Science.gov

Sample records for access road construction

  1. Curecanti-Blue Mesa-Salida 115-kV transmission lines access roads rehabilitation, maintenance, and construction project. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    Western Area Power Administration (Western) is a power marketing agency of the US Department of Energy, with jurisdiction in 15 western states. The Salt Lake City Area (SLCA) of Western performs the agency`s mission in parts of Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, Utah, Arizona, Wyoming, and Nevada. As part of its mission, Western owns, operates, and maintains a system of transmission lines for transmitting bulk electrical energy from points of generation to and between delivery points. Part of that system in southwestern Colorado includes the Blue Mesa-Curecanti and Blue Mesa-Salida 115-kV transmission lines. Western proposes to conduct maintenance and improve its access roads for these two transmission lines. This paper discusses the impacts to the existing environment as well as the environmental consequences resulting from the maintenance and construction that is proposed.

  2. CONTEXT PHOTOGRAPH OF BASE END STATIONS FROM ACCESS ROAD AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXT PHOTOGRAPH OF BASE END STATIONS FROM ACCESS ROAD AT MIDSLOPE, FACING NORTH. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT ARE STATIONS BARLOW, SAXTON, LEARY, MERRIAM (OUT OF VIEW BEHIND WW n ERA CONSTRUCTION), OSGOOD, AND FARLEY - White's Point Reservation, Base End Stations, Bounded by Voyager Circle & Mariner Drive, San Pedro, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 4. View of Building 802 from the access road, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of Building 802 from the access road, facing northwest. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  4. Detail view of Bonita Ridge Access Road Retaining Wall showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of Bonita Ridge Access Road Retaining Wall showing drainpipes, camera facing northwest - Fort Barry, Bonita Ridge Access Road, Retaining Wall, Point Bonita, Marin Headlands, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  5. View of northern end of Bonita Ridge Access Road Retaining ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of northern end of Bonita Ridge Access Road Retaining Wall, camera facing northwest - Fort Barry, Bonita Ridge Access Road, Retaining Wall, Point Bonita, Marin Headlands, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  6. Detail view of reinforced concrete of Bonita Ridge Access Road ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of reinforced concrete of Bonita Ridge Access Road Retaining Wall, camera facing northwest - Fort Barry, Bonita Ridge Access Road, Retaining Wall, Point Bonita, Marin Headlands, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  7. Automatic Construction of Hierarchical Road Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Weiping

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes an automated method of constructing a hierarchical road network given a single dataset, without the presence of thematic attributes. The method is based on a pattern graph which maintains nodes and paths as junctions and through-traffic roads. The hierarchy is formed incrementally in a top-down fashion for highways, ramps, and major roads directly connected to ramps; and bottom-up for the rest of major and minor roads. Through reasoning and analysis, ramps are identified as unique characteristics for recognizing and assembling high speed roads. The method makes distinctions on the types of ramps by articulating their connection patterns with highways. Major and minor roads will be identified by both quantitative and qualitative analysis of spatial properties and by discovering neighbourhood patterns revealed in the data. The result of the method would enrich data description and support comprehensive queries on sorted exit or entry points on highways and their related roads. The enrichment on road network data is important to a high successful rate of feature matching for road networks and to geospatial data integration.

  8. Geophysical methods for road construction and maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasul, Hedi; Karlson, Caroline; Jamali, Imran; Earon, Robert; Olofsson, Bo

    2015-04-01

    Infrastructure, such as road transportation, is a vital in civilized societies; which need to be constructed and maintained regularly. A large part of the project cost is attributed to subsurface conditions, where unsatisfactory conditions could increase either the geotechnical stabilization measures needed or the design cost itself. A way to collect information of the subsurface and existing installations which can lead to measures reducing the project cost and damage is to use geophysical methods during planning, construction and maintenance phases. The moisture in road layers is an important factor, which will affect the bearing capacity of the construction as well as the maintenances. Moisture in the road is a key factor for a well-functioning road. On the other hand the excessive moisture is the main reason of road failure and problems. From a hydrological point of view geophysical methods could help road planners identify the water table, geological strata, pollution arising from the road and the movement of the pollution before, during and after construction. Geophysical methods also allow road planners to collect valuable data for a large area without intrusive investigations such as with boreholes, i.e. minimizing the environmental stresses and costs. However, it is important to specify the investigation site and to choose the most appropriate geophysical method based on the site chosen and the objective of the investigation. Currently, numerous construction and rehabilitation projects are taking places around the world. Many of these projects are focused on infrastructural development, comprising both new projects and expansion of the existing infrastructural network. Geophysical methods can benefit these projects greatly during all phases. During the construction phase Ground Penetrating radar (GPR) is very useful in combination with Electrical Resistivity (ER) for detecting soil water content and base course compaction. However, ER and Electromagnetic

  9. View of middle portion of Bonita Ridge Access Road Retaining ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of middle portion of Bonita Ridge Access Road Retaining Wall, showing Signal Corps Radar 296 Station 5 Tower concrete pier (top center), camera facing northwest - Fort Barry, Bonita Ridge Access Road, Retaining Wall, Point Bonita, Marin Headlands, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  10. Oblique view of Bonita Ridge Access Road Retaining Wall, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of Bonita Ridge Access Road Retaining Wall, showing southernmost portion of intact wall and portion of concrete drainage ditch from Signal Corps Radar 296 Station 5 Transmitter Building foundation above, camera facing west-north - Fort Barry, Bonita Ridge Access Road, Retaining Wall, Point Bonita, Marin Headlands, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  11. Contextual view of Bonita Ridge Access Road Retaining Wall, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of Bonita Ridge Access Road Retaining Wall, showing concrete stairway and ramp with Army Fire Control Station (Buildings 621 and 622) at far left, camera facing southwest - Fort Barry, Bonita Ridge Access Road, Retaining Wall, Point Bonita, Marin Headlands, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  12. Title III Evaluation for the Access Road System

    SciTech Connect

    H.R. Montalv

    1998-07-28

    The objective of this evaluation is to provide recommendations to ensure consistency between the technical baseline requirements, baseline design, and the as-constructed Access Roads. Recommendations for resolving discrepancies between the as-constructed system, the technical baseline requirements, and the baseline design are included in this report. Cost and Schedule estimates are provided for all recommended modifications. This report does not address items which do not meet current safety or code requirements. These items are identified to the CMO and immediate action is taken to correct the situation. The report does identify safety and code items for which the A/E is recommending improvements. The recommended improvements will exceed the minimum requirements of applicable code and safety guide lines. These recommendations are intended to improve and enhance the operation and maintenance of the facility.

  13. 10. EASTERLY VIEW OF THE ACCESS ROAD TO THE DOWNSTREAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. EASTERLY VIEW OF THE ACCESS ROAD TO THE DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF BIG DALTON DAM EXTENDING FROM THE FOOTBRIDGE TO THE GAGING STATION. BIG DALTON DAM IN BACKGROUND. - Big Dalton Dam, 2600 Big Dalton Canyon Road, Glendora, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 9. SOUTHERLY VIEW OF THE ACCESS ROAD TO THE DOWNSTREAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. SOUTHERLY VIEW OF THE ACCESS ROAD TO THE DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF BIG DALTON DAM EXTENDING FROM THE DAM TO THE FOOTBRIDGE. VIEW FROM BIG DALTON DAM SHOWING THE TOE WEIR IN FOREGROUND AND FOOTBRIDGE IN BACKGROUND. - Big Dalton Dam, 2600 Big Dalton Canyon Road, Glendora, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. Context view shows approach of access road to summit, communication ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Context view shows approach of access road to summit, communication towers and NW corner of lookout tower at center right. Camera is pointed SE. - Chelan Butte Lookout, Summit of Chelan Butte, Chelan, Chelan County, WA

  16. 2. THREEQUARTER VIEW FROM ADJACENT ACCESS ROAD SHOWING THREE SPANS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. THREE-QUARTER VIEW FROM ADJACENT ACCESS ROAD SHOWING THREE SPANS AND NORTHWEST APPROACH SPANS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Red River Bridge, Spanning Red River at U.S. Highway 82, Garland, Miller County, AR

  17. 25 CFR 170.122 - Can a tribe close a cultural access road?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can a tribe close a cultural access road? 170.122 Section... ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Use of Irr and Cultural Access Roads § 170.122 Can a tribe close a cultural access road? (a) A tribe with jurisdiction over a...

  18. 25 CFR 170.122 - Can a tribe close a cultural access road?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can a tribe close a cultural access road? 170.122 Section... ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Use of Irr and Cultural Access Roads § 170.122 Can a tribe close a cultural access road? (a) A tribe with jurisdiction over a...

  19. 25 CFR 170.122 - Can a tribe close a cultural access road?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can a tribe close a cultural access road? 170.122 Section... ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Use of Irr and Cultural Access Roads § 170.122 Can a tribe close a cultural access road? (a) A tribe with jurisdiction over a...

  20. 25 CFR 170.122 - Can a tribe close a cultural access road?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe close a cultural access road? 170.122 Section... ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Use of Irr and Cultural Access Roads § 170.122 Can a tribe close a cultural access road? (a) A tribe with jurisdiction over a...

  1. 25 CFR 170.122 - Can a tribe close a cultural access road?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Can a tribe close a cultural access road? 170.122 Section... ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Use of Irr and Cultural Access Roads § 170.122 Can a tribe close a cultural access road? (a) A tribe with jurisdiction over a...

  2. 36 CFR 223.62 - Timber purchaser road construction credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... other than minimum stumpage rates and required deposits for slash disposal and road maintenance. As used... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timber purchaser road... PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Appraisal and Pricing § 223.62 Timber purchaser road construction...

  3. 36 CFR 223.62 - Timber purchaser road construction credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... other than minimum stumpage rates and required deposits for slash disposal and road maintenance. As used... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timber purchaser road... PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Appraisal and Pricing § 223.62 Timber purchaser road construction...

  4. 36 CFR 223.62 - Timber purchaser road construction credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... other than minimum stumpage rates and required deposits for slash disposal and road maintenance. As used... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timber purchaser road... PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Appraisal and Pricing § 223.62 Timber purchaser road construction...

  5. Geomorphological aspects of road construction in a cold environment, Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seppälä, Matti

    1999-12-01

    Traditionally, road alignments followed easy landscapes and suitable landforms. When traffic and the size and weight of vehicles increased and higher speeds were used, straighter roads were required; the easygoing relief could not always be used, and problems arose. Road contractors could save money in building and maintenance costs by considering the geomorphic facts. The examples from Finland document why road construction is very expensive in the conditions generated by severe winters. In Finland, more paved roads cross the Arctic Circle than in the whole of North America. This paper gives examples of geomorphic elements affecting road construction in a cold environment: eskers, drumlins, plains of late and postglacial glaciolacustrine and marine sediments, mires, steep rock cliffs, river channels and ice-dams, fluvial erosion, and palsas. Solutions to these problems include removal of frost sensible materials and replacement by more favorable sediments. Road surfaces, kept snow-free in the wintertime, are subjected to deep freezing. The maintenance of roads can be supported with some solutions that affect snowdrift and icing problems, avoidance of geomorphic factors that cause problems, and by using natural processes to help people. Some examples of how road construction affects geomorphic processes and vice versa are provided. For example, bridges block moving river ice, and on special occasions, road banks cause icing.

  6. Conceptual design and analysis of roads and road construction machinery for initial lunar base operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sines, Jeffrey L.; Banks, Joel; Efatpenah, Keyanoush

    1990-01-01

    Recent developments have made it possible for scientists and engineers to consider returning to the Moon to build a manned lunar base. The base can be used to conduct scientific research, develop new space technology, and utilize the natural resources of the Moon. Areas of the base will be separated, connected by a system of roads that reduce the power requirements of vehicles traveling on them. Feasible road types for the lunar surface were analyzed and a road construction system was designed for initial lunar base operations. A model was also constructed to show the system configuration and key operating features. The alternate designs for the lunar road construction system were developed in four stages: analyze and select a road type; determine operations and machinery needed to produce the road; develop machinery configurations; and develop alternates for several machine components. A compacted lunar soil road was selected for initial lunar base operations. The only machinery required to produce this road were a grader and a compactor. The road construction system consists of a main drive unit which is used for propulsion, a detachable grader assembly, and a towed compactor.

  7. 3. VIEW OF WATER TANKS FROM ACCESS ROAD TO HATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF WATER TANKS FROM ACCESS ROAD TO HATCH ADIT. VIEW NORTH. LUCKY TIGER MILL OFFICE (FEATURE B-I) IN DISTANCE. (OCTOBER, 1995) - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, Water Tanks, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  8. 11. VIEW TO EAST; ACCESS ROAD AT SOUTH END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW TO EAST; ACCESS ROAD AT SOUTH END OF TERMINAL AT TRACK LEVEL, LOOKING ALONG GENERAL ALIGNMENT OF PROPOSED EXTENSION OF EL MONTE BUSWAY (Asano) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 9. ACCESS ROAD FOR NORTHBOUND PARKWAY LANES AT AVENUE 60. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. ACCESS ROAD FOR NORTHBOUND PARKWAY LANES AT AVENUE 60. NOTE RAILING AT LEFT FOR BRIDGE SEEN IN CA-265-T-8. LOOKING 308°N. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Avenue 60 Bridge, Milepost 28.76, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. 36 CFR 223.62 - Timber purchaser road construction credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timber purchaser road... AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Appraisal and Pricing § 223.62 Timber purchaser road construction credit. Appraisal may also establish stumpage value as...

  11. 36 CFR 223.62 - Timber purchaser road construction credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timber purchaser road... AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Appraisal and Pricing § 223.62 Timber purchaser road construction...

  12. Temperature Control Method in the Snow Road Construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serebrenikova, Yu; Lysyannikov, A.; Kaizer, Yu; Zhelykevich, R.; Plakhotnikova, M.; Lysyannikova, N.; Merko, M.; Merko, I.

    2016-06-01

    The paper substantiates the process of heat treatment before the snow compaction in snow road construction. The methods to measure the temperature of snow as a moving dispersed material have been considered in the paper.

  13. 25 CFR 170.127 - What terms apply to access roads?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What terms apply to access roads? 170.127 Section 170.127 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Irr Housing Access Roads § 170.127...

  14. 25 CFR 170.127 - What terms apply to access roads?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What terms apply to access roads? 170.127 Section 170.127 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Irr Housing Access Roads § 170.127...

  15. 25 CFR 170.127 - What terms apply to access roads?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What terms apply to access roads? 170.127 Section 170.127 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Irr Housing Access Roads § 170.127...

  16. 25 CFR 170.127 - What terms apply to access roads?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What terms apply to access roads? 170.127 Section 170.127 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Irr Housing Access Roads § 170.127...

  17. 25 CFR 170.127 - What terms apply to access roads?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What terms apply to access roads? 170.127 Section 170.127 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Irr Housing Access Roads § 170.127...

  18. PERSPECTIVE OF HANGAR AND ACCESS ROAD LOOKING EAST (During the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE OF HANGAR AND ACCESS ROAD LOOKING EAST (During the 1940s the Arnold family leased part of their land to serve as a runway and airplane hangar. The building on the right of the photograph was originally two separate airplane hangars - they were joined in the early 1950s to provide covered combine parking between them. The building on the left of the photograph is a tractor shed. The building at a distance was gasoline and oil shed for the planes) - Arnold Farm, Hangar / Workshop, 1948 Arnold Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  19. Environmental impacts of forest road construction on mountainous terrain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Forest roads are the base infrastructure foundation of forestry operations. These roads entail a complex engineering effort because they can cause substantial environmental damage to forests and include a high-cost construction. This study was carried out in four sample sites of Giresun, Trabzon(2) and Artvin Forest Directorate, which is in the Black Sea region of Turkey. The areas have both steep terrain (30-50% gradient) and very steep terrain (51-80% gradient). Bulldozers and hydraulic excavators were determined to be the main machines for forest road construction, causing environmental damage and cross sections in mountainous areas. As a result of this study, the percent damage to forests was determined as follows: on steep terrain, 21% of trees were damaged by excavators and 33% of trees were damaged by bulldozers during forest road construction, and on very steep terrain, 27% of trees were damaged by excavators and 44% of trees were damaged by bulldozers during forest road construction. It was also determined that on steep terrain, when excavators were used, 12.23% less forest area was destroyed compared with when bulldozers were used and 16.13% less area was destroyed by excavators on very steep terrain. In order to reduce the environmental damage on the forest ecosystem, especially in steep terrains, hydraulic excavators should replace bulldozers in forest road construction activities. PMID:23497078

  20. Environmental impacts of forest road construction on mountainous terrain.

    PubMed

    Caliskan, Erhan

    2013-01-01

    Forest roads are the base infrastructure foundation of forestry operations. These roads entail a complex engineering effort because they can cause substantial environmental damage to forests and include a high-cost construction. This study was carried out in four sample sites of Giresun, Trabzon(2) and Artvin Forest Directorate, which is in the Black Sea region of Turkey. The areas have both steep terrain (30-50% gradient) and very steep terrain (51-80% gradient). Bulldozers and hydraulic excavators were determined to be the main machines for forest road construction, causing environmental damage and cross sections in mountainous areas.As a result of this study, the percent damage to forests was determined as follows: on steep terrain, 21% of trees were damaged by excavators and 33% of trees were damaged by bulldozers during forest road construction, and on very steep terrain, 27% of trees were damaged by excavators and 44% of trees were damaged by bulldozers during forest road construction. It was also determined that on steep terrain, when excavators were used, 12.23% less forest area was destroyed compared with when bulldozers were used and 16.13% less area was destroyed by excavators on very steep terrain. In order to reduce the environmental damage on the forest ecosystem, especially in steep terrains, hydraulic excavators should replace bulldozers in forest road construction activities. PMID:23497078

  1. Environmental impacts of forest road construction on mountainous terrain.

    PubMed

    Caliskan, Erhan

    2013-03-15

    Forest roads are the base infrastructure foundation of forestry operations. These roads entail a complex engineering effort because they can cause substantial environmental damage to forests and include a high-cost construction. This study was carried out in four sample sites of Giresun, Trabzon(2) and Artvin Forest Directorate, which is in the Black Sea region of Turkey. The areas have both steep terrain (30-50% gradient) and very steep terrain (51-80% gradient). Bulldozers and hydraulic excavators were determined to be the main machines for forest road construction, causing environmental damage and cross sections in mountainous areas.As a result of this study, the percent damage to forests was determined as follows: on steep terrain, 21% of trees were damaged by excavators and 33% of trees were damaged by bulldozers during forest road construction, and on very steep terrain, 27% of trees were damaged by excavators and 44% of trees were damaged by bulldozers during forest road construction. It was also determined that on steep terrain, when excavators were used, 12.23% less forest area was destroyed compared with when bulldozers were used and 16.13% less area was destroyed by excavators on very steep terrain. In order to reduce the environmental damage on the forest ecosystem, especially in steep terrains, hydraulic excavators should replace bulldozers in forest road construction activities.

  2. 75 FR 2583 - Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ...) announces the availability of funds in Fiscal Year (FY) 2009 for the Over-the-Road Bus (OTRB) Accessibility... of an accessible over-the-road bus are listed in 49 CFR part 38, subpart G. The rule required 50.... Specifications describing the design features of an accessible over-the-road bus are listed in 49 CFR part...

  3. 77 FR 5295 - Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Announcement of Project Selections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Announcement of Project... Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 appropriations for the Over-the-Road Bus (OTRB) Accessibility Program, authorized... Accessibility Program makes funds available to private operators of over-the-road buses to help finance...

  4. 25 CFR 170.128 - Are housing access roads and housing streets eligible for IRR Program funding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are housing access roads and housing streets eligible for... INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Irr Housing Access Roads § 170.128 Are housing access roads and housing streets eligible for...

  5. 36 CFR 223.47 - Date of completion of permanent road construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... permanent road construction. 223.47 Section 223.47 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... completion of permanent road construction. (a) The date of completion of permanent road construction... not applicable to roads not needed by the purchaser for timber removal. (d) The date for...

  6. 36 CFR 223.47 - Date of completion of permanent road construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... permanent road construction. 223.47 Section 223.47 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... completion of permanent road construction. (a) The date of completion of permanent road construction... not applicable to roads not needed by the purchaser for timber removal. (d) The date for...

  7. 36 CFR 223.47 - Date of completion of permanent road construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... permanent road construction. 223.47 Section 223.47 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... completion of permanent road construction. (a) The date of completion of permanent road construction... not applicable to roads not needed by the purchaser for timber removal. (d) The date for...

  8. 1. View of McKenzieRichey property from access road, facing northwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View of McKenzie-Richey property from access road, facing northwest. Note covered well, house, root cellar, barn and access road - McKenzie Property, North Bank of Sailor Gulch 750 feet northwest of intersection of U.S.F.S. Roads 651 & 349, Placerville, Boise County, ID

  9. 76 FR 17738 - Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Announcement of Project Selections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... Federal Transit Administration Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Announcement of Project Selections... be funded under Fiscal Year (FY) 2009 and 2010 appropriations for the Over-the- Road Bus (OTRB...). The OTRB Accessibility Program makes funds available to private operators of over-the-road buses...

  10. 27. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST DOWN THE WEST ACCESS ROAD. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST DOWN THE WEST ACCESS ROAD. THE FIRST LARGE PROTEST AT THE PLANT CAME IN 1978. IT WAS THE FIRST MAJOR PROTEST AT ANY DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PLANT. IN RESPONSE TO CONTINUING ANTI- NUCLEAR PROTESTS, IN PARTICULAR A 1979 RALLY THAT DREW 10,000 PARTICIPANTS, ROCKWELL EMPLOYEES AT THE PLANT FORMED A GRASSROOT ORGANIZATION, CITIZENS FOR ENERGY AND FREEDOM, AND ORGANIZED A PRO-NUCLEAR RALLY, 'POWER TO THE PEOPLE,' THAT ATTRACTED 16,000 PEOPLE (5/4/78). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  11. Construct Maps for the Road Ahead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunch, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    In this issue of "Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives," Adam E. Wyse provides a thorough review of research to date on the use of construct maps in standard setting. He juxtaposes concepts and methods in ways that make their connections to one another clearer and more obvious than they might otherwise have been. In…

  12. Reuse of polyethylene waste in road construction.

    PubMed

    Raju, S S S V Gopala; Murali, M; Rengaraju, V R

    2007-01-01

    The cost of construction of flexible pavements depends on thickness of the pavement layers. The thickness of pavement mainly depends on the strength of the subgrade. By suitable improvement to the strength of the subgrade, considerable saving in the scarce resources and economy can be achieved. Because of their lightweight, easy handling, non-breakable and corrosion free nature, polyethylene have surpassed all other materials in utility. But polyethylene waste has been a matter of concern to environmentalists as it is non-biodegradable. In this investigation, an attempt has been made to study the improvement of California Bearing Ratio (CBR) value of soils stabilized with waste polyethylene bags. This alternative material is mixed in different proportions to the gravel and clay to determine the improvement ofCBR value. Use of the waste polyethylene bags observed to have a significant impact on the strength and economy in pavement construction, when these are available locally in large quantities.

  13. Reuse of polyethylene waste in road construction.

    PubMed

    Raju, S S S V Gopala; Murali, M; Rengaraju, V R

    2007-01-01

    The cost of construction of flexible pavements depends on thickness of the pavement layers. The thickness of pavement mainly depends on the strength of the subgrade. By suitable improvement to the strength of the subgrade, considerable saving in the scarce resources and economy can be achieved. Because of their lightweight, easy handling, non-breakable and corrosion free nature, polyethylene have surpassed all other materials in utility. But polyethylene waste has been a matter of concern to environmentalists as it is non-biodegradable. In this investigation, an attempt has been made to study the improvement of California Bearing Ratio (CBR) value of soils stabilized with waste polyethylene bags. This alternative material is mixed in different proportions to the gravel and clay to determine the improvement ofCBR value. Use of the waste polyethylene bags observed to have a significant impact on the strength and economy in pavement construction, when these are available locally in large quantities. PMID:18472564

  14. RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report for the Gunsite 113 Access Road Unit (631-24G) - March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.

    1996-03-01

    Gunsite 113 Access Road Unit is located in the northeast corner of SRS. In the mid 1980`s, sparse vegetation, dead trees, and small mounds of soil were discovered on a portion of the road leading to Gunsite 113. This area became the Gunsite 113 Access Road Unit (Gunsite 113). The unit appears to have been used as a spoil dirt and / or road construction debris disposal area. There is no documentation or record of any hazardous substance management, disposal, or any type of waste disposal at this unit. Based upon the available evidence, there are no potential contaminants of concern available for evaluation by a CERCLA baseline risk assessment. Therefore, there is no determinable health risk associated with Gunsite 113. In addition, it is also reasonable to conclude that, since contamination is below risk-based levels, the unit presents no significant ecological risk. It is recommended that no further remedial action be performed at this unit.

  15. 36 CFR 223.41 - Payment when purchaser elects government road construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... government road construction. 223.41 Section 223.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... purchaser elects government road construction. Each contract having a provision for construction of specified roads with total estimated construction costs of $50,000 or more shall include a provision...

  16. 36 CFR 223.41 - Payment when purchaser elects government road construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... government road construction. 223.41 Section 223.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... purchaser elects government road construction. Each contract having a provision for construction of specified roads with total estimated construction costs of $50,000 or more shall include a provision...

  17. 36 CFR 223.41 - Payment when purchaser elects government road construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... government road construction. 223.41 Section 223.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... purchaser elects government road construction. Each contract having a provision for construction of specified roads with total estimated construction costs of $50,000 or more shall include a provision...

  18. PAH Accessibility in Particulate Matter from Road-Impacted Environments.

    PubMed

    Allan, Ian J; O'Connell, Steven G; Meland, Sondre; Bæk, Kine; Grung, Merete; Anderson, Kim A; Ranneklev, Sissel B

    2016-08-01

    Snowmelt, surface runoff, or stormwater releases in urban environments can result in significant discharges of particulate matter-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into aquatic environments. Recently, more-specific activities such as road-tunnel washing have been identified as contributing to contaminant load to surface waters. However, knowledge of PAH accessibility in particulate matter (PM) of urban origin that may ultimately be released into urban surface waters is limited. In the present study, we evaluated the accessibility of PAHs associated with seven distinct (suspended) particulate matter samples collected from different urban sources. Laboratory-based infinite sink extractions with silicone rubber (SR) as the extractor phase demonstrated a similar pattern of PAH accessibility for most PM samples. Substantially higher accessible fractions were observed for the less-hydrophobic PAHs (between 40 and 80% of total concentrations) compared with those measured for the most-hydrophobic PAHs (<5% of total concentrations). When we focused on PAHs bound to PM from tunnel-wash waters, first-order desorption rates for PAHs with log Kow > 5.5 were found in line with those commonly found for slowly or very slowly desorbing sediment-associated contaminants. PAHs with log Kow < 5.5 were found at higher desorbing rates. The addition of detergents did not influence the extractability of lighter PAHs but increased desorption rates for the heavier PAHs, potentially contributing to increases in the toxicity of tunnel-wash waters when surfactants are used. The implications of total and accessible PAH concentrations measured in our urban PM samples are discussed in a context of management of PAH and PM emission to the surrounding aquatic environment. Although we only fully assessed PAHs in this work, further study should consider other contaminants such as OPAHs, which were also detected in all PM samples. PMID:27312518

  19. 36 CFR 223.84 - Small business bid form provisions on sales with specified road construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provisions on sales with specified road construction. 223.84 Section 223.84 Parks, Forests, and Public....84 Small business bid form provisions on sales with specified road construction. For each sale... road construction by the Forest Service and where such election is made; (b) To certify as to...

  20. 36 CFR 223.84 - Small business bid form provisions on sales with specified road construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provisions on sales with specified road construction. 223.84 Section 223.84 Parks, Forests, and Public....84 Small business bid form provisions on sales with specified road construction. For each sale... road construction by the Forest Service and where such election is made; (b) To certify as to...

  1. 36 CFR 223.84 - Small business bid form provisions on sales with specified road construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provisions on sales with specified road construction. 223.84 Section 223.84 Parks, Forests, and Public... specified road construction. For each sale described in § 223.82(b), the bid form must include provision for a small business concern: (a) To elect road construction by the Forest Service and where...

  2. 75 FR 20034 - Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Grants: Corrections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... 215 (73 FR 47046, Aug. 13, 2008). On October 1, 2008, DOL began using a revised special warranty for... Federal Transit Administration Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Grants: Corrections AGENCY: Federal..., 2010 Federal Transit Administration (FTA) Notice titled ``Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility...

  3. 77 FR 25529 - Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... this authorization, the DOL amended its implementing regulations at 29 CFR part 215 (73 FR 47046, Aug... TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Grants AGENCY: Federal... availability of funds in Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 for the Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility (OTRB)...

  4. 33 CFR 211.78 - Maintenance and conveyance of access roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Site Development and Use § 211.78 Maintenance and conveyance of access roads. The Government will not... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maintenance and conveyance of access roads. 211.78 Section 211.78 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. 33 CFR 211.78 - Maintenance and conveyance of access roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Site Development and Use § 211.78 Maintenance and conveyance of access roads. The Government will not... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maintenance and conveyance of access roads. 211.78 Section 211.78 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF...

  6. 33 CFR 211.78 - Maintenance and conveyance of access roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Site Development and Use § 211.78 Maintenance and conveyance of access roads. The Government will not... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maintenance and conveyance of access roads. 211.78 Section 211.78 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF...

  7. 36 CFR 223.38 - Standards for road design and construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for road design and... PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Contract Conditions and Provisions § 223.38 Standards for road design and construction. Road construction authorized under timber sale contracts, permits and other documents...

  8. 36 CFR 223.38 - Standards for road design and construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for road design and... PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Contract Conditions and Provisions § 223.38 Standards for road design and construction. Road construction authorized under timber sale contracts, permits and other documents...

  9. 36 CFR 223.38 - Standards for road design and construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for road design and... PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Contract Conditions and Provisions § 223.38 Standards for road design and construction. Road construction authorized under timber sale contracts, permits and other documents...

  10. 35. From Final Construction Report on the Haleakala Road ProjectNR7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. From Final Construction Report on the Haleakala Road Project--NR-7, Hawaii National Park, Island of Maui, Territory of Hawaii. LOOKING BACK FROM STATION 335 AT RETURN CURVE. - Haleakala National Park Roads, Pukalani, Maui County, HI

  11. 36. From Final Construction Report on the Haleakala Road ProjectNR7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. From Final Construction Report on the Haleakala Road Project--NR-7, Hawaii National Park, Island of Maui, Territory of Hawaii. TYPICAL RUBBLE MASONRY HEADWALL AND BOX CULVERT. - Haleakala National Park Roads, Pukalani, Maui County, HI

  12. 38. From Final Construction Report on the Haleakala Road ProjectNR7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. From Final Construction Report on the Haleakala Road Project--NR-7, Hawaii National Park, Island of Maui, Territory of Hawaii. BRIDGE AT STATION 85+. - Haleakala National Park Roads, Pukalani, Maui County, HI

  13. Green Road: an ecological road construction method for the preservation of mountain environment and landscape in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudan Acharya, Madhu

    2013-04-01

    Road is the only viable means of transportation and an important infrastructure for the economic development of a mountainous country like Nepal. The construction and maintenance of hill and mountain roads in Nepal are often challenged by its topography with very steep slopes, fragile geological conditions and a strong monsoon rain for a longer duration. Under such topographic and climatic conditions, the conventional approach of road construction on hills with cut and throw method with the use of machines has caused substantial increase in post construction landslides, mass wastage of soil material, shear failures on the downhill slope due to additional surcharge from tipped soil, loss of vegetation on slopes and environmental degradation. To overcome these environmental problems, a concept called "Green Road" has emerged in hill road construction practices in Nepal. This concept was evolved from the lesson learnt in the past and decade long experiences in hill road constructions and maintenance. This is an environment-friendly and labour-based construction technique which utilizes mass balancing approach. It is a low cost solution which focuses on the use of locally available materials and techniques in a sustainable way by maintaining the existing landscapes. Appropriate soil bioengineering techniques are applied to stabilize the roadside slopes and to reduce soil erosion. This paper provides some basics of green road approach, its advantages and its contribution to preserve natural environment. This paper examines the magnitude of direct mass wasting of materials due to excess excavation and compares the loss of masses in both conventional as well as green road approach of road construction. Recommendations are also made for minimizing the mass wastage and to preserve the fragile mountain environment by using appropriate soil bioengineering methods.

  14. Parameterizing road construction in route-based road weather models: can ground-penetrating radar provide any answers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, D. S.; Chapman, L.; Thornes, J. E.

    2011-05-01

    A ground-penetrating radar (GPR) survey of a 32 km mixed urban and rural study route is undertaken to assess the usefulness of GPR as a tool for parameterizing road construction in a route-based road weather forecast model. It is shown that GPR can easily identify even the smallest of bridges along the route, which previous thermal mapping surveys have identified as thermal singularities with implications for winter road maintenance. Using individual GPR traces measured at each forecast point along the route, an inflexion point detection algorithm attempts to identify the depth of the uppermost subsurface layers at each forecast point for use in a road weather model instead of existing ordinal road-type classifications. This approach has the potential to allow high resolution modelling of road construction and bridge decks on a scale previously not possible within a road weather model, but initial results reveal that significant future research will be required to unlock the full potential that this technology can bring to the road weather industry.

  15. Marine dredged sediments as new materials resource for road construction.

    PubMed

    Siham, Kamali; Fabrice, Bernard; Edine, Abriak Nor; Patrick, Degrugilliers

    2008-01-01

    Large volumes of sediments are dredged each year in Europe in order to maintain harbour activities. With the new European Union directives, harbour managers are encouraged to find environmentally sound solutions for these materials. This paper investigates the potential uses of Dunkirk marine dredged sediment as a new material resource for road building. The mineralogical composition of sediments is evaluated using X-ray diffraction and microscopy analysis. Since sediments contain a high amount of water, a dewatering treatment has been used. Different suitable mixtures, checking specific geotechnical criteria as required in French standards, are identified. The mixtures are then optimized for an economical reuse. The mechanical tests conducted on these mixtures are compaction, bearing capacity, compression and tensile tests. The experimental results show the feasibility of the beneficial use of Dunkirk marine dredged sand and sediments as a new material for the construction of foundation and base layers for roads. Further research is now needed to prove the resistance of this new material to various environmental impacts (e.g., frost damage).

  16. Access road from State Route 240 to the 200 West Area, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct an access road on the Hanford Site, from State Route (SR) 240 to Beloit Avenue in the 200 West Area. Traffic volume during shift changes creates an extremely serious congestion and safety problem on Route 4S from the Wye barricade to the 200 Areas. A Risk Evaluation (Trost 1992) indicated that there is a probability of 1.53 fatal accidents on Route 4S within 2 years. To help alleviate this danger, a new 3.5-kilometer (2.2-mile)-long access road would be constructed from Beloit Avenue in the 200 West Area to SR 240. In addition, administrative controls such as redirecting traffic onto alternate routes would be used to further reduce traffic volume. The proposed access road would provide an alternative travel-to-work route for many outer area personnel, particularly those with destinations in the 200 West Area. This proposal is the most reasonable alternative to reduce the problem. While traffic safety would be greatly improved, a small portion of the shrub-steppe habitat would be disturbed. The DOE would offset any habitat damage by re-vegetation or other appropriate habitat enhancement activities elsewhere on the Hanford Site. This Environmental Assessment (EA) provides information about the environmental impacts of the proposed action, so a decision can be made to either prepare an Environmental Impact Statement or issue a Finding of No Significant Impact.

  17. 36 CFR 223.38 - Standards for road design and construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Contract Conditions and Provisions § 223.38 Standards for road design and construction. Road construction authorized under timber sale contracts, permits and other documents authorizing the cutting or removal of timber or...

  18. 36 CFR 223.38 - Standards for road design and construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Contract Conditions and Provisions § 223.38 Standards for road design and construction. Road construction authorized under timber sale contracts, permits and other documents...

  19. Warning! Slippery Road Ahead: Internet Access and District Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Joan M.

    1995-01-01

    As schools merge onto the information highway, districts must address their liability associated with Internet access. Schools need a practical policy supporting high access to global educational resources while limiting district liability. USENET provides easy access to controversial and pornographic materials. This article outlines federal…

  20. Environmental impact of ferrochrome slag in road construction.

    PubMed

    Lind, B B; Fällman, A M; Larsson, L B

    2001-01-01

    Vargon Alloys in Western Sweden is one of the largest producers of ferrochrome slag in Europe. Ferrochrome slag is a by-product from the production of ferrochrome, an essential component in stainless steel. Extensive tests have been carried out on the physical properties of the ferrochrome slag from Vargon Alloys and it was found to be highly suitable as road construction material. The composition and leaching tests of the ferrochrome slag show that the chromium content is high, 1-3%, although leaching under normal conditions is very low. With the exception of potassium (K), which had a potential leaching capacity (availability test) of around 16%, the leaching of chromium, nickel, zinc and other elements was just a few per cent. However, all these tests were conducted in the laboratory. What happens out in the field, under the influence of acid rain and biological activity, and how does this compare with the laboratory results? To answer this question an investigation was carried out to study the environmental impact of ferrochrome slag in roads that were built in 1994. The investigation includes soil sampling (total content and leachable amounts of metals) and groundwater analysis (filtered and non-filtered samples). In addition, a new method involving the bio-uptake of chromium and other metals by the roots of the dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) was tested. The results show that there was a low migration of particles from the slag to the underlying soil and that the leaching into the groundwater was also low for all the elements analysed. However, there seemed to be a significant uptake of Cr by plants growing with their roots in the slag. An investigation of plant uptake was an important complement to laboratory leaching tests on alternative materials.

