies of metal soap aggregates observed in oil paint layers, it is proposed that factors affecting the probability of crystal nucleation and the rate of crystal growth play a crucial role, like exposure to heat or cleaning solvents and the presence of microcracks.

  7. 40 CFR 417.30 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory. 417.30 Section 417.30 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Fatty Acid Neutralization Subcategory § 417.30 Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory. The provisions of this...

  8. 40 CFR 417.30 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory. 417.30 Section 417.30 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Fatty Acid Neutralization Subcategory § 417.30 Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory. The provisions of this...

  9. 40 CFR 417.30 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory. 417.30 Section 417.30 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Fatty Acid Neutralization Subcategory § 417.30 Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory. The provisions of this...

  10. 40 CFR 417.30 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory. 417.30 Section 417.30 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Fatty Acid Neutralization Subcategory § 417.30 Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory. The provisions of this...

  11. 40 CFR 417.30 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory. 417.30 Section 417.30 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Fatty Acid Neutralization Subcategory § 417.30 Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by fatty acid neutralization subcategory. The provisions of this...

  12. SOAP3: ultra-fast GPU-based parallel alignment tool for short reads.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chi-Man; Wong, Thomas; Wu, Edward; Luo, Ruibang; Yiu, Siu-Ming; Li, Yingrui; Wang, Bingqiang; Yu, Chang; Chu, Xiaowen; Zhao, Kaiyong; Li, Ruiqiang; Lam, Tak-Wah

    2012-03-15

    SOAP3 is the first short read alignment tool that leverages the multi-processors in a graphic processing unit (GPU) to achieve a drastic improvement in speed. We adapted the compressed full-text index (BWT) used by SOAP2 in view of the advantages and disadvantages of GPU. When tested with millions of Illumina Hiseq 2000 length-100 bp reads, SOAP3 takes < 30 s to align a million read pairs onto the human reference genome and is at least 7.5 and 20 times faster than BWA and Bowtie, respectively. For aligning reads with up to four mismatches, SOAP3 aligns slightly more reads than BWA and Bowtie; this is because SOAP3, unlike BWA and Bowtie, is not heuristic-based and always reports all answers.

  13. Soap operas and social marketing: the PCI strategy.

    PubMed

    Fox, I

    This article presents the impact of soap operas and social marketing efforts, developed by Population Communications International (PCI), on changing the attitude and behavior of individuals toward family planning, health, women empowerment, and pro-social issues. The objective of the program is to motivate individuals and communities to make reproductive health and development choices which will contribute significantly in slowing population growth. In addition, these were designed to complement the efforts of those providing health services in several countries. PCI is responsible in training creative talent, research in determining the issues and arrangements necessary for a program to be aired. After following the methods promoted by the PCI, reports on the Tanzania and Kenya programs further confirm that the mass media education programs for changing behavior are effective. During the two conferences organized by PCI, three American production organizations initiated new storylines based on the issues discussed. Moreover, several countries expressed their desire to develop similar conferences in their countries. To end, PCI is designing additional soaps in other countries; wherein, the problem lies not on contraceptive availability, but on deeply held fears, superstitions, and culture equating having children with man's virility and dominance. PMID:12349572

  14. Pinch-off Scaling Law of Soap Bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, John; Ryu, Sangjin

    2014-11-01

    Three common interfacial phenomena that occur daily are liquid drops in gas, gas bubbles in liquid and thin-film bubbles. One aspect that has been studied for these phenomena is the formation or pinch-off of the drop/bubble from the liquid/gas threads. In contrast to the formation of liquid drops in gas and gas bubbles in liquid, thin-film bubble pinch-off has not been well documented. Having thin-film interfaces may alter the pinch-off process due to the limiting factor of the film thickness. We observed the pinch-off of one common thin-film bubble, soap bubbles, in order to characterize its pinch-off behavior. We achieved this by constructing an experimental model replicating the process of a human producing soap bubbles. Using high-speed videography and image processing, we determined that the minimal neck radius scaled with the time left till pinch-off, and that the scaling law exponent was 2/3, similar to that of liquid drops in gas.

  15. Soap Bubble Elasticity: Analysis and Correlation with Foam Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakashev, S. I.; Tsekov, R.; Manev, E. D.; Nguyen, A. V.

    2010-05-01

    A correlation between the elastic modulus of soap bubble and the foam stability was found. A model system was chosen: a soap bubble stabilized by simple nonionic surfactant tetraethylene glycol octyl ether (C8E4) and 10^-5 M NaCl. The Elastic moduli were determined by periodical expansion and shrinking of foam bubbles with frequency of 0.1 Hz and volumetric amplitude of 2 mm 3. The film tension was monitored via commercial profile analysis tensiometer (Sinterface Technologies, GmbH). The elastic moduli of foam bubbles versus surfactant concentration in the range of 2x10^-3 - 10^-2 M were obtained. In addition, the theory of Lucassen and van den Tempel for the elastic modulus of single liquid/air interface at given frequency was exploited as well. The bulk diffusion coefficient of the surfactant molecules is unknown parameter through the adsorption frequency in this theory. Hence, a fitting procedure (with one free parameter) was conducted matching experimental and theoretical data. The value of the bulk diffusion coefficient of C8E4 obtained was 5.1x10^-11 m^2/s, which is an order of magnitude lower value than what is expected for. The foam was generated by shaking method and left to decay. A correlation between the elastic modulus and foam life time upon surfactant concentration was found.

  16. Flow fields in soap films: Relating viscosity and film thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, V.; Weeks, Eric R.

    2009-08-01

    We follow the diffusive motion of colloidal particles in soap films with varying h/d , where h is the thickness of the film and d is the diameter of the particles. The hydrodynamics of these films are determined by looking at the correlated motion of pairs of particles as a function of separation R . The Trapeznikov approximation [A. A. Trapeznikov, Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress on Surface Activity (Butterworths, London, 1957), p. 242] is used to model soap films as an effective two-dimensional (2D) fluid in contact with bulk air phases. The flow fields determined from correlated particle motions show excellent agreement with what is expected for the theory of 2D fluids for all our films where 0.6≤h/d≤14.3 , with the 2D shear viscosity matching that predicted by Trapeznikov. However, the parameters of these flow fields change markedly for thick films (h/d>7±3) . Our results indicate that three-dimensional effects become important for these thicker films, despite the flow fields still having a 2D character.

  17. Modeling drop impacts on inclined flowing soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Saikat; Yawar, Ali; Concha, Andres; Bandi, Mahesh

    2015-11-01

    Small drops impinging on soap films flowing at an angle primarily exhibit three fundamental regimes of post-impact dynamics: (a) the drop bounces off the film surface, (b) it coalesces with the downstream flow, and (c) it pierces through the film. During impact, the drop deforms along with a simultaneous, almost elastic deformation of the film transverse to the stream direction. Hence, the governing dynamics for this interaction present the rare opportunity to explore the in-tandem effects of elasticity and hydrodynamics alike. In this talk, we outline the analytical framework to study the drop impact dynamics. The model assumes a deformable drop and a deformable three-dimensional soap film and invokes a parametric study to qualify the three mentioned impact types. The physical parameters include the impact angle, drop impact speed, and the diameters of the drop prior to and during impact when it deforms and spreads out. Our model system offers a path towards optimization of interactions between a spray and a flowing liquid.

  18. Experimental study of drop impacts on soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yawar, Ali; Basu, Saikat; Concha, Andres; Bandi, Mahesh

    2015-11-01

    Impinging drops on flowing and static soap films demonstrate at least three distinct types of impact regimes: (a) the drop bounces off the film surface, (b) it coalesces with the downstream flow for a moving film and for static films it gets assimilated within the film, and (c) it pierces through the film. The interaction presents a unique opportunity to explore the impact of a quasi one-dimensional object on a two-dimensional fluid, much like a comet impacting on a thin atmosphere. We present a detailed experimental study of droplet impacts on soap film flow, for a number of film inclination angles and falling heights of the drop. Imaging techniques employed include sodium lamp interferometry to measure film thickness fluctuations and particle tracking velocimetry to measure the velocity field. Film thickness measures approximately 10 microns and the drop diameter is 1 mm. We mostly observe the bouncing-off regime for smaller inclination angles. However, at higher impact angles, puncturing of the film becomes a more common occurrence. We show that when the drop bounces off the film, there is a momentum transfer leading to vortex dipole shedding, along with the generation of capillary waves; an impulsive regime that may share correspondence with the locomotion of water striders.

  19. Method for producing microcomposite powders using a soap solution

    DOEpatents

    Maginnis, Michael A.; Robinson, David A.

    1996-01-01

    A method for producing microcomposite powders for use in superconducting and non-superconducting applications. A particular method to produce microcomposite powders for use in superconducting applications includes the steps of: (a) preparing a solution including ammonium soap; (b) dissolving a preselected amount of a soluble metallic such as silver nitrate in the solution including ammonium soap to form a first solution; (c) adding a primary phase material such as a single phase YBC superconducting material in particle form to the first solution; (d) preparing a second solution formed from a mixture of a weak acid and an alkyl-mono-ether; (e) adding the second solution to the first solution to form a resultant mixture; (f) allowing the resultant mixture to set until the resultant mixture begins to cloud and thicken into a gel precipitating around individual particles of the primary phase material; (g) thereafter drying the resultant mixture to form a YBC superconducting material/silver nitrate precursor powder; and (h) calcining the YBC superconducting material/silver nitrate precursor powder to convert the silver nitrate to silver and thereby form a YBC/silver microcomposite powder wherein the silver is substantially uniformly dispersed in the matrix of the YBC material.

  20. Soap film flows: Statistics of two-dimensional turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Vorobieff, P.; Rivera, M.; Ecke, R.E.

    1999-08-01

    Soap film flows provide a very convenient laboratory model for studies of two-dimensional (2-D) hydrodynamics including turbulence. For a gravity-driven soap film channel with a grid of equally spaced cylinders inserted in the flow, we have measured the simultaneous velocity and thickness fields in the irregular flow downstream from the cylinders. The velocity field is determined by a modified digital particle image velocimetry method and the thickness from the light scattered by the particles in the film. From these measurements, we compute the decay of mean energy, enstrophy, and thickness fluctuations with downstream distance, and the structure functions of velocity, vorticity, thickness fluctuation, and vorticity flux. From these quantities we determine the microscale Reynolds number of the flow R{sub {lambda}}{approx}100 and the integral and dissipation scales of 2D turbulence. We also obtain quantitative measures of the degree to which our flow can be considered incompressible and isotropic as a function of downstream distance. We find coarsening of characteristic spatial scales, qualitative correspondence of the decay of energy and enstrophy with the Batchelor model, scaling of energy in {ital k} space consistent with the k{sup {minus}3} spectrum of the Kraichnan{endash}Batchelor enstrophy-scaling picture, and power-law scalings of the structure functions of velocity, vorticity, vorticity flux, and thickness. These results are compared with models of 2-D turbulence and with numerical simulations. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Oil recovery process: injection of fatty alcohol followed by soap

    SciTech Connect

    Cardenas, R.; Carlin, J.

    1980-07-22

    A method is described for recovering crude oil from a subterranean reservoir having one or more injection means in fluid communication with one or more producing means. The method comprises injecting into said reservoir through said injection means an effective quantity of a solution of a fatty alcohol wherein the alcohol is selected from the group consisting of n-dodecyl, n-octyl and oleyl alcohols and mixtures thereof ranging in concentration from about 0.1 to about 10.0 weight percent of the injected solution and either a crude oil or a refined fraction of crude oil followed by an effective quantity of a solution comprising a soap and water wherein said soap is a sodium dodecyl sulfate ranging in concentration from about 0.05 to about 5.0 weight percent of the injected solution, said solutions combining with the crude oil present in the reservoir to form an oil-in-water emulsion, driving said solutions and emulsion through the reservoir by injection of a driving fluid and recovering the crude oil through said produciton means.

  2. Ability of Hand Hygiene Interventions Using Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers and Soap To Reduce Microbial Load on Farmworker Hands Soiled during Harvest.

    PubMed

    de Aceituno, Anna Fabiszewski; Bartz, Faith E; Hodge, Domonique Watson; Shumaker, David J; Grubb, James E; Arbogast, James W; Dávila-Aviña, Jorgé; Venegas, Fabiola; Heredia, Norma; García, Santos; Leon, Juan S

    2015-11-01

    Effective hand hygiene is essential to prevent the spread of pathogens on produce farms and reduce foodborne illness. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act Proposed Rule for Produce Safety recommends the use of soap and running water for hand hygiene of produce handlers. The use of alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS) may be an effective alternative hygiene intervention where access to water is limited. There are no published data on the efficacy of either soap or ABHS-based interventions to reduce microbial contamination in agricultural settings. The goal of this study was to assess the ability of two soap-based (traditional or pumice) and two ABHS-based (label-use or two-step) hygiene interventions to reduce microbes (coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus spp.) and soil (absorbance of hand rinsate at 600 nm [A600]) on farmworker hands after harvesting produce, compared with the results for a no-hand-hygiene control. With no hand hygiene, farmworker hands were soiled (median A600, 0.48) and had high concentrations of coliforms (geometric mean, 3.4 log CFU per hand) and Enterococcus spp. (geometric mean, 5.3 log CFU per hand) after 1 to 2 h of harvesting tomatoes. Differences in microbial loads in comparison to the loads in the control group varied by indicator organism and hygiene intervention (0 to 2.3 log CFU per hand). All interventions yielded lower concentrations of Enterococcus spp. and E. coli (P < 0.05), but not of coliforms, than were found in the control group. The two-step ABHS intervention led to significantly lower concentrations of coliforms and Enterococcus spp. than the pumice soap and label-use ABHS interventions (P < 0.05) and was the only intervention to yield significantly fewer samples with E. coli than were found in the control group (P < 0.05). All interventions removed soil from hands (P < 0.05), soap-based interventions more so than ABHS-based interventions (P < 0.05). ABHS-based interventions were

  3. Ability of Hand Hygiene Interventions Using Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers and Soap To Reduce Microbial Load on Farmworker Hands Soiled during Harvest.

    PubMed

    de Aceituno, Anna Fabiszewski; Bartz, Faith E; Hodge, Domonique Watson; Shumaker, David J; Grubb, James E; Arbogast, James W; Dávila-Aviña, Jorgé; Venegas, Fabiola; Heredia, Norma; García, Santos; Leon, Juan S

    2015-11-01

    Effective hand hygiene is essential to prevent the spread of pathogens on produce farms and reduce foodborne illness. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act Proposed Rule for Produce Safety recommends the use of soap and running water for hand hygiene of produce handlers. The use of alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS) may be an effective alternative hygiene intervention where access to water is limited. There are no published data on the efficacy of either soap or ABHS-based interventions to reduce microbial contamination in agricultural settings. The goal of this study was to assess the ability of two soap-based (traditional or pumice) and two ABHS-based (label-use or two-step) hygiene interventions to reduce microbes (coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus spp.) and soil (absorbance of hand rinsate at 600 nm [A600]) on farmworker hands after harvesting produce, compared with the results for a no-hand-hygiene control. With no hand hygiene, farmworker hands were soiled (median A600, 0.48) and had high concentrations of coliforms (geometric mean, 3.4 log CFU per hand) and Enterococcus spp. (geometric mean, 5.3 log CFU per hand) after 1 to 2 h of harvesting tomatoes. Differences in microbial loads in comparison to the loads in the control group varied by indicator organism and hygiene intervention (0 to 2.3 log CFU per hand). All interventions yielded lower concentrations of Enterococcus spp. and E. coli (P < 0.05), but not of coliforms, than were found in the control group. The two-step ABHS intervention led to significantly lower concentrations of coliforms and Enterococcus spp. than the pumice soap and label-use ABHS interventions (P < 0.05) and was the only intervention to yield significantly fewer samples with E. coli than were found in the control group (P < 0.05). All interventions removed soil from hands (P < 0.05), soap-based interventions more so than ABHS-based interventions (P < 0.05). ABHS-based interventions were

  4. Remote Data Access with IDL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloy, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A tool based on IDL (Interactive Data Language) and DAP (Data Access Protocol) has been developed for user-friendly remote data access. A difficulty for many NASA researchers using IDL is that often the data to analyze are located remotely and are too large to transfer for local analysis. Researchers have developed a protocol for accessing remote data, DAP, which is used for both SOHO and STEREO data sets. Server-side side analysis via IDL routine is available through DAP.

  5. Assessing most practical and effective protocols to sanitize hands of poultry catching crew members.

    PubMed

    Racicot, M; Kocher, A; Beauchamp, G; Letellier, A; Vaillancourt, J-P

    2013-08-01

    Catching crew members can heavily contaminate their hands with organic material. They can act as mechanical vector and spread diseases between farms. Hand hygiene is an important issue for the industry as a whole and for human health by reducing contamination risks. Many studies, in human medicine, tend to make hand rub a standard for hand hygiene. However, few studies have tested the effectiveness of hand hygiene products on visibly contaminated hands. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of practical hand sanitization protocols: water and soap, degreasing cream and hand wipes, all combined with alcohol-based hand gel. The use of alcohol-based gel alone was also evaluated. For the reduction of coliforms after washing, there was no statistically significant difference between protocols when the initial level of bacterial contamination was low to moderate. When hands were highly contaminated, the alcohol-based gel alone was less effective than the degreasing cream combined with the alcohol-based gel (p=0.002). As for the reduction in total aerobic bacteria counts, there was no difference between protocols when the initial level of bacterial contamination was low. The water, soap and alcohol-based gel protocol was more effective than the scrubbing wipes and alcohol-based gel protocol when hands were moderately (p=0.002) and highly contaminated (p=0.001). All protocols were effective in neutralizing Salmonella on hands. Reducing the level of bacterial contamination on hands before using an alcohol-based gel seems important to ensure effective hand sanitation for highly and moderately contaminated hands. This can be done by using a degreasing cream or water and soap. Based on the survey, catching crew members preferred using warm water and soap compared to a degreasing cream.

  6. Assessing most practical and effective protocols to sanitize hands of poultry catching crew members.

    PubMed

    Racicot, M; Kocher, A; Beauchamp, G; Letellier, A; Vaillancourt, J-P

    2013-08-01

    Catching crew members can heavily contaminate their hands with organic material. They can act as mechanical vector and spread diseases between farms. Hand hygiene is an important issue for the industry as a whole and for human health by reducing contamination risks. Many studies, in human medicine, tend to make hand rub a standard for hand hygiene. However, few studies have tested the effectiveness of hand hygiene products on visibly contaminated hands. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of practical hand sanitization protocols: water and soap, degreasing cream and hand wipes, all combined with alcohol-based hand gel. The use of alcohol-based gel alone was also evaluated. For the reduction of coliforms after washing, there was no statistically significant difference between protocols when the initial level of bacterial contamination was low to moderate. When hands were highly contaminated, the alcohol-based gel alone was less effective than the degreasing cream combined with the alcohol-based gel (p=0.002). As for the reduction in total aerobic bacteria counts, there was no difference between protocols when the initial level of bacterial contamination was low. The water, soap and alcohol-based gel protocol was more effective than the scrubbing wipes and alcohol-based gel protocol when hands were moderately (p=0.002) and highly contaminated (p=0.001). All protocols were effective in neutralizing Salmonella on hands. Reducing the level of bacterial contamination on hands before using an alcohol-based gel seems important to ensure effective hand sanitation for highly and moderately contaminated hands. This can be done by using a degreasing cream or water and soap. Based on the survey, catching crew members preferred using warm water and soap compared to a degreasing cream. PMID:23618466

  7. Scripting Module for the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnright, Robert; Paget, Jim; Coggi, John; Stodden, David

    2008-01-01

    This add-on module to the SOAP software can perform changes to simulation objects based on the occurrence of specific conditions. This allows the software to encompass simulation response of scheduled or physical events. Users can manipulate objects in the simulation environment under programmatic control. Inputs to the scripting module are Actions, Conditions, and the Script. Actions are arbitrary modifications to constructs such as Platform Objects (i.e. satellites), Sensor Objects (representing instruments or communication links), or Analysis Objects (user-defined logical or numeric variables). Examples of actions include changes to a satellite orbit ( v), changing a sensor-pointing direction, and the manipulation of a numerical expression. Conditions represent the circumstances under which Actions are performed and can be couched in If-Then-Else logic, like performing v at specific times or adding to the spacecraft power only when it is being illuminated by the Sun. The SOAP script represents the entire set of conditions being considered over a specific time interval. The output of the scripting module is a series of events, which are changes to objects at specific times. As the SOAP simulation clock runs forward, the scheduled events are performed. If the user sets the clock back in time, the events within that interval are automatically undone. This script offers an interface for defining scripts where the user does not have to remember the vocabulary of various keywords. Actions can be captured by employing the same user interface that is used to define the objects themselves. Conditions can be set to invoke Actions by selecting them from pull-down lists. Users define the script by selecting from the pool of defined conditions. Many space systems have to react to arbitrary events that can occur from scheduling or from the environment. For example, an instrument may cease to draw power when the area that it is tasked to observe is not in view. The contingency

  8. Per-packet reservation MAC protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrasnica, Halid

    2006-10-01

    Recent and future communications networks have to provide QoS guarantees for a rapidly growing number of various telecommunications services. Therefore, various communications systems, such as wireless and fixed access networks, apply reservation MAC protocols, providing a good network utilization, which is particularly important access networks with typically limited data rates, and ensuring realization of different QoS guarantees for various telecommunications services. This is important because of a hard competition among communications technologies applied in the access area. The considered MAC protocols apply a per-packet reservation method to avoid the transmission gaps caused by per-burst reservation, and accordingly to achieve a better network utilization. However, the per-packet reservation increases the network load caused by the signaling, which calls for an efficient resource sharing strategy in the signaling channel. There are two basic solutions for capacity sharing in the signaling channel: random access, usually using slotted ALOHA, and dedicated access, realized by a polling method. Performance improvement of basic protocols can be carried out in different ways; by protocol extensions, a combination of different protocol solutions, and the application of adaptive protocols providing a change of access parameters according to the current network status. The best network performance is achieved by application of two-step reservation protocol, which combined with additional features, such as appropriate signaling procedure, priority and fairness mechanisms, and combined reservation domains, can fulfill requirements of services with high QoS demands.

  9. Rational Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cachin, Christian

    Security research continues to provide a plethora of new protocols and mechanisms; these solutions patch either existing vulnerabilities found in practical systems or solve hypothetical security problems in the sense that the problem is often conceived at the same time when the first solution is proposed. Yet only a very small fraction of this research is relevant to ordinary users in the sense that they are willing to actually deploy the technology.

  10. Microbiologic effectiveness of hand washing with soap in an urban squatter settlement, Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Luby, S P; Agboatwalla, M; Raza, A; Sobel, J; Mintz, E D; Baier, K; Hoekstra, R M; Rahbar, M H; Hassan, R; Qureshi, S M; Gangarosa, E J

    2001-10-01

    We conducted a study in a squatter settlement in Karachi, Pakistan where residents report commonly washing their hands to determine if providing soap, encouraging hand washing, and improving wash-water quality would improve hand cleanliness. We allocated interventions to 75 mothers and collected hand-rinse samples on unannounced visits. In the final model compared with mothers who received no hand-washing intervention, mothers who received soap would be expected to have 65% fewer thermotolerant coliform bacteria on their hands (95% CI 40%, 79%) and mothers who received soap, a safe water storage vessel, hypochlorite for water treatment, and instructions to wash their hands with soap and chlorinated water would be expected to have 74% fewer (95% CI 57%, 84%). The difference between those who received soap alone, and those who received soap plus the safe water vessel was not significant (P = 0.26). Providing soap and promoting hand washing measurably improved mothers' hand cleanliness even when used with contaminated water.

  11. SOAP3-dp: Fast, Accurate and Sensitive GPU-Based Short Read Aligner

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaoqian; Wu, Edward; Lee, Lap-Kei; Lin, Haoxiang; Zhu, Wenjuan; Cheung, David W.; Ting, Hing-Fung; Yiu, Siu-Ming; Peng, Shaoliang; Yu, Chang; Li, Yingrui; Li, Ruiqiang; Lam, Tak-Wah

    2013-01-01

    To tackle the exponentially increasing throughput of Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS), most of the existing short-read aligners can be configured to favor speed in trade of accuracy and sensitivity. SOAP3-dp, through leveraging the computational power of both CPU and GPU with optimized algorithms, delivers high speed and sensitivity simultaneously. Compared with widely adopted aligners including BWA, Bowtie2, SeqAlto, CUSHAW2, GEM and GPU-based aligners BarraCUDA and CUSHAW, SOAP3-dp was found to be two to tens of times faster, while maintaining the highest sensitivity and lowest false discovery rate (FDR) on Illumina reads with different lengths. Transcending its predecessor SOAP3, which does not allow gapped alignment, SOAP3-dp by default tolerates alignment similarity as low as 60%. Real data evaluation using human genome demonstrates SOAP3-dp's power to enable more authentic variants and longer Indels to be discovered. Fosmid sequencing shows a 9.1% FDR on newly discovered deletions. SOAP3-dp natively supports BAM file format and provides the same scoring scheme as BWA, which enables it to be integrated into existing analysis pipelines. SOAP3-dp has been deployed on Amazon-EC2, NIH-Biowulf and Tianhe-1A. PMID:23741504

  12. Type of soap and the incidence of skin tears among residents of a long-term care facility.

    PubMed

    Mason, S R

    1997-09-01

    Skin tears are common among residents of long-term care facilities. This study evaluated the effectiveness of emollient antibacterial soap compared to non-emollient antibacterial soap in improving skin quality and reducing skin tears among residents of a long-term care facility. Skin tears were monitored over 4 months: non-emollient soap in the first and third months, and emollient soap in the second and fourth months were used. Rate of skin tears per resident per month were calculated. Incident reports were monitored the first month to establish skin tear rates using non-emollient soap. Skin tears decreased with the use of emollient soap (37% and 33% decrease in months two and four, respectively) and increased with the reintroduction of non-emollient soap (43% increase in month three). Overall incidence of skin tears with the use of emollient soap was 34.8 percent lower than that of the non-emollient soap. Analysis of variance did not show statistical significance [F(1,84) = 3.108, p = .0821], but clinical significance was demonstrated by the reduced number of skin tears with the use of emollient soap. While the etiology of skin tears seems to be a problem of aging, the decrease in skin tears in this study supports the continued use of emollient soap.

  13. Intensity of vortices: from soap bubbles to hurricanes

    PubMed Central

    Meuel, T.; Xiong, Y. L.; Fischer, P.; Bruneau, C. H.; Bessafi, M.; Kellay, H.

    2013-01-01

    By using a half soap bubble heated from below, we obtain large isolated single vortices whose properties as well as their intensity are measured under different conditions. By studying the effects of rotation of the bubble on the vortex properties, we found that rotation favors vortices near the pole. Rotation also inhibits long life time vortices. The velocity and vorticity profiles of the vortices obtained are well described by a Gaussian vortex. Besides, the intensity of these vortices can be followed over long time spans revealing periods of intensification accompanied by trochoidal motion of the vortex center, features which are reminiscent of the behavior of tropical cyclones. An analysis of this intensification period suggests a simple relation valid for both the vortices observed here and for tropical cyclones. PMID:24336410

  14. Interactions between micro droplets and a flowing soap film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ildoo; Wu, Xiao-Lun

    2007-03-01

    When a jet of micron sized water droplets impact on a thin freely suspended soap film, craters of various sizes are created in the film. Depending on the velocity of the jet and the thickness of the film, a fraction of the particles is able to penetrate through the film without breaking it while others merge with the film. The statistical nature of penetration suggests that the energy barrier for passage is a fluctuating quantity but the cause of such fluctuation is not understood. Using a high-speed video camera, the interaction between the droplet and the film is investigated for various conditions. Aside from its fundamental interest, the technique is potentially useful for generating predetermined number of vortices in the fluid and for depositing precisely passive scalar quantities, such as dyes, into two-dimensional turbulence in the flowing film.

  15. Destabilization of flapping sheets: The surprising analogue of soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhuissier, H.; Villermaux, E.

    2009-06-01

    When punctured, a uniform liquid sheet is known, since Taylor and Culick, to recess at a constant speed, balancing surface tension and inertia. For planar soap films, this steady solution holds until the initially smooth receding rim is violently destabilized, exhibiting deep indentations from which droplets are ejected. A surprising new three-dimensional mechanism explaining this destabilization and resulting wavelength has been demonstrated: because of the shear between the still outer medium and the receding liquid, the film flaps through a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, itself inducing an acceleration perpendicular to the film, which intensifies with the flapping amplitude. To this acceleration is associated a classical Rayleigh-Taylor mechanism, promoting the rim indentations. To cite this article: H. Lhuissier, E. Villermaux, C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).

  16. Mutually independent cascades in anisotropic soap-film turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chien-Chia; Gioia, Gustavo; Chakraborty, Pinaki

    2015-03-01

    Computational, experimental and field data amassed to date indicate that in 2D turbulence the spectrum of longitudinal velocity fluctuations, E11 (k1) , and the spectrum of transverse velocity fluctuations, E22 (k1) , correspond always to the same cascade, consistent with isotropy, so that E11 (k1) ~k-α and E22 (k1) ~k-α , where the ``spectral exponent'' α is either 5/3 (for the inverse-energy cascade) or 3 (for the enstrophy cascade). Here, we carry out experiments on turbulent 2D soap-film flows in which E11 (k1) ~k - 5 / 3 and E22 (k1) ~k-3 , as if two mutually independent cascades were concurrently active within the same flow. To our knowledge, this species of spectrum has never been observed or predicted theoretically. Our finding might open up new vistas in the understanding of turbulence.

  17. Liquid trampolines: droplets and spheres bouncing off soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courbin, Laurent; Dubail, Jerome; Crotiere, Suzie; Quere, David

    2005-11-01

    We report on the impact of rigid spheres and liquid droplets on soap films. These systems exhibit a rich variety of dynamics including bouncing and adhesion. In the case of drop impact, at low speeds the drops bounce, while for intermediate speeds the drops can pass through the film without the film breaking. The bouncing can be analyzed using mechanical models. In the case of the impact of rigid spheres, by tuning the physical property of the surface of the impacting sphere, which may or may not be surrounded by a skin of oil, we experimentally observe two distinct regimes: the solid sphere can bounce off of the fluid film or get entrapped. In all cases the film can be considered an absorber of kinetic energy. Finally, the possibility of tuning the bounce of an object will be presented.

  18. Efflux time of soap bubbles and liquid spheres.

    PubMed

    Grosse, A V

    1967-06-01

    The efflux time, T, of gas from soap bubbles of radius, R, through their blow tube of length, 1, and radius, p, is given by the equation see pdf for equation where eta is the viscosity of the gas and omicron the surface tension of the bubble solution, all in centimeter-gram-second units. Similar relations between time and diameter were established for the flow from one bubble to another or from one bubble within another. The same relations hold for the flow of liquid spheres, suspended in another liquid of equal density, following Plateau's classic method. They have been extended to the flow of spheres to cylinders and catenoids of rotation. In all these cases the driving force is the surface or interfacial tension, creating an excess pressure as defined by Laplace's equation. PMID:17792780

  19. Intensity of vortices: from soap bubbles to hurricanes.

    PubMed

    Meuel, T; Xiong, Y L; Fischer, P; Bruneau, C H; Bessafi, M; Kellay, H

    2013-01-01

    By using a half soap bubble heated from below, we obtain large isolated single vortices whose properties as well as their intensity are measured under different conditions. By studying the effects of rotation of the bubble on the vortex properties, we found that rotation favors vortices near the pole. Rotation also inhibits long life time vortices. The velocity and vorticity profiles of the vortices obtained are well described by a Gaussian vortex. Besides, the intensity of these vortices can be followed over long time spans revealing periods of intensification accompanied by trochoidal motion of the vortex center, features which are reminiscent of the behavior of tropical cyclones. An analysis of this intensification period suggests a simple relation valid for both the vortices observed here and for tropical cyclones. PMID:24336410

  20. Intensity of vortices: from soap bubbles to hurricanes.

    PubMed

    Meuel, T; Xiong, Y L; Fischer, P; Bruneau, C H; Bessafi, M; Kellay, H

    2013-01-01

    By using a half soap bubble heated from below, we obtain large isolated single vortices whose properties as well as their intensity are measured under different conditions. By studying the effects of rotation of the bubble on the vortex properties, we found that rotation favors vortices near the pole. Rotation also inhibits long life time vortices. The velocity and vorticity profiles of the vortices obtained are well described by a Gaussian vortex. Besides, the intensity of these vortices can be followed over long time spans revealing periods of intensification accompanied by trochoidal motion of the vortex center, features which are reminiscent of the behavior of tropical cyclones. An analysis of this intensification period suggests a simple relation valid for both the vortices observed here and for tropical cyclones.

  1. Formation of micro/nano structures out of soap bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xiao-Dan; Liu, Jing

    2007-07-01

    We proposed to synthesize, etch and construct micro/nano structures through manipulating the large-scale bubbles composed of specific chemical compounds. The core of the method lies in the chemical reaction occurred at the interfaces between two or more soap bubbles. A unique virtue of the bubble is that it can have a rather large diameter however an extremely small membrane thickness, whose smallest size could reach nano scale. Therefore, the chemical reaction and synthesis occurred in the common interface of such contacting bubbles would lead to products with very small size. Several typical micro structures were fabricated to demonstrate the feasibility of the new method. Being flexible, easily controllable and environment friendly, the present concept may open a straightforward low-cost way for making micro/nano structures.

  2. Preparation of high dropping point lithium complex soap grease

    SciTech Connect

    Carley, D.A.; Witte, A.C. Jr.; Green, W.B.; Doerr, K.W.

    1986-04-15

    A process is described for preparing a lithium soap grease having a dropping point above 500/sup 0/F which consists of: (a) dissolving a C/sub 12/ to C/sub 24/ hydroxy fatty acid and a C/sub 4/ to C/sub 12/ aliphatic dicarboxylic acid in approximately a 3:1 to 0.5:1 ratio range in a lubricating oil to form an oil-acid mixture in which the amount of oil employed comprises greater than 50 weight percent of the total amount of oil employed in the finished composition; (b) adjusting the oil and acid mixture to a temperature below about the boiling temperature of water; (c) adding slowly at a controlled rate of below about 0.30 lbs/min. per 100 lb. of finished grease product, a concentrated aqueous solution of approximately 8 to 10 weight percent of lithium hydroxide in an amount slightly in excess of that required to neutralize the acid; (d) maintaining the reaction conditions for a period of time sufficient to obtain substantially complete saponification between the fatty acids and lithium hydroxide; (e) dehydrating the mixture of lubricating oil and lithium complex soap; (f) heating the mixture until it is uniformly at a temperature of from about 390/sup 0/F to about 430/sup 0/F; (g) rapidly cooling the mixture to about 390/sup 0/F. or below by quenching it with approximately 5 to 25 weight percent of the total amount of lubricating oil employed in the finished composition; (h) incorporating the remainder of the lubricating oil into the grease composition.

  3. Two-Dimensional to Three-Dimensional Transition in Soap Films Demonstrated by Microrheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, V.; Weeks, Eric R.

    2009-05-01

    We follow the diffusive motion of colloidal particles of diameter d in soap films of varying thickness h with fluorescence microscopy. Diffusion constants are obtained both from one- and two-particle microrheological measurements of particle motion in these films. These diffusion constants are related to the surface viscosity of the interfaces comprising the soap films, by means of the Trapeznikov approximation and Saffman’s equation for diffusion in a 2D fluid. Unphysical values of the surface viscosity are found for thick soap films (h/d>7±3), indicating a transition from 2D to 3D behavior.

  4. Soap bubbles in analytical chemistry. Conductometric determination of sub-parts per million levels of sulfur dioxide with a soap bubble.

    PubMed

    Kanyanee, Tinakorn; Borst, Walter L; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Grudpan, Kate; Li, Jianzhong; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2006-04-15

    Soap bubbles provide a fascinating tool that is little used analytically. With a very low liquid volume to surface area ratio, a soap bubble can potentially provide a very useful interface for preconcentration where mass transfer to an interfacial surface is important. Here we use an automated system to create bubbles of uniform size and film thickness. We utilize purified Triton-X 100, a nonionic surfactant, to make soap bubbles. We use such bubbles as a gas-sampling interface. Incorporating hydrogen peroxide into the bubble provides a system where electrical conductance increases as the bubble is exposed to low concentrations of sulfur dioxide gas. We theoretically derive the conductance of a hollow conducting spherical thin film with spherical cap electrodes. We measure the film thickness by incorporating a dye in the bubble making solution and laser transmission photometry and find that it agrees well with the geometrically computed thickness. With the conductance of the bubble-making soap solution being measured by conventional methods, we show that the measured values of the bubble conductance with known bubble and electrode dimensions closely correspond to the theoretically computed value. Finally, we demonstrate that sub-ppm levels of SO(2) can readily be detected by the conductivity change of a hydrogen peroxide-doped soap bubble, measured in situ, when the gas flows around the bubble.

  5. Soap bubbles in analytical chemistry. Conductometric determination of sub-parts per million levels of sulfur dioxide with a soap bubble.

    PubMed

    Kanyanee, Tinakorn; Borst, Walter L; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Grudpan, Kate; Li, Jianzhong; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2006-04-15

    Soap bubbles provide a fascinating tool that is little used analytically. With a very low liquid volume to surface area ratio, a soap bubble can potentially provide a very useful interface for preconcentration where mass transfer to an interfacial surface is important. Here we use an automated system to create bubbles of uniform size and film thickness. We utilize purified Triton-X 100, a nonionic surfactant, to make soap bubbles. We use such bubbles as a gas-sampling interface. Incorporating hydrogen peroxide into the bubble provides a system where electrical conductance increases as the bubble is exposed to low concentrations of sulfur dioxide gas. We theoretically derive the conductance of a hollow conducting spherical thin film with spherical cap electrodes. We measure the film thickness by incorporating a dye in the bubble making solution and laser transmission photometry and find that it agrees well with the geometrically computed thickness. With the conductance of the bubble-making soap solution being measured by conventional methods, we show that the measured values of the bubble conductance with known bubble and electrode dimensions closely correspond to the theoretically computed value. Finally, we demonstrate that sub-ppm levels of SO(2) can readily be detected by the conductivity change of a hydrogen peroxide-doped soap bubble, measured in situ, when the gas flows around the bubble. PMID:16615794

  6. In situ observation of a soap-film catenoid—a simple educational physics experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Masato; Sato, Taku

    2010-03-01

    The solution to the Euler-Lagrange equation is an extremal functional. To understand that the functional is stationary at local extrema (maxima or minima), we propose a physics experiment that involves using a soap film to form a catenoid. A catenoid is a surface that is formed between two coaxial circular rings and is classified mathematically as a minimal surface. Using the soap film, we create catenoids between two rings and characterize the catenoid in situ while varying the distance between the rings. The shape of the soap film is very interesting and can be explained using dynamic mechanics. By observing the catenoid, physics students can observe local extrema phenomena. We stress that in situ observation of soap-film catenoids is an appropriate physics experiment that combines theory and experimentation.

  7. Teaching with Soap: Examples of Project-Based Units for Students and Future Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Ivan; Hamed, Kastro M.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the use of project-based instruction in activities and labs intended to develop higher-order thinking skills with high school students and pre-service teachers through the use of soap making.

  8. Lipase pre-hydrolysis enhance anaerobic biodigestion of soap stock from an oil refining industry.

    PubMed

    Cherif, Slim; Aloui, Fathi; Carrière, Frédéric; Sayadi, Sami

    2014-01-01

    A novel alcalophilic Staphylococcus haemolyticus strain with the lipolytic activity was used to perform enzymatic hydrolysis pretreatment of soap stock: a lipid rich solid waste from an oil refining industry. The culture liquid of the selected bacteria and an enzymatic preparation obtained by precipitation with ammonium sulphate from a filtrate of the same culture liquid were used for enzymatic pretreatment. The hydrolysis was carried with different incubation concentrations (10, 20 and 30%) of soap stock and the pretreatment efficiency was verified by running comparative biodegradability tests (crude and treated lipid waste). All pretreated assays showed higher reaction rate compared to crude lipid waste, which was confirmed by the increased levels of biogas production. The pretreatment of solutions containing 10% emulsified soap stock was optimized for 24 h hydrolysis time, enabling high-biogaz formation (800 ml). The use of enzymatic pre-treatment seemed to be a very promising alternative for treating soap stock having high fat contents. PMID:24500101

  9. 6. 5TH FLOOR, VIEW NORTH OF KETTLE SOAP STORAGE TANKS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. 5TH FLOOR, VIEW NORTH OF KETTLE SOAP STORAGE TANKS (RIGHT) AND WEIGH HOPPERS OVER SITES OF REMOVED AMALGAMATORS (LEFT) - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-14, 54-58 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  10. Angolan medicinal plants used also as piscicides and/or soaps.

    PubMed

    Bossard, E

    1993-09-01

    A short description of some medicinal plants found during a 10-year ethnological study of traditional medicine in Angola. The point of interest is the double use of these plants: they are employed as drugs and as ichthyotoxics or soaps.

  11. Evaluation of various agro-wastes for traditional black soap production.

    PubMed

    Taiwo, O E; Osinowo, F A

    2001-08-01

    The agricultural wastes, cocoa-pod husks, palm-bunch waste, sorghum chaff and groundnut shells, which are normally thrown away have been used in the production of black soap. Unlike other soaps which are made from oils and chemicals, black soap is made from oils and agro-wastes ashes. Chemical analysis indicated that the liquid extract from the ashes of the different agro-wastes used contained various amounts of potassium and sodium compounds. The most common ingredient in the agro-wastes was potassium carbonate. The amount of potassium carbonate was 56.73 +/- 0.16% in cocoa-pod ash, 43.15 +/- 0.13% in palm-bunch ash, 16.65 +/- 0.05% in groundnut shell ash and 12.40 +/- 0.08% in sorghum chaff ash. Soaps made from the agro-wastes ashes had excellent solubility, consistency, cleansing and lathering abilities.

  12. A Summary of Shock/Soap Bubble Interactions Performed at the SWRC, Tohoku University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, H.; Igra, D.; Takayama, Kazuyoshi

    A summary of experiments of shock wave interactions with spherical soap bubbles and cylindrical soap columns filled with helium performed in the Shock Wave Research Center at Tohoku University is presented. Sequential holographic interferograms of soap bubbles impinged by small-scale blast waves created by explosion of 10 mg weight silver azide pellets are presented. The standoff distance between micro-explosives and the bubbles center is about 40 mm and the shock overpressure was about 2 MPa. Helium filled soap columns of 40 mm diameter and 60 mm in height were placed in a 60 mm x 150 mm shock tube. Their interaction with shock wave was intensively visualized by using holographic interferogram at atmospheric conditions. It is found that the irregular interfacial deformation observed are just three-dimensional vortices viewed from the side

  13. Numerical and experimental study of the impact of small caliber projectiles on ballistic soap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndompetelo, N.; Viot, P.; Dyckmans, G.; Chabotier, A.

    2006-08-01

    In previous studies [1, 2], an elastoplastic model for soap material has been considered to characterize the soap behavior under impacts of spherical bullets. The characterization and validation of this model were made via the deceleration of a bullet into the soap material. In order to take into account the strain hardening and strain rate effects, an investigation of an elastoviscoplastic model is made. For model characterization purposes, experimental data were obtained from the viscoelastic Hopkinson pressure bar. The model parameters were determined through an optimization process and validation of the model was done by using a series of firing tests from previous experiments where spherical bullets were fired into soap blocks [1, 2].

  14. Lipase pre-hydrolysis enhance anaerobic biodigestion of soap stock from an oil refining industry.

    PubMed

    Cherif, Slim; Aloui, Fathi; Carrière, Frédéric; Sayadi, Sami

    2014-01-01

    A novel alcalophilic Staphylococcus haemolyticus strain with the lipolytic activity was used to perform enzymatic hydrolysis pretreatment of soap stock: a lipid rich solid waste from an oil refining industry. The culture liquid of the selected bacteria and an enzymatic preparation obtained by precipitation with ammonium sulphate from a filtrate of the same culture liquid were used for enzymatic pretreatment. The hydrolysis was carried with different incubation concentrations (10, 20 and 30%) of soap stock and the pretreatment efficiency was verified by running comparative biodegradability tests (crude and treated lipid waste). All pretreated assays showed higher reaction rate compared to crude lipid waste, which was confirmed by the increased levels of biogas production. The pretreatment of solutions containing 10% emulsified soap stock was optimized for 24 h hydrolysis time, enabling high-biogaz formation (800 ml). The use of enzymatic pre-treatment seemed to be a very promising alternative for treating soap stock having high fat contents.

  15. Evaluation of antibacterial soap in the management of lymphoedema in Leogane, Haiti.

    PubMed

    Addiss, David G; Michel, Marie-Carmel; Michelus, Antoine; Radday, Jeanne; Billhimer, Ward; Louis-Charles, Jacky; Roberts, Jacquelin M; Kramp, Kathy; Dahl, Benjamin A; Keswick, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    In areas endemic for lymphatic filariasis, progression of lymphoedema is associated with recurrent bacterial acute dermatolymphangioadenitis (ADLA). The role of antibacterial soap in preventing ADLA is unknown. In a randomized double-blinded clinical trial in Leogane, Haiti, lymphoedema patients washed affected legs with antibacterial (n = 97) or plain soap (n = 100). Reported ADLA incidence (by recall) before the study was 1.1 episodes per person-year, compared to 0.40 assessed during the 12-month study. ADLA incidence was significantly associated with age, illiteracy and lymphoedema stage, but not with soap type. Washing with soap, regardless of its antibacterial content, can help decrease ADLA incidence. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier number NCT00139100.).

  16. Evaluation of antibacterial soap in the management of lymphoedema in Leogane, Haiti.

    PubMed

    Addiss, David G; Michel, Marie-Carmel; Michelus, Antoine; Radday, Jeanne; Billhimer, Ward; Louis-Charles, Jacky; Roberts, Jacquelin M; Kramp, Kathy; Dahl, Benjamin A; Keswick, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    In areas endemic for lymphatic filariasis, progression of lymphoedema is associated with recurrent bacterial acute dermatolymphangioadenitis (ADLA). The role of antibacterial soap in preventing ADLA is unknown. In a randomized double-blinded clinical trial in Leogane, Haiti, lymphoedema patients washed affected legs with antibacterial (n = 97) or plain soap (n = 100). Reported ADLA incidence (by recall) before the study was 1.1 episodes per person-year, compared to 0.40 assessed during the 12-month study. ADLA incidence was significantly associated with age, illiteracy and lymphoedema stage, but not with soap type. Washing with soap, regardless of its antibacterial content, can help decrease ADLA incidence. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier number NCT00139100.). PMID:20850849

  17. [A pilot test of the efficacy of a povidone-iodine-based surgical soap].

    PubMed

    Ducel, G

    1990-03-13

    A PVP-iodine containing surgical soap (low-iodine) was tested by 20 volunteers (14 women and 6 men) under conditions usually present in surgical clinics. The results proved the efficacy of this soap, as its usage entails a significant decrease in the number of germs. Two of the volunteers presented diverging results. The results of that study, confirmed by other studies, are interpreted and discussed.

  18. Draft Genome Sequences of Klebsiella oxytoca Isolates Originating from a Highly Contaminated Liquid Hand Soap Product.

    PubMed

    Hammerl, J A; Lasch, P; Nitsche, A; Dabrowski, P W; Hahmann, H; Wicke, A; Kleta, S; Al Dahouk, S; Dieckmann, R

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, contaminated liquid soap was detected by routine microbiological monitoring of consumer products through state health authorities. Because of its high load of Klebsiella oxytoca, the liquid soap was notified via the European Union Rapid Alert System for Dangerous Non-Food Products (EU-RAPEX) and recalled. Here, we present two draft genome sequences and a summary of their general features. PMID:26205867

  19. 10. 4TH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINE No. 6 TO SOUTHWEST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. 4TH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINE No. 6 TO SOUTHWEST, WITH AUTOMATIC CUTTER (LEFT), PRESS (CENTER), AND WRAPPER (RIGHT); LARGE CHUTE AT CENTER FROM 5TH FLOOR BINS TO 3RD FLOOR SOAP MILLS; OVERHEAD AND FLOOR (LOWER RIGHT) FINISHED GOODS CONVEYORS TO G BLOCK (HAER NO. NJ-71-NN) - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-14, 54-58 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  20. Measuring the thickness of soap bubbles with phase-shift interferometry.

    PubMed

    Vannoni, Maurizio; Sordini, Andrea; Gabrieli, Riccardo; Melozzi, Mauro; Molesini, Giuseppe

    2013-08-26

    A model for the optical path difference introduced by a soap bubble in transmission is described. The model is then used with interferometric data to solve for the fringe order, and to define a procedure to extract the global film thickness in presence of turbulence flows occurring during the drainage process due to gravity. Experimental results on soap bubbles examined in single-pass phase-shift interferometry are presented. PMID:24105512

  1. [A pilot test of the efficacy of a povidone-iodine-based surgical soap].

    PubMed

    Ducel, G

    1990-03-13

    A PVP-iodine containing surgical soap (low-iodine) was tested by 20 volunteers (14 women and 6 men) under conditions usually present in surgical clinics. The results proved the efficacy of this soap, as its usage entails a significant decrease in the number of germs. Two of the volunteers presented diverging results. The results of that study, confirmed by other studies, are interpreted and discussed. PMID:2315587

  2. Exploring Determinants of Handwashing with Soap in Indonesia: A Quantitative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Mitsuaki; Graham, Jay P; Mattson, Kay D; Kelsey, Andrea; Mukherji, Supriya; Cronin, Aidan A

    2016-09-01

    Handwashing with soap is recognized as a cost-effective intervention to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with enteric and respiratory infections. This study analyzes rural Indonesian households' hygiene behaviors and attitudes to examine how motivations for handwashing, locations of handwashing space in the household, and handwashing moments are associated with handwashing with soap as potential determinants of the behavior. The analysis was conducted using results from a UNICEF cross-sectional study of 1700 households in six districts across three provinces of Indonesia. A composite measure of handwashing with soap was developed that included self-reported handwashing, a handwashing demonstration, and observed handwashing materials and location of facilities in the home. Prevalence ratios were calculated to analyze associations between handwashing with soap and hypothesized determinants of the behavior. Our results showed that determinants that had a significant association with handwashing with soap included: (1) a desire to smell nice; (2) interpersonal influences; (3) the presence of handwashing places within 10 paces of the kitchen and the toilet; and (4) key handwashing moments when hands felt dirty, including after eating and after cleaning child stools. This study concludes that handwashing with soap may be more effectively promoted through the use of non-health messages.