  1. BARN EXTERIOR PERSPECTIVE OF WEST FAÇADE FROM ACCESS ROAD, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BARN EXTERIOR PERSPECTIVE OF WEST FAÇADE FROM ACCESS ROAD, LOOKING EAST. (A shed addition was added to the north end of the barn in the mid-1950s for squash storage. Another addition was built in the early 1970s to provide feeding and watering troughs for cattle. This image also shows the granary, on the right.) - Smith Farm, Barn, 399 Ebey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  2. 25 CFR 170.128 - Are housing access roads and housing streets eligible for IRR Program funding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the transportation planning process as required in subpart D, may include housing access roads and housing street projects on the Tribal Transportation Improvement Program (TTIP). IRR Program funds...

  3. Construction of road roughness in left and right wheel paths based on PSD and coherence function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiandong; Wang, Haixia; Shan, Yingchun; He, Tian

    2015-08-01

    A new method of constructing road roughness in left and right wheel paths based on specified Power Spectral Density (PSD) and coherence function is proposed. This is achieved through a sequence of steps. First, the road roughness is divided into original and perturbed parts. The original road roughness in left and right wheel paths is assumed to be equivalent, while the two parallel perturbed road roughnesses are considered to be stochastic and independent of each other. Second, the auto-PSDs of the original and perturbed road roughness are derived through the specified PSD and coherence function. Then, the original and perturbed road roughnesses are constructed based on their auto-PSDs using the IFFT method. Finally, the road roughness is obtained by combining the original and perturbed roughness together. The method is validated through a construction example. The results show that the road roughness in the left and right wheel paths constructed through this method can satisfy both the PSD and coherence function conditions, and good randomness of the perturbed road roughness ensures high precision of this method.

  4. Assessment of micro-regional internal accessibility based on road network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Ting; Li, Manchun; Jiang, Zhixin; Huang, Kang

    2007-06-01

    Accessibility is an important indicator of regional land-use, social justice and quality of life. It means the convenience from one place to another in a specified kind of transportation system. Wide-region based, most of the present domestic accessibility research took the high-grade highway such as highway and railway as entirely open road, without considering the service that high-grade highway provides based on intersection and railway station. This study extended to put forward arithmetic to deal with this problem in a micro-regional study area. Taking New District, Wuxi City, Jiangsu Province as a study case, this study researched the assessment of micro-regional internal accessibility based on road network including closed road. This study provides a tool to regional economical and social decision, and introduces a new view for studying relationship between people and land-use in micro-district.

  5. 40. From Final Construction Report on the Haleakala Road ProjectNR7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. From Final Construction Report on the Haleakala Road Project--NR-7, Hawaii National Park, Island of Maui, Territory of Hawaii, T.H. GENERAL VIEW OT THE PROJECT SHOWING CONSPICUOUS SCARS. THE BEFORE PHOTO OF A BEFORE AND AFTER SET. AFTER PHOTO IS HI-52-41. - Haleakala National Park Roads, Pukalani, Maui County, HI

  6. 39. From Final Construction Report on the Haleakala Road ProjectNR7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. From Final Construction Report on the Haleakala Road Project--NR-7, Hawaii National Park, Island of Maui, Territory of Hawaii, T.H., by Merel S. Sager, Resident Landscape Architect, April 16, 1935. COVERING CONSPICOUS ROCK FILLS WITH SOIL. - Haleakala National Park Roads, Pukalani, Maui County, HI

  7. 34. From Final Construction Report on the Haleakala Road ProjectNR7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. From Final Construction Report on the Haleakala Road Project--NR-7, Hawaii National Park, Island of Maui, Territory of Hawaii, H.L. Handley, Assistant Highway Engineer, March 30, 1935. NOTE HOW THE LOCATION FITS THE CONTOUR OF THE HILL. LOOKING FROM STATION 382+00 ON HALEAKALA HIGHWAY. - Haleakala National Park Roads, Pukalani, Maui County, HI

  8. 37. From Final Construction Report on the Haleakala Road ProjectNR7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. From Final Construction Report on the Haleakala Road Project--NR-7, Hawaii National Park, Island of Maui, Territory of Hawaii. HAND-LAID ROCK BERM ON RETURN CURVE TO PREVENT SCOUR AND SEEPAGE THROUGH FILLS. - Haleakala National Park Roads, Pukalani, Maui County, HI

  9. Submicron particle monitoring of paving and related road construction operations.

    PubMed

    Freund, Alice; Zuckerman, Norman; Baum, Lisa; Milek, Debra

    2012-01-01

    This study identified activities and sources that contribute to ultrafine and other submicron particle exposure that could trigger respiratory symptoms in highway repair workers. Submicron particle monitoring was conducted for paving, milling, and pothole repair operations in a major metropolitan area where several highway repair workers were identified as symptomatic for respiratory illness following exposures at the 2001 World Trade Center disaster site. Exposure assessments were conducted for eight trades involved in road construction using a TSI P-Trak portable condensation particle counter. Direct readings near the workers' breathing zones and observations of activities and potential sources were logged on 7 days on 27 workers using four different models of pavers and two types of millers. Average worker exposure levels ranged from 2 to 3 times background during paving and from 1 to 4 times background during milling. During asphalt paving, average personal exposures to submicron particulates were 25,000-60,000, 28,000-70,000, and 23,000-37,000 particles/ cm(3) for paver operators, screed operators, and rakers, respectively. Average personal exposures during milling were 19,000-111,000, 28,000-81,000, and 19,000 particles/cm(3) for the large miller operators, miller screed operators, and raker, respectively. Personal peak exposures were measured up to 467,000 and 455,000 particles/cm(3) in paving and milling, respectively. Several sources of submicron particles were identified. These included the diesel and electric fired screed heaters; engine exhaust from diesel powered construction vehicles passing by or idling; raking, dumping, and paving of asphalt; exhaust from the hotbox heater; pavement dust or fumes from milling operations, especially when the large miller started and stopped; and secondhand cigarette smoke. To reduce the potential for health effects in workers, over 40 recommendations were made to control exposures, including improved maintenance of

  10. Submicron particle monitoring of paving and related road construction operations.

    PubMed

    Freund, Alice; Zuckerman, Norman; Baum, Lisa; Milek, Debra

    2012-01-01

    This study identified activities and sources that contribute to ultrafine and other submicron particle exposure that could trigger respiratory symptoms in highway repair workers. Submicron particle monitoring was conducted for paving, milling, and pothole repair operations in a major metropolitan area where several highway repair workers were identified as symptomatic for respiratory illness following exposures at the 2001 World Trade Center disaster site. Exposure assessments were conducted for eight trades involved in road construction using a TSI P-Trak portable condensation particle counter. Direct readings near the workers' breathing zones and observations of activities and potential sources were logged on 7 days on 27 workers using four different models of pavers and two types of millers. Average worker exposure levels ranged from 2 to 3 times background during paving and from 1 to 4 times background during milling. During asphalt paving, average personal exposures to submicron particulates were 25,000-60,000, 28,000-70,000, and 23,000-37,000 particles/ cm(3) for paver operators, screed operators, and rakers, respectively. Average personal exposures during milling were 19,000-111,000, 28,000-81,000, and 19,000 particles/cm(3) for the large miller operators, miller screed operators, and raker, respectively. Personal peak exposures were measured up to 467,000 and 455,000 particles/cm(3) in paving and milling, respectively. Several sources of submicron particles were identified. These included the diesel and electric fired screed heaters; engine exhaust from diesel powered construction vehicles passing by or idling; raking, dumping, and paving of asphalt; exhaust from the hotbox heater; pavement dust or fumes from milling operations, especially when the large miller started and stopped; and secondhand cigarette smoke. To reduce the potential for health effects in workers, over 40 recommendations were made to control exposures, including improved maintenance of

  11. Hills, ridges, mountains, and roads: geographical factors and access to care in rural Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Ramsbottom-Lucier, M; Emmett, K; Rich, E C; Wilson, J F

    1996-01-01

    Access to health care remains an important issue facing many individuals. Barriers to health care include financial factors, characteristics of the individuals and of the health care delivery system, as well as geographical factors. Using a telephone survey of Kentucky residents, this study investigated the relationship between the road quality and county elevation and access to health care for individuals in rural and urban areas of the state. Controlling the comparison for known individual characteristics, community characteristics, and medical infrastructure characteristics, this study uncovered that worse road conditions, measured by a road "rideability" index, were associated with longer times to reach medical care. It also found an association between higher county elevations and shorter times to reach medical care.

  12. 33 CFR 211.78 - Maintenance and conveyance of access roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... access roads. 211.78 Section 211.78 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE REAL ESTATE ACTIVITIES OF THE CORPS OF ENGINEERS IN CONNECTION WITH CIVIL... of Engineers or the Director of Civil Works (Assistant to the Chief of Engineers for Civil Works)...

  13. Construction demolition wastes, Waelz slag and MSWI bottom ash: a comparative technical analysis as material for road construction.

    PubMed

    Vegas, I; Ibañez, J A; San José, J T; Urzelai, A

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study is to analyze the technical suitability of using secondary materials from three waste flows (construction and demolition waste (CDW), Waelz slag and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash), under the regulations and standards governing the use of materials for road construction. A detailed technical characterization of the materials was carried out according to Spanish General Technical Specifications for Road Construction (PG3). The results show that Waelz slag can be adequate for using in granular structural layers, while CDW fits better as granular material in roadbeds. Likewise, fresh MSWI bottom ash can be used as roadbed material as long as it does not contain a high concentration of soluble salts. This paper also discusses the adequacy of using certain traditional test methods for natural soils when characterizing secondary materials for use as aggregates in road construction.

  14. Maslow Revisited: Constructing a Road Map of Human Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Dennis; Yballe, Leodones

    2007-01-01

    Given the scope and intent of Maslow's work, the current textbook treatment is wanting. Therefore, an inductive exercise has been created and is offered here to build "the road map of human nature." This age-old, philosophic focus on our true nature has been a way to successfully engage and inspire both our students and our pedagogy. In the spirit…

  15. Knowledge Construction in a Teachers' Community of Enquiry: A Possible Road Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellermayer, Michal; Tabak, Edith

    2006-01-01

    This action research is targeted at academic researchers who facilitate the construction of communities of enquiry in school-university partnerships and are interested in understanding the process of such an enterprise as well as the knowledge constructed within such communities. Our action research study provides a possible road map for such a…

  16. 108. Catalog OPark Structure/Construction & Maintenance, 26 Roads, Negative Number ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    108. Catalog O-Park Structure/Construction & Maintenance, 26 Roads, Negative Number P 138b (Photographer and date unknown) PARAPET UNDER CONSTRUCTION AT CRESCENT ROCK OVERLOOK. - Skyline Drive, From Front Royal, VA to Rockfish Gap, VA , Luray, Page County, VA

  17. Bio fuel ash in a road construction: impact on soil solution chemistry.

    PubMed

    Thurdin, R T; van Hees, P A W; Bylund, D; Lundström, U S

    2006-01-01

    Limited natural resources and landfill space, as well as increasing amounts of ash produced from incineration of bio fuel and municipal solid waste, have created a demand for useful applications of ash, of which road construction is one application. Along national road 90, situated about 20 km west of Sollefteå in the middle of Sweden, an experiment road was constructed with a 40 cm bio fuel ash layer. The environmental impact of the ash layer was evaluated from soil solutions obtained by centrifugation of soil samples taken on four occasions during 2001-2003. Soil samples were taken in the ash layer, below the ash layer at two depths in the road and in the ditch. In the soil solutions, pH, conductivity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and the total concentration of cations (metals) and anions were determined. Two years after the application of the ash layers in the test road, the concentrations in the ash layer of K, SO4, Zn, and Hg had increased significantly while the concentration of Se, Mo and Cd had decreased significantly. Below the ash layer in the road an initial increase of pH was observed and the concentrations of K, SO4, Se, Mo and Cd increased significantly, while the concentrations of Cu and Hg decreased significantly in the road and also in the ditch. Cd was the element showing a potential risk of contamination of the groundwater. The concentrations of Ca in the ash layer indicated an ongoing hardening, which is important for the leaching rate and the strength of the road construction.

  18. 36 CFR 294.43 - Prohibition on road construction and reconstruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provided for by statute or treaty, or (2) A road is needed to protect public health and safety in cases of... provision, subject to the legal rights identified in 36 CFR 294.43(b)(1), the responsible official must... or public access, public health and safety, or uses authorized under permit, easement or other...

  19. 36 CFR 294.43 - Prohibition on road construction and reconstruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provided for by statute or treaty, or (2) A road is needed to protect public health and safety in cases of... provision, subject to the legal rights identified in 36 CFR 294.43(b)(1), the responsible official must... or public access, public health and safety, or uses authorized under permit, easement or other...

  20. A framework of analysis for field experiments with alternative materials in road construction.

    PubMed

    François, D; Jullien, A

    2009-01-01

    In France, a wide variety of alternative materials is produced or exists in the form of stockpiles built up over time. Such materials are distributed over various regions of the territory depending on local industrial development and urbanisation trends. The use of alternative materials at a national scale implies sharing local knowledge and experience. Building a national database on alternative materials for road construction is useful in gathering and sharing information. An analysis of feedback from onsite experiences (back analysis) is essential to improve knowledge on alternative material use in road construction. Back analysis of field studies has to be conducted in accordance with a single common framework. This could enable drawing comparisons between alternative materials and between road applications. A framework for the identification and classification of data used in back analyses is proposed. Since the road structure is an open system, this framework has been based on a stress-response approach at both the material and structural levels and includes a description of external factors applying during the road service life. The proposal has been shaped from a review of the essential characteristics of road materials and structures, as well as from the state of knowledge specific to alternative material characterisation.

  1. Effects of road traffic noise and the benefit of access to quietness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öhrström, E.; Skånberg, A.; Svensson, H.; Gidlöf-Gunnarsson, A.

    2006-08-01

    Socio-acoustic surveys were carried out as part of the Soundscape Support to Health research programme to assess the health effects of various soundscapes in residential areas. The study was designed to test whether having access to a quiet side of one's dwelling enhances opportunities for relaxation and reduces noise annoyance and other adverse health effects related to noise. The dwellings chosen were exposed to sound levels from road traffic ranging from about L=45-68 dB at the most-exposed side. The study involved 956 individuals aged 18-75 years. The results demonstrate that access to quiet indoor and outdoor sections of one's dwelling supports health; it produces a lower degree and extent of annoyance and disturbed daytime relaxation, improves sleep and contributes to physiological and psychological well-being. Having access to a quiet side of one's dwelling reduces disturbances by an average of 30-50% for the various critical effects, and corresponds to a reduction in sound levels of ( LAeq,24h) 5 dB at the most-exposed side. To protect most people (80%) from annoyance and other adverse effects, sound levels from road traffic should not exceed ( LAeq,24h) 60 dB at the most-exposed side, even if there is access to a quiet side of one's dwelling ( LAeq,24h⩽45 dB).

  2. Recycling of waste spent catalyst in road construction and masonry blocks.

    PubMed

    Taha, Ramzi; Al-Kamyani, Zahran; Al-Jabri, Khalifa; Baawain, Mahad; Al-Shamsi, Khalid

    2012-08-30

    Waste spent catalyst is generated in Oman as a result of the cracking process of petroleum oil in the Mina Al-Fahl and Sohar Refineries. The disposal of spent catalyst is of a major concern to oil refineries. Stabilized spent catalyst was evaluated for use in road construction as a whole replacement for crushed aggregates in the sub-base and base layers and as a partial replacement for Portland cement in masonry blocks manufacturing. Stabilization is necessary as the waste spent catalyst exists in a powder form and binders are needed to attain the necessary strength required to qualify its use in road construction. Raw spent catalyst was also blended with other virgin aggregates, as a sand or filler replacement, for use in road construction. Compaction, unconfined compressive strength and leaching tests were performed on the stabilized mixtures. For its use in masonry construction, blocks were tested for unconfined compressive strength at various curing periods. Results indicate that the spent catalyst has a promising potential for use in road construction and masonry blocks without causing any negative environmental impacts.

  3. Public expectations about access fees and road closures on public lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cline, K.; Lamb, B.L.; Ponds, P.D.

    2006-01-01

    It is sometimes suggested that land managers could better communicate with the general public by relying on people who are active in community affairs to frame the message. By comparing responses from the 'attentive' and general public on the Colorado Plateau in the USA, this study investigated the expected effects of using recreation access fees or road closures to manage recreation on public lands. Although neither the attentive nor general public strongly anticipated benefits from the two management options, the attentive public was more likely than the general public to report positive expectations. Those more likely to expect fewer benefits from the management options do so because of factors that are outside the influence of managers (e.g., socio-demographics and value orientation). The results point out challenges for building public support through mobilizing the attentive public to develop a positive management atmosphere with fees and road closures. ?? 2006 University of Newcastle upon Tyne.

  4. Effects of Road De-icing Salts in Constructed Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, P.

    2005-05-01

    In November 2003, a 4-lane highway and 6 mitigation wetlands were opened across the Penn State campus, Erie, Pennsylvania. Road runoff overflows into 1 wetland (T3), and another (R3) receives salt spray and plowed snow. I have logged conductivity and temperature hourly at the sediment-water interface in R3 and T3 since January 2004, and I measure conductivity, temperature, and chironomid density biweekly in all 6 wetlands. Salinity in the wetlands that receive no salt is 0 psu. Biweekly checks of conductivity grossly underestimated winter salinities in T3 and R3. Between January and March 2004, salinity was >5 psu 5 times in R3, and >10 psu 6 times and >30 psu twice in T3. Flushing rates were similar in both wetlands, but time constants were significantly greater in T3 than R3. Salinities returned to 0 psu in both wetlands in May. Chironomid density was significantly lower in T3 than in all other wetlands in summer and autumn, long after salinities at the sediment-water interface returned to 0. Thus, chironomid densities indicated persistent biological effects of de-icers even when measurable salinities were 0 psu. Winter 2005 data show decreasing chironomid density in T3, whereas densities are increasing in the other wetlands.

  5. 36 CFR 294.23 - Road construction and reconstruction in Idaho Roadless Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Road construction and reconstruction in Idaho Roadless Areas. 294.23 Section 294.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... public health and safety in cases of an imminent threat of flood, wildland fire, or other...

  6. 36 CFR 294.23 - Road construction and reconstruction in Idaho Roadless Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Road construction and reconstruction in Idaho Roadless Areas. 294.23 Section 294.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... public health and safety in cases of an imminent threat of flood, wildland fire, or other...

  7. 36 CFR 294.23 - Road construction and reconstruction in Idaho Roadless Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Road construction and reconstruction in Idaho Roadless Areas. 294.23 Section 294.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... public health and safety in cases of an imminent threat of flood, wildland fire, or other...

  8. 36 CFR 294.23 - Road construction and reconstruction in Idaho Roadless Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Road construction and reconstruction in Idaho Roadless Areas. 294.23 Section 294.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... public health and safety in cases of an imminent threat of flood, wildland fire, or other...

  9. Second memorandum on the flow of Aqua Caliente Spring after road construction at Palm Springs, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poland, J.F.; Dutcher, L.C.

    1953-01-01

    This memorandum was prepared at the request of Henry Harris, Acting Area Director, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Sacramento, Calif., to report on recent conditions at the Agua Caliente Spring, Palm Springs, Calif., and to suggest further possibilities for restoring the spring discharge to its pre-road-construction condition.

  10. 36 CFR 223.47 - Date of completion of permanent road construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Contract... incorporated into the timber sale contract. (b) This date is applicable to construction by both the Forest Service and the timber purchaser. (c) The date is not applicable to roads not needed by the purchaser...

  11. 25 CFR 170.405 - Can tribal transportation planning funds be used for road construction and other projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can tribal transportation planning funds be used for road construction and other projects? 170.405 Section 170.405 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Planning, Design, and Construction of...

  12. 41. From Final Construction Report on the Haleakala Road ProjectNR7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. From Final Construction Report on the Haleakala Road Project--NR-7, Hawaii National Park, Island of Maui, Territory of Hawaii, T.H. VIEW FROM APPROXIMATELY THE SAME SPOT SHOWING HOW COVERING THE ROCK FILLS WITH SOIL HAS ALMOST OBLITERATED THESE SCARS. TO IDENTIFY A POINT FOR COMPARISON NOTICE THE BRIDE GULCH JUST TO THE LEFT OF THE CENTER IN THE UPPER PICTURE AND COMPARE WITH THE SAME GULCH IN THE LOWER PICTURE. THE AFTER PHOTO OF A BEFORE AND AFTER SET. BEFORE PHOTO IS HI-52-40. - Haleakala National Park Roads, Pukalani, Maui County, HI

  13. Needs and Beliefs in Construct Accessibility: Keys to New Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Hugh M.; Denbow, Carl J.; Stempel, Guido H., III

    1998-01-01

    Surveyed 390 Ohioans who rated five concepts as to closeness of linkage with osteopathic medicine. Finds, as suggested by the storage-bin concept in construct accessibility theory, that those who had experience with these concepts were most apt to use them in assessing osteopathic medicine--this held even though most respondents reported no…

  14. Assessment of the PCDD/F fate from MSWI residue used in road construction in France.

    PubMed

    Badreddine, R; François, D

    2009-01-01

    MSWI fly ash is susceptible to contain high amount of polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans. However, the use of MSWI residue for road construction started in France at a period when MSWI Bottom Ash and MSWI fly ash were not separated. From four old road sites, MSWI residue, road soils, reference soils and geo-textiles were sampled and their PCDD/F contents were analyzed. MSWI residue show a great heterogeneity but also high amounts of PCDD/F (14-2960 ng I-TEQ kg(-1)dm). Soils underlying the road show less heterogeneity and PCDD/F contents between 0.57 and 7.23 ng I-TEQ kg(-1)dm, lower than ordinary soils. Moreover, the specific analysis of the 17 toxic PCDD/F congeners (notably the 2,3,7,8-TetraCDD) indicates the very low harmfulness of road soils. The study also allows to assert the relation between the MSWI residue particle size and the PCDD/F content. PMID:18986676

  15. Impacts of road construction and removal on the hydrologic and geochemical function of a fen peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, C. M.; Petrone, R. M.; Sutherland, G.; Price, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Linear disturbances such as roads cover vast swaths of northeastern Alberta, the majority of which are wetlands with shallow and local hydrologic connections. Thus, the effects of road construction on wetland hydrological pathways can have significant implications on water movement within the region, and by extension the productivity of vegetation communities and carbon sequestration. However, little is known about the effect that roads have on wetland hydrology. In 2013, a gravel road built within a fen peatland was reclaimed to evaluate hydrologic impacts post removal. Prior to removal, ground and surface water flow was obstructed leading to surface ponding, and vegetation mortality was observed on the up-gradient (wet) side of the road. Rebounding of the peat column was observed throughout the fen immediately following road removal in 2013 (maximum of 12 cm, mean of 2 cm), with modest but slightly smaller expansion in 2014. For both years, peat rebound was greatest in areas where the road was removed. Peat physical properties contrasted sharply between the reclaimed road (RR) peat and the adjacent, unimpacted peatland (UP). Surface bulk densities (pb, 0-10 cm) ranged from 0.1-0.25 g cm-3 along the RR compared to 0.02-0.07 g cm-3 for the UP and on average, pb for all depths were lower at the RR compared to the UP. Similar spatial patterns were observed for peat porosity. Correspondingly low horizontal saturated hydraulic conductivities (Kh) were observed along the RR compared to the UP, averaging 5.7x10-4 m s-1 and 1.7x10-3 m s-1, respectively. The local flow system across the RR and thus subsurface flow was impeded by almost half (0.4 m d-1) compared to flow observed within the UP (0.8 m d-1), leading to ponding on the upgradient side. A marked change in hydrophysical properties and ground and surface water flow patterns post road removal has implications for plant reestablishment and restoration and will form the basis of further study.

  16. [Purveyors of technology: provincial engineers and the construction of road infrastructure in Minas Gerais].

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Lidiany Silva

    2011-01-01

    The article analyzes the role played by engineers in the construction of road infrastructure in Minas Gerais between the 1840s and 1880s. Building and providing regular maintenance for roads and bridges was a task carried out by the Minas Gerais provincial government, which since the 1830s had a specific agency assigned to designing, building, and maintaining public communication routes. Engineers were part of the agency from its inception, playing a significant role in designing projects and in the actual execution of certain works. The current study is grounded in administrative documentation in which the details of work progress are reported to the provincial government. The gathered records provide technical, administrative, and financial information, along with data on labor power and the agents engaged in construction works.

  17. Processes and Effects in the Construction of Social Reality: Construct Accessibility as an Explanatory Variable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shrum, L. J.; O'Guinn, Thomas C.

    1993-01-01

    Finds support for the general notion of construct accessibility and its effect on judgments can help account for the influence of television viewing on social reality estimates. Shows that subjects who watch comparatively more television not only overestimate frequency or probability but also give faster responses to various types of cultivation…

  18. Behavior of crushed rock aggregates used in road construction exposed to cold climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsova, Elena; Pérez Fortes, Ana Patricia; Anastasio, Sara; Willy Danielsen, Svein

    2016-04-01

    Presently, about 90% of the aggregate production in Europe comes from naturally occurring resources: quarries and pits. Due to the increased demand for sand and gravel for construction purposes, not only in building but also in road construction, the last decade has seen a significant trend towards the use of more crushed rock aggregates. This resource has been more and more preferred to sand and gravel thanks to the significant technological development of its process and use phase. The performance of the aggregates is generally evaluated depending on three main factors: the geological origin (mineral composition, texture, structure, degree of weathering), the aggregate processing (crushing, sieving, washing, storing) and the user technology for a specific area of use (e.g. road construction, asphalt binders). Nevertheless climatic conditions should carefully be taken into account in application such as road construction. Large temperature gradients and high levels of humidity are known to significantly affect the performance of the material. Although the problem is, at least in the asphalt field, considered mostly from the binder point of view, this article aims to investigate the effect of aggregate properties on road performance in cold climatic conditions. Two different climatic areas will be taken into account: Norway and Spain. While both these countries are listed among the main European producers of aggregates, they represent significantly different climatic regions. While Norwegian weather is characterized by humid cold winters and relatively mild summers, Spain has temperate climate with cold regions in mountainous and internal areas. Both countries have been significantly affected by climate change with increasing temperature variations and instability. At the same time, similar winter maintenance measures, including the use of a considerable amount of solid and liquid chemicals to avoid ice formation (e.g. NaCl) and/or to provide better friction, are

  19. Analysis on the Long Term Effect of Trial Test Road Constructed on Batu Pahat Soft Clay (BPSC) at Recess UTHM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idrus, M. M. M.; Edayu, A. E.; Adnan, Z.; Ismail, B.

    2016-07-01

    The reinforcement used in soil for construction of roads on the soft clay is very important as it will determine the level of service of the road after it was built. Damage or defects on the road surface to be an indicator of the level of the road has dropped and shows the deformation of the road. For this research, an analysis has carried out on the long-term effect of trial test road constructed on Batu Pahat Soft Clay (BPSC) at RECESS UTHM. Through this research, the reinforcement using Rawell Geosynthetic Clay Liner (RGCL) was the best with the stability is 14964 N, a low flow is 2.69mm, stiffness modulus is 1766 MPa, the peak load is 739.4 N and a lower horizontal deformation which is 1.71 µm compared Woven Geotextile section and section without geotextile [1] [9]. In terms of deformation can be seen clearly from physical observations that section without geotextile suffered significant damage than others. Settlement of road can also be analyzed by a longitudinal section that plotted based on the result of leveling work. After that, settlements are more visible way on the right side of the road trial. Through lab tests conducted, it indicate that the coring samples obtained from sites of each section meets the specifications set by the Jabatan Kerja Raya (JKR) in terms of stability, flow and stiffness [1]. Through this study, a trial road built on soft soil can be used as a test site because of the uniqueness of these roads which has three different types of reinforcements.

  20. The impact of road construction on the spatial characteristics of hospital utilization in the Meru district of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Airey, T

    1992-05-01

    This paper examines the effect of road construction on the catchment area of a church hospital. It is hypothesized that the new road will reduce the spatial and travel cost relationships for the hospital's patients. Analysis of the data suggests that the space-reducing effect of the new road is more important than its effect on travel costs. Reductions in the cost of travel have not significantly changed the spatial pattern of in-patient utilization. In contrast, out-patients show the hospital is attracting patients from further afield, though this involves a similar expenditure on fares to that prior to road construction. Institutional barriers, particularly the economic barrier of fee-paying treatment, are found to be the main explanation for this finding. The high cost of medical treatment also goes some way towards explaining the low level of child treatment apparent in the patient records.

  1. Influence of Road and Lane Construction On Runoff Generation At Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bott, W.; Hofmann, T.; Schenk, D.

    In Rhineland-Palatinate, the state with the highest forest coverage in Germany, there are frequent flood events. In this context the responsible authorities are forced to take steps which decrease the impacts of such floods. The aim of a current field study is to examine the influence of different forestal measures on hydrological processes. For that purpose two different forest sites were chosen and water transport through unsaturated zone was modelled with the physically based precipitation-runoff-model CATFLOW. Results show a dominant influence of soil hydraulic parameters on hydro- logical processes of water transport at forests. Anthropogenic effects like soil degrada- tion by compaction caused by heavy forest machines and the manner of road and lane construction have a major influence on runoff generation. The runoff quantity of areas with high-density road and lane networks is much higher than from lower developed forests. The use of cable-line method by comparison to normal haulage lane leads to a lower runoff value. Besides there is a distinct dependence of water dynamics within the ecosystem on field morphology, canopy cover and climate, especially on precipitation. Thus, the management of the forestry is of major importance for runoff characteristic. Consequently the manner of forestry operation will directly affect runoff quantity.

  2. Environmental impact assessment of wood ash utilization in forest road construction and maintenance--A field study.

    PubMed

    Oburger, Eva; Jäger, Anna; Pasch, Alexander; Dellantonio, Alex; Stampfer, Karl; Wenzel, Walter W

    2016-02-15

    The ever increasing use of wood material as fuel for green energy production requires innovative, environmentally safe strategies for recycling of the remaining wood ash. Utilizing wood ash in forest road construction and maintenance to improve mechanical stability has been suggested as a feasible recycling option. To investigate the environmental impact of wood ash application in forest road maintenance, a two-year field experiment was conducted at two Austrian forest sites (Kobernausserwald (KO) (soil pH 5.5) and Weyregg (WE) (pH 7.7)) differing in their soil chemical properties. Two different ashes, one produced by grate incineration (GA) and the other by fluidized bed incineration in a mixture with 15 vol% burnt lime (FBA), were incorporated in repeated road sections at a 15:85% (V/V) ash-to-soil rate. Leaching waters from the road body were collected and analyzed for 32 environmentally relevant parameters over two years. Upon termination of the experiment, sub-road soil samples were collected and analyzed for ash-related changes in soil chemistry. Even though a larger number of parameters was affected by the ash application at the alkaline site (WE), we observed the most pronounced initial increases of pH as well as Al, As, Fe, Mn, Ni, Co, Cu, Mo, and NO2(−) concentrations in leachates beneath GA-treated road bodies at Kobernausserwald due to the lower soil buffer capacity at this site. Despite the observed effects our results indicate that, when specific requirements are met (i.e. appropriate ash quality, sufficient soil buffer capacity below the road body, and single time-point ash incorporation within several decades), wood ash application in forest road construction is generally environmentally acceptable. PMID:26674700

  3. Environmental impact assessment of wood ash utilization in forest road construction and maintenance--A field study.

    PubMed

    Oburger, Eva; Jäger, Anna; Pasch, Alexander; Dellantonio, Alex; Stampfer, Karl; Wenzel, Walter W

    2016-02-15

    The ever increasing use of wood material as fuel for green energy production requires innovative, environmentally safe strategies for recycling of the remaining wood ash. Utilizing wood ash in forest road construction and maintenance to improve mechanical stability has been suggested as a feasible recycling option. To investigate the environmental impact of wood ash application in forest road maintenance, a two-year field experiment was conducted at two Austrian forest sites (Kobernausserwald (KO) (soil pH 5.5) and Weyregg (WE) (pH 7.7)) differing in their soil chemical properties. Two different ashes, one produced by grate incineration (GA) and the other by fluidized bed incineration in a mixture with 15 vol% burnt lime (FBA), were incorporated in repeated road sections at a 15:85% (V/V) ash-to-soil rate. Leaching waters from the road body were collected and analyzed for 32 environmentally relevant parameters over two years. Upon termination of the experiment, sub-road soil samples were collected and analyzed for ash-related changes in soil chemistry. Even though a larger number of parameters was affected by the ash application at the alkaline site (WE), we observed the most pronounced initial increases of pH as well as Al, As, Fe, Mn, Ni, Co, Cu, Mo, and NO2(−) concentrations in leachates beneath GA-treated road bodies at Kobernausserwald due to the lower soil buffer capacity at this site. Despite the observed effects our results indicate that, when specific requirements are met (i.e. appropriate ash quality, sufficient soil buffer capacity below the road body, and single time-point ash incorporation within several decades), wood ash application in forest road construction is generally environmentally acceptable.

  4. Salting our landscape: an integrated catchment model using readily accessible data to assess emerging road salt contamination to streams.

    PubMed

    Jin, Li; Whitehead, Paul; Siegel, Donald I; Findlay, Stuart

    2011-05-01

    A new integrated catchment model for salinity has been developed to assess the transport of road salt from upland areas in watersheds to streams using readily accessible landscape, hydrologic, and meteorological data together with reported salt applications. We used Fishkill Creek (NY) as a representative watershed to test the model. Results showed good agreement between modeled and measured stream water chloride concentrations. These results suggest that a dominant mode of catchment simulation that does not entail complex deterministic modeling is an appropriate method to model salinization and to assess effects of future applications of road salt to streams. We heuristically increased and decreased salt applications by 100% and results showed that stream chloride concentrations increased by 13% and decreased by 7%, respectively. The model suggests that future management of salt application can reduce environmental concentrations, albeit over some time.

  5. Psychological Processes Underlying Cultivation Effects: Further Tests of Construct Accessibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shrum, L. J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a study that tested whether the accessibility of information in memory mediates the cultivation effect (the effect of television viewing on social perceptions), consistent with the availability heuristic. Shows that heavy viewers gave higher frequency estimates (cultivation effect) and responded faster (accessibility effect) than did…

  6. 40 CFR 12.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. 12.151 Section 12.151 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY § 12.151 Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. Each...

  7. 40 CFR 12.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. 12.151 Section 12.151 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY § 12.151 Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. Each...

  8. Effects of coal mining, forestry, and road construction on southern Appalachian stream invertebrates and habitats.

    PubMed

    Gangloff, Michael M; Perkins, Michael; Blum, Peter W; Walker, Craig

    2015-03-01

    Coal has been extracted via surface and sub-surface mining for decades throughout the Appalachian Mountains. New interest in ridge-top mining has raised concerns about possible waterway impacts. We examined effects of forestry, mining, and road construction-based disturbance on physico-chemistry and macroinvertebrate communities in east-central Tennessee headwater streams. Although 11 of 30 sites failed Tennessee's biocriteria scoring system, invertebrate richness was moderately high and we did not find significant differences in any water chemistry or habitat parameters between sites with passing and failing scores. However, conductivity and dissolved solid concentrations appeared elevated in the majority of study streams. Principal components (PCs) analysis indicated that six PCs accounted for ~77 % of among-site habitat variability. One PC associated with dissolved oxygen and specific conductance explained the second highest proportion of among-site variability after catchment area. Specific conductance was not correlated with catchment area but was strongly correlated with mining activity. Composition and success of multivariate models using habitat PCs to predict macroinvertebrate metrics was highly variable. PC scores associated with water chemistry and substrate composition were most frequently included in significant models. These results suggest that impacts of historical and current coal mining remain a source of water quality and macroinvertebrate community impairment in this region, but effects are subtle. Our results suggest that surface mining may have chronic and system-wide effects on habitat conditions and invertebrate communities in Cumberland Plateau streams. PMID:25528595

  9. Environmental impacts of steel slag reused in road construction: a crystallographic and molecular (XANES) approach.

    PubMed

    Chaurand, Perrine; Rose, Jerome; Briois, Valérie; Olivi, Luca; Hazemann, Jean-Louis; Proux, Olivier; Domas, Jérémie; Bottero, Jean-Yves

    2007-01-31

    Basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steel slag is a residue from the basic oxygen converter in steel-making operations, and is partially reused as an aggregate for road constructions. Although BOF slag is an attractive building material, its long-term behaviour and the associated environmental impacts must be taken into account. Indeed BOF slag is mainly composed of calcium, silicon and iron but also contains trace amounts of potential toxic elements, specifically chromium and vanadium, which can be released. The present research focuses (i) on the release of Cr and V during leaching and (ii) on their speciation within the bearing phase. Indeed the mobility and toxicity of heavy metals strongly depend on their speciation. Leaching tests show that only low amounts of Cr, present at relatively high concentration in steel slag, are released while the release of V is significantly high. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy indicates that Cr is present in the less mobile and less toxic trivalent form and that its speciation does not evolve during leaching. On the contrary, V which is predominantly present in the 4+ oxidation state seems to become oxidized to the pentavalent form (the most toxic form) during leaching.

  10. Effects of Coal Mining, Forestry, and Road Construction on Southern Appalachian Stream Invertebrates and Habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangloff, Michael M.; Perkins, Michael; Blum, Peter W.; Walker, Craig

    2015-03-01

    Coal has been extracted via surface and sub-surface mining for decades throughout the Appalachian Mountains. New interest in ridge-top mining has raised concerns about possible waterway impacts. We examined effects of forestry, mining, and road construction-based disturbance on physico-chemistry and macroinvertebrate communities in east-central Tennessee headwater streams. Although 11 of 30 sites failed Tennessee's biocriteria scoring system, invertebrate richness was moderately high and we did not find significant differences in any water chemistry or habitat parameters between sites with passing and failing scores. However, conductivity and dissolved solid concentrations appeared elevated in the majority of study streams. Principal components (PCs) analysis indicated that six PCs accounted for ~77 % of among-site habitat variability. One PC associated with dissolved oxygen and specific conductance explained the second highest proportion of among-site variability after catchment area. Specific conductance was not correlated with catchment area but was strongly correlated with mining activity. Composition and success of multivariate models using habitat PCs to predict macroinvertebrate metrics was highly variable. PC scores associated with water chemistry and substrate composition were most frequently included in significant models. These results suggest that impacts of historical and current coal mining remain a source of water quality and macroinvertebrate community impairment in this region, but effects are subtle. Our results suggest that surface mining may have chronic and system-wide effects on habitat conditions and invertebrate communities in Cumberland Plateau streams.

  11. Effects of coal mining, forestry, and road construction on southern Appalachian stream invertebrates and habitats.

    PubMed

    Gangloff, Michael M; Perkins, Michael; Blum, Peter W; Walker, Craig

    2015-03-01

    Coal has been extracted via surface and sub-surface mining for decades throughout the Appalachian Mountains. New interest in ridge-top mining has raised concerns about possible waterway impacts. We examined effects of forestry, mining, and road construction-based disturbance on physico-chemistry and macroinvertebrate communities in east-central Tennessee headwater streams. Although 11 of 30 sites failed Tennessee's biocriteria scoring system, invertebrate richness was moderately high and we did not find significant differences in any water chemistry or habitat parameters between sites with passing and failing scores. However, conductivity and dissolved solid concentrations appeared elevated in the majority of study streams. Principal components (PCs) analysis indicated that six PCs accounted for ~77 % of among-site habitat variability. One PC associated with dissolved oxygen and specific conductance explained the second highest proportion of among-site variability after catchment area. Specific conductance was not correlated with catchment area but was strongly correlated with mining activity. Composition and success of multivariate models using habitat PCs to predict macroinvertebrate metrics was highly variable. PC scores associated with water chemistry and substrate composition were most frequently included in significant models. These results suggest that impacts of historical and current coal mining remain a source of water quality and macroinvertebrate community impairment in this region, but effects are subtle. Our results suggest that surface mining may have chronic and system-wide effects on habitat conditions and invertebrate communities in Cumberland Plateau streams.

  12. Assessment of noise environment during construction of a major bridge and associated approach road.

    PubMed

    Roy, T K; Mukhopadhyay, A R; Ghosh, S K; Majumder, G

    2011-10-01

    In this paper a methodology to quantify the noise environment, during a major bridge construction and upgrading approach road connectivity, has been provided. Noise levels were monitored at eleven sites. These eleven sites have been classified into three categories - commercial, residential and silence zones. The study was carried out to measure the ambient noise levels in all the eleven sites falling in the above three categories during both day and night times considering both "working" and "non-working" days. It was found that the mean noise level during night time was more, compared to that during day time for commercial, residential as well as silence zones. The likely causes of more noise during night time have been explored. Appropriate remedial measures have been suggested to reduce the noise levels. In addition, the noise levels in the above three zones have been compared, wherever feasible statistically, with the respective zonal standards. Significance has been found in all the cases. The underlying causes and remedies have been provided.

  13. Feasibility for the use of coal tar as a new material for road surfaces (pavement) construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero Farfán, M. A.; Murillo Vega, H. E.; Trujillo Pinto, F. A.

    2016-02-01

    The stabilization products often used to improve the support of granular layers in the construction of road surfaces may be expensive and difficult to get. Therefore, it is necessary to test different materials, which are cheap and easy to obtain, and which will enhance the physical and mechanical properties of pavement layers. This document evaluates the use of coal tar, as a stabilizer for granular subbase. Initially, with a description of tar properties, determining the optimal conditions for the granular subbase material compaction, by means of modified proctor tests and the calculation of the resistance of the unaltered material by using CBR lab tests (California Bearing Ratio). Afterwards, with the design and development of granular material mixes with different percentages of coal tar and determining its CBR as comparative parameter with that of the unaltered material. Finally, by calculating the optimal coal tar percentage in order to stabilize the subbase granular, the results showed an improvement in the resistance of the granular material and a decrease in its expansion due to the use of coal tar.

  14. Beyond the material grave: Life Cycle Impact Assessment of leaching from secondary materials in road and earth constructions

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, Oliver; Bayer, Peter; Juraske, Ronnie; Verones, Francesca; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We model environmental impacts of leaching from secondary construction material. • Industrial wastes in construction contain up to 45,000 t heavy metals per year (D). • In a scenario, 150 t are leached to the environment within 100 years after construction. • All heavy metals but As, Sb and Mo are adsorbed by 20 cm subsoil in this scenario. • Environmental impacts depend on material, pollutant, construction type, and geography. - Abstract: In industrialized countries, large amounts of mineral wastes are produced. They are re-used in various ways, particularly in road and earth constructions, substituting primary resources such as gravel. However, they may also contain pollutants, such as heavy metals, which may be leached to the groundwater. The toxic impacts of these emissions are so far often neglected within Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) of products or waste treatment services and thus, potentially large environmental impacts are currently missed. This study aims at closing this gap by assessing the ecotoxic impacts of heavy metal leaching from industrial mineral wastes in road and earth constructions. The flows of metals such as Sb, As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, V and Zn originating from three typical constructions to the environment are quantified, their fate in the environment is assessed and potential ecotoxic effects evaluated. For our reference country, Germany, the industrial wastes that are applied as Granular Secondary Construction Material (GSCM) carry more than 45,000 t of diverse heavy metals per year. Depending on the material quality and construction type applied, up to 150 t of heavy metals may leach to the environment within the first 100 years after construction. Heavy metal retardation in subsoil can potentially reduce the fate to groundwater by up to 100%. One major challenge of integrating leaching from constructions into macro-scale LCA frameworks is the high variability in micro-scale technical and geographical factors

  15. Degradation in urban air quality from construction activity and increased traffic arising from a road widening scheme.

    PubMed

    Font, Anna; Baker, Timothy; Mudway, Ian S; Purdie, Esme; Dunster, Christina; Fuller, Gary W

    2014-11-01

    Road widening schemes in urban areas are often proposed as a solution to traffic congestion and as a means of stimulating economic growth. There is however clear evidence that new or expanded roads rapidly fill with either displaced or induced traffic, offsetting any short-term gains in eased traffic flows. What has not been addressed in any great detail is the impact of such schemes on air quality, with modelled impact predictions seldom validated by measurements after the expansion of road capacity. In this study we made use of a road widening project in London to investigate the impact on ambient air quality (particulate matter, NOX, NO2) during and after the completion of the road works. PM10 increased during the construction period up to 15 μg m(-3) during working hours compared to concentrations before the road works. A box modelling approach was used to determine a median emission factor of 0.0022 kg PM10 m(-2) month(-1), three times larger than that used in the UK emission inventory (0.0007 kg PM10 m(-2) month(-1)). Peaks of activity released 0.0130 kg PM10 m(-2) month(-1), three and eight times smaller than the peak values used in the European and US inventories. After the completion of the widening there was an increase in all pollutants from the road during rush hour: 2-4 μg m(-3) for PM10; 1 μg m(-3) for PM2.5; 40 and 8 μg m(-3) for NOX and NO2, respectively. NO2 EU Limit Value was breached after the road development illustrating a notable deterioration in residential air quality. Additionally, PM10, but not PM2.5, glutathione dependent oxidative potential increased after the road was widened consistent with an increase in pro-oxidant components in the coarse particle mode, related to vehicle abrasion processes. These increased air pollution indices were associated with an increase in the number of cars, taxis and LGVs.

  16. Degradation in urban air quality from construction activity and increased traffic arising from a road widening scheme.

    PubMed

    Font, Anna; Baker, Timothy; Mudway, Ian S; Purdie, Esme; Dunster, Christina; Fuller, Gary W

    2014-11-01

    Road widening schemes in urban areas are often proposed as a solution to traffic congestion and as a means of stimulating economic growth. There is however clear evidence that new or expanded roads rapidly fill with either displaced or induced traffic, offsetting any short-term gains in eased traffic flows. What has not been addressed in any great detail is the impact of such schemes on air quality, with modelled impact predictions seldom validated by measurements after the expansion of road capacity. In this study we made use of a road widening project in London to investigate the impact on ambient air quality (particulate matter, NOX, NO2) during and after the completion of the road works. PM10 increased during the construction period up to 15 μg m(-3) during working hours compared to concentrations before the road works. A box modelling approach was used to determine a median emission factor of 0.0022 kg PM10 m(-2) month(-1), three times larger than that used in the UK emission inventory (0.0007 kg PM10 m(-2) month(-1)). Peaks of activity released 0.0130 kg PM10 m(-2) month(-1), three and eight times smaller than the peak values used in the European and US inventories. After the completion of the widening there was an increase in all pollutants from the road during rush hour: 2-4 μg m(-3) for PM10; 1 μg m(-3) for PM2.5; 40 and 8 μg m(-3) for NOX and NO2, respectively. NO2 EU Limit Value was breached after the road development illustrating a notable deterioration in residential air quality. Additionally, PM10, but not PM2.5, glutathione dependent oxidative potential increased after the road was widened consistent with an increase in pro-oxidant components in the coarse particle mode, related to vehicle abrasion processes. These increased air pollution indices were associated with an increase in the number of cars, taxis and LGVs. PMID:25128882

  17. 77 FR 71865 - Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ...-route carriers after October 30, 2000, must be accessible with wheelchair lifts and tie downs that allow passengers to ride in their own wheelchairs. October 29, 2012 was the deadline whereby the fixed-route...

  18. Constructing access to legal abortion services in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Billings, Deborah L; Moreno, Claudia; Ramos, Celia; González de León, Deyanira; Ramírez, Rubén; Villaseñor Martínez, Leticia; Rivera Díaz, Mauricio

    2002-05-01

    For the last three decades, government and health institutions have recognised that unsafe abortion is an important social and public health problem in Mexico. Although the Penal Code in every state defines at least one situation in which abortion is legal, access to legal abortion services is restricted for women throughout Mexico. In August 2000, the Mexico City Legislative Assembly reformed the Penal Code to include a wider range of grounds on which abortion is legal and added regulations to ensure access to legal abortion services in cases of rape and forced artificial insemination. The Mexican Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the reforms in January 2002. This paper describes a collaborative project between Ipas Mexico and the Mexico City Department of Health to provide legal abortions in cases of rape and to ensure that comprehensive health services for survivors of sexual violence are available and accessible. It describes a model of care being introduced into 15 public general and maternal-child health hospitals in Mexico City through a programme of multi-disciplinary consciousness-raising workshops and training courses on sexual violence and legal abortion. Few health care providers have had prior training in service provision for survivors of sexual violence or abortion service delivery. Workshop participants showed a high level of willingness to participate in legal abortion services for survivors of sexual violence when and if they are receive solid institutional support.

  19. Acceptable Care? Illness Constructions, Healthworlds, and Accessible Chronic Treatment in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Bronwyn; Eyles, John; Moshabela, Mosa

    2015-01-01

    Achieving equitable access to health care is an important policy goal, with access influenced by affordability, availability, and acceptability of specific services. We explore patient narratives from a 5-year program of research on health care access to examine relationships between social constructions of illness and the acceptability of health services in the context of tuberculosis treatment and antiretroviral therapy in South Africa. Acceptability of services seems particularly important to the meanings patients attach to illness and care, whereas—conversely—these constructions appear to influence what constitutes acceptability and hence affect access to care. We highlight the underestimated role of individually, socially, and politically constructed healthworlds; traditional and biomedical beliefs; and social support networks. Suggested policy implications for improving acceptability and hence overall health care access include abandoning patronizing approaches to care and refocusing from treating “disease” to responding to “illness” by acknowledging and incorporating patients’ healthworlds in patient–provider interactions. PMID:25829509

  20. Soil retention of hexavalent chromium released from construction and demolition waste in a road-base-application scenario.

    PubMed

    Butera, Stefania; Trapp, Stefan; Astrup, Thomas F; Christensen, Thomas H

    2015-11-15

    We investigated the retention of Cr(VI) in three subsoils with low organic matter content in laboratory experiments at concentration levels relevant to represent leachates from construction and demolition waste (C&DW) reused as unbound material in road construction. The retention mechanism appeared to be reduction and subsequent precipitation as Cr(III) on the soil. The reduction process was slow and in several experiments it was still proceeding at the end of the six-month experimental period. The overall retention reaction fit well with a second-order reaction governed by actual Cr(VI) concentration and reduction capacity of the soil. The experimentally determined reduction capacities and second-order kinetic parameters were used to model, for a 100-year period, the one-dimensional migration of Cr(VI) in the subsoil under a layer of C&DW. The resulting Cr(VI) concentration would be negligible below 7-70 cm depth. However, in rigid climates and with high water infiltration through the road pavement, the reduction reaction could be so slow that Cr(VI) might migrate as deep as 200 cm under the road. The reaction parameters and the model can form the basis for systematically assessing under which scenarios Cr(VI) from C&DW could lead to an environmental issue for ground- and receiving surface waters.

  1. Soil retention of hexavalent chromium released from construction and demolition waste in a road-base-application scenario.

    PubMed

    Butera, Stefania; Trapp, Stefan; Astrup, Thomas F; Christensen, Thomas H

    2015-11-15

    We investigated the retention of Cr(VI) in three subsoils with low organic matter content in laboratory experiments at concentration levels relevant to represent leachates from construction and demolition waste (C&DW) reused as unbound material in road construction. The retention mechanism appeared to be reduction and subsequent precipitation as Cr(III) on the soil. The reduction process was slow and in several experiments it was still proceeding at the end of the six-month experimental period. The overall retention reaction fit well with a second-order reaction governed by actual Cr(VI) concentration and reduction capacity of the soil. The experimentally determined reduction capacities and second-order kinetic parameters were used to model, for a 100-year period, the one-dimensional migration of Cr(VI) in the subsoil under a layer of C&DW. The resulting Cr(VI) concentration would be negligible below 7-70 cm depth. However, in rigid climates and with high water infiltration through the road pavement, the reduction reaction could be so slow that Cr(VI) might migrate as deep as 200 cm under the road. The reaction parameters and the model can form the basis for systematically assessing under which scenarios Cr(VI) from C&DW could lead to an environmental issue for ground- and receiving surface waters. PMID:26148961

  2. 29 CFR 1615.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... THE EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION AND IN ACCESSIBILITY OF COMMISSION ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY § 1615.151 Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. Each building or....S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR subpart 101-19.6, apply to buildings covered by...

  3. 36 CFR 406.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to buildings... construction and alterations. 406.151 Section 406.151 Parks, Forests, and Public Property AMERICAN BATTLE... CONDUCTED BY AMERICAN BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION § 406.151 Program accessibility: New construction...

  4. 36 CFR 406.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to buildings... construction and alterations. 406.151 Section 406.151 Parks, Forests, and Public Property AMERICAN BATTLE... CONDUCTED BY AMERICAN BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION § 406.151 Program accessibility: New construction...

  5. 36 CFR 406.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to buildings... construction and alterations. 406.151 Section 406.151 Parks, Forests, and Public Property AMERICAN BATTLE... CONDUCTED BY AMERICAN BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION § 406.151 Program accessibility: New construction...

  6. 36 CFR 406.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to buildings... construction and alterations. 406.151 Section 406.151 Parks, Forests, and Public Property AMERICAN BATTLE... CONDUCTED BY AMERICAN BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION § 406.151 Program accessibility: New construction...

  7. 45 CFR 1153.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS ENFORCEMENT OF... ARTS § 1153.151 Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. Each building or part of a building that is constructed or altered by, on behalf of, or for the use of the agency shall be...

  8. The effects of road and bridge construction on the bank-root macrobenthic invertebrates of a Southern Nigerian stream.

    PubMed

    Ogbeibu, A E; Victor, R

    1989-01-01

    A comparative study was conducted at three stations on a fourth order Nigerian stream to evaluate the effects of a road and bridge construction on the macrobenthic invertebrates of the bank-root biotope. Siltation and sedimentation appear to be the important factors affecting macroinvertebrates. At station 2, the construction site, there was a considerable reduction in the occurrence and abundance of invertebrate taxa; different groups of invertebrates showed varying responses to perturbational stress; the taxa richness, general diversity and evenness were also low. Irregular fluctuations in diversity and evenness suggested that the benthic community of station 2 was less stable than those of upstream and downstream stations. The concentrated dominance of Ephemeroptera and Coleoptera at station 2, despite low diversity, reflected the ability of a few tolerant taxa to occur there in high abundance. Faunal comparisons of the three stations confirmed the perturbational stress caused by construction activities.

  9. The Road from the NASA Access to Space Study to a Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Richard W.; Cook, Stephen A.; Lockwood, Mary Kae

    1998-01-01

    NASA is cooperating with the aerospace industry to develop a space transportation system that provides reliable access-to-space at a much lower cost than is possible with today's launch vehicles. While this quest has been on-going for many years it received a major impetus when the U.S. Congress mandated as part of the 1993 NASA appropriations bill that: "In view of budget difficulties, present and future..., the National Aeronautics and Space Administration shall ... recommend improvements in space transportation." NASA, working with other organizations, including the Department of Transportation, and the Department of Defense identified three major transportation architecture options that were to be evaluated in the areas of reliability, operability and cost. These architectural options were: (1) retain and upgrade the Space Shuttle and the current expendable launch vehicles; (2) develop new expendable launch vehicles using conventional technologies and transition to these new vehicles beginning in 2005; and (3) develop new reusable vehicles using advanced technology, and transition to these vehicles beginning in 2008. The launch needs mission model was based on 1993 projections of civil, defense, and commercial payload requirements. This "Access to Space" study concluded that the option that provided the greatest potential for meeting the cost, operability, and reliability goals was a rocket-powered single-stage-to-orbit fully reusable launch vehicle (RLV) fleet designed with advanced technologies.

  10. LUR models for particulate matters in the Taipei metropolis with high densities of roads and strong activities of industry, commerce and construction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jui-Huna; Wu, Chang-Fu; Hoek, Gerard; de Hoogh, Kees; Beelen, Rob; Brunekreef, Bert; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2015-05-01

    Traffic intensity, length of road, and proximity to roads are the most common traffic indicators in the land use regression (LUR) models for particulate matter in ESCAPE study areas in Europe. This study explored what local variables can improve the performance of LUR models in an Asian metropolis with high densities of roads and strong activities of industry, commerce and construction. By following the ESCAPE procedure, we derived LUR models of PM₂.₅, PM₂.₅ absorbance, PM₁₀, and PMcoarse (PM₂.₅-₁₀) in Taipei. The overall annual average concentrations of PM₂.₅, PM₁₀, and PMcoarse were 26.0 ± 5.6, 48.6 ± 5.9, and 23.3 ± 3.1 μg/m(3), respectively, and the absorption coefficient of PM₂.₅ was 2.0 ± 0.4 × 10(-5)m(-1). Our LUR models yielded R(2) values of 95%, 96%, 87%, and 65% for PM₂.₅, PM₂.₅ absorbance, PM₁₀, and PMcoarse, respectively. PM₂.₅ levels were increased by local traffic variables, industrial, construction, and residential land-use variables and decreased by rivers; while PM₂.₅ absorbance levels were increased by local traffic variables, industrial, and commercial land-use variables in the models. PMcoarse levels were increased by elevated highways. Road area explained more variance than road length by increasing the incremental value of 27% and 6% adjusted R(2) for PM₂.₅ and PM₁₀ models, respectively. In the PM₂.₅ absorbance model, road area and transportation facility explain 29% more variance than road length. In the PMcoarse model, industrial and new local variables instead of road length improved the incremental value of adjusted R(2) from 39% to 60%. We concluded that road area can better explain the spatial distribution of PM₂.₅ and PM₂.₅ absorbance concentrations than road length. By incorporating road area and other new local variables, the performance of each PM LUR model was improved. The results suggest that road area is a better indicator of traffic intensity rather

  11. Field site leaching from recycled concrete aggregates applied as sub-base material in road construction.

    PubMed

    Engelsen, Christian J; Wibetoe, Grethe; van der Sloot, Hans A; Lund, Walter; Petkovic, Gordana

    2012-06-15

    The release of major and trace elements from recycled concrete aggregates used in an asphalt covered road sub-base has been monitored for more than 4 years. A similar test field without an asphalt cover, directly exposed to air and rain, and an asphalt covered reference field with natural aggregates in the sub-base were also included in the study. It was found that the pH of the infiltration water from the road sub-base with asphalt covered concrete aggregates decreased from 12.6 to below pH 10 after 2.5 years of exposure, whereas this pH was reached within only one year for the uncovered field. Vertical temperature profiles established for the sub-base, could explain the measured infiltration during parts of the winter season. When the release of major and trace elements as function of field pH was compared with pH dependent release data measured in the laboratory, some similar pH trends were found. The field concentrations of Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn were found to be low throughout the monitoring period. During two of the winter seasons, a concentration increase of Cr and Mo was observed, possibly due to the use of de-icing salt. The concentrations of the trace constituents did not exceed Norwegian acceptance criteria for ground water and surface water Class II. PMID:22554532

  12. Field site leaching from recycled concrete aggregates applied as sub-base material in road construction.

    PubMed

    Engelsen, Christian J; Wibetoe, Grethe; van der Sloot, Hans A; Lund, Walter; Petkovic, Gordana

    2012-06-15

    The release of major and trace elements from recycled concrete aggregates used in an asphalt covered road sub-base has been monitored for more than 4 years. A similar test field without an asphalt cover, directly exposed to air and rain, and an asphalt covered reference field with natural aggregates in the sub-base were also included in the study. It was found that the pH of the infiltration water from the road sub-base with asphalt covered concrete aggregates decreased from 12.6 to below pH 10 after 2.5 years of exposure, whereas this pH was reached within only one year for the uncovered field. Vertical temperature profiles established for the sub-base, could explain the measured infiltration during parts of the winter season. When the release of major and trace elements as function of field pH was compared with pH dependent release data measured in the laboratory, some similar pH trends were found. The field concentrations of Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn were found to be low throughout the monitoring period. During two of the winter seasons, a concentration increase of Cr and Mo was observed, possibly due to the use of de-icing salt. The concentrations of the trace constituents did not exceed Norwegian acceptance criteria for ground water and surface water Class II.

  13. New Roads and Human Health: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Matt; Petticrew, Mark; Ogilvie, David; Hamilton, Val

    2003-01-01

    We sought to synthesize evidence of the health effects of construction of new roads by systematically reviewing observational studies of such effects. We included and critically appraised 32 studies. The review suggested that out-of-town bypasses decrease injuries on main roads through or around towns, although more robust evidence is needed on effects on secondary roads. New major urban roads have statistically insignificant effects on injury incidence. New major roads between towns decrease injuries. Out-of-town bypasses reduce disturbance and community severance in towns but increase them elsewhere. Major urban roads increase disturbance and severance. More robust research is needed in this area, particularly regarding effects of new roads on respiratory health, mental health, access to health services, and physical activity. PMID:12948964

  14. 32 CFR 1906.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... alterations. 1906.151 Section 1906.151 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY § 1906.151 Program accessibility: New construction...

  15. 32 CFR 1906.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... alterations. 1906.151 Section 1906.151 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY § 1906.151 Program accessibility: New construction...

  16. 32 CFR 1906.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... alterations. 1906.151 Section 1906.151 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY § 1906.151 Program accessibility: New construction...

  17. 32 CFR 1906.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... alterations. 1906.151 Section 1906.151 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY § 1906.151 Program accessibility: New construction...

  18. 6 CFR 15.51 - Program accessibility; new construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 through 101-19.607 apply to buildings... alterations. 15.51 Section 15.51 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY § 15.51 Program accessibility; new construction and alterations....

  19. 45 CFR 1803.8 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., and standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. 1803.8 Section 1803.8 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) HARRY...

  20. 40 CFR 12.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to buildings covered by this... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. 12.151 Section 12.151 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  1. 40 CFR 12.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to buildings covered by this... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. 12.151 Section 12.151 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  2. 45 CFR 1181.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to buildings covered by this section. ...) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES ENFORCEMENT OF... LIBRARY SERVICES § 1181.151 Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. Each building or...

  3. 45 CFR 606.52 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to buildings... SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION § 606.52 Program accessibility: New construction...

  4. 22 CFR 1600.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. 1600.151 Section 1600.151 Foreign Relations JAPAN-UNITED STATES FRIENDSHIP COMMISSION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE...

  5. 45 CFR 1803.8 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., and standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.... TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP § 1803.8 Program accessibility... by, on behalf of, or for the use of the Foundation shall be designed, constructed, or altered so...

  6. 45 CFR 1803.8 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., and standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.... TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP § 1803.8 Program accessibility... by, on behalf of, or for the use of the Foundation shall be designed, constructed, or altered so...

  7. 45 CFR 606.52 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to buildings... SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION § 606.52 Program accessibility: New construction...

  8. 45 CFR 1803.8 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., and standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.... TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP § 1803.8 Program accessibility... by, on behalf of, or for the use of the Foundation shall be designed, constructed, or altered so...

  9. 45 CFR 1803.8 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., and standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.... TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP § 1803.8 Program accessibility... by, on behalf of, or for the use of the Foundation shall be designed, constructed, or altered so...

  10. 45 CFR 606.52 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to buildings... SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION § 606.52 Program accessibility: New construction...

  11. 45 CFR 606.52 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION § 606.52 Program accessibility: New construction and... usable by individuals with handicaps. The definitions, requirements, and standards of the...

  12. 22 CFR 1600.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to buildings covered by this... alterations. 1600.151 Section 1600.151 Foreign Relations JAPAN-UNITED STATES FRIENDSHIP COMMISSION ENFORCEMENT... STATES FRIENDSHIP COMMISSION § 1600.151 Program accessibility: New construction and alterations....

  13. 22 CFR 1600.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to buildings covered by this... alterations. 1600.151 Section 1600.151 Foreign Relations JAPAN-UNITED STATES FRIENDSHIP COMMISSION ENFORCEMENT... STATES FRIENDSHIP COMMISSION § 1600.151 Program accessibility: New construction and alterations....

  14. 22 CFR 1600.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to buildings covered by this... alterations. 1600.151 Section 1600.151 Foreign Relations JAPAN-UNITED STATES FRIENDSHIP COMMISSION ENFORCEMENT... STATES FRIENDSHIP COMMISSION § 1600.151 Program accessibility: New construction and alterations....

  15. 45 CFR 85.43 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... agency shall be designed, constructed, or altered so as to be readily accessible to and usable by individuals with handicaps. The definitions, requirements, and standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157) as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607 apply to buildings covered...

  16. 16 CFR 1034.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... agency shall be designed, constructed, or altered so as to be readily accessible to and usable by handicapped persons. The definitions, requirements, and standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to buildings covered by...

  17. 5 CFR 2416.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to... use of the agency shall be designed, constructed, or altered so as to be readily accessible to...

  18. 31 CFR 17.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... agency shall be designed, constructed, or altered so as to be readily accessible to and usable by individuals with handicaps. The definitions, requirements, and standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 through 101-19.607 apply to buildings...

  19. 13 CFR 136.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the Agency shall be designed, constructed, or altered so as to be readily accessible to and usable by individuals with handicaps. The definitions, requirements, and standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600—101-19.607, apply to buildings covered...

  20. 36 CFR 406.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... use of the agency shall be designed, constructed, or altered so as to be readily accessible to and usable by handicapped persons. The definitions, requirements, and standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to...

  1. 40 CFR 12.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... shall be designed, constructed, or altered so as to be readily accessible to and usable by individuals with handicaps. The definitions, requirements, and standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to buildings covered by...

  2. 5 CFR 1850.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... designed, constructed, or altered so as to be readily accessible to and usable by individuals with handicaps. The definitions, requirements, and standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to buildings covered by this section....

  3. 45 CFR 606.52 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION § 606.52 Program accessibility: New construction and... usable by individuals with handicaps. The definitions, requirements, and standards of the...

  4. 32 CFR 1906.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Barriers Act of 1968 (42 U.S.C. 4151-4175), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19-607, apply to... INTELLIGENCE AGENCY ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY § 1906.151 Program accessibility: New construction...

  5. 25 CFR 162.019 - May a lease address access to the leased premises by roads or other infrastructure?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... applicable statutory and regulatory requirements, including 25 CFR part 169. Roads or other infrastructure within the leased premises do not require compliance with 25 CFR part 169 during the term of the lease... roads or other infrastructure? 162.019 Section 162.019 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT...

  6. 25 CFR 162.019 - May a lease address access to the leased premises by roads or other infrastructure?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... applicable statutory and regulatory requirements, including 25 CFR part 169. Roads or other infrastructure within the leased premises do not require compliance with 25 CFR part 169 during the term of the lease... roads or other infrastructure? 162.019 Section 162.019 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT...

  7. 36 CFR 294.23 - Road construction and reconstruction in Idaho Roadless Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CERCLA) or to conduct a natural resource restoration action under CERCLA, section 311 of the Clean Water... is deemed essential for public or private access, natural resource management, or public health and... wildland fire disturbance event could adversely affect an at-risk community or municipal water...

  8. Life cycle assessment of disposal of residues from municipal solid waste incineration: recycling of bottom ash in road construction or landfilling in Denmark evaluated in the ROAD-RES model.

    PubMed

    Birgisdóttir, H; Bhander, G; Hauschild, M Z; Christensen, T H

    2007-01-01

    Two disposal methods for MSWI bottom ash were assessed in a new life cycle assessment (LCA) model for road construction and disposal of residues. The two scenarios evaluated in the model were: (i) landfilling of bottom ash in a coastal landfill in Denmark and (ii) recycling of bottom ash as subbase layer in an asphalted secondary road. The LCA included resource and energy consumption, and emissions associated with upgrading of bottom ash, transport, landfilling processes, incorporation of bottom ash in road, substitution of natural gravel as road construction material and leaching of heavy metals and salts from bottom ash in road as well as in landfill. Environmental impacts associated with emissions to air, fresh surface water, marine surface water, groundwater and soil were aggregated into 12 environmental impact categories: Global Warming, Photochemical Ozone Formation, Nutrient Enrichment, Acidification, Stratospheric Ozone Depletion, Human Toxicity via air/water/soil, Ecotoxicity in water/soil, and a new impact category, Stored Ecotoxicity to water/soil that accounts for the presence of heavy metals and very persistent organic compounds that in the long-term might leach. Leaching of heavy metals and salts from bottom ash was estimated from a series of laboratory leaching tests. For both scenarios, Ecotoxicity(water) was, when evaluated for the first 100 yr, the most important among the twelve impact categories involved in the assessment. Human Toxicity(soil) was also important, especially for the Road scenario. When the long-term leaching of heavy metals from bottom ash was evaluated, based on the total content of heavy metals in bottom ash, all impact categories became negligible compared to the potential Stored Ecotoxicity, which was two orders of magnitudes greater than Ecotoxicity(water). Copper was the constituent that gave the strongest contributions to the ecotoxicities. The most important resources consumed were clay as liner in landfill and the

  9. Identification of Groundwater Nitrate Contamination from Explosives Used in Road Construction: Isotopic, Chemical, and Hydrologic Evidence.

    PubMed

    Degnan, James R; Böhlke, J K; Pelham, Krystle; Langlais, David M; Walsh, Gregory J

    2016-01-19

    Explosives used in construction have been implicated as sources of NO3(-) contamination in groundwater, but direct forensic evidence is limited. Identification of blasting-related NO3(-) can be complicated by other NO3(-) sources, including agriculture and wastewater disposal, and by hydrogeologic factors affecting NO3(-) transport and stability. Here we describe a study that used hydrogeology, chemistry, stable isotopes, and mass balance calculations to evaluate groundwater NO3(-) sources and transport in areas surrounding a highway construction site with documented blasting in New Hampshire. Results indicate various groundwater responses to contamination: (1) rapid breakthrough and flushing of synthetic NO3(-) (low δ(15)N, high δ(18)O) from dissolution of unexploded NH4NO3 blasting agents in oxic groundwater; (2) delayed and reduced breakthrough of synthetic NO3(-) subjected to partial denitrification (high δ(15)N, high δ(18)O); (3) relatively persistent concentrations of blasting-related biogenic NO3(-) derived from nitrification of NH4(+) (low δ(15)N, low δ(18)O); and (4) stable but spatially variable biogenic NO3(-) concentrations, consistent with recharge from septic systems (high δ(15)N, low δ(18)O), variably affected by denitrification. Source characteristics of denitrified samples were reconstructed from dissolved-gas data (Ar, N2) and isotopic fractionation trends associated with denitrification (Δδ(15)N/Δδ(18)O ≈ 1.31). Methods and data from this study are expected to be applicable in studies of other aquifers affected by explosives used in construction.

  10. Evaluating Aggregate Terrestrial Impacts of Road Construction Projects for Advanced Regional Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorne, James H.; Girvetz, Evan H.; McCoy, Michael C.

    2009-05-01

    This study presents a GIS-based database framework used to assess aggregate terrestrial habitat impacts from multiple highway construction projects in California, USA. Transportation planners need such impact assessment tools to effectively address additive biological mitigation obligations. Such assessments can reduce costly delays due to protracted environmental review. This project incorporated the best available statewide natural resource data into early project planning and preliminary environmental assessments for single and multiple highway construction projects, and provides an assessment of the 10-year state-wide mitigation obligations for the California Department of Transportation. Incorporation of these assessments will facilitate early and more strategic identification of mitigation opportunities, for single-project and regional mitigation efforts. The data architecture format uses eight spatial scales: six nested watersheds, counties, and transportation planning districts, which were intersected. This resulted in 8058 map planning units statewide, which were used to summarize all subsequent analyses. Range maps and georeferenced locations of federally and state-listed plants and animals and a 55-class landcover map were spatially intersected with the planning units and the buffered spatial footprint of 967 funded projects. Projected impacts were summarized and output to the database. Queries written in the database can sum expected impacts and provide summaries by individual construction project, or by watershed, county, transportation district or highway. The data architecture allows easy incorporation of new information and results in a tool usable without GIS by a wide variety of agency biologists and planners. The data architecture format would be useful for other types of regional planning.

  11. Identification of Groundwater Nitrate Contamination from Explosives Used in Road Construction: Isotopic, Chemical, and Hydrologic Evidence.

    PubMed

    Degnan, James R; Böhlke, J K; Pelham, Krystle; Langlais, David M; Walsh, Gregory J

    2016-01-19

    Explosives used in construction have been implicated as sources of NO3(-) contamination in groundwater, but direct forensic evidence is limited. Identification of blasting-related NO3(-) can be complicated by other NO3(-) sources, including agriculture and wastewater disposal, and by hydrogeologic factors affecting NO3(-) transport and stability. Here we describe a study that used hydrogeology, chemistry, stable isotopes, and mass balance calculations to evaluate groundwater NO3(-) sources and transport in areas surrounding a highway construction site with documented blasting in New Hampshire. Results indicate various groundwater responses to contamination: (1) rapid breakthrough and flushing of synthetic NO3(-) (low δ(15)N, high δ(18)O) from dissolution of unexploded NH4NO3 blasting agents in oxic groundwater; (2) delayed and reduced breakthrough of synthetic NO3(-) subjected to partial denitrification (high δ(15)N, high δ(18)O); (3) relatively persistent concentrations of blasting-related biogenic NO3(-) derived from nitrification of NH4(+) (low δ(15)N, low δ(18)O); and (4) stable but spatially variable biogenic NO3(-) concentrations, consistent with recharge from septic systems (high δ(15)N, low δ(18)O), variably affected by denitrification. Source characteristics of denitrified samples were reconstructed from dissolved-gas data (Ar, N2) and isotopic fractionation trends associated with denitrification (Δδ(15)N/Δδ(18)O ≈ 1.31). Methods and data from this study are expected to be applicable in studies of other aquifers affected by explosives used in construction. PMID:26709616

  12. Identification of groundwater nitrate contamination from explosives used in road construction: Isotopic, chemical, and hydrologic evidence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Degnan, James R.; Bohlke, John Karl; Pelham, Krystle; David M. Langlais,; Walsh, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    Explosives used in construction have been implicated as sources of NO3– contamination in groundwater, but direct forensic evidence is limited. Identification of blasting-related NO3– can be complicated by other NO3– sources, including agriculture and wastewater disposal, and by hydrogeologic factors affecting NO3– transport and stability. Here we describe a study that used hydrogeology, chemistry, stable isotopes, and mass balance calculations to evaluate groundwater NO3– sources and transport in areas surrounding a highway construction site with documented blasting in New Hampshire. Results indicate various groundwater responses to contamination: (1) rapid breakthrough and flushing of synthetic NO3– (low δ15N, high δ18O) from dissolution of unexploded NH4NO3 blasting agents in oxic groundwater; (2) delayed and reduced breakthrough of synthetic NO3– subjected to partial denitrification (high δ15N, high δ18O); (3) relatively persistent concentrations of blasting-related biogenic NO3– derived from nitrification of NH4+ (low δ15N, low δ18O); and (4) stable but spatially variable biogenic NO3– concentrations, consistent with recharge from septic systems (high δ15N, low δ18O), variably affected by denitrification. Source characteristics of denitrified samples were reconstructed from dissolved-gas data (Ar, N2) and isotopic fractionation trends associated with denitrification (Δδ15N/Δδ18O ≈ 1.31). Methods and data from this study are expected to be applicable in studies of other aquifers affected by explosives used in construction.