  3. Exploring Determinants of Handwashing with Soap in Indonesia: A Quantitative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Mitsuaki; Graham, Jay P; Mattson, Kay D; Kelsey, Andrea; Mukherji, Supriya; Cronin, Aidan A

    2016-01-01

    Handwashing with soap is recognized as a cost-effective intervention to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with enteric and respiratory infections. This study analyzes rural Indonesian households' hygiene behaviors and attitudes to examine how motivations for handwashing, locations of handwashing space in the household, and handwashing moments are associated with handwashing with soap as potential determinants of the behavior. The analysis was conducted using results from a UNICEF cross-sectional study of 1700 households in six districts across three provinces of Indonesia. A composite measure of handwashing with soap was developed that included self-reported handwashing, a handwashing demonstration, and observed handwashing materials and location of facilities in the home. Prevalence ratios were calculated to analyze associations between handwashing with soap and hypothesized determinants of the behavior. Our results showed that determinants that had a significant association with handwashing with soap included: (1) a desire to smell nice; (2) interpersonal influences; (3) the presence of handwashing places within 10 paces of the kitchen and the toilet; and (4) key handwashing moments when hands felt dirty, including after eating and after cleaning child stools. This study concludes that handwashing with soap may be more effectively promoted through the use of non-health messages. PMID:27598178

  4. Exploring Determinants of Handwashing with Soap in Indonesia: A Quantitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Mitsuaki; Graham, Jay P.; Mattson, Kay D.; Kelsey, Andrea; Mukherji, Supriya; Cronin, Aidan A.

    2016-01-01

    Handwashing with soap is recognized as a cost-effective intervention to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with enteric and respiratory infections. This study analyzes rural Indonesian households’ hygiene behaviors and attitudes to examine how motivations for handwashing, locations of handwashing space in the household, and handwashing moments are associated with handwashing with soap as potential determinants of the behavior. The analysis was conducted using results from a UNICEF cross-sectional study of 1700 households in six districts across three provinces of Indonesia. A composite measure of handwashing with soap was developed that included self-reported handwashing, a handwashing demonstration, and observed handwashing materials and location of facilities in the home. Prevalence ratios were calculated to analyze associations between handwashing with soap and hypothesized determinants of the behavior. Our results showed that determinants that had a significant association with handwashing with soap included: (1) a desire to smell nice; (2) interpersonal influences; (3) the presence of handwashing places within 10 paces of the kitchen and the toilet; and (4) key handwashing moments when hands felt dirty, including after eating and after cleaning child stools. This study concludes that handwashing with soap may be more effectively promoted through the use of non-health messages. PMID:27598178

  5. A meta-analysis of the published literature on the effectiveness of antimicrobial soaps.

    PubMed

    Montville, Rebecca; Schaffner, Donald W

    2011-11-01

    The goal of this research was to conduct a systematic quantitative analysis of the existing data in the literature in order to determine if there is a difference between antimicrobial and nonantimicrobial soaps and to identify the methodological factors that might affect this difference. Data on hand washing efficacy and experimental conditions (sample size, wash duration, soap quantity, challenge organism, inoculum size, and neutralization method) from published studies were compiled and transferred to a relational database. A total of 25 publications, containing 374 observations, met the study selection criteria. The majority of the studies included fewer than 15 observations with each treatment and included a direct comparison between nonantimicrobial soap and antimicrobial soap. Although differences in efficacy between antimicrobial and nonantimicrobial soap were small (∼0.5-log CFU reduction difference), antimicrobial soap produced consistently statistically significantly greater reductions. This difference was true for any of the antimicrobial compounds investigated where n was >20 (chlorhexidine gluconate, iodophor, triclosan, or povidone). Average log reductions were statistically significantly greater (∼2 log CFU) when either gram-positive or gram-negative transient organisms were deliberately added to hands compared with experiments done with resident hand flora (∼0.5 log CFU). Our findings support the importance of using a high initial inoculum on the hands, well above the detection limit. The inherent variability in hand washing seen in the published literature underscores the importance of using a sufficiently large sample size to detect differences when they occur.

  6. A meta-analysis of the published literature on the effectiveness of antimicrobial soaps.

    PubMed

    Montville, Rebecca; Schaffner, Donald W

    2011-11-01

    The goal of this research was to conduct a systematic quantitative analysis of the existing data in the literature in order to determine if there is a difference between antimicrobial and nonantimicrobial soaps and to identify the methodological factors that might affect this difference. Data on hand washing efficacy and experimental conditions (sample size, wash duration, soap quantity, challenge organism, inoculum size, and neutralization method) from published studies were compiled and transferred to a relational database. A total of 25 publications, containing 374 observations, met the study selection criteria. The majority of the studies included fewer than 15 observations with each treatment and included a direct comparison between nonantimicrobial soap and antimicrobial soap. Although differences in efficacy between antimicrobial and nonantimicrobial soap were small (∼0.5-log CFU reduction difference), antimicrobial soap produced consistently statistically significantly greater reductions. This difference was true for any of the antimicrobial compounds investigated where n was >20 (chlorhexidine gluconate, iodophor, triclosan, or povidone). Average log reductions were statistically significantly greater (∼2 log CFU) when either gram-positive or gram-negative transient organisms were deliberately added to hands compared with experiments done with resident hand flora (∼0.5 log CFU). Our findings support the importance of using a high initial inoculum on the hands, well above the detection limit. The inherent variability in hand washing seen in the published literature underscores the importance of using a sufficiently large sample size to detect differences when they occur. PMID:22054188

  7. Ke Wang, a Chinese television soap opera with a message.

    PubMed

    Wang, M; Singhal, A

    1992-01-01

    The Chinese soap opera, Ke Wang, was created by Li Xiaoming between August 1989 and June 1990 and produced at a cost of US$4650 per episode. The characters were drawn from everyday ordinary Chinese life: a traditional and open-minded and caring woman, a typical mother who works hard and loves her children, a highly educated upwardly mobile man who divorces his wife, a professor criticized during the Cultural Revolution, a doctor prejudiced against ordinary people, a kind honest man who marries the divorcee, a friend of the divorcee, a man who is optimistic in spite of bad experiences during the Cultural Revolution, and an excellent medical doctor who also resolves conflicts. The program was very popular, even among Communists, because of its value-based content, the real-life nature of the show, the change from highly restricted programming, the elaborate and supportive media coverage, and dialogue which closely matches audience preferences. The show has been aired by over 100 stations to date and has reached a total estimated audience of 550 million. The sale of television sets has increased since the show's appearance. The script reflects the conflicts between traditional and modern Chinese values. Pro-social values and behaviors are learned from the role models depicted; examples are given of immediate social impact. Ke Wang was a by-product of the Beijing Television Arts Center's interest in designing television programs that are relevant to the lives of ordinary people. The 60-minute scripts dealt with issues such as the status of women, social morality, family harmony, class conflict, responsible parenthood, maintenance of traditional culture, volunteerism, child development, and coping with physical disability. The Chinese government hailed Ke Wang as model television and awarded US$20,000 in prize money to the producers. The Chinese government is planning to produce other entertainment-education soap operas, which raises the problem of blatant, political

  8. Ke Wang, a Chinese television soap opera with a message.

    PubMed

    Wang, M; Singhal, A

    1992-01-01

    The Chinese soap opera, Ke Wang, was created by Li Xiaoming between August 1989 and June 1990 and produced at a cost of US$4650 per episode. The characters were drawn from everyday ordinary Chinese life: a traditional and open-minded and caring woman, a typical mother who works hard and loves her children, a highly educated upwardly mobile man who divorces his wife, a professor criticized during the Cultural Revolution, a doctor prejudiced against ordinary people, a kind honest man who marries the divorcee, a friend of the divorcee, a man who is optimistic in spite of bad experiences during the Cultural Revolution, and an excellent medical doctor who also resolves conflicts. The program was very popular, even among Communists, because of its value-based content, the real-life nature of the show, the change from highly restricted programming, the elaborate and supportive media coverage, and dialogue which closely matches audience preferences. The show has been aired by over 100 stations to date and has reached a total estimated audience of 550 million. The sale of television sets has increased since the show's appearance. The script reflects the conflicts between traditional and modern Chinese values. Pro-social values and behaviors are learned from the role models depicted; examples are given of immediate social impact. Ke Wang was a by-product of the Beijing Television Arts Center's interest in designing television programs that are relevant to the lives of ordinary people. The 60-minute scripts dealt with issues such as the status of women, social morality, family harmony, class conflict, responsible parenthood, maintenance of traditional culture, volunteerism, child development, and coping with physical disability. The Chinese government hailed Ke Wang as model television and awarded US$20,000 in prize money to the producers. The Chinese government is planning to produce other entertainment-education soap operas, which raises the problem of blatant, political

  9. Study Protocol – Improving Access to Kidney Transplants (IMPAKT): A detailed account of a qualitative study investigating barriers to transplant for Australian Indigenous people with end-stage kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Devitt, Jeannie; Cass, Alan; Cunningham, Joan; Preece, Cilla; Anderson, Kate; Snelling, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Background Indigenous Australians are slightly more than 2% of the total Australian population however, in recent years they have comprised between 6 and 10% of new patients beginning treatment for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Although transplant is considered the optimal form of treatment for many ESKD patients there is a pronounced disparity between the rates at which Indigenous ESKD patients receive transplants compared with their non-Indigenous counterparts. The IMPAKT (Improving Access to Kidney Transplants) Interview study investigated reasons for this disparity through a large scale, in-depth interview study involving patients, nephrologists and key decision-making staff at selected Australian transplant and dialysis sites. Methods The design and conduct of the study reflected the multi-disciplinary membership of the core IMPAKT team. Promoting a participatory ethos, IMPAKT established partnerships with a network of hospital transplant units and hospital dialysis treatment centres that provide treatment to the vast majority of Indigenous patients across Australia. Under their auspices, the IMPAKT team conducted in-depth interviews in 26 treatment/service centres located in metropolitan, regional and remote Australia. Peer interviewing supported the engagement of Indigenous patients (146), and nephrologists (19). In total IMPAKT spoke with Indigenous and non-Indigenous patients (241), key renal nursing and other (non-specialist) staff (95) and a small number of relevant others (28). Data analysis was supported by QSR software. At each site, IMPAKT also documented educational programs and resources, mapped an hypothetical ‘patient journey’ to transplant through the local system and observed patient care and treatment routines. Discussion The national scope, inter-disciplinary approach and use of qualitative methods in an investigation of a significant health inequality affecting Indigenous people is, we believe, an Australian first. An exceptionally

  10. How does a soap film burst during generation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rio, Emmanuelle; Saulnier, Laurie; Restagno, Frederic; Langevin, Dominique

    2011-11-01

    Foams are dispersions of bubbles in a liquid matrix in the presence of stabilizing surfactants. Even if foams are ubiquitous, the ability of a solution to create a certain foam quantity is still not fully understood. As a first step, we choose to work on a simplified system and studied the stability of a soap film during its generation. We have built an experiment, in which we determine simultaneously the velocity of a frame pulled out of a soapy solution and the entire shape of the liquid film. We found that the film is made of two parts: the bottom part is of uniform and stationary thickness, well described by the classical Frankel's law; in the top part, the film drains until a black film appears near the frame upper boundary frame, and then bursts. In this study, we characterize both part of the films and show that the Frankel law breaks down at high capillary number due to surfactants confinement. We also explain why films pulled at high velocity have a shorter lifetime than those pulled at low velocity. L. Saulnier is funded by CNES.

  11. Tunneling of micron-sized droplets through soap films.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ildoo; Wu, X L

    2010-08-01

    When a micron-sized water droplet impacts on a freely suspended soap film with speed v(i), there exists a critical impact velocity of penetration v(C). Droplets with v(i)v(C) tunnel through it. In all cases, the film remains intact despite the fact that the droplet radius (R_{0}=26 μm) is much greater than the film thickness (0

  12. Tunneling of micron-sized droplets through soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ildoo; Wu, X. L.

    2010-08-01

    When a micron-sized water droplet impacts on a freely suspended soap film with speed vi , there exists a critical impact velocity of penetration vC . Droplets with vivC tunnel through it. In all cases, the film remains intact despite the fact that the droplet radius (R0=26μm) is much greater than the film thickness (0

  13. Bursting of a soap film in a viscous environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joanny, J.-F.; De Gennes, P. G.

    1987-11-01

    In a dense (polyhedral) O/W emulsion the oil droplets are separated by thin films of water. If at time t = 0, one film is broken locally, it shrinks and the zone of direct contact between the two oil droplets expands, with a growing radius R( t). The analog bursting of a soap films in air was studied long ago by Mysels and coworkers. But the presence of the viscous oil should slow down the process, and suppress the shock wave aspects which are often present in air. We assume first that the surfactant is strictly insoluble in oil and we discuss two regimes: (I) The water film is at the midplane of a slab of oil, bounded by solid walls: then we expect R( t)∼ t{1}/{2} even if non-linearities (due to the Langmuir equation of state of the monolayers) are incorporated. (II) With a very large slab of oil (or with two large oil droplets) we are led to R( t)∼ {3}/{4}. Regime II would be realize in dense emulsions, but regime I is probably more interesting for fundamental studies on the rheology of monolayers. Finally, when the surfactant is slightly soluble in oil, we predict R( t)∼ t{3}/{4} in case I, and R( t)∼ t in case II.

  14. Pro-development soap operas: a novel approach to development communication.

    PubMed

    Brown, W J; Singhal, A; Rogers, E M

    1989-01-01

    Soap operas have their roots in 18th century English romance novels. These evolved into serialized radio dramas. In their current form, they were developed primarily to attract large audiences in order to sell consumer products. Hence the name soap which refers to the soap manufacturers who commonly advertise on such programs. In the world of soap operas there are 2 kinds. Those that function primarily to entertain and sell consumer products, and those that primarily entertain, but infuse positive social messages. The former are found everywhere, but are the only kind in America. The latter are found exclusively in developing countries. American soap operas have conveyed pro-social messages in the past, but they differ fundamentally from pro-development soap operas in their theoretical foundations. American soap operas are created by people who want to sell consumer goods. Development soap operas are created by people who want to convey pro-social messages that will aid their country's development. Both must be popular in order to be successful, but the former lack moral coherency, are unrealistic, erode values, and are created through a process of a theoretical development; while the latter have moral coherency, are realistic, promote values, and are created through a process of theoretical development. The 1st pro-development soap opera was Ven Conmigo (Come With Me) and was produced in Mexico between 1975-76. Its primary purpose was to increase adult literacy. During the year it ran, applicants at adult literacy centers rose by 600,000 or 63% compared to 7% the year before, and 2% the year after. The 2nd pro-development soap opera was Acompaname (Accompany Me) and it primary purpose was to promote family planning. It ran from 1977-78 and during that time the number of family planning adopters rose by 560,000 and contraceptive sale sin Mexico rose sharply. The question of what are pro-social messages and who should control them must be answered by each country in

  15. Protocols.io: Virtual Communities for Protocol Development and Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Stoliartchouk, Alexei; Kindler, Lori; Hurwitz, Bonnie L.

    2016-01-01

    The detailed know-how to implement research protocols frequently remains restricted to the research group that developed the method or technology. This knowledge often exists at a level that is too detailed for inclusion in the methods section of scientific articles. Consequently, methods are not easily reproduced, leading to a loss of time and effort by other researchers. The challenge is to develop a method-centered collaborative platform to connect with fellow researchers and discover state-of-the-art knowledge. Protocols.io is an open-access platform for detailing, sharing, and discussing molecular and computational protocols that can be useful before, during, and after publication of research results. PMID:27547938

  16. Protocols.io: Virtual Communities for Protocol Development and Discussion.

    PubMed

    Teytelman, Leonid; Stoliartchouk, Alexei; Kindler, Lori; Hurwitz, Bonnie L

    2016-08-01

    The detailed know-how to implement research protocols frequently remains restricted to the research group that developed the method or technology. This knowledge often exists at a level that is too detailed for inclusion in the methods section of scientific articles. Consequently, methods are not easily reproduced, leading to a loss of time and effort by other researchers. The challenge is to develop a method-centered collaborative platform to connect with fellow researchers and discover state-of-the-art knowledge. Protocols.io is an open-access platform for detailing, sharing, and discussing molecular and computational protocols that can be useful before, during, and after publication of research results. PMID:27547938

  17. Mechanism for defoaming by oils and calcium soap in aqueous systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Miller, Clarence A; Garrett, Peter R; Raney, Kirk H

    2003-07-15

    The effect of oils, hardness, and calcium soap on foam stability of aqueous solutions of commercial surfactants was investigated. For conditions where negligible calcium soap was formed, stability of foams made with 0.1 wt% solutions of a seven-EO alcohol ethoxylate containing dispersed drops of n-hexadecane, triolein, or mixtures of these oils with small amounts of oleic acid could be understood in terms of entry, spreading, and bridging coefficients, i.e., ESB analysis. However, foams made from solutions containing 0.01 wt% of three-EO alcohol ethoxysulfate sodium salt and the same dispersed oils were frequently more stable than expected based on ESB analysis, reflecting that repulsion due to overlap of electrical double layers in the asymmetric oil-water-air film made oil entry into the air-water interface more difficult than the theory predicts. When calcium soap was formed in situ by the reaction of fatty acids in the oil with calcium, solid soap particles were observed at the surfaces of the oil drops. The combination of oil and calcium soap produced a synergistic effect facilitating the well-known bridging instability of foam films or Plateau borders and producing a substantial defoaming effect. A possible mechanism of instability involving increases in disjoining pressure at locations where small soap particles approach the air-water interface is discussed. For both surfactants with the triolein-oleic acid mixtures, calculated entry and bridging coefficients for conditions when calcium soap formed were positive shortly after foam generation but negative at equilibrium. These results are consistent with the experimental observation that most defoaming action occurred shortly after foam generation rather than at later times.

  18. Antimicrobial Activity of Medicated Soaps Commonly Used By Dar es Salaam Residents in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mwambete, K. D.; Lyombe, F.

    2011-01-01

    An in vitro evaluation of the anti-microbial activity of medicated soaps was conducted using ditch-plate and hand washing techniques. Strains of reference microbes namely Candida albicans (ATCC90028), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923), Pseudomonas aureginosa (ATCC27853) and Escherichia coli (ATCC25922) were tested at three different soaps’ concentrations (1.0, 4.0 and 8.0 mg/ml). A total of 16 medicated soaps were assayed for their antimicrobial efficacy. Of these, 13 were medicated and 3 non-medicated soaps, which served as control. Ciprofloxacin and ketaconazole were employed as positive controls. Label disclosure for the soaps’ ingredients and other relevant information were absorbed. The most common antimicrobial active ingredients were triclosan, trichloroxylenol and trichlorocarbanilide. ANOVA for means of zones of inhibition revealed variability of antimicrobial activity among the medicated soaps. Positive correlation (r=0.318; P<0.01) between zones of inhibition and soaps’ concentrations was evidenced. Hand washing frequencies positively correlated with microbial counts. Roberts® soap exhibited the largest zone of inhibition (34 mm) on S. aureus. Candida albicans was the least susceptible microbe. Regency® and Dalan® exhibited the least zone of inhibition on the tested bacteria. Protex®, Roberts®, Family® and Protector® were equally effective (P<0.01) against S. aureus. In conclusion, majority of the assayed medicated soaps have satisfactory antibacterial activity; though lack antifungal effect with exception of Linda® liquid soap. The hand washing technique has proved to be inappropriate for evaluation of soaps’ antimicrobial efficacy due to presence of the skin microflora. PMID:22131630

  19. Distributed data discovery, access and visualization services to Improve Data Interoperability across different data holdings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanisamy, G.; Krassovski, M.; Devarakonda, R.; Santhana Vannan, S.

    2012-12-01

    The current climate debate is highlighting the importance of free, open, and authoritative sources of high quality climate data that are available for peer review and for collaborative purposes. It is increasingly important to allow various organizations around the world to share climate data in an open manner, and to enable them to perform dynamic processing of climate data. This advanced access to data can be enabled via Web-based services, using common "community agreed" standards without having to change their internal structure used to describe the data. The modern scientific community has become diverse and increasingly complex in nature. To meet the demands of such diverse user community, the modern data supplier has to provide data and other related information through searchable, data and process oriented tool. This can be accomplished by setting up on-line, Web-based system with a relational database as a back end. The following common features of the web data access/search systems will be outlined in the proposed presentation: - A flexible data discovery - Data in commonly used format (e.g., CSV, NetCDF) - Preparing metadata in standard formats (FGDC, ISO19115, EML, DIF etc.) - Data subseting capabilities and ability to narrow down to individual data elements - Standards based data access protocols and mechanisms (SOAP, REST, OpenDAP, OGC etc.) - Integration of services across different data systems (discovery to access, visualizations and subseting) This presentation will also include specific examples of integration of various data systems that are developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory's - Climate Change Science Institute, their ability to communicate between each other to enable better data interoperability and data integration. References: [1] Devarakonda, Ranjeet, and Harold Shanafield. "Drupal: Collaborative framework for science research." Collaboration Technologies and Systems (CTS), 2011 International Conference on. IEEE, 2011. [2

  20. Statics and dynamics of adhesion between two soap bubbles.

    PubMed

    Besson, S; Debrégeas, G

    2007-10-01

    An original set-up is used to study the adhesive properties of two hemispherical soap bubbles put into contact. The contact angle at the line connecting the three films is extracted by image analysis of the bubbles profiles. After the initial contact, the angle rapidly reaches a static value slightly larger than the standard 120 degrees angle expected from Plateau rule. This deviation is consistent with previous experimental and theoretical studies: it can be quantitatively predicted by taking into account the finite size of the Plateau border (the liquid volume trapped at the vertex) in the free energy minimization. The visco-elastic adhesion properties of the bubbles are further explored by measuring the deviation Delta theta (d)(t) of the contact angle from the static value as the distance between the two bubbles supports is sinusoidally modulated. It is found to linearly increase with Delta r(c) / r(c) , where r(c) is the radius of the central film and Delta r(c) the amplitude of modulation of this length induced by the displacement of the supports. The in-phase and out-of-phase components of Delta theta (d)(t) with the imposed modulation frequency are systematically probed, which reveals a transition from a viscous to an elastic response of the system with a crossover pulsation of the order 1rad x s(-1). Independent interfacial rheological measurements, obtained from an oscillating bubble experiment, allow us to develop a model of dynamic adhesion which is confronted to our experimental results. The relevance of such adhesive dynamic properties to the rheology of foams is briefly discussed using a perturbative approach to the Princen 2D model of foams. PMID:17955165

  1. Effects of an Antibacterial Soap on the Ecology of Aerobic Bacterial Flora of Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Voss, J. G.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of ad lib use of an antibacterial soap containing 1.0% trichlorocarbanilide and 0.5% trifluoromethyldichlorocarbanilide on the bacterial flora of six skin sites of 132 subjects were measured by comparison with the flora of 93 control subjects who avoided the use of topical antibacterials. Each subject was examined once. The test soap produced significant reductions in geometric mean counts of the total aerobic flora on the back, chest, forearm, calf, and foot; counts were also reduced in the axilla, but not to a significant extent. The overall reduction by the test soap on all sites was 62% (P < 0.001). Neither age nor sex influenced the effect of the soap on the flora. The antibacterial soap also reduced the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus on the skin, mostly by virtually eliminating it from areas other than the axilla. Partial inhibition of the gram-positive flora was not accompanied by an increase in gram-negative species. The latter were found principally in the axilla; Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter aerogenes were the species most frequently found. PMID:1103729

  2. From R&D to end users applications in operational oceanography: The navy's "SOAP" case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraud Saint-Albin, S.; Jourdan, D.

    2003-04-01

    For the last ten years, the CMO/BRESM has conducted an operational program for Ocean Analysis and Prediction SOAP, whose goal has been to support sea activities with high resolution mesoscale ocean nowcast products. Successive prototypes have been generated, operated and improved in tandem with a continuous re-evaluation of Navy Needs. This strategy played a key-role in defining the concept of “real-time integrated oceanography” which relies on remote and in situ ocean observations, (a hierarchy of) ocean models and data assimilation methods. The paper focuses on the results of the latter feasability study for next SOAP prototype: the military motivation for developing new prototypes is to extend the application domain of SOAP operational products from the operative (~ a description of the synoptic scale) to the tactical ( ~ a tailored product to strategic needs) relevance. Current SOAP P2 system is as a transition system pulled by end-user’s requirements and designed by research oceanographers from existing tools and models. The development of SOAP P3 has just started and will benefit from the emergence of an increasing offer of ocean modelling results, pushed by the GODAE initiative. It will be based on MERCATOR high resolution prototypes. From that starting point future developments will have to address both issues of defense specific requirements for high resolution ocean modeling and computation of relevant acoustical products for military applications. Especially, the crucial needs for assessing the end-users’ products reliability should be explored.

  3. Mild soaps and radiotherapy: a survey of the UK public to identify brands of soap considered mild and analysis of these to ascertain suitability for recommendation in radiotherapy departments.

    PubMed

    Robertson, K; Brown, P

    2011-05-01

    Cancer agencies recommend that patients use mild soap when undergoing external beam radiotherapy to minimise skin reactions. They define 'mild soap' as non-alkaline, lanolin free, unperfumed soap with a neutral pH. This study aimed to identify which soaps the UK public perceive as mild and ascertain if these were clinically mild and could potentially be recommended within radiotherapy departments. A survey of 237 participants identified eight top brands of mild soap, which were then tested for pH and analysed for potential irritants. All soaps were lanolin free and non-alkaline, with Simple and Johnson's the closest to pH 5.5. All contained fragrances except Simple and E45. Dove, Pears and Imperial Leather contained the highest concentration of fragrances. All soaps except E45 contained potential irritants. Only Simple and E45 fit the cancer agencies' definition of mild soap and could therefore be recommended for radiotherapy patients. Future research should identify current practices and recommendations in the UK as anecdotal evidence suggests large variations in skin care advice. Further scientific analysis could potentially identify cheaper brands that fit the definition of 'mild'. UK recommendations should be standardised and consistent with best practice to reduce skin reaction severity in radiotherapy patients.

  4. Guide to resource conservation and cost savings opportunities in the soap, detergents and related products sector

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This guide was prepared to help those involved in the manufacturing of soap, detergent, and related products to identify potential process improvements that will reduce production costs and conserve resources. The guide offers a series of generic process descriptions and checklists of improvement opportunities specific to each of five major processes used in the industry: Soap production, surfactant production, solid cake product formulation, liquid product formulation, and granulated powdered product formulation. The checklists identify thermal, electrical, environmental, water use, and low- or no-cost measures that can be implemented, as well as retrofit technology options. A variety of new technologies that may exhibit future potential are also described. Appendices include a glossary, background information on the Ontario soap/detergent industry, and description of the four major categories of ingredients used in the industry.

  5. Chemical Constituents and an Alternative Medicinal Veterinary Herbal Soap Made from Senna macranthera.

    PubMed

    Inoue Andrade, Flávia; Purgato, Gislaine Aparecida; de Faria Maia, Thalita; Pais Siqueira, Raoni; Lima, Sâmia; Diaz, Gaspar; Diaz, Marisa Alves Nogueira

    2015-01-01

    Upon undergoing biomonitoring, the most active dichloromethane extract retrieved from Senna macranthera roots led to the isolation of three main compounds: emodine, physione, and chrysophanol. In this sequence, these compounds revealed a potential antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from animals with mastitis infections with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 20, 90, and 90 μg mL(-1), respectively. Therefore, an herbal soap was also produced from this same active extract. This soap was tested in vitro using gloves contaminated by animals with bovine mastitis that had been discarded after use by milkers and showed similar results to previously tested compounds. These results indicate the potential of this plant as an alternative veterinary medicine for the production of antibacterial soaps that aimed at controlling bovine mastitis infections in small Brazilian farms.

  6. Soap-scented oil skin patch in the treatment of fibromyalgia: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Ough, Yon Doo

    2008-01-01

    Treatment for fibromyalgia is largely empiric and supportive, and favors a multidisciplinary approach. Despite treatment, symptomatic relief is often inadequate and temporary. Over 90% of fibromyalgia patients seek alternative medical care. There is much anecdotal evidence that applying a bar of soap to the skin can relieve leg cramps. Expanding on this idea, I created a skin patch from soap-scented oil, which was used to treat muscular pain and spasms. After receiving positive feedback from several patients, I hypothesized that the scent of the oil itself, applied directly to the skin, is responsible for the pain-relieving and muscle-relaxant properties of the skin patch. Furthermore, I hypothesize that this soap-scented oil skin patch is an effective treatment for the pain associated with fibromyalgia. PMID:21197334

  7. Monitoring the thinning dynamics of soap films by phase shift interferometry. The case of perfluoropolyether surfactants.

    PubMed

    Gambi, Cecilia M C; Vannoni, Maurizio; Sordini, Andrea; Molesini, Giuseppe

    2014-02-01

    An interferometric method to monitor the thinning process of vertical soap films from a water solution of surfactant materials is reported. Raw data maps of optical path difference introduced by the film are obtained by conventional phase shift interferometry. Off-line re-processing of such raw data taking into account the layered structure of soap films leads to an accurate measurement of the geometrical thickness. As an example of data acquisition and processing, the measuring chain is demonstrated on perfluoropolyether surfactants; the section profile of vertical films is monitored from drawing to black film state, and quantitative data on the dynamics of the thinning process are presented. The interferometric method proves effective to the task, and lends itself to further investigate the physical properties of soap films.

  8. Chemical Constituents and an Alternative Medicinal Veterinary Herbal Soap Made from Senna macranthera

    PubMed Central

    Inoue Andrade, Flávia; Purgato, Gislaine Aparecida; de Faria Maia, Thalita; Pais Siqueira, Raoni; Lima, Sâmia; Diaz, Marisa Alves Nogueira

    2015-01-01

    Upon undergoing biomonitoring, the most active dichloromethane extract retrieved from Senna macranthera roots led to the isolation of three main compounds: emodine, physione, and chrysophanol. In this sequence, these compounds revealed a potential antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from animals with mastitis infections with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 20, 90, and 90 μg mL−1, respectively. Therefore, an herbal soap was also produced from this same active extract. This soap was tested in vitro using gloves contaminated by animals with bovine mastitis that had been discarded after use by milkers and showed similar results to previously tested compounds. These results indicate the potential of this plant as an alternative veterinary medicine for the production of antibacterial soaps that aimed at controlling bovine mastitis infections in small Brazilian farms. PMID:25821480

  9. Soap-film coating: High-speed deposition of multilayer nanofilms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Renyun; Andersson, Henrik A.; Andersson, Mattias; Andres, Britta; Edlund, Håkan; Edström, Per; Edvardsson, Sverker; Forsberg, Sven; Hummelgård, Magnus; Johansson, Niklas; Karlsson, Kristoffer; Nilsson, Hans-Erik; Norgren, Magnus; Olsen, Martin; Uesaka, Tetsu; Öhlund, Thomas; Olin, Håkan

    2013-01-01

    The coating of thin films is applied in numerous fields and many methods are employed for the deposition of these films. Some coating techniques may deposit films at high speed; for example, ordinary printing paper is coated with micrometre-thick layers of clay at a speed of tens of meters per second. However, to coat nanometre thin films at high speed, vacuum techniques are typically required, which increases the complexity of the process. Here, we report a simple wet chemical method for the high-speed coating of films with thicknesses at the nanometre level. This soap-film coating technique is based on forcing a substrate through a soap film that contains nanomaterials. Molecules and nanomaterials can be deposited at a thickness ranging from less than a monolayer to several layers at speeds up to meters per second. We believe that the soap-film coating method is potentially important for industrial-scale nanotechnology. PMID:23503102

  10. Chemical Constituents and an Alternative Medicinal Veterinary Herbal Soap Made from Senna macranthera.

    PubMed

    Inoue Andrade, Flávia; Purgato, Gislaine Aparecida; de Faria Maia, Thalita; Pais Siqueira, Raoni; Lima, Sâmia; Diaz, Gaspar; Diaz, Marisa Alves Nogueira

    2015-01-01

    Upon undergoing biomonitoring, the most active dichloromethane extract retrieved from Senna macranthera roots led to the isolation of three main compounds: emodine, physione, and chrysophanol. In this sequence, these compounds revealed a potential antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from animals with mastitis infections with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 20, 90, and 90 μg mL(-1), respectively. Therefore, an herbal soap was also produced from this same active extract. This soap was tested in vitro using gloves contaminated by animals with bovine mastitis that had been discarded after use by milkers and showed similar results to previously tested compounds. These results indicate the potential of this plant as an alternative veterinary medicine for the production of antibacterial soaps that aimed at controlling bovine mastitis infections in small Brazilian farms. PMID:25821480

  11. An Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Experiment on Surfactants: Electrochemical Study of a Commercial Soap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Pablo C.; Clausse, Danièle

    2003-09-01

    A general and physical chemistry laboratory on the electrochemistry of soap solutions is proposed. It involves safe, nontoxic, nonpolluting materials, common laboratory apparatuses, and a combination of theoretical and practical concepts. The critical micelle concentration is measured in weight percent and the mean hydrocarbon chain length and soap mixture molar weight are determined. Conductivity data are also used to determine the micelle ionization degree, the micelle and monomer molar conductivity, and the micellar electrophoretic mobility. The existence of a critical micelle concentration range is also visualized. The hydrolysis degree, the fatty acid ionization constant and water solubility, the formation of acid soap, and the concentration at which the first submicellar aggregates form are determined by pH measurements. These results lead to a discussion of several characteristics of surfactant solutions.

  12. [Effectiveness of 9 soaps and/or antiseptics on hand flora after surgical-type washing].

    PubMed

    Reverdy, M E; Martra, A; Fleurette, J

    1984-06-01

    We studied the effect of nine soaps and/or antiseptics on the bacterial flora of hands 5 minutes after a surgical scrub. Each agent was used by ten healthy volunteers, free of skin lesions. The following agents were used: chlorhexidine gluconate 4% and 1.5%, povidone iodine 4%, ethanol 70 degrees, isopropanol 70 degrees, a non-antiseptic soap, and another soap followed by either ethanol 70 degrees, isopropanol 70 degrees or a preparation containing H2O2. The surgical scrub procedure varied slightly according to whether or not the agent was soapy and required rinsing. Sampling was carried out using Gaschen's bag method with 400 ml of neutralising solution. Counts were made after 48 hours aerobic incubation at 35 degrees C on tryptic soy agar with 1% Tween 80, and after 8 days anaerobic incubation at 35 degrees C on Brewer's yeast agar with 1% Tween 80. Results were expressed as the log 10 to the number of bacteria per hand. Statistical significance was determined using the Student t test. The greatest reduction in aerobic flora was produced by isopropanol 70 degrees C (1.7 log 10). 1.5 to 0.5 log 10 reductions were produced, in the following decreasing order, by ethanol 70 degrees, povidone iodine, chlorhexidine gluconate 4% and 1.5% and a soap with ethanol 70 degrees. A reduction of less than 0.5 log 10 was produced by a soap with isopropanol 70 degrees, and soaps with H2O2. Similar results were obtained with the facultative anaerobes.

  13. The microjet-film interaction: the interaction and resulting shapes of a liquid microjet impacting a soap film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Jau Tung; Lee, Jie Liang; Tjeng, Vincent; Yeo, Ye; Tan, Guoxian

    2014-11-01

    The International Young Physicists’ Tournament (IYPT) is a worldwide annual competition for high-school students. This paper is adapted from the solution to problem 8, Jet and Film, as presented by the Singapore Team at the 26th IYPT, Taipei, Taiwan. The impact of liquid microjets on stable soap films was investigated. Two steady regimes were observed: refraction (where the microjet penetrates the soap film and is deflected) and absorption (where the microjet merges with the soap film and forms vertical undulating patterns on the soap film surface). This phenomenon has potential applications in controlling the trajectory of a liquid microjet in air. Although Kirstetter et al (2012) investigated this interaction by using the same liquid for both the microjet and the soap film, this paper extends their work by using different liquids for the microjet and the soap film. In addition, the need for a small-angle approximation of Snell’s law is removed for the refraction regime, and an alternative expression is proposed for the force exerted by the soap film on the microjet in the absorption regime that accounts for the dependence of the wavelength of the undulating patterns on the angle of incidence of the microjet on the soap film. Empirical data support these improved theoretical predictions.

  14. Toxicity of insecticidal soaps to the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) and two of its natural enemies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insecticidal soaps (hereafter “soaps”) are labeled for use by homeowners and also can be used in citrus grown for the organic market. Soaps control some insect pests and therefore might be an alternative to conventional pesticides for control of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (...

  15. SOAP in Practice: Learning Outcomes of a Cross-Institutional Innovation Project Conducted by Teachers, Student Teachers, and Teacher Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seezink, Audrey; Poell, Rob; Kirschner, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a case study investigating learning outcomes at the individual and organisational level of a cross-institutional innovation project based on the SOAP approach. SOAP integrates "S"chooling of teachers, "O"rganisational development of schools, "A"ction- and development-oriented research, and "P"rofessional development of…

  16. Distribution of bacteria on hands and the effectiveness of brief and thorough decontamination procedures using non-medicated soap.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, A N; Halablab, M A; Gould, D J; Miles, R J

    1997-04-01

    Our perception of the role of hand washing in the clinical situation is based on experimental studies in which test-bacteria are usually inoculated onto the skin surface and removed using hand washing preparations containing antiseptics. In this study, we have investigated the distribution of bacteria on the hands of volunteers and the effectiveness of long (3 minute) and brief (10 second) washes in removing both naturally-occurring and artificially-inoculated bacteria (Micrococcus sp.), using only soap and water. There was a tenfold reduction in median counts of artificially inoculated bacteria following both long and brief washes. However, less than 50% of naturally-occurring bacteria were removed and, for hands previously disinfected by immersion in 70% ethanol, the washing procedure increased bacterial counts. In both unwashed hands, and hands washed following a strict protocol, the mean variation in counts of naturally-occurring bacteria at different sites (wrists, dorsal surface, palmar surface, fingertips and interdigital spaces) was only two-fold. The efficiency of recovery of naturally-occurring organisms was estimated by repeated swabbing, to be more than 60%. The data question the value of typical hand wash procedures recommended by many authorities for use in clinical situations and of the perfunctory hand washes frequently adopted by nursing staff in busy wards. Experimental evidence is required to justify procedures and to identify the precise circumstances in which they are of value.

  17. ERDDAP - An Easier Way for Diverse Clients to Access Scientific Data From Diverse Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendelssohn, R.; Simons, R. A.

    2008-12-01

    ERDDAP is a new open-source, web-based service that aggregates data from other web services: OPeNDAP grid servers (THREDDS), OPeNDAP sequence servers (Dapper), NOS SOAP service, SOS (IOOS, OOStethys), microWFS, DiGIR (OBIS, BMDE). Regardless of the data source, ERDDAP makes all datasets available to clients via standard (and enhanced) DAP requests and makes some datasets accessible via WMS. A client's request also specifies the desired format for the results, e.g., .asc, .csv, .das, .dds, .dods, htmlTable, XHTML, .mat, netCDF, .kml, .png, or .pdf (formats more directly useful to clients). ERDDAP interprets a client request, requests the data from the data source (in the appropriate way), reformats the data source's response, and sends the result to the client. Thus ERDDAP makes data from diverse sources available to diverse clients via standardized interfaces. Clients don't have to install libraries to get data from ERDDAP because ERDDAP is RESTful and resource-oriented: a URL completely defines a data request and the URL can be used in any application that can send a URL and receive a file. This also makes it easy to use ERDDAP in mashups with other web services. ERDDAP could be extended to support other protocols. ERDDAP's hub and spoke architecture simplifies adding support for new types of data sources and new types of clients. ERDDAP includes metadata management support, catalog services, and services to make graphs and maps.

  18. Mapping of the Marangoni effect in soap films using Young's double-slit experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emile, Janine; Emile, Olivier

    2013-10-01

    We report on the thickness variation measurement of a soap film due to a local perturbation, using Young's double-slit experiment configuration. We map a laser-heated deformation of a vertical free-standing draining thin soap film using the differential change of optical path in the interferometer. The experiment has a resolution of about 0.1 nm and enables to follow the liquid flow dynamics. We evidence a bottleneck formation in the heated region of the film that perturbs the usual flow. Such an experimental set-up could then be adapted to measure other tiny variations in fluctuating hydrodynamics such as capillary waves for example.

  19. [Chemoprophylactic activity of soaps containing essential oil from the fruit of Pterodon pubescens in schistosomiasis mansoni].

    PubMed

    Santos Filho, D; Sarti, S J; Katz, N; Araújo, N; Rocha Filho, P A; Abreu, J E; Bortolin, M E

    1987-01-01

    It has been studied the chemoprophylactic action on experimental schistosomiasis of the essential oil from Pterodon pubescens "sucupira branca" as an additive through different formulations, in toilet soap. Immediately or 24 hours later, groups of mice were exposed by tail method to Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. After 45 days of the exposition, the protective action of these soaps were evaluated. The results showed different levels of protection, ranging from 29.0 to 100.0%. Further studies are on going with the most promising formulations.

  20. A miracle happening to a laser beam in a soap film

    SciTech Connect

    Startsev, Aleksandr V; Stoilov, Yurii Yu

    2003-05-31

    When a 10 {mu}W - 3 W laser beam (for example, at 632.8 nm) is focused into a usual soap film of thickness between 10 nm and 10 {mu}m from the side or through a defect on the film surface, the self-channeling of the beam propagating in the film is observed. The beam also exhibits self-branching into submicron filaments, the so-called whiskers of length several tens of centimetres. The results of experiments on the dynamics of behaviour of these whiskers in a soap film, their polariton nature, and possible applications are discussed. (letters)

  1. Opening Doors to the Seismic Data Community: IRIS Developments for Seamless Data Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahern, T.; Casey, R.; Kamb, L.; Laughbon, C.; Muench, J.; Schoch, S.

    2006-05-01

    For the past five years, IRIS has enabled programmatic access to seismological databases worldwide through a data service technology called the Data Handling Interface (DHI). Basing the DHI on industry-standard CORBA technology has allowed a number of client programs to be developed in Java, Matlab and C/C++ which can access data from 6 regional and 2 global-area seismic data centers. More recently, the commonly used program SAC (Seismic Analysis Code) has been updated to interface with DHI, bringing seamless data access and powerful analysis tools together. In addition, noting the maturation of web services into an accepted data service technology, IRIS has developed a prototype web service version of the DHI using the SOAP protocol. As work continues in refining and expanding the utility of DHI, IRIS is also developing a searchable data product repository to allow registered data producers from locations across the globe to make their products available to the community. Here, scientists will be able to discover a myriad of data sources through a single web-service-oriented interface, searching via both common geographic and time-oriented attributes as well as product-specific metadata attributes. A facility for packaging and downloading these products is also being provided. As we move forward towards fully developing a service-oriented architecture (SOA) for IRIS data sources and facilities, we are creating software to allow data discovery and workflow computing to be at anyone's fingertips. Web service and portlet technologies allow easy incorporation of IRIS tools and data into research programs, educational websites and government planning. Data conversion and presentation are also concepts that are being explored in this growing field of cyberinfrastructure development.

  2. Human health risk assessment of chloroxylenol in liquid hand soap and dishwashing soap used by consumers and health-care professionals.

    PubMed

    Yost, Lisa J; Rodricks, Joseph D; Turnbull, Duncan; DeLeo, Paul C; Nash, J Frank; Quiñones-Rivera, Antonio; Carlson, Pete A

    2016-10-01

    A quantitative human risk assessment of chloroxylenol was conducted for liquid hand and dishwashing soap products used by consumers and health-care workers. The toxicological data for chloroxylenol indicate lack of genotoxicity, no evidence of carcinogenicity, and minimal systemic toxicity. No observed adverse effect levels (NOAEL) were established from chronic toxicity studies, specifically a carcinogenicity study that found no cancer excess (18 mg/kg-day) and studies of developmental and reproductive toxicity (100 mg/kg-day). Exposure to chloroxylenol for adults and children was estimated for two types of rinse-off cleaning products, one liquid hand soap, and two dishwashing products. The identified NOAELs were used together with exposure estimates to derive margin of exposure (MOE) estimates for chloroxylenol (i.e., estimates of exposure over NOAELs). These estimates were designed with conservative assumptions and likely overestimate exposure and risk (i.e., highest frequency, 100% dermal penetration). The resulting MOEs ranged from 178 to over 100, 000, 000 indicating negligibly small potential for harm related to consumer or health-care worker exposure to chloroxylenol in liquid soaps used in dish washing and hand washing.

  3. Human health risk assessment of chloroxylenol in liquid hand soap and dishwashing soap used by consumers and health-care professionals.

    PubMed

    Yost, Lisa J; Rodricks, Joseph D; Turnbull, Duncan; DeLeo, Paul C; Nash, J Frank; Quiñones-Rivera, Antonio; Carlson, Pete A

    2016-10-01

    A quantitative human risk assessment of chloroxylenol was conducted for liquid hand and dishwashing soap products used by consumers and health-care workers. The toxicological data for chloroxylenol indicate lack of genotoxicity, no evidence of carcinogenicity, and minimal systemic toxicity. No observed adverse effect levels (NOAEL) were established from chronic toxicity studies, specifically a carcinogenicity study that found no cancer excess (18 mg/kg-day) and studies of developmental and reproductive toxicity (100 mg/kg-day). Exposure to chloroxylenol for adults and children was estimated for two types of rinse-off cleaning products, one liquid hand soap, and two dishwashing products. The identified NOAELs were used together with exposure estimates to derive margin of exposure (MOE) estimates for chloroxylenol (i.e., estimates of exposure over NOAELs). These estimates were designed with conservative assumptions and likely overestimate exposure and risk (i.e., highest frequency, 100% dermal penetration). The resulting MOEs ranged from 178 to over 100, 000, 000 indicating negligibly small potential for harm related to consumer or health-care worker exposure to chloroxylenol in liquid soaps used in dish washing and hand washing. PMID:27316554

  4. The efficacy of Pistacia Terebinthus soap in the treatment of cetuximab-induced skin toxicity.

    PubMed

    Tastekin, Didem; Tambas, Makbule; Kilic, Kemal; Erturk, Kayhan; Arslan, Deniz

    2014-12-01

    This open-labeled phase II, efficacy-finding study evaluated the efficiency and safety of Pistacia terebinthus soap in metastatic colorectal cancer patients who developed cetuximab induced skin toxicity. Patients who received cetuximab plus chemotherapy and developed Grade 2 or 3 skin toxicity were treated twice daily with a soap made of oil extracted from Pistacia terebinthus. During treatment, no topical or oral antibiotics, corticosteroids or other moisturizers were used. Patients were examined 1 week later and their photographs were taken. Fifteen mCRC patients who developed skin toxicity while receiving first-line CTX in combination with chemotherapy were included into the study. Eight patients were male and the median age was 58 (25-70). Sixty percent of the patients (n:9) had Grade 3 skin toxicity. Complete response rates in patients with Grade 2 and Grade 3 skin toxicities were 100 and 33%, respectively. In the remaining patients with Grade 3 toxicity the skin toxicity regressed to Grade 1. The objective response rate was 100%, and no delay, dose reduction or discontinuation of CTX treatment due to skin toxicity was necessary. Skin toxicity reoccurred in all patients when patients stopped administering the soap and therefore they used it throughout the cetuximab treatment. Pistacia terebinthus soap seemed to be used safely and effectively in the treatment of skin toxicity induced by Cetuximab.

  5. Effects of a Prosocial Television Soap Opera in Promoting Women's Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, William J.; Cody, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    Investigates the effects of India's first long-running television soap opera that was designed to promote women's status in Indian society. Finds that exposure to the program was positively associated with viewers' involvement with the characters in the program and with viewer's television dependency, but did not make viewers more aware of women's…

  6. Using falling soap film to visualize flow in a wavy channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monts, Vontravis; Edokpolo, Osazuwa; Mills, Zachary; Alexeev, Alexander

    2014-11-01

    The disturbances created by the walls of a sinusoidal shaped channel lead to the development of unsteady, time periodic flow. This periodic flow is the result of vortex shedding occurring along the crests of the channel walls. We used a falling soap film to investigate the influence of the channel geometry on the flow. In falling soap films, variations in the thickness of the film correspond to streamlines in the flow. These thickness variations are made visible by reflecting monochromatic light off the film. This allows for soap films to be an accurate, but inexpensive method of visualizing two dimensional flows. In our experiments we used a gravity driven soap film flowing through a wavy channel of several periods and used a high speed camera to record the resulting flow. The collected footage was then analyzed to collect data on the flow. From this data we were able to characterize the dependence of the size of the vortices and their shedding frequency on the amplitude and period of the sinusoidal channel walls as well as the Reynolds number of the flow.

  7. Drama and Simulation: A Soap Opera Game That Illustrates Dramaturgical Perspectives in Communications Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Daniel Mark

    1986-01-01

    Describes the Taffs Pit simulation game, which sets up a meeting between acting and production staff within an invented soap opera program with students role playing and critically observing, and then links to general themes of communication analysis. The simulation's design, role playing, and criticisms of the game are discussed. (MBR)

  8. Safety in Outdoor Adventure Programs. S.O.A.P. Safety Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Wayne, Comp.; And Others

    Drafted in 1978 as a working document for Safety in Outdoor Adventure Programs (S.O.A.P.) by a council of outdoor adventure programmers, checklists outline standard accepted safety policy for Outdoor Adventure Programs and Wilderness Adventure Programs conducted through public or private agencies in California. Safety policy emphasizes: the…

  9. Cartoons and Soap Operas: Popular Education in a Nova Scotia Fish Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Anne

    1988-01-01

    In a Nova Scotia fish plant, a group primarily made up of women used cartoons and soap operas to educate plant workers on union issues, domestic violence, and health issues, demonstrating the effectiveness of using people's own culture as a vehicle for their education. (SK)

  10. 11. 4TH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINE No. 6 TO NORTHEAST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. 4TH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINE No. 6 TO NORTHEAST, WITH WRAPPER (LEFT), PRESS (CENTER), AND CUTTER (RIGHT, BEHIND CHUTE); BUCKET CONVEYOR AT RIGHT MOVED WASTE FROM PRESS TO 5TH FLOOR FOR RE-MANUFACTURE - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-14, 54-58 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  11. Medicinal use and social status of the soap berry endod (Phytolacca dodecandra) in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Esser, Kjell B; Semagn, Kassa; Wolde-Yohannes, Legesse

    2003-04-01

    Berries from Phytolacca dodecandra L'Herit. (endod in Amharic) offer a readily available molluscicide to control schistosomiasis. Parts of the endod plant have been used as a detergent and as traditional medicine for centuries in Ethiopia. An interview survey was performed in the highlands of Ethiopia to provide information on the distribution of the plant, people's traditional use of it, their perception of the plant, and the potential for increased production and use of endod as a soap for indirect control of schistosomiasis. People of all ages report that they are familiar with the plant and its detergent and medicinal uses. The plant is largely disappearing from unprotected areas due to land clearing. Younger people appear to use endod as a soap whenever it is available. Older women prefer commercial soap and consider endod to be associated with poor people. Common medicinal uses include treatment of skin itching (ringworm), abortion, gonorrhea, leeches, intestinal worms, anthrax and rabies. Two thirds of the people express interest in cultivating endod for personal use if supplied with rooted cuttings. Increased cultivation of endod and use of berries for washing might be possible if information about schistosomiasis and its control is disseminated among people. Preference for commercial soap and lack of land for cultivation are major obstacles for increasing the availability and use of endod.