  13. Evaluating aggregate terrestrial impacts of road construction projects for advanced regional mitigation.

    PubMed

    Thorne, James H; Girvetz, Evan H; McCoy, Michael C

    2009-05-01

    This study presents a GIS-based database framework used to assess aggregate terrestrial habitat impacts from multiple highway construction projects in California, USA. Transportation planners need such impact assessment tools to effectively address additive biological mitigation obligations. Such assessments can reduce costly delays due to protracted environmental review. This project incorporated the best available statewide natural resource data into early project planning and preliminary environmental assessments for single and multiple highway construction projects, and provides an assessment of the 10-year state-wide mitigation obligations for the California Department of Transportation. Incorporation of these assessments will facilitate early and more strategic identification of mitigation opportunities, for single-project and regional mitigation efforts. The data architecture format uses eight spatial scales: six nested watersheds, counties, and transportation planning districts, which were intersected. This resulted in 8058 map planning units statewide, which were used to summarize all subsequent analyses. Range maps and georeferenced locations of federally and state-listed plants and animals and a 55-class landcover map were spatially intersected with the planning units and the buffered spatial footprint of 967 funded projects. Projected impacts were summarized and output to the database. Queries written in the database can sum expected impacts and provide summaries by individual construction project, or by watershed, county, transportation district or highway. The data architecture allows easy incorporation of new information and results in a tool usable without GIS by a wide variety of agency biologists and planners. The data architecture format would be useful for other types of regional planning.

  14. Unofficial Road Building in the Amazon: Socioeconomic and Biophysical Explanations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perz, Stephen G.; Caldas, Marcellus M.; Arima, Eugenio; Walker, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Roads have manifold social and environmental impacts, including regional development, social conflicts and habitat fragmentation. 'Road ecology' has emerged as an approach to evaluate the various ecological and hydrological impacts of roads. This article aims to complement road ecology by examining the socio-spatial processes of road building itself. Focusing on the Brazilian Amazon, a heavily-studied context due to forest fragmentation by roads, the authors consider non-state social actors who build 'unofficial roads' for the purpose of gaining access to natural resources to support livelihoods and community development. They examine four case studies of roads with distinct histories in order to explain the socio-spatial processes behind road building in terms of profit maximization, land tenure claims, co-operative and conflictive political ecologies, and constraints as well as opportunities afforded by the biophysical environment. The study cases illustrate the need for a multi-pronged theoretical approach to understanding road building, and call for more attention to the role of non-state actors in unofficial road construction.

  15. 12 CFR 1010.210 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 1010.210 Roads. (a) State the estimated cost to the developer of the proposed road system. (b) If the developer is to complete any roads providing access to the subdivision, submit copies of any bonds or...

  16. Astronaut Ross Approaches Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure (ACCESS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The crew assigned to the STS-61B mission included Bryan D. O'Conner, pilot; Brewster H. Shaw, commander; Charles D. Walker, payload specialist; mission specialists Jerry L. Ross, Mary L. Cleave, and Sherwood C. Spring; and Rodolpho Neri Vela, payload specialist. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis November 28, 1985 at 7:29:00 pm (EST), the STS-61B mission's primary payload included three communications satellites: MORELOS-B (Mexico); AUSSAT-2 (Australia); and SATCOM KU-2 (RCA Americom). Two experiments were conducted to test assembling erectable structures in space: EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity), and ACCESS (Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure). In a joint venture between NASA/Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), EASE and ACCESS were developed and demonstrated at MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS). In this STS-61B onboard photo, astronaut Ross, perched on the Manipulator Foot Restraint (MFR) approaches the erected ACCESS. The primary objective of these experiments was to test the structural assembly concepts for suitability as the framework for larger space structures and to identify ways to improve the productivity of space construction.

  17. Ross Works on the Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure (ACCESS) During

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The crew assigned to the STS-61B mission included Bryan D. O'Conner, pilot; Brewster H. Shaw, commander; Charles D. Walker, payload specialist; mission specialists Jerry L. Ross, Mary L. Cleave, and Sherwood C. Spring; and Rodolpho Neri Vela, payload specialist. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis November 28, 1985 at 7:29:00 pm (EST), the STS-61B mission's primary payload included three communications satellites: MORELOS-B (Mexico); AUSSAT-2 (Australia); and SATCOM KU-2 (RCA Americom). Two experiments were conducted to test assembling erectable structures in space: EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity), and ACCESS (Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure). In a joint venture between NASA/Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), EASE and ACCESS were developed and demonstrated at MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS). In this STS-61B onboard photo, astronaut Ross works on ACCESS high above the orbiter. The primary objective of these experiments was to test the structural assembly concepts for suitability as the framework for larger space structures and to identify ways to improve the productivity of space construction.

  18. Construction, Geology, and Aquifer Testing of the Maalo Road, Aahoaka Hill, and Upper Eleele Tank Monitor Wells, Kauai, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izuka, Scot K.

    2005-01-01

    The Maalo Road, Aahoaka Hill, and Upper Eleele Tank monitor wells were constructed using rotary drilling methods between July 1998 and August 2002 as part of a program of exploratory drilling, aquifer testing, and hydrologic analysis on Kauai. Aquifer tests were conducted in the uncased boreholes of the wells. The Maalo Road monitor well in the Lihue Basin penetrated 915 feet, mostly through mafic lava flows. Most of the rock samples from this well had chemical compositions similar to the Koloa Volcanics, but the deepest sample analyzed had a composition similar to the Waimea Canyon Basalt. Water temperature ranged from 25.6 to 27.4 degrees Celsius and specific conductance ranged from 303 to 627 microsiemens per centimeter during aquifer testing. Discharge rate ranged from 174 to 220 gallons per minute and maximum drawdown was 138.25 ft during a 7-day sustained-discharge test, but the test was affected by pump and generator problems. The Aahoaka Hill monitor well in the Lihue Basin penetrated 804 feet, mostly through mafic lava flows and possibly dikes. The well penetrated rocks having chemical compositions similar to the Waimea Canyon Basalt. During the first three hours of a sustained-discharge aquifer test in which the discharge rate varied between 92 and 117 gallons per minute, water temperature was 24.6 to 25.6 degrees Celsius, and specific conductance was 212 to 238 microsiemens per centimeter; this test was halted after a short period because drawdown was high. In a subsequent 7-day test, discharge was 8 to 23 gallons per minute, and maximum drawdown was 37.71 feet after 1,515 minutes of testing. The Upper Eleele Tank monitor well is near the Hanapepe River Valley. The well penetrated 740 feet through soil, sediment, mafic lava flows, volcanic ash, and scoria. Rocks above a depth of 345 feet had compositions similar to the Koloa Volcanics, but a sample from 720 to 725 feet had a composition similar to rocks of the Waimea Canyon Basalt. During a 7-day aquifer

  19. 25 CFR 163.30 - Revocable road use and construction permits for removal of commercial forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... acquisition of rights-of-way over Indian lands, under 25 CFR part 169, or conflict with provisions of that... majority of trust interest in a tract has consented, the Secretary may issue revocable road use and...

  20. [Ecologo-hygienic evaluation of the use of petroleum-refining waste for road construction in the lower Volga region].

    PubMed

    Rusakov, N V; Latyshevskaia, N I; Skakovskaia, M A; Iudina, E V

    2001-01-01

    A scheme has been developed for sanitary assessment of the safety of road building materials containing oil slurry waste. It includes 2 units: 1) sanitary and chemical studies and 2) ecological and toxicological ones. The sanitary and chemical unit consists of a preliminary stage, wherein priority waste-specific substances are selected, and two experimental studies air- and water migration ones that evaluate the environmental effects of the substances selected. The ecological and toxicological unit includes microbiological, phytotoxic, hydrobiological, and toxicological studies. This scheme of ecological and sanitary studies of road building composite materials containing oil slurry waste allows their ecological and toxicological safety to be comprehensively evaluated.

  1. A Time-constrained Network Voronoi Construction and Accessibility Analysis in Location-based Service Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, W.; Ai, T.

    2014-11-01

    Accessibility analysis usually requires special models of spatial location analysis based on some geometric constructions, such as Voronoi diagram (abbreviated to VD). There are many achievements in classic Voronoi model research, however suffering from the following limitations for location-based services (LBS) applications. (1) It is difficult to objectively reflect the actual service areas of facilities by using traditional planar VDs, because human activities in LBS are usually constrained only to the network portion of the planar space. (2) Although some researchers have adopted network distance to construct VDs, their approaches are used in a static environment, where unrealistic measures of shortest path distance based on assumptions about constant travel speeds through the network were often used. (3) Due to the computational complexity of the shortest-path distance calculating, previous researches tend to be very time consuming, especially for large datasets and if multiple runs are required. To solve the above problems, a novel algorithm is developed in this paper. We apply network-based quadrat system and 1-D sequential expansion to find the corresponding subnetwork for each focus. The idea is inspired by the natural phenomenon that water flow extends along certain linear channels until meets others or arrives at the end of route. In order to accommodate the changes in traffic conditions, the length of network-quadrat is set upon the traffic condition of the corresponding street. The method has the advantage over Dijkstra's algorithm in that the time cost is avoided, and replaced with a linear time operation.

  2. Evaluation of primary DNA damage, cytogenetic biomarkers and genetic polymorphisms for CYP1A1 and GSTM1 in road tunnel construction workers.

    PubMed

    Villarini, M; Moretti, M; Fatigoni, C; Agea, E; Dominici, L; Mattioli, A; Volpi, R; Pasquini, R

    2008-01-01

    In tunnel construction workers, occupational exposure to dust (alpha-quartz and other particles from blasting), gases (nitrogen dioxide, NO(2)), diesel exhausts, and oil mist has been associated with lung function decline, induction of inflammatory reactions in the lungs with release of mediators that may influence blood coagulation, and increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The present molecular epidemiology study was designed to evaluate whether occupational exposure to indoor pollutants during road tunnel construction might result in genotoxic effects. A study group of 39 underground workers and a reference group of 34 unexposed subjects were examined. Primary and oxidative DNA damage, sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE), and micronuclei (MN) were measured in peripheral blood cells. The possible influences of polymorphisms in gene encoding for CYP1A1 and GSTM1 xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes were also investigated. Exposure assessment was performed with detailed interviews and questionnaires. There were no significant differences in the level of primary and oxidative DNA damage and frequency of SCE between the tunnel workers and controls, whereas the frequency of MN showed a significant increase in exposed subjects compared to controls. No effects of CYP1A1 or GSTM1 variants were observed for the analyzed biomarkers. Since MN in peripheral blood lymphocytes are recognized as a predictive biomarker of cancer risk within a population of healthy subjects, the genotoxic risk of occupational exposure to various indoor environmental pollutants during road tunnel construction cannot be excluded by this biomonitoring study. PMID:18800292

  3. Aerosol particle and trace gas emissions from earthworks, road construction, and asphalt paving in Germany: Emission factors and influence on local air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, Peter; Drewnick, Frank; Borrmann, Stephan

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol emissions from construction sites have a strong impact on local air quality. The chemical and physical characteristics of particles and trace gases emitted by earthworks (excavation and loading of soil as well as traffic on unpaved roads) and road works (asphalt sawing, smashing, soil compacting, asphalt paving) have therefore been addressed in this study by using a mobile set-up of numerous modern online aerosol and trace gas instruments including a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer. Fuel-based emission factors for several variables have been determined, showing that earthwork activities and compacting by use of a plate compactor revealed the highest median emission factors for PM10 (up to 54 g l-1). Construction activities were assigned to contribute about 17% (36 000 t a-1) to total PM10 emissions and 3% (13 500 t a-1) to total traffic-related NOx emissions in Germany. In particular, calculated PM10 emissions by earthworks are about 15 800 t a-1 corresponding to 44% of total PM10 emissions by construction activities in Germany. Mechanical processes such as asphalt sawing (PM1/PM10 = 18 ± 31%), soil compacting by a plate compactor (PM1/PM10 = 5 ± 6%) and earthworks (PM1/PM10 = 2 ± 5%) emit predominantly coarse mineral dust particles. Contrary to that, particle emissions by thermal construction processes (asphalt paving: PM1/PM10 = 62 ± 14%) and by the internal combustion engines of heavy machinery (e.g. road roller PM1/PM10 = 94 ± 9%) are mostly in the submicron range. These particles were mainly composed of organics containing non-polar saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons (e.g. asphalting: O:C < 0.01, H:C = 2.01). Besides construction activities, mineral dust is also emitted over cleared land by wind-driven resuspension depending on wind speed. PM10 emissions by construction activities often result in local concentrations > 100 μg m-3 and can easily breach the European limit level of PM10. This study also shows that particulate mineral

  4. EPA GHG Certification of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles: Development of Road Grade Profiles Representative of US Controlled Access Highways

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Eric; Duran, Adam; Burton, Evan; Gonder, Jeffrey; Kelly, Kenneth

    2015-05-12

    This report includes a detailed comparison of the TomTom national road grade database relative to a local road grade dataset generated by Southwest Research Institute and a national elevation dataset publically available from the U.S. Geological Survey. This analysis concluded that the TomTom national road grade database was a suitable source of road grade data for purposes of this study.

  5. 12 CFR 1010.210 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Roads. 1010.210 Section 1010.210 Banks and... § 1010.210 Roads. (a) State the estimated cost to the developer of the proposed road system. (b) If the developer is to complete any roads providing access to the subdivision, submit copies of any bonds or...

  6. 12 CFR 1010.210 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Roads. 1010.210 Section 1010.210 Banks and... § 1010.210 Roads. (a) State the estimated cost to the developer of the proposed road system. (b) If the developer is to complete any roads providing access to the subdivision, submit copies of any bonds or...

  7. The future of forests and orangutans (Pongo abelii) in Sumatra: predicting impacts of oil palm plantations, road construction, and mechanisms for reducing carbon emissions from deforestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaveau, David L. A.; Wich, Serge; Epting, Justin; Juhn, Daniel; Kanninen, Markku; Leader-Williams, Nigel

    2009-09-01

    Payments for reduced carbon emissions from deforestation (RED) are now attracting attention as a way to halt tropical deforestation. Northern Sumatra comprises an area of 65 000 km2 that is both the site of Indonesia's first planned RED initiative, and the stronghold of 92% of remaining Sumatran orangutans. Under current plans, this RED initiative will be implemented in a defined geographic area, essentially a newly established, 7500 km2 protected area (PA) comprising mostly upland forest, where guards will be recruited to enforce forest protection. Meanwhile, new roads are currently under construction, while companies are converting lowland forests into oil palm plantations. This case study predicts the effectiveness of RED in reducing deforestation and conserving orangutans for two distinct scenarios: the current plan of implementing RED within the specific boundary of a new upland PA, and an alternative scenario of implementing RED across landscapes outside PAs. Our satellite-based spatially explicit deforestation model predicts that 1313 km2 of forest would be saved from deforestation by 2030, while forest cover present in 2006 would shrink by 22% (7913 km2) across landscapes outside PAs if RED were only to be implemented in the upland PA. Meanwhile, orangutan habitat would reduce by 16% (1137 km2), resulting in the conservative loss of 1384 orangutans, or 25% of the current total population with or without RED intervention. By contrast, an estimated 7824 km2 of forest could be saved from deforestation, with maximum benefit for orangutan conservation, if RED were to be implemented across all remaining forest landscapes outside PAs. Here, RED payments would compensate land users for their opportunity costs in not converting unprotected forests into oil palm, while the construction of new roads to service the marketing of oil palm would be halted. Our predictions suggest that Indonesia's first RED initiative in an upland PA may not significantly reduce

  8. Arrive alive: road safety in Kenya and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lamont, Mark; Lee, Rebekah

    2015-04-01

    This article is among the first historical considerations of road safety in Africa. It argues that race and class, as colonial dualisms, analytically frame two defining moments in the development of African automobility and its infrastructure-"Africanization" in the first decade of Kenya's political independence from Britain, 1963-75, and democratization in postapartheid South Africa. We argue that recent road safety interventions in both countries exemplify an "epidemiological turn" influenced by public health constructions of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. African states' framing of road safety in behaviorist terms has obscured larger debates around redressing the historical legacies of racialized access to roads and the technopolitics of African automobility. Civic involvement in road safety initiatives has tended to be limited, although the specter of road carnage has entered into the public imagination, largely through the death of high profile Africans. However, some African road users continue to pursue alternative, and often culturally embedded, strategies to mitigate the dangers posed by life "on the road." PMID:26005088

  9. 30 CFR 816.151 - Primary roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Primary roads. 816.151 Section 816.151 Mineral... roads. Primary roads shall meet the requirements of section 816.150 and the additional requirements of this section. (a) Certification. The construction or reconstruction of primary roads shall be...

  10. 30 CFR 817.151 - Primary roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Primary roads. 817.151 Section 817.151 Mineral... roads. Primary roads shall meet the requirements of § 817.150 and the additional requirements of this section. (a) Certification. The construction or reconstruction of primary roads shall be certified in...

  11. 25 CFR 265.3 - Roads prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Roads prohibited. 265.3 Section 265.3 Indians BUREAU OF... ON INDIAN RESERVATIONS § 265.3 Roads prohibited. (a) Within the boundaries of this officially... highways, roads, truck trails, work roads, and all other types of ways constructed to make possible...

  12. The construction of the spatio-temporal database of the ancient Silk Road within Xinjiang province during the Han and Tang dynasties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Jiantao; Luo, Guilin; Wang, Xingxing; Zhu, Zuojia

    2014-03-01

    As the bridge over the Chinese and Western civilization, the ancient Silk Road has made a huge contribution to cultural, economic, political exchanges between China and western countries. In this paper, we treated the historical period of Western Han Dynasty, Eastern Han Dynasty and Tang Dynasty as the research time domain, and the Western Regions' countries that were existed along the Silk Road at the mean time as the research spatial domain. Then we imported these data into the SQL Server database we constructed, from which we could either query the attribute information such as population, military force, the era of the Central Plains empire, the significant events taking place in the country and some related attribute information of these events like the happened calendar year in addition to some related spatial information such as the present location, the coordinates of the capital and the territory by inputting the name of the Western countries. At the same time we could query the significant events, government institution in Central Plains and the existent Western countries at the mean time by inputting the calendar year. Based on the database, associated with GIS, RS, Flex, C# and other related information technology and network technology, we could not only browsing, searching and editing the information of the ancient Silk Road in Xinjiang Province during the Han and Tang Dynasties, but preliminary analysing as well. This is the combination of archaeology and modern information technology, and the database could also be a reference to further study, research and practice in the related fields in the future.

  13. 25 CFR 170.472 - What construction records must tribes and BIA keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....472 Section 170.472 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Planning, Design, and Construction of Indian Reservation Roads Program Facilities... CFR 900.130-131 or 25 CFR 1000.243 and 1000.249, as appropriate BIA is allowed access to tribal...

  14. Drilling, construction, caliper-log, and specific-conductance data for well 3-3406-12, Twin Bridge Road deep monitor well, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Presley, T.K.; Oki, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    The Twin Bridge Road deep monitor well (State well number 3-3406-12) was drilled about 2,000 feet northeast of Weed Circle in the town of Haleiwa. The well is on agricultural land. The well penetrates through the freshwater lens and into the freshwater-saltwater transition zone of the Waialua ground-water area to an elevation of -596 feet below mean sea level. Well-construction data, logs of drilling notes, geologic descriptions for the samples, caliper-log, and specific-conductance data are presented for the well. The well is one of 12 exploratory wells drilled in the north- central Oahu area between July 1993 and May 1994 in cooperation with the Honolulu Board of Water Supply.

  15. Use of weathered and fresh bottom ash mix layers as a subbase in road constructions: environmental behavior enhancement by means of a retaining barrier.

    PubMed

    Del Valle-Zermeño, R; Chimenos, J M; Giró-Paloma, J; Formosa, J

    2014-12-01

    The presence of neoformed cement-like phases during the weathering of non-stabilized freshly quenched bottom ash favors the development of a bound pavement material with improved mechanical properties. Use of weathered and freshly quenched bottom ash mix layers placed one over the other allowed the retention of leached heavy metals and metalloids by means of a reactive percolation barrier. The addition of 50% of weathered bottom ash to the total subbase content diminished the release of toxic species to below environmental regulatory limits. The mechanisms of retention and the different processes and factors responsible of leaching strongly depended on the contaminant under concern as well as on the chemical and physical factors. Thus, the immediate reuse of freshly quenched bottom ash as a subbase material in road constructions is possible, as both the mechanical properties and long-term leachability are enhanced. PMID:25180484

  16. Decompression sickness and aseptic necrosis of bone: Investigations carried out during and after the construction of the Tyne Road Tunnel (1962-66)

    PubMed Central

    1971-01-01

    Report of Decompression Sickness Panel, Medical Research Council (1971). Brit. J. industr. Med., 28, 1-21. Decompression sickness and aseptic necrosis of bone: Investigations carried out during and after the construction of the Tyne Road Tunnel (1962-66). This paper describes investigations into the health of compressed air workers during and after the construction of a road tunnel under the River Tyne. Altogether 641 men were exposed to the compressed air environment over a period of approximately 31 months. The maximum working pressure was 42 psig (289·6 kN/m2), and the overall decompression sickness rate for work at pressures of 18 psig (124·1 kN/m2) and above was 2%. Radiological examination of the chest was carried out on 183 men to detect lung cysts but only one was found. Thus lung cysts were not shown to be a common factor in the causation of decompression sickness but the possibility of small sub-radiological collections of trapped air being involved was not excluded. Radiological examinations of the shoulders, hips and knee joints were carried out on 171 men. There was evidence of aseptic necrosis in one or more bones of 44 men (26%). Fifteen of the men with definite lesions of aseptic necrosis of bone and 7 of the men with suspected lesions had never worked in compressed air before this contract. The remaining 14 men with definite lesions and the 8 with suspected lesions had worked elsewhere in compressed air prior to this contract, but a definite lesion in one of these men and a suspected lesion in another can almost certainly be attributed to their work in compressed air on this contract. Images PMID:5543625

  17. Free access to hypertension and diabetes medicines among the elderly: a reality yet to be constructed.

    PubMed

    Paniz, Vera Maria Vieira; Fassa, Anaclaudia Gastal; Facchini, Luiz Augusto; Piccini, Roberto Xavier; Tomasi, Elaine; Thumé, Elaine; da Silveira, Denise Silva; Rodrigues, Maria Aparecida; Domingues, Marlos Rodrigues; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso

    2010-06-01

    The study evaluated free access to hypertension and diabetes medicines and the reasons reported for lack of access. The sample included 4,003 elderly people living in Primary Care Unit coverage areas from 41 Southern and Northeastern Brazilian cities. Free access was higher in the Northeast (62.4%). The strategy of the Family Health Program (Programa Saúde da Família - PSF) was more effective in providing access than the traditional model, with higher results in the Northeast (61.2%) than in the South (39.6%). Around 20% of medicines included in the Hypertension and Diabetes Program and 26% of those included in the National Essential Medicines List (RENAME) were paid out of pocket. In the Northeast, 25% of insulin and 32% of oral antidiabetics were paid out of pocket. Unavailability in the public sector and a lack of money determined the lack of access. Although the PSF, Hypertension and Diabetes Program and RENAME expanded free access, supplies were insufficient. A greater connection between programs and a clear definition of responsibilities can improve medicine acquisition process, increasing the effectiveness of pharmaceutical assistance. PMID:20657981

  18. Healthcare access as a right, not a privilege: a construct of Western thought.

    PubMed

    Papadimos, Thomas J

    2007-03-28

    Over 45 million Americans are uninsured or underinsured. Those living in poverty exhibit the worst health status. Employment, education, income, and race are important factors in a person's ability to acquire healthcare access. Having established that there are people lacking healthcare access due to multi-factorial etiologies, the question arises as to whether the intervention necessary to assist them in obtaining such access should be considered a privilege, or a right. The right to healthcare access is examined from the perspective of Western thought. Specifically through the works of Aristotle, Immanuel Kant, Thomas Hobbes, Thomas Paine, Hannah Arendt, James Rawls, and Norman Daniels, which are accompanied by a contemporary example of intervention on behalf of the medically needy by the The Johns Hopkins Urban Health Institute. As human beings we are all valuable social entities whereby, through the force of morality, through implicitly forged covenants among us as individuals and between us and our governments, and through the natural rights we maintain as individuals and those we collectively surrender to the common good, it has been determined by nature, natural laws, and natural rights that human beings have the right, not the privilege, to healthcare access.

  19. Healthcare access as a right, not a privilege: a construct of Western thought

    PubMed Central

    Papadimos, Thomas J

    2007-01-01

    Over 45 million Americans are uninsured or underinsured. Those living in poverty exhibit the worst health status. Employment, education, income, and race are important factors in a person's ability to acquire healthcare access. Having established that there are people lacking healthcare access due to multi-factorial etiologies, the question arises as to whether the intervention necessary to assist them in obtaining such access should be considered a privilege, or a right. The right to healthcare access is examined from the perspective of Western thought. Specifically through the works of Aristotle, Immanuel Kant, Thomas Hobbes, Thomas Paine, Hannah Arendt, James Rawls, and Norman Daniels, which are accompanied by a contemporary example of intervention on behalf of the medically needy by the The Johns Hopkins Urban Health Institute. As human beings we are all valuable social entities whereby, through the force of morality, through implicitly forged covenants among us as individuals and between us and our governments, and through the natural rights we maintain as individuals and those we collectively surrender to the common good, it has been determined by nature, natural laws, and natural rights that human beings have the right, not the privilege, to healthcare access. PMID:17391522

  20. 11 CFR 9420.6 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... is constructed or altered by, on behalf of, or for the use of the Commission shall be designed..., requirements, and standards of the Architectural Barriers Act, 42 U.S.C. 4151-4157 apply to buildings...

  1. 49 CFR 1014.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., requirements, and standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR... that is constructed or altered by, on behalf of, or for the use of the agency shall be...

  2. 19 CFR 201.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... alterations. 201.151 Section 201.151 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES... Activities Conducted by the U.S. International Trade Commission § 201.151 Program accessibility: New... Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply...

  3. 19 CFR 201.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... alterations. 201.151 Section 201.151 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES... Activities Conducted by the U.S. International Trade Commission § 201.151 Program accessibility: New... Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply...

  4. 29 CFR 2205.151 - Program accessibility: new construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... 2205.151 Section 2205.151 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION AND IN ACCESSIBILITY...

  5. 29 CFR 2205.151 - Program accessibility: new construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... 2205.151 Section 2205.151 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION AND IN ACCESSIBILITY...

  6. 29 CFR 2205.151 - Program accessibility: new construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... 2205.151 Section 2205.151 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION AND IN ACCESSIBILITY...

  7. 45 CFR 1175.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES ENFORCEMENT OF... building that is constructed or altered by, on behalf of, or for the use of the agency shall be designed... 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to buildings covered by this section....

  8. 41 CFR 51-10.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to... altered by, on behalf of, or for the use of the agency shall be designed, constructed, or altered so as...

  9. 29 CFR 2205.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19... by, on behalf of, or for the use of the agency shall be designed, constructed, or altered so as to...

  10. 17 CFR 200.651 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... building that is constructed or altered by, on behalf of, or for the use of the agency shall be designed... definitions, requirements, and standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to buildings covered by this section....

  11. 36 CFR 909.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to... of, or for the use of the agency shall be designed, constructed, or altered so as to be...

  12. 29 CFR 2706.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19... by, on behalf of, or for the use of the agency shall be designed, constructed, or altered so as to...

  13. 5 CFR 1636.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to... of, or for the use of the agency shall be designed, constructed, or altered so as to be...

  14. 36 CFR 1154.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to... construction and alterations. 1154.151 Section 1154.151 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND... ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD § 1154.151...

  15. 36 CFR 1208.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to... altered by, on behalf of, or for the use of the agency shall be designed, constructed, or altered so as...

  16. 34 CFR 1200.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to... by, on behalf of, or for the use of the agency shall be designed, constructed, or altered so as to...

  17. 38 CFR 15.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to..., or for the use of the agency shall be designed, constructed, or altered so as to be...

  18. 36 CFR 812.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to..., or for the use of the agency shall be designed, constructed, or altered so as to be...

  19. 3 CFR 102.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... building that is constructed or altered by, on behalf of, or for the use of the agency shall be designed... definitions, requirements, and standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to buildings covered by this section....

  20. 14 CFR 1251.551 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to... by, on behalf of, or for the use of the agency shall be designed, constructed, or altered so as to...

  1. 44 CFR 16.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to... altered by, on behalf of, or for the use of the agency shall be designed, constructed, or altered so as...

  2. Geo-Hazards and Mountain Road Development in Nepal: Understanding the Science-Policy-Governance Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugar, Sumit; Dahal, Vaskar

    2015-04-01

    informed other road development schemes in Nepal. Geomorphological surveys and robust geo-hazard assessments that factor the spatial and temporal dimensions of the seismic, fluvial and sediment hazards along the road corridor are critical for sustainable development of mountain roads. However, scientific and technical research studies seldom inform mountain road development primarily due to lack of co-ordination between the respective government agencies, access to journal papers in developing countries and unwillingness to adopt novel interventions in rural road construction practices. These challenges are further exacerbated by weak governance and lack of proper policy enforcement that often leads to construction of poorly engineered roads, thereby increasing the risk of rural infrastructural damage from geo-hazards. Though there exists a disconnect between the science-policy-governance interface where information on geo-hazards is neglected in mountain road development due to lack of scientific research and government apathy, there is an opportunity to spur dialogue and sensitize these issues via trans-disciplinary approaches on disaster risk management.

  3. The road plan model: Information model for planning road building activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azinhal, Rafaela K.; Moura-Pires, Fernando

    1994-01-01

    The general building contractor is presented with an information model as an approach for deriving a high-level work plan of construction activities applied to road building. Road construction activities are represented in a Road Plan Model (RPM), which is modeled in the ISO standard STEP/EXPRESS and adopts various concepts from the GARM notation. The integration with the preceding road design stage and the succeeding phase of resource scheduling is discussed within the framework of a Road Construction Model. Construction knowledge is applied to the road design and the terrain model of the surrounding road infrastructure for the instantiation of the RPM. Issues regarding the implementation of a road planner application supporting the RPM are discussed.

  4. Potential effects of coal mining and road construction on the water quality of Scofield Reservoir and its drainage area, central Utah, October 1982 to October 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephens, D.W.; Thompson, K.R.; Wangsgard, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    Studies were done during 1983-84 to determine the effect of coal mining in Pleasant Valley and construction of State Road 264 in Eccles Canyon on the water quality of local streams and on Scofield Reservoir. Streamflow during 1983-84 set high-flow records in all gaged streams and transported considerable sediment and associated trace metals and nutrients to Scofield Reservoir. Concentrations of most toxic substances were not sufficient to constitute a hazard in the streams or reservoir; however, concentrations of total phosphorus in the streams commonly exceeded water-quality criterion for phosphate as phosphorus of 0.05 milligram per liter, established by the State as an indicator of pollution. Data from Eccles Canyon creek, which is in an actively mined area, were compared to data from Boardinghouse Canyon creek, which is in a nearby canyon with no active mining or construction activities. Concentrations of iron, manganese, and zinc were substantially larger in Eccles Canyon creek than in Boardinghouse Canyon creek. Loads of suspended sediment during storms and base-flow conditions also were larger in Eccles Canyon creek. Concentrations of ammonia nitrogen, total phosphorus, mercury, and zinc in water from Scofield Reservoir occasionally exceeded Utah State water- quality standards and criteria for protection of aquatic wildlife that were in effect during 1983- 84. In combination with the generally cooler spring temperatures, shortened growing season, and greater flushing rate for the reservoir, the large inflow of water into the reservoir prevented the occurrence of blue-green blooms common in earlier years. Large concentrations of orthophosphorus and manganese were released from sediment cores, and concentrations of manganese in the hypolimnion frequently exceeded the Federal drinking-water standard.

  5. 23 CFR 660.517 - Maneuver area roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maneuver area roads. 660.517 Section 660.517 Highways... PROGRAMS (DIRECT FEDERAL) Defense Access Roads § 660.517 Maneuver area roads. (a) Claims by a highway agency for costs incurred to restore, to their former condition, roads damaged by maneuvers involving...

  6. 23 CFR 660.517 - Maneuver area roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Maneuver area roads. 660.517 Section 660.517 Highways... PROGRAMS (DIRECT FEDERAL) Defense Access Roads § 660.517 Maneuver area roads. (a) Claims by a highway agency for costs incurred to restore, to their former condition, roads damaged by maneuvers involving...

  7. 23 CFR 660.517 - Maneuver area roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Maneuver area roads. 660.517 Section 660.517 Highways... PROGRAMS (DIRECT FEDERAL) Defense Access Roads § 660.517 Maneuver area roads. (a) Claims by a highway agency for costs incurred to restore, to their former condition, roads damaged by maneuvers involving...

  8. 23 CFR 660.517 - Maneuver area roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maneuver area roads. 660.517 Section 660.517 Highways... PROGRAMS (DIRECT FEDERAL) Defense Access Roads § 660.517 Maneuver area roads. (a) Claims by a highway agency for costs incurred to restore, to their former condition, roads damaged by maneuvers involving...

  9. 23 CFR 660.517 - Maneuver area roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Maneuver area roads. 660.517 Section 660.517 Highways... PROGRAMS (DIRECT FEDERAL) Defense Access Roads § 660.517 Maneuver area roads. (a) Claims by a highway agency for costs incurred to restore, to their former condition, roads damaged by maneuvers involving...

  10. 30 CFR 780.37 - Road systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... authorizes land surveyors to certify the design of primary roads a qualified registered professional land surveyor, with experience in the design and construction of roads, as meeting the requirements of this... cross sections, design drawings and specifications for road widths, gradients, surfacing materials,...

  11. 30 CFR 780.37 - Road systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... authorizes land surveyors to certify the design of primary roads a qualified registered professional land surveyor, with experience in the design and construction of roads, as meeting the requirements of this... cross sections, design drawings and specifications for road widths, gradients, surfacing materials,...

  12. 30 CFR 780.37 - Road systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... authorizes land surveyors to certify the design of primary roads a qualified registered professional land surveyor, with experience in the design and construction of roads, as meeting the requirements of this... cross sections, design drawings and specifications for road widths, gradients, surfacing materials,...

  13. 30 CFR 780.37 - Road systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... authorizes land surveyors to certify the design of primary roads a qualified registered professional land surveyor, with experience in the design and construction of roads, as meeting the requirements of this... cross sections, design drawings and specifications for road widths, gradients, surfacing materials,...

  14. Accessibility Videos.

    PubMed

    Kurppa, Ari; Nordlund, Marika

    2016-01-01

    It can be difficult to understand accessibility, if you do not have the personal experience. The Accessibility Centre ESKE produced short videos which demonstrate the meaning of accessibility in different situations. Videos will raise accessibility awareness of architects, other planners and professionals in the construction field and maintenance. PMID:27534282

  15. 36 CFR 9.32 - Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Non-Federal Oil and Gas Rights § 9.32 Access. (a) No access on, across or through lands or waters... CFR 2.17. (d) No access to a site outside a unit will be permitted across unit lands unless such access is by foot, pack animal, or designated road. Persons using designated roads for access to such...

  16. 36 CFR 9.32 - Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Non-Federal Oil and Gas Rights § 9.32 Access. (a) No access on, across or through lands or waters... CFR 2.17. (d) No access to a site outside a unit will be permitted across unit lands unless such access is by foot, pack animal, or designated road. Persons using designated roads for access to such...