  12. Management of wastewater from soap and food industries: a case study.

    PubMed

    el-Gohary, F A; Abo-Elela, S I; Ali, H I

    1987-10-01

    This paper presents the wastewater management of an industrial complex which produces different products, i.e. soap, perfume extract, macaroni, jam and juices. A continuous monitoring programme for departmental as well as final effluents was carried out for almost 3 months. Characterization of the composite wastewater from both soap and food processing plants indicated that the waste was highly contaminated with organic compounds as indicated by COD and BOD values. Moreover, effluent from the soap manufacturing plant contains significant concentrations of oil and grease amounting to 563 mg l-1. Soap manufacturing effluent and the combined wastes discharged from the whole industrial complex were subjected to different treatment processes, namely dissolved air flotation, chemical coagulation-sedimentation, and biological treatment via a completely mixed activated sludge process. Although coagulation using alum followed by sedimentation removed 52% of COD, residual values did not comply with the regulatory standards. Biological treatment of the composite combined wastewater significantly removed the organic contaminants in wastewater. Average residual BOD, COD, oil and grease values were 30, 92 and 8.3 mg l-1 respectively. Based on the laboratory results a final process design was developed.

  13. SOAP 2.0: Spot Oscillation And Planet 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumusque, Xavier; Boisse, I.; Santos, N. C.

    2015-04-01

    SOAP (Spot Oscillation And Planet) 2.0 simulates the effects of dark spots and bright plages on the surface of a rotating star, computing their expected radial velocity and photometric signatures. It includes the convective blueshift and its inhibition in active regions.

  14. Space-filling polyhedron: its relation to aggregates of soap bubbles, plant cells, and metal crystallites.

    PubMed

    Williams, R E

    1968-07-19

    A fourteen-faced space-filling polyhedron which closely approximates the actual distribution of four-, five- and six-sided polygons found in packings of soap bubbles and biological cells is proposed as an alternative to the Kelvin tetrakaidecahedron as the ideal polyhedron for these packings. This polyhedron may also have relevance to crystallite morphologies and crystal structures. PMID:17821164

  15. Numerical and experimental study of the impact of small caliber projectiles on ballistic soap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyckmans, G.; Ndompetelo, N.; Chabotier, A.

    2003-09-01

    Terminal ballistic deals with interactions between targets and projectiles. One of the areas of interest is wound ballistics, where one studies the interaction between a projectile (a bullet or a fragment) and the human body. Soap and gelatin are commonly used materials for simulating soft human body tissue in wound ballistics experiments. They are to be considered as tools for comparing the effectiveness of different projectiles. The department of weapon systems & ballistics of the Belgian Royal Military Academy is examining to what extent the Autodyn hydrocode can be used as a numerical tool for simulating the penetration of military bullets into ballistic soap. This article presents the philosophy and the results of the project's first phase i.e. the use of Autodyn for simulating the penetration of a steel sphere into a block of ballistic soap as a result of a normal impact at different velocities. A series of experiments (real firings) have been performed in the laboratory of the department. They serve as a reference and validation tool for the numerical approach. The latter is characterized by the specific problem of accurate material modeling of the soap. The application of a stepwise parametric study of material models and parameters has resulted in numerical simulations which fit quite well with experiments.

  16. Moviemaking for the Language Acquisition Classroom: Engage Your Students with an Instructional "Soap"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Gigi; Crowther, Judith

    2004-01-01

    Television melodrama, like grand opera, is constructed to formula. Character interactions are highly charged and plot dominates, initiating excitement, suspense, and raising questions around timeless and universal themes. Despite--or because of--their extreme nature, the soaps remain one of the longest-standing television genres, with the loyal…

  17. The effect of handwashing with water or soap on bacterial contamination of hands.

    PubMed

    Burton, Maxine; Cobb, Emma; Donachie, Peter; Judah, Gaby; Curtis, Val; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter

    2011-01-01

    Handwashing is thought to be effective for the prevention of transmission of diarrhoea pathogens. However it is not conclusive that handwashing with soap is more effective at reducing contamination with bacteria associated with diarrhoea than using water only. In this study 20 volunteers contaminated their hands deliberately by touching door handles and railings in public spaces. They were then allocated at random to (1) handwashing with water, (2) handwashing with non-antibacterial soap and (3) no handwashing. Each volunteer underwent this procedure 24 times, yielding 480 samples overall. Bacteria of potential faecal origin (mostly Enterococcus and Enterobacter spp.) were found after no handwashing in 44% of samples. Handwashing with water alone reduced the presence of bacteria to 23% (p < 0.001). Handwashing with plain soap and water reduced the presence of bacteria to 8% (comparison of both handwashing arms: p < 0.001). The effect did not appear to depend on the bacteria species. Handwashing with non-antibacterial soap and water is more effective for the removal of bacteria of potential faecal origin from hands than handwashing with water alone and should therefore be more useful for the prevention of transmission of diarrhoeal diseases. PMID:21318017

  18. "In Situ" Observation of a Soap-Film Catenoid--A Simple Educational Physics Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Masato; Sato, Taku

    2010-01-01

    The solution to the Euler-Lagrange equation is an extremal functional. To understand that the functional is stationary at local extrema (maxima or minima), we propose a physics experiment that involves using a soap film to form a catenoid. A catenoid is a surface that is formed between two coaxial circular rings and is classified mathematically as…

  19. Standardised Observation Analogue Procedure (SOAP) for Assessing Parent and Child Behaviours in Clinical Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Cynthia R.; Butter, Eric M.; Handen, Benjamin L.; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Mulick, James; Lecavalier, Luc; Aman, Michael G.; Arnold, Eugene L.; Scahill, Lawrence; Swiezy, Naomi; Sacco, Kelley; Stigler, Kimberly A.; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Observational measures of parent and child behaviours have a long history in child psychiatric and psychological intervention research, including the field of autism and developmental disability. We describe the development of the Standardised Observational Analogue Procedure (SOAP) for the assessment of parent-child behaviour before…

  20. Can Cultural Competence Be Taught? Evaluating the Impact of the SOAP Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin-Burque, Angie; Zugazaga, Carole B.; Davis-Maye, Denise

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the Self and Other Awareness Project (SOAP) cultural competence development model and presents the results of a study that evaluated its impact on the racial attitudes of 110 undergraduate students enrolled in an undergraduate interdisciplinary Minority Groups course at a mid-sized public university in the Southeastern…

  1. Entertainment Education and Social Change: Evaluating a Children's Soap Opera in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Block, Liesbeth

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses audience responses to a children's soap opera produced and broadcast in Kenya. It examines the evaluation process in relation to qualitative audience research within Cultural Studies. It challenges an Entertainment-Education model of media as vehicles for messages and links strongly with Communication for Social Change…

  2. Authentic ESL Spoken Materials: Soap Opera and Sitcom versus Natural Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Surmi, Mansoor Ali

    2012-01-01

    TV shows, especially soap operas and sitcoms, are usually considered by ESL practitioners as a source of authentic spoken conversational materials presumably because they reflect the linguistic features of natural conversation. However, practitioners might be faced with the dilemma of how to evaluate whether such conversational materials reflect…

  3. Keeping Up with the Joneses. A Soap Opera for Adult ESL Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Chiquita

    A series of high-interest, low English-language-learning-level stories developed for adult students of English as a second language are combined as a soap opera for classroom use. An introductory section outlines techniques for presentation of the texts on tape and in written form and for exercises in listening, making inferences, reading, and…

  4. A new model for assessing the damaging effects of soaps and surfactants on human stratum corneum.

    PubMed

    Shukuwa, T; Kligman, A M; Stoudemayer, T J

    1997-01-01

    To elucidate the damage to the horny layers of human skin produced by surfactants and soaps, we evaluated the cytological alterations of corneocytes using an in vitro assay. Suction blisters, 8 mm in diameter, were raised on the forearms of young adult Caucasoids. The roofs were cut off and the viable epidermis was removed. The discs of stratum corneum were then agitated for up to 6 h at 60 degrees C in 1% solution of five soap bars of differing irritancy. Additionally, individual examples of anionic, cationic and nonionic surfactants were similarly evaluated. Measurements of corneocytes included: (1) the number released with time (disaggregation), (2) size (swelling) and (3) morphologic degradation. The effects of the cationic and non-ionic surfactants did not differ significantly from those of distilled water. The anionic surfactant caused more release and less swelling and morphological change. The test soaps had vastly different effects on the structural integrity of the stratum corneum. The harsher ones caused greater disaggregation, more swelling and greater morphologic deterioration of corneocytes, whereas the milder ones had less marked effects on these parameters. This model would be a useful screening technique for formulating milder soaps and might also provide insights into the complex modes of action of surfactants on the stratum corneum. PMID:9059673

  5. Comparison of virucidal activity of alcohol-based hand sanitizers versus antimicrobial hand soaps in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Steinmann, J; Paulmann, D; Becker, B; Bischoff, B; Steinmann, E; Steinmann, J

    2012-12-01

    Three ethanol-based sanitizers were compared with three antimicrobial liquid soaps for their efficacy to inactivate polio-, adeno-, vaccinia- and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) as well as feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus (MNV) as surrogates for human norovirus in a suspension test. Additionally, sanitizers and soaps were examined against MNV in a modified fingerpad method. All sanitizers sufficiently inactivated the test viruses in the suspension test whereas two soaps were active only against vaccinia virus and BVDV. In the modified fingerpad test a povidone-iodine-containing soap was superior to the sanitizers whereas the other two soaps showed no activity. PMID:23009803

  6. Comparison of virucidal activity of alcohol-based hand sanitizers versus antimicrobial hand soaps in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Steinmann, J; Paulmann, D; Becker, B; Bischoff, B; Steinmann, E; Steinmann, J

    2012-12-01

    Three ethanol-based sanitizers were compared with three antimicrobial liquid soaps for their efficacy to inactivate polio-, adeno-, vaccinia- and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) as well as feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus (MNV) as surrogates for human norovirus in a suspension test. Additionally, sanitizers and soaps were examined against MNV in a modified fingerpad method. All sanitizers sufficiently inactivated the test viruses in the suspension test whereas two soaps were active only against vaccinia virus and BVDV. In the modified fingerpad test a povidone-iodine-containing soap was superior to the sanitizers whereas the other two soaps showed no activity.

  7. Environmental monitoring study of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates and insoluble soap in Spanish sewage sludge samples.

    PubMed

    Cantarero, Samuel; Zafra-Gómez, Alberto; Ballesteros, Oscar; Navalón, Alberto; Reis, Marco S; Saraiva, Pedro M; Vílchez, José L

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present a monitoring study of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) and insoluble soap performed on Spanish sewage sludge samples. This work focuses on finding statistical relations between LAS concentrations and insoluble soap in sewage sludge samples and variables related to wastewater treatment plants such as water hardness, population and treatment type. It is worth to mention that 38 samples, collected from different Spanish regions, were studied. The statistical tool we used was Principal Component Analysis (PC), in order to reduce the number of response variables. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and a non-parametric test such as the Kruskal-Wallis test were also studied through the estimation of the p-value (probability of obtaining a test statistic at least as extreme as the one that was actually observed, assuming that the null hypothesis is true) in order to study possible relations between the concentration of both analytes and the rest of variables. We also compared LAS and insoluble soap behaviors. In addition, the results obtained for LAS (mean value) were compared with the limit value proposed by the future Directive entitled "Working Document on Sludge". According to the results, the mean obtained for soap and LAS was 26.49 g kg(-1) and 6.15 g kg(-1) respectively. It is worth noting that LAS mean was significantly higher than the limit value (2.6 g kg(-1)). In addition, LAS and soap concentrations depend largely on water hardness. However, only LAS concentration depends on treatment type.

  8. Performance of Lead-Free versus Lead-Based Hunting Ammunition in Ballistic Soap

    PubMed Central

    Gremse, Felix; Krone, Oliver; Thamm, Mirko; Kiessling, Fabian; Tolba, René Hany; Rieger, Siegfried; Gremse, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Background Lead-free hunting bullets are an alternative to lead-containing bullets which cause health risks for humans and endangered scavenging raptors through lead ingestion. However, doubts concerning the effectiveness of lead-free hunting bullets hinder the wide-spread acceptance in the hunting and wildlife management community. Methods We performed terminal ballistic experiments under standardized conditions with ballistic soap as surrogate for game animal tissue to characterize dimensionally stable, partially fragmenting, and deforming lead-free bullets and one commonly used lead-containing bullet. The permanent cavities created in soap blocks are used as a measure for the potential wound damage. The soap blocks were imaged using computed tomography to assess the volume and shape of the cavity and the number of fragments. Shots were performed at different impact speeds, covering a realistic shooting range. Using 3D image segmentation, cavity volume, metal fragment count, deflection angle, and depth of maximum damage were determined. Shots were repeated to investigate the reproducibility of ballistic soap experiments. Results All bullets showed an increasing cavity volume with increasing deposited energy. The dimensionally stable and fragmenting lead-free bullets achieved a constant conversion ratio while the deforming copper and lead-containing bullets showed a ratio, which increases linearly with the total deposited energy. The lead-containing bullet created hundreds of fragments and significantly more fragments than the lead-free bullets. The deflection angle was significantly higher for the dimensionally stable bullet due to its tumbling behavior and was similarly low for the other bullets. The deforming bullets achieved higher reproducibility than the fragmenting and dimensionally stable bullets. Conclusion The deforming lead-free bullet closely resembled the deforming lead-containing bullet in terms of energy conversion, deflection angle, cavity shape

  9. A room-temperature protocol to access isoquinolines through Ag(I) catalysed annulation of o-(1-alkynyl)arylaldehydes and ketones with NH4OAc: elaboration to berberine and palmatine.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Virsinha; Jadhav, Abhijeet S; Vijaya Anand, Ramasamy

    2015-03-28

    An efficient and mild protocol for the direct construction of aryl- and alkyl-substituted isoquinolines has been realized through silver nitrate catalyzed aromatic annulation of o-(1-alkynyl)arylaldehydes and ketones with ammonium acetate. The salient feature of this methodology is that this annulation could be effected at room temperature leading to a wide range of isoquinoline derivatives in good to excellent yields. Additionally, this approach has been employed to the synthesis of biologically important isoquinoline alkaloids such as berberine and palmatine. PMID:25687222

  10. Accessibility Videos.

    PubMed

    Kurppa, Ari; Nordlund, Marika

    2016-01-01

    It can be difficult to understand accessibility, if you do not have the personal experience. The Accessibility Centre ESKE produced short videos which demonstrate the meaning of accessibility in different situations. Videos will raise accessibility awareness of architects, other planners and professionals in the construction field and maintenance. PMID:27534282

  11. Rapid study of fragrance loss from commercial soap after use by solid phase microextraction-GC/MS and olfactory evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Marcel

    2006-09-01

    A quick and reliable approach was reported to measure the perfume loss in a commercial soap sample after continued use. This work firstly studied the fragrance loss profile in soap scientifically combined and compared with traditional olfactory evaluation. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME), as a simple and effective adsorption and desorption technique, was selected here to eliminate the needs of organic solvents or complicated apparatus; more importantly, SPME kept the soap intact and made it available for continued study. Thanks to control of the sampling time and other extraction parameters, a consistent and reliable result was achieved, which was much better and more detailed than traditional olfactory evaluation done by human beings.

  12. [Wheat dependent exercise induced anaphylaxis possibly sensitized by the hydrolyzed wheat proteins in a facial cleansing soap].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Miwa; Okura, Risa; Yoshioka, Haruna; Hiromasa, Kana; Yoshioka, Manabu; Nakamura, Motonobu

    2012-03-01

    There are increasing cases of wheat dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA) with transcutaneous or transmucosal sensitization. Hydrolyzed wheat included in a certain brand of soap was identified as a cause of sensitization. The useful clues to detect this disorder consist of the patient's past usage of a soap containing hydrolyzed wheat, the appearance of cutaneous or mucosal symptoms after the intake of wheat or washing with this soap, and a high level of specific IgE for wheat gluten. Because hydrolyzed wheat is used as an additive in a wide variety of cosmetics, we should pay careful attention to the ingredients of cosmetics when observing WDEIA.

  13. Streaming weekly soap opera video episodes to smartphones in a randomized controlled trial to reduce HIV risk in young urban African American/black women.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rachel; Lacroix, Lorraine J

    2012-07-01

    Love, Sex, and Choices is a 12-episode soap opera video series created as an intervention to reduce HIV sex risk. The effect on women's HIV risk behavior was evaluated in a randomized controlled trial in 238 high risk, predominately African American young adult women in the urban Northeast. To facilitate on-demand access and privacy, the episodes were streamed to study-provided smartphones. Here, we discuss the development of a mobile platform to deliver the 12-weekly video episodes or weekly HIV risk reduction written messages to smartphones, including; the technical requirements, development, and evaluation. Popularity of the smartphone and use of the Internet for multimedia offer a new channel to address health disparities in traditionally underserved populations. This is the first study to report on streaming a serialized video-based intervention to a smartphone. The approach described here may provide useful insights in assessing advantages and disadvantages of smartphones to implement a video-based intervention. PMID:22430640

  14. Streaming weekly soap opera video episodes to smartphones in a randomized controlled trial to reduce HIV risk in young urban African American/black women.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rachel; Lacroix, Lorraine J

    2012-07-01

    Love, Sex, and Choices is a 12-episode soap opera video series created as an intervention to reduce HIV sex risk. The effect on women's HIV risk behavior was evaluated in a randomized controlled trial in 238 high risk, predominately African American young adult women in the urban Northeast. To facilitate on-demand access and privacy, the episodes were streamed to study-provided smartphones. Here, we discuss the development of a mobile platform to deliver the 12-weekly video episodes or weekly HIV risk reduction written messages to smartphones, including; the technical requirements, development, and evaluation. Popularity of the smartphone and use of the Internet for multimedia offer a new channel to address health disparities in traditionally underserved populations. This is the first study to report on streaming a serialized video-based intervention to a smartphone. The approach described here may provide useful insights in assessing advantages and disadvantages of smartphones to implement a video-based intervention.

  15. Analyzing multiple data sets by interconnecting RSAT programs via SOAP Web services: an example with ChIP-chip data.

    PubMed

    Sand, Olivier; Thomas-Chollier, Morgane; Vervisch, Eric; van Helden, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    This protocol shows how to access the Regulatory Sequence Analysis Tools (RSAT) via a programmatic interface in order to automate the analysis of multiple data sets. We describe the steps for writing a Perl client that connects to the RSAT Web services and implements a workflow to discover putative cis-acting elements in promoters of gene clusters. In the presented example, we apply this workflow to lists of transcription factor target genes resulting from ChIP-chip experiments. For each factor, the protocol predicts the binding motifs by detecting significantly overrepresented hexanucleotides in the target promoters and generates a feature map that displays the positions of putative binding sites along the promoter sequences. This protocol is addressed to bioinformaticians and biologists with programming skills (notions of Perl). Running time is approximately 6 min on the example data set.

  16. Clinical evidence continuous medical education: a randomised educational trial of an open access e-learning program for transferring evidence-based information – ICEKUBE (Italian Clinical Evidence Knowledge Utilization Behaviour Evaluation) – study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Moja, Lorenzo; Moschetti, Ivan; Cinquini, Michela; Sala, Valeria; Compagnoni, Anna; Duca, Piergiorgio; Deligant, Christian; Manfrini, Roberto; Clivio, Luca; Satolli, Roberto; Addis, Antonio; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Dri, Pietro; Liberati, Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    Background In an effort to ensure that all physicians have access to valid and reliable evidence on drug effectiveness, the Italian Drug Agency sponsored a free-access e-learning system, based on Clinical Evidence, called ECCE. Doctors have access to an electronic version and related clinical vignettes. Correct answers to the interactive vignettes provide Continuing Medical Education credits. The aims of this trial are to establish whether the e-learning program (ECCE) increases physicians' basic knowledge about common clinical scenarios, and whether ECCE is superior to the passive diffusion of information through the printed version of Clinical Evidence. Design All Italian doctors naïve to ECCE will be randomised to three groups. Group one will have access to ECCE for Clinical Evidence chapters and vignettes lot A and will provide control data for Clinical Evidence chapters and vignettes lot B; group two vice versa; group three will receive the concise printed version of Clinical Evidence. There are in fact two designs: a before and after pragmatic trial utilising a two by two incomplete block design (group one versus group two) and a classical design (group one and two versus group three). The primary outcome will be the retention of Clinical Evidence contents assessed from the scores for clinical vignettes selected from ECCE at least six months after the intervention. To avoid test-retest effects, we will randomly select vignettes out of lot A and lot B, avoiding repetitions. In order to preserve the comparability of lots, we will select vignettes with similar, optimal psychometric characteristics. Trial registration ISRCTN27453314 PMID:18637189

  17. 47 CFR 79.109 - Activating accessibility features.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ACCESSIBILITY OF VIDEO PROGRAMMING Apparatus § 79.109 Activating accessibility features. (a) Requirements... video programming transmitted in digital format simultaneously with sound, including apparatus designed to receive or display video programming transmitted in digital format using Internet protocol,...

  18. Alternative parallel ring protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, R.; Foudriat, E. C.; Maly, Kurt J.; Kale, V.

    1990-01-01

    Communication protocols are know to influence the utilization and performance of communication network. The effect of two token ring protocols on a gigabit network with multiple ring structure is investigated. In the first protocol, a mode sends at most one message on receiving a token. In the second protocol, a mode sends all the waiting messages when a token is received. The behavior of these protocols is shown to be highly dependent on the number of rings as well as the load in the network.

  19. Protocol to Exploit Waiting Resources for UASNs.

    PubMed

    Hung, Li-Ling; Luo, Yung-Jeng

    2016-01-01

    The transmission speed of acoustic waves in water is much slower than that of radio waves in terrestrial wireless sensor networks. Thus, the propagation delay in underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASN) is much greater. Longer propagation delay leads to complicated communication and collision problems. To solve collision problems, some studies have proposed waiting mechanisms; however, long waiting mechanisms result in low bandwidth utilization. To improve throughput, this study proposes a slotted medium access control protocol to enhance bandwidth utilization in UASNs. The proposed mechanism increases communication by exploiting temporal and spatial resources that are typically idle in order to protect communication against interference. By reducing wait time, network performance and energy consumption can be improved. A performance evaluation demonstrates that when the data packets are large or sensor deployment is dense, the energy consumption of proposed protocol is less than that of existing protocols as well as the throughput is higher than that of existing protocols.

  20. Protocol to Exploit Waiting Resources for UASNs.

    PubMed

    Hung, Li-Ling; Luo, Yung-Jeng

    2016-01-01

    The transmission speed of acoustic waves in water is much slower than that of radio waves in terrestrial wireless sensor networks. Thus, the propagation delay in underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASN) is much greater. Longer propagation delay leads to complicated communication and collision problems. To solve collision problems, some studies have proposed waiting mechanisms; however, long waiting mechanisms result in low bandwidth utilization. To improve throughput, this study proposes a slotted medium access control protocol to enhance bandwidth utilization in UASNs. The proposed mechanism increases communication by exploiting temporal and spatial resources that are typically idle in order to protect communication against interference. By reducing wait time, network performance and energy consumption can be improved. A performance evaluation demonstrates that when the data packets are large or sensor deployment is dense, the energy consumption of proposed protocol is less than that of existing protocols as well as the throughput is higher than that of existing protocols. PMID:27005624

  1. Lipase assay in soils by copper soap colorimetry.

    PubMed

    Saisuburamaniyan, N; Krithika, L; Dileena, K P; Sivasubramanian, S; Puvanakrishnan, R

    2004-07-01

    A simple and sensitive method for the estimation of lipase activity in soils is reported. In this method, 50mg of soil is incubated with emulsified substrate, the fatty acids liberated are treated with cupric acetate-pyridine reagent, and the color developed is measured at 715 nm. Use of olive oil in this protocol leads to an estimation of true lipase activity in soils. The problem of released fatty acids getting adsorbed onto the soil colloids is obviated by the use of isooctane, and separate standards for different soils need not be developed. Among the various surfactants used for emulsification, polyvinyl alcohol is found to be the most effective. Incubation time of 20 min, soil concentration of 50 mg, pH 6.5, and incubation temperature of 37 degrees C were found to be the most suitable conditions for this assay. During the process of enrichment of the soils with oil, interference by the added oil is avoided by the maintenance of a suitable control, wherein 50 mg of soil is added after stopping the reaction. This assay is sensitive and it could be adopted to screen for lipase producers from enriched soils and oil-contaminated soils before resorting to isolation of the microbes by classical screening methods.

  2. Occurrence of heterotrophic and coliform bacteria in liquid hand soaps from bulk refillable dispensers in public facilities.