  17. 36 CFR 9.32 - Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Non-Federal Oil and Gas Rights § 9.32 Access. (a) No access on, across or through lands or waters... CFR 2.17. (d) No access to a site outside a unit will be permitted across unit lands unless such access is by foot, pack animal, or designated road. Persons using designated roads for access to such...

  18. Image feature based GPS trace filtering for road network generation and road segmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Jiangye; Cheriyadat, Anil M.

    2015-10-19

    We propose a new method to infer road networks from GPS trace data and accurately segment road regions in high-resolution aerial images. Unlike previous efforts that rely on GPS traces alone, we exploit image features to infer road networks from noisy trace data. The inferred road network is used to guide road segmentation. We show that the number of image segments spanned by the traces and the trace orientation validated with image features are important attributes for identifying GPS traces on road regions. Based on filtered traces , we construct road networks and integrate them with image features to segment road regions. Lastly, our experiments show that the proposed method produces more accurate road networks than the leading method that uses GPS traces alone, and also achieves high accuracy in segmenting road regions even with very noisy GPS data.

  19. Image feature based GPS trace filtering for road network generation and road segmentation

    DOE PAGES

    Yuan, Jiangye; Cheriyadat, Anil M.

    2015-10-19

    We propose a new method to infer road networks from GPS trace data and accurately segment road regions in high-resolution aerial images. Unlike previous efforts that rely on GPS traces alone, we exploit image features to infer road networks from noisy trace data. The inferred road network is used to guide road segmentation. We show that the number of image segments spanned by the traces and the trace orientation validated with image features are important attributes for identifying GPS traces on road regions. Based on filtered traces , we construct road networks and integrate them with image features to segmentmore » road regions. Lastly, our experiments show that the proposed method produces more accurate road networks than the leading method that uses GPS traces alone, and also achieves high accuracy in segmenting road regions even with very noisy GPS data.« less

  20. Road user behaviour changes following a self-explaining roads intervention.

    PubMed

    Mackie, Hamish W; Charlton, Samuel G; Baas, Peter H; Villasenor, Pablo C

    2013-01-01

    The self-explaining roads (SER) approach uses road designs that evoke correct expectations and driving behaviours from road users to create a safe and user-friendly road network. Following the implementation of an SER process and retrofitting of local and collector roads in a suburb within Auckland City, lower speeds on local roads and less variation in speed on both local and collector roads were achieved, along with a closer match between actual and perceived safe speeds. Preliminary analyses of crash data shows that the project has resulted in a 30% reduction crash numbers and an 86% reduction in crash costs per annum, since the road changes were completed. In order to further understand the outcomes from this project, a study was carried out to measure the effects of the SER intervention on the activity and behaviour of all road users. Video was collected over nine separate days, at nine different locations, both before and after SER construction. Road user behaviour categories were developed for all potential road users at different location types and then used to code the video data. Following SER construction, on local roads there was a relatively higher proportion of pedestrians, less uniformity in vehicle lane keeping and less indicating by motorists along with less through traffic, reflecting a more informal/low speed local road environment. Pedestrians were less constrained on local roads following SER construction, possibly reflecting a perceptually safer and more user-friendly environment. These behaviours were not generally evident on collector roads, a trend also shown by the previous study of speed changes. Given that one of the objectives of SER is to match road user behaviour with functionally different road categories, the road user behaviour differences demonstrated on different road types within the SER trial area provides further reinforcement of a successful SER trial.

  1. Road Rage

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2010-01-01

    Up to one-third of community participants report being perpetrators of road rage, indicating that various forms of road rage are relatively commonplace. However, only two percent or less of incidents culminate in serious damage to persons or vehicles. The most common offenders appear to be young and male. A number of factors may contribute to road rage, including environmental factors (e.g., greater number of miles driven per day, traffic density), nonspecific psychological factors (e.g., displaced aggression, attribution of blame to others), and bona fide Axis I and II disorders. The most common Axis I disorders appear to be related to alcohol and substance misuse, whereas possible Axis II disorders include borderline and antisocial personality disorders. Being aware of these contributory factors to road rage may improve general clinical awareness of the nature and treatment of perpetrators. PMID:20805914

  2. 48 CFR 436.579 - Opted timber sale road requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Opted timber sale road... sale road requirements. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 452.236-79, Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements, in road construction contracts resulting from a timber sale turnback....

  3. 48 CFR 436.579 - Opted timber sale road requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Opted timber sale road... sale road requirements. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 452.236-79, Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements, in road construction contracts resulting from a timber sale turnback....

  4. 48 CFR 436.579 - Opted timber sale road requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Opted timber sale road... sale road requirements. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 452.236-79, Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements, in road construction contracts resulting from a timber sale turnback....

  5. Distributed road assessment system

    DOEpatents

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W

    2014-03-25

    A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

  6. 7 CFR 3560.608 - Site and construction requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... accordance with 7 CFR part 1924, subparts A and C. (2) Sites must be accessible from a public road, when... 3560.608 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE... accordance with exhibit I of 7 CFR part 1924, subpart A. If constructed in accordance with exhibit I,...

  7. 7 CFR 3560.608 - Site and construction requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... accordance with 7 CFR part 1924, subparts A and C. (2) Sites must be accessible from a public road, when... 3560.608 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE... accordance with exhibit I of 7 CFR part 1924, subpart A. If constructed in accordance with exhibit I,...

  8. 7. VIEW TO NORTH SHOWING SEWER CONSTRUCTION IN FOREGROUND AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW TO NORTH SHOWING SEWER CONSTRUCTION IN FOREGROUND AND BUILDING F IN THE LEFT BACKGROUND. 8X10 black and white gelatin print. United States Coast Guard, Air Station Contract 1247, Sewer System. 1956. - U.S. Coast Guard Air Station San Francisco, 1020 North Access Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  9. Retention of heavy metals and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons from road water in a constructed wetland and the effect of de-icing.

    PubMed

    Tromp, Karin; Lima, Ana T; Barendregt, Arjan; Verhoeven, Jos T A

    2012-02-15

    A full-scale remediation facility including a detention basin and a wetland was tested for retention of heavy metals and Poly-Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from water drained from a motorway in The Netherlands. The facility consisted of a detention basin, a vertical-flow reed bed and a final groundwater infiltration bed. Water samples were taken of road water, detention basin influent and wetland effluent. By using automated sampling, we were able to obtain reliable concentration averages per 4-week period during 18 months. The system retained the PAHs very well, with retention efficiencies of 90-95%. While environmental standards for these substances were surpassed in the road water, this was never the case after passage through the system. For the metals the situation was more complicated. All metals studied (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd and Ni) had concentrations frequently surpassing environmental standards in the road water. After passage through the system, most metal concentrations were lower than the standards, except for Cu and Zn. There was a dramatic effect of de-icing salts on the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd and Ni, in the effluent leaving the system. For Cu, the concentrations even became higher than they had ever been in the road water. It is advised to let the road water bypass the facility during de-icing periods.

  10. A global strategy for road building.

    PubMed

    Laurance, William F; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Sloan, Sean; O'Connell, Christine S; Mueller, Nathan D; Goosem, Miriam; Venter, Oscar; Edwards, David P; Phalan, Ben; Balmford, Andrew; Van Der Ree, Rodney; Arrea, Irene Burgues

    2014-09-11

    The number and extent of roads will expand dramatically this century. Globally, at least 25 million kilometres of new roads are anticipated by 2050; a 60% increase in the total length of roads over that in 2010. Nine-tenths of all road construction is expected to occur in developing nations, including many regions that sustain exceptional biodiversity and vital ecosystem services. Roads penetrating into wilderness or frontier areas are a major proximate driver of habitat loss and fragmentation, wildfires, overhunting and other environmental degradation, often with irreversible impacts on ecosystems. Unfortunately, much road proliferation is chaotic or poorly planned, and the rate of expansion is so great that it often overwhelms the capacity of environmental planners and managers. Here we present a global scheme for prioritizing road building. This large-scale zoning plan seeks to limit the environmental costs of road expansion while maximizing its benefits for human development, by helping to increase agricultural production, which is an urgent priority given that global food demand could double by mid-century. Our analysis identifies areas with high environmental values where future road building should be avoided if possible, areas where strategic road improvements could promote agricultural development with relatively modest environmental costs, and 'conflict areas' where road building could have sizeable benefits for agriculture but with serious environmental damage. Our plan provides a template for proactively zoning and prioritizing roads during the most explosive era of road expansion in human history.

  11. Supplement analysis for Greenville Gate access to Kirschbaum Field at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-05

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) Program proposes to provide additional access to the Kirschbaum Field construction laydown area. This additional access would alleviate traffic congestion at the East Gate entrance to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) from Greenville Road during periods of heavy construction for the NIF. The new access would be located along the northeastern boundary of LLNL, about 305 m (1,000 ft) north of the East Gate entrance. The access road would extend from Greenville Road to the Kirschbaum Field construction laydown area and would traverse an existing storm water drainage channel. Two culverts, side by side, and a compacted road base would be installed across the channel. The security fence that runs parallel to Greenville Road would be modified to accommodate this new entrance and a vehicle gate would be installed at the entrance of Kirschbaum Field. The exiting shoulder along Greenville Road would be converted into a new turn lane for trucks entering the new gate. This analysis evaluates the impacts of constructing the Kirschbaum Field bridge and access gate at a different location than was analyzed in the NIF Project specific Analysis in the Final Programmatic environmental Impact Statement for Stockpile Stewardship and Management (SS and M PEIS) published in September 1996 (DOE/EIS-0236) and the Record of Decision published on December 19, 1996. Issues of concern addressed in this supplement analysis include potential impacts to wetlands downstream of the access bridge, potential impacts to the California red-legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii) listed as threatened on the federal listing pursuant to the Endangered Species Act of 1974, and potential impacts on the 100-yr floodplain along the Arroyo Las Positas.

  12. Celtic Roads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Building upon lessons learned is relevant to art and life. As an art teacher dealing with teens, the author tries to give her students an understanding of art as a window to the "big picture" as well as a practical, relevant skill. She developed this lesson plan, "Celtic Roads," with that objective in mind. The success rate is high, the product is…

  13. 23. Surrender interview site, showing Pemberton Avenue concrete slab road ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Surrender interview site, showing Pemberton Avenue concrete slab road type with gutter (asphalt construction typical on Union and Confederate Avenues), view to the sw. - Vicksburg National Military Park Roads & Bridges, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  14. 1. View looking northwest, from Middle Mount Vernon Road, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View looking northwest, from Middle Mount Vernon Road, showing the slight rise upon which the building was constructed. - Perry Township School No. 3, Middle Mount Vernon & Eickhoff Roads, Evansville, Vanderburgh County, IN

  15. 48 CFR 452.236-79 - Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Opted Timber Sale Road... Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements. As prescribed in 436.579, insert the following clause: Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements (NOV 1996) This contract is for the construction of timber sale road(s) which...

  16. 48 CFR 452.236-79 - Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Opted Timber Sale Road... Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements. As prescribed in 436.579, insert the following clause: Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements (NOV 1996) This contract is for the construction of timber sale road(s) which...

  17. 48 CFR 452.236-79 - Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Opted Timber Sale Road... Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements. As prescribed in 436.579, insert the following clause: Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements (NOV 1996) This contract is for the construction of timber sale road(s) which...

  18. 43 CFR 2812.5-2 - Payment to the United States for road use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Payment to the United States for road use... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.5-2 Payment to the United States for road... permittee receives a right to use a road constructed or acquired by the United States, which road is...

  19. 48 CFR 452.236-79 - Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opted Timber Sale Road... Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements. As prescribed in 436.579, insert the following clause: Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements (NOV 1996) This contract is for the construction of timber sale road(s) which...

  20. 48 CFR 452.236-79 - Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Opted Timber Sale Road... Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements. As prescribed in 436.579, insert the following clause: Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements (NOV 1996) This contract is for the construction of timber sale road(s) which...

  1. 36 CFR 228.12 - Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... other means of access, including but not limited to off-road vehicles, be used until the operator has... Minerals § 228.12 Access. An operator is entitled to access in connection with operations, but no...

  2. View west along Tatnic Road and Hartford Road (Route 6) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View west along Tatnic Road and Hartford Road (Route 6) showing West Brooklyn Green, 10 Tatnic Road, and 126 Hartford Road - West Brooklyn Green, Tatnic Road & Hartford Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  3. Towards remote sensing of Arctic ice roads and associated human activities using SUOMI NPP night light images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, M.; Smith, L. C.; Stephenson, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    Ice roads are often the only cost-effective means of transporting goods and supplies to communities, mines, and other sites in remote parts of the Arctic. Yet, there is no global dataset for Arctic ice roads. However, remotely sensed images from the SUOMI NPP day/night band (DNB) of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) may allow for the construction of such a dataset. The DNB's high sensitivity to low-level light suggests that while it is not feasible to view ice roads at night per se, other prominent features associated with ice roads can serve as proxies. Using a time series of images taken in winter 2012, 2013, and 2014, SUOMI NPP images are compared with Landsat 8 images and an existing map of the Tibbitt to Contwoyto ice road in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, Canada. First results reveal that while the ice road's exact path cannot be discerned, key points of human activity along the way can be made out. This bodes well for future applications of DNB imagery to detect ice roads in places like the Russian Federation, for which there is a dearth of publicly available maps. Knowing the location of ice roads is important for two reasons. First, these data can signal sites of natural resource extraction in places for which information is not widely disseminated, such as in the Russian Far East. Second, new geospatial datasets for ice roads can be combined with models assessing impacts of climate change on circumpolar land accessibility (Stephenson et al. 2011) in order to understand where the structural integrity of ice roads may be at risk. As warming temperatures threaten to shorten the season for ice roads, communities and mines alike will need to prepare for changes to their transportation infrastructure, made out of the changing landscape itself.

  4. Effects of a Wildfire on Road-stream Connectivity and Road Surface Erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosa-Perez, Gabriel; MacDonald, Lee

    2016-04-01

    exceptionally high connectivity rates are due to the increased runoff from upslope due to burning, the concentration of this runoff by the road surface to a single drainage point, and the reduced infiltration and trapping capacity of the burned area below the road. These results show: 1) the dramatic effect of burning on road-stream connectivity, and 2) the need to either outslope roads or increase the frequency of constructed drainage features after wildfires, particularly for steeper road segments in areas burned at high or moderate severity.

  5. The road not taken*

    PubMed Central

    Messerle, Judith

    2001-01-01

    The annual Janet Doe Lecture was established in l966 to honor Janet Doe, emerita librarian of the New York Academy of Medicine. The lecture focuses on either the history or philosophy of health sciences librarianship. This lecture addresses three fundamental values of the field, highlighting basic beliefs of the profession that are at risk: privacy, intellectual property rights, and access to quality information. It calls upon readers to make the everyday choices required to keep the value system of health sciences librarianship in place. Robert Frost's poignant poem ”The Road Not Taken” provides the metaphor for examining choices in an information economy. PMID:11209796

  6. Washboard Road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElwaine, Jim; Dalziel, Stuart; Taberlet, Nicolas; Morris, Stephen

    2006-11-01

    The tendency of unpaved road surfaces to develop lateral ripples (``washboard'' or ``corrugated'' road) is annoyingly familiar to drivers on dry gravel roads. Similar ripples are well known on railroad tracks and many other rolling or sliding, load bearing surfaces. Our approach combined laboratory experiments, soft-particle direct numerical simulations and simple nonlinear dynamics models. The experiment consisted of a rotating table 60 cm in radius with a thick layer of sand forming a roadbed around the circumference. A 6 cm radius hard rubber wheel, with a support stationary in the lab frame, rolled on the sand layer. We varied the speed of the table and the details of the suspension of the wheel. The onset of the ripple pattern exhibits a sharp threshold and was strongly subcritical with a large hysteresis as a function of the speed of the table. The ripple pattern appears as small patches of travelling waves which eventually spread to the entire circumference. The ripples move slowly in the driving direction. Interesting secondary dynamics of the saturated ripples were observed. All of these effects are captured qualitatively by a 2D soft particle simulations. The simulations clearly indicate that neither compaction nor particle size segregation are crucial for the appearance of the ripples, and we present a simple model to describe the wavelength and amplitude of the ripples.

  7. Vulnerability Analysis and Evaluation of Urban Road System in Tianjin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. Q.; Wu, X.

    In recent years, with the development of economy, the road construction of our country has entered into a period of rapid growth. The road transportation network has been expanding and the risk of disasters is increasing. In this paper we study the vulnerability of urban road system in Tianjin. After analyzed many risk factors of the urban road system security, including road construction, road traffic and the natural environment, we proposed an evaluation index of vulnerability of urban road system and established the corresponding evaluation index system. Based on the results of analysis and comprehensive evaluation, appropriate improvement measures and suggestions which may reduce the vulnerability of the road system and improve the safety and reliability of the road system are proposed.

  8. Capital access.

    PubMed

    Towne, Jennifer

    2004-06-01

    To maintain their viability, hospitals are being compelled to invest in big capital projects such as information technology and renovation and construction. This gatefold examines the trends in credit and capital, and how they affect hospitals' access to money.

  9. Environmental assessment for the Area 5 radioactive waste management site access improvement at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The United States Department of Energy has prepared an Environmental Assessment which analyzes the potential environmental effects of improving access to its AREA 5 RWMS at the NTS. The EA evaluates the potential impacts of constructing an extension of the Cane Springs Road between Mercury Highway and the 5-01 Road. Three alternative actions are also evaluated: (1) construction of a new road along the existing alignment of the Powerline Road between Mercury Highway and the 5-01 Road, (2) upgrading the existing 5-01 Road, and (3) taking no action. The purpose and need for improving access to the RWMS are addressed in Section 1.0 of the EA. A detailed description of the proposed action and alternatives is in Section 2.0. Section 3.0 describes the affected environment and Section 4.0 the environmental effects of the proposed action and alternatives. Health and transportation effects, accident scenarios, cumulative effects, and other relevant information are found in Sections 5.0 through 12.0 of the EA. DOE determined that the alternative action of upgrading the existing 5-01 Road would best meet the needs of the agency.

  10. Impacts of a Wildfire on Road Surface Erosion and Road-stream Connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosa-Perez, G.; MacDonald, L. H.

    2015-12-01

    Unpaved roads are a major hydrologic disturbance and source of sediment in forested watersheds. High- and moderate-severity wildfires should increase road sediment production due to the increased surface runoff from upslope, and increase road-stream connectivity due to the increased runoff and decrease in downslope surface roughness, but there has been no study of these interactions. Hence the goal of this study was to quantify how fire severity affects road surface erosion features and road-stream connectivity. Detailed data were collected one year after the High Park wildfire along 6.8 km of an unpaved road west of Fort Collins, Colorado. Road segments below areas burned at high and moderate severity had significantly more rills than segments below areas burned at low severity. Road segment slope was an increasingly important control on the proportion of segment length with rills with increasing burn severity, and this is consistent with the known increases in surface runoff. Flatter road segments acted as barriers that accumulated sediment eroded from the hillslopes above the road. All of the road segments in areas burned at high and moderate severity had drainage features that extended to a stream, and 78% of the segments in areas burned at low severity were connected. These exceptionally high rates of road-stream connectivity are attributed to the increased runoff from upslope, the concentration of that runoff by the road surface to a single drainage point, and the reduced infiltration and trapping capacity of the burned area below the road. The results show the need to either outslope the roads or increase the frequency of constructed drainage features after wildfires, particularly for the steeper road segments in areas burned at high or moderate severity.

  11. 30 CFR 784.18 - Relocation or use of public roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relocation or use of public roads. 784.18... PLAN § 784.18 Relocation or use of public roads. Each application shall describe, with appropriate maps...-of-way line of any public road, except where mine access or haul roads join that right-of-way; or...

  12. 30 CFR 780.33 - Relocation or use of public roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Relocation or use of public roads. 780.33... PLAN § 780.33 Relocation or use of public roads. Each application shall describe, with appropriate maps... line of any public road, except where mine access or haul roads join that right-of-way; or...

  13. 30 CFR 780.33 - Relocation or use of public roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Relocation or use of public roads. 780.33... PLAN § 780.33 Relocation or use of public roads. Each application shall describe, with appropriate maps... line of any public road, except where mine access or haul roads join that right-of-way; or...

  14. 30 CFR 784.18 - Relocation or use of public roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Relocation or use of public roads. 784.18... PLAN § 784.18 Relocation or use of public roads. Each application shall describe, with appropriate maps...-of-way line of any public road, except where mine access or haul roads join that right-of-way; or...

  15. 30 CFR 780.33 - Relocation or use of public roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relocation or use of public roads. 780.33... PLAN § 780.33 Relocation or use of public roads. Each application shall describe, with appropriate maps... line of any public road, except where mine access or haul roads join that right-of-way; or...

  16. 30 CFR 780.33 - Relocation or use of public roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Relocation or use of public roads. 780.33... PLAN § 780.33 Relocation or use of public roads. Each application shall describe, with appropriate maps... line of any public road, except where mine access or haul roads join that right-of-way; or...

  17. 30 CFR 784.18 - Relocation or use of public roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Relocation or use of public roads. 784.18... PLAN § 784.18 Relocation or use of public roads. Each application shall describe, with appropriate maps...-of-way line of any public road, except where mine access or haul roads join that right-of-way; or...

  18. 25 CFR 170.120 - What restrictions apply to the use of an Indian Reservation Road?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Reservation Road? 170.120 Section 170.120 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Use of Irr and Cultural Access Roads § 170.120 What restrictions apply to the use of an...

  19. 30 CFR 784.18 - Relocation or use of public roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Relocation or use of public roads. 784.18... PLAN § 784.18 Relocation or use of public roads. Each application shall describe, with appropriate maps...-of-way line of any public road, except where mine access or haul roads join that right-of-way; or...

  20. 25 CFR 170.120 - What restrictions apply to the use of an Indian Reservation Road?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Reservation Road? 170.120 Section 170.120 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Use of Irr and Cultural Access Roads § 170.120 What restrictions apply to the use of an...

  1. 30 CFR 784.18 - Relocation or use of public roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Relocation or use of public roads. 784.18... PLAN § 784.18 Relocation or use of public roads. Each application shall describe, with appropriate maps...-of-way line of any public road, except where mine access or haul roads join that right-of-way; or...

  2. 30 CFR 780.33 - Relocation or use of public roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Relocation or use of public roads. 780.33... PLAN § 780.33 Relocation or use of public roads. Each application shall describe, with appropriate maps... line of any public road, except where mine access or haul roads join that right-of-way; or...

  3. 36 CFR 223.37 - Revegetation of temporary roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... roads. 223.37 Section 223.37 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Contract Conditions and Provisions § 223.37 Revegetation of temporary roads... products shall require the purchaser to treat temporary roads constructed or used thereunder so as...

  4. 36 CFR 223.37 - Revegetation of temporary roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... roads. 223.37 Section 223.37 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Contract Conditions and Provisions § 223.37 Revegetation of temporary roads... products shall require the purchaser to treat temporary roads constructed or used thereunder so as...

  5. 36 CFR 223.37 - Revegetation of temporary roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... roads. 223.37 Section 223.37 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Contract Conditions and Provisions § 223.37 Revegetation of temporary roads... products shall require the purchaser to treat temporary roads constructed or used thereunder so as...

  6. Quantification of Gravel Rural Road Sediment Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silliman, B. A.; Myers Toman, E.

    2014-12-01

    Unbound rural roads are thought to be one of the largest anthropogenic sources of sediment reaching stream channels in small watersheds. This sediment deposition can reduce water quality in the streams negatively impacting aquatic habitat as well as impacting municipal drinking water sources. These roads are thought to see an increase in construction and use in southeast Ohio due to the expansion of shale gas development in the region. This study set out to quantify the amount of sediment these rural roads are able to produce. A controlled rain event of 12.7 millimeters of rain over a half hour period was used to drive sediment production over a 0.03 kilometer section of gravel rural road. These 8 segments varied in many characteristics and produced from 2.0 to 8.4 kilograms of sediment per 0.03 kilometers of road with the average production over the 8 segments being 5.5 kilograms of sediment. Sediment production was not strongly correlated with road segment slope but traffic was found to increase sediment production from 1.1 to 3.9 times as much sediment after traffic use. These results will help inform watershed scale sediment budgeting, and inform best management practices for road maintenance and construction. This study also adds to the understanding of the impacts of rural road use and construction associated with the changing land use from agricultural to natural gas extraction.

  7. Recycled roads

    SciTech Connect

    Tarricone, P.

    1993-04-01

    This article examines the efforts of various states in the USA to recycle waste materials in highway construction as fill and pavements. The topics of the article include recycling used tires whole, ground, and shredded, cost of recycling, wood fiber chips as fill material in embankments, and mining wastes used to construct embankments and as coarse aggregates in asphalt pavement.

  8. 23 CFR Appendix C to Subpart B of... - Additional Required Contract Provisions, Appalachian Development Highway System and Local Access...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Development Highway System and Local Access Roads Contracts Other Than Construction Contracts C Appendix C to.... 633, Subpt. B, App. C Appendix C to Subpart B of Part 633—Additional Required Contract Provisions.... Compliance with regulations. The contractor will comply with the provisions of 23 U.S.C. 324 and with...

  9. 23 CFR Appendix C to Subpart B of... - Additional Required Contract Provisions, Appalachian Development Highway System and Local Access...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Development Highway System and Local Access Roads Contracts Other Than Construction Contracts C Appendix C to.... 633, Subpt. B, App. C Appendix C to Subpart B of Part 633—Additional Required Contract Provisions.... Compliance with regulations. The contractor will comply with the provisions of 23 U.S.C. 324 and with...

  10. Effect of the addition of by-product ash of date palms on the mechanical characteristics of gypsum-calcareous materials used in road construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khellou, A.; Kriker, A.; Hafssi, A.; Belbarka, K.; Baali, K.

    2016-07-01

    The gypsum-calcareous materials, also known as the crusting tuff, are used in the pavement layers of low -traffic road and considered as the materials of first choice in the Saharan region of Algeria. The objective of this paper is to study the mechanical characteristics of tuff of Ouargla town that is situated in the Southeast of Algeria, by adding different percentage of ash resulted from the combustion of by-products of date palms, such as 4%, 8% and l2%, to the tuff. The results obtained have shown a remarkable improvement both in compressive strength at different ages and in the bearing index in the two cases immediate and after immersion in water. These characteristics of the mixture (tuff+ash) reach their maximum values at the 8% of ash addition.

  11. Sustainable road safety: a new (?) neighbourhood road pattern that saves VRU lives.

    PubMed

    Wei, Vicky Feng; Lovegrove, Gord

    2012-01-01

    Both the UN (2007) and World Health Organizations (2004) have declared the enormous social and economic burden imposed on society by injuries due to road collisions as a major global problem. While the road safety problem is not new, this prominent global declaration sends an important signal of frustration regarding progress to date on reducing road collisions. It is clear that governments, communities, businesses and the public must discover ways of reducing this burden, especially as it relates to vulnerable road users (VRUs), typically meaning pedestrian and bicyclist road users. Recent comparisons of global VRU collisions statistics suggest that, in addition to mixed land use density, the layout of neighbourhood roads plays a vital role in the encouragement of walkable, safe and quiet, yet accessible and sustainable communities. The purpose of this paper was to: The Dutch Sustainable Road Safety (SRS) Program has produced a number of innovative land use and transportation initiatives for vehicular road users as well as non-vehicular VRUs. Following from the Dutch initiatives, these new 3-way offset, and fused grid neighbourhood patterns appear to not only have positive effects in encouraging mode split (i.e. increasing walking and bicycling, and transit), slowing traffic, and reducing energy consumption and GHG emissions; but also, to hold potential to improve road safety. To test the road safety hypothesis, UBCO researchers evaluated the level of road safety relative to five neighbourhood patterns - grid, culs-de-sac, and Dutch Sustainable Road Safety (SRS) (or limited access), 3-way offset, and fused grid networks. Analysis using standard transportation planning methodology revealed that they would maintain both mobility and accessibility. Analysis using standard road safety analysis methodology further revealed that these 3-way offset, and fused grid patterns would significantly improve road safety levels by as much as 60% compared to prevalent patterns (i

  12. Security during the Construction of New Nuclear Power Plants: Technical Basis for Access Authorization and Fitness-For-Duty Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Branch, Kristi M.; Baker, Kathryn A.

    2009-09-01

    A technical letter report to the NRC summarizing the findings of a benchmarking study, literature review, and workshop with experts on current industry standards and expert judgments about needs for security during the construction phase of critical infrastructure facilities in the post-September 11 U.S. context, with a special focus on the construction phase of nuclear power plants and personnel security measures.

  13. Educating in the Design and Construction of Built Environments Accessible to Disabled People: The Leonardo da Vinci AWARD Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frattari, Antonio; Dalpra, Michela; Bernardi, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    An interdisciplinary partnership within an European Leonardo da Vinci project has developed a new approach aimed at educating secondary school students in the creation of built environments accessible to disabled people and at sensitizing them towards the inclusion of people with disabilities in all realms of social life. The AWARD (Accessible…

  14. Simple Access to Elusive α-Boryl Carbanions and Their Alkylation: An Umpolung Construction for Organic Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The reaction of 1,1-bis(pinacolboronate) esters with alkyl halides can be effected by metal alkoxides and provides a strategy for the construction of organoboronate compounds. The reaction is found to occur by alkoxide-induced deborylation and generation of a boron-stabilized carbanion. PMID:25019925

  15. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, T.I.; Bolen, W.P.

    2007-01-01

    Construction aggregates, primarily stone, sand and gravel, are recovered from widespread naturally occurring mineral deposits and processed for use primarily in the construction industry. They are mined, crushed, sorted by size and sold loose or combined with portland cement or asphaltic cement to make concrete products to build roads, houses, buildings, and other structures. Much smaller quantities are used in agriculture, cement manufacture, chemical and metallurgical processes, glass production and many other products.

  16. Modeling spatial decisions with graph theory: logging roads and forest fragmentation in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Walker, Robert; Arima, Eugenio; Messina, Joe; Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Perz, Stephen; Vergara, Dante; Sales, Marcio; Pereira, Ritaumaria; Castro, Williams

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the spatial decision-making of loggers and implications for forest fragmentation in the Amazon basin. It provides a behavioral explanation for fragmentation by modeling how loggers build road networks, typically abandoned upon removal of hardwoods. Logging road networks provide access to land, and the settlers who take advantage of them clear fields and pastures that accentuate their spatial signatures. In shaping agricultural activities, these networks organize emergent patterns of forest fragmentation, even though the loggers move elsewhere. The goal of the article is to explicate how loggers shape their road networks, in order to theoretically explain an important type of forest fragmentation found in the Amazon basin, particularly in Brazil. This is accomplished by adapting graph theory to represent the spatial decision-making of loggers, and by implementing computational algorithms that build graphs interpretable as logging road networks. The economic behavior of loggers is conceptualized as a profit maximization problem, and translated into spatial decision-making by establishing a formal correspondence between mathematical graphs and road networks. New computational approaches, adapted from operations research, are used to construct graphs and simulate spatial decision-making as a function of discount rates, land tenure, and topographic constraints. The algorithms employed bracket a range of behavioral settings appropriate for areas of terras de volutas, public lands that have not been set aside for environmental protection, indigenous peoples, or colonization. The simulation target sites are located in or near so-called Terra do Meio, once a major logging frontier in the lower Amazon Basin. Simulation networks are compared to empirical ones identified by remote sensing and then used to draw inferences about factors influencing the spatial behavior of loggers. Results overall suggest that Amazonia's logging road networks induce more

  17. Vascular access in patients with arterial insufficiency. Construction of proximal bridge fistulae based on inflow from axillary branch arteries.

    PubMed

    Jendrisak, M D; Anderson, C B

    1990-08-01

    Patients with renal failure and underlying peripheral vascular disease pose a difficult management problem in establishing long-term angioaccess for chronic hemodialysis. This report summarizes our experience with five debilitated patients who developed acute upper extremity ischemia after forearm fistula construction corrected by fistula ligation. Successful angioaccess was achieved without ischemia recurrence by construction of proximal bridge fistulae with arterial inflow based on branch arteries of the axillary artery. The relatively small size of the branch vessel was the main factor in limiting fistula flow while permitting normal distal axillary artery flow. In four patients direct fistula flow measurements ranged from 200 mL per minute to 620 mL per minute. Axillary arterial flow distal to the fistula ranged from 120 to 200 mL per minute and did not significantly change after fistula construction or during temporary occlusion of the fistula. Four of the five patients continue to dialyze uneventfully from 4 to 8.5 months. One patient died after discontinuation of dialysis 1 month after operation.

  18. Supporting drivers in forming correct expectations about transitions between rural road categories.

    PubMed

    Stelling-Konczak, Agnieszka; Aarts, Letty; Duivenvoorden, Kirsten; Goldenbeld, Charles

    2011-01-01

    In order to support drivers in forming the right expectations on the road, road categories are being made recognisable and predictable in the Netherlands. The present study investigated which of the selected road layouts can make rural road categories most recognisable for road users, especially in transitions from one road category to another. A second objective was to study whether explicit information could contribute to a better recognisability of transitions. The experiment was performed with a series of photographs showing sections of two road categories with an intersection in between. The road layout of road categories varied in markings and separation of driving direction (within-subjects factor). Informed and non-informed participants (between-subjects factor) had to indicate their expectations regarding speed limit and access restriction of each road section, before and after a transition. The results show that for transitions between distributor and through roads, the physicality of separation of driving direction is a better distinctive characteristic than the currently used edge marking. The green centre marking on through roads also enhances recognisability, but only with additional information. As far as transitions between distributor and access roads are concerned, the results demonstrate that this type of transitions is better recognised when no markings on access roads are present. Physical separation of driving directions on distributor roads also improves recognisability, although this layout is associated with higher speed limits. Providing explicit information has in general a positive effect on the reconisability of transitions. Implications are discussed in the light of potential safety effects.

  19. Case studies of geophysical imaging for road foundation design on soft soils and embankment risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteley, Robert J.; Kelly, Richard B.; Stewart, Simon B.

    2015-12-01

    Population growth along the coast of eastern Australia has increased demand for new and upgraded transport infrastructure within intervening coastal floodplains and steeper hinterland areas. This has created additional challenges for road foundation design. The floodplain areas in this region are underlain by considerable thicknesses of recently deposited alluvial and clayey marine sediments. If characterisation of these deposits is inadequate they can increase road construction costs and affect long-term road stability and serviceability. Case studies from a major coastal highway upgrade demonstrate how combining surface wave seismic and electrical geophysical imaging with conventional geotechnical testing enhances characterisation of these very soft and soft soils. The geophysical results also provide initial foundation design parameters such as void ratio and pre-consolidation pressure. A further significant risk issue for roads is potential embankment instability. This can occur during new road construction or when upgrades of existing embankments are required. Assessing the causes of instability of existing steeper embankments with drilling and probing is often difficult and costly due to access and safety problems. In these situations combinations of electrical, ground penetrating radar and P-wave seismic imaging technologies can rapidly provide information on the likely conditions below both the roadway and embankment. Case studies show the application of these technologies on two unstable road embankments. It is concluded that the application of both geophysical imaging and geotechnical testing is a cost-effective enhancement for site characterisation of soft soils and for risk assessment of potentially unstable embankments. This approach overcomes many of the current limitations of conventional methods of site investigation that provide point location data only. The incorporation of geophysics into a well crafted site investigation allows concentration on

  20. 1. VIEW OF THE WATER FILTRATION PLANT FROM THE ACCESS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF THE WATER FILTRATION PLANT FROM THE ACCESS ROAD, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  1. Scaling roads and wildlife: The Cinderella principle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bissonette, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    It is clear that a reduction in both direct and indirect effects of roads and road networks must be the goal of management agencies. However, increased permeability of roaded landscapes can only be achieved by up-front planning and subsequent mitigative actions. The key is to understand that roads must be made permeable to the movement of animals. More profoundly, ecosystem services, i.e., clean water, clean air, uncontaminated soil, natural landscapes, recreation opportunities, abundant wildlife, and life sustaining ecological processes must not be seriously impacted. In other words, quality of life as measured by ecosystem services should be a major component of the planning process when roads are constructed or improved. Mitigative structures exist to increase permeability of roads. Wildlife overpasses and underpasses, often referred to as ecoducts or green bridges, with associated structures to enable larger animals to exit the road right of way, e.g., earthen escape ramps (BISSONETTE and HAMMER, 2001), various culvert designs for smaller animals including badger pipes and amphibian and reptile tunnels, and fish ladders are but a small sampling of the structures already in place around the world. What is needed is attention to the big picture. Landscapes need to be reconnected and made more permeable. Responsible agencies and organizations need to be aggressive about promoting mitigations and a conservation ethic into road planning. Only with a broad based effort between a concerned public, a database to work from, and a willingness of responsible agencies, will the now very large virtual footprint of roads and road networks be reduced to more closely approximate the physical footprint. By embracing the Cinderella Principle of making the virtual shoe fit more closely the actual physical footprint of roads, we will be able to achieve a closer connection with ecological harmony with its resultant effect of abundant wildlife.