    PubMed

    Chattman, Marisa; Gerba, Sheri L; Maxwell, Charles P

    2011-03-01

    The goal of the study discussed in this article was to determine the occurrence of heterotrophic and coliform bacteria in liquid soap from bulk refillable dispensers, obtained from restrooms in a variety of public facilities. A total of 541 samples was collected from five U.S. cities. Liquid soap from dispensers in public areas was found to contain heterotrophic and coliform bacterial numbers averaging more than 106 CFU/mL in 24.8% of the dispensers.

  3. Measuring and Overcoming Limits of the Saffman-Delbrück Model for Soap Film Viscosities

    PubMed Central

    Vivek, Skanda; Weeks, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    We observe tracer particles diffusing in soap films to measure the two-dimensional (2D) viscous properties of the films. Saffman-Delbrück type models relate the single-particle diffusivity to parameters of the film (such as thickness h) for thin films, but the relation breaks down for thicker films. Notably, the diffusivity is faster than expected for thicker films, with the crossover at h/d = 5.2 ± 0.9 using the tracer particle diameter d. This indicates a crossover from purely 2D diffusion to diffusion that is more three-dimensional. We demonstrate that measuring the correlations of particle pairs as a function of their separation overcomes the limitations of the Saffman-Delbrück model and allows one to measure the viscosity of a soap film for any thickness. PMID:25822262

  4. Fatty acids, calcium soaps of fatty acids, and cottonseeds fed to high yielding cows.

    PubMed

    Sklan, D; Ashkenazi, R; Braun, A; Devorin, A; Tabori, K

    1992-09-01

    We examined the effects of dietary fat as cottonseed, fatty acids, or calcium soaps of fatty acids in the rations of high yielding lactating cows receiving low forage. Experiments were with isoenergetic, isonitrogenous diets containing equal amounts of forage. Inclusion of up to 510 g/d of fatty acids in the ration enhanced FCM yield. With cottonseed, increased FCM was mainly due to increased fat yield. Dietary fatty acids tended to increase milk in mid and late lactation and to decrease fat percentage. Calcium soaps of fatty acids enhanced FCM, particularly in early lactation. Feeding cottonseed and fatty acids together did not enhance yield. Effects described may be attributed in part to changes in ruminal fermentation in which cottonseed increased acetate concentrations and fatty acids decreased the ratio of acetate and butyrate to propionate and in part to enhanced efficiency of milk yield when fat was included in the ration.

  5. A simple geometrical model describing shapes of soap films suspended on two rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Felix J.; Kilvington, Charles D.; Wildenberg, Rebekah L.; Camacho, Franco E.; Walecki, Wojciech J.; Walecki, Peter S.; Walecki, Eve S.

    2016-09-01

    We measured and analysed the stability of two types of soap films suspended on two rings using the simple conical frusta-based model, where we use common definition of conical frustum as a portion of a cone that lies between two parallel planes cutting it. Using frusta-based we reproduced very well-known results for catenoid surfaces with and without a central disk. We present for the first time a simple conical frusta based spreadsheet model of the soap surface. This very simple, elementary, geometrical model produces results surprisingly well matching the experimental data and known exact analytical solutions. The experiment and the spreadsheet model can be used as a powerful teaching tool for pre-calculus and geometry students.

  6. Study on small molecular organic compounds pyrolysed from rubber seed oil and its sodium soap.

    PubMed

    Fernando, T L D; Prashantha, M A B; Amarasinghe, A D U S

    2016-01-01

    Rubber seed oil (RSO) and its sodium soap were pyrolysed in a batch reactor to obtain low molar mass organic substances. The pyrolitic oil of RSO was redistilled and the distillates were characterized by GC-MS and FTIR. Density, acid value, saponification value and ester values were also measured according to the ASTM standard methods. A similar analysis was done for samples taken out at different time intervals from the reaction mixture. Industrially important low molar mass alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, cyclic compounds and carboxylic acids were identified in the pyrolysis process of rubber seed oil. However, pyrolysis of the sodium soap of rubber seed oil gave a mixture of hydrocarbons in the range of C14-C17 and hence it has more applications as a fuel. PMID:27066350

  7. Antimicrobial efficacy of soap and water hand washing versus an alcohol-based hand cleanser.

    PubMed

    Holton, Ronald H; Huber, Michaell A; Terezhalmy, Geza T

    2009-12-01

    The emergence of alcohol-based hand cleansers may represent an alternative to soap and water in the clinical dental setting. In this study, the antimicrobial efficacy of traditional hand washing vs. a unique alcohol-based hand cleanser with persistence was evaluated. Two experienced dentists participated over a 10-day period. On days 1-5, each clinician used an antibacterial liquid soap (Dial, Dial Corporation, Scottsdale, AZ). Days 6-10, an alcohol-based hand cleanser (Triseptin Water Optional, Healthpoint Surgical, Fort Worth, TX) was used. Sampling was by modified glove juice technique. The results indicate that the alcohol-based hand cleanser dramatically outperforms the traditional hand washing agent in the general dental setting. PMID:20131613

  8. The use of soap and water in two Bangladeshi communities: implications for the transmission of diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Zeitlyn, S; Islam, F

    1991-01-01

    Efforts to reduce the incidence of diarrheal infections in which enteropathogens are endemic have focused on education about the importance of hand washing to interrupt transmission of such organisms. Since the effectiveness of health education depends on an understanding of the recipients' ideas and customs, we studied perceptions of cleanliness and the role of soap and hand washing in two poor Bangladeshi communities, one rural and one urban. We found that ideas about cleanliness generally are not based on germ theory; cleanliness is viewed in a larger, socioreligious context of purity vs. impurity. Washing serves both physical and spiritual needs and is performed according to defined patterns that may not effectively interrupt transmission of microorganisms. Soap is regarded as a cosmetic rather than an agent for removal of microorganisms. PMID:2047648

  9. Study on small molecular organic compounds pyrolysed from rubber seed oil and its sodium soap.

    PubMed

    Fernando, T L D; Prashantha, M A B; Amarasinghe, A D U S

    2016-01-01

    Rubber seed oil (RSO) and its sodium soap were pyrolysed in a batch reactor to obtain low molar mass organic substances. The pyrolitic oil of RSO was redistilled and the distillates were characterized by GC-MS and FTIR. Density, acid value, saponification value and ester values were also measured according to the ASTM standard methods. A similar analysis was done for samples taken out at different time intervals from the reaction mixture. Industrially important low molar mass alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, cyclic compounds and carboxylic acids were identified in the pyrolysis process of rubber seed oil. However, pyrolysis of the sodium soap of rubber seed oil gave a mixture of hydrocarbons in the range of C14-C17 and hence it has more applications as a fuel.

  10. Measuring and overcoming limits of the Saffman-Delbrück model for soap film viscosities.

    PubMed

    Vivek, Skanda; Weeks, Eric R

    2015-01-01

    We observe tracer particles diffusing in soap films to measure the two-dimensional (2D) viscous properties of the films. Saffman-Delbrück type models relate the single-particle diffusivity to parameters of the film (such as thickness h) for thin films, but the relation breaks down for thicker films. Notably, the diffusivity is faster than expected for thicker films, with the crossover at h/d = 5.2 ± 0.9 using the tracer particle diameter d. This indicates a crossover from purely 2D diffusion to diffusion that is more three-dimensional. We demonstrate that measuring the correlations of particle pairs as a function of their separation overcomes the limitations of the Saffman-Delbrück model and allows one to measure the viscosity of a soap film for any thickness.

  11. Update on antibacterial soaps: the FDA takes a second look at triclosans.

    PubMed

    Bergstrom, Kendra Gail

    2014-04-01

    In December of 2013 the Food and Drug Administration announced it would look further into the safety and efficacy of the biocide triclosan and requested further safety data as part of a new review with the Environmental Protection Agency. The use of triclosan has increased exponentially since its introduction in in 1972, to the point that 75% of commercial soap brands contain triclosan and 76% of a nationwide sample of adults and children excrete triclosan in the urine. This announcement raised an important dialog about the appropriate use of all over the counter biocides. Particular concerns include whether these biocides are more effective than regular soaps, whether they may create new drug resistant bacteria, and whether they may also act as hormone disruptors in humans or the environment.

  12. Evolution of soap froth from an initial bubble crystal state to the scaling state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szeto, K. Y.; Tam, W. Y.

    2000-02-01

    Soap froth evolution from an initial state consisting of mainly hexagons, to a scaling state with a time invariant distribution of cells is reported. Analysis of the two-dimensional cellular pattern as a function of time is performed using information entropy associated with the probability density function of the number of sides of the cell. We observe a period of self-organization in the cellular pattern, when the entropy is decreasing with time. To a good approximation, we also observed that the fractional entropy occupied by hexagons is time independent over the entire period of measurement, from transient, to self-organizing and the quasi-static scaling regime at long time. The universal curve relating the Aboav's parameter and the second moment of the probability density of number of edges is obeyed during the entire period of evolution. The resemblance of the pattern formation of soap froth to the evolution of bacteria culture is discussed.

  13. Update on antibacterial soaps: the FDA takes a second look at triclosans.

    PubMed

    Bergstrom, Kendra Gail

    2014-04-01

    In December of 2013 the Food and Drug Administration announced it would look further into the safety and efficacy of the biocide triclosan and requested further safety data as part of a new review with the Environmental Protection Agency. The use of triclosan has increased exponentially since its introduction in in 1972, to the point that 75% of commercial soap brands contain triclosan and 76% of a nationwide sample of adults and children excrete triclosan in the urine. This announcement raised an important dialog about the appropriate use of all over the counter biocides. Particular concerns include whether these biocides are more effective than regular soaps, whether they may create new drug resistant bacteria, and whether they may also act as hormone disruptors in humans or the environment. PMID:24719072

  14. Measuring and overcoming limits of the Saffman-Delbrück model for soap film viscosities.

    PubMed

    Vivek, Skanda; Weeks, Eric R

    2015-01-01

    We observe tracer particles diffusing in soap films to measure the two-dimensional (2D) viscous properties of the films. Saffman-Delbrück type models relate the single-particle diffusivity to parameters of the film (such as thickness h) for thin films, but the relation breaks down for thicker films. Notably, the diffusivity is faster than expected for thicker films, with the crossover at h/d = 5.2 ± 0.9 using the tracer particle diameter d. This indicates a crossover from purely 2D diffusion to diffusion that is more three-dimensional. We demonstrate that measuring the correlations of particle pairs as a function of their separation overcomes the limitations of the Saffman-Delbrück model and allows one to measure the viscosity of a soap film for any thickness. PMID:25822262

  15. The preparation of ceramic nickel metal microcompostes using an ammonium soap solution-based method

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, N.A.; Robinson, D.A.

    1995-12-01

    Robinson and Maginnis have developed a process for the preparation of metal ceramic composites using an ammonium soap solution-based route. Their work focused on the preparation of silver/YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} composites. We have extended their work to prepare nickel ceramic microcomposites. In this method, an ammonium soap of 2-ethylhexanoate is used to prepare a nickel metallorganic in solution that is rapidly gelled or precipitated around a suspended and dispersed ceramic. This is followed by a low-temperature heat treatment in hydrogen to produce the desired composite. By varying the heat treatment, the composite can be altered from metal-coated ceramic grains to finely dispersed metal in a ceramic matrix. The experimental preparation of this material will be presented along with optical micrographs and spectroscopic data.

  16. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-01-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks

    Guest Editors Jun Zheng, University of Ottawa Nirwan Ansari, New Jersey Institute of Technology

    Submission Deadline: 1 June 2005

    Background

    With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the

  17. The Use of D-Optimal Mixture Design in Optimising Okara Soap Formulation for Stratum Corneum Application

    PubMed Central

    Borhan, Farrah Payyadhah; Abd Gani, Siti Salwa; Shamsuddin, Rosnah

    2014-01-01

    Okara, soybean waste from tofu and soymilk production, was utilised as a natural antioxidant in soap formulation for stratum corneum application. D-optimal mixture design was employed to investigate the influence of the main compositions of okara soap containing different fatty acid and oils (virgin coconut oil A (24–28% w/w), olive oil B (15–20% w/w), palm oil C (6–10% w/w), castor oil D (15–20% w/w), cocoa butter E (6–10% w/w), and okara F (2–7% w/w)) by saponification process on the response hardness of the soap. The experimental data were utilized to carry out analysis of variance (ANOVA) and to develop a polynomial regression model for okara soap hardness in terms of the six design factors considered in this study. Results revealed that the best mixture was the formulation that included 26.537% A, 19.999% B, 9.998% C, 16.241% D, 7.633% E, and 7.000% F. The results proved that the difference in the level of fatty acid and oils in the formulation significantly affects the hardness of soap. Depending on the desirable level of those six variables, creation of okara based soap with desirable properties better than those of commercial ones is possible. PMID:25548777

  18. The use of D-optimal mixture design in optimising okara soap formulation for stratum corneum application.

    PubMed

    Borhan, Farrah Payyadhah; Abd Gani, Siti Salwa; Shamsuddin, Rosnah

    2014-01-01

    Okara, soybean waste from tofu and soymilk production, was utilised as a natural antioxidant in soap formulation for stratum corneum application. D-optimal mixture design was employed to investigate the influence of the main compositions of okara soap containing different fatty acid and oils (virgin coconut oil A (24-28% w/w), olive oil B (15-20% w/w), palm oil C (6-10% w/w), castor oil D (15-20% w/w), cocoa butter E (6-10% w/w), and okara F (2-7% w/w)) by saponification process on the response hardness of the soap. The experimental data were utilized to carry out analysis of variance (ANOVA) and to develop a polynomial regression model for okara soap hardness in terms of the six design factors considered in this study. Results revealed that the best mixture was the formulation that included 26.537% A, 19.999% B, 9.998% C, 16.241% D, 7.633% E, and 7.000% F. The results proved that the difference in the level of fatty acid and oils in the formulation significantly affects the hardness of soap. Depending on the desirable level of those six variables, creation of okara based soap with desirable properties better than those of commercial ones is possible.

  19. The use of D-optimal mixture design in optimising okara soap formulation for stratum corneum application.

    PubMed

    Borhan, Farrah Payyadhah; Abd Gani, Siti Salwa; Shamsuddin, Rosnah

    2014-01-01

    Okara, soybean waste from tofu and soymilk production, was utilised as a natural antioxidant in soap formulation for stratum corneum application. D-optimal mixture design was employed to investigate the influence of the main compositions of okara soap containing different fatty acid and oils (virgin coconut oil A (24-28% w/w), olive oil B (15-20% w/w), palm oil C (6-10% w/w), castor oil D (15-20% w/w), cocoa butter E (6-10% w/w), and okara F (2-7% w/w)) by saponification process on the response hardness of the soap. The experimental data were utilized to carry out analysis of variance (ANOVA) and to develop a polynomial regression model for okara soap hardness in terms of the six design factors considered in this study. Results revealed that the best mixture was the formulation that included 26.537% A, 19.999% B, 9.998% C, 16.241% D, 7.633% E, and 7.000% F. The results proved that the difference in the level of fatty acid and oils in the formulation significantly affects the hardness of soap. Depending on the desirable level of those six variables, creation of okara based soap with desirable properties better than those of commercial ones is possible. PMID:25548777

  20. Effects of a prosocial television soap opera in promoting women's status.

    PubMed

    Brown, W J; Cody, M J

    1991-09-01

    The effects of exposure to "Hum Log," India's first long-running television soap opera, on viewers' beliefs about women's status, freedom of choice, and family planning were assessed in a survey of 1170 respondents from three geographic areas. The soap opera is intended to promote prosocial beliefs about the role of women in India. A structural equation model was developed to measure the impact of awareness, involvement, and television dependency on personal beliefs. Viewers who were most exposed to "Hum Log" were more involved with its characters and more dependent on Indian television for education and entertainment, but were no more aware than their less exposed counterparts of the prosocial beliefs promoted by the soap opera. There was no significant association between viewers' involvement with the characters and their beliefs about women's equality, freedom of choice, or family planning. Moreover, viewers who were more dependent on television did not exhibit significantly stronger beliefs about these issues. There was a significant association between awareness of the prosocial messages promoted in "Hum Log" and viewer beliefs in freedom of choice and family planning. Overall, it appears that, while "Hum Log" enjoys a large and dedicated audience, its messages regarding women's equality are not being assimilated on a large scale. An analysis of the female characters in the soap opera reveals that, in many cases, the self-sufficient, career-oriented women experienced negative social consequences, while characters who pursued more traditional female roles were rewarded. Thus, while there is no evidence that "Hum Log" is making a significant contribution toward changing the way women are viewed in India, its popularity paves the way for future prosocial programming

  1. Effect of temperature on the life of soap bubbles, and their solidification at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Grosse, A V

    1966-08-19

    Soap bubbles (also films on wire frames) have been solidified at low temperatures. At~-30 degrees C the bubbles still behave normally, that is, they can be expanded by blowing air into them and contract when the air is let out. At ~ -80 degrees C they become glassy, have very little surface tension, and cannot be blown up any more. At ~-120 degrees C they become completely solid. No further change is observed by cooling them to 90 degrees or 77 degrees K.

  2. Influence of chain length and double bond on the aqueous behavior of choline carboxylate soaps.

    PubMed

    Rengstl, Doris; Diat, Olivier; Klein, Regina; Kunz, Werner

    2013-02-26

    In preceding studies, we demonstrated that choline carboxylates ChC(m) with alkyl chain lengths of m = 12 - 18 are highly water-soluble (for m = 12, soluble up to 93 wt % soap and 0 °C). In addition, choline soaps are featured by an extraordinary lyotropic phase behavior. With decreasing water concentration, the following phases were found: micellar phase (L(1)), discontinuous cubic phase (I(1)' and I(1)"), hexagonal phase (H(1)), bicontinuous cubic phase (V(1)), and lamellar phase (L(α)). The present work is also focused on the lyotropic phase behavior of choline soaps but with shorter alkyl chains or different alkyl chain properties. We have investigated the aqueous phase behavior of choline soaps with C(8) and C(10) chain-lengths (choline octanoate and choline decanoate) and with a C(18) chain-length with a cis-double bond (choline oleate). We found that choline decanoate follows the lyotropic phase behavior of the longer-chain homologues mentioned above. Choline octanoate in water shows no discontinuous cubic phases, but an extended, isotropic micellar solution phase. In addition, choline octanoate is at the limit between a surfactant and a hydrotrope. The double bond in choline oleate leads also to a better solubility in water and a decrease of the solubilization temperature. It also influences the Gaussian curvature of the aggregates which results in a loss of discontinuous cubic phases in the binary phase diagram. The different lyotropic mesophases were identified by the penetration scan technique with polarizing light microscope and visual observations. To clarify the structural behavior small (SAXS) and wide (WAXS) angle X-ray scattering were performed. To further characterize the extended, isotropic micellar solution phase in the binary phase diagram of choline octanoate viscosity and conductivity measurements were also carried out.

  3. Small-Body Extensions for the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnright, Robert; Stodden, David; Coggi, John

    2008-01-01

    An extension to the SOAP software allows users to work with tri-axial ellipsoid-based representations of planetary bodies, primarily for working with small, natural satellites, asteroids, and comets. SOAP is a widely used tool for the visualization and analysis of space missions. The small body extension provides the same visualization and analysis constructs for use with small bodies. These constructs allow the user to characterize satellite path and instrument cover information for small bodies in both 3D display and numerical output formats. Tri-axial ellipsoids are geometric shapes the diameters of which are different in each of three principal x, y, and z dimensions. This construct provides a better approximation than using spheres or oblate spheroids (ellipsoids comprising two common equatorial diameters as a distinct polar diameter). However, the tri-axial ellipsoid is considerably more difficult to work with from a modeling perspective. In addition, the SOAP small-body extensions allow the user to actually employ a plate model for highly irregular surfaces. Both tri-axial ellipsoids and plate models can be assigned to coordinate frames, thus allowing for the modeling of arbitrary changes to body orientation. A variety of features have been extended to support tri-axial ellipsoids, including the computation and display of the spacecraft sub-orbital point, ground trace, instrument footprints, and swathes. Displays of 3D instrument volumes can be shown interacting with the ellipsoids. Longitude/latitude grids, contour plots, and texture maps can be displayed on the ellipsoids using a variety of projections. The distance along an arbitrary line of sight can be computed between the spacecraft and the ellipsoid, and the coordinates of that intersection can be plotted as a function of time. The small-body extension supports the same visual and analytical constructs that are supported for spheres and oblate spheroids in SOAP making the implementation of the more

  4. The elliptic sinh-Gordon equation and the construction of toroidal soap bubbles

    SciTech Connect

    Spruck, J.

    1987-10-01

    In this paper we study all positive solutions to the nonlinear eigenvalue problem ..delta.. u + lambda sinh u = 0 on a symmetric domain D. We characterize the limit solution as lambda tends to zero. For a rectangle we prove that the solutions are unique and have a hidden additional symmetry property. This equation figures prominently in recent work on the construction of compact soap bubbles of genus 1. 11 refs.

  5. Measurement of contact-line dissipation in a nanometer-thin soap film.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shuo; Lee, Chun Huen; Sheng, Ping; Tong, Penger

    2015-01-01

    We report a direct measurement of the friction coefficient ξ(c) of two fluctuating contact lines formed on a fiber surface when a long glass fiber intersects the two water-air interfaces of a thin soap film. The glass fiber of diameter d in the range of 0.4-4 μm and length 100-300 μm is glued onto the front end of a rectangular cantilever used for atomic force microscopy. As a sensitive mechanical resonator, the hanging fiber probe can accurately measure a minute change of its viscous damping caused by the soap film. By measuring the broadening of the resonant peak of the hanging fiber probe with varying viscosity η of the soap film and different surface treatments of the glass fiber, we confirm that the contact line dissipation obeys a universal scaling law, ξ(c)=απdη, where the coefficient α=1.1±0.3 is insensitive to the change of liquid-solid contact angle. The experimental result is in good agreement with the numerical result based on the phase field model under the generalized Navier boundary conditions. PMID:25679625

  6. [Chemoprophylactic activity on Schistosomiasis mansoni of soaps containing essential oil from the fruits of Pterodon pubescens].

    PubMed

    Katz, N; dos Santos Filho, D; Sarti, S J; Mendes, N M; Rocha Filho, P A; Araujo, N

    1993-01-01

    The chemoprophylactic action of the essential oil of the fruit of Pterodon pubescens Benth (Leguminosae), incorporated in different soap formulations, was studied in experimental schistosomiasis. The formulations were used locally on the tails of mice which were exposed to Schistosoma mansoni cercariae immediately, 24, 72 or 168 hours later by the method of tail immersion. Protection was evaluated 45 days after exposure when the mice were sacrificed and the worms collected by perfusion. The results showed levels of protection varying from 0.0 to 100% depending on the formulation used. A methodology that allowed the evaluation of soap protection of mice exposed to natural infection in snail infested streams on the outskirts of Belo Horizonte, MG, was also developed. Promising results were obtained in that protection of between 57.5 and 31.1% was observed in field trials when soap was applied to the animals 24 and 48 hours earlier. Preliminary studies evaluating irritation and toxicity were favorable and showed that this new prophylactic weapon could contribute to the control of schistosomiasis.

  7. Measurement of contact-line dissipation in a nanometer-thin soap film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shuo; Lee, Chun Huen; Sheng, Ping; Tong, Penger

    2015-01-01

    We report a direct measurement of the friction coefficient ξc of two fluctuating contact lines formed on a fiber surface when a long glass fiber intersects the two water-air interfaces of a thin soap film. The glass fiber of diameter d in the range of 0.4-4 μ m and length 100-300 μ m is glued onto the front end of a rectangular cantilever used for atomic force microscopy. As a sensitive mechanical resonator, the hanging fiber probe can accurately measure a minute change of its viscous damping caused by the soap film. By measuring the broadening of the resonant peak of the hanging fiber probe with varying viscosity η of the soap film and different surface treatments of the glass fiber, we confirm that the contact line dissipation obeys a universal scaling law, ξc=α π d η , where the coefficient α =1.1 ±0.3 is insensitive to the change of liquid-solid contact angle. The experimental result is in good agreement with the numerical result based on the phase field model under the generalized Navier boundary conditions.

  8. Surgical hand antisepsis in veterinary practice: evaluation of soap scrubs and alcohol based rub techniques.

    PubMed

    Verwilghen, Denis R; Mainil, Jacques; Mastrocicco, Emilie; Hamaide, Annick; Detilleux, Johann; van Galen, Gaby; Serteyn, Didier; Grulke, Sigrid

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that hydro-alcoholic solutions are more efficient than traditional medicated soaps in the pre-surgical hand antisepsis of human surgeons but there is little veterinary literature on the subject. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of medicated soaps and a hydro-alcoholic solution prior to surgery using an in-use testing method in a veterinary setting. A preliminary trial was performed that compared the mean log(10) number of bacterial colony forming units (CFU) and the reduction factors (RF) between two 5-min hand-scrubbing sessions using different soaps, namely, povidone iodine (PVP) and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), and the 1.5-min application of a hydro-alcoholic rub. A clinical in-use trial was then used to compare the hydro-alcoholic rub and CHX in a surgical setting. Sampling was performed using finger printing on agar plates. The hydro-alcoholic rub and CHX had a similar immediate effect, although the sustained effect was significantly better for the hydro-alcoholic rub, while PVP had a significantly lower immediate and sustained effect. The hydro-alcoholic rub showed good efficiency in the clinical trial and could be considered as a useful alternative method for veterinary surgical hand antisepsis.

  9. The generation of two-dimensional vortices by transverse oscillation of a soap film

    SciTech Connect

    Afenchenko, V.O.; Ezersky, A.B.; Kiyashko, S.V.; Rabinovich, M.I.; Weidman, P.D.

    1998-02-01

    An experimental investigation of the dynamics of horizontal soap films stretched over circular or square boundaries undergoing periodic transverse oscillations at frequencies in the range 20{endash}200 Hz is reported. Concomitant with modes of transverse flexural oscillations, it was observed that two-dimensional vortices in the plane of the film are excited. The vortices may be either (i) large, scaling with the size of the cavity or (ii) small, localized at a wavelength or half-wavelength of the membrane modes. In the experiments a stable generation of one, two, {hor_ellipsis}, ten pairs of counter-rotating vortices were observed in finite regions of amplitude-frequency parameter space. The circulation strength of vortices in a given vortex pattern increases with increasing external forcing and with decreasing soap film thickness. A theoretical model based on the wave-boundary interaction of excited Marangoni waves reveals a vorticity generation mechanism active in vibrating soap films. This model shows that vorticity is generated throughout the entire liquid volume by viscous diffusion, and qualitatively reproduces many steady vortex patterns observed in the experiment. However, the model cannot explain the existence of the sometimes intense vortices observed far from the film boundary that do not appear to be generated by diffusive processes. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. An evaluation of two incontinence skin care protocols in a long-term care setting.

    PubMed

    Lewis-Byers, Kari; Thayer, Debra

    2002-12-01

    Caring for the skin of patients with incontinence is an essential activity in long-term care. A prospective descriptive study to compare the effect of two skin care protocols on skin condition, pain, and caregiver time was conducted. Thirty-two (32) skilled nursing facility residents with incontinence participated in the 3-week study. Patients were randomly assigned to a standard care regimen (soap and water cleansing after each incontinence episode, followed by application of a moisturizing lotion) or study care protocol (no-rinse skin cleanser after each episode and application of a barrier cream with durable properties after the first incontinence episode of each shift). Number and type of incontinence episodes, skin condition, pain, and caregiver time spent were assessed. Skin integrity was maintained in the majority of control (69%) and study group (72%) patients and improvement occurred in 8% of control and 17% of the study group (NS). Study protocol procedures took less time to complete than control procedures (a savings of 79 minutes/patient/day). A positive correlation between pain intensity and level of skin impairment was observed (r = 0.88). The results of this study suggest that at this facility, use of soap, water, and a moisturizer may be less effective and more time-consuming than using a no-rinse cleanser and a durable barrier product.

  11. The RTS2 protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubánek, Petr; Jelínek, Martin; French, John; Prouza, Michal; Vítek, Stanislav; Castro-Tirado, Alberto J.; Reglero, Victor

    2008-07-01

    Remote Telescope System 2nd version (RTS2) is an open source project aimed at developing a software environment to control a fully robotic observatory. RTS2 consists of various components, which communicate via an ASCII based protocol. As the protocol was from the beginning designed as an observatory control system, it provides some unique features, which are hard to find in the other communication systems. These features include advanced synchronisation mechanisms and strategies for setting variables. This presentation describes the protocol and its unique features. It also assesses protocol performance, and provides examples how the RTS2 library can be used to quickly build an observatory control system.

  12. Impact of Regular Soap Provision to Primary Schools on Hand Washing and E. coli Hand Contamination among Pupils in Nyanza Province, Kenya: A Cluster-Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Saboori, Shadi; Greene, Leslie E.; Moe, Christine L.; Freeman, Matthew C.; Caruso, Bethany A.; Akoko, Daniel; Rheingans, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed whether supplying soap to primary schools on a regular basis increased pupil hand washing and decreased Escherichia coli hand contamination. Multiple rounds of structured observations of hand washing events after latrine use were conducted in 60 Kenyan schools, and hand rinse samples were collected one time in a subset of schools. The proportion of pupils observed practicing hand washing with soap (HWWS) events was significantly higher in schools that received a soap provision intervention (32%) and schools that received soap and latrine cleaning materials (38%) compared with controls (3%). Girls and boys had similar hand washing rates. There were non-significant reductions in E. coli contamination among intervention school pupils compared with controls. Removing the barrier of soap procurement can significantly increase availability of soap and hand washing among pupils; however, we discuss limitations in the enabling policy and institutional environment that may have prevented reaching desired levels of HWWS. PMID:23939707

  13. Impact of regular soap provision to primary schools on hand washing and E. coli hand contamination among pupils in Nyanza Province, Kenya: a cluster-randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Saboori, Shadi; Greene, Leslie E; Moe, Christine L; Freeman, Matthew C; Caruso, Bethany A; Akoko, Daniel; Rheingans, Richard D

    2013-10-01

    We assessed whether supplying soap to primary schools on a regular basis increased pupil hand washing and decreased Escherichia coli hand contamination. Multiple rounds of structured observations of hand washing events after latrine use were conducted in 60 Kenyan schools, and hand rinse samples were collected one time in a subset of schools. The proportion of pupils observed practicing hand washing with soap (HWWS) events was significantly higher in schools that received a soap provision intervention (32%) and schools that received soap and latrine cleaning materials (38%) compared with controls (3%). Girls and boys had similar hand washing rates. There were non-significant reductions in E. coli contamination among intervention school pupils compared with controls. Removing the barrier of soap procurement can significantly increase availability of soap and hand washing among pupils; however, we discuss limitations in the enabling policy and institutional environment that may have prevented reaching desired levels of HWWS.

  14. Ultra-pure soft water ameliorates atopic skin disease by preventing metallic soap deposition in NC/Tnd mice and reduces skin dryness in humans.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Akane; Matsuda, Akira; Jung, Kyungsook; Jang, Hyosun; Ahn, Ginnae; Ishizaka, Saori; Amagai, Yosuke; Oida, Kumiko; Arkwright, Peter D; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    Mineral ions in tap water react with fatty acids in soap, leading to the formation of insoluble precipitate (metallic soap) on skin during washing. We hypothesised that metallic soap might negatively alter skin conditions. Application of metallic soap onto the skin of NC/Tnd mice with allergic dermatitis further induced inflammation with elevation of plasma immunoglobulin E and proinflammatory cytokine expression. Pruritus and dryness were ameliorated when the back of mice was washed with soap in Ca2+- and Mg2+-free ultra-pure soft water (UPSW). Washing in UPSW, but not tap water, also protected the skin of healthy volunteers from the soap deposition. Furthermore, 4 weeks of showering with UPSW reduced dryness and pruritus of human subjects with dry skin. Washing with UPSW may be therapeutically beneficial in patients with skin troubles.

  15. Ultra-pure soft water ameliorates atopic skin disease by preventing metallic soap deposition in NC/Tnd mice and reduces skin dryness in humans.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Akane; Matsuda, Akira; Jung, Kyungsook; Jang, Hyosun; Ahn, Ginnae; Ishizaka, Saori; Amagai, Yosuke; Oida, Kumiko; Arkwright, Peter D; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    Mineral ions in tap water react with fatty acids in soap, leading to the formation of insoluble precipitate (metallic soap) on skin during washing. We hypothesised that metallic soap might negatively alter skin conditions. Application of metallic soap onto the skin of NC/Tnd mice with allergic dermatitis further induced inflammation with elevation of plasma immunoglobulin E and proinflammatory cytokine expression. Pruritus and dryness were ameliorated when the back of mice was washed with soap in Ca2+- and Mg2+-free ultra-pure soft water (UPSW). Washing in UPSW, but not tap water, also protected the skin of healthy volunteers from the soap deposition. Furthermore, 4 weeks of showering with UPSW reduced dryness and pruritus of human subjects with dry skin. Washing with UPSW may be therapeutically beneficial in patients with skin troubles. PMID:25739908

  16. Impact of regular soap provision to primary schools on hand washing and E. coli hand contamination among pupils in Nyanza Province, Kenya: a cluster-randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Saboori, Shadi; Greene, Leslie E; Moe, Christine L; Freeman, Matthew C; Caruso, Bethany A; Akoko, Daniel; Rheingans, Richard D

    2013-10-01

    We assessed whether supplying soap to primary schools on a regular basis increased pupil hand washing and decreased Escherichia coli hand contamination. Multiple rounds of structured observations of hand washing events after latrine use were conducted in 60 Kenyan schools, and hand rinse samples were collected one time in a subset of schools. The proportion of pupils observed practicing hand washing with soap (HWWS) events was significantly higher in schools that received a soap provision intervention (32%) and schools that received soap and latrine cleaning materials (38%) compared with controls (3%). Girls and boys had similar hand washing rates. There were non-significant reductions in E. coli contamination among intervention school pupils compared with controls. Removing the barrier of soap procurement can significantly increase availability of soap and hand washing among pupils; however, we discuss limitations in the enabling policy and institutional environment that may have prevented reaching desired levels of HWWS. PMID:23939707

  17. Web Accessibility and Accessibility Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Ravonne A.; Huprich, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Section 508 of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) mandates that programs and services be accessible to people with disabilities. While schools of library and information science (SLIS*) and university libraries should model accessible Web sites, this may not be the case. This article examines previous studies about the Web accessibility of…

  18. A Simple XML Producer-Consumer Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Warren; Gunter, Dan; Quesnel, Darcy; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    There are many different projects from government, academia, and industry that provide services for delivering events in distributed environments. The problem with these event services is that they are not general enough to support all uses and they speak different protocols so that they cannot interoperate. We require such interoperability when we, for example, wish to analyze the performance of an application in a distributed environment. Such an analysis might require performance information from the application, computer systems, networks, and scientific instruments. In this work we propose and evaluate a standard XML-based protocol for the transmission of events in distributed systems. One recent trend in government and academic research is the development and deployment of computational grids. Computational grids are large-scale distributed systems that typically consist of high-performance compute, storage, and networking resources. Examples of such computational grids are the DOE Science Grid, the NASA Information Power Grid (IPG), and the NSF Partnerships for Advanced Computing Infrastructure (PACIs). The major effort to deploy these grids is in the area of developing the software services to allow users to execute applications on these large and diverse sets of resources. These services include security, execution of remote applications, managing remote data, access to information about resources and services, and so on. There are several toolkits for providing these services such as Globus, Legion, and Condor. As part of these efforts to develop computational grids, the Global Grid Forum is working to standardize the protocols and APIs used by various grid services. This standardization will allow interoperability between the client and server software of the toolkits that are providing the grid services. The goal of the Performance Working Group of the Grid Forum is to standardize protocols and representations related to the storage and distribution of

  19. Role of multidetector computed tomography in the diagnosis and management of patients attending the rapid access chest pain clinic, The Scottish computed tomography of the heart (SCOT-HEART) trial: study protocol for randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rapid access chest pain clinics have facilitated the early diagnosis and treatment of patients with coronary heart disease and angina. Despite this important service provision, coronary heart disease continues to be under-diagnosed and many patients are left untreated and at risk. Recent advances in imaging technology have now led to the widespread use of noninvasive computed tomography, which can be used to measure coronary artery calcium scores and perform coronary angiography in one examination. However, this technology has not been robustly evaluated in its application to the clinic. Methods/design The SCOT-HEART study is an open parallel group prospective multicentre randomized controlled trial of 4,138 patients attending the rapid access chest pain clinic for evaluation of suspected cardiac chest pain. Following clinical consultation, participants will be approached and randomized 1:1 to receive standard care or standard care plus ≥64-multidetector computed tomography coronary angiography and coronary calcium score. Randomization will be conducted using a web-based system to ensure allocation concealment and will incorporate minimization. The primary endpoint of the study will be the proportion of patients diagnosed with angina pectoris secondary to coronary heart disease at 6 weeks. Secondary endpoints will include the assessment of subsequent symptoms, diagnosis, investigation and treatment. In addition, long-term health outcomes, safety endpoints, such as radiation dose, and health economic endpoints will be assessed. Assuming a clinic rate of 27.0% for the diagnosis of angina pectoris due to coronary heart disease, we will need to recruit 2,069 patients per group to detect an absolute increase of 4.0% in the rate of diagnosis at 80% power and a two-sided P value of 0.05. The SCOT-HEART study is currently recruiting participants and expects to report in 2014. Discussion This is the first study to look at the implementation of computed

  20. Associations between presence of handwashing stations and soap in the home and diarrhoea and respiratory illness, in children less than five years old in rural western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Kamm, K. B.; Feikin, D. R.; Bigogo, G. M.; Aol, G.; Audi, A.; Cohen, A. L.; Shah, M. M.; Yu, J.; Breiman, R. F.; Ram, P. K.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We tested whether soap presence in the home or a designated handwashing station was associated with diarrhoea and respiratory illness in Kenya. METHODS In April 2009, we observed presence of a handwashing station and soap in households participating in a longitudinal health surveillance system in rural Kenya. Diarrhoea and acute respiratory illness (ARI) in children < 5 years old were identified using parent-reported syndromic surveillance collected January–April 2009. We used multivariate generalised linear regression to estimate differences in prevalence of illness between households with and without the presence of soap in the home and a handwashing station. RESULTS Among 2547 children, prevalence of diarrhoea and ARI was 2.3 and 11.4 days per 100 child-days, respectively. Soap was observed in 97% of households. Children in households with soap had 1.3 fewer days of diarrhoea/100 child-days (95% CI −2.6, −0.1) than children in households without soap. ARI prevalence was not associated with presence of soap. A handwashing station was identified in 1.4% of households and was not associated with a difference in diarrhoea or ARI prevalence. CONCLUSIONS Soap presence in the home was significantly associated with reduced diarrhoea, but not ARI, in children in rural western Kenya. Whereas most households had soap in the home, almost none had a designated handwashing station, which may prevent handwashing at key times of hand contamination. PMID:24405627

  1. Use of Electronic Loggers to Measure Changes in the Rates of Hand Washing with Soap in Low-Income Urban Households in India.

    PubMed

    Wright, Richard L; Zillmer, Ruediger; Biran, Adam; Hall, Peter; Sidibe, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the utility of electronic loggers to measure the effects of a simple intervention designed to influence the rates of hand washing with soap within enclosed toilets and bathrooms in low-income urban households in Kerala, India. 58 households were given three items with embedded electronic loggers for a period of 2-5 days. Two logged soaps tracked hand and body washing in the bathroom. The third logged item was a water vessel used for flushing the toilet and for post-defecation anal cleansing; this served as a marker of toilet use. In addition, 28 households in a Soap by toilet arm were given an additional logged soap, to be kept by the toilet, and used for hand washing. Compared with the Soap in bathroom arm, the loggers in the Soap by toilet households recorded 73% greater daily use of soaps designated for hand washing (t(36)=2.92, p<0.01) and 172% greater use within 2 minutes of the use of the water vessel (t(36)=3.51, p = 0.001). We conclude that the loggers were capable of detecting changes in the rates of hand washing with soap and changes in hand washing with soap after use of the toilet. Further adoption of logger technologies would enable more insightful studies of hand washing within urban environments. PMID:26101886

  2. Use of Electronic Loggers to Measure Changes in the Rates of Hand Washing with Soap in Low-Income Urban Households in India.

    PubMed

    Wright, Richard L; Zillmer, Ruediger; Biran, Adam; Hall, Peter; Sidibe, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the utility of electronic loggers to measure the effects of a simple intervention designed to influence the rates of hand washing with soap within enclosed toilets and bathrooms in low-income urban households in Kerala, India. 58 households were given three items with embedded electronic loggers for a period of 2-5 days. Two logged soaps tracked hand and body washing in the bathroom. The third logged item was a water vessel used for flushing the toilet and for post-defecation anal cleansing; this served as a marker of toilet use. In addition, 28 households in a Soap by toilet arm were given an additional logged soap, to be kept by the toilet, and used for hand washing. Compared with the Soap in bathroom arm, the loggers in the Soap by toilet households recorded 73% greater daily use of soaps designated for hand washing (t(36)=2.92, p<0.01) and 172% greater use within 2 minutes of the use of the water vessel (t(36)=3.51, p = 0.001). We conclude that the loggers were capable of detecting changes in the rates of hand washing with soap and changes in hand washing with soap after use of the toilet. Further adoption of logger technologies would enable more insightful studies of hand washing within urban environments.

  3. Use of Electronic Loggers to Measure Changes in the Rates of Hand Washing with Soap in Low-Income Urban Households in India

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Richard L.; Zillmer, Ruediger; Biran, Adam; Hall, Peter; Sidibe, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the utility of electronic loggers to measure the effects of a simple intervention designed to influence the rates of hand washing with soap within enclosed toilets and bathrooms in low-income urban households in Kerala, India. 58 households were given three items with embedded electronic loggers for a period of 2-5 days. Two logged soaps tracked hand and body washing in the bathroom. The third logged item was a water vessel used for flushing the toilet and for post-defecation anal cleansing; this served as a marker of toilet use. In addition, 28 households in a Soap by toilet arm were given an additional logged soap, to be kept by the toilet, and used for hand washing. Compared with the Soap in bathroom arm, the loggers in the Soap by toilet households recorded 73% greater daily use of soaps designated for hand washing (t(36)=2.92, p<0.01) and 172% greater use within 2 minutes of the use of the water vessel (t(36)=3.51, p = 0.001). We conclude that the loggers were capable of detecting changes in the rates of hand washing with soap and changes in hand washing with soap after use of the toilet. Further adoption of logger technologies would enable more insightful studies of hand washing within urban environments. PMID:26101886

  4. National Sample Assessment Protocols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    These protocols represent a working guide for planning and implementing national sample assessments in connection with the national Key Performance Measures (KPMs). The protocols are intended for agencies involved in planning or conducting national sample assessments and personnel responsible for administering associated tenders or contracts,…

  5. Using Internet Audio to Enhance Online Accessibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Linda Matula

    2004-01-01

    Accessibility to online education programs is an important factor that requires continued research, improvement, and regulation. Particularly valuable in the enhancement of online accessibility is the Voice-over Internet Protocol (VOIP) medium. VOIP compresses analog voice data and converts it into digital packets for transmission over the…

  6. Locally accessible information and distillation of entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Sibasish; Joag, Pramod; Kar, Guruprasad; Kunkri, Samir; Roy, Anirban

    2005-01-01

    A different type of complementarity relation is found between locally accessible information and final average entanglement for a given ensemble. It is also shown that in some well-known distillation protocols, this complementary relation is optimally satisfied. We discuss the interesting trade-off between locally accessible information and distillable entanglement for some states.

  7. Montreal protocol: Business opportunites

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer was signed by 24 countries in 1987, establishing measures for controlling the production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances. This publication begins with some background information on ozone depletion and the history of the Protocol. It then describes aspects of the Protocol`s Multilateral Fund, created to assist developing countries to meet Protocol deadlines: Its administration, structure, and how projects are initiated. Names, addresses, and phone/fax numbers of Fund contacts are provided. Canadian projects under the Fund are then reviewed and opportunities for Canadian environmental companies are noted. Finally, information sheets are presented which summarize Fund-related Canadian bilateral projects undertaken to date.

  8. Reliable broadcast protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, T. A.; Birman, Kenneth P.

    1989-01-01

    A number of broadcast protocols that are reliable subject to a variety of ordering and delivery guarantees are considered. Developing applications that are distributed over a number of sites and/or must tolerate the failures of some of them becomes a considerably simpler task when such protocols are available for communication. Without such protocols the kinds of distributed applications that can reasonably be built will have a very limited scope. As the trend towards distribution and decentralization continues, it will not be surprising if reliable broadcast protocols have the same role in distributed operating systems of the future that message passing mechanisms have in the operating systems of today. On the other hand, the problems of engineering such a system remain large. For example, deciding which protocol is the most appropriate to use in a certain situation or how to balance the latency-communication-storage costs is not an easy question.

  9. The Variable Rate Intravenous Insulin Infusion Protocol.

    PubMed

    Collard, Benjamin; Sturgeon, Jonathan; Patel, Natasha; Asharia, Shabbar

    2014-01-01

    Insulin use among inpatients is high and associated with severe and regular medication errors. An initial baseline audit showed a wide variation in the prescription of intravenous insulin within the trust. These included variation in the choice of fluid prescribed, electrolyte levels not consistently checked, handwritten illegible prescriptions, and varying parameters set for adjustment of the prescription. A Variable Rate Intravenous Insulin Infusion protocol (VRIII)) was introduced to standardize intravenous insulin prescription throughout the trust by all members of the clinical team. We looked at and measured uptake and effects of the VRIII protocol in improving standardization of insulin prescription for inpatients on insulin at St George's NHS trust. The protocol was uploaded to the intranet to allow access 24 hours a day and the staff educated about it. The VRIII protocol was routinely used successfully throughout the trust. Any initial problems were addressed through education of clinical staff. The protocol has shown decreased prescribing and administrative errors, whilst demonstrating good glucose and electrolyte control. Use of a standardized protocol helps reduce medication errors and demonstrates good glycaemic control. Regular and continued education of clinical staff is necessary to maintain its efficacy. PMID:26734228

  10. OpenSearch (ECHO-ESIP) & REST API for Earth Science Data Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, A.; Cechini, M.; Pilone, D.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation will provide a brief technical overview of OpenSearch, the Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Federated Search framework, and the REST architecture; discuss NASA’s Earth Observing System (EOS) ClearingHOuse’s (ECHO) implementation lessons learned; and demonstrate the simplified usage of these technologies. SOAP, as a framework for web service communication has numerous advantages for Enterprise applications and Java/C# type programming languages. As a technical solution, SOAP has been a reliable framework on top of which many applications have been successfully developed and deployed. However, as interest grows for quick development cycles and more intriguing “mashups,” the SOAP API loses its appeal. Lightweight and simple are the vogue characteristics that are sought after. Enter the REST API architecture and OpenSearch format. Both of these items provide a new path for application development addressing some of the issues unresolved by SOAP. ECHO has made available all of its discovery, order submission, and data management services through a publicly accessible SOAP API. This interface is utilized by a variety of ECHO client and data partners to provide valuable capabilities to end users. As ECHO interacted with current and potential partners looking to develop Earth Science tools utilizing ECHO, it became apparent that the development overhead required to interact with the SOAP API was a growing barrier to entry. ECHO acknowledged the technical issues that were being uncovered by its partner community and chose to provide two new interfaces for interacting with the ECHO metadata catalog. The first interface is built upon the OpenSearch format and ESIP Federated Search framework. Leveraging these two items, a client (ECHO-ESIP) was developed with a focus on simplified searching and results presentation. The second interface is built upon the Representational State Transfer (REST) architecture. Leveraging the REST architecture, a

  11. A Token Ring Protocol for Dynamic Ad-hoc Wireless Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Top, P; Kohlhepp, V; Dowla, F

    2005-09-30

    A wireless ad-hoc networking protocol is presented. The protocol is designed to be flexible, easy to use and adaptable to a wide variety of potential applications. The primary considerations in design are small code size, guaranteed bandwidth access, limited delay, and error resilience in a highly dynamic ad-hoc environment. These considerations are achieved through the use of token ring protocol.

  12. Protocol for Communication Networking for Formation Flying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Esther; Okino, Clayton; Gao, Jay; Clare, Loren

    2009-01-01

    An application-layer protocol and a network architecture have been proposed for data communications among multiple autonomous spacecraft that are required to fly in a precise formation in order to perform scientific observations. The protocol could also be applied to other autonomous vehicles operating in formation, including robotic aircraft, robotic land vehicles, and robotic underwater vehicles. A group of spacecraft or other vehicles to which the protocol applies could be characterized as a precision-formation- flying (PFF) network, and each vehicle could be characterized as a node in the PFF network. In order to support precise formation flying, it would be necessary to establish a corresponding communication network, through which the vehicles could exchange position and orientation data and formation-control commands. The communication network must enable communication during early phases of a mission, when little positional knowledge is available. Particularly during early mission phases, the distances among vehicles may be so large that communication could be achieved only by relaying across multiple links. The large distances and need for omnidirectional coverage would limit communication links to operation at low bandwidth during these mission phases. Once the vehicles were in formation and distances were shorter, the communication network would be required to provide high-bandwidth, low-jitter service to support tight formation-control loops. The proposed protocol and architecture, intended to satisfy the aforementioned and other requirements, are based on a standard layered-reference-model concept. The proposed application protocol would be used in conjunction with conventional network, data-link, and physical-layer protocols. The proposed protocol includes the ubiquitous Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 medium access control (MAC) protocol to be used in the datalink layer. In addition to its widespread and proven use in

  13. Efficacy of triclosan as an antimicrobial hand soap and its potential impact on antimicrobial resistance: a focused review.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, Christopher A; Rybak, Michael J

    2015-03-01

    Triclosan is a synthetic biocide found in many household products, including antimicrobial hand soap. Levels of triclosan have been found throughout the environment and in human urine, blood, and even breast milk. Increasing levels of exposure to triclosan have led to concerns over the development of resistance to triclosan and cross-resistance to other antimicrobials. We performed a literature search to assess whether the widespread use of triclosan displays a favorable benefit: risk ratio, defined by evaluation of triclosan's efficacy as an antimicrobial hand soap and its potential effect on the development of antimicrobial resistance. Data from laboratory-based studies regarding the efficacy of triclosan are conflicting, although well-designed studies suggest no significant difference in efficacy over nonantimicrobial soap. In addition, when triclosan was introduced in a community setting, no beneficial effects were observed on the reduction of infections over nonantimicrobial soap. Resistance to triclosan and cross-resistance to antimicrobials have been consistently demonstrated in laboratory settings, although overall resistance rates and cross-resistance rates in the community setting are low. Based on the available evidence, the risk of potential antimicrobial resistance outweighs the benefit of widespread triclosan use in antimicrobial soaps. PMID:25809180

  14. Determination of insoluble soap in agricultural soil and sewage sludge samples by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.

    PubMed

    Cantarero, Samuel; Zafra-Gómez, Alberto; Ballesteros, Oscar; Navalón, Alberto; Vílchez, José L; Crovetto, Guillermo; Verge, Coral; de Ferrer, Juan A

    2010-11-01

    We have developed a new analytical procedure for determining insoluble Ca and Mg fatty acid salts (soaps) in agricultural soil and sewage sludge samples. The number of analytical methodologies that focus in the determination of insoluble soap salts in different environmental compartments is very limited. In this work, we propose a methodology that involves a sample clean-up step with petroleum ether to remove soluble salts and a conversion of Ca and Mg insoluble salts into soluble potassium salts using tripotassium ethylenediaminetetraacetate salt and potassium carbonate, followed by the extraction of analytes from the samples using microwave-assisted extraction with methanol. An improved esterification procedure using 2,4-dibromoacetophenone before the liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection analysis also has been developed. The absence of matrix effect was demonstrated with two fatty acid Ca salts that are not commercial and are never detected in natural samples (C₁₃:₀ and C₁₇:₀). Therefore, it was possible to evaluate the matrix effect because both standards have similar environmental behavior (adsorption and precipitation) to commercial soaps (C₁₀:₀) to C₁₈:₀). We also studied the effect of the different variables on the clean-up, the conversion of Ca soap, and the extraction and derivatization procedures. The quantification limits found ranged from 0.4 to 0.8 mg/kg. The proposed method was satisfactorily applied for the development of a study on soap behavior in agricultural soil and sewage sludge samples.

  15. Efficacy of triclosan as an antimicrobial hand soap and its potential impact on antimicrobial resistance: a focused review.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, Christopher A; Rybak, Michael J

    2015-03-01

    Triclosan is a synthetic biocide found in many household products, including antimicrobial hand soap. Levels of triclosan have been found throughout the environment and in human urine, blood, and even breast milk. Increasing levels of exposure to triclosan have led to concerns over the development of resistance to triclosan and cross-resistance to other antimicrobials. We performed a literature search to assess whether the widespread use of triclosan displays a favorable benefit: risk ratio, defined by evaluation of triclosan's efficacy as an antimicrobial hand soap and its potential effect on the development of antimicrobial resistance. Data from laboratory-based studies regarding the efficacy of triclosan are conflicting, although well-designed studies suggest no significant difference in efficacy over nonantimicrobial soap. In addition, when triclosan was introduced in a community setting, no beneficial effects were observed on the reduction of infections over nonantimicrobial soap. Resistance to triclosan and cross-resistance to antimicrobials have been consistently demonstrated in laboratory settings, although overall resistance rates and cross-resistance rates in the community setting are low. Based on the available evidence, the risk of potential antimicrobial resistance outweighs the benefit of widespread triclosan use in antimicrobial soaps.

  16. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Building access control (BAC)--a catchall phrase to describe the systems that control access to facilities across campus--has traditionally been handled with remarkably low-tech solutions: (1) manual locks; (2) electronic locks; and (3) ID cards with magnetic strips. Recent improvements have included smart cards and keyless solutions that make use…

  17. Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  18. Reliable multicast protocol specifications protocol operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John R.; Montgomery, Todd; Whetten, Brian

    1995-01-01

    This appendix contains the complete state tables for Reliable Multicast Protocol (RMP) Normal Operation, Multi-RPC Extensions, Membership Change Extensions, and Reformation Extensions. First the event types are presented. Afterwards, each RMP operation state, normal and extended, is presented individually and its events shown. Events in the RMP specification are one of several things: (1) arriving packets, (2) expired alarms, (3) user events, (4) exceptional conditions.

  19. Recommendations and requirements for soap and hand rub dispensers in healthcare facilities.

    PubMed

    Assadian, Ojan; Kramer, Axel; Christiansen, Bärbel; Exner, Martin; Martiny, Heike; Sorger, Arno; Suchomel, Miranda

    2012-01-01

    Hand hygiene is one of the most important measures to prevent transmission of infectious agents and plays a major role in prevention of infection in any type of healthcare setting. While requirements for the efficacy of hand disinfectants are defined in European testing norms such as the EN 1500 for hygienic hand disinfection or EN 12791 for surgical hand preparation, no specific recommendations for hand rub dispensers and liquid soap dispensers have been given yet. Therefore, the intention of the present recommendation on soap and hand rub dispensers in healthcare facilities is to close this gap and to enhance future improvement of dispenser functionality and design. Regardless of manufacture and design of a hand rub or liquid soap dispensers the following requirements shall be met in healthcare facilities:Triggering the dispenser must be possible without using hands. Sensor- or elbow-operated dispensers both fulfill this requirement. Dispensers must be only refillable in a modality where the content, be it a hand rub or liquid soap, cannot be contaminated. This is achieved best by using replaceable cartridge systems. Refilling through "top-up" must not be possible. The disperser should allow usage of different types of cartridges made by different manufacturers. Dispensers must be operated and maintained such that a microbial contamination of the pump nozzle may easily be avoided. It must be possible to identify the products used in a dispenser easily and without any manipulation. Identifying the type of product, be it a hand rub or a liquid soap, as well as reading the product's name and critical manufacturers' warnings must be possible at any time. The disperser must allow identification of the level of the used product without any further manipulation at any time. The design of the dispenser must allow easy cleaning and disinfection the outside and inside of the dispenser. The manufacturer of the dispenser must provide the user with information on applicable

  20. Recommendations and requirements for soap and hand rub dispensers in healthcare facilities.

    PubMed

    Assadian, Ojan; Kramer, Axel; Christiansen, Bärbel; Exner, Martin; Martiny, Heike; Sorger, Arno; Suchomel, Miranda

    2012-01-01

    Hand hygiene is one of the most important measures to prevent transmission of infectious agents and plays a major role in prevention of infection in any type of healthcare setting. While requirements for the efficacy of hand disinfectants are defined in European testing norms such as the EN 1500 for hygienic hand disinfection or EN 12791 for surgical hand preparation, no specific recommendations for hand rub dispensers and liquid soap dispensers have been given yet. Therefore, the intention of the present recommendation on soap and hand rub dispensers in healthcare facilities is to close this gap and to enhance future improvement of dispenser functionality and design. Regardless of manufacture and design of a hand rub or liquid soap dispensers the following requirements shall be met in healthcare facilities:Triggering the dispenser must be possible without using hands. Sensor- or elbow-operated dispensers both fulfill this requirement. Dispensers must be only refillable in a modality where the content, be it a hand rub or liquid soap, cannot be contaminated. This is achieved best by using replaceable cartridge systems. Refilling through "top-up" must not be possible. The disperser should allow usage of different types of cartridges made by different manufacturers. Dispensers must be operated and maintained such that a microbial contamination of the pump nozzle may easily be avoided. It must be possible to identify the products used in a dispenser easily and without any manipulation. Identifying the type of product, be it a hand rub or a liquid soap, as well as reading the product's name and critical manufacturers' warnings must be possible at any time. The disperser must allow identification of the level of the used product without any further manipulation at any time. The design of the dispenser must allow easy cleaning and disinfection the outside and inside of the dispenser. The manufacturer of the dispenser must provide the user with information on applicable

  1. Dolomite flotation of high magnesium phosphate ores using fatty acid soap collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Zhengxing

    The separation of dolomite from apatite has been recognized as one of the most difficult subjects in mineral processing due to the similarities in their physiochemical properties. In this study, selective surfactants were used with a fatty acid soap collector to improve the flotation performance of separating dolomite from high magnesium phosphate ores. Three surfactants, diethyl phthalate (DP), Tween-80 (TW) and derivative of sulfonate salt (DSS1) were used. Hallimond cell flotation was conducted using pure dolomite sample to determine the effects of various factors including dosages, particle size, Ca2+ ions and slimes on the dolomite flotation recovery. The results showed that the surfactants can significantly improve dolomite flotation performance by increasing collecting ability and tolerating the effect of calcium ions and slime contents. The stirrer-tank cell batch flotation tests were carried out using two natural high magnesium phosphate ore samples containing 3.3% and 1.5% MgO. The test results showed that the surfactant DP could improve dolomite flotation at low dosages, and DSS1 could enhance the separation of dolomite from phosphate by improving both collecting ability and flotation selectivity. When 10% of DSS1 was used with the fatty acid soap as collector, at least 10% more dolomite can be removed with less P2O5 loss. The effectiveness of the surfactant DSS1 in enhancing dolomite flotation was further demonstrated in modified packed column flotation with natural dolomitic phosphate ore sample. The addition of the surfactant DSS1 into fatty acid soap collector could improve its frothability and froth stability, and reduce the bubble size. It has been found that the dolomite flotation performance has a close relationship with the frothability and froth stability of the collector.

  2. Pollution control of industrial wastewater from soap and oil industries: a case study.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Gawad, S; Abdel-Shafy, M

    2002-01-01

    Industrial wastewater from soap and oil industries represents a heavy pollution source on their receiving water body. This paper studies a case of pollution control at Tanta Soap and Oil Company, Banha Factory, Egypt. The factory production includes soap, edible oil, and animal fodder. About 4,347 m3/day of industrial wastewater effluent was discharged via gravity sewers to the public sewerage system. Most of the effluent was cooling water because the cooling process in the factory was open circle. In spite of the huge quantity of cooling water being disposed of, disposal of wastewater was violating pertinent legislation. Three procedures were used for controlling the pollution at the Banha Factory. Firstly, all open circuit cooling systems were converted to closed circuit thus reducing the quantity of the discharged wastewater down to 767 m3/day. Secondly, the heavily polluted oil and grease (O&G) wastewater from the refinery unit is treated via two gravity oil separator (GOS) units, dissolved air floatation (DAF), and biological units in order to reduce the high levels of O&G, BOD, COD, and SS to the allowable limits. Thirdly, the heavily polluted waste effluent from the 'red water' saponification unit is treated separately by acidification to convert the emulsified fatty acid to free form in order to be separated through an oil separation unit. The effluent is then passed to liming stage to neutralize excess acidity and precipitate some of the dissolved matters. The mixture is finally clarified and the pH is adjusted to the allowable limits. The effluent wastewater from the three processes is collected and mixed in a final equalization tank for discharging effluent to the public sewerage system. The characteristics of the effluent water are very good with respect to the allowable Egyptian limits for discharging effluent to the public sewerage system.

  3. Software Applications to Access Earth Science Data: Building an ECHO Client

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, A.; Cechini, M.; Pilone, D.

    2010-12-01

    Historically, developing an ECHO (NASA’s Earth Observing System (EOS) ClearingHOuse) client required interaction with its SOAP API. SOAP, as a framework for web service communication has numerous advantages for Enterprise applications and Java/C# type programming languages. However, as interest has grown for quick development cycles and more intriguing “mashups,” ECHO has seen the SOAP API lose its appeal. In order to address these changing needs, ECHO has introduced two new interfaces facilitating simple access to its metadata holdings. The first interface is built upon the OpenSearch format and ESIP Federated Search framework. The second interface is built upon the Representational State Transfer (REST) architecture. Using the REST and OpenSearch APIs to access ECHO makes development with modern languages much more feasible and simpler. Client developers can leverage the simple interaction with ECHO to focus more of their time on the advanced functionality they are presenting to users. To demonstrate the simplicity of developing with the REST API, participants will be led through a hands-on experience where they will develop an ECHO client that performs the following actions: + Login + Provider discovery + Provider based dataset discovery + Dataset, Temporal, and Spatial constraint based Granule discovery + Online Data Access

  4. A soap technique for cell separation to study the seed coat of Sesbania punicea.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, L; Massa, G; Modenesi, P; Fossati, F

    1993-05-01

    A technique is described for separating plant cells used for morphological studies. The plant material is placed in a concentrated solution of olive oil castile soap for 1-2 days or more. The material is then thoroughly washed and placed between two glass slides. The upper glass slide is lifted from the lower one, then gently pressed down several times. Through this procedure Malpighian cells of the seed coat of Sesbania punicea, mesophyll cells of Euphorbia peplus and of Trifolium pratense and cortical cells of the aerial roots of Monstera deliciosa have been separated. Various shapes of the Malpighian cells of the Sesbania punicea seed coat can be observed along with intermediates.

  5. Steiner trees and spanning trees in six-pin soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Prasun; Khastgir, S. Pratik; Roy, Anushree

    2010-02-01

    The problem of finding minimum (local as well as absolute) path lengths joining given points (or terminals) on a plane is known as the Steiner problem. The Steiner problem arises in finding the minimum total road length joining several towns and cities. We study the Steiner tree problem using six-pin soap films. Experimentally, we observe spanning trees as well as Steiner trees partly by varying the pin diameter. We propose a possibly exact expression for the length of a spanning tree or a Steiner tree, which fails mysteriously in certain cases.

  6. Chronic headaches and sleepiness caused by facial soap (containing hydrolyzed wheat proteins)-induced wheat allergy.

    PubMed

    Iseki, Chifumi; Kawanami, Toru; Tsunoda, Takahiko; Chinuki, Yuko; Kato, Takeo

    2014-01-01

    A 38-year-old woman was suffering from irregular headaches and sleepiness. She had used soap containing Glupearl 19S (hydrolyzed wheat proteins) every day for approximately one year and had experienced an episode of rash eruption on her face seven months ago. Wheat-specific IgE antibodies were detected in her serum. A Western blot analysis revealed a high titer of IgE antibodies against Glupearl 19S and wheat proteins. The patient was sensitive to these compounds in a skin prick test. After avoiding eating wheat, her headaches and sleepiness disappeared. A hidden food allergy is a possible cause of these symptoms.

  7. Antibacterial Chemical Constituent and Antiseptic Herbal Soap from Salvinia auriculata Aubl.

    PubMed

    Lima, Samia; Diaz, Gaspar; Diaz, Marisa Alves Nogueira

    2013-01-01

    The bioassay-guided isolation of the active extract of Salvinia auriculata Aubl. led to the separation of three main compounds, characterized as stigmasterone, stigmasterol, and friedelinol. The pure form of diketosteroid presented a potential antibacterial activity with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 0.01 mg mL(-1) against Staphylococcus aureus isolated from animals with mastitis infections. The active extract also showed a similar result to that previously obtained with pure diketosteroid when tested with the same isolates. The present study's results demonstrate the potential of this plant as an excipient for the production of antibacterial soaps aimed at controlling bovine mastitis infections, especially on small farms.

  8. Response of a flexible filament in a flowing soap film subject to a forced vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Laibing; Xiao, Qing; Wu, Haijun; Wu, Yanfeng; Yin, Xiezhen

    2015-01-01

    The interactions between flexible plates and fluids are important physical phenomena. A flag in wind is one of the most simplified and classical models for studying the problem. In this paper, we investigated the response of a flag in flow with an externally forced vibration by using flexible filaments and soap film. Experiments show that for a filament that is either in oscillation or stationary, the external forced vibration leads to its oscillation. A synchronization phenomenon occurs in the experiments. A small perturbation leads to a large response of flapping amplitude in response. The insight provided here is helpful to the applications in the flow control, energy harvesting, and bionic propulsion areas.

  9. Thin film instabilities: Rayleigh-Taylor with thermocapillarity and Kolmogorov flow in a soap film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, John Matthew

    The Rayleigh-Taylor instability occurs when a more dense fluid layer is suspended above a less dense fluid layer in a gravitational field. The horizontal interface between the two fluids is unstable to infinitesimal deformations and the dense fluid falls. To counteract the destabilizing effects of gravity on the interface between two thin fluid layers, we apply a vertical temperature gradient, heating from below. The dependence of surface tension on temperature (``thermocapillarity'') can cause spatially-varying interfacial forces between two immiscible fluid layers if a variation in temperature along the interface is introduced. With an applied vertical temperature gradient, the deforming interface spontaneously develops temperature variations which locally adjust the surface tension to restore a flat interface. We find that these surface tension gradients can stabilize a more dense thin fluid layer (silicone oil, 0.015 cm thick) above a less dense thin fluid layer (air, 0.025 cm thick) in a gravitational field, in qualitative agreement with linear stability analysis. This is the first experimental observation of the stabilization of Rayleigh-Taylor instability by thermocapillary forces. We also examine the instability of a soap film flow driven by a time-independent force that is spatially periodic in the direction perpendicular to the forcing (Kolmogorov flow). The film is in the x- y plane, where the forcing approximates a shape sin (y)x̂. Linear stability analysis of an idealized model of this flow predicts a critical Reynolds number Rc~2 . In our soap film experiment, we find a critical value Rc~70 . This discrepancy can be ascribed to frictional effects from viscous coupling of gas to the film, which is neglected in the idealized model. The kinematic viscosity of the surrounding gas and the thickness of gas layers on each side of the soap film are varied in the experiments to better understand these frictional effects. We conclude that

  10. The high-pressure rheology of a soap-thickened grease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bair, Scott

    1994-07-01

    The high-pressure rheology of a soap-thickened grease and the base oil has been characterized using a falling-body viscometer, high-pressure Couette viscometer, and a high-pressure penetrometer. At shear stress from 0.1 to 1 MPa, the response of the grease was approximately linear with rate of shear with a viscosity about twice that of the base oil. Apparent yield stress behavior is observed at lower shear stress. A new modified Bingham model is offered to describe the experimental observations. These results are relevant for simulations of elastohydrodynamic lubrication and journal bearings operating at elevated ambient pressure.

  11. Self-motion of soap at an oil-water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, Satoshi; Hiromatsu, Shin-ichi

    2005-03-01

    The self-motion of a sodium oleate (soap) disk at an oil/water interface was investigated as an autonomous system under nonequilibrium and isothermal conditions. The oleate molecules that developed from the disk transferred to both the toluene and water phases during self-motion. When the sodium oleate disk was removed from the toluene/water interface, the interfacial tension nearly recovered to the value without the disk. The duration of the motion increased as the volume of both phases increased. These results suggest that this self-motion continues due to a significant transfer of oleate molecules from the interface to both phases.

  12. Effect of temperature on the life of soap bubbles, and their solidification at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Grosse, A V

    1966-08-19

    Soap bubbles (also films on wire frames) have been solidified at low temperatures. At~-30 degrees C the bubbles still behave normally, that is, they can be expanded by blowing air into them and contract when the air is let out. At ~ -80 degrees C they become glassy, have very little surface tension, and cannot be blown up any more. At ~-120 degrees C they become completely solid. No further change is observed by cooling them to 90 degrees or 77 degrees K. PMID:17780653

  13. Comparing Architectural Styles for Service-Oriented Architectures - a REST vs. SOAP Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Jörg; Matzner, Martin; Müller, Oliver

    Two architectural styles are currently heavily discussed regarding the design of service-oriented architectures (SOA). Within this chapter we have compared those two alternative styles - the SOAP-style with procedural designs similar to remote procedure calls and the REST-style with loosely coupled services similar to resources of the World Wide Web. We introduce the case of a business network consisting of manufacturers and service providers of the electronics industry for deriving a set of requirements towards a specific SOA implementation. For each architectural style we present a concrete SOA design and evaluate it against the defined set of requirements.

  14. Evolution of two-dimensional soap froth with a single defect

    SciTech Connect

    Levitan, B. )

    1994-06-27

    The temporal evolution of two-dimensional soap froth, starting from a particle initial state, is studied. The initial state is a hexagonal array of bubbles in which a single defect is introduced. A cluster of transformed bubbles grows; the time dependence of the number of bubbles in this cluster in investigated and the distribution of the topological classes in the evolving part of the system is calculated. The distribution appears to approach a fixed limiting one, which differs from that obtained for the usual scaling state of the froth.

  15. An ammonium soap solution based method for the preparation of ceramic/transition metal microcomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, D.A.; Maginnis, M.A.

    1995-12-01

    A process for the preparation of transition metal/ceramic composites has been developed. This method was initially used to prepare silver/Y BaCuO composites and is currently being used to prepare other transition metal/ceramic superconductors and metal nitrides. An ammonium soap of 2-ethylhexonate is used to prepare a metallorganic in solution that is rapidly gelled or precipitated around a suspended and dispersed ceramic. This step is followed by a low temperature heat treatment in hydrogen or oxygen to produce the desired composite.

  16. Effect of cleaning dentine with soap and pumice on shear bond strength of dentine-bonding agents.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, M; Paul, S J; Lüthy, H; Schärer, P

    1997-06-01

    This in vitro study reports on the cleaning effect of different soaps on the shear bond strength of various dentine-bonding agents. Human teeth were coated with provisional cements for 24 h or for 14 days. After removing the provisional cements with a scaler, the dentinal surface was cleaned with a cotton pellet and non-fluoridated flour of pumice and soap for 10 sec. Different dentine-bonding agents and a luting resin were bonded to the dentinal surface according to manufacturers' instructions with the bonding agent and the composite material being light-cured at the same time. The bonding agents were tested under intrapulpal pressure and with thermal cycling to imitate physiological conditions. Compared with cleaning the dentine with water and pumice, all soaps investigated in this study decreased the shear bond strength values of the tested dentine-bonding agents considerably.

  17. Microbial characterization and degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in an anaerobic reactor treating wastewater containing soap powder.

    PubMed

    Carosia, Mariana Fronja; Okada, Dagoberto Yukio; Sakamoto, Isabel Kimiko; Silva, Edson Luiz; Varesche, Maria Bernadete Amâncio

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the removal of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFBR) treating wastewater containing soap powder as LAS source. At Stage I, the AFBR was fed with a synthetic substrate containing yeast extract and ethanol as carbon sources, and without LAS; at Stage II, soap powder was added to this synthetic substrate obtaining an LAS concentration of 14 ± 3 mg L(-1). The compounds of soap powder probably inhibited some groups of microorganisms, increasing the concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA) from 91 to 143 mg HAc L(-1). Consequently, the LAS removal rate was 48 ± 10% after the 156 days of operation. By sequencing, 16S rRNA clones belonging to the phyla Proteobacteria and Synergistetes were identified in the samples taken at the end of the experiment, with a remarkable presence of Dechloromonas sp. and Geobacter sp.

  18. Microbial characterization and degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in an anaerobic reactor treating wastewater containing soap powder.

    PubMed

    Carosia, Mariana Fronja; Okada, Dagoberto Yukio; Sakamoto, Isabel Kimiko; Silva, Edson Luiz; Varesche, Maria Bernadete Amâncio

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the removal of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFBR) treating wastewater containing soap powder as LAS source. At Stage I, the AFBR was fed with a synthetic substrate containing yeast extract and ethanol as carbon sources, and without LAS; at Stage II, soap powder was added to this synthetic substrate obtaining an LAS concentration of 14 ± 3 mg L(-1). The compounds of soap powder probably inhibited some groups of microorganisms, increasing the concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA) from 91 to 143 mg HAc L(-1). Consequently, the LAS removal rate was 48 ± 10% after the 156 days of operation. By sequencing, 16S rRNA clones belonging to the phyla Proteobacteria and Synergistetes were identified in the samples taken at the end of the experiment, with a remarkable presence of Dechloromonas sp. and Geobacter sp. PMID:24997374

  19. Spatial and temporal film thickness measurement of a soap bubble based on large lateral shearing displacement interferometry.

    PubMed

    Lv, Wei; Zhou, Huaichun; Lou, Chun; Zhu, Jinrong

    2012-12-20

    The film thickness of a hanging soap bubble has been studied along its gravitational orientation after its birth and before its bursting using large lateral shearing displacement interferometry, with a theoretical error of less than 0.325λ. The results show that the spatial distribution of the film thickness could be approximated with an exponential model in all captured frames, especially in the lower half of the soap bubble. Before its bursting, a special zone, where the water layer has drained out while the surfactant solution layer remains, will occur at the top of the soap bubble and gradually expand toward the bottom. Moreover, the simulated fringe patterns based on the computed values match well with the experimentally observed ones.

  20. Prevention of dryness and eczema of the hands of hospital staff by emulsion cleansing instead of washing with soap.

    PubMed

    Lauharanta, J; Ojajärvi, J; Sarna, S; Mäkelä, P

    1991-03-01

    The acceptability of two handwashing/cleansing methods, cleansing with emulsion or washing with liquid soap and water, were compared in a randomized, prospective long-term study. Thirty-eight members of hospital staff who had a history of hand skin dryness or eczema and a need for frequent handwashing used either liquid soap or emulsion for handwashing or cleansing. The clinical assessment of skin condition was done blindly by the same dermatologist at the onset of the study, and after 2 and 4 months with a predetermined scoring system. The median skin dryness index of persons in the liquid soap group increased significantly from an initial 1.4 to 3.6 during the 4-month winter study period (P less than 0.001), while the corresponding figure in the emulsion group decreased during the same time from 1.9 to 1.1 (P = 0.053). The difference in dryness between the groups was significant after 2 months (P = 0.04) and after 4 months (P less than 0.001). After 4 months, six people in the emulsion group had no dryness of the hands compared to only one in the liquid soap group. Similar trends were noticed in the occurrence of eczema. The median eczema index decreased significantly in the emulsion group from 0.4 to 0.1 during the study. In the liquid soap group, the increase in the median eczema index was from 0.4 to 0.7 (difference not significant). On an individual level, the eczema became worse in only one subject in the emulsion group, but in seven in the liquid soap group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)