  2. 2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  3. CROCKETT BARN AND BLOCKHOUSE FROM SOUTH FORT CASEY ROAD, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CROCKETT BARN AND BLOCKHOUSE FROM SOUTH FORT CASEY ROAD, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. The Crockett blockhouse was moved from its original location to a tract of land along South Fort Casey Road in 1938, making it more accessible to tourists. During the same year it was given to the Daughters of the Pioneers of Washington and restored by Works Progress Administration crews. - Crockett Farm, 1056 Fort Casey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  4. 43 CFR 2812.5-2 - Payment to the United States for road use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Payment to the United States for road use... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.5-2 Payment to the United States for road... any existing road or of any road constructed by the permittee upon the right-of-way. If the term...

  5. 43 CFR 2812.5-2 - Payment to the United States for road use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Payment to the United States for road use... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.5-2 Payment to the United States for road... any existing road or of any road constructed by the permittee upon the right-of-way. If the term...

  6. 43 CFR 2812.5-2 - Payment to the United States for road use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Payment to the United States for road use... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.5-2 Payment to the United States for road... any existing road or of any road constructed by the permittee upon the right-of-way. If the term...

  7. The social construction of AIDS during a time of evolving access to antiretroviral therapy in rural Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Conroy, Amy; Yeatman, Sara; Dovel, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    This paper draws upon a set of conversational journals collected over the past decade in rural Malawi, to understand how perceptions of AIDS are constructed as talk of antiretroviral therapy (ART) filters through social networks. Three distinct treatment eras frame our analysis: the early ART era (2001–2003), the ART expansion era (2004–2006) and the later ART era (2007–2009). We find that the early ART era was characterised by widespread fatalism as people recalled experiences with dying family and friends from what was perceived as an incurable and deadly disease. During the ART expansion era, AIDS fatalism was gradually replaced with a sense of uncertainty as rural Malawians became faced with two opposing realities: death from AIDS and prolonged life after ART. In the later ART era, the journals chart the rise of more optimistic beliefs about AIDS as rural Malawians slowly became convinced of ART’s therapeutic payoffs. We conclude with an example of how ART created difficulties for rural Malawians to socially diagnose the disease and determine who was a safe sexual partner. PMID:23705846

  8. 20. GENERAL VIEW OF CONSTRUCTION LOOKING NORTHEAST SHOWING THE CONSTRUCTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. GENERAL VIEW OF CONSTRUCTION LOOKING NORTHEAST SHOWING THE CONSTRUCTION BRIDGE, GANTRY CRANE AND STRUCTURAL PIERS. - Wilson Dam & Hydroelectric Plant, Spanning Tennessee River at Wilson Dam Road (Route 133), Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  9. 25 CFR 247.20 - What are the road and trail prohibitions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the road and trail prohibitions? 247.20 Section... RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.20 What are the road and trail prohibitions? (a) You cannot damage or leave in a damaged condition any road, trail, or segment thereof. (b) You cannot...

  10. 25 CFR 247.20 - What are the road and trail prohibitions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What are the road and trail prohibitions? 247.20 Section... RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.20 What are the road and trail prohibitions? (a) You cannot damage or leave in a damaged condition any road, trail, or segment thereof. (b) You cannot...

  11. 25 CFR 247.20 - What are the road and trail prohibitions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What are the road and trail prohibitions? 247.20 Section... RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.20 What are the road and trail prohibitions? (a) You cannot damage or leave in a damaged condition any road, trail, or segment thereof. (b) You cannot...

  12. 25 CFR 247.20 - What are the road and trail prohibitions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are the road and trail prohibitions? 247.20 Section... RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.20 What are the road and trail prohibitions? (a) You cannot damage or leave in a damaged condition any road, trail, or segment thereof. (b) You cannot...

  13. 25 CFR 247.20 - What are the road and trail prohibitions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are the road and trail prohibitions? 247.20 Section... RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.20 What are the road and trail prohibitions? (a) You cannot damage or leave in a damaged condition any road, trail, or segment thereof. (b) You cannot...

  14. Quarry Haul Road Ecological Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    This biological survey was performed to document the summer flora and fauna found along the haul road constructed as part of the remedial action for the quarry bulk waste. State and Federal species listed as threatened or endangered were noted if encountered while surveying. Sampling locations were equally spaced along the quarry haul road, and a survey for vegetation and birds conducted at each location. Bird observations were conducted as breeding bird surveys once in June of 1991, and again in June of 1992. Each year's survey includes two observations in the early morning and one late in the evening. Vegetation surveys were conducted in 1991 using quadrants and transects. mammal, reptile, and amphibian sightings were noted as encountered.

  15. INFINITY construction contract signed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Key state and community leaders celebrated April 6 with the signing of a construction contract for the state-of-the-art INFINITY Science Center planned near John C. Stennis Space Center in south Mississippi. Gulfport Mayor George Schloegel (l to r), chair of non-profit INFINITY Science Center Inc., was joined for the signing ceremony at the Hancock Bank in Gulfport by Virginia Wagner, sister of late Hancock Bank President Leo Seal Jr.; and Roy Anderson III, president and CEO of Roy Anderson Corp. Seal was the first chair of INFINITY Science Center Inc., which has led in development of the project. Roy Anderson Corp. plans to begin construction on the 72,000-square-foot, $28 million science and education center in May. The Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT) also is set to begin construction of a $2 million access road to the new center. The April 6 ceremony was attended by numerous officials, including former Stennis Space Center Directors Jerry Hlass and Roy Estess; Mississippi Senate President Pro Tempore Billy Hewes, R-Gulfport; Mississippi Rep. Diane Peranich, D-Pass Christian; and MDOT Southern District Commissioner Wayne Brown.

  16. Evaluating potential effects of an industrial road on winter habitat of caribou in North-Central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Ryan R.; Gustine, David D.; Joly, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, some caribou (Rangifer tarandus) populations are experiencing declines due partially to the expansion of industrial development. Caribou can exhibit behavioral avoidance of development, leading to indirect habitat loss, even if the actual footprint is small. Thus, it is important to understand before construction begins how much habitat might be affected by proposed development. In northern Alaska, an industrial road that has been proposed to facilitate mining transects a portion of the Western Arctic caribou herd's winter range. To understand how winter habitat use might be affected by the road, we estimated resource selection patterns during winter for caribou in a study area surrounding the proposed road. We assessed the reductions of habitat value associated with three proposed routes at three distance thresholds for disturbance. High-value winter habitat tended to occur in locally rugged areas that have not burned recently and have a high density of lichen and early dates of spring snowmelt. We found that 1.5% to 8.5% (146-848 km2) of existing high-value winter habitat in our study area might be reduced in quality. The three alternative routes were only marginally different. Our results suggest that the road would have minimal direct effects on high-value winter habitat; however, additional cumulative impacts to caribou (e.g., increased access by recreationists and hunters) should be considered before the full effects of the road can be estimated.

  17. 48 CFR 436.579 - Opted timber sale road requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opted timber sale road... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 436.579 Opted timber sale road requirements. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 452.236-79, Opted...

  18. 48 CFR 436.579 - Opted timber sale road requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Opted timber sale road... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 436.579 Opted timber sale road requirements. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 452.236-79, Opted...

  19. Constructing Knowledge with Silk Road Visuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisland, Beverly Milner

    2008-01-01

    In this study a group of elementary teachers use illustrations, rather than written text, to introduce their students to the peoples and places of the ancient silk routes. The illustrations are from two picture books; "Marco Polo," written by Gian Paolo Cesaerani and illustrated by Piero Ventura (1977), and "We're Riding on a Caravan: An Adventure…

  20. 7. LASSEN PARK ROAD BRIDGE AT SULFUR WORKS. NOTE ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. LASSEN PARK ROAD BRIDGE AT SULFUR WORKS. NOTE ROAD TRAVERSING DISTANT RIDGE BEYOND BRIDGE. SEEN FROM WEST OF HIGHWAY FROM OLD HIGHWAY LOOP. LOOKING E. - Lassen Park Road, Mineral, Tehama County, CA

  1. 7. VIEW OF OLD ENTRANCE ROAD (NOW WILLOW FLATS ROAD) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF OLD ENTRANCE ROAD (NOW WILLOW FLATS ROAD) FACING EAST INTO PARK. - Arches National Park Main Entrance Road, Beginning at U.S. Highway 191, approximately 6 miles north of Moab, Moab, Grand County, UT

  2. Roads and Airfields I (Programed Instruction). Engineer Subcourse 64-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Engineer School, Fort Belvoir, VA.

    The document is a programed text for a correspondence course in the planning, construction, and maintenance of military roads and airfields. There are seven lessons: construction requirements and design criteria; road reconnaissance and site selection; airfield reconnaissance and site selection; layout procedures, construction staking, and field…

  3. Conceptual design report, TWRS Privatization Phase I, site development and roads, subproject W-505

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, G.

    1997-06-05

    This document includes Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the site development, construction of new roads and improvements at existing road intersections, habitat mitigation, roadway lighting, and construction power needed for the construction of two Private Contractor (PC) Facilities. Approximately 50 hectare (124 acres) land parcel, east of the Grout Facility, is planned for the PC facilities.

  4. 30 CFR 817.151 - Primary roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... erosion, a primary road shall be located, insofar as is practicable, on the most stable available surface... maintained in a free and operating condition and to prevent or control erosion at inlets and outlets; (3... ensure that low-water crossings are designed, constructed, and maintained to prevent erosion of...

  5. 30 CFR 817.151 - Primary roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... erosion, a primary road shall be located, insofar as is practicable, on the most stable available surface... maintained in a free and operating condition and to prevent or control erosion at inlets and outlets; (3... ensure that low-water crossings are designed, constructed, and maintained to prevent erosion of...

  6. 30 CFR 817.151 - Primary roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... erosion, a primary road shall be located, insofar as is practicable, on the most stable available surface... maintained in a free and operating condition and to prevent or control erosion at inlets and outlets; (3... ensure that low-water crossings are designed, constructed, and maintained to prevent erosion of...

  7. 30 CFR 816.151 - Primary roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (1) To minimize erosion, a primary road shall be located, insofar as is practicable, on the most... installed as designed, and maintained in a free and operating condition and to prevent or control erosion at... authority shall ensure that low-water crossings are designed, constructed, and maintained to prevent...

  8. 30 CFR 816.151 - Primary roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... (1) To minimize erosion, a primary road shall be located, insofar as is practicable, on the most... installed as designed, and maintained in a free and operating condition and to prevent or control erosion at... authority shall ensure that low-water crossings are designed, constructed, and maintained to prevent...

  9. Road landslide information management and forecasting system base on GIS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei Dong; Du, Xiang Gang; Xie, Cui Ming

    2009-09-01

    Take account of the characters of road geological hazard and its supervision, it is very important to develop the Road Landslides Information Management and Forecasting System based on Geographic Information System (GIS). The paper presents the system objective, function, component modules and key techniques in the procedure of system development. The system, based on the spatial information and attribute information of road geological hazard, was developed and applied in Guizhou, a province of China where there are numerous and typical landslides. The manager of communication, using the system, can visually inquire all road landslides information based on regional road network or on the monitoring network of individual landslide. Furthermore, the system, integrated with mathematical prediction models and the GIS's strongpoint on spatial analyzing, can assess and predict landslide developing procedure according to the field monitoring data. Thus, it can efficiently assists the road construction or management units in making decision to control the landslides and to reduce human vulnerability.

  10. Roads to Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauer, Ezra

    1991-01-01

    Contends that the level of safety built into roads is largely unpremeditated and that roads and highways are not as safe as they might be. Discusses practices, standards, and deficiencies in highway and traffic safety related to geometric design and traffic engineering. Recommends increased transportation engineering professionalism and public…

  11. The Road Less Traveled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKim, Brent

    2007-01-01

    The federal journey into public education has followed a long and winding road. Most educators know that the federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act is simply the latest version of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), which dates all the way back to 1965. In the years since its initial passage, the ESEA road has taken a number of…

  12. Haul road dust control

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, W.R.; Organiscak, J.A.

    2007-10-15

    A field study was conducted to measure dust from haul trucks at a limestone quarry and a coal preparation plant waste hauling operation. The study found that primarily wind, distance and road treatment conditions notably affected the dust concentrations at locations next to, 50 ft from, and 100 ft away from the unpaved haulage road. Airborne dust measured along the unpaved haul road showed that high concentrations of fugitive dust can be generated with these concentrations rapidly decreasing to nearly background levels within 100 ft of the road. Instantaneous respirable dust measurements illustrated that the trucks generate a real-time dust cloud that has a peak concentration with a time-related decay rate as the dust moves past the sampling locations. The respirable dust concentrations and peak levels were notably diminished as the dust cloud was transported, diluted, and diffused by the wind over the 100 ft distance from the road. Individual truck concentrations and peak levels measured next to the dry road surface test section were quite variable and dependent on wind conditions, particularly wind direction, with respect to reaching the sampling location. The vast majority of the fugitive airborne dust generated from unpaved and untreated haulage roads was non-respirable. 6 figs.

  13. Corrugation of roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Both, Joseph A.; Hong, Daniel C.; Kurtze, Douglas A.

    2001-12-01

    We present a one dimensional model for the development of corrugations in roads subjected to compressive forces from a flux of cars. The cars are modeled as damped harmonic oscillators translating with constant horizontal velocity across the surface, and the road surface is subject to diffusive relaxation. We derive dimensionless coupled equations of motion for the positions of the cars and the road surface H( x, t), which contain two phenomenological variables: an effective diffusion constant Δ( H) that characterizes the relaxation of the road surface, and a function a( H) that characterizes the plasticity or erodibility of the road bed. Linear stability analysis shows that corrugations grow if the speed of the cars exceeds a critical value, which decreases if the flux of cars is increased. Modifying the model to enforce the simple fact that the normal force exerted by the road can never be negative seems to lead to restabilized, quasi-steady road shapes, in which the corrugation amplitude and phase velocity remain fixed.

  14. 14. VIEW OF NORTHSOUTH ROAD WHICH PARALLELS ROAD TO HATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF NORTH-SOUTH ROAD WHICH PARALLELS ROAD TO HATCH ADIT (FEATURE B-28). NOTE MODERN 'LAY DOWN' FENCE ON ROAD. ROAD LIES TO THE WEST OF THE HATCH ADIT AND PHOTOGRAPH IS VIEW TO THE SOUTH. (OCTOBER, 1995) - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  15. 5. Photocopy of Historic Construction Photograph. PUMPING PLANT AND STILLING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of Historic Construction Photograph. PUMPING PLANT AND STILLING POND. (Original print, U. S. Bureau of Reclamation, Yakima, WA., ca. 1915) - Outlook Irrigation District, Pumping Plant & Woodstave Pipe, Hudson Road & Snipes Lateral Road vicinity, Outlook, Yakima County, WA

  16. 4. Photocopy of Historic Construction Photograph. PUMPING PLANT (Original print, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of Historic Construction Photograph. PUMPING PLANT (Original print, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Yakima, WA., ca. 1915) - Outlook Irrigation District, Pumping Plant & Woodstave Pipe, Hudson Road & Snipes Lateral Road vicinity, Outlook, Yakima County, WA

  17. 4. CONSTRUCTION DETAIL, SW CORNER, SHOWING RETAINING WALL, BRIDGE WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. CONSTRUCTION DETAIL, SW CORNER, SHOWING RETAINING WALL, BRIDGE WALL AND EROSION ON ROAD SURFACE. - Bridalveil Fall Bridge No. 3, Spanning Bridalveil Creek on carriage road, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  18. A Holographic Road Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

    1979-01-01

    Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

  19. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, L.M.

    1998-05-05

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find at the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was not heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past. 2 figs.

  20. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  1. Road networks predict human influence on Amazonian bird communities.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sadia E; Lees, Alexander C; Moura, Nárgila G; Gardner, Toby A; Barlow, Jos; Ferreira, Joice; Ewers, Robert M

    2014-11-22

    Road building can lead to significant deleterious impacts on biodiversity, varying from direct road-kill mortality and direct habitat loss associated with road construction, to more subtle indirect impacts from edge effects and fragmentation. However, little work has been done to evaluate the specific effects of road networks and biodiversity loss beyond the more generalized effects of habitat loss. Here, we compared forest bird species richness and composition in the municipalities of Santarém and Belterra in Pará state, eastern Brazilian Amazon, with a road network metric called 'roadless volume (RV)' at the scale of small hydrological catchments (averaging 3721 ha). We found a significant positive relationship between RV and both forest bird richness and the average number of unique species (species represented by a single record) recorded at each site. Forest bird community composition was also significantly affected by RV. Moreover, there was no significant correlation between RV and forest cover, suggesting that road networks may impact biodiversity independently of changes in forest cover. However, variance partitioning analysis indicated that RV has partially independent and therefore additive effects, suggesting that RV and forest cover are best used in a complementary manner to investigate changes in biodiversity. Road impacts on avian species richness and composition independent of habitat loss may result from road-dependent habitat disturbance and fragmentation effects that are not captured by total percentage habitat cover, such as selective logging, fire, hunting, traffic disturbance, edge effects and road-induced fragmentation. PMID:25274363

  2. Large Roads Reduce Bat Activity across Multiple Species

    PubMed Central

    Kitzes, Justin; Merenlender, Adina

    2014-01-01

    Although the negative impacts of roads on many terrestrial vertebrate and bird populations are well documented, there have been few studies of the road ecology of bats. To examine the effects of large roads on bat populations, we used acoustic recorders to survey bat activity along ten 300 m transects bordering three large highways in northern California, applying a newly developed statistical classifier to identify recorded calls to the species level. Nightly counts of bat passes were analyzed with generalized linear mixed models to determine the relationship between bat activity and distance from a road. Total bat activity recorded at points adjacent to roads was found to be approximately one-half the level observed at 300 m. Statistically significant road effects were also found for the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis), big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus), and silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans). The road effect was found to be temperature dependent, with hot days both increasing total activity at night and reducing the difference between activity levels near and far from roads. These results suggest that the environmental impacts of road construction may include degradation of bat habitat and that mitigation activities for this habitat loss may be necessary to protect bat populations. PMID:24823689

  3. Road networks predict human influence on Amazonian bird communities

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Sadia E.; Lees, Alexander C.; Moura, Nárgila G.; Gardner, Toby A.; Barlow, Jos; Ferreira, Joice; Ewers, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Road building can lead to significant deleterious impacts on biodiversity, varying from direct road-kill mortality and direct habitat loss associated with road construction, to more subtle indirect impacts from edge effects and fragmentation. However, little work has been done to evaluate the specific effects of road networks and biodiversity loss beyond the more generalized effects of habitat loss. Here, we compared forest bird species richness and composition in the municipalities of Santarém and Belterra in Pará state, eastern Brazilian Amazon, with a road network metric called ‘roadless volume (RV)’ at the scale of small hydrological catchments (averaging 3721 ha). We found a significant positive relationship between RV and both forest bird richness and the average number of unique species (species represented by a single record) recorded at each site. Forest bird community composition was also significantly affected by RV. Moreover, there was no significant correlation between RV and forest cover, suggesting that road networks may impact biodiversity independently of changes in forest cover. However, variance partitioning analysis indicated that RV has partially independent and therefore additive effects, suggesting that RV and forest cover are best used in a complementary manner to investigate changes in biodiversity. Road impacts on avian species richness and composition independent of habitat loss may result from road-dependent habitat disturbance and fragmentation effects that are not captured by total percentage habitat cover, such as selective logging, fire, hunting, traffic disturbance, edge effects and road-induced fragmentation. PMID:25274363

  4. Road networks predict human influence on Amazonian bird communities.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sadia E; Lees, Alexander C; Moura, Nárgila G; Gardner, Toby A; Barlow, Jos; Ferreira, Joice; Ewers, Robert M

    2014-11-22

    Road building can lead to significant deleterious impacts on biodiversity, varying from direct road-kill mortality and direct habitat loss associated with road construction, to more subtle indirect impacts from edge effects and fragmentation. However, little work has been done to evaluate the specific effects of road networks and biodiversity loss beyond the more generalized effects of habitat loss. Here, we compared forest bird species richness and composition in the municipalities of Santarém and Belterra in Pará state, eastern Brazilian Amazon, with a road network metric called 'roadless volume (RV)' at the scale of small hydrological catchments (averaging 3721 ha). We found a significant positive relationship between RV and both forest bird richness and the average number of unique species (species represented by a single record) recorded at each site. Forest bird community composition was also significantly affected by RV. Moreover, there was no significant correlation between RV and forest cover, suggesting that road networks may impact biodiversity independently of changes in forest cover. However, variance partitioning analysis indicated that RV has partially independent and therefore additive effects, suggesting that RV and forest cover are best used in a complementary manner to investigate changes in biodiversity. Road impacts on avian species richness and composition independent of habitat loss may result from road-dependent habitat disturbance and fragmentation effects that are not captured by total percentage habitat cover, such as selective logging, fire, hunting, traffic disturbance, edge effects and road-induced fragmentation.

  5. Optimization of road networks using evolutionary strategies

    PubMed

    Schweitzer; Ebeling; Rose; Weiss

    1997-01-01

    A road network usually has to fulfill two requirements: (i) it should as far as possible provide direct connections between nodes to avoid large detours; and (ii) the costs for road construction and maintenance, which are assumed proportional to the total length of the roads, should be low. The optimal solution is a compromise between these contradictory demands, which in our model can be weighted by a parameter. The road optimization problem belongs to the class of frustrated optimization problems. In this paper, a special class of evolutionary strategies, such as the Boltzmann and Darwin and mixed strategies, are applied to find differently optimized solutions (graphs of varying density) for the road network, depending on the degree of frustration. We show that the optimization process occurs on two different time scales. In the asymptotic limit, a fixed relation between the mean connection distance (detour) and the total length (costs) of the network exists that defines a range of possible compromises. Furthermore, we investigate the density of states, which describes the number of solutions with a certain fitness value in the stationary regime. We find that the network problem belongs to a class of optimization problems in which more effort in optimization certainly yields better solutions. An analytical approximation for the relation between effort and improvement is derived.

  6. Risk management model in road transport systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhapov, R. L.; Nikolaeva, R. V.; Gatiyatullin, M. H.; Makhmutov, M. M.

    2016-08-01

    The article presents the results of a study of road safety indicators that influence the development and operation of the transport system. Road safety is considered as a continuous process of risk management. Authors constructed a model that relates the social risks of a major road safety indicator - the level of motorization. The model gives a fairly accurate assessment of the level of social risk for any given level of motorization. Authors calculated the dependence of the level of socio-economic costs of accidents and injured people in them. The applicability of the concept of socio-economic damage is caused by the presence of a linear relationship between the natural and economic indicators damage from accidents. The optimization of social risk is reduced to finding the extremum of the objective function that characterizes the economic effect of the implementation of measures to improve safety. The calculations make it possible to maximize the net present value, depending on the costs of improving road safety, taking into account socio-economic damage caused by accidents. The proposed econometric models make it possible to quantify the efficiency of the transportation system, allow to simulate the change in road safety indicators.

  7. Geotextiles in Flexible Pavement Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alungbe, Gabriel D.

    2004-01-01

    People everywhere in the developed world regularly drive on paved roads. Learning about the construction techniques and materials used in paving benefits technology and construction students. This article discusses the use of geosynthetic textiles in pavement construction. It presents background on pavements and describes geotextiles and drainage…

  8. Road dust emissions from paved roads measured using different mobile systems.

    PubMed

    Pirjola, Liisa; Johansson, Christer; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Stojiljkovic, Ana; Karlsson, Hans; Hussein, Tareq

    2010-12-01

    Very few real-world measurements of road dust suspension have been performed to date. This study compares two different techniques (referred to as Sniffer and Emma) to measure road dust emissions. The main differences between the systems are the construction of the inlet, different instruments for recording particulate matter (PM) levels, and different loads on the wheel axes (the weight of Sniffer was much higher than that of Emma). Both systems showed substantial small-scale variations of emission levels along the road, likely depending on-road surface conditions. The variations observed correlated quite well, and the discrepancies are likely a result of variations in dust load on the road surface perpendicular to the driving direction that cause variations in the measurements depending on slightly different paths driven by the two vehicles. Both systems showed a substantial influence on the emission levels depending on the type of tire used. The summer tire showed much lower suspension than the winter tires (one nonstudded and one studded). However, the relative importance of the nonstudded versus studded tire was rather different. For the ratio of studded/nonstudded, Emma shows higher values on all road sections compared with Sniffer. Both techniques showed increased emission levels with increasing vehicle speed. When the speed increased from 50 to 80 km hr(-1), the relative concentrations increased by 30-170% depending on the tire type and dust load. However, for road sections that were very dirty, Sniffer showed a much higher relative increase in the emission level with the nonstudded tire. Sniffer's absolute concentrations were mostly higher than Emma's. Possible reasons for the differences are discussed in the paper. Both systems can be used for studying relative road dust emissions and for designing air quality management strategies. PMID:21243896

  9. Cultural Resource Investigations for a Multipurpose Haul Road on the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Brenda R. Pace; Cameron Brizzee; Hollie Gilbert; Clayton Marler; Julie Braun Williams

    2010-08-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is considering options for construction of a multipurpose haul road to transport materials and wastes between the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) and other Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site facilities. The proposed road will be closed to the public and designed for limited year-round use. Two primary options are under consideration: a new route south of the existing T-25 power line road and an upgrade to road T-24. In the Spring of 2010, archaeological field surveys and initial coordination and field reconnaissance with representatives from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes were completed to identify any resources that may be adversely affected by the proposed road construction and to develop recommendations to protect any listed or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. The investigations showed that 24 archaeological resources and one historic marker are located in the area of potential effects for road construction and operation south of the T-25 powerline road and 27archaeological resources are located in the area of potential effects for road construction and operation along road T-24. Generalized tribal concerns regarding protection of natural resources were also documented in both road corridors. This report outlines recommendations for additional investigations and protective measures that can be implemented to minimize adverse impacts to the identified resources.

  10. View east along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View east along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the north side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  11. View northwest along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northwest along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the north side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  12. Road Maps for Learning: A Bird's Eye View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunne, Timothy T.

    2011-01-01

    The notion of the road map, advocated by Black, Wilson, and Yao (2011), and the associated minutiae of the construct map have several powerful features. At one level these notions assist the teacher to select and embody a suitable sequence of constructs within a specified curriculum. Whatever disparate sequenced pathways individual learners may…

  13. Energy recovery for a road vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarulescu, R.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper the author analyse the possibility of fluid energy recovery, generated from a road vehicle through the aerodynamic impact. The suggested dynamic recovery system use an axial wind turbine, bended with the vehicle. Also, are presented the benefits (economic and energetic) and the disadvantages (constructive and functional) in the base of a calculus statement, with original parts. The results of some numeric calculus for a concrete opportunity are hopeful, the degree of recovery (in fluid - mechanic - electric conversion) tending to 40%.

  14. Off-road cycling injuries. An overview.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, R P; Kronisch, R L

    1995-05-01

    Off-road bicycles, commonly called 'mountain bikes', have become increasingly popular worldwide since their introduction in the western US in the late 1970s. This popularity is partly because these vehicles can be ridden on a wide variety of terrain which is not accessible to other types of bicycle. Although early versions were rather crude, off-road bicycles today typically include high strength, lightweight frames with a wide array of available suspension and braking systems. Virtually all aspects of the technology continue to evolve, including components and protective equipment. As the popularity of off-road cycling has increased, so too has the interest and level of participation in the competitive aspects of the sport. Currently, 2 organisations--the National Off-Road Bicycle Association (NORBA) and the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI)--sponsor the major events within the US and around the world. To date, the majority of studies have been descriptive in nature, with data collected via self-report, questionnaire formats. Only 1 prospective study has been reported thus far, which surveyed a major international competition held in the US in 1994. Injury rates calculated on the basis of injuries per ride or event in competitive venues have been reported, ranging from 0.2 to 0.39% compared with 0.30% for recreational participants. Retrospective data collected from recreational and competitive riders indicate that from 20 to 88% of those surveyed reported having sustained an injury during the previous year of participation. The majority of injuries appear to be acute, traumatic episodes involving the extremities, with contusions and abrasions being the most common. In general, the incidence of more severe injuries such as dislocations, fractures and concussions is low. Comparisons between road and off-road cycling events indicate that off-road cyclists sustain more fractures, dislocations and concussions than their road-event counterparts. Future research should

  15. Rapid road repair vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Mara, L.M.

    1999-09-07

    Disclosed are improvements to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

  16. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1999-01-01

    Disclosed are improvments to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

  17. The road surveying system of the federal highway research institute - a performance evaluation of road segmentation algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streiter, R.; Wanielik, G.

    2013-07-01

    The construction of highways and federal roadways is subject to many restrictions and designing rules. The focus is on safety, comfort and smooth driving. Unfortunately, the planning information for roadways and their real constitution, course and their number of lanes and lane widths is often unsure or not available. Due to digital map databases of roads raised much interest during the last years and became one major cornerstone of innovative Advanced Driving Assistance Systems (ADASs), the demand for accurate and detailed road information increases considerably. Within this project a measurement system for collecting high accurate road data was developed. This paper gives an overview about the sensor configuration within the measurement vehicle, introduces the implemented algorithms and shows some applications implemented in the post processing platform. The aim is to recover the origin parametric description of the roadway and the performance of the measurement system is being evaluated against several original road construction information.

  18. 24. OLD TIOGA ROAD VIEW, NOW MAY LAKE ROAD , ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. OLD TIOGA ROAD VIEW, NOW MAY LAKE ROAD , AT SNOW FLAT. MOUNT HOFFMAN AT CENTER REAR. LOOKING NW. GIS: N-37 49 34.6 / W-119 29 58.2 - Tioga Road, Between Crane Flat & Tioga Pass, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  19. VIEW OF MAIN ENTRANCE ROAD FACING SOUTH. SPUR ROAD TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MAIN ENTRANCE ROAD FACING SOUTH. SPUR ROAD TO WINDOWS SECTION AT LEFT, BALANCED ROCK NEAR CENTER OF PHOTO - Arches National Park Main Entrance Road, Beginning at U.S. Highway 191, approximately 6 miles north of Moab, Moab, Grand County, UT

  20. 6. VIEW OF MAIN ENTRANCE ROAD FACING SOUTH. SPUR ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF MAIN ENTRANCE ROAD FACING SOUTH. SPUR ROAD TO WINDOWS SECTION AT LEFT, BALANCED ROCK NEAR CENTER OF PHOTO. - Arches National Park Main Entrance Road, Beginning at U.S. Highway 191, approximately 6 miles north of Moab, Moab, Grand County, UT

  1. Determination of road dust loadings and chemical characteristics using resuspension.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianhua; Wang, Wei; Liu, Hongjie; Ren, Lihong

    2012-03-01

    The contribution of fugitive dust from traffic to air pollution can no longer be ignored in China. In order to obtain the road dust loadings and to understand the chemical characteristics of PM(10) and PM(2.5) from typical road dust, different paved roads in eight districts of Beijing were selected for dust collection during the four seasons of 2005. Ninety-eight samples from 28 roads were obtained. The samples were resuspended using equipment assembled to simulate the rising process of road dust caused by the wind or wheels in order to obtain the PM(10) and PM(2.5) filter samples. The average road dust loading was 3.82 g m(-2), with the highest of 24.22 g m(-2) being in Hutongs in the rural-urban continuum during winter. The road dust loadings on higher-grade roads were lower than those on lower-grade roads. Attention should be paid to the pollution in the rural-urban continuum areas. The sums of element abundances measured were 16.17% and 18.50% for PM(10) and PM(2.5) in road dust. The average abundances of OC and EC in PM(10) and PM(2.5) in road dust were 11.52%, 2.01% and 12.50%, 2.06%, respectively. The abundance of elements, water-soluble ions, and OC, EC in PM(10) and PM(2.5) resuspended from road dust did not change greatly with seasons and road types. The soil dust, construction dust, dust emitted from burning coal, vehicle exhaust, and deposition of particles in the air were the main sources of road dust in Beijing. Affected by the application of snow-melting agents in Beijing during winter, the amount of Cl( - ) and Na( + ) was much higher during that time than in the other seasons. This will have a certain influence on roads, bridges, vegetations, and groundwater.

  2. Training Guide: Road Transport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan Page, Ltd., London (England).

    The third in a series of guides to British industrial training, this publication begins with a survey of training issues and tasks confronting the Road Transport Industry Training Board (RTITB). This is followed by information on RTITB policies and provisions; RTITB members, officers, and committees; apprenticeships and other training schemes;…

  3. Road-Cleaning Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    Roadways are literally soaked with petrochemical byproducts, oils, gasoline, and other volatile substances that eventually run off into sewers and end up in rivers, waterways, and other undesirable places. Can the roads be cleaned of these wastes, with their proper disposal? Can vehicles, robots, or other devices be designed that could be driven…

  4. On the Road

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mary Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Veteran development officers say the experience of visiting and traveling to different places or countries often feels like an endless cycle of getting lost, missing flights, and eating midnight dinners from hotel vending machines. Despite ongoing travel challenges, experienced road warriors have learned how to maximize their effectiveness,…

  5. 43 CFR 2812.3-2 - Other roads and rights-of-way controlled by applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... controlled by applicant. In addition to the private road systems and rights-of-way described in § 2812.3-1 in the event the applicant controls directly or indirectly other roads or rights-of-way in any O. and C... pendency of the application, the United States is unreasonably denied access to its timber for...

  6. Micromorphological investigation on ring road sediments of the Early Bronze Age site Tell Chuera, Syria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritzsch, Dagmar; Thiemeyer, Heinrich

    2010-05-01

    Tell Chuera is an Early Bronze Age settlement mount in NE-Syria close to the Turkish border. With a diameter of almost 1 km and a height of 18 m it is one of the biggest tells in the region between the rivers Balikh and Khabur. In 1958 the structures of the city wall was known first by Orthmann (1990). This city wall was built of air-dried mud bricks. The age of the founding of this construction is not yet clear. The earliest pottery from the place is dated around 2500 BC to 2350 BC. Inside the fortification a road was detected, which was first excavated by Novak (1995). We took sediment monoliths in 2004 from a new trench, which shows the same situation of the road. A geomagnetic prospection, that included the whole site, suggests that the road was part of the planned extension of the lower town and serves as a circular road (Meyer, in prep.). The micromorphological investigation focussed on the question, how the road was used. Did animals have had access to the town? The thin sections show different indications of the anthropogenic influence. In all samples pseudomorphs after straw are visible. In many parts ash, charred wood fragments, bone fragments, melted material and fragments of basalt and flint were observable, too. These materials are typical for sediments in streets (cf. Goldberg & Macphail, 2006). In some parts of the thin sections faecal spherulites and dung remains with faecal spherulites give an idea that ruminants used the road as well as men. Trampling structures support this assumption. Moreover, leaching of calcite, its redeposition in mottles, pseudomycels and concretions, hydromorphic stains and the translocation of silt indicate postdepositional pedogenic processes. Literature Goldberg, P., & Macphail, R. I. (2006). Practical and theoretical geoarchaeology: UK Blackwell Publishing. Meyer, J.-W. (in prep.). Überlegungen zur Siedlungsstruktur - eine erste Analyse der Ergebnisse der geomagnetischen Prospektion. In J.-W. Meyer (Ed.), Ausgrabungen

  7. Road centerline extraction from airborne LiDAR point cloud based on hierarchical fusion and optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Zhenyang; Hu, Youjian; Jin, Shuanggen; Yevenyo, Yao Ziggah

    2016-08-01

    Road information acquisition is an important part of city informatization construction. Airborne LiDAR provides a new means of acquiring road information. However, the existing road extraction methods using LiDAR point clouds always decide the road intensity threshold based on experience, which cannot obtain the optimal threshold to extract a road point cloud. Moreover, these existing methods are deficient in removing the interference of narrow roads and several attached areas (e.g., parking lot and bare ground) to main roads extraction, thereby imparting low completeness and correctness to the city road network extraction result. Aiming at resolving the key technical issues of road extraction from airborne LiDAR point clouds, this paper proposes a novel method to extract road centerlines from airborne LiDAR point clouds. The proposed approach is mainly composed of three key algorithms, namely, Skewness balancing, Rotating neighborhood, and Hierarchical fusion and optimization (SRH). The skewness balancing algorithm used for the filtering was adopted as a new method for obtaining an optimal intensity threshold such that the "pure" road point cloud can be obtained. The rotating neighborhood algorithm on the other hand was developed to remove narrow roads (corridors leading to parking lots or sidewalks), which are not the main roads to be extracted. The proposed hierarchical fusion and optimization algorithm caused the road centerlines to be unaffected by certain attached areas and ensured the road integrity as much as possible. The proposed method was tested using the Vaihingen dataset. The results demonstrated that the proposed method can effectively extract road centerlines in a complex urban environment with 91.4% correctness and 80.4% completeness.

  8. [Supervising road safety in Peru].

    PubMed

    Sagástegui, Freddy

    2010-06-01

    In this article some problems in road safety are described, which have been detected by the Ombudsman of Peru, as part of its role of public administration supervisor, amongst these problems we mention: lack of and inadequate elaboration of the statistics on road traffic accidents, the inconsistency of the National Council for Road Security and the lack of responsibility of the local and regional governments reflected by the lack of application of the National Plan of Road Safety. Facing this, the Ombudsman suggests that the State develops a rigorous statistical system, strengthens the National Council of Road Safety and that the different sectors of the government develop the mentioned National Plan.

  9. Can we prevent road rage?

    PubMed

    Asbridge, Mark; Smart, Reginald G; Mann, Robert E

    2006-04-01

    Road rage has become a serious concern in many countries, and preventive efforts are required. This article reviews what can be done to prevent road rage by exploring potential prevention avenues in five areas. First, legal changes aimed at increasing the penalties for road rage behavior could be instituted, drawing on models from aggressive-driving or impaired-driving laws. A second approach would involve the adoption of court programs for convicted road ragers. Third, car redesign offers a means of reducing crime through environmental design. Fourth, mass media education could be implemented to inform drivers of the risk from road rage and how to avoid situations that facilitate road rage. Finally, prevention efforts could be directed to long-term societal changes that emphasize structural modifications, such as reducing congestion on the roads, reduced driver stress, or promoting public transportation. The strengths and weaknesses of these strategies are discussed.

  10. Road Traffic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckenbauer, Thomas

    Road traffic is the most interfering noise source in developed countries. According to a publication of the European Union (EU) at the end of the twentieth century [1], about 40% of the population in 15 EU member states is exposed to road traffic noise at mean levels exceeding 55 dB(A). Nearly 80 million people, 20% of the population, are exposed to levels exceeding 65 dB(A) during daytime and more than 30% of the population is exposed to levels exceeding 55 dB(A) during night time. Such high noise levels cause health risks and social disorders (aggressiveness, protest, and helplessness), interference of communication and disturbance of sleep; the long- and short-term consequences cause adverse cardiovascular effects, detrimental hormonal responses (stress hormones), and possible disturbance of the human metabolism (nutrition) and the immune system. Even performance at work and school could be impaired.

  11. Road to the Future: Strategies for Wildlife Crossings and Youth Empowerment to Improve Wildlife Habitat in Roaded Landscapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Dawn Renee

    2010-01-01

    As the footprint of human society expands upon the earth, habitat loss and landscape fragmentation is an increasing global problem. That problem includes loss of native habitats as these areas are harvested, converted to agricultural crops, and occupied by human settlement. Roads increase human access to previously inaccessible areas, encourage…

  12. DETAIL VIEW OF SRB/ET ACCESS PANELS, THROUGH VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORMS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF SRB/ET ACCESS PANELS, THROUGH VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORMS E-NORTH, E-SOUTH, B-NORTH, AND B-SOUTH, HB-3, FACING NORTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  13. Northern approach stone arch permits access to park in panther ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northern approach stone arch permits access to park in panther hollow below. - Schenley Park Bridge over Panther Hollow, Spanning Panther Hollow at Panther Hollow Road, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  14. 12. View west of access bridge to top of filtration ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. View west of access bridge to top of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  15. 17. Sliding access doors typical of those covering opening to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Sliding access doors typical of those covering opening to filtration bed. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  16. Going-to-the-Sun Road: A Model of Landscape Engineering. Teaching with Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Fay

    Soaring mountain peaks, glaciers, deep-blue lakes, and lush forests delight the senses of visitors who drive on Going-to-the-Sun Road through Glacier National Park in northwestern Montana. The construction of the Going-to-the-Sun-Road, dedicated in 1933, made this experience available to the many visitors who come to the park by car. Building this…

  17. Use of certain alternative fuels in road transport in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gis, W.; Pielecha, J.; Waśkiewicz, J.; Gis, M.; Menes, M.

    2016-09-01

    The development of biomethane and hydrogen technology in the road transport in the EU countries is recommended, among the others, in the Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council 2014/94/EU of 22 October 2014. Under the provisions of the said Directive, it is recommended to EU countries to use biomethane and progressively ensure accessibility to hydrogen cars on their territories, and above all to ensure the possibility of driving hydrogen vehicles between the member States. The territorial accessibility for biomethane vehicles is determined by the availability of biomethane refuelling infrastructure in the first place in cities and then on the road network distances recommended in this directive. The territorial accessibility for hydrogen vehicles is determined by the availability of hydrogen refuelling infrastructure, in the first place along the TEN-T network. The article presents the possibilities of using these alternative fuels in Poland, presenting some of the results of research and analysis in this area.

  18. Urbanization, roads, and rural population change in the Ecuadorian Andes.

    PubMed

    Rudel, T K; Richards, S

    1990-01-01

    "Like many developing countries Ecuador has experienced extensive ubanization in the past twenty-five years as well as a shift in the pattern of rural population change between the 1960s and 1970s. Rural places with difficult access to cities (without roads and located far from cities) gained population during the 1960s but lost population during the 1970s. Rural places with easy access to cities (i.e., located near cities or on all-weather roads) continued to gain population during the 1970s. The explanation for the differential ability of rural places to retain their population during the 1970s focuses on increases in labor circulation by peasants and growth in the numbers of small, urban-oriented manufacturing and agricultural enterprises in accessible rural areas. The article concludes with a discussion on the implications of these findings for policies to reduce rates of rural-urban migration."

  19. Surface-Water Exchange through Culverts beneath State Road 9336 within Everglades National Park, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaffranek, Raymond W.; Stewart, Marc A.; Nowacki, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected hydrologic data between June 2004 and December 2005 to investigate the temporal and spatial nature of flow exchanges through culverts beneath State Road 9336 within Everglades National Park. Continuous data collected during the study measured flow velocity, water level, salinity, conductivity, and water-temperature in or near seven culverts between Pa-hay-okee Overlook access road and Nine Mile Pond. The two culverts east of Pa-hay-okee Overlook access road flowed into Taylor Slough Basin from 87 to 96 percent of the study period, whereas flows through five culverts between Pa-hay-okee Overlook access road and Nine Mile Pond flowed into Shark River Slough Basin from 70 to 99 percent of the study period. Synoptic flow discharges measured at all culverts during three intensive field efforts revealed a net discharge into Taylor Slough Basin from Shark River Slough Basin through culverts between Royal Palm Road and Pa-hay-okee Overlook access road, and into Shark River Slough Basin from Taylor Slough Basin through culverts between Pa-hay-okee Overlook access road and Nine Mile Pond. Data collected during the study and presented in this report provided additional knowledge of the magnitude, direction, and nature of flow exchanges through the road culverts.

  20. Environmental Assessment for Proposed Access Control and Traffic Improvements at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2002-08-23

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has assigned a continuing role to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in carrying out NNSA's national security mission. It is imperative that LANL continue this enduring responsibility and that NNSA adequately safeguard LANL capabilities. NNSA has identified the need to restrict vehicular access to certain areas within LANL for the purpose of permanently enhancing the physical security environment at LANL. It has also identified the need to change certain traffic flow patterns for the purpose of enhancing physical safety at LANL. The Proposed Action would include the construction of eastern and western bypass roads around the LANL Technical Area (TA) 3 area and the installation of vehicle access controls and related improvements to enhance security along Pajarito Road and in the LANL core area. This Proposed Action would modify the current roadway network and traffic patterns. It would also result in traversing Areas of Environmental Interest identified in the LANL Habitat Management Plan, demolition of part of an historic structure at Building 3-40, and traversing several potential release sites and part of the Los Alamos County landfill. The No Action Alternative was also considered. Under this alternative NNSA would not construct the eastern or western bypass roads, any access-control stations, or related improvements. Diamond Drive would continue to serve as the primary conduit for most vehicle traffic within the LANL core area regardless of actual trip destinations. The No Action Alternative does not meet NNSA's purpose and need for action. The proposed bypass road corridors traverse both developed and undeveloped areas. Several potential release sites are present. These would either be sampled and remediated in accordance with New Mexico Environment Department requirements before construction or avoided to allow for future remediation. In some cases, contaminant levels may fall below remediation thresholds

  1. 25 CFR 170.813 - When can access to IRR transportation facilities be restricted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When can access to IRR transportation facilities be restricted? 170.813 Section 170.813 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.813 When can access to...

  2. 36 CFR 212.7 - Access procurement by the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Administration of the Forest Transportation System § 212.7 Access procurement by... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Access procurement by the... system of a State, county, or other local public road authority. Forest roads that are or will be part...

  3. 25 CFR 170.813 - When can access to IRR transportation facilities be restricted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When can access to IRR transportation facilities be restricted? 170.813 Section 170.813 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.813 When can access to...

  4. 25 CFR 170.813 - When can access to IRR transportation facilities be restricted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When can access to IRR transportation facilities be restricted? 170.813 Section 170.813 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.813 When can access to...

  5. 25 CFR 170.813 - When can access to IRR transportation facilities be restricted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When can access to IRR transportation facilities be restricted? 170.813 Section 170.813 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.813 When can access to...

  6. 25 CFR 170.813 - When can access to IRR transportation facilities be restricted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true When can access to IRR transportation facilities be restricted? 170.813 Section 170.813 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.813 When can access to...

  7. 24 CFR 1710.110 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (4) Who is responsible for road maintenance? If the roads are to be maintained by a public authority... for maintaining the roads and that, if maintenance is not performed, the roads may soon deteriorate... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roads. 1710.110 Section...

  8. 12 CFR 1010.110 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... paragraph. (4) Who is responsible for road maintenance? If the roads are to be maintained by a public... responsible for maintaining the roads and that, if maintenance is not performed, the roads may soon... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Roads. 1010.110 Section 1010.110 Banks...

  9. 24 CFR 1710.110 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (4) Who is responsible for road maintenance? If the roads are to be maintained by a public authority... for maintaining the roads and that, if maintenance is not performed, the roads may soon deteriorate... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Roads. 1710.110 Section...

  10. 24 CFR 1710.110 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (4) Who is responsible for road maintenance? If the roads are to be maintained by a public authority... for maintaining the roads and that, if maintenance is not performed, the roads may soon deteriorate... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Roads. 1710.110 Section...

  11. 24 CFR 1710.110 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (4) Who is responsible for road maintenance? If the roads are to be maintained by a public authority... for maintaining the roads and that, if maintenance is not performed, the roads may soon deteriorate... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Roads. 1710.110 Section...

  12. 12 CFR 1010.110 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... paragraph. (4) Who is responsible for road maintenance? If the roads are to be maintained by a public... responsible for maintaining the roads and that, if maintenance is not performed, the roads may soon... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Roads. 1010.110 Section 1010.110 Banks...

  13. 12 CFR 1010.110 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... paragraph. (4) Who is responsible for road maintenance? If the roads are to be maintained by a public... responsible for maintaining the roads and that, if maintenance is not performed, the roads may soon... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Roads. 1010.110 Section 1010.110 Banks...

  14. 24 CFR 1710.110 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (4) Who is responsible for road maintenance? If the roads are to be maintained by a public authority... for maintaining the roads and that, if maintenance is not performed, the roads may soon deteriorate... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Roads. 1710.110 Section...

  15. Systematic Development of Intelligent Systems for Public Road Transport.

    PubMed

    García, Carmelo R; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; Cristóbal, Teresa; Padrón, Gabino; Alayón, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture model for the development of intelligent systems for public passenger transport by road. The main objective of our proposal is to provide a framework for the systematic development and deployment of telematics systems to improve various aspects of this type of transport, such as efficiency, accessibility and safety. The architecture model presented herein is based on international standards on intelligent transport system architectures, ubiquitous computing and service-oriented architecture for distributed systems. To illustrate the utility of the model, we also present a use case of a monitoring system for stops on a public passenger road transport network. PMID:27438836

  16. Systematic Development of Intelligent Systems for Public Road Transport

    PubMed Central

    García, Carmelo R.; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; Cristóbal, Teresa; Padrón, Gabino; Alayón, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture model for the development of intelligent systems for public passenger transport by road. The main objective of our proposal is to provide a framework for the systematic development and deployment of telematics systems to improve various aspects of this type of transport, such as efficiency, accessibility and safety. The architecture model presented herein is based on international standards on intelligent transport system architectures, ubiquitous computing and service-oriented architecture for distributed systems. To illustrate the utility of the model, we also present a use case of a monitoring system for stops on a public passenger road transport network. PMID:27438836

  17. On the road to prevention: road injury and health promotion.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Mark; Thompson, Jason

    2014-04-01

    Road traffic injuries are already the leading cause of injury mortality and morbidity globally and by 2030 are predicted to be the fifth leading cause of mortality in the world. Australia has seen a dramatic reduction in road deaths and serious injuries since the 1970s and holds an international reputation for road traffic injury prevention due, in part, to its success in pioneering the multidisciplinary and intersectoral approach needed to address this significant issue and by applying an evidence-led approach to policy development. The paper will discuss Australia's early success in road traffic injury prevention (road safety), particularly the achievements following the implementation of targeted programs that focussed on road user behaviours for which health promotion played a role. The most successful of these programs was the introduction of comprehensive seat belt laws, random breath testing and more recently, strategic speed enforcement programs. Amid an array of significant challenges faced by the transport system in the future, the rapid development in information and communication technologies applied to transport is likely to provide the next generation of road safety benefits. The potential for a semi-autonomous transport system is likely to provide the next significant decline in road fatalities and serious injuries over the next 2 decades and the role of health promotion in relation to raising community engagement and building coalitions to increase uptake of new technologies will be discussed. PMID:24739772

  18. 25. White Plains Road Bridge in foreground; Unionport Road Bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. White Plains Road Bridge in foreground; Unionport Road Bridge in background. Van Nest, Bronx Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 12.75./78. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York County, NY

  19. 35. RESERVOIR TANKS ALONG DAMIEN ROAD NEAR KAUHAKO CRATER (282'). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. RESERVOIR TANKS ALONG DAMIEN ROAD NEAR KAUHAKO CRATER (282'). WOOD TANK AT LEFT WAS ERECTED CA. 1969. CEMENT-LINED MASONRY TANKS WITH CORRUGATED METAL ROOF, CONSTRUCTED CA. 1894, ARE LOCATED AT RIGHT. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  20. Roads to Consider in Assessments of Extraction Activities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural resource extraction in large undeveloped areas often necessitates construction of roads that substantially contribute to the environmental risk of the activity. Based on a scenario of potential mining in a large virtually roadless salmonid-rich watershed, we consider the ...

  1. Road to Nowhere: The Barton By-Pass Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Richard

    1997-01-01

    Describes the organization of a successful community protest against road construction in an Oxford (England) neighborhood and identifies success factors: coalitions with other interest groups; intensive, sustained lobbying; investment in public meetings, exhibitions, and demonstrations; use of local and national media; and involvement of…

  2. DETAIL OF CROCKETT BARN WALL CONSTRUCTION, UPPER LEVEL. The wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF CROCKETT BARN WALL CONSTRUCTION, UPPER LEVEL. The wall construction of the Crockett barn includes a layer of diagonal sheathing that is exposed on the interior. - Crockett Farm, Barn, 1056 Fort Casey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  3. Road roughness evaluation using in-pavement strain sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiming; Deng, Fodan; Huang, Ying; Bridgelall, Raj

    2015-11-01

    The international roughness index (IRI) is a characterization of road roughness or ride quality that transportation agencies most often report. The prevalent method of acquiring IRI data requires instrumented vehicles and technicians with specialized training to interpret the results. The extensive labor and high cost requirements associated with the existing approaches limit data collection to at most once per year for portions of the national highway system. Agencies characterize roughness only for some secondary roads but much less frequently, such as once every five years, resulting in outdated roughness information. This research developed a real-time roughness evaluation approach that links the output of durable in-pavement strain sensors to prevailing indices that summarize road roughness. Field experiments validated the high consistency of the approach by showing that it is within 3.3% of relative IRI estimates. After their installation and calibration during road construction, the ruggedized strain sensors will report road roughness continuously. Thus, the solution will provide agencies a real-time roughness monitoring solution over the remaining service life of road assets.

  4. Where and How Are Roads Endangering Mammals in Southeast Asia's Forests?

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Lynam, Antony J.; Gaveau, David; Yap, Wei Lim; Lhota, Stanislav; Goosem, Miriam; Laurance, Susan; Laurance, William F.

    2014-01-01

    Habitat destruction and overhunting are two major drivers of mammal population declines and extinctions in tropical forests. The construction of roads can be a catalyst for these two threats. In Southeast Asia, the impacts of roads on mammals have not been well-documented at a regional scale. Before evidence-based conservation strategies can be developed to minimize the threat of roads to endangered mammals within this region, we first need to locate where and how roads are contributing to the conversion of their habitats and illegal hunting in each country. We interviewed 36 experts involved in mammal research from seven Southeast Asian countries to identify roads that are contributing the most, in their opinion, to habitat conversion and illegal hunting. Our experts highlighted 16 existing and eight planned roads - these potentially threaten 21% of the 117 endangered terrestrial mammals in those countries. Apart from gathering qualitative evidence from the literature to assess their claims, we demonstrate how species-distribution models, satellite imagery and animal-sign surveys can be used to provide quantitative evidence of roads causing impacts by (1) cutting through habitats where endangered mammals are likely to occur, (2) intensifying forest conversion, and (3) contributing to illegal hunting and wildlife trade. To our knowledge, ours is the first study to identify specific roads threatening endangered mammals in Southeast Asia. Further through highlighting the impacts of roads, we propose 10 measures to limit road impacts in the region. PMID:25521297

  5. Forest Road Decommissioning Policies Determined using Deterministic and Stochastic Dynamic Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, K. M.; Eschenbach, E. A.; Madej, M.

    2004-12-01

    Extensive timber harvesting and the accompanying road construction in the Pacific Northwest region have decreased the quality of fish-bearing streams. The decommissioning of abandoned forest roads increases stream quality by decreasing erosion and downstream sedimentation. Road removal treatments have been performed in many locations. However, the management of these treatments has been generally site-specific, with little investigation of how the treatments will affect the entire watershed. Land managers have a need to design a watershed wide management policy to reduce sedimentation, while maintaining overall costs within a reasonable limit. Identifying the trade-offs of the costs of different treatment policies associated with net reduction of sediment can be quantified. This work further develops optimization approaches to manage road decommissioning projects. Previous work in deterministic dynamic programming and genetic algorithmes did not incorporate the uncertainty of the effectiveness of the road treatments. Stochastic dynamic programming is used to determine the road treatment policy that maximizes the expected sediment saved. This approach is used to determine a policy for the Lost Man Creek Watershed in Northern California containing 691 road segments and road crossings. The model determines the optimal treatment level for each road segment and road crossing while considering a budgetary constraint.

  6. Disentangle the Causes of the Road Barrier Effect in Small Mammals through Genetic Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Ascensão, Fernando; Mata, Cristina; Malo, Juan E.; Ruiz-Capillas, Pablo; Silva, Catarina; Silva, André P.; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Fernandes, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Road barrier effect is among the foremost negative impacts of roads on wildlife. Knowledge of the factors responsible for the road barrier effect is crucial to understand and predict species’ responses to roads, and to improve mitigation measures in the context of management and conservation. We built a set of hypothesis aiming to infer the most probable cause of road barrier effect (traffic effect or road surface avoidance), while controlling for the potentially confounding effects road width, traffic volume and road age. The wood mouse Apodemus sylvaticus was used as a model species of small and forest-dwelling mammals, which are more likely to be affected by gaps in cover such as those resulting from road construction. We confront genetic patterns from opposite and same roadsides from samples of three highways and used computer simulations to infer migration rates between opposite roadsides. Genetic patterns from 302 samples (ca. 100 per highway) suggest that the highway barrier effect for wood mouse is due to road surface avoidance. However, from the simulations we estimated a migration rate of about 5% between opposite roadsides, indicating that some limited gene flow across highways does occur. To reduce highway impact on population genetic diversity and structure, possible mitigation measures could include retrofitting of culverts and underpasses to increase their attractiveness and facilitate their use by wood mice and other species, and setting aside roadside strips without vegetation removal to facilitate establishment and dispersal of small mammals. PMID:26978779

  7. Disentangle the Causes of the Road Barrier Effect in Small Mammals through Genetic Patterns.

    PubMed

    Ascensão, Fernando; Mata, Cristina; Malo, Juan E; Ruiz-Capillas, Pablo; Silva, Catarina; Silva, André P; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Fernandes, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Road barrier effect is among the foremost negative impacts of roads on wildlife. Knowledge of the factors responsible for the road barrier effect is crucial to understand and predict species' responses to roads, and to improve mitigation measures in the context of management and conservation. We built a set of hypothesis aiming to infer the most probable cause of road barrier effect (traffic effect or road surface avoidance), while controlling for the potentially confounding effects road width, traffic volume and road age. The wood mouse Apodemus sylvaticus was used as a model species of small and forest-dwelling mammals, which are more likely to be affected by gaps in cover such as those resulting from road construction. We confront genetic patterns from opposite and same roadsides from samples of three highways and used computer simulations to infer migration rates between opposite roadsides. Genetic patterns from 302 samples (ca. 100 per highway) suggest that the highway barrier effect for wood mouse is due to road surface avoidance. However, from the simulations we estimated a migration rate of about 5% between opposite roadsides, indicating that some limited gene flow across highways does occur. To reduce highway impact on population genetic diversity and structure, possible mitigation measures could include retrofitting of culverts and underpasses to increase their attractiveness and facilitate their use by wood mice and other species, and setting aside roadside strips without vegetation removal to facilitate establishment and dispersal of small mammals.

  8. Disentangle the Causes of the Road Barrier Effect in Small Mammals through Genetic Patterns.

    PubMed

    Ascensão, Fernando; Mata, Cristina; Malo, Juan E; Ruiz-Capillas, Pablo; Silva, Catarina; Silva, André P; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Fernandes, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Road barrier effect is among the foremost negative impacts of roads on wildlife. Knowledge of the factors responsible for the road barrier effect is crucial to understand and predict species' responses to roads, and to improve mitigation measures in the context of management and conservation. We built a set of hypothesis aiming to infer the most probable cause of road barrier effect (traffic effect or road surface avoidance), while controlling for the potentially confounding effects road width, traffic volume and road age. The wood mouse Apodemus sylvaticus was used as a model species of small and forest-dwelling mammals, which are more likely to be affected by gaps in cover such as those resulting from road construction. We confront genetic patterns from opposite and same roadsides from samples of three highways and used computer simulations to infer migration rates between opposite roadsides. Genetic patterns from 302 samples (ca. 100 per highway) suggest that the highway barrier effect for wood mouse is due to road surface avoidance. However, from the simulations we estimated a migration rate of about 5% between opposite roadsides, indicating that some limited gene flow across highways does occur. To reduce highway impact on population genetic diversity and structure, possible mitigation measures could include retrofitting of culverts and underpasses to increase their attractiveness and facilitate their use by wood mice and other species, and setting aside roadside strips without vegetation removal to facilitate establishment and dispersal of small mammals. PMID:26978779

  9. Where and how are roads endangering mammals in Southeast Asia's forests?

    PubMed

    Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Lynam, Antony J; Gaveau, David; Yap, Wei Lim; Lhota, Stanislav; Goosem, Miriam; Laurance, Susan; Laurance, William F

    2014-01-01

    Habitat destruction and overhunting are two major drivers of mammal population declines and extinctions in tropical forests. The construction of roads can be a catalyst for these two threats. In Southeast Asia, the impacts of roads on mammals have not been well-documented at a regional scale. Before evidence-based conservation strategies can be developed to minimize the threat of roads to endangered mammals within this region, we first need to locate where and how roads are contributing to the conversion of their habitats and illegal hunting in each country. We interviewed 36 experts involved in mammal research from seven Southeast Asian countries to identify roads that are contributing the most, in their opinion, to habitat conversion and illegal hunting. Our experts highlighted 16 existing and eight planned roads - these potentially threaten 21% of the 117 endangered terrestrial mammals in those countries. Apart from gathering qualitative evidence from the literature to assess their claims, we demonstrate how species-distribution models, satellite imagery and animal-sign surveys can be used to provide quantitative evidence of roads causing impacts by (1) cutting through habitats where endangered mammals are likely to occur, (2) intensifying forest conversion, and (3) contributing to illegal hunting and wildlife trade. To our knowledge, ours is the first study to identify specific roads threatening endangered mammals in Southeast Asia. Further through highlighting the impacts of roads, we propose 10 measures to limit road impacts in the region.

  10. Web Accessibility and Accessibility Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Ravonne A.; Huprich, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Section 508 of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) mandates that programs and services be accessible to people with disabilities. While schools of library and information science (SLIS*) and university libraries should model accessible Web sites, this may not be the case. This article examines previous studies about the Web accessibility of…

  11. Silk Roads or Steppe Roads? The Silk Roads in World History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, David

    2000-01-01

    Explores the prehistory of the Silk Roads, reexamines their structure and history in the classical era, and explores shifts in their geography in the last one thousand years. Explains that a revised understanding of the Silk Roads demonstrates how the Afro-Eurasian land mass has been linked by networks of exchange since the Bronze Age. (CMK)

  12. The Road to Reason.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Benjamin D.

    2000-01-01

    Summarizes the distinctions between qualitative and quantitative research and shows their complementary aspects. Shows there is no contradiction or conflict between the qualitative and the quantitative and discusses Rasch measurement as the construction tool of quantitative research. (SLD)

  13. 2. General Road view looking SW. Great Smoky Mountains ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. General Road view looking SW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Heintooga Round Bottom Road & Balsam Mountain Road, Between Blue Ridge Parkway & Big Cove Road, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  14. Freedom Road: Colonial Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    While historical fiction by Jean Fritz as well as titles like Robert Lawson's "Ben and Me" (1939) or "Mr. Revere and I" (1954) and Esther Forbes's "Johnny Tremain" (1943) are widely known classics that bring this period to life, recent years have yielded a wealth of new offerings--many of which are accessible picture books or read-alouds. These…

  15. How Does Decommissioning Forest Roads Effect Hydrologic and Geomorphic Risk?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, T.; Luce, C.; Cissel, R. M.; Nelson, N.; Staab, B.

    2010-12-01

    The US Forest Service is investigating road decommissioning projects to understand how treatments change hydrologic and geomorphic risks. Road treatment effect was measured using a before after control impact design (BACI), using the Geomorphic Road Analysis and Inventory Package (http://www.fs.fed.us/GRAIP). This suite of inventory and analysis tools evaluates: road-stream hydrologic connectivity, fine sediment production and delivery, shallow landslide risk, gully initiation risk, and risks associated with stream crossing failures. The Skokomish River study site is steep and wet and received a high intensity treatment including the removal of stream crossing pipes and fills, all ditch relief pipes and a full hillslope recontouring. Road to stream hydrologic connectivity was reduced by 70%. The treatments reduced fine sediment delivery by 21.8 tons or 81%. The removal of the stream crossing culverts and large associated road fills eliminated the risk of pipe plugging related failures and the eventual erosion of over 4,000 m3 of fill. The slope stability risk was assessed using a modified version of SINMAP (Pack et al, 2005). Risk below drain point locations on the original road was reduced as water was redistributed across the hillslope to waterbars and diffuse drainage. It is unclear; however, if landslide risk was reduced across the entire treated road length because treatments slightly increased risk in some areas where new concentrated drainage features were added above steep slopes. Similarly, values of a gully index ESI (Istanbulluoglu et al, 2003), were reduced at many of the original drainage points, however some new drainage was added. ESI values still exceed a predicted conservative initiation thresholds at some sites, therefore it is uncertain if gully risk will be changed. Mann Creek occupies a moderately steep mid-elevation site in Southern Idaho. The high intensity treatments removed all constructed road drainage features including stream crossing

  16. A road pavement full-scale test track containing stabilized bottom ashes.

    PubMed

    Toraldo, E; Saponaro, S

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a road pavement full-scale test track built by using stabilized bottom ash (SBA) from an Italian municipal solid waste incinerator as the aggregate in granular foundation, cement-bound mixes and asphalt concretes. The investigation focused on both the performance and the environmental compatibility of such mixes, especially with regard to the effects of mixing, laying and compaction. From the road construction point of view, the performance related to the effects of mixing, laying and compaction on constructability was assessed, as well as the volumetric and the mechanical properties. Environmental aspects were investigated by leaching tests. The results suggested that SBA meets the environmental Italian law for the reuse of non-hazardous waste and could be used as road material with the procedures, plants and equipment currently used for road construction. PMID:25354811

  17. A road pavement full-scale test track containing stabilized bottom ashes.

    PubMed

    Toraldo, E; Saponaro, S

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a road pavement full-scale test track built by using stabilized bottom ash (SBA) from an Italian municipal solid waste incinerator as the aggregate in granular foundation, cement-bound mixes and asphalt concretes. The investigation focused on both the performance and the environmental compatibility of such mixes, especially with regard to the effects of mixing, laying and compaction. From the road construction point of view, the performance related to the effects of mixing, laying and compaction on constructability was assessed, as well as the volumetric and the mechanical properties. Environmental aspects were investigated by leaching tests. The results suggested that SBA meets the environmental Italian law for the reuse of non-hazardous waste and could be used as road material with the procedures, plants and equipment currently used for road construction.

  18. IRIS Responsiveness to Generation IV Road-map Goals

    SciTech Connect

    Carelli, M.D.; Paramonov, D.V.; Petrovic, B.

    2002-07-01

    The DOE Generation IV road-map process is in its second and final year. Almost one hundred concepts submitted from all over the world have been reviewed against the Generation IV goals of resources sustainability; safety and reliability; and, economics. Advanced LWRs are taken as the reference point. IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure), a 100-335 MWe integral light water reactor being developed by a vast international consortium led by Westinghouse, is one on the concepts being considered in the road-map and is perhaps the most visible representative of the concept set known as Integral Primary System Reactors (IPSR). This paper presents how IRIS satisfies the prescribed goals. The first goal of resource sustainability includes criteria like utilization of fuel resources, amount and toxicity of waste produced, environmental impact, proliferation and sabotage resistance. As a thermal reactor IRIS does not have the same fuel utilization as fast reactors. However, it has a significant flexibility in fuel cycles as it is designed to utilize either UO{sub 2} or MOX with straight burn cycles of 4 to 10 years, depending on the fissile content. High discharge burnup and Pu recycling result in good fuel utilization and lower waste; IRIS has also attractive proliferation resistance characteristics, due to the reduced accessibility of the fuel. The safety and reliability goal include reliability, workers' exposure, robust safety features, models with well characterized uncertainty, source term and mechanisms of energy release, robust mitigation of accidents. IRIS is significantly better than advanced LWRs because of its safety by design which eliminates a variety of accidents such as LOCAs, its containment vessel coupled design which maintains the core safely covered during the accident sequences, its design simplification features such as no (or reduced) soluble boron, internal shielding and four-year refueling/maintenance interval which significantly reduce

  19. Crushed aggregates for roads and their properties for frost protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsova, Elena; Willy Danielsen, Svein

    2015-04-01

    Crushed aggregates for roads and their properties for frost protection Elena Kuznetsova, NTNU and Svein Willy Danielsen, SINTEF With natural (fluvial, glaciofluvial) sand/gravel resources being rapidly depleted in many countries, the last decade has seen a significant trend towards using more alternative materials for construction purpose. In Norway the development and implementation of crushed aggregate technology has been the most important way to get around the problem with increased resource scarcity. Today Norway is one the European countries with the highest percentage of crushed/manufactured aggregates. A crushed product will reveal a different particle size distribution, a sharper, more angular particle shape, and not least - a significantly different mineral composition. The latter may often be characterised by more polymineral composition, and it will also much more depend on the local bedrock. When handled with care and knowledge, these differences can give the user a lot of new opportunities relating to materials design. Norwegian road construction practice has changed significantly during the last 40 years due to the replacement of gravel by crushed rock materials in the granular layers of the pavements. The use of non-processed rock materials from blasting was allowed in the subbase layer until 2012. This was a reason for a lot of problems with frost heaving due to inhomogeneity of this material, and in practice it was difficult to control the size of large stones. Since 2012 there is a requirement that rock materials for use in the subbase layer shall be crushed (Handbook N200, 2014). During the spring 2014 The Norwegian Public Roads Administration introduced a new handbook with requirements for roads construction in Norway, including new specifications for the frost protection layer. When pavements are constructed over moist and/or frost susceptible soils in cold and humid environments, the frost protection layer also becomes a very important part

  20. The contribution of on-road studies of road user behaviour to improving road safety.

    PubMed

    Lenné, Michael G

    2013-09-01

    For over 40 years transport safety researchers have been using methods of vehicle instrumentation to gain greater insights into the factors that contribute to road user crash risk and the associated crash factors. In the previous decade in particular the widespread availability of lower cost and more advanced methods of vehicle instrumentation and recording technologies are supporting the increasing number of on-road research studies worldwide. The design of these studies ranges from multi-method studies using instrumented test vehicles and defined driving routes, to field operational tests, through to much larger and more naturalistic studies. It is timely to assess the utility of these methods for studying the influences of driver characteristics and states, the design and operation of the road system, and the influences of in-vehicle technologies on behaviour and safety for various road user groups. This special issue considers the extent to which on-road studies using vehicle instrumentation have been used to advance knowledge across these areas of road safety research. The papers included in this issue illustrate how research using instrumented test vehicles continues to generate new knowledge, and how the larger scale United States and European naturalistic and field operational test studies are providing a wealth of data about road user behaviour in real traffic. This is balanced with a number of studies that present methodological developments in data collection and analysis methods that, while promising, need further validation. The use of on-road methods to accurately describe the behaviours occurring in everyday real-world conditions, to quantify risks for safety critical events, and an improved understanding of the factors that contribute to risk, clearly has huge potential to promote further road trauma reductions.

  1. Gold or green: the debate on open access policies.

    PubMed

    Abadal, Ernest

    2013-09-01

    The movement for open access to science seeks to achieve unrestricted and free access to academic publications on the Internet. To this end, two mechanisms have been established: the gold road, in which scientific journals are openly accessible, and the green road, in which publications are self-archived in repositories. The publication of the Finch Report in 2012, advocating exclusively the adoption of the gold road, generated a debate as to whether either of the two options should be prioritized. The recommendations of the Finch Report stirred controversy among academicians specialized in open access issues, who felt that the role played by repositories was not adequately considered and because the green road places the burden of publishing costs basically on authors. The Finch Report's conclusions are compatible with the characteristics of science communication in the UK and they could surely also be applied to the (few) countries with a powerful publishing industry and substantial research funding. In Spain, both the current national legislation and the existing rules at universities largely advocate the green road. This is directly related to the structure of scientific communication in Spain, where many journals have little commercial significance, the system of charging a fee to authors has not been adopted, and there is a good repository infrastructure. As for open access policies, the performance of the scientific communication system in each country should be carefully analyzed to determine the most suitable open access strategy. PMID:24568035

  2. Gold or green: the debate on open access policies.

    PubMed

    Abadal, Ernest

    2013-09-01

    The movement for open access to science seeks to achieve unrestricted and free access to academic publications on the Internet. To this end, two mechanisms have been established: the gold road, in which scientific journals are openly accessible, and the green road, in which publications are self-archived in repositories. The publication of the Finch Report in 2012, advocating exclusively the adoption of the gold road, generated a debate as to whether either of the two options should be prioritized. The recommendations of the Finch Report stirred controversy among academicians specialized in open access issues, who felt that the role played by repositories was not adequately considered and because the green road places the burden of publishing costs basically on authors. The Finch Report's conclusions are compatible with the characteristics of science communication in the UK and they could surely also be applied to the (few) countries with a powerful publishing industry and substantial research funding. In Spain, both the current national legislation and the existing rules at universities largely advocate the green road. This is directly related to the structure of scientific communication in Spain, where many journals have little commercial significance, the system of charging a fee to authors has not been adopted, and there is a good repository infrastructure. As for open access policies, the performance of the scientific communication system in each country should be carefully analyzed to determine the most suitable open access strategy.

  3. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Building access control (BAC)--a catchall phrase to describe the systems that control access to facilities across campus--has traditionally been handled with remarkably low-tech solutions: (1) manual locks; (2) electronic locks; and (3) ID cards with magnetic strips. Recent improvements have included smart cards and keyless solutions that make use…

  4. Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  5. Influence of solid noise barriers on near-road and on-road air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldauf, Richard W.; Isakov, Vlad; Deshmukh, Parikshit; Venkatram, Akula; Yang, Bo; Zhang, K. Max

    2016-03-01

    Public health concerns regarding adverse health effects for populations spending significant amounts of time near high traffic roadways has increased substantially in recent years. Roadside features, including solid noise barriers, have been investigated as potential methods that can be implemented in a relatively short time period to reduce air pollution exposures from nearby traffic. A field study was conducted to determine the influence of noise barriers on both on-road and downwind pollutant concentrations near a large highway in Phoenix, Arizona, USA. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, ultrafine particles, and black carbon were measured using a mobile platform and fixed sites along two limited-access stretches of highway that contained a section of noise barrier and a section with no noise barrier at-grade with the surrounding terrain. Results of the study showed that pollutant concentrations behind the roadside barriers were significantly lower relative to those measured in the absence of barriers. The reductions ranged from 50% within 50 m from the barrier to about 30% as far as 300 m from the barrier. Reductions in pollutant concentrations generally began within the first 50 m of the barrier edge; however, concentrations were highly variable due to vehicle activity behind the barrier and along nearby urban arterial roadways. The concentrations on the highway, upwind of the barrier, varied depending on wind direction. Overall, the on-road concentrations in front of the noise barrier were similar to those measured in the absence of the barrier, contradicting previous modeling results that suggested roadside barriers increase pollutant levels on the road. Thus, this study suggests that noise barriers do reduce potential pollutant exposures for populations downwind of the road, and do not likely increase exposures to traffic-related pollutants for vehicle passengers on the highway.

  6. State Government on the Road

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conn, Bernard

    1977-01-01

    A traveling road show of performing artists and craftsman has been organized in the state of New York to bring shows and demonstrations of creative art to the parks of rural communities throughout the state. (JD)

  7. The Dilemma of Mountain Roads

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountain roads and trails are proliferating throughout developing Southeast Asia with severe but largely unrecognized long-term consequences related to effects of landslides and surface erosion on communities and downstream resources.

  8. Road impacts in Brazilian Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfaff, Alexander; Barbieri, Alisson; Ludewigs, Thomas; Merry, Frank; Perz, Stephen; Reis, Eustaquio

    We examine the evidence on Amazonian road impacts with a strong emphasis on context. Impacts of a new road, on either deforestation or socioeconomic outcomes, depend upon the conditions into which roads are placed. Conditions that matter include the biophysical setting, such as slope, rainfall, and soil quality, plus externally determined socioeconomic factors like national policies, exchange rates, and the global prices of beef and soybeans. Influential conditions also include all prior infrastructural investments and clearing rates. Where development has already arrived, with significant economic activity and clearing, roads may decrease forest less and raise output more than where development is arriving, while in pristine areas, short-run clearing may be lower than immense long-run impacts. Such differences suggest careful consideration of where to invest further in transport.

  9. Road Weather and Connected Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisano, P.; Boyce, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    On average, there are over 5.8 M vehicle crashes each year of which 23% are weather-related. Weather-related crashes are defined as those crashes that occur in adverse weather or on slick pavement. The vast majority of weather-related crashes happen on wet pavement (74%) and during rainfall (46%). Connected vehicle technologies hold the promise to transform road-weather management by providing improved road weather data in real time with greater temporal and geographic accuracy. This will dramatically expand the amount of data that can be used to assess, forecast, and address the impacts that weather has on roads, vehicles, and travelers. The use of vehicle-based measurements of the road and surrounding atmosphere with other, more traditional weather data sources, and create road and atmospheric hazard products for a variety of users. The broad availability of road weather data from mobile sources will vastly improve the ability to detect and forecast weather and road conditions, and will provide the capability to manage road-weather response on specific roadway links. The RWMP is currently demonstrating how weather, road conditions, and related vehicle data can be used for decision making through an innovative Integrated Mobile Observations project. FHWA is partnering with 3 DOTs (MN, MI, & NV) to pilot these applications. One is a mobile alerts application called the Motorists Advisories and Warnings (MAW) and a maintenance decision support application. These applications blend traditional weather information (e.g., radar, surface stations) with mobile vehicle data (e.g., temperature, brake status, wiper status) to determine current weather conditions. These weather conditions, and other road-travel-relevant information, are provided to users via web and phone applications. The MAW provides nowcasts and short-term forecasts out to 24 hours while the EMDSS application can provide forecasts up to 72 hours in advance. The three DOTs have placed readers and external

  10. 34. COULTERVILLE ROAD AT CENTER AND EL PORTAL ROAD/HIGHWAY 140 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. COULTERVILLE ROAD AT CENTER AND EL PORTAL ROAD/HIGHWAY 140 AT BOTTOM. ROCK SLIDES ARE AT THE COOKIE CLIFFS, BOTTOM RIGHT. NOTE OLD STAGE COACH ROAD JUST ABOVE THE EL PORTAL ROAD IN LOWER RIGHT TO LEFT OF ROCK SLIDE AREA. - Yosemite National Park Roads & Bridges, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  11. Observations of Novae From ROAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambsch, F.-J.

    2014-12-01

    The author discusses observations of galactic novae and some extragalactic supernovae from his remote observatory ROAD (Remote Observatory Atacama Desert) he commenced in August 2011 with Nova Lupi 2011 (PR Lup). The observed novae are mainly chosen according to AAVSO Alert Notices and AAVSO Special Notices as published on their website. Examples of dense observations of different novae are presented. The focus goes to the different behaviors of their light curves. It also demonstrates the capability of the remote observatory ROAD.

  12. Observations of Novae from ROAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambsch, Franz-Josef

    2014-05-01

    The author discusses observations of galactic novae and some extragalactic supernovae from his remote observatory ROAD (Remote Observatory Atacama Desert) he commenced in August 2011 with Nova Lupi 2011 (PR Lup). The observed novae are mainly chosen according to alert notices and special notices of the AAVSO as published on their website. Examples of dense observations of different novae are presented. The focus goes to the different behaviors of their light curves. It also demonstrates the capability of the remote observatory ROAD.

  13. 7. Southeast end and northeast rear, dock no. 492. Access ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Southeast end and northeast rear, dock no. 492. Access road in foreground. View to northwest. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  14. 12. Northwest end and southwest rear, dock no. 493. Access ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Northwest end and southwest rear, dock no. 493. Access road in foreground. View to east. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  15. Prospect for Development of Open Access in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miguel, Sandra; Bongiovani, Paola C.; Gomez, Nancy D.; Bueno-de-la-Fuente, Gema

    2013-01-01

    This perspective article presents an overview of the Open Access movement in Argentina, from a global and regional (Latin American) context. The article describes the evolution and current state of initiatives by examining two principal approaches to Open Access in Argentina: "golden" and "green roads". The article will then turn its attention to:…

  16. Roads and traffic: Effects on ecology and wildlife habitat use; applications for cooperative adaptive management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ouren, Douglas S.; Watts, Raymond D.

    2005-01-01

    The land of the United States in dissected by more than 4 million miles of roads that fragment wildlife habitat on both public and private lands. Traffic on these roads causes additional effects. On secondary roads, which provide access to the most natural habitat, the levels, timing, and types of traffic are seldom known. In order to understand the effects of traffic on wildlife, USGS is conducting research cooperatively with the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Forest Service, the National Park Service, and the Colorado Division of Wildlife.

  17. PARTICULATE EMISSIONS FROM CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although it has long been recognized that road and building construction activity constitutes an important source of PM emissions throughout the United States, until recently only limited research has been directed to its characterization. This paper presents the results of PM10...

  18. Road networks as collections of minimum cost paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegner, Jan Dirk; Montoya-Zegarra, Javier Alexander; Schindler, Konrad

    2015-10-01

    We present a probabilistic representation of network structures in images. Our target application is the extraction of urban roads from aerial images. Roads appear as thin, elongated, partially curved structures forming a loopy graph, and this complex layout requires a prior that goes beyond standard smoothness and co-occurrence assumptions. In the proposed model the network is represented as a union of 1D paths connecting distant (super-)pixels. A large set of putative candidate paths is constructed in such a way that they include the true network as much as possible, by searching for minimum cost paths in the foreground (road) likelihood. Selecting the optimal subset of candidate paths is posed as MAP inference in a higher-order conditional random field. Each path forms a higher-order clique with a type of clique potential, which attracts the member nodes of cliques with high cumulative road evidence to the foreground label. That formulation induces a robust PN -Potts model, for which a global MAP solution can be found efficiently with graph cuts. Experiments with two road data sets show that the proposed model significantly improves per-pixel accuracies as well as the overall topological network quality with respect to several baselines.

  19. A novel approach to produce road-level inventories of on-road greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, J.; Butenhoff, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Emissions inventories are an important tool often built by governments tomanage and assess greenhouse gases and other air pollutants. High resolutioninventories, both in space and time, are necessary to capture localcharacteristics of on-road transportation emissions in particular. Emissionsvary widely due to the local nature of the fleet, fuel, and roads and thisheterogeneity must inform effective emissions modeling on the urban level. Inaddition, widespread availability of low-cost computing now makes highresolution climate and air quality modeling feasible, but efforts to improveinventories have not kept pace. There currently is a lack of inventories atcomparable resolutions. This motivated similar work such as the VULCAN projectwhich used county-level data to estimate on-road emissions. We are motivatedto improve upon this by using site-level traffic count data where available.Here we show a new high resolution model of CO2 emissions for the Portland,OR metropolitan region. The backbone is an archive of traffic counterrecordings taken by the Portland Bureau of Transportation intermittently at9,352 sites over 21 years and continuing today (1986-2006 data are summarizedhere) and by The Portland Regional Transportation Archive Listing at 309freeway sites. We constructed a regression model to fill in traffic networkgaps using GIS data such as road class and population density. After stepwisetesting of each of eighteen road classes (from minor streets to freeway), wewere able to select ten variables that are significant (P < 0.001) predictorsof traffic; particularly freeway, unimproved road, and minor streets. Themodel was tested by holding back one-third of the data. The R2 for the linearmodel (based on road class and land use) is 0.84. The EPA MOVES model was thenused to estimate transportation CO2 emissions using local fleet, traffic, andmeteorology data.

  20. Accessibility Dynamics in a Warming Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, S.; Smith, L. C.; Agnew, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    A promising area of future research is the intersection of the physical manifestations of climate change with the human response. We present a first modeling framework integrating the changing accessibility regimes of the Arctic maritime and terrestrial environments. Climate change has spurred global interest in the Arctic as an arena of new potential for petroleum exploration and intercontinental shipping. While General Circulation Models predict thickness and extent of sea ice throughout the 21st century, the degree to which ice thinning and recession will increase transportation access at the circumpolar scale is not well understood. At the same time, warming of the Arctic terrestrial environment foreshadows a shorter winter road operating season and reduced access for communities and industries reliant on these temporary roads for winter ground transport. CCSM3 temperature data and CSIM5 sea ice data for two periods of analysis (2000-2014; 2045-2059) were integrated with GLC2000 land cover, ETOPO2 elevation and slope, VMAP0 infrastructure, and other terrain feature datasets to calculate circumpolar accessibility for a baseline and a future scenario. Accessibility data were combined in a GIS to produce maps of changing transportation access on land and at sea by mid-century. For the period 2045-2059, access at sea was found to increase substantially throughout the Arctic for ships with some icebreaking capability: previously inaccessible thick ice cover decreased in the central Arctic Ocean by an average of 64% annually. Conversely, terrestrial access by winter roads was found to decrease markedly in November and April while access along inland waterways increased in October. As climate change brings warmer temperatures to some of the world’s remotest communities, the remoteness of communities itself undergoes a profound change. This study attempts to provide a physical basis to the discussion of human activity in the Arctic over the next 50 years.

  1. 25 CFR 170.470 - What are the IRR construction standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 170.470 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Planning, Design, and Construction of Indian Reservation Roads Program Facilities... this subpart lists design standards that may be used for roads and bridges. (1) Tribes may propose...

  2. Assessment of dynamic surface leaching of monolithic surface road materials.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Hélène; Schick, Joachim; Poirier, Jean-Eric

    2016-07-01

    Construction materials have to satisfy, among others, health and environment requirements. To check the environmental compatibility of road construction materials, release of hazardous substances into water must be assessed. Literature mostly describes the leaching behaviour of recycled aggregates for potential use in base or sub-base layers of roads. But little is known about the release of soluble substances by materials mixed with binders and compacted for intended use on road surface. In the present study, we thus performed a diffusion test with sequential renewal of water during a 64 day period according to CEN/TS 16637-2 specifications, on asphalt concretes and hydraulically bound monoliths, two common surface road materials. It is shown that release of dangerous substances is limited in these hydrodynamic conditions. It was particularly true for asphalt concrete leachates where no metallic trace element, sulphate, chloride or fluoride ion could be quantified. This is because of the low hydraulic conductivity and the low polarity of the petroleum hydrocarbon binder of these specimens. For hydraulically bound materials around 20,000 mg/m(2) of sulphate diffused from the monoliths. It is one order of magnitude higher than chloride diffusion and two orders of magnitude higher than fluoride release. No metallic trace element, except small quantities of copper in the last eluate could be quantified. No adverse effect is to be expected for human and environmental health from the leachates of these compacted surface road construction materials, because all the measured parameters were below EU (Council Directive 98/83/EC) or WHO guidelines for drinking water standards. PMID:27039367

  3. Phase I privatization, site development, and roads design requirements document

    SciTech Connect

    Parazin, R.J.

    1996-09-30

    To prepare for the privatization contractor development of their assigned sites, roads and rail system must be extended from the existing area network systems. Various road and rail modification alternatives were investigated through an engineering study, @C-SD-TWR-ES- 004, with the preferred transportation corridors identified. Various Site development alternatives were also investigated, WHC-SD-TWR-ES-003. The preferred alternative, as discussed herein, will: 1. Establish boundaries and set monuments for the two PC sites. All work within each designated site will be by the PC. 2. Assure that the systems to serve each site - Roads and Rail System Modifications, Raw and Potable Water Service, Liquid Effluent Transfer Systems and Electric Power- are integrated with each other to best serve the sites. 3. Identify the corridors for Low Activity Waste (LAW) feed lines from the existing AP Tank Farm to the PC sites. Site development project will prepare these corridors for construction ofthe feed lines by the PC. Ifrequired, these corridors would include room for the optional High Level Waste (HLW) feed line. 4. Perform necessary site earthwork and grading outside of the PC sites. 1.3 DOCUMENT OVERVIEW This DRD will list the documents that will form the basis for design and construction of the roads and rail modifications and site development.

  4. Road safety and road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Mansuri, Farah A.; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H.; Zalat, Marwa M.; Qabshawi, Reem I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the changing trends and crucial preventive approaches to road traffic accidents (RTAs) adopted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 2.5 decades, and to analyze aspects previously overlooked. Methods: This systematic review was based on evidence of RTAs in KSA. All articles published during the last 25 years on road traffic accident in KSA were analyzed. This study was carried out from December 2013 to May 2014 in the Department of Family and Community Medicine, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, KSA. Results: Road traffic accidents accounted for 83.4% of all trauma admissions in 1984-1989, and no such overall trend was studied thereafter. The most frequently injured body regions as reported in the latest studies were head and neck, followed by upper and lower extremities, which was found to be opposite to that of the studies reported earlier. Hospital data showed an 8% non-significant increase in road accident mortalities in contrast to police records of a 27% significant reduction during the years 2005-2010. Excessive speeding was the most common cause reported in all recent and past studies. Conclusion: Disparity was common in the type of reporting of RTAs, outcome measures, and possible causes over a period of 2.5 decade. All research exclusively looked into the drivers’ faults. A sentinel surveillance of road crashes should be kept in place in the secondary and tertiary care hospitals for all regions of KSA. PMID:25828277

  5. The impact of roads on the demography of grizzly bears in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Boulanger, John; Stenhouse, Gordon B

    2014-01-01

    One of the principal factors that have reduced grizzly bear populations has been the creation of human access into grizzly bear habitat by roads built for resource extraction. Past studies have documented mortality and distributional changes of bears relative to roads but none have attempted to estimate the direct demographic impact of roads in terms of both survival rates, reproductive rates, and the interaction of reproductive state of female bears with survival rate. We applied a combination of survival and reproductive models to estimate demographic parameters for threatened grizzly bear populations in Alberta. Instead of attempting to estimate mean trend we explored factors which caused biological and spatial variation in population trend. We found that sex and age class survival was related to road density with subadult bears being most vulnerable to road-based mortality. A multi-state reproduction model found that females accompanied by cubs of the year and/or yearling cubs had lower survival rates compared to females with two year olds or no cubs. A demographic model found strong spatial gradients in population trend based upon road density. Threshold road densities needed to ensure population stability were estimated to further refine targets for population recovery of grizzly bears in Alberta. Models that considered lowered survival of females with dependant offspring resulted in lower road density thresholds to ensure stable bear populations. Our results demonstrate likely spatial variation in population trend and provide an example how demographic analysis can be used to refine and direct conservation measures for threatened species.

  6. Gaining Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Discusses issues schools and universities have encountered in complying with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and making their facilities more accessible to the disabled. The ADA's vagueness and the architect's need for understanding the regulations is highlighted. (GR)

  7. Equal Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Patta, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Presents an interview with Stephen McCarthy, co-partner and president of Equal Access ADA Consulting Architects of San Diego, California, about designing schools to naturally integrate compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). (EV)

  8. Ground temperatures across the old and new roads at mile 130, Richardson highway during 1954-62

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jin, H.; Brewer, M.C.; Perkins, R.A.; ,

    2002-01-01

    Year-round studies of the geothermal impacts of road construction in a "warm" permafrost area were undertaken during 1954-1962 at six road sections across the Richardson and Glenn Highways, in the vicinity of Glennallen, Alaska. As a result, significant information was obtained regarding the temperatures, and changes in temperatures, in the permafrost beneath and adjacent to the highway sections.

  9. A Study on Urban Road Traffic Safety Based on Matter Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qizhou; Zhou, Zhuping; Sun, Xu

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines a new evaluation of urban road traffic safety based on a matter element analysis, avoiding the difficulties found in other traffic safety evaluations. The issue of urban road traffic safety has been investigated through the matter element analysis theory. The chief aim of the present work is to investigate the features of urban road traffic safety. Emphasis was placed on the construction of a criterion function by which traffic safety achieved a hierarchical system of objectives to be evaluated. The matter element analysis theory was used to create the comprehensive appraisal model of urban road traffic safety. The technique was used to employ a newly developed and versatile matter element analysis algorithm. The matter element matrix solves the uncertainty and incompatibility of the evaluated factors used to assess urban road traffic safety. The application results showed the superiority of the evaluation model and a didactic example was included to illustrate the computational procedure. PMID:25587267

  10. Low Cost Roads Stabilized by ECOLOPAVI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francisco Rufino Diogo, Jose; Shubber, Ammar Abbas Mohammed

    This study presents the effect of ECOLOPAVI stabilizer on Low Cost Roads (LCR). This study found that a mix of 2% cement and 5% ECOLOPAVI can improve the bearing capacity (CBR) of clayey soil with CBR = 3% up to 49%; similar result can be get by adding 6% to 7% of cement or lime in conventional practices; that means the combination of ECOLOPAVI with cement or lime can be used to reduce the construction cost of roads. This product is presented as an alternative to other conventional stabilizer in use (cement or lime). In this research, ELSYM 5 program is employed to evaluate and compare two pavement structures with natural subgrade soil and with stabilized subgrade. The pavement response show that it is strongly dependent on subgrade layer elastic or resilient modulus; as the depths increase, the stresses, displacement and strains decreased. The results of two pavements (one with subgrade CBR 3% and another with subgrade CBR 12%), show that the structure with subgrade CBR 12% gave low stress, displacement and strains than that with CBR 3%.

  11. Road Nail: Experimental Solar Powered Intelligent Road Marking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samardžija, Dragan; Teslić, Nikola; Todorović, Branislav M.; Kovač, Erne; Isailović, Đorđe; Miladinović, Bojan

    2012-03-01

    Driving in low visibility conditions (night time, fog or heavy precipitation) is particularly challenging task with an increased probability of traffic accidents and possible injuries. Road Nail is a solar powered intelligent road marking system of wirelessly networked signaling devices that improve driver safety in low visibility conditions along hazardous roadways. Nails or signaling devices are autonomous nodes with capability to accumulate energy, exchange wireless messages, detect approaching vehicles and emit signalization light. We have built an experimental test-bed that consists of 20 nodes and a cellular gateway. Implementation details of the above system, including extensive measurements and performance evaluations in realistic field deployments are presented. A novel distributed network topology discovery scheme is proposed which integrates both sensor and wireless communication aspects, where nodes act autonomously. Finally, integration of the Road Nail system with the cellular network and the Internet is described.

  12. Encapsulating Urban Traffic Rhythms into Road Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junjie; Wei, Dong; He, Kun; Gong, Hang; Wang, Pu

    2014-02-01

    Using road GIS (geographical information systems) data and travel demand data for two U.S. urban areas, the dynamical driver sources of each road segment were located. A method to target road clusters closely related to urban traffic congestion was then developed to improve road network efficiency. The targeted road clusters show different spatial distributions at different times of a day, indicating that our method can encapsulate dynamical travel demand information into the road networks. As a proof of concept, when we lowered the speed limit or increased the capacity of road segments in the targeted road clusters, we found that both the number of congested roads and extra travel time were effectively reduced. In addition, the proposed modeling framework provided new insights on the optimization of transport efficiency in any infrastructure network with a specific supply and demand distribution.

  13. Encapsulating urban traffic rhythms into road networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junjie; Wei, Dong; He, Kun; Gong, Hang; Wang, Pu

    2014-01-01

    Using road GIS (geographical information systems) data and travel demand data for two U.S. urban areas, the dynamical driver sources of each road segment were located. A method to target road clusters closely related to urban traffic congestion was then developed to improve road network efficiency. The targeted road clusters show different spatial distributions at different times of a day, indicating that our method can encapsulate dynamical travel demand information into the road networks. As a proof of concept, when we lowered the speed limit or increased the capacity of road segments in the targeted road clusters, we found that both the number of congested roads and extra travel time were effectively reduced. In addition, the proposed modeling framework provided new insights on the optimization of transport efficiency in any infrastructure network with a specific supply and demand distribution.

  14. Encapsulating urban traffic rhythms into road networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junjie; Wei, Dong; He, Kun; Gong, Hang; Wang, Pu

    2014-01-01

    Using road GIS (geographical information systems) data and travel demand data for two U.S. urban areas, the dynamical driver sources of each road segment were located. A method to target road clusters closely related to urban traffic congestion was then developed to improve road network efficiency. The targeted road clusters show different spatial distributions at different times of a day, indicating that our method can encapsulate dynamical travel demand information into the road networks. As a proof of concept, when we lowered the speed limit or increased the capacity of road segments in the targeted road clusters, we found that both the number of congested roads and extra travel time were effectively reduced. In addition, the proposed modeling framework provided new insights on the optimization of transport efficiency in any infrastructure network with a specific supply and demand distribution. PMID:24553203

  15. Inbreeding and road effect zone in a Ranidae: the case of Agile frog, Rana dalmatina Bonaparte, 1840.

    PubMed

    Lesbarrères, David; Pagano, Alain; Lodé, Thierry

    2003-08-01

    Inbreeding has often been invoked in the extinction of local populations. In eleven western France populations of Agile frog studied, observed heterozygosity was significantly lower than expected in all cases, giving new evidence of such a depression in small populations. It especially occurred in ponds located near an highway rather than in undisturbed populations (FIS = 0.544 and 0.315, respectively). Thus, our results argue for a "road effect zone". Discussing about road distance and conservation policies, we propose that roads are directly involved in inbreeding and in local extinction. Thus, road construction ought to consider conservation management.

  16. Recycled crushed glass in road work applications.

    PubMed

    Disfani, M M; Arulrajah, A; Bo, M W; Hankour, R

    2011-11-01

    A comprehensive suite of geotechnical laboratory tests was undertaken on samples of recycled crushed glass produced in Victoria, Australia. Three types of recycled glass sources were tested being coarse, medium and fine sized glass. Laboratory testing results indicated that medium and fine sized recycled glass sources exhibit geotechnical behavior similar to natural aggregates. Coarse recycled glass was however found to be unsuitable for geotechnical engineering applications. Shear strength tests indicate that the fine and medium glass encompass shear strength parameters similar to that of natural sand and gravel mixtures comprising of angular particles. Environmental assessment tests indicated that the material meets the requirements of environmental protection authorities for fill material. The results were used to discuss potential usages of recycled glass as a construction material in geotechnical engineering applications particularly road works.

  17. An expert-based approach to forest road network planning by combining Delphi and spatial multi-criteria evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hayati, Elyas; Majnounian, Baris; Abdi, Ehsan; Sessions, John; Makhdoum, Majid

    2013-02-01

    Changes in forest landscapes resulting from road construction have increased remarkably in the last few years. On the other hand, the sustainable management of forest resources can only be achieved through a well-organized road network. In order to minimize the environmental impacts of forest roads, forest road managers must design the road network efficiently and environmentally as well. Efficient planning methodologies can assist forest road managers in considering the technical, economic, and environmental factors that affect forest road planning. This paper describes a three-stage methodology using the Delphi method for selecting the important criteria, the Analytic Hierarchy Process for obtaining the relative importance of the criteria, and finally, a spatial multi-criteria evaluation in a geographic information system (GIS) environment for identifying the lowest-impact road network alternative. Results of the Delphi method revealed that ground slope, lithology, distance from stream network, distance from faults, landslide susceptibility, erosion susceptibility, geology, and soil texture are the most important criteria for forest road planning in the study area. The suitability map for road planning was then obtained by combining the fuzzy map layers of these criteria with respect to their weights. Nine road network alternatives were designed using PEGGER, an ArcView GIS extension, and finally, their values were extracted from the suitability map. Results showed that the methodology was useful for identifying road that met environmental and cost considerations. Based on this work, we suggest future work in forest road planning using multi-criteria evaluation and decision making be considered in other regions and that the road planning criteria identified in this study may be useful.

  18. An expert-based approach to forest road network planning by combining Delphi and spatial multi-criteria evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hayati, Elyas; Majnounian, Baris; Abdi, Ehsan; Sessions, John; Makhdoum, Majid

    2013-02-01

    Changes in forest landscapes resulting from road construction have increased remarkably in the last few years. On the other hand, the sustainable management of forest resources can only be achieved through a well-organized road network. In order to minimize the environmental impacts of forest roads, forest road managers must design the road network efficiently and environmentally as well. Efficient planning methodologies can assist forest road managers in considering the technical, economic, and environmental factors that affect forest road planning. This paper describes a three-stage methodology using the Delphi method for selecting the important criteria, the Analytic Hierarchy Process for obtaining the relative importance of the criteria, and finally, a spatial multi-criteria evaluation in a geographic information system (GIS) environment for identifying the lowest-impact road network alternative. Results of the Delphi method revealed that ground slope, lithology, distance from stream network, distance from faults, landslide susceptibility, erosion susceptibility, geology, and soil texture are the most important criteria for forest road planning in the study area. The suitability map for road planning was then obtained by combining the fuzzy map layers of these criteria with respect to their weights. Nine road network alternatives were designed using PEGGER, an ArcView GIS extension, and finally, their values were extracted from the suitability map. Results showed that the methodology was useful for identifying road that met environmental and cost considerations. Based on this work, we suggest future work in forest road planning using multi-criteria evaluation and decision making be considered in other regions and that the road planning criteria identified in this study may be useful. PMID:22565600

  19. Design of optical systems for LED road luminaires.

    PubMed

    Zalewski, Sławomir

    2015-01-10

    The introduction of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for lighting necessitated a completely new quality in the construction of luminaires. The different production technology required new methods and designing tools. It also challenged designers with new problems to solve. This paper presents the design process of a LED luminaire from concept to implementation, exemplified by road lighting, and describes the methods and procedures used by the designer. Also, technological problems influencing the quality of the above lighting are addressed.

  20. Functional forest road network planning by consideration of environmental impact assessment for wood harvesting.

    PubMed

    Gumus, Selcuk; Acar, H Hulusi; Toksoy, Devlet

    2008-07-01

    Forest management today has to meet a number of objectives. Planning of multi-functional forest road networks is one essential for meeting the aims of the sustainable forest concept. Road construction damages the natural environment unless it is carefully thought out. As forest engineers we have to consider the protection of nature when designing forest roads. With this aim in mind, a new network planning approach was developed for wood-harvesting. A geographical information system (GIS) was used to evaluate the data and planning process. The new forest road network plan for Catak Forest District constituted the addition of a new 16-road segment, total length 59.067 km, to the existing road network plan, for the purpose of wood-harvesting operations. Forest road density value was determined as 22.8 m/ha: the opening-up rate of the area was increased to 77.8% and the opening-up rate of the existing stand value was increased to 94.3% after close examination. 90.2% of roads were planned for the forest areas where there is likely to be minimal negative environmental impact. PMID:17874200

  1. Functional forest road network planning by consideration of environmental impact assessment for wood harvesting.

    PubMed

    Gumus, Selcuk; Acar, H Hulusi; Toksoy, Devlet

    2008-07-01

    Forest management today has to meet a number of objectives. Planning of multi-functional forest road networks is one essential for meeting the aims of the sustainable forest concept. Road construction damages the natural environment unless it is carefully thought out. As forest engineers we have to consider the protection of nature when designing forest roads. With this aim in mind, a new network planning approach was developed for wood-harvesting. A geographical information system (GIS) was used to evaluate the data and planning process. The new forest road network plan for Catak Forest District constituted the addition of a new 16-road segment, total length 59.067 km, to the existing road network plan, for the purpose of wood-harvesting operations. Forest road density value was determined as 22.8 m/ha: the opening-up rate of the area was increased to 77.8% and the opening-up rate of the existing stand value was increased to 94.3% after close examination. 90.2% of roads were planned for the forest areas where there is likely to be minimal negative environmental impact.

  2. Photogrammetric Techniques for Road Surface Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knyaz, V. A.; Chibunichev, A. G.

    2016-06-01

    The quality and condition of a road surface is of great importance for convenience and safety of driving. So the investigations of the behaviour of road materials in laboratory conditions and monitoring of existing roads are widely fulfilled for controlling a geometric parameters and detecting defects in the road surface. Photogrammetry as accurate non-contact measuring method provides powerful means for solving different tasks in road surface reconstruction and analysis. The range of dimensions concerned in road surface analysis can have great variation from tenths of millimetre to hundreds meters and more. So a set of techniques is needed to meet all requirements of road parameters estimation. Two photogrammetric techniques for road surface analysis are presented: for accurate measuring of road pavement and for road surface reconstruction based on imagery obtained from unmanned aerial vehicle. The first technique uses photogrammetric system based on structured light for fast and accurate surface 3D reconstruction and it allows analysing the characteristics of road texture and monitoring the pavement behaviour. The second technique provides dense 3D model road suitable for road macro parameters estimation.

  3. China takes to the roads.

    PubMed

    Roberts, I

    1995-05-20

    China is undergoing rapid motorisation--motor vehicle registrations are growing at a rate of 10%-20% a year. Road trauma is already a major public health problem, and road deaths, officially estimated to be around 50,000 a year, will almost certainly rise with increasing motorisation. China, with its millions of bicycles, currently has one of the most environmentally friendly transportation systems on the planet. However, as the trend towards car travel continues, the problems of congestion and environmental pollution so evident in the West will also become critical public health issues in China.

  4. Hemodialysis access - self care

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency - hemodialysis access; Chronic kidney failure - hemodialysis access; Chronic renal failure - hemodialysis access; dialysis - hemodialysis access

  5. 31. Construction Drawing: Fort Custer Air Force Station, Battle Creek, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Construction Drawing: Fort Custer Air Force Station, Battle Creek, Michigan, Emergency Power Building, Floor Plans and Details, USACOE, no date. - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  6. 30. Construction Drawing: Fort Custer Air Force Station, Battle Creek, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Construction Drawing: Fort Custer Air Force Station, Battle Creek, Michigan, Emergency Power Building, Sections and Elevations, USACOE, no date. - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  7. Photographic copy of construction drawing, dated October 19, 1962, Department ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of construction drawing, dated October 19, 1962, Department of the Air Force Air Defense Command Installations, in possession of Selfridge Base Museum, Mt. Clemens, Michigan. ALTER POL OPERATIONS, SHEET 1 OF 2, SLF 140-070 - Selfridge Field, Building No. 1445, Sugarbush Road north of Bunker Road, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  8. Automatic urban road extraction on DSM data based on fuzzy ART, region growing, morphological operations and radon transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herumurti, Darlis; Uchimura, Keiichi; Koutaki, Gou; Uemura, Takumi

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, an automatic urban road extraction, as part of Intelligent Transportation research, has attracted the researchers due to the important role for the next modern transportation where urban area plays the main role within the transportation system. In this work, we propose a new combination of fuzzy ART clustering, Region growing, Morphological Operations and Radon transform (ARMOR) for automatic extraction of urban road networks from the digital surface model (DSM). The DSM data, which is based-on the elevation of surface, overcome a serious building's shadow problem as in the aerial photo image. Due to the different elevation between the road and the buildings, the thresholding technique yields a fast initial road extraction. The threshold values are obtained from Fuzzy ART clustering of the geometrical points in the histogram. The initial road is then expanded using region growing. Though most of the road regions are extracted, it contains a lot of non-road areas and the edge is still rough. A fast way to smoothing the region is by employing the morphology closing operation. Furthermore, we perform the road line filter by opening operation with a line shape structuring element, where the line orientation is obtained from the Radon Transform. Finally, the road network is constructed based-on B-Spline from the extracted road skeleton. The experimental result shows that the proposed method running faster and increases the quality and the accuracy about 10% higher than the highest result of the compared method.

  9. Benefits and impacts of road removal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Switalski, T.A.; Bissonette, J.A.; DeLuca, T.H.; Luce, C.H.; Madej, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Road removal is being used to mitigate the physical and ecological impacts of roads and to restore both public and private lands. Although many federal and state agencies and private landowners have created protocols for road removal and priorities for restoration, research has not kept pace with the rate of removal. Some research has been conducted on hydrologic and geomorphic restoration following road removal, but no studies have directly addressed restoring wildlife habitat. Road removal creates a short-term disturbance which may temporarily increase sediment loss. However, long-term monitoring and initial research have shown that road removal reduces chronic erosion and the risk of landslides. We review the hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological benefits and impacts of three methods of road removal, identify knowledge gaps, and propose questions for future research, which is urgently needed to quantify how effectively road removal restores terrestrial, riparian, and aquatic habitat and other ecosystem processes.

  10. Road surface texture and skid resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Minh-Tan; Cerezo, Veronique

    2015-12-01

    This paper deals with the relationship between road surface texture and skid resistance. Mechanisms underlying the tire/wet road friction are first described. Definitions of road surface irregularities scales are given. The rest of the paper is then focused on the macrotexture and microtexture scales and their respective roles in what happens at the tire/road interface. Existing methods to measure and characterize the road surface texture are presented. On the one hand, problems encountered when using sensors developed for machined surfaces for the measurement of road surface profiles or cartographies are discussed. On the other hand, potential improvements when applying characterization methods developed for machined surfaces to road surfaces are highlighted. The paper presents finally modeling approaches to calculate friction forces from road surface texture. The generalized form of the models is presented from which terms related respectively to the macrotexture and the microtexture are identified. Approaches used to calculate these terms, integrating eventually other variables, are presented.

  11. Easy Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettelman, Alan

    2009-01-01

    School and university restrooms, locker and shower rooms have specific ADA accessibility requirements that serve the needs of staff, students and campus visitors who are disabled as a result of injury, illness or age. Taking good care of them is good for the reputation of a sensitive community institution, and fosters positive public relations.…

  12. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2012-01-01

    As faculty members add online and multimedia elements to their courses, colleges and universities across the country are realizing that there is a lot of work to be done to ensure that disabled students (and employees) have equal access to course material and university websites. Unfortunately, far too few schools consider the task a top priority.…

  13. Expanding Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    There is no question that the United States lags behind most industrialized nations in consumer access to broadband Internet service. For many policy makers and activists, this shortfall marks the latest phase in the struggle to overcome the digital divide. To remedy this lack of broadband affordability and availability, one start-up firm--with…

  14. 6. ELEVATED, OBLIQUE VIEW OF INTERSECTION INFRASTRUCTURE AT LATROBE ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. ELEVATED, OBLIQUE VIEW OF INTERSECTION INFRASTRUCTURE AT LATROBE ROAD AND WHITE ROCK ROAD; VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Placerville Road, White Rock Road between Clarksville & White Rock, El Dorado Hills, El Dorado County, CA

  15. View southeast along Hartford Road (Route 6) showing the front ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast along Hartford Road (Route 6) showing the front yard of 10 Tatnic Road, West Brooklyn Green, and 5 Tatnic Roa - West Brooklyn Green, Tatnic Road & Hartford Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  16. 3. ENVIRONMENT, FROM SOUTH, SHOWING RIVER ROAD RIDGE CARRYING CASSELMAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. ENVIRONMENT, FROM SOUTH, SHOWING RIVER ROAD RIDGE CARRYING CASSELMAN RIVER ROAD OVER CASSELMAN RIVER - River Road Bridge, Crossing Casselman River on Casselman River Road, Grantsville, Garrett County, MD

  17. 35. PRATER GRADE ROAD VIEW, FACING NW. NOTE WEATHERING STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. PRATER GRADE ROAD VIEW, FACING NW. NOTE WEATHERING STEEL RAIL AND ROAD CUT IN DISTANCE. MONTEZUMA VALLEY OVERLOOK IS JUST TO RIGHT OF DISTANT ROAD CUT. - Mesa Verde National Park Main Entrance Road, Cortez, Montezuma County, CO

  18. 2. CAPE ROYAL ROAD VIEW. POST ON RIGHT SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CAPE ROYAL ROAD VIEW. POST ON RIGHT SIDE OF ROAD, CENTER OF IMAGE, MARKS CULVERT LOCATION. FACING SSW. - Cape Royal Road, Between North Entrance Road & Cape Royal, Grand Canyon, Coconino County, AZ

  19. 1. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING AT GLENDALE ROAD CROSSING OF DEEP CREEK LAKE (PHOTOGRAPH BY RUTHVAN MORROW) - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  20. 2. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING AT GLENDALE ROAD CROSSING OF DEEP CREEK LAKE (PHOTOGRAPH BY RUTHVAN MORROW) - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD