Science.gov

Sample records for access road construction

  1. Curecanti-Blue Mesa-Salida 115-kV transmission lines access roads rehabilitation, maintenance, and construction project. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    Western Area Power Administration (Western) is a power marketing agency of the US Department of Energy, with jurisdiction in 15 western states. The Salt Lake City Area (SLCA) of Western performs the agency`s mission in parts of Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, Utah, Arizona, Wyoming, and Nevada. As part of its mission, Western owns, operates, and maintains a system of transmission lines for transmitting bulk electrical energy from points of generation to and between delivery points. Part of that system in southwestern Colorado includes the Blue Mesa-Curecanti and Blue Mesa-Salida 115-kV transmission lines. Western proposes to conduct maintenance and improve its access roads for these two transmission lines. This paper discusses the impacts to the existing environment as well as the environmental consequences resulting from the maintenance and construction that is proposed.

  2. 33 CFR 211.78 - Maintenance and conveyance of access roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... access roads. 211.78 Section 211.78 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Site Development and Use § 211.78 Maintenance and conveyance of access roads. The Government will not construct any roads for the sole purpose of providing access to lands sold or to be sold for cottage...

  3. 33 CFR 211.78 - Maintenance and conveyance of access roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... access roads. 211.78 Section 211.78 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Site Development and Use § 211.78 Maintenance and conveyance of access roads. The Government will not construct any roads for the sole purpose of providing access to lands sold or to be sold for cottage...

  4. 33 CFR 211.78 - Maintenance and conveyance of access roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... access roads. 211.78 Section 211.78 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Site Development and Use § 211.78 Maintenance and conveyance of access roads. The Government will not construct any roads for the sole purpose of providing access to lands sold or to be sold for cottage...

  5. 33 CFR 211.78 - Maintenance and conveyance of access roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... access roads. 211.78 Section 211.78 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Site Development and Use § 211.78 Maintenance and conveyance of access roads. The Government will not construct any roads for the sole purpose of providing access to lands sold or to be sold for cottage...

  6. CONTEXT PHOTOGRAPH OF BASE END STATIONS FROM ACCESS ROAD AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXT PHOTOGRAPH OF BASE END STATIONS FROM ACCESS ROAD AT MIDSLOPE, FACING NORTH. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT ARE STATIONS BARLOW, SAXTON, LEARY, MERRIAM (OUT OF VIEW BEHIND WW n ERA CONSTRUCTION), OSGOOD, AND FARLEY - White's Point Reservation, Base End Stations, Bounded by Voyager Circle & Mariner Drive, San Pedro, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. 4. View of Building 802 from the access road, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of Building 802 from the access road, facing northwest. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  8. Automatic Construction of Hierarchical Road Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Weiping

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes an automated method of constructing a hierarchical road network given a single dataset, without the presence of thematic attributes. The method is based on a pattern graph which maintains nodes and paths as junctions and through-traffic roads. The hierarchy is formed incrementally in a top-down fashion for highways, ramps, and major roads directly connected to ramps; and bottom-up for the rest of major and minor roads. Through reasoning and analysis, ramps are identified as unique characteristics for recognizing and assembling high speed roads. The method makes distinctions on the types of ramps by articulating their connection patterns with highways. Major and minor roads will be identified by both quantitative and qualitative analysis of spatial properties and by discovering neighbourhood patterns revealed in the data. The result of the method would enrich data description and support comprehensive queries on sorted exit or entry points on highways and their related roads. The enrichment on road network data is important to a high successful rate of feature matching for road networks and to geospatial data integration.

  9. Geophysical methods for road construction and maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasul, Hedi; Karlson, Caroline; Jamali, Imran; Earon, Robert; Olofsson, Bo

    2015-04-01

    Infrastructure, such as road transportation, is a vital in civilized societies; which need to be constructed and maintained regularly. A large part of the project cost is attributed to subsurface conditions, where unsatisfactory conditions could increase either the geotechnical stabilization measures needed or the design cost itself. A way to collect information of the subsurface and existing installations which can lead to measures reducing the project cost and damage is to use geophysical methods during planning, construction and maintenance phases. The moisture in road layers is an important factor, which will affect the bearing capacity of the construction as well as the maintenances. Moisture in the road is a key factor for a well-functioning road. On the other hand the excessive moisture is the main reason of road failure and problems. From a hydrological point of view geophysical methods could help road planners identify the water table, geological strata, pollution arising from the road and the movement of the pollution before, during and after construction. Geophysical methods also allow road planners to collect valuable data for a large area without intrusive investigations such as with boreholes, i.e. minimizing the environmental stresses and costs. However, it is important to specify the investigation site and to choose the most appropriate geophysical method based on the site chosen and the objective of the investigation. Currently, numerous construction and rehabilitation projects are taking places around the world. Many of these projects are focused on infrastructural development, comprising both new projects and expansion of the existing infrastructural network. Geophysical methods can benefit these projects greatly during all phases. During the construction phase Ground Penetrating radar (GPR) is very useful in combination with Electrical Resistivity (ER) for detecting soil water content and base course compaction. However, ER and Electromagnetic

  10. Oblique view of Bonita Ridge Access Road Retaining Wall, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of Bonita Ridge Access Road Retaining Wall, showing southernmost portion of intact wall and portion of concrete drainage ditch from Signal Corps Radar 296 Station 5 Transmitter Building foundation above, camera facing west-north - Fort Barry, Bonita Ridge Access Road, Retaining Wall, Point Bonita, Marin Headlands, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  11. 3. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, WIRE MILL ROAD BRIDGE UNDER CONSTRUCTION, CA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, WIRE MILL ROAD BRIDGE UNDER CONSTRUCTION, CA. 1935. COLLECTION CONNECTICUT DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION. - Merritt Parkway, Wire Mill Road Bridge, Spanning Merritt Parkway, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  12. Title III Evaluation for the Access Road System

    SciTech Connect

    H.R. Montalv

    1998-07-28

    The objective of this evaluation is to provide recommendations to ensure consistency between the technical baseline requirements, baseline design, and the as-constructed Access Roads. Recommendations for resolving discrepancies between the as-constructed system, the technical baseline requirements, and the baseline design are included in this report. Cost and Schedule estimates are provided for all recommended modifications. This report does not address items which do not meet current safety or code requirements. These items are identified to the CMO and immediate action is taken to correct the situation. The report does identify safety and code items for which the A/E is recommending improvements. The recommended improvements will exceed the minimum requirements of applicable code and safety guide lines. These recommendations are intended to improve and enhance the operation and maintenance of the facility.

  13. 36 CFR 223.62 - Timber purchaser road construction credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timber purchaser road... PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Appraisal and Pricing § 223.62 Timber purchaser road construction credit. Appraisal may also establish stumpage value as if unconstructed roads or other developments needed by...

  14. 36 CFR 223.62 - Timber purchaser road construction credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timber purchaser road... § 223.62 Timber purchaser road construction credit. Appraisal may also establish stumpage value as if unconstructed roads or other developments needed by the purchaser for removal of the timber were in place....

  15. 36 CFR 223.62 - Timber purchaser road construction credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timber purchaser road... PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Appraisal and Pricing § 223.62 Timber purchaser road construction credit. Appraisal may also establish stumpage value as if unconstructed roads or other developments needed by...

  16. 36 CFR 223.62 - Timber purchaser road construction credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timber purchaser road... PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Appraisal and Pricing § 223.62 Timber purchaser road construction credit. Appraisal may also establish stumpage value as if unconstructed roads or other developments needed by...

  17. 36 CFR 223.62 - Timber purchaser road construction credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timber purchaser road... PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Appraisal and Pricing § 223.62 Timber purchaser road construction credit. Appraisal may also establish stumpage value as if unconstructed roads or other developments needed by...

  18. 2. THREEQUARTER VIEW FROM ADJACENT ACCESS ROAD SHOWING THREE SPANS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. THREE-QUARTER VIEW FROM ADJACENT ACCESS ROAD SHOWING THREE SPANS AND NORTHWEST APPROACH SPANS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Red River Bridge, Spanning Red River at U.S. Highway 82, Garland, Miller County, AR

  19. Context view shows approach of access road to summit, communication ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Context view shows approach of access road to summit, communication towers and NW corner of lookout tower at center right. Camera is pointed SE. - Chelan Butte Lookout, Summit of Chelan Butte, Chelan, Chelan County, WA

  20. 25 CFR 170.122 - Can a tribe close a cultural access road?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe close a cultural access road? 170.122 Section... ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Use of Irr and Cultural Access Roads § 170.122 Can a tribe close a cultural access road? (a) A tribe with jurisdiction over a...

  1. 25 CFR 170.122 - Can a tribe close a cultural access road?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can a tribe close a cultural access road? 170.122 Section... ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Use of Irr and Cultural Access Roads § 170.122 Can a tribe close a cultural access road? (a) A tribe with jurisdiction over a...

  2. 25 CFR 170.122 - Can a tribe close a cultural access road?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Can a tribe close a cultural access road? 170.122 Section... ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Use of Irr and Cultural Access Roads § 170.122 Can a tribe close a cultural access road? (a) A tribe with jurisdiction over a...

  3. 25 CFR 170.122 - Can a tribe close a cultural access road?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can a tribe close a cultural access road? 170.122 Section... ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Use of Irr and Cultural Access Roads § 170.122 Can a tribe close a cultural access road? (a) A tribe with jurisdiction over a...

  4. 25 CFR 170.122 - Can a tribe close a cultural access road?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can a tribe close a cultural access road? 170.122 Section... ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Use of Irr and Cultural Access Roads § 170.122 Can a tribe close a cultural access road? (a) A tribe with jurisdiction over a...

  5. LOCATION OF PLANNED NEW ROAD CONSTRUCTION AND ROAD WIDENINGS IN DELAWARE, MARYLAND,

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose was to create a GIS data set representing future road construction in the EPA MAIA study region. The latest data came from planning departments during 1999. Two types of construction were considered: the first are completely new roads being built on new easements an...

  6. Geomorphological aspects of road construction in a cold environment, Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seppälä, Matti

    1999-12-01

    Traditionally, road alignments followed easy landscapes and suitable landforms. When traffic and the size and weight of vehicles increased and higher speeds were used, straighter roads were required; the easygoing relief could not always be used, and problems arose. Road contractors could save money in building and maintenance costs by considering the geomorphic facts. The examples from Finland document why road construction is very expensive in the conditions generated by severe winters. In Finland, more paved roads cross the Arctic Circle than in the whole of North America. This paper gives examples of geomorphic elements affecting road construction in a cold environment: eskers, drumlins, plains of late and postglacial glaciolacustrine and marine sediments, mires, steep rock cliffs, river channels and ice-dams, fluvial erosion, and palsas. Solutions to these problems include removal of frost sensible materials and replacement by more favorable sediments. Road surfaces, kept snow-free in the wintertime, are subjected to deep freezing. The maintenance of roads can be supported with some solutions that affect snowdrift and icing problems, avoidance of geomorphic factors that cause problems, and by using natural processes to help people. Some examples of how road construction affects geomorphic processes and vice versa are provided. For example, bridges block moving river ice, and on special occasions, road banks cause icing.

  7. Conceptual design and analysis of roads and road construction machinery for initial lunar base operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sines, Jeffrey L.; Banks, Joel; Efatpenah, Keyanoush

    1990-06-01

    Recent developments have made it possible for scientists and engineers to consider returning to the Moon to build a manned lunar base. The base can be used to conduct scientific research, develop new space technology, and utilize the natural resources of the Moon. Areas of the base will be separated, connected by a system of roads that reduce the power requirements of vehicles traveling on them. Feasible road types for the lunar surface were analyzed and a road construction system was designed for initial lunar base operations. A model was also constructed to show the system configuration and key operating features. The alternate designs for the lunar road construction system were developed in four stages: analyze and select a road type; determine operations and machinery needed to produce the road; develop machinery configurations; and develop alternates for several machine components. A compacted lunar soil road was selected for initial lunar base operations. The only machinery required to produce this road were a grader and a compactor. The road construction system consists of a main drive unit which is used for propulsion, a detachable grader assembly, and a towed compactor.

  8. Conceptual design and analysis of roads and road construction machinery for initial lunar base operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sines, Jeffrey L.; Banks, Joel; Efatpenah, Keyanoush

    1990-01-01

    Recent developments have made it possible for scientists and engineers to consider returning to the Moon to build a manned lunar base. The base can be used to conduct scientific research, develop new space technology, and utilize the natural resources of the Moon. Areas of the base will be separated, connected by a system of roads that reduce the power requirements of vehicles traveling on them. Feasible road types for the lunar surface were analyzed and a road construction system was designed for initial lunar base operations. A model was also constructed to show the system configuration and key operating features. The alternate designs for the lunar road construction system were developed in four stages: analyze and select a road type; determine operations and machinery needed to produce the road; develop machinery configurations; and develop alternates for several machine components. A compacted lunar soil road was selected for initial lunar base operations. The only machinery required to produce this road were a grader and a compactor. The road construction system consists of a main drive unit which is used for propulsion, a detachable grader assembly, and a towed compactor.

  9. Temperature Control Method in the Snow Road Construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serebrenikova, Yu; Lysyannikov, A.; Kaizer, Yu; Zhelykevich, R.; Plakhotnikova, M.; Lysyannikova, N.; Merko, M.; Merko, I.

    2016-06-01

    The paper substantiates the process of heat treatment before the snow compaction in snow road construction. The methods to measure the temperature of snow as a moving dispersed material have been considered in the paper.

  10. 11. VIEW TO EAST; ACCESS ROAD AT SOUTH END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW TO EAST; ACCESS ROAD AT SOUTH END OF TERMINAL AT TRACK LEVEL, LOOKING ALONG GENERAL ALIGNMENT OF PROPOSED EXTENSION OF EL MONTE BUSWAY (Asano) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 3. VIEW OF WATER TANKS FROM ACCESS ROAD TO HATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF WATER TANKS FROM ACCESS ROAD TO HATCH ADIT. VIEW NORTH. LUCKY TIGER MILL OFFICE (FEATURE B-I) IN DISTANCE. (OCTOBER, 1995) - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, Water Tanks, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  12. Environmental impacts of forest road construction on mountainous terrain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Forest roads are the base infrastructure foundation of forestry operations. These roads entail a complex engineering effort because they can cause substantial environmental damage to forests and include a high-cost construction. This study was carried out in four sample sites of Giresun, Trabzon(2) and Artvin Forest Directorate, which is in the Black Sea region of Turkey. The areas have both steep terrain (30-50% gradient) and very steep terrain (51-80% gradient). Bulldozers and hydraulic excavators were determined to be the main machines for forest road construction, causing environmental damage and cross sections in mountainous areas. As a result of this study, the percent damage to forests was determined as follows: on steep terrain, 21% of trees were damaged by excavators and 33% of trees were damaged by bulldozers during forest road construction, and on very steep terrain, 27% of trees were damaged by excavators and 44% of trees were damaged by bulldozers during forest road construction. It was also determined that on steep terrain, when excavators were used, 12.23% less forest area was destroyed compared with when bulldozers were used and 16.13% less area was destroyed by excavators on very steep terrain. In order to reduce the environmental damage on the forest ecosystem, especially in steep terrains, hydraulic excavators should replace bulldozers in forest road construction activities. PMID:23497078

  13. Environmental impacts of forest road construction on mountainous terrain.

    PubMed

    Caliskan, Erhan

    2013-01-01

    Forest roads are the base infrastructure foundation of forestry operations. These roads entail a complex engineering effort because they can cause substantial environmental damage to forests and include a high-cost construction. This study was carried out in four sample sites of Giresun, Trabzon(2) and Artvin Forest Directorate, which is in the Black Sea region of Turkey. The areas have both steep terrain (30-50% gradient) and very steep terrain (51-80% gradient). Bulldozers and hydraulic excavators were determined to be the main machines for forest road construction, causing environmental damage and cross sections in mountainous areas.As a result of this study, the percent damage to forests was determined as follows: on steep terrain, 21% of trees were damaged by excavators and 33% of trees were damaged by bulldozers during forest road construction, and on very steep terrain, 27% of trees were damaged by excavators and 44% of trees were damaged by bulldozers during forest road construction. It was also determined that on steep terrain, when excavators were used, 12.23% less forest area was destroyed compared with when bulldozers were used and 16.13% less area was destroyed by excavators on very steep terrain. In order to reduce the environmental damage on the forest ecosystem, especially in steep terrains, hydraulic excavators should replace bulldozers in forest road construction activities. PMID:23497078

  14. 25 CFR 170.121 - What is a cultural access road?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What is a cultural access road? 170.121 Section 170.121 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Use of Irr and Cultural Access Roads §...

  15. 25 CFR 170.121 - What is a cultural access road?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What is a cultural access road? 170.121 Section 170.121 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Use of Irr and Cultural Access Roads §...

  16. 25 CFR 170.127 - What terms apply to access roads?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What terms apply to access roads? 170.127 Section 170.127 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Irr Housing Access Roads § 170.127...

  17. 25 CFR 170.121 - What is a cultural access road?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is a cultural access road? 170.121 Section 170.121 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Use of Irr and Cultural Access Roads §...

  18. 25 CFR 170.127 - What terms apply to access roads?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What terms apply to access roads? 170.127 Section 170.127 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Irr Housing Access Roads § 170.127...

  19. 25 CFR 170.127 - What terms apply to access roads?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What terms apply to access roads? 170.127 Section 170.127 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Irr Housing Access Roads § 170.127...

  20. 25 CFR 170.121 - What is a cultural access road?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is a cultural access road? 170.121 Section 170.121 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Use of Irr and Cultural Access Roads §...

  1. 25 CFR 170.121 - What is a cultural access road?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is a cultural access road? 170.121 Section 170.121 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Use of Irr and Cultural Access Roads §...

  2. 25 CFR 170.127 - What terms apply to access roads?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What terms apply to access roads? 170.127 Section 170.127 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Irr Housing Access Roads § 170.127...

  3. 25 CFR 170.127 - What terms apply to access roads?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What terms apply to access roads? 170.127 Section 170.127 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Irr Housing Access Roads § 170.127...

  4. PERSPECTIVE OF HANGAR AND ACCESS ROAD LOOKING EAST (During the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE OF HANGAR AND ACCESS ROAD LOOKING EAST (During the 1940s the Arnold family leased part of their land to serve as a runway and airplane hangar. The building on the right of the photograph was originally two separate airplane hangars - they were joined in the early 1950s to provide covered combine parking between them. The building on the left of the photograph is a tractor shed. The building at a distance was gasoline and oil shed for the planes) - Arnold Farm, Hangar / Workshop, 1948 Arnold Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  5. 77 FR 5295 - Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Announcement of Project Selections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Announcement of Project... Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 appropriations for the Over-the-Road Bus (OTRB) Accessibility Program, authorized... Accessibility Program makes funds available to private operators of over-the-road buses to help finance...

  6. 36 CFR 223.47 - Date of completion of permanent road construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... permanent road construction. 223.47 Section 223.47 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... completion of permanent road construction. (a) The date of completion of permanent road construction... not applicable to roads not needed by the purchaser for timber removal. (d) The date for...

  7. 36 CFR 223.47 - Date of completion of permanent road construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... permanent road construction. 223.47 Section 223.47 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... completion of permanent road construction. (a) The date of completion of permanent road construction... not applicable to roads not needed by the purchaser for timber removal. (d) The date for...

  8. 36 CFR 223.47 - Date of completion of permanent road construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... permanent road construction. 223.47 Section 223.47 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... completion of permanent road construction. (a) The date of completion of permanent road construction... not applicable to roads not needed by the purchaser for timber removal. (d) The date for...

  9. 36 CFR 223.47 - Date of completion of permanent road construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... permanent road construction. 223.47 Section 223.47 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... completion of permanent road construction. (a) The date of completion of permanent road construction... not applicable to roads not needed by the purchaser for timber removal. (d) The date for...

  10. 25 CFR 170.128 - Are housing access roads and housing streets eligible for IRR Program funding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are housing access roads and housing streets eligible for... INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Irr Housing Access Roads § 170.128 Are housing access roads and housing streets eligible for...

  11. Construct Maps for the Road Ahead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunch, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    In this issue of "Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives," Adam E. Wyse provides a thorough review of research to date on the use of construct maps in standard setting. He juxtaposes concepts and methods in ways that make their connections to one another clearer and more obvious than they might otherwise have been. In…

  12. 1. View of McKenzieRichey property from access road, facing northwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View of McKenzie-Richey property from access road, facing northwest. Note covered well, house, root cellar, barn and access road - McKenzie Property, North Bank of Sailor Gulch 750 feet northwest of intersection of U.S.F.S. Roads 651 & 349, Placerville, Boise County, ID

  13. 76 FR 17738 - Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Announcement of Project Selections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... Federal Transit Administration Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Announcement of Project Selections... be funded under Fiscal Year (FY) 2009 and 2010 appropriations for the Over-the- Road Bus (OTRB...). The OTRB Accessibility Program makes funds available to private operators of over-the-road buses...

  14. 36 CFR 223.41 - Payment when purchaser elects government road construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... government road construction. 223.41 Section 223.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... purchaser elects government road construction. Each contract having a provision for construction of specified roads with total estimated construction costs of $50,000 or more shall include a provision...

  15. 36 CFR 223.41 - Payment when purchaser elects government road construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... government road construction. 223.41 Section 223.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... purchaser elects government road construction. Each contract having a provision for construction of specified roads with total estimated construction costs of $50,000 or more shall include a provision...

  16. 36 CFR 223.41 - Payment when purchaser elects government road construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... government road construction. 223.41 Section 223.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... purchaser elects government road construction. Each contract having a provision for construction of specified roads with total estimated construction costs of $50,000 or more shall include a provision...

  17. 36 CFR 223.41 - Payment when purchaser elects government road construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... government road construction. 223.41 Section 223.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... Conditions and Provisions § 223.41 Payment when purchaser elects government road construction. Each contract having a provision for construction of specified roads with total estimated construction costs of...

  18. 36 CFR 223.41 - Payment when purchaser elects government road construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... government road construction. 223.41 Section 223.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... purchaser elects government road construction. Each contract having a provision for construction of specified roads with total estimated construction costs of $50,000 or more shall include a provision...

  19. 36 CFR 223.38 - Standards for road design and construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for road design and... Provisions § 223.38 Standards for road design and construction. Road construction authorized under timber... transportation, and impacts on land and resources. If the sale contract provides for road design standards...

  20. 25 CFR 170.128 - Are housing access roads and housing streets eligible for IRR Program funding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Are housing access roads and housing streets eligible for... Eligibility Irr Housing Access Roads § 170.128 Are housing access roads and housing streets eligible for IRR Program funding? Yes. IRR housing access roads and housing streets on public rights-of-way are...

  1. 27. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST DOWN THE WEST ACCESS ROAD. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST DOWN THE WEST ACCESS ROAD. THE FIRST LARGE PROTEST AT THE PLANT CAME IN 1978. IT WAS THE FIRST MAJOR PROTEST AT ANY DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PLANT. IN RESPONSE TO CONTINUING ANTI- NUCLEAR PROTESTS, IN PARTICULAR A 1979 RALLY THAT DREW 10,000 PARTICIPANTS, ROCKWELL EMPLOYEES AT THE PLANT FORMED A GRASSROOT ORGANIZATION, CITIZENS FOR ENERGY AND FREEDOM, AND ORGANIZED A PRO-NUCLEAR RALLY, 'POWER TO THE PEOPLE,' THAT ATTRACTED 16,000 PEOPLE (5/4/78). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  2. RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report for the Gunsite 113 Access Road Unit (631-24G) - March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.

    1996-03-01

    Gunsite 113 Access Road Unit is located in the northeast corner of SRS. In the mid 1980`s, sparse vegetation, dead trees, and small mounds of soil were discovered on a portion of the road leading to Gunsite 113. This area became the Gunsite 113 Access Road Unit (Gunsite 113). The unit appears to have been used as a spoil dirt and / or road construction debris disposal area. There is no documentation or record of any hazardous substance management, disposal, or any type of waste disposal at this unit. Based upon the available evidence, there are no potential contaminants of concern available for evaluation by a CERCLA baseline risk assessment. Therefore, there is no determinable health risk associated with Gunsite 113. In addition, it is also reasonable to conclude that, since contamination is below risk-based levels, the unit presents no significant ecological risk. It is recommended that no further remedial action be performed at this unit.

  3. 36 CFR 223.84 - Small business bid form provisions on sales with specified road construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provisions on sales with specified road construction. 223.84 Section 223.84 Parks, Forests, and Public....84 Small business bid form provisions on sales with specified road construction. For each sale... road construction by the Forest Service and where such election is made; (b) To certify as to...

  4. 36 CFR 223.47 - Date of completion of permanent road construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... permanent road construction. 223.47 Section 223.47 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... Conditions and Provisions § 223.47 Date of completion of permanent road construction. (a) The date of completion of permanent road construction obligations as set forth in the Notice of Sale shall...

  5. 36 CFR 223.84 - Small business bid form provisions on sales with specified road construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provisions on sales with specified road construction. 223.84 Section 223.84 Parks, Forests, and Public... specified road construction. For each sale described in § 223.82(b), the bid form must include provision for a small business concern: (a) To elect road construction by the Forest Service and where...

  6. 36 CFR 223.84 - Small business bid form provisions on sales with specified road construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provisions on sales with specified road construction. 223.84 Section 223.84 Parks, Forests, and Public....84 Small business bid form provisions on sales with specified road construction. For each sale... road construction by the Forest Service and where such election is made; (b) To certify as to...

  7. 36 CFR 294.23 - Road construction and reconstruction in Idaho Roadless Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Road construction and..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL AREAS Idaho Roadless Area Management § 294.23 Road construction and... Significance, or Primitive. Road construction and reconstruction are prohibited in Idaho Roadless...

  8. 36 CFR 294.23 - Road construction and reconstruction in Idaho Roadless Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Road construction and..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL AREAS Idaho Roadless Area Management § 294.23 Road construction and... Significance, or Primitive. Road construction and reconstruction are prohibited in Idaho Roadless...

  9. 36 CFR 223.84 - Small business bid form provisions on sales with specified road construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provisions on sales with specified road construction. 223.84 Section 223.84 Parks, Forests, and Public....84 Small business bid form provisions on sales with specified road construction. For each sale... road construction by the Forest Service and where such election is made; (b) To certify as to...

  10. 36 CFR 294.23 - Road construction and reconstruction in Idaho Roadless Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Road construction and..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL AREAS Idaho Roadless Area Management § 294.23 Road construction and... Significance, or Primitive. Road construction and reconstruction are prohibited in Idaho Roadless...

  11. 36 CFR 294.23 - Road construction and reconstruction in Idaho Roadless Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Road construction and..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL AREAS Idaho Roadless Area Management § 294.23 Road construction and... Significance, or Primitive. Road construction and reconstruction are prohibited in Idaho Roadless...

  12. 36 CFR 294.23 - Road construction and reconstruction in Idaho Roadless Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Road construction and..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL AREAS Idaho Roadless Area Management § 294.23 Road construction and... Significance, or Primitive. Road construction and reconstruction are prohibited in Idaho Roadless...

  13. PAH Accessibility in Particulate Matter from Road-Impacted Environments.

    PubMed

    Allan, Ian J; O'Connell, Steven G; Meland, Sondre; Bæk, Kine; Grung, Merete; Anderson, Kim A; Ranneklev, Sissel B

    2016-08-01

    Snowmelt, surface runoff, or stormwater releases in urban environments can result in significant discharges of particulate matter-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into aquatic environments. Recently, more-specific activities such as road-tunnel washing have been identified as contributing to contaminant load to surface waters. However, knowledge of PAH accessibility in particulate matter (PM) of urban origin that may ultimately be released into urban surface waters is limited. In the present study, we evaluated the accessibility of PAHs associated with seven distinct (suspended) particulate matter samples collected from different urban sources. Laboratory-based infinite sink extractions with silicone rubber (SR) as the extractor phase demonstrated a similar pattern of PAH accessibility for most PM samples. Substantially higher accessible fractions were observed for the less-hydrophobic PAHs (between 40 and 80% of total concentrations) compared with those measured for the most-hydrophobic PAHs (<5% of total concentrations). When we focused on PAHs bound to PM from tunnel-wash waters, first-order desorption rates for PAHs with log Kow > 5.5 were found in line with those commonly found for slowly or very slowly desorbing sediment-associated contaminants. PAHs with log Kow < 5.5 were found at higher desorbing rates. The addition of detergents did not influence the extractability of lighter PAHs but increased desorption rates for the heavier PAHs, potentially contributing to increases in the toxicity of tunnel-wash waters when surfactants are used. The implications of total and accessible PAH concentrations measured in our urban PM samples are discussed in a context of management of PAH and PM emission to the surrounding aquatic environment. Although we only fully assessed PAHs in this work, further study should consider other contaminants such as OPAHs, which were also detected in all PM samples. PMID:27312518

  14. 36 CFR 223.38 - Standards for road design and construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for road design and... PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Contract Conditions and Provisions § 223.38 Standards for road design and construction. Road construction authorized under timber sale contracts, permits and other documents...

  15. 36 CFR 223.38 - Standards for road design and construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for road design and... PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Contract Conditions and Provisions § 223.38 Standards for road design and construction. Road construction authorized under timber sale contracts, permits and other documents...

  16. 36 CFR 223.38 - Standards for road design and construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for road design and... PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Contract Conditions and Provisions § 223.38 Standards for road design and construction. Road construction authorized under timber sale contracts, permits and other documents...

  17. 36 CFR 223.38 - Standards for road design and construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for road design and... PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Contract Conditions and Provisions § 223.38 Standards for road design and construction. Road construction authorized under timber sale contracts, permits and other documents...

  18. 75 FR 20034 - Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Grants: Corrections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... 215 (73 FR 47046, Aug. 13, 2008). On October 1, 2008, DOL began using a revised special warranty for... Federal Transit Administration Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Grants: Corrections AGENCY: Federal..., 2010 Federal Transit Administration (FTA) Notice titled ``Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility...

  19. 77 FR 25529 - Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... this authorization, the DOL amended its implementing regulations at 29 CFR part 215 (73 FR 47046, Aug... TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Grants AGENCY: Federal... availability of funds in Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 for the Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility (OTRB)...

  20. 36. From Final Construction Report on the Haleakala Road ProjectNR7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. From Final Construction Report on the Haleakala Road Project--NR-7, Hawaii National Park, Island of Maui, Territory of Hawaii. TYPICAL RUBBLE MASONRY HEADWALL AND BOX CULVERT. - Haleakala National Park Roads, Pukalani, Maui County, HI

  1. 35. From Final Construction Report on the Haleakala Road ProjectNR7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. From Final Construction Report on the Haleakala Road Project--NR-7, Hawaii National Park, Island of Maui, Territory of Hawaii. LOOKING BACK FROM STATION 335 AT RETURN CURVE. - Haleakala National Park Roads, Pukalani, Maui County, HI

  2. 38. From Final Construction Report on the Haleakala Road ProjectNR7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. From Final Construction Report on the Haleakala Road Project--NR-7, Hawaii National Park, Island of Maui, Territory of Hawaii. BRIDGE AT STATION 85+. - Haleakala National Park Roads, Pukalani, Maui County, HI

  3. 25 CFR 170.128 - Are housing access roads and housing streets eligible for IRR Program funding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Are housing access roads and housing streets eligible for IRR Program funding? 170.128 Section 170.128 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Irr Housing Access Roads § 170.128...

  4. Green Road: an ecological road construction method for the preservation of mountain environment and landscape in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudan Acharya, Madhu

    2013-04-01

    Road is the only viable means of transportation and an important infrastructure for the economic development of a mountainous country like Nepal. The construction and maintenance of hill and mountain roads in Nepal are often challenged by its topography with very steep slopes, fragile geological conditions and a strong monsoon rain for a longer duration. Under such topographic and climatic conditions, the conventional approach of road construction on hills with cut and throw method with the use of machines has caused substantial increase in post construction landslides, mass wastage of soil material, shear failures on the downhill slope due to additional surcharge from tipped soil, loss of vegetation on slopes and environmental degradation. To overcome these environmental problems, a concept called "Green Road" has emerged in hill road construction practices in Nepal. This concept was evolved from the lesson learnt in the past and decade long experiences in hill road constructions and maintenance. This is an environment-friendly and labour-based construction technique which utilizes mass balancing approach. It is a low cost solution which focuses on the use of locally available materials and techniques in a sustainable way by maintaining the existing landscapes. Appropriate soil bioengineering techniques are applied to stabilize the roadside slopes and to reduce soil erosion. This paper provides some basics of green road approach, its advantages and its contribution to preserve natural environment. This paper examines the magnitude of direct mass wasting of materials due to excess excavation and compares the loss of masses in both conventional as well as green road approach of road construction. Recommendations are also made for minimizing the mass wastage and to preserve the fragile mountain environment by using appropriate soil bioengineering methods.

  5. [Effects of road construction on regional vegetation types].

    PubMed

    Liu, Shi-Liang; Liu, Qi; Wang, Cong; Yang, Jue-Jie; Deng, Li

    2013-05-01

    As a regional artificial disturbance component, road exerts great effects on vegetation types, and plays a substantial role in defining vegetation distribution to a certain extent. Aiming at the tropical rainforest degradation and artificial forest expansion in Yunnan Province of Southwest China, this paper analyzed the effects of road network extension on regional vegetation types. In the Province, different classes of roads had different effects on the vegetation types, but no obvious regularity was observed in the effects on the patch areas of different vegetation types due to the great variations of road length and affected distance. However, the vegetation patch number was more affected by lower class roads because of their wide distribution. As for different vegetation types, the vegetations on cultivated land were most affected by roads, followed by Castanopsis hystrix and Schima wallichii forests. Road network formation contributed most to the vegetation fragmentation, and there existed significant correlations between the human disturbance factors including village- and road distributions. PMID:24015533

  6. Access road from State Route 240 to the 200 West Area, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct an access road on the Hanford Site, from State Route (SR) 240 to Beloit Avenue in the 200 West Area. Traffic volume during shift changes creates an extremely serious congestion and safety problem on Route 4S from the Wye barricade to the 200 Areas. A Risk Evaluation (Trost 1992) indicated that there is a probability of 1.53 fatal accidents on Route 4S within 2 years. To help alleviate this danger, a new 3.5-kilometer (2.2-mile)-long access road would be constructed from Beloit Avenue in the 200 West Area to SR 240. In addition, administrative controls such as redirecting traffic onto alternate routes would be used to further reduce traffic volume. The proposed access road would provide an alternative travel-to-work route for many outer area personnel, particularly those with destinations in the 200 West Area. This proposal is the most reasonable alternative to reduce the problem. While traffic safety would be greatly improved, a small portion of the shrub-steppe habitat would be disturbed. The DOE would offset any habitat damage by re-vegetation or other appropriate habitat enhancement activities elsewhere on the Hanford Site. This Environmental Assessment (EA) provides information about the environmental impacts of the proposed action, so a decision can be made to either prepare an Environmental Impact Statement or issue a Finding of No Significant Impact.

  7. Construction of road roughness in left and right wheel paths based on PSD and coherence function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiandong; Wang, Haixia; Shan, Yingchun; He, Tian

    2015-08-01

    A new method of constructing road roughness in left and right wheel paths based on specified Power Spectral Density (PSD) and coherence function is proposed. This is achieved through a sequence of steps. First, the road roughness is divided into original and perturbed parts. The original road roughness in left and right wheel paths is assumed to be equivalent, while the two parallel perturbed road roughnesses are considered to be stochastic and independent of each other. Second, the auto-PSDs of the original and perturbed road roughness are derived through the specified PSD and coherence function. Then, the original and perturbed road roughnesses are constructed based on their auto-PSDs using the IFFT method. Finally, the road roughness is obtained by combining the original and perturbed roughness together. The method is validated through a construction example. The results show that the road roughness in the left and right wheel paths constructed through this method can satisfy both the PSD and coherence function conditions, and good randomness of the perturbed road roughness ensures high precision of this method.

  8. Warning! Slippery Road Ahead: Internet Access and District Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Joan M.

    1995-01-01

    As schools merge onto the information highway, districts must address their liability associated with Internet access. Schools need a practical policy supporting high access to global educational resources while limiting district liability. USENET provides easy access to controversial and pornographic materials. This article outlines federal…

  9. 34. From Final Construction Report on the Haleakala Road ProjectNR7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. From Final Construction Report on the Haleakala Road Project--NR-7, Hawaii National Park, Island of Maui, Territory of Hawaii, H.L. Handley, Assistant Highway Engineer, March 30, 1935. NOTE HOW THE LOCATION FITS THE CONTOUR OF THE HILL. LOOKING FROM STATION 382+00 ON HALEAKALA HIGHWAY. - Haleakala National Park Roads, Pukalani, Maui County, HI

  10. 39. From Final Construction Report on the Haleakala Road ProjectNR7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. From Final Construction Report on the Haleakala Road Project--NR-7, Hawaii National Park, Island of Maui, Territory of Hawaii, T.H., by Merel S. Sager, Resident Landscape Architect, April 16, 1935. COVERING CONSPICOUS ROCK FILLS WITH SOIL. - Haleakala National Park Roads, Pukalani, Maui County, HI

  11. 40. From Final Construction Report on the Haleakala Road ProjectNR7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. From Final Construction Report on the Haleakala Road Project--NR-7, Hawaii National Park, Island of Maui, Territory of Hawaii, T.H. GENERAL VIEW OT THE PROJECT SHOWING CONSPICUOUS SCARS. THE BEFORE PHOTO OF A BEFORE AND AFTER SET. AFTER PHOTO IS HI-52-41. - Haleakala National Park Roads, Pukalani, Maui County, HI

  12. 37. From Final Construction Report on the Haleakala Road ProjectNR7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. From Final Construction Report on the Haleakala Road Project--NR-7, Hawaii National Park, Island of Maui, Territory of Hawaii. HAND-LAID ROCK BERM ON RETURN CURVE TO PREVENT SCOUR AND SEEPAGE THROUGH FILLS. - Haleakala National Park Roads, Pukalani, Maui County, HI

  13. Submicron particle monitoring of paving and related road construction operations.

    PubMed

    Freund, Alice; Zuckerman, Norman; Baum, Lisa; Milek, Debra

    2012-01-01

    This study identified activities and sources that contribute to ultrafine and other submicron particle exposure that could trigger respiratory symptoms in highway repair workers. Submicron particle monitoring was conducted for paving, milling, and pothole repair operations in a major metropolitan area where several highway repair workers were identified as symptomatic for respiratory illness following exposures at the 2001 World Trade Center disaster site. Exposure assessments were conducted for eight trades involved in road construction using a TSI P-Trak portable condensation particle counter. Direct readings near the workers' breathing zones and observations of activities and potential sources were logged on 7 days on 27 workers using four different models of pavers and two types of millers. Average worker exposure levels ranged from 2 to 3 times background during paving and from 1 to 4 times background during milling. During asphalt paving, average personal exposures to submicron particulates were 25,000-60,000, 28,000-70,000, and 23,000-37,000 particles/ cm(3) for paver operators, screed operators, and rakers, respectively. Average personal exposures during milling were 19,000-111,000, 28,000-81,000, and 19,000 particles/cm(3) for the large miller operators, miller screed operators, and raker, respectively. Personal peak exposures were measured up to 467,000 and 455,000 particles/cm(3) in paving and milling, respectively. Several sources of submicron particles were identified. These included the diesel and electric fired screed heaters; engine exhaust from diesel powered construction vehicles passing by or idling; raking, dumping, and paving of asphalt; exhaust from the hotbox heater; pavement dust or fumes from milling operations, especially when the large miller started and stopped; and secondhand cigarette smoke. To reduce the potential for health effects in workers, over 40 recommendations were made to control exposures, including improved maintenance of

  14. Maslow Revisited: Constructing a Road Map of Human Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Dennis; Yballe, Leodones

    2007-01-01

    Given the scope and intent of Maslow's work, the current textbook treatment is wanting. Therefore, an inductive exercise has been created and is offered here to build "the road map of human nature." This age-old, philosophic focus on our true nature has been a way to successfully engage and inspire both our students and our pedagogy. In the spirit…

  15. Parent-School Partnerships: Forked Roads to College Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sil, Susmita

    2007-01-01

    This article utilizes a social capital perspective to explore the benefits and harmful effects of strong ties between parents and schools in enhancing college access for students. While focusing on social capital in the form of parental participation, the article goes beyond a functionalist approach of the social capital theory as adopted by…

  16. 77 FR 71865 - Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... Federal Transit Administration Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Grant Program AGENCY: Federal Transit... applicants should contact the appropriate FTA Regional Office for grant-specific issues; or lan Flippin... discretionary funding should work with their FTA regional office to finalize the electronic grant application...

  17. Knowledge Construction in a Teachers' Community of Enquiry: A Possible Road Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellermayer, Michal; Tabak, Edith

    2006-01-01

    This action research is targeted at academic researchers who facilitate the construction of communities of enquiry in school-university partnerships and are interested in understanding the process of such an enterprise as well as the knowledge constructed within such communities. Our action research study provides a possible road map for such a…

  18. 15. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO SHOWING FORMS GOING UP ON ACCESS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO SHOWING FORMS GOING UP ON ACCESS CORRIDOR. INEEL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-59-336. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. 25 CFR 170.405 - Can tribal transportation planning funds be used for road construction and other projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can tribal transportation planning funds be used for road... INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Planning, Design, and Construction of Indian Reservation Roads Program Facilities Transportation Planning § 170.405 Can tribal transportation...

  20. Recycling of waste spent catalyst in road construction and masonry blocks.

    PubMed

    Taha, Ramzi; Al-Kamyani, Zahran; Al-Jabri, Khalifa; Baawain, Mahad; Al-Shamsi, Khalid

    2012-08-30

    Waste spent catalyst is generated in Oman as a result of the cracking process of petroleum oil in the Mina Al-Fahl and Sohar Refineries. The disposal of spent catalyst is of a major concern to oil refineries. Stabilized spent catalyst was evaluated for use in road construction as a whole replacement for crushed aggregates in the sub-base and base layers and as a partial replacement for Portland cement in masonry blocks manufacturing. Stabilization is necessary as the waste spent catalyst exists in a powder form and binders are needed to attain the necessary strength required to qualify its use in road construction. Raw spent catalyst was also blended with other virgin aggregates, as a sand or filler replacement, for use in road construction. Compaction, unconfined compressive strength and leaching tests were performed on the stabilized mixtures. For its use in masonry construction, blocks were tested for unconfined compressive strength at various curing periods. Results indicate that the spent catalyst has a promising potential for use in road construction and masonry blocks without causing any negative environmental impacts. PMID:22704771

  1. Effects of Road De-icing Salts in Constructed Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, P.

    2005-05-01

    In November 2003, a 4-lane highway and 6 mitigation wetlands were opened across the Penn State campus, Erie, Pennsylvania. Road runoff overflows into 1 wetland (T3), and another (R3) receives salt spray and plowed snow. I have logged conductivity and temperature hourly at the sediment-water interface in R3 and T3 since January 2004, and I measure conductivity, temperature, and chironomid density biweekly in all 6 wetlands. Salinity in the wetlands that receive no salt is 0 psu. Biweekly checks of conductivity grossly underestimated winter salinities in T3 and R3. Between January and March 2004, salinity was >5 psu 5 times in R3, and >10 psu 6 times and >30 psu twice in T3. Flushing rates were similar in both wetlands, but time constants were significantly greater in T3 than R3. Salinities returned to 0 psu in both wetlands in May. Chironomid density was significantly lower in T3 than in all other wetlands in summer and autumn, long after salinities at the sediment-water interface returned to 0. Thus, chironomid densities indicated persistent biological effects of de-icers even when measurable salinities were 0 psu. Winter 2005 data show decreasing chironomid density in T3, whereas densities are increasing in the other wetlands.

  2. Statement of Basis/Proposed Plan for the Gunsite 113 Access Road Unit (631-24G)

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.

    1997-07-08

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the preferred remedial alternative for addressing the Gunsite 113 Access Road Unit located at SRS in Aiken, SC, and to provide an opportunity for public input into the remedial action selection process.

  3. Second memorandum on the flow of Aqua Caliente Spring after road construction at Palm Springs, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poland, J.F.; Dutcher, L.C.

    1953-01-01

    This memorandum was prepared at the request of Henry Harris, Acting Area Director, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Sacramento, Calif., to report on recent conditions at the Agua Caliente Spring, Palm Springs, Calif., and to suggest further possibilities for restoring the spring discharge to its pre-road-construction condition.

  4. Effects of road traffic noise and the benefit of access to quietness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öhrström, E.; Skånberg, A.; Svensson, H.; Gidlöf-Gunnarsson, A.

    2006-08-01

    Socio-acoustic surveys were carried out as part of the Soundscape Support to Health research programme to assess the health effects of various soundscapes in residential areas. The study was designed to test whether having access to a quiet side of one's dwelling enhances opportunities for relaxation and reduces noise annoyance and other adverse health effects related to noise. The dwellings chosen were exposed to sound levels from road traffic ranging from about L=45-68 dB at the most-exposed side. The study involved 956 individuals aged 18-75 years. The results demonstrate that access to quiet indoor and outdoor sections of one's dwelling supports health; it produces a lower degree and extent of annoyance and disturbed daytime relaxation, improves sleep and contributes to physiological and psychological well-being. Having access to a quiet side of one's dwelling reduces disturbances by an average of 30-50% for the various critical effects, and corresponds to a reduction in sound levels of ( LAeq,24h) 5 dB at the most-exposed side. To protect most people (80%) from annoyance and other adverse effects, sound levels from road traffic should not exceed ( LAeq,24h) 60 dB at the most-exposed side, even if there is access to a quiet side of one's dwelling ( LAeq,24h⩽45 dB).

  5. Public expectations about access fees and road closures on public lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cline, K.; Lamb, B.L.; Ponds, P.D.

    2006-01-01

    It is sometimes suggested that land managers could better communicate with the general public by relying on people who are active in community affairs to frame the message. By comparing responses from the 'attentive' and general public on the Colorado Plateau in the USA, this study investigated the expected effects of using recreation access fees or road closures to manage recreation on public lands. Although neither the attentive nor general public strongly anticipated benefits from the two management options, the attentive public was more likely than the general public to report positive expectations. Those more likely to expect fewer benefits from the management options do so because of factors that are outside the influence of managers (e.g., socio-demographics and value orientation). The results point out challenges for building public support through mobilizing the attentive public to develop a positive management atmosphere with fees and road closures. ?? 2006 University of Newcastle upon Tyne.

  6. 41. From Final Construction Report on the Haleakala Road ProjectNR7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. From Final Construction Report on the Haleakala Road Project--NR-7, Hawaii National Park, Island of Maui, Territory of Hawaii, T.H. VIEW FROM APPROXIMATELY THE SAME SPOT SHOWING HOW COVERING THE ROCK FILLS WITH SOIL HAS ALMOST OBLITERATED THESE SCARS. TO IDENTIFY A POINT FOR COMPARISON NOTICE THE BRIDE GULCH JUST TO THE LEFT OF THE CENTER IN THE UPPER PICTURE AND COMPARE WITH THE SAME GULCH IN THE LOWER PICTURE. THE AFTER PHOTO OF A BEFORE AND AFTER SET. BEFORE PHOTO IS HI-52-40. - Haleakala National Park Roads, Pukalani, Maui County, HI

  7. An overview of the EASE/ACCESS space construction demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, George M.; Ross, Jerry L.; Spring, Sherwood C.

    1988-01-01

    Consideration is given to the development of the Experimental Assembly of Structures in EVA/Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structures (EASE/ACCESS) space construction demonstration, which was performed during Space Shuttle mission 61-B. The mission equipment is described and illustrated and the EASE/ACCESS mission management structure is outlined. Simulations of the assembly and disassembly in the NASA neutral buoyancy simulators were used to test the mission plans. In addition, EVA training and crew performance for the mission are discussed.

  8. Assessment of the PCDD/F fate from MSWI residue used in road construction in France.

    PubMed

    Badreddine, R; François, D

    2009-01-01

    MSWI fly ash is susceptible to contain high amount of polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans. However, the use of MSWI residue for road construction started in France at a period when MSWI Bottom Ash and MSWI fly ash were not separated. From four old road sites, MSWI residue, road soils, reference soils and geo-textiles were sampled and their PCDD/F contents were analyzed. MSWI residue show a great heterogeneity but also high amounts of PCDD/F (14-2960 ng I-TEQ kg(-1)dm). Soils underlying the road show less heterogeneity and PCDD/F contents between 0.57 and 7.23 ng I-TEQ kg(-1)dm, lower than ordinary soils. Moreover, the specific analysis of the 17 toxic PCDD/F congeners (notably the 2,3,7,8-TetraCDD) indicates the very low harmfulness of road soils. The study also allows to assert the relation between the MSWI residue particle size and the PCDD/F content. PMID:18986676

  9. Needs and Beliefs in Construct Accessibility: Keys to New Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Hugh M.; Denbow, Carl J.; Stempel, Guido H., III

    1998-01-01

    Surveyed 390 Ohioans who rated five concepts as to closeness of linkage with osteopathic medicine. Finds, as suggested by the storage-bin concept in construct accessibility theory, that those who had experience with these concepts were most apt to use them in assessing osteopathic medicine--this held even though most respondents reported no…

  10. The Semiotics of Accessibility and the Cultural Construction of Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutua, Kagendo

    This paper draws on the observations of an international college student with an upper socio-economic background from Kenya who, prior to graduate work in the United States, had almost no contact with people with physical disabilities. The paper explores the construction of accessibility and disability on a college campus as viewed from a semiotic…

  11. Impacts of road construction and removal on the hydrologic and geochemical function of a fen peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, C. M.; Petrone, R. M.; Sutherland, G.; Price, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Linear disturbances such as roads cover vast swaths of northeastern Alberta, the majority of which are wetlands with shallow and local hydrologic connections. Thus, the effects of road construction on wetland hydrological pathways can have significant implications on water movement within the region, and by extension the productivity of vegetation communities and carbon sequestration. However, little is known about the effect that roads have on wetland hydrology. In 2013, a gravel road built within a fen peatland was reclaimed to evaluate hydrologic impacts post removal. Prior to removal, ground and surface water flow was obstructed leading to surface ponding, and vegetation mortality was observed on the up-gradient (wet) side of the road. Rebounding of the peat column was observed throughout the fen immediately following road removal in 2013 (maximum of 12 cm, mean of 2 cm), with modest but slightly smaller expansion in 2014. For both years, peat rebound was greatest in areas where the road was removed. Peat physical properties contrasted sharply between the reclaimed road (RR) peat and the adjacent, unimpacted peatland (UP). Surface bulk densities (pb, 0-10 cm) ranged from 0.1-0.25 g cm-3 along the RR compared to 0.02-0.07 g cm-3 for the UP and on average, pb for all depths were lower at the RR compared to the UP. Similar spatial patterns were observed for peat porosity. Correspondingly low horizontal saturated hydraulic conductivities (Kh) were observed along the RR compared to the UP, averaging 5.7x10-4 m s-1 and 1.7x10-3 m s-1, respectively. The local flow system across the RR and thus subsurface flow was impeded by almost half (0.4 m d-1) compared to flow observed within the UP (0.8 m d-1), leading to ponding on the upgradient side. A marked change in hydrophysical properties and ground and surface water flow patterns post road removal has implications for plant reestablishment and restoration and will form the basis of further study.

  12. [Purveyors of technology: provincial engineers and the construction of road infrastructure in Minas Gerais].

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Lidiany Silva

    2011-01-01

    The article analyzes the role played by engineers in the construction of road infrastructure in Minas Gerais between the 1840s and 1880s. Building and providing regular maintenance for roads and bridges was a task carried out by the Minas Gerais provincial government, which since the 1830s had a specific agency assigned to designing, building, and maintaining public communication routes. Engineers were part of the agency from its inception, playing a significant role in designing projects and in the actual execution of certain works. The current study is grounded in administrative documentation in which the details of work progress are reported to the provincial government. The gathered records provide technical, administrative, and financial information, along with data on labor power and the agents engaged in construction works. PMID:22012105

  13. Duct Remediation Program: Engineered access research and construction

    SciTech Connect

    Beckman, T.D.; Davis, M.M.; Karas, T.M.

    1992-11-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant, Duct Remediation mission concentrated on removing Plutonium Oxide from the process ductwork in the primary Plutonium processing facility. When possible, remediation took place from existing process gloveboxes. Fifteen locations were identified, however, that required accessing duct runs where no process gloveboxes existed. The building`s second floor utility areas had many locations where long, inaccessible duct runs were prevalent. Consequently, an extensive program for design, procurement and construction was initiated to contain and isolate ducts for penetration when existing glovebox sites were not present.

  14. Behavior of crushed rock aggregates used in road construction exposed to cold climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsova, Elena; Pérez Fortes, Ana Patricia; Anastasio, Sara; Willy Danielsen, Svein

    2016-04-01

    Presently, about 90% of the aggregate production in Europe comes from naturally occurring resources: quarries and pits. Due to the increased demand for sand and gravel for construction purposes, not only in building but also in road construction, the last decade has seen a significant trend towards the use of more crushed rock aggregates. This resource has been more and more preferred to sand and gravel thanks to the significant technological development of its process and use phase. The performance of the aggregates is generally evaluated depending on three main factors: the geological origin (mineral composition, texture, structure, degree of weathering), the aggregate processing (crushing, sieving, washing, storing) and the user technology for a specific area of use (e.g. road construction, asphalt binders). Nevertheless climatic conditions should carefully be taken into account in application such as road construction. Large temperature gradients and high levels of humidity are known to significantly affect the performance of the material. Although the problem is, at least in the asphalt field, considered mostly from the binder point of view, this article aims to investigate the effect of aggregate properties on road performance in cold climatic conditions. Two different climatic areas will be taken into account: Norway and Spain. While both these countries are listed among the main European producers of aggregates, they represent significantly different climatic regions. While Norwegian weather is characterized by humid cold winters and relatively mild summers, Spain has temperate climate with cold regions in mountainous and internal areas. Both countries have been significantly affected by climate change with increasing temperature variations and instability. At the same time, similar winter maintenance measures, including the use of a considerable amount of solid and liquid chemicals to avoid ice formation (e.g. NaCl) and/or to provide better friction, are

  15. Analysis on the Long Term Effect of Trial Test Road Constructed on Batu Pahat Soft Clay (BPSC) at Recess UTHM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idrus, M. M. M.; Edayu, A. E.; Adnan, Z.; Ismail, B.

    2016-07-01

    The reinforcement used in soil for construction of roads on the soft clay is very important as it will determine the level of service of the road after it was built. Damage or defects on the road surface to be an indicator of the level of the road has dropped and shows the deformation of the road. For this research, an analysis has carried out on the long-term effect of trial test road constructed on Batu Pahat Soft Clay (BPSC) at RECESS UTHM. Through this research, the reinforcement using Rawell Geosynthetic Clay Liner (RGCL) was the best with the stability is 14964 N, a low flow is 2.69mm, stiffness modulus is 1766 MPa, the peak load is 739.4 N and a lower horizontal deformation which is 1.71 µm compared Woven Geotextile section and section without geotextile [1] [9]. In terms of deformation can be seen clearly from physical observations that section without geotextile suffered significant damage than others. Settlement of road can also be analyzed by a longitudinal section that plotted based on the result of leveling work. After that, settlements are more visible way on the right side of the road trial. Through lab tests conducted, it indicate that the coring samples obtained from sites of each section meets the specifications set by the Jabatan Kerja Raya (JKR) in terms of stability, flow and stiffness [1]. Through this study, a trial road built on soft soil can be used as a test site because of the uniqueness of these roads which has three different types of reinforcements.

  16. Using remote sensing data to predict road fill areas and areas affected by fill erosion with planned forest road construction: a case study in Kastamonu Regional Forest Directorate (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Aricak, Burak

    2015-07-01

    Forest roads are essential for transport in managed forests, yet road construction causes environmental disturbance, both in the surface area the road covers and in erosion and downslope deposition of road fill material. The factors affecting the deposition distance of eroded road fill are the slope gradient and the density of plant cover. Thus, it is important to take these factors into consideration during road planning to minimize their disturbance. The aim of this study was to use remote sensing and field surveying to predict the locations that would be affected by downslope deposition of eroding road fill and to compile the data into a geographic information system (GIS) database. The construction of 99,500 m of forest roads is proposed for the Kastamonu Regional Forest Directorate in Turkey. Using GeoEye satellite images and a digital elevation model (DEM) for the region, the location and extent of downslope deposition of road fill were determined for the roads as planned. It was found that if the proposed roads were constructed by excavators, the fill material would cover 910,621 m(2) and the affected surface area would be 1,302,740 m(2). Application of the method used here can minimize the adverse effects of forest roads. PMID:26055656

  17. Physical soil properties and slope treatments effects on hydraulic excavator productivity for forest road construction.

    PubMed

    Parsakho, Aidin; Hosseini, Seyed Ataollah; Jalilvand, Hamid; Lotfalian, Majid

    2008-06-01

    Effects of moisture, porosity and soil bulk density properties, grubbing time and terrain side slopes on pc 220 komatsu hydraulic excavator productivity were investigated in Miana forests road construction project which located in the northern forest of Iran. Soil moisture and porosity determined by samples were taken from undisturbed soil. The elements of daily works were measured with a digital stop watch and video camera in 14 observations (days). The road length and cross section profiles after each 20 m were selected to estimate earthworks volume. Results showed that the mean production rates for the pc 220 komatsu excavators were 60.13 m3 h(-1) and earthwork 14.76 m h(-1) when the mean depth of excavation or cutting was 4.27 m3 m(-1), respectively. There was no significant effects (p = 0.5288) from the slope classes' treatments on productivity, whereas grubbing time, soil moisture, bulk density and porosity had significantly affected on excavator earthworks volume (p < 0.0001). Clear difference was showed between the earthwork length by slope classes (p = 0.0060). Grubbing time (p = 0.2180), soil moisture (p = 0.1622), bulk density (p = 0.2490) and porosity (p = 0.2159) had no significant effect on the excavator earthworks length. PMID:18817241

  18. Life-cycle impacts of the use of industrial by-products in road and earth construction.

    PubMed

    Mroueh, U M; Eskola, P; Laine-Ylijoki, J

    2001-01-01

    A two-stage study "Life cycle analysis of road construction and earthworks" was part of a more extensive Finnish research project "Assessment of the applicability of secondary products in earthworks". In the first stage of this work a life-cycle impact assessment procedure for the comparison and evaluation of alternative road and earth constructions was developed. Additionally, a database containing the environmental burdens of the most significant construction materials and unit operations was constructed. In order to evaluate the applicability of the procedure, the use of coal ash, crushed concrete waste and granulated blast-furnace slag in road construction was evaluated in case studies. The use of these secondary products was also compared with the use of natural materials in corresponding applications. The aim of the second stage was to transfer the assembled data for utilisation as a practical model by creating an inventory analysis program to calculate and compare the life cycle impacts of the most common road constructions and foundation engineering methods. The data obtained in the first stage was also augmented to the extent necessary for this purpose. The results of case studies indicate that the production and transport of the materials used in road constructions produce the most significant environmental burdens. Production of the bitumen and cement, crushing of materials and transport of materials are the most energy consuming single life-cycle stages of the construction. A large part of the emissions to atmosphere originates from energy production. In the expert assessment, consumption of natural materials and leaching behaviour were also regarded as being of great significance. PMID:11280519

  19. Environmental impact assessment of wood ash utilization in forest road construction and maintenance--A field study.

    PubMed

    Oburger, Eva; Jäger, Anna; Pasch, Alexander; Dellantonio, Alex; Stampfer, Karl; Wenzel, Walter W

    2016-02-15

    The ever increasing use of wood material as fuel for green energy production requires innovative, environmentally safe strategies for recycling of the remaining wood ash. Utilizing wood ash in forest road construction and maintenance to improve mechanical stability has been suggested as a feasible recycling option. To investigate the environmental impact of wood ash application in forest road maintenance, a two-year field experiment was conducted at two Austrian forest sites (Kobernausserwald (KO) (soil pH 5.5) and Weyregg (WE) (pH 7.7)) differing in their soil chemical properties. Two different ashes, one produced by grate incineration (GA) and the other by fluidized bed incineration in a mixture with 15 vol% burnt lime (FBA), were incorporated in repeated road sections at a 15:85% (V/V) ash-to-soil rate. Leaching waters from the road body were collected and analyzed for 32 environmentally relevant parameters over two years. Upon termination of the experiment, sub-road soil samples were collected and analyzed for ash-related changes in soil chemistry. Even though a larger number of parameters was affected by the ash application at the alkaline site (WE), we observed the most pronounced initial increases of pH as well as Al, As, Fe, Mn, Ni, Co, Cu, Mo, and NO2(−) concentrations in leachates beneath GA-treated road bodies at Kobernausserwald due to the lower soil buffer capacity at this site. Despite the observed effects our results indicate that, when specific requirements are met (i.e. appropriate ash quality, sufficient soil buffer capacity below the road body, and single time-point ash incorporation within several decades), wood ash application in forest road construction is generally environmentally acceptable. PMID:26674700

  20. Record of Decision Remedial Alternative Selection for the Gunsite 113 Access Road (631-24G) Operable Unit: Final Action

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.

    1997-01-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the Gunsite 113 Access Road Unit located at the Savannah River Site near Aiken, SC. The selected action was developed in accordance with CERCLA, as amended, and to the extent practicable, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The selected remedy satisfies both CERCLA and RCRA 3004(U) requirements. This decision is based ont he Administrative Record File for this specific RCRA/CERCLA Unit.

  1. 36 CFR 294.43 - Prohibition on road construction and reconstruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provision, subject to the legal rights identified in 36 CFR 294.43(b)(1), the responsible official must... of travelway functionality, and removal of the road prism (restoration of the road corridor to...

  2. 36 CFR 294.43 - Prohibition on road construction and reconstruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provision, subject to the legal rights identified in 36 CFR 294.43(b)(1), the responsible official must... of travelway functionality, and removal of the road prism (restoration of the road corridor to...

  3. Experiences from the planning, construction and supporting of a road tunnel subjected to heavy rockbursting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broch, E.; Sørheim, S.

    1984-01-01

    A 5360 m long road tunnel along a fjord with mountains rising steeply up to 1500 meters above sea level has recently been completed in Norway. 3 km of the tunnel was subjected to rockbursting caused by high and anisotropic stresses in the Precambrian gneisses. During the construction it was necessary to install 15 000 rock-bolts. Steelfibre reinforced shotcrete was successfylly applied for the first time to help stabilize the spalling rock. Supporting measures were only needed for the half of the tunnel closest to the fjord. 2600 m3 shotcrete was used. The paper outlines the preinvestigations and the design approach used for tunnels subjected to high and anisotropic stresses, and gives information about the construction and the support works carried out. A tunnel mapping system is described together with a classification of rockbursting activity in tunnels. Stresses in the rock were calculated by the use of finite element models and measured with “doorstopper” cells and the CSIR three-dimensional gauge. Comparisons of calculated and measured stresses are carried out. Rockbursting activity as observed along the tunnel is related to the estimated and observed stresses as well as to the properties of the rocks. Simple classification systems are used to correlate the results. Experiences from the use of the support are given.

  4. Beyond the material grave: Life Cycle Impact Assessment of leaching from secondary materials in road and earth constructions.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Oliver; Bayer, Peter; Juraske, Ronnie; Verones, Francesca; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2014-10-01

    In industrialized countries, large amounts of mineral wastes are produced. They are re-used in various ways, particularly in road and earth constructions, substituting primary resources such as gravel. However, they may also contain pollutants, such as heavy metals, which may be leached to the groundwater. The toxic impacts of these emissions are so far often neglected within Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) of products or waste treatment services and thus, potentially large environmental impacts are currently missed. This study aims at closing this gap by assessing the ecotoxic impacts of heavy metal leaching from industrial mineral wastes in road and earth constructions. The flows of metals such as Sb, As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, V and Zn originating from three typical constructions to the environment are quantified, their fate in the environment is assessed and potential ecotoxic effects evaluated. For our reference country, Germany, the industrial wastes that are applied as Granular Secondary Construction Material (GSCM) carry more than 45,000 t of diverse heavy metals per year. Depending on the material quality and construction type applied, up to 150 t of heavy metals may leach to the environment within the first 100 years after construction. Heavy metal retardation in subsoil can potentially reduce the fate to groundwater by up to 100%. One major challenge of integrating leaching from constructions into macro-scale LCA frameworks is the high variability in micro-scale technical and geographical factors, such as material qualities, construction types and soil types. In our work, we consider a broad range of parameter values in the modeling of leaching and fate. This allows distinguishing between the impacts of various road constructions, as well as sites with different soil properties. The findings of this study promote the quantitative consideration of environmental impacts of long-term leaching in Life Cycle Assessment, complementing site-specific risk

  5. Salting our landscape: an integrated catchment model using readily accessible data to assess emerging road salt contamination to streams.

    PubMed

    Jin, Li; Whitehead, Paul; Siegel, Donald I; Findlay, Stuart

    2011-05-01

    A new integrated catchment model for salinity has been developed to assess the transport of road salt from upland areas in watersheds to streams using readily accessible landscape, hydrologic, and meteorological data together with reported salt applications. We used Fishkill Creek (NY) as a representative watershed to test the model. Results showed good agreement between modeled and measured stream water chloride concentrations. These results suggest that a dominant mode of catchment simulation that does not entail complex deterministic modeling is an appropriate method to model salinization and to assess effects of future applications of road salt to streams. We heuristically increased and decreased salt applications by 100% and results showed that stream chloride concentrations increased by 13% and decreased by 7%, respectively. The model suggests that future management of salt application can reduce environmental concentrations, albeit over some time. PMID:21316826

  6. An automated approach for constructing road network graph from multispectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Weihua; Messinger, David W.

    2012-06-01

    We present an approach for automatically building a road network graph from multispectralWorldView II images in suburban and urban areas. In this graph, the road parts are represented by edges and their connectivity by vertices. This approach consists of an image processing chain utilizing both high-resolution spatial features as well as multiple band spectral signatures from satellite images. Based on an edge-preserving filtered image, a two-pass spatial-spectral flood fill technique is adopted to extract a road class map. This technique requires only one pixel as the initial training set and collects spatially adjacent and spectrally similar pixels to the initial points as a second level training set for a higher accuracy asphalt classification. Based on the road class map, a road network graph is built after going through a curvilinear detector and a knowledge based system. The graph projects a logical representation of the road network in an urban image. Rules can be made to filter salient road parts with different width as well as ruling out parking lots from the asphalt class map. This spatial spectral joint approach we propose here is capable of building up a road network connectivity graph and this graph lays a foundation for further road related tasks.

  7. Effects of coal mining, forestry, and road construction on southern Appalachian stream invertebrates and habitats.

    PubMed

    Gangloff, Michael M; Perkins, Michael; Blum, Peter W; Walker, Craig

    2015-03-01

    Coal has been extracted via surface and sub-surface mining for decades throughout the Appalachian Mountains. New interest in ridge-top mining has raised concerns about possible waterway impacts. We examined effects of forestry, mining, and road construction-based disturbance on physico-chemistry and macroinvertebrate communities in east-central Tennessee headwater streams. Although 11 of 30 sites failed Tennessee's biocriteria scoring system, invertebrate richness was moderately high and we did not find significant differences in any water chemistry or habitat parameters between sites with passing and failing scores. However, conductivity and dissolved solid concentrations appeared elevated in the majority of study streams. Principal components (PCs) analysis indicated that six PCs accounted for ~77 % of among-site habitat variability. One PC associated with dissolved oxygen and specific conductance explained the second highest proportion of among-site variability after catchment area. Specific conductance was not correlated with catchment area but was strongly correlated with mining activity. Composition and success of multivariate models using habitat PCs to predict macroinvertebrate metrics was highly variable. PC scores associated with water chemistry and substrate composition were most frequently included in significant models. These results suggest that impacts of historical and current coal mining remain a source of water quality and macroinvertebrate community impairment in this region, but effects are subtle. Our results suggest that surface mining may have chronic and system-wide effects on habitat conditions and invertebrate communities in Cumberland Plateau streams. PMID:25528595

  8. Feasibility for the use of coal tar as a new material for road surfaces (pavement) construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero Farfán, M. A.; Murillo Vega, H. E.; Trujillo Pinto, F. A.

    2016-02-01

    The stabilization products often used to improve the support of granular layers in the construction of road surfaces may be expensive and difficult to get. Therefore, it is necessary to test different materials, which are cheap and easy to obtain, and which will enhance the physical and mechanical properties of pavement layers. This document evaluates the use of coal tar, as a stabilizer for granular subbase. Initially, with a description of tar properties, determining the optimal conditions for the granular subbase material compaction, by means of modified proctor tests and the calculation of the resistance of the unaltered material by using CBR lab tests (California Bearing Ratio). Afterwards, with the design and development of granular material mixes with different percentages of coal tar and determining its CBR as comparative parameter with that of the unaltered material. Finally, by calculating the optimal coal tar percentage in order to stabilize the subbase granular, the results showed an improvement in the resistance of the granular material and a decrease in its expansion due to the use of coal tar.

  9. Effects of Coal Mining, Forestry, and Road Construction on Southern Appalachian Stream Invertebrates and Habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangloff, Michael M.; Perkins, Michael; Blum, Peter W.; Walker, Craig

    2015-03-01

    Coal has been extracted via surface and sub-surface mining for decades throughout the Appalachian Mountains. New interest in ridge-top mining has raised concerns about possible waterway impacts. We examined effects of forestry, mining, and road construction-based disturbance on physico-chemistry and macroinvertebrate communities in east-central Tennessee headwater streams. Although 11 of 30 sites failed Tennessee's biocriteria scoring system, invertebrate richness was moderately high and we did not find significant differences in any water chemistry or habitat parameters between sites with passing and failing scores. However, conductivity and dissolved solid concentrations appeared elevated in the majority of study streams. Principal components (PCs) analysis indicated that six PCs accounted for ~77 % of among-site habitat variability. One PC associated with dissolved oxygen and specific conductance explained the second highest proportion of among-site variability after catchment area. Specific conductance was not correlated with catchment area but was strongly correlated with mining activity. Composition and success of multivariate models using habitat PCs to predict macroinvertebrate metrics was highly variable. PC scores associated with water chemistry and substrate composition were most frequently included in significant models. These results suggest that impacts of historical and current coal mining remain a source of water quality and macroinvertebrate community impairment in this region, but effects are subtle. Our results suggest that surface mining may have chronic and system-wide effects on habitat conditions and invertebrate communities in Cumberland Plateau streams.

  10. Permittivity Investigations of the Road Construction Raw Materials for Purposes of GPR Data Interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krysiński, Lech

    2014-05-01

    Permittivity is the major material property governing the formation of GPR response signal in diagnostic measurements. Every quantitative interpretation refers explicitly or implicitly to discussion of permittivity values. Thus, the recognition of permittivity for materials typical of the given technological area is necessary to make use of diagnostic measurements. Collection of several tens of stone cores representing different outcrops was investigated in order to obtain cross-sectional view of permittivity for stone materials being in use in Polish road construction industry as components of stone-asphalt mixtures. The main task was to estimate the typical permittivity values for stone materials treated as representation of several major petrological types. The capacimetry (at 50 MHz) was used as major and very efficient method of permittivity assessment and formation of the samples was subordinated to demands of this method. This method allows for determination of permittivity variability on the lateral surface of the cylindrical sample, giving the insight into the major features of the permittivity spatial distribution characteristic for the given rock. For the most homogeneous samples (in terms of permittivity distribution) the permittivity was measured also on the core top at frequency 2 GHz using impulse GPR reflectometry. No clear proofs for considerable permittivity frequency dependence were found (in the frame of the two methods precision) for these rocks. This conclusion can be related generally to major rock-forming minerals at least in dry igneous rocks. Only solid rocks obtained from regular massive outcrops were included to this first cross-sectional sampling, while artificial synthetic materials and natural gravels of postglacial origin were omitted since additional problems occur in these cases. This first experience allowed to recognize practical problems related to the sampling procedure. The collected data allow for provisional identification

  11. 47 CFR 1.1851 - Building accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Barriers Act, 42 U.S.C. 4151-4157, as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to buildings... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Building accessibility: New construction and... the Federal Communications Commission § 1.1851 Building accessibility: New construction...

  12. 47 CFR 1.1851 - Building accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Barriers Act, 42 U.S.C. 4151-4157, as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to buildings... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Building accessibility: New construction and... the Federal Communications Commission § 1.1851 Building accessibility: New construction...

  13. 7 CFR 15e.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Program accessibility: New construction and... AGRICULTURE § 15e.151 Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. Each building or part of a... established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to buildings covered by this section....

  14. 7 CFR 15e.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program accessibility: New construction and... AGRICULTURE § 15e.151 Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. Each building or part of a... established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to buildings covered by this section....

  15. Degradation in urban air quality from construction activity and increased traffic arising from a road widening scheme.

    PubMed

    Font, Anna; Baker, Timothy; Mudway, Ian S; Purdie, Esme; Dunster, Christina; Fuller, Gary W

    2014-11-01

    Road widening schemes in urban areas are often proposed as a solution to traffic congestion and as a means of stimulating economic growth. There is however clear evidence that new or expanded roads rapidly fill with either displaced or induced traffic, offsetting any short-term gains in eased traffic flows. What has not been addressed in any great detail is the impact of such schemes on air quality, with modelled impact predictions seldom validated by measurements after the expansion of road capacity. In this study we made use of a road widening project in London to investigate the impact on ambient air quality (particulate matter, NOX, NO2) during and after the completion of the road works. PM10 increased during the construction period up to 15 μg m(-3) during working hours compared to concentrations before the road works. A box modelling approach was used to determine a median emission factor of 0.0022 kg PM10 m(-2) month(-1), three times larger than that used in the UK emission inventory (0.0007 kg PM10 m(-2) month(-1)). Peaks of activity released 0.0130 kg PM10 m(-2) month(-1), three and eight times smaller than the peak values used in the European and US inventories. After the completion of the widening there was an increase in all pollutants from the road during rush hour: 2-4 μg m(-3) for PM10; 1 μg m(-3) for PM2.5; 40 and 8 μg m(-3) for NOX and NO2, respectively. NO2 EU Limit Value was breached after the road development illustrating a notable deterioration in residential air quality. Additionally, PM10, but not PM2.5, glutathione dependent oxidative potential increased after the road was widened consistent with an increase in pro-oxidant components in the coarse particle mode, related to vehicle abrasion processes. These increased air pollution indices were associated with an increase in the number of cars, taxis and LGVs. PMID:25128882

  16. Beyond the material grave: Life Cycle Impact Assessment of leaching from secondary materials in road and earth constructions

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, Oliver; Bayer, Peter; Juraske, Ronnie; Verones, Francesca; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We model environmental impacts of leaching from secondary construction material. • Industrial wastes in construction contain up to 45,000 t heavy metals per year (D). • In a scenario, 150 t are leached to the environment within 100 years after construction. • All heavy metals but As, Sb and Mo are adsorbed by 20 cm subsoil in this scenario. • Environmental impacts depend on material, pollutant, construction type, and geography. - Abstract: In industrialized countries, large amounts of mineral wastes are produced. They are re-used in various ways, particularly in road and earth constructions, substituting primary resources such as gravel. However, they may also contain pollutants, such as heavy metals, which may be leached to the groundwater. The toxic impacts of these emissions are so far often neglected within Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) of products or waste treatment services and thus, potentially large environmental impacts are currently missed. This study aims at closing this gap by assessing the ecotoxic impacts of heavy metal leaching from industrial mineral wastes in road and earth constructions. The flows of metals such as Sb, As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, V and Zn originating from three typical constructions to the environment are quantified, their fate in the environment is assessed and potential ecotoxic effects evaluated. For our reference country, Germany, the industrial wastes that are applied as Granular Secondary Construction Material (GSCM) carry more than 45,000 t of diverse heavy metals per year. Depending on the material quality and construction type applied, up to 150 t of heavy metals may leach to the environment within the first 100 years after construction. Heavy metal retardation in subsoil can potentially reduce the fate to groundwater by up to 100%. One major challenge of integrating leaching from constructions into macro-scale LCA frameworks is the high variability in micro-scale technical and geographical factors

  17. Soil retention of hexavalent chromium released from construction and demolition waste in a road-base-application scenario.

    PubMed

    Butera, Stefania; Trapp, Stefan; Astrup, Thomas F; Christensen, Thomas H

    2015-11-15

    We investigated the retention of Cr(VI) in three subsoils with low organic matter content in laboratory experiments at concentration levels relevant to represent leachates from construction and demolition waste (C&DW) reused as unbound material in road construction. The retention mechanism appeared to be reduction and subsequent precipitation as Cr(III) on the soil. The reduction process was slow and in several experiments it was still proceeding at the end of the six-month experimental period. The overall retention reaction fit well with a second-order reaction governed by actual Cr(VI) concentration and reduction capacity of the soil. The experimentally determined reduction capacities and second-order kinetic parameters were used to model, for a 100-year period, the one-dimensional migration of Cr(VI) in the subsoil under a layer of C&DW. The resulting Cr(VI) concentration would be negligible below 7-70 cm depth. However, in rigid climates and with high water infiltration through the road pavement, the reduction reaction could be so slow that Cr(VI) might migrate as deep as 200 cm under the road. The reaction parameters and the model can form the basis for systematically assessing under which scenarios Cr(VI) from C&DW could lead to an environmental issue for ground- and receiving surface waters. PMID:26148961

  18. Acceptable Care? Illness Constructions, Healthworlds, and Accessible Chronic Treatment in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Bronwyn; Eyles, John; Moshabela, Mosa

    2015-01-01

    Achieving equitable access to health care is an important policy goal, with access influenced by affordability, availability, and acceptability of specific services. We explore patient narratives from a 5-year program of research on health care access to examine relationships between social constructions of illness and the acceptability of health services in the context of tuberculosis treatment and antiretroviral therapy in South Africa. Acceptability of services seems particularly important to the meanings patients attach to illness and care, whereas—conversely—these constructions appear to influence what constitutes acceptability and hence affect access to care. We highlight the underestimated role of individually, socially, and politically constructed healthworlds; traditional and biomedical beliefs; and social support networks. Suggested policy implications for improving acceptability and hence overall health care access include abandoning patronizing approaches to care and refocusing from treating “disease” to responding to “illness” by acknowledging and incorporating patients’ healthworlds in patient–provider interactions. PMID:25829509

  19. 11 CFR 9420.6 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE U.S. ELECTION ASSISTANCE COMMISSION § 9420..., constructed, or altered so as to be readily accessible to and usable by handicapped persons. The...

  20. 47 CFR 1.1851 - Building accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Architectural Barriers Act, 42 U.S.C. 4151-4157, as established in 41 CFR 102-76.60 to 102-76.95, apply to... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Building accessibility: New construction and... or Activities Conducted By the Federal Communications Commission § 1.1851 Building accessibility:...

  1. 47 CFR 1.1851 - Building accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Architectural Barriers Act, 42 U.S.C. 4151-4157, as established in 41 CFR 102-76.60 to 102-76.95, apply to... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Building accessibility: New construction and... or Activities Conducted By the Federal Communications Commission § 1.1851 Building accessibility:...

  2. 47 CFR 1.1851 - Building accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Architectural Barriers Act, 42 U.S.C. 4151-4157, as established in 41 CFR 102-76.60 to 102-76.95, apply to... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Building accessibility: New construction and... or Activities Conducted By the Federal Communications Commission § 1.1851 Building accessibility:...

  3. 25 CFR 170.128 - Are housing access roads and housing streets eligible for IRR Program funding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and... available after the projects are listed on the FHWA-approved IRRTIP. Toll, Ferry and Airport Facilities...

  4. 25 CFR 170.128 - Are housing access roads and housing streets eligible for IRR Program funding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and... available after the projects are listed on the FHWA-approved IRRTIP. Toll, Ferry and Airport Facilities...

  5. LUR models for particulate matters in the Taipei metropolis with high densities of roads and strong activities of industry, commerce and construction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jui-Huna; Wu, Chang-Fu; Hoek, Gerard; de Hoogh, Kees; Beelen, Rob; Brunekreef, Bert; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2015-05-01

    Traffic intensity, length of road, and proximity to roads are the most common traffic indicators in the land use regression (LUR) models for particulate matter in ESCAPE study areas in Europe. This study explored what local variables can improve the performance of LUR models in an Asian metropolis with high densities of roads and strong activities of industry, commerce and construction. By following the ESCAPE procedure, we derived LUR models of PM₂.₅, PM₂.₅ absorbance, PM₁₀, and PMcoarse (PM₂.₅-₁₀) in Taipei. The overall annual average concentrations of PM₂.₅, PM₁₀, and PMcoarse were 26.0 ± 5.6, 48.6 ± 5.9, and 23.3 ± 3.1 μg/m(3), respectively, and the absorption coefficient of PM₂.₅ was 2.0 ± 0.4 × 10(-5)m(-1). Our LUR models yielded R(2) values of 95%, 96%, 87%, and 65% for PM₂.₅, PM₂.₅ absorbance, PM₁₀, and PMcoarse, respectively. PM₂.₅ levels were increased by local traffic variables, industrial, construction, and residential land-use variables and decreased by rivers; while PM₂.₅ absorbance levels were increased by local traffic variables, industrial, and commercial land-use variables in the models. PMcoarse levels were increased by elevated highways. Road area explained more variance than road length by increasing the incremental value of 27% and 6% adjusted R(2) for PM₂.₅ and PM₁₀ models, respectively. In the PM₂.₅ absorbance model, road area and transportation facility explain 29% more variance than road length. In the PMcoarse model, industrial and new local variables instead of road length improved the incremental value of adjusted R(2) from 39% to 60%. We concluded that road area can better explain the spatial distribution of PM₂.₅ and PM₂.₅ absorbance concentrations than road length. By incorporating road area and other new local variables, the performance of each PM LUR model was improved. The results suggest that road area is a better indicator of traffic intensity rather

  6. The Road from the NASA Access-to-Space Study to a Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Richard W.; Lockwood, Mary Kae; Cook, Stephen A.

    1998-01-01

    NASA has established a goal of providing low-cost reliable access to space. While this goal has been around for many years, it received a major impetus when the U.S Congress mandated the Access-to-Space study in 1993. This study concluded that a rocket powered single-stage-to-orbit vehicle offered the best opportunity for low-cost reliable space transportation by the first decade of the new millennium. This required a focused technology development program before such a vehicle could be built. NASA recognized that no commercial entity would commit to the development of a single-stage-to-orbit vehicle without the U.S. Government's participation. To this end, NASA entered into a cooperative agreement with industry to mature the required technologies. This effort includes the development of an experimental subscale-vehicle known as the X-33, an extensive ground-based program to provide the required additional technology development, and conceptual through preliminary design of an operational reusable launch vehicle. Following this effort, a decision will be made whether or not to proceed with the detailed design and fabrication of an operational vehicle.

  7. The Road from the NASA Access-to-Space Study to a Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Richard W.; Lockwood, Mary Kae; Cook, Stephen A.

    1998-01-01

    NASA has established a goal of providing low-cost reliable access to space. While this goal has been around for many years, it received a major impetus when the U.S. Congress mandated the Access-to-Space study in 1993. This study concluded that a rocket powered single-state-to-orbit vehicle offered the best opportunity for low-cost reliable space transportation by the first decade of the new millennium. This required a focused technology development program before such a vehicle could be built. NASA recognized that no commercial entity would commit to the development of a single-stage-to-orbit vehicle without the U.S. Government's participation. To this end, NASA entered into a cooperative agreement with industry to mature the required technologies. This effort includes the development of an experimental subscale-vehicle known as the X-33, an extensive ground-based program to provide the required additional technology development, and conceptual through preliminary design of an operational reusable launch vehicle. Following this effort, a decision will be made whether or not to proceed with the detailed design and fabrication of an operational vehicle.

  8. The Road from the NASA Access to Space Study to a Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Richard W.; Cook, Stephen A.; Lockwood, Mary Kae

    1998-01-01

    NASA is cooperating with the aerospace industry to develop a space transportation system that provides reliable access-to-space at a much lower cost than is possible with today's launch vehicles. While this quest has been on-going for many years it received a major impetus when the U.S. Congress mandated as part of the 1993 NASA appropriations bill that: "In view of budget difficulties, present and future..., the National Aeronautics and Space Administration shall ... recommend improvements in space transportation." NASA, working with other organizations, including the Department of Transportation, and the Department of Defense identified three major transportation architecture options that were to be evaluated in the areas of reliability, operability and cost. These architectural options were: (1) retain and upgrade the Space Shuttle and the current expendable launch vehicles; (2) develop new expendable launch vehicles using conventional technologies and transition to these new vehicles beginning in 2005; and (3) develop new reusable vehicles using advanced technology, and transition to these vehicles beginning in 2008. The launch needs mission model was based on 1993 projections of civil, defense, and commercial payload requirements. This "Access to Space" study concluded that the option that provided the greatest potential for meeting the cost, operability, and reliability goals was a rocket-powered single-stage-to-orbit fully reusable launch vehicle (RLV) fleet designed with advanced technologies.

  9. Field site leaching from recycled concrete aggregates applied as sub-base material in road construction.

    PubMed

    Engelsen, Christian J; Wibetoe, Grethe; van der Sloot, Hans A; Lund, Walter; Petkovic, Gordana

    2012-06-15

    The release of major and trace elements from recycled concrete aggregates used in an asphalt covered road sub-base has been monitored for more than 4 years. A similar test field without an asphalt cover, directly exposed to air and rain, and an asphalt covered reference field with natural aggregates in the sub-base were also included in the study. It was found that the pH of the infiltration water from the road sub-base with asphalt covered concrete aggregates decreased from 12.6 to below pH 10 after 2.5 years of exposure, whereas this pH was reached within only one year for the uncovered field. Vertical temperature profiles established for the sub-base, could explain the measured infiltration during parts of the winter season. When the release of major and trace elements as function of field pH was compared with pH dependent release data measured in the laboratory, some similar pH trends were found. The field concentrations of Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn were found to be low throughout the monitoring period. During two of the winter seasons, a concentration increase of Cr and Mo was observed, possibly due to the use of de-icing salt. The concentrations of the trace constituents did not exceed Norwegian acceptance criteria for ground water and surface water Class II. PMID:22554532

  10. New Roads and Human Health: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Matt; Petticrew, Mark; Ogilvie, David; Hamilton, Val

    2003-01-01

    We sought to synthesize evidence of the health effects of construction of new roads by systematically reviewing observational studies of such effects. We included and critically appraised 32 studies. The review suggested that out-of-town bypasses decrease injuries on main roads through or around towns, although more robust evidence is needed on effects on secondary roads. New major urban roads have statistically insignificant effects on injury incidence. New major roads between towns decrease injuries. Out-of-town bypasses reduce disturbance and community severance in towns but increase them elsewhere. Major urban roads increase disturbance and severance. More robust research is needed in this area, particularly regarding effects of new roads on respiratory health, mental health, access to health services, and physical activity. PMID:12948964

  11. 5 CFR 723.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. 723.151 Section 723.151 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL...

  12. 44 CFR 16.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. 16.151 Section 16.151 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY... standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600...

  13. 44 CFR 16.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. 16.151 Section 16.151 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY... standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600...

  14. 5 CFR 723.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. 723.151 Section 723.151 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL...

  15. 5 CFR 723.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. 723.151 Section 723.151 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL...

  16. 41 CFR 105-8.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. 105-8.151 Section 105-8.151 Public Contracts and Property Management... established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to buildings covered by this section....

  17. 41 CFR 51-10.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. 51-10.151 Section 51-10.151 Public Contracts and Property Management... standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600...

  18. 41 CFR 105-8.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. 105-8.151 Section 105-8.151 Public Contracts and Property Management... established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to buildings covered by this section....

  19. 41 CFR 105-8.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. 105-8.151 Section 105-8.151 Public Contracts and Property Management... established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to buildings covered by this section....

  20. 41 CFR 51-10.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. 51-10.151 Section 51-10.151 Public Contracts and Property Management... standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600...

  1. 41 CFR 51-10.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. 51-10.151 Section 51-10.151 Public Contracts and Property Management... standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600...

  2. 44 CFR 16.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. 16.151 Section 16.151 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY... standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600...

  3. 5 CFR 723.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. 723.151 Section 723.151 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL...

  4. 41 CFR 51-10.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. 51-10.151 Section 51-10.151 Public Contracts and Property Management... standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600...

  5. 44 CFR 16.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. 16.151 Section 16.151 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY... standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600...

  6. 41 CFR 105-8.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. 105-8.151 Section 105-8.151 Public Contracts and Property Management... established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to buildings covered by this section....

  7. 44 CFR 16.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. 16.151 Section 16.151 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY... standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600...

  8. 5 CFR 723.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. 723.151 Section 723.151 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL...

  9. 41 CFR 51-10.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. 51-10.151 Section 51-10.151 Public Contracts and Property Management... standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600...

  10. 45 CFR 1214.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to buildings... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Program accessibility: New construction and...) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP...

  11. 45 CFR 1214.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to buildings... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program accessibility: New construction and...) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP...

  12. 45 CFR 1214.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to buildings... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Program accessibility: New construction and...) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP...

  13. 45 CFR 1214.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to buildings... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Program accessibility: New construction and...) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP...

  14. 45 CFR 1214.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to buildings... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Program accessibility: New construction and...) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP...

  15. 10 CFR 1041.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. 1041.151 Section 1041.151 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) ENFORCEMENT OF..., requirements, and standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41...

  16. 10 CFR 4.551 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. 4.551 Section 4.551 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED..., requirements, and standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41...

  17. 10 CFR 1041.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. 1041.151 Section 1041.151 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) ENFORCEMENT OF..., requirements, and standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41...

  18. 10 CFR 4.551 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. 4.551 Section 4.551 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED..., requirements, and standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41...

  19. 10 CFR 1041.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. 1041.151 Section 1041.151 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) ENFORCEMENT OF..., requirements, and standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41...

  20. 10 CFR 4.551 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. 4.551 Section 4.551 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM THE COMMISSION Enforcement of Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability in...

  1. 10 CFR 1041.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. 1041.151 Section 1041.151 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) ENFORCEMENT OF..., requirements, and standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41...

  2. 10 CFR 4.551 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. 4.551 Section 4.551 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED..., requirements, and standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41...

  3. 10 CFR 1041.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. 1041.151 Section 1041.151 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) ENFORCEMENT OF..., requirements, and standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41...

  4. 10 CFR 4.551 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. 4.551 Section 4.551 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED..., requirements, and standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41...

  5. 45 CFR 606.52 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to buildings... SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION § 606.52 Program accessibility: New construction...

  6. 45 CFR 606.52 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to buildings... SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION § 606.52 Program accessibility: New construction...

  7. 6 CFR 15.51 - Program accessibility; new construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 through 101-19.607 apply to buildings... alterations. 15.51 Section 15.51 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY § 15.51 Program accessibility; new construction and alterations....

  8. 11 CFR 6.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., constructed, or altered so as to be readily accessible to and usable by handicapped persons. The definitions, requirements, and standards of the Architectural Barriers Act, 42 U.S.C. 4151-4157, as established in 41 CFR... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE FEDERAL ELECTION...

  9. 32 CFR 1906.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Barriers Act of 1968 (42 U.S.C. 4151-4175), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19-607, apply to... INTELLIGENCE AGENCY ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY § 1906.151 Program accessibility: New construction...

  10. 32 CFR 1906.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Barriers Act of 1968 (42 U.S.C. 4151-4175), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19-607, apply to... INTELLIGENCE AGENCY ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY § 1906.151 Program accessibility: New construction...

  11. 32 CFR 1906.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Barriers Act of 1968 (42 U.S.C. 4151-4175), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19-607, apply to... INTELLIGENCE AGENCY ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY § 1906.151 Program accessibility: New construction...

  12. 32 CFR 1906.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Barriers Act of 1968 (42 U.S.C. 4151-4175), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19-607, apply to... INTELLIGENCE AGENCY ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY § 1906.151 Program accessibility: New construction...

  13. 32 CFR 1906.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Barriers Act of 1968 (42 U.S.C. 4151-4175), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19-607, apply to... INTELLIGENCE AGENCY ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY § 1906.151 Program accessibility: New construction...

  14. 45 CFR 1803.8 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., and standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.... TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP § 1803.8 Program accessibility... by, on behalf of, or for the use of the Foundation shall be designed, constructed, or altered so...

  15. 45 CFR 1803.8 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., and standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.... TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP § 1803.8 Program accessibility... by, on behalf of, or for the use of the Foundation shall be designed, constructed, or altered so...

  16. 45 CFR 606.52 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to buildings... SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION § 606.52 Program accessibility: New construction...

  17. 45 CFR 1803.8 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., and standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.... TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP § 1803.8 Program accessibility... by, on behalf of, or for the use of the Foundation shall be designed, constructed, or altered so...

  18. 45 CFR 1803.8 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., and standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.... TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP § 1803.8 Program accessibility... by, on behalf of, or for the use of the Foundation shall be designed, constructed, or altered so...

  19. 45 CFR 1803.8 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., and standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.... TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP § 1803.8 Program accessibility... by, on behalf of, or for the use of the Foundation shall be designed, constructed, or altered so...

  20. 45 CFR 606.52 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to buildings... SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION § 606.52 Program accessibility: New construction...

  1. 45 CFR 606.52 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to buildings... SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION § 606.52 Program accessibility: New construction...

  2. 16 CFR 1034.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to buildings covered by this... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. 1034.151 Section 1034.151 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION...

  3. 45 CFR 1181.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to buildings covered by this section. ...) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES ENFORCEMENT OF... LIBRARY SERVICES § 1181.151 Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. Each building or...

  4. 45 CFR 1181.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to buildings covered by this section. ...) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES ENFORCEMENT OF... LIBRARY SERVICES § 1181.151 Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. Each building or...

  5. 45 CFR 2104.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to buildings covered by this...) COMMISSION OF FINE ARTS ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE COMMISSION OF FINE ARTS § 2104.151 Program accessibility: New construction and...

  6. 29 CFR 1615.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program accessibility: New construction and alterations. 1615.151 Section 1615.151 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE EQUAL EMPLOYMENT...

  7. 18 CFR 1313.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to buildings... TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY § 1313.151 Program accessibility: New construction...

  8. 25 CFR 162.019 - May a lease address access to the leased premises by roads or other infrastructure?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... applicable statutory and regulatory requirements, including 25 CFR part 169. Roads or other infrastructure within the leased premises do not require compliance with 25 CFR part 169 during the term of the lease... roads or other infrastructure? 162.019 Section 162.019 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT...

  9. 25 CFR 162.019 - May a lease address access to the leased premises by roads or other infrastructure?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... applicable statutory and regulatory requirements, including 25 CFR part 169. Roads or other infrastructure within the leased premises do not require compliance with 25 CFR part 169 during the term of the lease... roads or other infrastructure? 162.019 Section 162.019 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT...

  10. Fly ash construction manual for road and site applications: Volume 2, Contractor's guide: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Glogowski, P.E.; Kelly, J.M.; Curry, M.A.

    1988-10-01

    This two-volume manual presents information for the specification writer or contractor planning to use coal fly ash in the following applications: Fills, Embankments, and Backfills; Subgrade Stabilization; Pavement Base Course; Slurry Backfill; Soil Amendment. This document, Volume 2, ''Contractor's Guide,'' contains information directed toward contractors that describes equipment selection criteria and proper construction techniques. Sample specifications are included as appendices to each volume. 29 refs., 23 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Life cycle assessment of disposal of residues from municipal solid waste incineration: recycling of bottom ash in road construction or landfilling in Denmark evaluated in the ROAD-RES model.

    PubMed

    Birgisdóttir, H; Bhander, G; Hauschild, M Z; Christensen, T H

    2007-01-01

    Two disposal methods for MSWI bottom ash were assessed in a new life cycle assessment (LCA) model for road construction and disposal of residues. The two scenarios evaluated in the model were: (i) landfilling of bottom ash in a coastal landfill in Denmark and (ii) recycling of bottom ash as subbase layer in an asphalted secondary road. The LCA included resource and energy consumption, and emissions associated with upgrading of bottom ash, transport, landfilling processes, incorporation of bottom ash in road, substitution of natural gravel as road construction material and leaching of heavy metals and salts from bottom ash in road as well as in landfill. Environmental impacts associated with emissions to air, fresh surface water, marine surface water, groundwater and soil were aggregated into 12 environmental impact categories: Global Warming, Photochemical Ozone Formation, Nutrient Enrichment, Acidification, Stratospheric Ozone Depletion, Human Toxicity via air/water/soil, Ecotoxicity in water/soil, and a new impact category, Stored Ecotoxicity to water/soil that accounts for the presence of heavy metals and very persistent organic compounds that in the long-term might leach. Leaching of heavy metals and salts from bottom ash was estimated from a series of laboratory leaching tests. For both scenarios, Ecotoxicity(water) was, when evaluated for the first 100 yr, the most important among the twelve impact categories involved in the assessment. Human Toxicity(soil) was also important, especially for the Road scenario. When the long-term leaching of heavy metals from bottom ash was evaluated, based on the total content of heavy metals in bottom ash, all impact categories became negligible compared to the potential Stored Ecotoxicity, which was two orders of magnitudes greater than Ecotoxicity(water). Copper was the constituent that gave the strongest contributions to the ecotoxicities. The most important resources consumed were clay as liner in landfill and the

  12. Identification of Groundwater Nitrate Contamination from Explosives Used in Road Construction: Isotopic, Chemical, and Hydrologic Evidence.

    PubMed

    Degnan, James R; Böhlke, J K; Pelham, Krystle; Langlais, David M; Walsh, Gregory J

    2016-01-19

    Explosives used in construction have been implicated as sources of NO3(-) contamination in groundwater, but direct forensic evidence is limited. Identification of blasting-related NO3(-) can be complicated by other NO3(-) sources, including agriculture and wastewater disposal, and by hydrogeologic factors affecting NO3(-) transport and stability. Here we describe a study that used hydrogeology, chemistry, stable isotopes, and mass balance calculations to evaluate groundwater NO3(-) sources and transport in areas surrounding a highway construction site with documented blasting in New Hampshire. Results indicate various groundwater responses to contamination: (1) rapid breakthrough and flushing of synthetic NO3(-) (low δ(15)N, high δ(18)O) from dissolution of unexploded NH4NO3 blasting agents in oxic groundwater; (2) delayed and reduced breakthrough of synthetic NO3(-) subjected to partial denitrification (high δ(15)N, high δ(18)O); (3) relatively persistent concentrations of blasting-related biogenic NO3(-) derived from nitrification of NH4(+) (low δ(15)N, low δ(18)O); and (4) stable but spatially variable biogenic NO3(-) concentrations, consistent with recharge from septic systems (high δ(15)N, low δ(18)O), variably affected by denitrification. Source characteristics of denitrified samples were reconstructed from dissolved-gas data (Ar, N2) and isotopic fractionation trends associated with denitrification (Δδ(15)N/Δδ(18)O ≈ 1.31). Methods and data from this study are expected to be applicable in studies of other aquifers affected by explosives used in construction. PMID:26709616

  13. Identification of groundwater nitrate contamination from explosives used in road construction: Isotopic, chemical, and hydrologic evidence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Degnan, James R.; Bohlke, John Karl; Pelham, Krystle; David M. Langlais; Walsh, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    Explosives used in construction have been implicated as sources of NO3– contamination in groundwater, but direct forensic evidence is limited. Identification of blasting-related NO3– can be complicated by other NO3– sources, including agriculture and wastewater disposal, and by hydrogeologic factors affecting NO3– transport and stability. Here we describe a study that used hydrogeology, chemistry, stable isotopes, and mass balance calculations to evaluate groundwater NO3– sources and transport in areas surrounding a highway construction site with documented blasting in New Hampshire. Results indicate various groundwater responses to contamination: (1) rapid breakthrough and flushing of synthetic NO3– (low δ15N, high δ18O) from dissolution of unexploded NH4NO3 blasting agents in oxic groundwater; (2) delayed and reduced breakthrough of synthetic NO3– subjected to partial denitrification (high δ15N, high δ18O); (3) relatively persistent concentrations of blasting-related biogenic NO3– derived from nitrification of NH4+ (low δ15N, low δ18O); and (4) stable but spatially variable biogenic NO3– concentrations, consistent with recharge from septic systems (high δ15N, low δ18O), variably affected by denitrification. Source characteristics of denitrified samples were reconstructed from dissolved-gas data (Ar, N2) and isotopic fractionation trends associated with denitrification (Δδ15N/Δδ18O ≈ 1.31). Methods and data from this study are expected to be applicable in studies of other aquifers affected by explosives used in construction.

  14. Evaluating Aggregate Terrestrial Impacts of Road Construction Projects for Advanced Regional Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorne, James H.; Girvetz, Evan H.; McCoy, Michael C.

    2009-05-01

    This study presents a GIS-based database framework used to assess aggregate terrestrial habitat impacts from multiple highway construction projects in California, USA. Transportation planners need such impact assessment tools to effectively address additive biological mitigation obligations. Such assessments can reduce costly delays due to protracted environmental review. This project incorporated the best available statewide natural resource data into early project planning and preliminary environmental assessments for single and multiple highway construction projects, and provides an assessment of the 10-year state-wide mitigation obligations for the California Department of Transportation. Incorporation of these assessments will facilitate early and more strategic identification of mitigation opportunities, for single-project and regional mitigation efforts. The data architecture format uses eight spatial scales: six nested watersheds, counties, and transportation planning districts, which were intersected. This resulted in 8058 map planning units statewide, which were used to summarize all subsequent analyses. Range maps and georeferenced locations of federally and state-listed plants and animals and a 55-class landcover map were spatially intersected with the planning units and the buffered spatial footprint of 967 funded projects. Projected impacts were summarized and output to the database. Queries written in the database can sum expected impacts and provide summaries by individual construction project, or by watershed, county, transportation district or highway. The data architecture allows easy incorporation of new information and results in a tool usable without GIS by a wide variety of agency biologists and planners. The data architecture format would be useful for other types of regional planning.

  15. Remediation of hazardous effluent emitted from beneath newly constructed road systems and clogging of underdrain systems

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, A.A.; Wukasch, R.F.

    1996-11-01

    The Indiana Department of Transport used No. 53 recycled concrete for construction and repair of sections of I-70, I-65 and I-465. Effluents from beneath these sections were found to have a pH as high as 12 which is beyond the allowable limits. In addition, precipitates forming in the effluent were clogging some of the screens and water was backing up. It is also possible that similar scales are forming in the underdrain filter cloth and clogging the drains. The objective of the project is to determine the source and composition of the high pH water and determine the chemical mechanisms involved in the forming of the water, the precipitates and the deposits and the extent of the problem, i.e., the long-term leachability of the material. The project will further look at the various treatment options available to eliminate the high pH of water, cleanup of the clogged screens and develop methods for prevention of the problem in the future.

  16. Unofficial Road Building in the Amazon: Socioeconomic and Biophysical Explanations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perz, Stephen G.; Caldas, Marcellus M.; Arima, Eugenio; Walker, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Roads have manifold social and environmental impacts, including regional development, social conflicts and habitat fragmentation. 'Road ecology' has emerged as an approach to evaluate the various ecological and hydrological impacts of roads. This article aims to complement road ecology by examining the socio-spatial processes of road building itself. Focusing on the Brazilian Amazon, a heavily-studied context due to forest fragmentation by roads, the authors consider non-state social actors who build 'unofficial roads' for the purpose of gaining access to natural resources to support livelihoods and community development. They examine four case studies of roads with distinct histories in order to explain the socio-spatial processes behind road building in terms of profit maximization, land tenure claims, co-operative and conflictive political ecologies, and constraints as well as opportunities afforded by the biophysical environment. The study cases illustrate the need for a multi-pronged theoretical approach to understanding road building, and call for more attention to the role of non-state actors in unofficial road construction.

  17. Construction, Geology, and Aquifer Testing of the Maalo Road, Aahoaka Hill, and Upper Eleele Tank Monitor Wells, Kauai, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izuka, Scot K.

    2005-01-01

    The Maalo Road, Aahoaka Hill, and Upper Eleele Tank monitor wells were constructed using rotary drilling methods between July 1998 and August 2002 as part of a program of exploratory drilling, aquifer testing, and hydrologic analysis on Kauai. Aquifer tests were conducted in the uncased boreholes of the wells. The Maalo Road monitor well in the Lihue Basin penetrated 915 feet, mostly through mafic lava flows. Most of the rock samples from this well had chemical compositions similar to the Koloa Volcanics, but the deepest sample analyzed had a composition similar to the Waimea Canyon Basalt. Water temperature ranged from 25.6 to 27.4 degrees Celsius and specific conductance ranged from 303 to 627 microsiemens per centimeter during aquifer testing. Discharge rate ranged from 174 to 220 gallons per minute and maximum drawdown was 138.25 ft during a 7-day sustained-discharge test, but the test was affected by pump and generator problems. The Aahoaka Hill monitor well in the Lihue Basin penetrated 804 feet, mostly through mafic lava flows and possibly dikes. The well penetrated rocks having chemical compositions similar to the Waimea Canyon Basalt. During the first three hours of a sustained-discharge aquifer test in which the discharge rate varied between 92 and 117 gallons per minute, water temperature was 24.6 to 25.6 degrees Celsius, and specific conductance was 212 to 238 microsiemens per centimeter; this test was halted after a short period because drawdown was high. In a subsequent 7-day test, discharge was 8 to 23 gallons per minute, and maximum drawdown was 37.71 feet after 1,515 minutes of testing. The Upper Eleele Tank monitor well is near the Hanapepe River Valley. The well penetrated 740 feet through soil, sediment, mafic lava flows, volcanic ash, and scoria. Rocks above a depth of 345 feet had compositions similar to the Koloa Volcanics, but a sample from 720 to 725 feet had a composition similar to rocks of the Waimea Canyon Basalt. During a 7-day aquifer

  18. Astronaut Ross Approaches Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure (ACCESS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The crew assigned to the STS-61B mission included Bryan D. O'Conner, pilot; Brewster H. Shaw, commander; Charles D. Walker, payload specialist; mission specialists Jerry L. Ross, Mary L. Cleave, and Sherwood C. Spring; and Rodolpho Neri Vela, payload specialist. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis November 28, 1985 at 7:29:00 pm (EST), the STS-61B mission's primary payload included three communications satellites: MORELOS-B (Mexico); AUSSAT-2 (Australia); and SATCOM KU-2 (RCA Americom). Two experiments were conducted to test assembling erectable structures in space: EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity), and ACCESS (Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure). In a joint venture between NASA/Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), EASE and ACCESS were developed and demonstrated at MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS). In this STS-61B onboard photo, astronaut Ross, perched on the Manipulator Foot Restraint (MFR) approaches the erected ACCESS. The primary objective of these experiments was to test the structural assembly concepts for suitability as the framework for larger space structures and to identify ways to improve the productivity of space construction.

  19. Ross Works on the Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure (ACCESS) During

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The crew assigned to the STS-61B mission included Bryan D. O'Conner, pilot; Brewster H. Shaw, commander; Charles D. Walker, payload specialist; mission specialists Jerry L. Ross, Mary L. Cleave, and Sherwood C. Spring; and Rodolpho Neri Vela, payload specialist. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis November 28, 1985 at 7:29:00 pm (EST), the STS-61B mission's primary payload included three communications satellites: MORELOS-B (Mexico); AUSSAT-2 (Australia); and SATCOM KU-2 (RCA Americom). Two experiments were conducted to test assembling erectable structures in space: EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity), and ACCESS (Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure). In a joint venture between NASA/Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), EASE and ACCESS were developed and demonstrated at MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS). In this STS-61B onboard photo, astronaut Ross works on ACCESS high above the orbiter. The primary objective of these experiments was to test the structural assembly concepts for suitability as the framework for larger space structures and to identify ways to improve the productivity of space construction.

  20. ACCESS (Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure) - A Shuttle flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heard, W. L., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    ACCESS is a planned Shuttle flight experiment to assess the potential of an on-orbit construction concept designed for efficient manual assembly of a space truss. The experiment, which is scheduled for launch November 27, 1985, on the Space Transportation System (STS) flight 61-B, uses two astronauts secured in fixed foot restraints located in the Shuttle cargo bay to assemble a 45-foot long aluminum truss beam from 93 tubular struts and 33 nodal joints. Neutral buoyancy simulations of the flight experiment indicate the truss can be assembled in less than thirty minutes. Structural assembly, structural repair, flexible cable attachment and manual manipulation of the truss is also planned for the experiment using an astronaut secured in the Manipulator Foot Restraint attached to the Remote Manipulator System arm. Flight assembly data will be generated for correlation of the neutral buoyancy ground test data. This paper describes the ACCESS flight experiment and presents results of the neutral buoyancy development and training tests.

  1. Accessibility

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/accessibility.html MedlinePlus Accessibility To use the sharing features on this page, ... Subscribe to RSS Follow us Disclaimers Copyright Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs ...

  2. Recycled rubber roads

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    The paper describes several innovative approaches for recycling old tires in the construction of roads. In one, 18 inches of shredded tire chips (2 X 2 inches) were used on top of 6-8 inches of small stone to construct a road across a sanitary landfill. No compacting or linders were needed. In another application, sidewall mats linked together with steel strapping were used as a sub-base for a road across a swampy area. A third application uses 1/2 inch bits of groundup rubber tires as a replacement for aggregate in an asphalt road base.

  3. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand-Block House Access Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. In addition to the stand itself, related facilities were constructed during this time. Built directly east of the test stand was the Block House, which served as the control center for the test stand. The two were connected by a narrow access tunnel which housed the cables for the controls. Construction of the tunnel is depicted in this photo taken June 13, 1962.

  4. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand-Block House Access Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. In addition to the stand itself, related facilities were constructed during this time. Built directly east of the test stand was the Block House, which served as the control center for the test stand. The two were connected by a narrow access tunnel which housed the cables for the controls. This construction photo, taken October 26, 1962, depicts a view of the Block House tunnel opening.

  5. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand-Access Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. In addition to the stand itself, related facilities were constructed during this time. Built directly east of the test stand was the Block House, which served as the control center for the test stand. The two were connected by a narrow tunnel which housed the cables for the controls. This photograph, taken on May 21, 1962 depicts the access tunnel construction.

  6. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand-Block House Access Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. In addition to the stand itself, related facilities were constructed during this time. Built directly east of the test stand was the Block House, which served as the control center for the test stand. The two were connected by a narrow access tunnel which housed the cables for the controls. This construction photo taken August 17, 1962 depicts a view of the Block House from the test stand site. The tunnel opening is visible in the forefront center of the photo.

  7. Evaluation of primary DNA damage, cytogenetic biomarkers and genetic polymorphisms for CYP1A1 and GSTM1 in road tunnel construction workers.

    PubMed

    Villarini, M; Moretti, M; Fatigoni, C; Agea, E; Dominici, L; Mattioli, A; Volpi, R; Pasquini, R

    2008-01-01

    In tunnel construction workers, occupational exposure to dust (alpha-quartz and other particles from blasting), gases (nitrogen dioxide, NO(2)), diesel exhausts, and oil mist has been associated with lung function decline, induction of inflammatory reactions in the lungs with release of mediators that may influence blood coagulation, and increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The present molecular epidemiology study was designed to evaluate whether occupational exposure to indoor pollutants during road tunnel construction might result in genotoxic effects. A study group of 39 underground workers and a reference group of 34 unexposed subjects were examined. Primary and oxidative DNA damage, sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE), and micronuclei (MN) were measured in peripheral blood cells. The possible influences of polymorphisms in gene encoding for CYP1A1 and GSTM1 xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes were also investigated. Exposure assessment was performed with detailed interviews and questionnaires. There were no significant differences in the level of primary and oxidative DNA damage and frequency of SCE between the tunnel workers and controls, whereas the frequency of MN showed a significant increase in exposed subjects compared to controls. No effects of CYP1A1 or GSTM1 variants were observed for the analyzed biomarkers. Since MN in peripheral blood lymphocytes are recognized as a predictive biomarker of cancer risk within a population of healthy subjects, the genotoxic risk of occupational exposure to various indoor environmental pollutants during road tunnel construction cannot be excluded by this biomonitoring study. PMID:18800292

  8. A Time-constrained Network Voronoi Construction and Accessibility Analysis in Location-based Service Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, W.; Ai, T.

    2014-11-01

    Accessibility analysis usually requires special models of spatial location analysis based on some geometric constructions, such as Voronoi diagram (abbreviated to VD). There are many achievements in classic Voronoi model research, however suffering from the following limitations for location-based services (LBS) applications. (1) It is difficult to objectively reflect the actual service areas of facilities by using traditional planar VDs, because human activities in LBS are usually constrained only to the network portion of the planar space. (2) Although some researchers have adopted network distance to construct VDs, their approaches are used in a static environment, where unrealistic measures of shortest path distance based on assumptions about constant travel speeds through the network were often used. (3) Due to the computational complexity of the shortest-path distance calculating, previous researches tend to be very time consuming, especially for large datasets and if multiple runs are required. To solve the above problems, a novel algorithm is developed in this paper. We apply network-based quadrat system and 1-D sequential expansion to find the corresponding subnetwork for each focus. The idea is inspired by the natural phenomenon that water flow extends along certain linear channels until meets others or arrives at the end of route. In order to accommodate the changes in traffic conditions, the length of network-quadrat is set upon the traffic condition of the corresponding street. The method has the advantage over Dijkstra's algorithm in that the time cost is avoided, and replaced with a linear time operation.

  9. Aerosol particle and trace gas emissions from earthworks, road construction, and asphalt paving in Germany: Emission factors and influence on local air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, Peter; Drewnick, Frank; Borrmann, Stephan

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol emissions from construction sites have a strong impact on local air quality. The chemical and physical characteristics of particles and trace gases emitted by earthworks (excavation and loading of soil as well as traffic on unpaved roads) and road works (asphalt sawing, smashing, soil compacting, asphalt paving) have therefore been addressed in this study by using a mobile set-up of numerous modern online aerosol and trace gas instruments including a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer. Fuel-based emission factors for several variables have been determined, showing that earthwork activities and compacting by use of a plate compactor revealed the highest median emission factors for PM10 (up to 54 g l-1). Construction activities were assigned to contribute about 17% (36 000 t a-1) to total PM10 emissions and 3% (13 500 t a-1) to total traffic-related NOx emissions in Germany. In particular, calculated PM10 emissions by earthworks are about 15 800 t a-1 corresponding to 44% of total PM10 emissions by construction activities in Germany. Mechanical processes such as asphalt sawing (PM1/PM10 = 18 ± 31%), soil compacting by a plate compactor (PM1/PM10 = 5 ± 6%) and earthworks (PM1/PM10 = 2 ± 5%) emit predominantly coarse mineral dust particles. Contrary to that, particle emissions by thermal construction processes (asphalt paving: PM1/PM10 = 62 ± 14%) and by the internal combustion engines of heavy machinery (e.g. road roller PM1/PM10 = 94 ± 9%) are mostly in the submicron range. These particles were mainly composed of organics containing non-polar saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons (e.g. asphalting: O:C < 0.01, H:C = 2.01). Besides construction activities, mineral dust is also emitted over cleared land by wind-driven resuspension depending on wind speed. PM10 emissions by construction activities often result in local concentrations > 100 μg m-3 and can easily breach the European limit level of PM10. This study also shows that particulate mineral

  10. 23 CFR 633.209 - Notices to prospective Federal-aid construction contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS REQUIRED CONTRACT PROVISIONS Federal-Aid Contracts (Appalachian Contracts... shall include the notices set forth in appendix D in all future bidding proposals for Appalachian Development System and Appalachian local access roads construction contracts....

  11. 23 CFR 633.209 - Notices to prospective Federal-aid construction contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS REQUIRED CONTRACT PROVISIONS Federal-Aid Contracts (Appalachian Contracts... shall include the notices set forth in appendix D in all future bidding proposals for Appalachian Development System and Appalachian local access roads construction contracts....

  12. 23 CFR 633.209 - Notices to prospective Federal-aid construction contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS REQUIRED CONTRACT PROVISIONS Federal-Aid Contracts (Appalachian Contracts... shall include the notices set forth in appendix D in all future bidding proposals for Appalachian Development System and Appalachian local access roads construction contracts....

  13. 23 CFR 633.209 - Notices to prospective Federal-aid construction contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS REQUIRED CONTRACT PROVISIONS Federal-Aid Contracts (Appalachian Contracts... shall include the notices set forth in appendix D in all future bidding proposals for Appalachian Development System and Appalachian local access roads construction contracts....

  14. 23 CFR 633.209 - Notices to prospective Federal-aid construction contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS REQUIRED CONTRACT PROVISIONS Federal-Aid Contracts (Appalachian Contracts... shall include the notices set forth in appendix D in all future bidding proposals for Appalachian Development System and Appalachian local access roads construction contracts....

  15. The future of forests and orangutans (Pongo abelii) in Sumatra: predicting impacts of oil palm plantations, road construction, and mechanisms for reducing carbon emissions from deforestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaveau, David L. A.; Wich, Serge; Epting, Justin; Juhn, Daniel; Kanninen, Markku; Leader-Williams, Nigel

    2009-09-01

    Payments for reduced carbon emissions from deforestation (RED) are now attracting attention as a way to halt tropical deforestation. Northern Sumatra comprises an area of 65 000 km2 that is both the site of Indonesia's first planned RED initiative, and the stronghold of 92% of remaining Sumatran orangutans. Under current plans, this RED initiative will be implemented in a defined geographic area, essentially a newly established, 7500 km2 protected area (PA) comprising mostly upland forest, where guards will be recruited to enforce forest protection. Meanwhile, new roads are currently under construction, while companies are converting lowland forests into oil palm plantations. This case study predicts the effectiveness of RED in reducing deforestation and conserving orangutans for two distinct scenarios: the current plan of implementing RED within the specific boundary of a new upland PA, and an alternative scenario of implementing RED across landscapes outside PAs. Our satellite-based spatially explicit deforestation model predicts that 1313 km2 of forest would be saved from deforestation by 2030, while forest cover present in 2006 would shrink by 22% (7913 km2) across landscapes outside PAs if RED were only to be implemented in the upland PA. Meanwhile, orangutan habitat would reduce by 16% (1137 km2), resulting in the conservative loss of 1384 orangutans, or 25% of the current total population with or without RED intervention. By contrast, an estimated 7824 km2 of forest could be saved from deforestation, with maximum benefit for orangutan conservation, if RED were to be implemented across all remaining forest landscapes outside PAs. Here, RED payments would compensate land users for their opportunity costs in not converting unprotected forests into oil palm, while the construction of new roads to service the marketing of oil palm would be halted. Our predictions suggest that Indonesia's first RED initiative in an upland PA may not significantly reduce

  16. 12 CFR 1010.210 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Roads. 1010.210 Section 1010.210 Banks and... § 1010.210 Roads. (a) State the estimated cost to the developer of the proposed road system. (b) If the developer is to complete any roads providing access to the subdivision, submit copies of any bonds or...

  17. 12 CFR 1010.210 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Roads. 1010.210 Section 1010.210 Banks and... § 1010.210 Roads. (a) State the estimated cost to the developer of the proposed road system. (b) If the developer is to complete any roads providing access to the subdivision, submit copies of any bonds or...

  18. 12 CFR 1010.210 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Roads. 1010.210 Section 1010.210 Banks and... § 1010.210 Roads. (a) State the estimated cost to the developer of the proposed road system. (b) If the developer is to complete any roads providing access to the subdivision, submit copies of any bonds or...

  19. Constructing a two bands optical code-division multiple-access network of bipolar optical access codecs using Walsh-coded liquid crystal modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Chih-Ta; Huang, Jen-Fa; Chih, Ping-En

    2014-08-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrated the two bands optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) network over bipolar Walsh-coded liquid-crystal modulators (LCMs) and driven by green light and red light lasers. Achieving system performance depends on the construction of a decoder that implements a true bipolar correlation using only unipolar signals and intensity detection for each band. We took advantage of the phase delay characteristics of LCMs to construct a prototype optical coder/decoder (codec). Matched and unmatched Walsh signature codes were evaluated to detect correlations among multiuser data in the access network. By using LCMs, a red and green laser light source was spectrally encoded and the summed light dots were complementary decoded. Favorable contrast on auto- and cross-correlations indicates that binary information symbols can be properly recovered using a balanced photodetector.

  20. EPA GHG Certification of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles: Development of Road Grade Profiles Representative of US Controlled Access Highways

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Eric; Duran, Adam; Burton, Evan; Gonder, Jeffrey; Kelly, Kenneth

    2015-05-12

    This report includes a detailed comparison of the TomTom national road grade database relative to a local road grade dataset generated by Southwest Research Institute and a national elevation dataset publically available from the U.S. Geological Survey. This analysis concluded that the TomTom national road grade database was a suitable source of road grade data for purposes of this study.

  1. 24 CFR 1710.110 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roads. 1710.110 Section 1710.110... (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements § 1710.110 Roads. (a) Access to the subdivision. (1) Is access to the subdivision provided by public or private roads?...

  2. 12 CFR 1010.110 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Roads. 1010.110 Section 1010.110 Banks and... § 1010.110 Roads. (a) Access to the subdivision. (1) Is access to the subdivision provided by public or private roads? What type of surface do they have? How many lanes? What is the width of the wearing...

  3. 12 CFR 1010.110 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Roads. 1010.110 Section 1010.110 Banks and... § 1010.110 Roads. (a) Access to the subdivision. (1) Is access to the subdivision provided by public or private roads? What type of surface do they have? How many lanes? What is the width of the wearing...

  4. 24 CFR 1710.110 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Roads. 1710.110 Section 1710.110... (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements § 1710.110 Roads. (a) Access to the subdivision. (1) Is access to the subdivision provided by public or private roads?...

  5. 24 CFR 1710.110 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Roads. 1710.110 Section 1710.110... (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements § 1710.110 Roads. (a) Access to the subdivision. (1) Is access to the subdivision provided by public or private roads?...

  6. 12 CFR 1010.110 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Roads. 1010.110 Section 1010.110 Banks and... § 1010.110 Roads. (a) Access to the subdivision. (1) Is access to the subdivision provided by public or private roads? What type of surface do they have? How many lanes? What is the width of the wearing...

  7. 24 CFR 1710.110 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Roads. 1710.110 Section 1710.110... (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements § 1710.110 Roads. (a) Access to the subdivision. (1) Is access to the subdivision provided by public or private roads?...

  8. 24 CFR 1710.110 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Roads. 1710.110 Section 1710.110... (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements § 1710.110 Roads. (a) Access to the subdivision. (1) Is access to the subdivision provided by public or private roads?...

  9. The construction of the spatio-temporal database of the ancient Silk Road within Xinjiang province during the Han and Tang dynasties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Jiantao; Luo, Guilin; Wang, Xingxing; Zhu, Zuojia

    2014-03-01

    As the bridge over the Chinese and Western civilization, the ancient Silk Road has made a huge contribution to cultural, economic, political exchanges between China and western countries. In this paper, we treated the historical period of Western Han Dynasty, Eastern Han Dynasty and Tang Dynasty as the research time domain, and the Western Regions' countries that were existed along the Silk Road at the mean time as the research spatial domain. Then we imported these data into the SQL Server database we constructed, from which we could either query the attribute information such as population, military force, the era of the Central Plains empire, the significant events taking place in the country and some related attribute information of these events like the happened calendar year in addition to some related spatial information such as the present location, the coordinates of the capital and the territory by inputting the name of the Western countries. At the same time we could query the significant events, government institution in Central Plains and the existent Western countries at the mean time by inputting the calendar year. Based on the database, associated with GIS, RS, Flex, C# and other related information technology and network technology, we could not only browsing, searching and editing the information of the ancient Silk Road in Xinjiang Province during the Han and Tang Dynasties, but preliminary analysing as well. This is the combination of archaeology and modern information technology, and the database could also be a reference to further study, research and practice in the related fields in the future.

  10. 30 CFR 817.151 - Primary roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Primary roads. 817.151 Section 817.151 Mineral... roads. Primary roads shall meet the requirements of § 817.150 and the additional requirements of this section. (a) Certification. The construction or reconstruction of primary roads shall be certified in...

  11. 25 CFR 265.3 - Roads prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Roads prohibited. 265.3 Section 265.3 Indians BUREAU OF... ON INDIAN RESERVATIONS § 265.3 Roads prohibited. (a) Within the boundaries of this officially... highways, roads, truck trails, work roads, and all other types of ways constructed to make possible...

  12. 25 CFR 265.3 - Roads prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Roads prohibited. 265.3 Section 265.3 Indians BUREAU OF... ON INDIAN RESERVATIONS § 265.3 Roads prohibited. (a) Within the boundaries of this officially... highways, roads, truck trails, work roads, and all other types of ways constructed to make possible...

  13. 30 CFR 816.151 - Primary roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Primary roads. 816.151 Section 816.151 Mineral... roads. Primary roads shall meet the requirements of section 816.150 and the additional requirements of this section. (a) Certification. The construction or reconstruction of primary roads shall be...

  14. 25 CFR 265.3 - Roads prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Roads prohibited. 265.3 Section 265.3 Indians BUREAU OF... ON INDIAN RESERVATIONS § 265.3 Roads prohibited. (a) Within the boundaries of this officially... highways, roads, truck trails, work roads, and all other types of ways constructed to make possible...

  15. 25 CFR 265.3 - Roads prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Roads prohibited. 265.3 Section 265.3 Indians BUREAU OF... ON INDIAN RESERVATIONS § 265.3 Roads prohibited. (a) Within the boundaries of this officially... highways, roads, truck trails, work roads, and all other types of ways constructed to make possible...

  16. Drilling, construction, caliper-log, and specific-conductance data for well 3-3406-12, Twin Bridge Road deep monitor well, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Presley, T.K.; Oki, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    The Twin Bridge Road deep monitor well (State well number 3-3406-12) was drilled about 2,000 feet northeast of Weed Circle in the town of Haleiwa. The well is on agricultural land. The well penetrates through the freshwater lens and into the freshwater-saltwater transition zone of the Waialua ground-water area to an elevation of -596 feet below mean sea level. Well-construction data, logs of drilling notes, geologic descriptions for the samples, caliper-log, and specific-conductance data are presented for the well. The well is one of 12 exploratory wells drilled in the north- central Oahu area between July 1993 and May 1994 in cooperation with the Honolulu Board of Water Supply.

  17. Use of weathered and fresh bottom ash mix layers as a subbase in road constructions: environmental behavior enhancement by means of a retaining barrier.

    PubMed

    Del Valle-Zermeño, R; Chimenos, J M; Giró-Paloma, J; Formosa, J

    2014-12-01

    The presence of neoformed cement-like phases during the weathering of non-stabilized freshly quenched bottom ash favors the development of a bound pavement material with improved mechanical properties. Use of weathered and freshly quenched bottom ash mix layers placed one over the other allowed the retention of leached heavy metals and metalloids by means of a reactive percolation barrier. The addition of 50% of weathered bottom ash to the total subbase content diminished the release of toxic species to below environmental regulatory limits. The mechanisms of retention and the different processes and factors responsible of leaching strongly depended on the contaminant under concern as well as on the chemical and physical factors. Thus, the immediate reuse of freshly quenched bottom ash as a subbase material in road constructions is possible, as both the mechanical properties and long-term leachability are enhanced. PMID:25180484

  18. Decompression sickness and aseptic necrosis of bone: Investigations carried out during and after the construction of the Tyne Road Tunnel (1962-66)

    PubMed Central

    1971-01-01

    Report of Decompression Sickness Panel, Medical Research Council (1971). Brit. J. industr. Med., 28, 1-21. Decompression sickness and aseptic necrosis of bone: Investigations carried out during and after the construction of the Tyne Road Tunnel (1962-66). This paper describes investigations into the health of compressed air workers during and after the construction of a road tunnel under the River Tyne. Altogether 641 men were exposed to the compressed air environment over a period of approximately 31 months. The maximum working pressure was 42 psig (289·6 kN/m2), and the overall decompression sickness rate for work at pressures of 18 psig (124·1 kN/m2) and above was 2%. Radiological examination of the chest was carried out on 183 men to detect lung cysts but only one was found. Thus lung cysts were not shown to be a common factor in the causation of decompression sickness but the possibility of small sub-radiological collections of trapped air being involved was not excluded. Radiological examinations of the shoulders, hips and knee joints were carried out on 171 men. There was evidence of aseptic necrosis in one or more bones of 44 men (26%). Fifteen of the men with definite lesions of aseptic necrosis of bone and 7 of the men with suspected lesions had never worked in compressed air before this contract. The remaining 14 men with definite lesions and the 8 with suspected lesions had worked elsewhere in compressed air prior to this contract, but a definite lesion in one of these men and a suspected lesion in another can almost certainly be attributed to their work in compressed air on this contract. Images PMID:5543625

  19. 7 CFR 3560.608 - Site and construction requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... accordance with 7 CFR part 1924, subparts A and C. (2) Sites must be accessible from a public road, when... accordance with exhibit I of 7 CFR part 1924, subpart A. If constructed in accordance with exhibit I, the... farmworkers in the area declines. (d) Accessibility. On-farm labor housing that consists of buildings...

  20. 7 CFR 3560.608 - Site and construction requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... accordance with 7 CFR part 1924, subparts A and C. (2) Sites must be accessible from a public road, when... accordance with exhibit I of 7 CFR part 1924, subpart A. If constructed in accordance with exhibit I, the... farmworkers in the area declines. (d) Accessibility. On-farm labor housing that consists of buildings...

  1. 36 CFR 9.32 - Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR 2.17. (d) No access to a site outside a unit will be permitted across unit lands unless such access is by foot, pack animal, or designated road. Persons using designated roads for access to such...

  2. 36 CFR 9.32 - Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR 2.17. (d) No access to a site outside a unit will be permitted across unit lands unless such access is by foot, pack animal, or designated road. Persons using designated roads for access to such...

  3. 36 CFR 9.32 - Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR 2.17. (d) No access to a site outside a unit will be permitted across unit lands unless such access is by foot, pack animal, or designated road. Persons using designated roads for access to such...

  4. 36 CFR 9.32 - Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR 2.17. (d) No access to a site outside a unit will be permitted across unit lands unless such access is by foot, pack animal, or designated road. Persons using designated roads for access to such...

  5. 7 CFR 3560.608 - Site and construction requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... accordance with 7 CFR part 1924, subparts A and C. (2) Sites must be accessible from a public road, when... accordance with exhibit I of 7 CFR part 1924, subpart A. If constructed in accordance with exhibit I, the... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Site and construction requirements. 3560.608...

  6. 7 CFR 3560.608 - Site and construction requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... accordance with 7 CFR part 1924, subparts A and C. (2) Sites must be accessible from a public road, when... accordance with exhibit I of 7 CFR part 1924, subpart A. If constructed in accordance with exhibit I, the... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Site and construction requirements. 3560.608...

  7. 7 CFR 3560.608 - Site and construction requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... accordance with 7 CFR part 1924, subparts A and C. (2) Sites must be accessible from a public road, when... accordance with exhibit I of 7 CFR part 1924, subpart A. If constructed in accordance with exhibit I, the... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Site and construction requirements. 3560.608...

  8. Free access to hypertension and diabetes medicines among the elderly: a reality yet to be constructed.

    PubMed

    Paniz, Vera Maria Vieira; Fassa, Anaclaudia Gastal; Facchini, Luiz Augusto; Piccini, Roberto Xavier; Tomasi, Elaine; Thumé, Elaine; da Silveira, Denise Silva; Rodrigues, Maria Aparecida; Domingues, Marlos Rodrigues; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso

    2010-06-01

    The study evaluated free access to hypertension and diabetes medicines and the reasons reported for lack of access. The sample included 4,003 elderly people living in Primary Care Unit coverage areas from 41 Southern and Northeastern Brazilian cities. Free access was higher in the Northeast (62.4%). The strategy of the Family Health Program (Programa Saúde da Família - PSF) was more effective in providing access than the traditional model, with higher results in the Northeast (61.2%) than in the South (39.6%). Around 20% of medicines included in the Hypertension and Diabetes Program and 26% of those included in the National Essential Medicines List (RENAME) were paid out of pocket. In the Northeast, 25% of insulin and 32% of oral antidiabetics were paid out of pocket. Unavailability in the public sector and a lack of money determined the lack of access. Although the PSF, Hypertension and Diabetes Program and RENAME expanded free access, supplies were insufficient. A greater connection between programs and a clear definition of responsibilities can improve medicine acquisition process, increasing the effectiveness of pharmaceutical assistance. PMID:20657981

  9. Healthcare access as a right, not a privilege: a construct of Western thought.

    PubMed

    Papadimos, Thomas J

    2007-01-01

    Over 45 million Americans are uninsured or underinsured. Those living in poverty exhibit the worst health status. Employment, education, income, and race are important factors in a person's ability to acquire healthcare access. Having established that there are people lacking healthcare access due to multi-factorial etiologies, the question arises as to whether the intervention necessary to assist them in obtaining such access should be considered a privilege, or a right. The right to healthcare access is examined from the perspective of Western thought. Specifically through the works of Aristotle, Immanuel Kant, Thomas Hobbes, Thomas Paine, Hannah Arendt, James Rawls, and Norman Daniels, which are accompanied by a contemporary example of intervention on behalf of the medically needy by the The Johns Hopkins Urban Health Institute. As human beings we are all valuable social entities whereby, through the force of morality, through implicitly forged covenants among us as individuals and between us and our governments, and through the natural rights we maintain as individuals and those we collectively surrender to the common good, it has been determined by nature, natural laws, and natural rights that human beings have the right, not the privilege, to healthcare access. PMID:17391522

  10. Healthcare access as a right, not a privilege: a construct of Western thought

    PubMed Central

    Papadimos, Thomas J

    2007-01-01

    Over 45 million Americans are uninsured or underinsured. Those living in poverty exhibit the worst health status. Employment, education, income, and race are important factors in a person's ability to acquire healthcare access. Having established that there are people lacking healthcare access due to multi-factorial etiologies, the question arises as to whether the intervention necessary to assist them in obtaining such access should be considered a privilege, or a right. The right to healthcare access is examined from the perspective of Western thought. Specifically through the works of Aristotle, Immanuel Kant, Thomas Hobbes, Thomas Paine, Hannah Arendt, James Rawls, and Norman Daniels, which are accompanied by a contemporary example of intervention on behalf of the medically needy by the The Johns Hopkins Urban Health Institute. As human beings we are all valuable social entities whereby, through the force of morality, through implicitly forged covenants among us as individuals and between us and our governments, and through the natural rights we maintain as individuals and those we collectively surrender to the common good, it has been determined by nature, natural laws, and natural rights that human beings have the right, not the privilege, to healthcare access. PMID:17391522

  11. Assessment of effectiveness of signal-code constructions in time division-multi-access satellite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portnoy, S. L.; Ankudinov, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    Energy losses in TDMA satellite circuits are investigated on the basis of the model of a Gaussian memoryless channel incorporating a signal code construction. The signal code construction is a consolidated two stage construction with a modulation system as the inner stage and correcting codes as the outer stage. Signal code constructions employing Gray codes, cascade codes and M-ary block codes are considered. Real TDMA systems are analyzed on the assumptions that the calculations are made using an audio frequency equivalent of the circuit, the relay carries a single trunk, the timing and carrier frequency synchronization is ideal, the signal is transmitted in the continuous stream, and there is no noise at the input of the receiving filter. The effectiveness of a signal code construction employing cascade codes on a real satellite link incorporating MDVU-40 equipment is modeled. The method can be used to select the signal code construction in a communications channel for the required data rate, and to maximize the energy gain and attainable transmission rate over the relay trunk.

  12. 32 CFR 1807.151 - Program accessibility: new construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., requirements, and standards of the Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines, 36 CFR part 1191. ... NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER § 1807.151 Program...

  13. 32 CFR 1807.151 - Program accessibility: new construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., requirements, and standards of the Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines, 36 CFR part 1191. ... NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER § 1807.151 Program...

  14. 32 CFR 1807.151 - Program accessibility: new construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., requirements, and standards of the Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines, 36 CFR part 1191. ... NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER § 1807.151 Program...

  15. 32 CFR 1807.151 - Program accessibility: new construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., requirements, and standards of the Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines, 36 CFR part 1191. ... NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER § 1807.151 Program...

  16. 32 CFR 1807.151 - Program accessibility: new construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., requirements, and standards of the Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines, 36 CFR part 1191. ... NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER § 1807.151 Program...

  17. 19 CFR 201.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... alterations. 201.151 Section 201.151 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES... Activities Conducted by the U.S. International Trade Commission § 201.151 Program accessibility: New... Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply...

  18. 19 CFR 201.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... alterations. 201.151 Section 201.151 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES... Activities Conducted by the U.S. International Trade Commission § 201.151 Program accessibility: New... Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply...

  19. Construction Guidelines and Specifications. Modifying the Existing Campus Building for Accessibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotler, Stephen Richard

    To address problems that the campus faces when attempting to make facility modifications that meet federal handicap accessibility requirements, this guidebook gives guidance on requirements and methods of "retrofitting" that meet the mobility needs of the disabled. Seven chapters discuss modifications to site, entrance, doors, interior…

  20. Ice Roads in the Northwest Territories: The Intersection of Climate, Economics, and Transportation Policy (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntington, H.; Sturm, M.; Goldstein, M.; Douglas, T. A.

    2010-12-01

    Ice roads would seem to be an obvious, and potentially sensitive, point of interaction between climate and human activity. An interdisciplinary study of ice roads in the vicinity of Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada, suggests that the real story is more complex. The feasibility of ice roads clearly has basic climatic requirements: there has to be enough cold weather to form enough ice to support vehicles. Beyond that basic requirement, though, lie a host of technical innovations in the construction and management of ice roads, extending the “natural” life of ice roads and providing more reliable and consistent transportation than climate alone would allow. In addition, the use of ice roads involves on economic need (for example, in re-supplying diamond mines), public policy (for example, providing access to remote communities), and funding (roads may cost thousands of dollars per kilometer, each year). In this paper, we explore the various factors that affect ice road viability, identifying key variables for monitoring and modeling to provide researchers and ice road managers with information to help determine optimal courses of action in a variable and changing climate.

  1. The effects of drug-prevention messages on the accessibility of identity-related constructs.

    PubMed

    Comello, Maria Leonora G; Slater, Michael D

    2011-05-01

    Recent theoretical work has posited that the self-system guides behavior via currently activated self-concepts. The authors adopted this framework to the study of drug-prevention messages by examining the extent to which messages can alter the accessibility of views of self and of drugs that would support nonuse. Participants were exposed to 1 of 3 print-ad conditions: autonomy-themed prevention messages (treatment), health-information themed prevention messages (comparison), and informational consumer ads (control). Outcomes were reaction times to make dichotomous judgments. Relative to comparison and control ads, treatment ads were more successful at activating a self-view as a nonuser, a view that marijuana use is inconsistent with autonomy, and unwillingness to use marijuana. Post-hoc analysis revealed that the effect of ad condition on unwillingness was partially mediated by the accessibility of self-view as a nonuser. PMID:21271426

  2. The Effects of Drug-Prevention Messages on the Accessibility of Identity-Related Constructs

    PubMed Central

    COMELLO, MARIA LEONORA G.; SLATER, MICHAEL D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent theoretical work has posited that the self-system guides behavior via currently activated self-concepts. We adopt this framework to the study of drug-prevention messages by examining the extent to which messages can alter the accessibility of views of self and of drugs that would support non-use. Participants were exposed to one of three print-ad conditions: autonomy-themed prevention messages (treatment), health-information themed prevention messages (comparison), and informational consumer ads (control). Outcomes were reaction times to make dichotomous judgments. Relative to comparison and control ads, treatment ads were more successful at activating a self-view as a nonuser, a view that marijuana use is inconsistent with autonomy, and unwillingness to use marijuana. Post-hoc analysis revealed that the effect of ad condition on unwillingness was partially mediated by the accessibility of self-view as a nonuser. PMID:21271426

  3. Model-based prediction of long-term leaching of contaminants from secondary materials in road constructions and noise protection dams.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Christof; Konrad, Wilfried; Rügner, Hermann; Bauer, Sebastian; Liedl, Rudolf; Grathwohl, Peter

    2009-02-01

    In this study, contaminant leaching from three different secondary materials (demolition waste, municipal solid waste incineration ash, and blast furnace slag) to groundwater is assessed by numerical modeling. Reactive transport simulations for a noise protection dam and a road dam (a typical German autobahn), in which secondary materials are reused as base layers, were performed to predict the breakthrough of a conservative tracer (i.e., a salt) and sorbing contaminants (e.g., PAHs like naphthalene and phenanthrene or heavy metals) at the groundwater table. The dam constructions have a composite architecture with soil covers in inclined layers and distinct contrasts in the unsaturated hydraulic properties of the used materials. Capillary barrier effects result in strong spatial variabilities of flow and transport velocities. Contaminant breakthrough curves at the groundwater table show significant tailing due to slow sorption kinetics and a wide distribution of travel times. While conservative tracer breakthrough depends primarily on subsoil hydraulic properties, equilibrium distribution coefficients and sorption kinetics represent additional controlling factors for contaminant spreading. Hence, the three secondary materials show pronounced differences in the temporal development of leached contaminant concentrations with consequences for breakthrough times and peak concentrations at the groundwater table. Significant concentration reductions due to dispersion occur only if the source concentrations decrease significantly prior to the arrival of the contaminant at the groundwater table. Biodegradation causes significant reduction of breakthrough concentrations only if flow velocities are low. PMID:18707860

  4. 36 CFR 1208.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to... construction and alterations. 1208.151 Section 1208.151 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION § 1208.151...

  5. 36 CFR 1154.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to... construction and alterations. 1154.151 Section 1154.151 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND... ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD § 1154.151...

  6. 36 CFR 1154.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to... construction and alterations. 1154.151 Section 1154.151 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND... ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD § 1154.151...

  7. 36 CFR 1154.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to... construction and alterations. 1154.151 Section 1154.151 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND... ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD § 1154.151...

  8. 36 CFR 1154.151 - Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to... construction and alterations. 1154.151 Section 1154.151 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND... ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD § 1154.151...

  9. Potential effects of coal mining and road construction on the water quality of Scofield Reservoir and its drainage area, central Utah, October 1982 to October 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephens, D.W.; Thompson, K.R.; Wangsgard, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    Studies were done during 1983-84 to determine the effect of coal mining in Pleasant Valley and construction of State Road 264 in Eccles Canyon on the water quality of local streams and on Scofield Reservoir. Streamflow during 1983-84 set high-flow records in all gaged streams and transported considerable sediment and associated trace metals and nutrients to Scofield Reservoir. Concentrations of most toxic substances were not sufficient to constitute a hazard in the streams or reservoir; however, concentrations of total phosphorus in the streams commonly exceeded water-quality criterion for phosphate as phosphorus of 0.05 milligram per liter, established by the State as an indicator of pollution. Data from Eccles Canyon creek, which is in an actively mined area, were compared to data from Boardinghouse Canyon creek, which is in a nearby canyon with no active mining or construction activities. Concentrations of iron, manganese, and zinc were substantially larger in Eccles Canyon creek than in Boardinghouse Canyon creek. Loads of suspended sediment during storms and base-flow conditions also were larger in Eccles Canyon creek. Concentrations of ammonia nitrogen, total phosphorus, mercury, and zinc in water from Scofield Reservoir occasionally exceeded Utah State water- quality standards and criteria for protection of aquatic wildlife that were in effect during 1983- 84. In combination with the generally cooler spring temperatures, shortened growing season, and greater flushing rate for the reservoir, the large inflow of water into the reservoir prevented the occurrence of blue-green blooms common in earlier years. Large concentrations of orthophosphorus and manganese were released from sediment cores, and concentrations of manganese in the hypolimnion frequently exceeded the Federal drinking-water standard.

  10. Geo-Hazards and Mountain Road Development in Nepal: Understanding the Science-Policy-Governance Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugar, Sumit; Dahal, Vaskar

    2015-04-01

    informed other road development schemes in Nepal. Geomorphological surveys and robust geo-hazard assessments that factor the spatial and temporal dimensions of the seismic, fluvial and sediment hazards along the road corridor are critical for sustainable development of mountain roads. However, scientific and technical research studies seldom inform mountain road development primarily due to lack of co-ordination between the respective government agencies, access to journal papers in developing countries and unwillingness to adopt novel interventions in rural road construction practices. These challenges are further exacerbated by weak governance and lack of proper policy enforcement that often leads to construction of poorly engineered roads, thereby increasing the risk of rural infrastructural damage from geo-hazards. Though there exists a disconnect between the science-policy-governance interface where information on geo-hazards is neglected in mountain road development due to lack of scientific research and government apathy, there is an opportunity to spur dialogue and sensitize these issues via trans-disciplinary approaches on disaster risk management.

  11. Extracting Road Vector Data from Raster Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Yao-Yi; Knoblock, Craig A.

    Raster maps are an important source of road information. Because of the overlapping map features (e.g., roads and text labels) and the varying image quality, extracting road vector data from raster maps usually requires significant user input to achieve accurate results. In this paper, we present an accurate road vectorization technique that minimizes user input by combining our previous work on extracting road pixels and road-intersection templates to extract accurate road vector data from raster maps. Our approach enables GIS applications to exploit the road information in raster maps for the areas where the road vector data are otherwise not easily accessible, such as the countries of the Middle East. We show that our approach requires minimal user input and achieves an average of 93.2% completeness and 95.6% correctness in an experiment using raster maps from various sources.

  12. The road plan model: Information model for planning road building activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azinhal, Rafaela K.; Moura-Pires, Fernando

    1994-01-01

    The general building contractor is presented with an information model as an approach for deriving a high-level work plan of construction activities applied to road building. Road construction activities are represented in a Road Plan Model (RPM), which is modeled in the ISO standard STEP/EXPRESS and adopts various concepts from the GARM notation. The integration with the preceding road design stage and the succeeding phase of resource scheduling is discussed within the framework of a Road Construction Model. Construction knowledge is applied to the road design and the terrain model of the surrounding road infrastructure for the instantiation of the RPM. Issues regarding the implementation of a road planner application supporting the RPM are discussed.

  13. 30 CFR 780.37 - Road systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Road systems. 780.37 Section 780.37 Mineral... MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 780.37 Road systems... plans and drawings for each road, as defined in § 701.5 of this chapter, to be constructed, used,...

  14. 30 CFR 780.37 - Road systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Road systems. 780.37 Section 780.37 Mineral... MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 780.37 Road systems... plans and drawings for each road, as defined in § 701.5 of this chapter, to be constructed, used,...

  15. 30 CFR 780.37 - Road systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Road systems. 780.37 Section 780.37 Mineral... MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 780.37 Road systems... plans and drawings for each road, as defined in § 701.5 of this chapter, to be constructed, used,...

  16. 30 CFR 780.37 - Road systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Road systems. 780.37 Section 780.37 Mineral... MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 780.37 Road systems... plans and drawings for each road, as defined in § 701.5 of this chapter, to be constructed, used,...

  17. 30 CFR 780.37 - Road systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Road systems. 780.37 Section 780.37 Mineral... MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 780.37 Road systems... plans and drawings for each road, as defined in § 701.5 of this chapter, to be constructed, used,...

  18. 23 CFR 660.517 - Maneuver area roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Maneuver area roads. 660.517 Section 660.517 Highways... PROGRAMS (DIRECT FEDERAL) Defense Access Roads § 660.517 Maneuver area roads. (a) Claims by a highway agency for costs incurred to restore, to their former condition, roads damaged by maneuvers involving...

  19. 23 CFR 660.517 - Maneuver area roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maneuver area roads. 660.517 Section 660.517 Highways... PROGRAMS (DIRECT FEDERAL) Defense Access Roads § 660.517 Maneuver area roads. (a) Claims by a highway agency for costs incurred to restore, to their former condition, roads damaged by maneuvers involving...

  20. 23 CFR 660.517 - Maneuver area roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Maneuver area roads. 660.517 Section 660.517 Highways... PROGRAMS (DIRECT FEDERAL) Defense Access Roads § 660.517 Maneuver area roads. (a) Claims by a highway agency for costs incurred to restore, to their former condition, roads damaged by maneuvers involving...

  1. 23 CFR 660.517 - Maneuver area roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Maneuver area roads. 660.517 Section 660.517 Highways... PROGRAMS (DIRECT FEDERAL) Defense Access Roads § 660.517 Maneuver area roads. (a) Claims by a highway agency for costs incurred to restore, to their former condition, roads damaged by maneuvers involving...

  2. 23 CFR 660.517 - Maneuver area roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maneuver area roads. 660.517 Section 660.517 Highways... PROGRAMS (DIRECT FEDERAL) Defense Access Roads § 660.517 Maneuver area roads. (a) Claims by a highway agency for costs incurred to restore, to their former condition, roads damaged by maneuvers involving...

  3. An exploratory study into the effect of time-restricted internet access on face-validity, construct validity and reliability of postgraduate knowledge progress testing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Yearly formative knowledge testing (also known as progress testing) was shown to have a limited construct-validity and reliability in postgraduate medical education. One way to improve construct-validity and reliability is to improve the authenticity of a test. As easily accessible internet has become inseparably linked to daily clinical practice, we hypothesized that allowing internet access for a limited amount of time during the progress test would improve the perception of authenticity (face-validity) of the test, which would in turn improve the construct-validity and reliability of postgraduate progress testing. Methods Postgraduate trainees taking the yearly knowledge progress test were asked to participate in a study where they could access the internet for 30 minutes at the end of a traditional pen and paper test. Before and after the test they were asked to complete a short questionnaire regarding the face-validity of the test. Results Mean test scores increased significantly for all training years. Trainees indicated that the face-validity of the test improved with internet access and that they would like to continue to have internet access during future testing. Internet access did not improve the construct-validity or reliability of the test. Conclusion Improving the face-validity of postgraduate progress testing, by adding the possibility to search the internet for a limited amount of time, positively influences test performance and face-validity. However, it did not change the reliability or the construct-validity of the test. PMID:24195696

  4. Image feature based GPS trace filtering for road network generation and road segmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Jiangye; Cheriyadat, Anil M.

    2015-10-19

    We propose a new method to infer road networks from GPS trace data and accurately segment road regions in high-resolution aerial images. Unlike previous efforts that rely on GPS traces alone, we exploit image features to infer road networks from noisy trace data. The inferred road network is used to guide road segmentation. We show that the number of image segments spanned by the traces and the trace orientation validated with image features are important attributes for identifying GPS traces on road regions. Based on filtered traces , we construct road networks and integrate them with image features to segment road regions. Lastly, our experiments show that the proposed method produces more accurate road networks than the leading method that uses GPS traces alone, and also achieves high accuracy in segmenting road regions even with very noisy GPS data.

  5. Image feature based GPS trace filtering for road network generation and road segmentation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yuan, Jiangye; Cheriyadat, Anil M.

    2015-10-19

    We propose a new method to infer road networks from GPS trace data and accurately segment road regions in high-resolution aerial images. Unlike previous efforts that rely on GPS traces alone, we exploit image features to infer road networks from noisy trace data. The inferred road network is used to guide road segmentation. We show that the number of image segments spanned by the traces and the trace orientation validated with image features are important attributes for identifying GPS traces on road regions. Based on filtered traces , we construct road networks and integrate them with image features to segmentmore » road regions. Lastly, our experiments show that the proposed method produces more accurate road networks than the leading method that uses GPS traces alone, and also achieves high accuracy in segmenting road regions even with very noisy GPS data.« less

  6. Road user behaviour changes following a self-explaining roads intervention.

    PubMed

    Mackie, Hamish W; Charlton, Samuel G; Baas, Peter H; Villasenor, Pablo C

    2013-01-01

    The self-explaining roads (SER) approach uses road designs that evoke correct expectations and driving behaviours from road users to create a safe and user-friendly road network. Following the implementation of an SER process and retrofitting of local and collector roads in a suburb within Auckland City, lower speeds on local roads and less variation in speed on both local and collector roads were achieved, along with a closer match between actual and perceived safe speeds. Preliminary analyses of crash data shows that the project has resulted in a 30% reduction crash numbers and an 86% reduction in crash costs per annum, since the road changes were completed. In order to further understand the outcomes from this project, a study was carried out to measure the effects of the SER intervention on the activity and behaviour of all road users. Video was collected over nine separate days, at nine different locations, both before and after SER construction. Road user behaviour categories were developed for all potential road users at different location types and then used to code the video data. Following SER construction, on local roads there was a relatively higher proportion of pedestrians, less uniformity in vehicle lane keeping and less indicating by motorists along with less through traffic, reflecting a more informal/low speed local road environment. Pedestrians were less constrained on local roads following SER construction, possibly reflecting a perceptually safer and more user-friendly environment. These behaviours were not generally evident on collector roads, a trend also shown by the previous study of speed changes. Given that one of the objectives of SER is to match road user behaviour with functionally different road categories, the road user behaviour differences demonstrated on different road types within the SER trial area provides further reinforcement of a successful SER trial. PMID:22868249

  7. Road Rage

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2010-01-01

    Up to one-third of community participants report being perpetrators of road rage, indicating that various forms of road rage are relatively commonplace. However, only two percent or less of incidents culminate in serious damage to persons or vehicles. The most common offenders appear to be young and male. A number of factors may contribute to road rage, including environmental factors (e.g., greater number of miles driven per day, traffic density), nonspecific psychological factors (e.g., displaced aggression, attribution of blame to others), and bona fide Axis I and II disorders. The most common Axis I disorders appear to be related to alcohol and substance misuse, whereas possible Axis II disorders include borderline and antisocial personality disorders. Being aware of these contributory factors to road rage may improve general clinical awareness of the nature and treatment of perpetrators. PMID:20805914

  8. Design and Performance of an Optically Accessible, Low-Volume, Mechanobioreactor for Long-Term Study of Living Constructs

    PubMed Central

    Paten, Jeffrey A.; Zareian, Ramin; Saeidi, Nima; Melotti, Suzanna A.

    2011-01-01

    Currently available bioreactor systems used by tissue engineers permit either direct, high-magnification observation of cell behavior or application of mechanical loads to growing tissue constructs, but not both simultaneously. Further, in most loading bioreactors, the volume of the dead space is not minimized to reduce the cost associated with perfusion media, exogenous stimulatory/inhibitory agents, proteases, and label. We have designed, developed, and tested a bioreactor that simultaneously satisfies the combined requirements of providing (i) controlled tensile mechanical stimulation, (ii) direct high-magnification imaging capability, and (iii) low dead-space volume. This novel mechanostimulatory (uniaxial tensile loading) bioreactor operates on an inverted microscope and permits continuous optical access (up to 600×) to a loaded, growing construct for extended periods of time (weeks). The reactor employs an adjustable reaction chamber in which the dead space can be reduced to <2 mL. The device has been used to cultivate our human primary corneal fibroblast-derived, tissue-engineered system for up to 14 days. Using the instrument we have successfully recorded (i) the process of fibroblasts populating, growing to confluence, and stratifying on different substrates; (ii) recorded complex and organized cell sheet motions; and (iii) recorded the behavior of a subpopulation of what appear to be degradative/catabolic cells within our fibroblast culture. The device is capable of providing detailed, long-term, dynamic images of mechanically stimulated cell/matrix interaction that have not been observed previously. PMID:21413901

  9. 48 CFR 436.579 - Opted timber sale road requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Opted timber sale road... sale road requirements. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 452.236-79, Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements, in road construction contracts resulting from a timber sale turnback....

  10. 48 CFR 436.579 - Opted timber sale road requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Opted timber sale road... sale road requirements. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 452.236-79, Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements, in road construction contracts resulting from a timber sale turnback....

  11. 48 CFR 436.579 - Opted timber sale road requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Opted timber sale road... sale road requirements. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 452.236-79, Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements, in road construction contracts resulting from a timber sale turnback....

  12. 48 CFR 436.579 - Opted timber sale road requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opted timber sale road... sale road requirements. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 452.236-79, Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements, in road construction contracts resulting from a timber sale turnback....

  13. 48 CFR 436.579 - Opted timber sale road requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Opted timber sale road... sale road requirements. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 452.236-79, Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements, in road construction contracts resulting from a timber sale turnback....

  14. Retention of heavy metals and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons from road water in a constructed wetland and the effect of de-icing.

    PubMed

    Tromp, Karin; Lima, Ana T; Barendregt, Arjan; Verhoeven, Jos T A

    2012-02-15

    A full-scale remediation facility including a detention basin and a wetland was tested for retention of heavy metals and Poly-Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from water drained from a motorway in The Netherlands. The facility consisted of a detention basin, a vertical-flow reed bed and a final groundwater infiltration bed. Water samples were taken of road water, detention basin influent and wetland effluent. By using automated sampling, we were able to obtain reliable concentration averages per 4-week period during 18 months. The system retained the PAHs very well, with retention efficiencies of 90-95%. While environmental standards for these substances were surpassed in the road water, this was never the case after passage through the system. For the metals the situation was more complicated. All metals studied (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd and Ni) had concentrations frequently surpassing environmental standards in the road water. After passage through the system, most metal concentrations were lower than the standards, except for Cu and Zn. There was a dramatic effect of de-icing salts on the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd and Ni, in the effluent leaving the system. For Cu, the concentrations even became higher than they had ever been in the road water. It is advised to let the road water bypass the facility during de-icing periods. PMID:22226719

  15. 7. VIEW TO NORTH SHOWING SEWER CONSTRUCTION IN FOREGROUND AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW TO NORTH SHOWING SEWER CONSTRUCTION IN FOREGROUND AND BUILDING F IN THE LEFT BACKGROUND. 8X10 black and white gelatin print. United States Coast Guard, Air Station Contract 1247, Sewer System. 1956. - U.S. Coast Guard Air Station San Francisco, 1020 North Access Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. Distributed road assessment system

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W

    2014-03-25

    A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

  17. A global strategy for road building.

    PubMed

    Laurance, William F; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Sloan, Sean; O'Connell, Christine S; Mueller, Nathan D; Goosem, Miriam; Venter, Oscar; Edwards, David P; Phalan, Ben; Balmford, Andrew; Van Der Ree, Rodney; Arrea, Irene Burgues

    2014-09-11

    The number and extent of roads will expand dramatically this century. Globally, at least 25 million kilometres of new roads are anticipated by 2050; a 60% increase in the total length of roads over that in 2010. Nine-tenths of all road construction is expected to occur in developing nations, including many regions that sustain exceptional biodiversity and vital ecosystem services. Roads penetrating into wilderness or frontier areas are a major proximate driver of habitat loss and fragmentation, wildfires, overhunting and other environmental degradation, often with irreversible impacts on ecosystems. Unfortunately, much road proliferation is chaotic or poorly planned, and the rate of expansion is so great that it often overwhelms the capacity of environmental planners and managers. Here we present a global scheme for prioritizing road building. This large-scale zoning plan seeks to limit the environmental costs of road expansion while maximizing its benefits for human development, by helping to increase agricultural production, which is an urgent priority given that global food demand could double by mid-century. Our analysis identifies areas with high environmental values where future road building should be avoided if possible, areas where strategic road improvements could promote agricultural development with relatively modest environmental costs, and 'conflict areas' where road building could have sizeable benefits for agriculture but with serious environmental damage. Our plan provides a template for proactively zoning and prioritizing roads during the most explosive era of road expansion in human history. PMID:25162528

  18. Supplement analysis for Greenville Gate access to Kirschbaum Field at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-05

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) Program proposes to provide additional access to the Kirschbaum Field construction laydown area. This additional access would alleviate traffic congestion at the East Gate entrance to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) from Greenville Road during periods of heavy construction for the NIF. The new access would be located along the northeastern boundary of LLNL, about 305 m (1,000 ft) north of the East Gate entrance. The access road would extend from Greenville Road to the Kirschbaum Field construction laydown area and would traverse an existing storm water drainage channel. Two culverts, side by side, and a compacted road base would be installed across the channel. The security fence that runs parallel to Greenville Road would be modified to accommodate this new entrance and a vehicle gate would be installed at the entrance of Kirschbaum Field. The exiting shoulder along Greenville Road would be converted into a new turn lane for trucks entering the new gate. This analysis evaluates the impacts of constructing the Kirschbaum Field bridge and access gate at a different location than was analyzed in the NIF Project specific Analysis in the Final Programmatic environmental Impact Statement for Stockpile Stewardship and Management (SS and M PEIS) published in September 1996 (DOE/EIS-0236) and the Record of Decision published on December 19, 1996. Issues of concern addressed in this supplement analysis include potential impacts to wetlands downstream of the access bridge, potential impacts to the California red-legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii) listed as threatened on the federal listing pursuant to the Endangered Species Act of 1974, and potential impacts on the 100-yr floodplain along the Arroyo Las Positas.

  19. Two Papers on Thesaurus Construction: The Language of Term Relation Designations in Subject Access Vocabularies; The Specific-to-General See Reference in Thesaurus Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angell, Richard S.

    The first paper, "The Language of Term Relation Designations in Subject Access Vocabularies," contains a set of tables comparing certain features of ten thesauri and subject authority lists. The purpose of this essay is to present a kind of analysis that may have value in clarifying the language and structure of subject access vocabularies with a…

  20. Celtic Roads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Building upon lessons learned is relevant to art and life. As an art teacher dealing with teens, the author tries to give her students an understanding of art as a window to the "big picture" as well as a practical, relevant skill. She developed this lesson plan, "Celtic Roads," with that objective in mind. The success rate is high, the product is…

  1. 1. View looking northwest, from Middle Mount Vernon Road, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View looking northwest, from Middle Mount Vernon Road, showing the slight rise upon which the building was constructed. - Perry Township School No. 3, Middle Mount Vernon & Eickhoff Roads, Evansville, Vanderburgh County, IN

  2. 36 CFR 228.12 - Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Access. 228.12 Section 228.12... Minerals § 228.12 Access. An operator is entitled to access in connection with operations, but no road... other means of access, including but not limited to off-road vehicles, be used until the operator...

  3. 36 CFR 228.12 - Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Access. 228.12 Section 228.12... Minerals § 228.12 Access. An operator is entitled to access in connection with operations, but no road... other means of access, including but not limited to off-road vehicles, be used until the operator...

  4. 48 CFR 452.236-79 - Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Opted Timber Sale Road... Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements. As prescribed in 436.579, insert the following clause: Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements (NOV 1996) This contract is for the construction of timber sale road(s) which...

  5. 48 CFR 452.236-79 - Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Opted Timber Sale Road... Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements. As prescribed in 436.579, insert the following clause: Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements (NOV 1996) This contract is for the construction of timber sale road(s) which...

  6. 48 CFR 452.236-79 - Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Opted Timber Sale Road... Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements. As prescribed in 436.579, insert the following clause: Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements (NOV 1996) This contract is for the construction of timber sale road(s) which...

  7. 48 CFR 452.236-79 - Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Opted Timber Sale Road... Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements. As prescribed in 436.579, insert the following clause: Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements (NOV 1996) This contract is for the construction of timber sale road(s) which...

  8. 48 CFR 452.236-79 - Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opted Timber Sale Road... Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements. As prescribed in 436.579, insert the following clause: Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements (NOV 1996) This contract is for the construction of timber sale road(s) which...

  9. Effects of a Wildfire on Road-stream Connectivity and Road Surface Erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosa-Perez, Gabriel; MacDonald, Lee

    2016-04-01

    exceptionally high connectivity rates are due to the increased runoff from upslope due to burning, the concentration of this runoff by the road surface to a single drainage point, and the reduced infiltration and trapping capacity of the burned area below the road. These results show: 1) the dramatic effect of burning on road-stream connectivity, and 2) the need to either outslope roads or increase the frequency of constructed drainage features after wildfires, particularly for steeper road segments in areas burned at high or moderate severity.

  10. Towards remote sensing of Arctic ice roads and associated human activities using SUOMI NPP night light images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, M.; Smith, L. C.; Stephenson, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    Ice roads are often the only cost-effective means of transporting goods and supplies to communities, mines, and other sites in remote parts of the Arctic. Yet, there is no global dataset for Arctic ice roads. However, remotely sensed images from the SUOMI NPP day/night band (DNB) of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) may allow for the construction of such a dataset. The DNB's high sensitivity to low-level light suggests that while it is not feasible to view ice roads at night per se, other prominent features associated with ice roads can serve as proxies. Using a time series of images taken in winter 2012, 2013, and 2014, SUOMI NPP images are compared with Landsat 8 images and an existing map of the Tibbitt to Contwoyto ice road in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, Canada. First results reveal that while the ice road's exact path cannot be discerned, key points of human activity along the way can be made out. This bodes well for future applications of DNB imagery to detect ice roads in places like the Russian Federation, for which there is a dearth of publicly available maps. Knowing the location of ice roads is important for two reasons. First, these data can signal sites of natural resource extraction in places for which information is not widely disseminated, such as in the Russian Far East. Second, new geospatial datasets for ice roads can be combined with models assessing impacts of climate change on circumpolar land accessibility (Stephenson et al. 2011) in order to understand where the structural integrity of ice roads may be at risk. As warming temperatures threaten to shorten the season for ice roads, communities and mines alike will need to prepare for changes to their transportation infrastructure, made out of the changing landscape itself.

  11. Washboard Road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElwaine, Jim; Dalziel, Stuart; Taberlet, Nicolas; Morris, Stephen

    2006-11-01

    The tendency of unpaved road surfaces to develop lateral ripples (``washboard'' or ``corrugated'' road) is annoyingly familiar to drivers on dry gravel roads. Similar ripples are well known on railroad tracks and many other rolling or sliding, load bearing surfaces. Our approach combined laboratory experiments, soft-particle direct numerical simulations and simple nonlinear dynamics models. The experiment consisted of a rotating table 60 cm in radius with a thick layer of sand forming a roadbed around the circumference. A 6 cm radius hard rubber wheel, with a support stationary in the lab frame, rolled on the sand layer. We varied the speed of the table and the details of the suspension of the wheel. The onset of the ripple pattern exhibits a sharp threshold and was strongly subcritical with a large hysteresis as a function of the speed of the table. The ripple pattern appears as small patches of travelling waves which eventually spread to the entire circumference. The ripples move slowly in the driving direction. Interesting secondary dynamics of the saturated ripples were observed. All of these effects are captured qualitatively by a 2D soft particle simulations. The simulations clearly indicate that neither compaction nor particle size segregation are crucial for the appearance of the ripples, and we present a simple model to describe the wavelength and amplitude of the ripples.

  12. Vulnerability Analysis and Evaluation of Urban Road System in Tianjin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. Q.; Wu, X.

    In recent years, with the development of economy, the road construction of our country has entered into a period of rapid growth. The road transportation network has been expanding and the risk of disasters is increasing. In this paper we study the vulnerability of urban road system in Tianjin. After analyzed many risk factors of the urban road system security, including road construction, road traffic and the natural environment, we proposed an evaluation index of vulnerability of urban road system and established the corresponding evaluation index system. Based on the results of analysis and comprehensive evaluation, appropriate improvement measures and suggestions which may reduce the vulnerability of the road system and improve the safety and reliability of the road system are proposed.

  13. The road not taken*

    PubMed Central

    Messerle, Judith

    2001-01-01

    The annual Janet Doe Lecture was established in l966 to honor Janet Doe, emerita librarian of the New York Academy of Medicine. The lecture focuses on either the history or philosophy of health sciences librarianship. This lecture addresses three fundamental values of the field, highlighting basic beliefs of the profession that are at risk: privacy, intellectual property rights, and access to quality information. It calls upon readers to make the everyday choices required to keep the value system of health sciences librarianship in place. Robert Frost's poignant poem ”The Road Not Taken” provides the metaphor for examining choices in an information economy. PMID:11209796

  14. Ice-Confined Basaltic Eruptive Fissure Complexes in Iceland: Accessible Analogs for Understanding Shallow Submarine Ridge Construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skilling, I. P.; Mercurio, E.; Cameron, B. I.

    2009-12-01

    In southwest Iceland, the onshore Mid-Atlantic Ridge (Reykjanes Ridge) forms a series of fissure and central vent (“shield”) volcanic complexes, known as the Western Volcanic Zone (WVZ). Sveifluháls is one of the longest fissure-fed complexes in the WVZ, and was erupted in an ice-confined environment during the Last Glacial Maximum. There are more than 1000 similar such glaciovolcanic ridges in Iceland, but there are few detailed studies of their construction. The complexes are both an important record of North Atlantic terrestrial ice presence and thicknesses in the Pleistocene, and are accessible analogs for submarine basaltic ridge volcanism in water less than a few hundred metres deep. This study focuses on the volcanic and sedimentary processes, products and depositional environments at Sveifluháls. Sveifluháls is a complex of closely spaced, sub-parallel, and multiple vent ridges. Ridges are constructed of numerous, regularly-spaced to overlapping and steep-sided topographic highs (point-source vents or tuff cones) and short, lower, intervening ridge segments (fissure vents or “tuff ridges”). Both tuff cones and tuff ridges consist dominantly of basal subaqueous lavas draped by phreatomagmatic tephra. Point-source vents have an average spacing of 0.7 km. Up to nine sub-parallel fissures/ridges occur, spaced 0.03-0.5 km apart. Ridges range from a few hundred metres to 21.5km in length. The majority of the phreatomagmatic has been rotated, slumped or slid. An upper sequence of inward and outward-dipping, over-steepened (rotated) “soft-margined” domains and angular blocks of bedded, subaqueously-deposited “Surtseyan” lapilli tuff, overlies more widespread aprons of very similar, but mostly slumped massive tephra. Important results to date include the observation that 1-2m wide dikes, emplaced into formerly wet unconsolidated tephra, form a volumetrically important part of the complex. The host tephra commonly shows evidence of deformation and

  15. Effect of the addition of by-product ash of date palms on the mechanical characteristics of gypsum-calcareous materials used in road construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khellou, A.; Kriker, A.; Hafssi, A.; Belbarka, K.; Baali, K.

    2016-07-01

    The gypsum-calcareous materials, also known as the crusting tuff, are used in the pavement layers of low -traffic road and considered as the materials of first choice in the Saharan region of Algeria. The objective of this paper is to study the mechanical characteristics of tuff of Ouargla town that is situated in the Southeast of Algeria, by adding different percentage of ash resulted from the combustion of by-products of date palms, such as 4%, 8% and l2%, to the tuff. The results obtained have shown a remarkable improvement both in compressive strength at different ages and in the bearing index in the two cases immediate and after immersion in water. These characteristics of the mixture (tuff+ash) reach their maximum values at the 8% of ash addition.

  16. 36 CFR 223.37 - Revegetation of temporary roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... roads. 223.37 Section 223.37 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Contract Conditions and Provisions § 223.37 Revegetation of temporary roads... products shall require the purchaser to treat temporary roads constructed or used thereunder so as...

  17. 36 CFR 223.37 - Revegetation of temporary roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... roads. 223.37 Section 223.37 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Contract Conditions and Provisions § 223.37 Revegetation of temporary roads... products shall require the purchaser to treat temporary roads constructed or used thereunder so as...

  18. 36 CFR 223.37 - Revegetation of temporary roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... roads. 223.37 Section 223.37 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Contract Conditions and Provisions § 223.37 Revegetation of temporary roads... products shall require the purchaser to treat temporary roads constructed or used thereunder so as...

  19. 36 CFR 223.37 - Revegetation of temporary roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... roads. 223.37 Section 223.37 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Contract Conditions and Provisions § 223.37 Revegetation of temporary roads... products shall require the purchaser to treat temporary roads constructed or used thereunder so as...

  20. 36 CFR 223.37 - Revegetation of temporary roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... roads. 223.37 Section 223.37 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Provisions § 223.37 Revegetation of temporary roads. Timber sale contracts, permits and other documents... roads constructed or used thereunder so as to permit the reestablishment by artificial or natural...

  1. 25 CFR 170.120 - What restrictions apply to the use of an Indian Reservation Road?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What restrictions apply to the use of an Indian Reservation Road? 170.120 Section 170.120 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Use of Irr and Cultural Access Roads § 170.120...

  2. 30 CFR 780.33 - Relocation or use of public roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Relocation or use of public roads. 780.33... PLAN § 780.33 Relocation or use of public roads. Each application shall describe, with appropriate maps... line of any public road, except where mine access or haul roads join that right-of-way; or...

  3. 25 CFR 170.120 - What restrictions apply to the use of an Indian Reservation Road?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Reservation Road? 170.120 Section 170.120 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Use of Irr and Cultural Access Roads § 170.120 What restrictions apply to the use of an...

  4. 30 CFR 784.18 - Relocation or use of public roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Relocation or use of public roads. 784.18... PLAN § 784.18 Relocation or use of public roads. Each application shall describe, with appropriate maps...-of-way line of any public road, except where mine access or haul roads join that right-of-way; or...

  5. 30 CFR 780.33 - Relocation or use of public roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relocation or use of public roads. 780.33... PLAN § 780.33 Relocation or use of public roads. Each application shall describe, with appropriate maps... line of any public road, except where mine access or haul roads join that right-of-way; or...

  6. 30 CFR 784.18 - Relocation or use of public roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relocation or use of public roads. 784.18... PLAN § 784.18 Relocation or use of public roads. Each application shall describe, with appropriate maps...-of-way line of any public road, except where mine access or haul roads join that right-of-way; or...

  7. 30 CFR 784.18 - Relocation or use of public roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Relocation or use of public roads. 784.18... PLAN § 784.18 Relocation or use of public roads. Each application shall describe, with appropriate maps...-of-way line of any public road, except where mine access or haul roads join that right-of-way; or...

  8. 30 CFR 780.33 - Relocation or use of public roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Relocation or use of public roads. 780.33... PLAN § 780.33 Relocation or use of public roads. Each application shall describe, with appropriate maps... line of any public road, except where mine access or haul roads join that right-of-way; or...

  9. 30 CFR 784.18 - Relocation or use of public roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Relocation or use of public roads. 784.18... PLAN § 784.18 Relocation or use of public roads. Each application shall describe, with appropriate maps...-of-way line of any public road, except where mine access or haul roads join that right-of-way; or...

  10. 30 CFR 780.33 - Relocation or use of public roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Relocation or use of public roads. 780.33... PLAN § 780.33 Relocation or use of public roads. Each application shall describe, with appropriate maps... line of any public road, except where mine access or haul roads join that right-of-way; or...

  11. 30 CFR 784.18 - Relocation or use of public roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Relocation or use of public roads. 784.18... PLAN § 784.18 Relocation or use of public roads. Each application shall describe, with appropriate maps...-of-way line of any public road, except where mine access or haul roads join that right-of-way; or...

  12. 30 CFR 780.33 - Relocation or use of public roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Relocation or use of public roads. 780.33... PLAN § 780.33 Relocation or use of public roads. Each application shall describe, with appropriate maps... line of any public road, except where mine access or haul roads join that right-of-way; or...

  13. Quantification of Gravel Rural Road Sediment Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silliman, B. A.; Myers Toman, E.

    2014-12-01

    Unbound rural roads are thought to be one of the largest anthropogenic sources of sediment reaching stream channels in small watersheds. This sediment deposition can reduce water quality in the streams negatively impacting aquatic habitat as well as impacting municipal drinking water sources. These roads are thought to see an increase in construction and use in southeast Ohio due to the expansion of shale gas development in the region. This study set out to quantify the amount of sediment these rural roads are able to produce. A controlled rain event of 12.7 millimeters of rain over a half hour period was used to drive sediment production over a 0.03 kilometer section of gravel rural road. These 8 segments varied in many characteristics and produced from 2.0 to 8.4 kilograms of sediment per 0.03 kilometers of road with the average production over the 8 segments being 5.5 kilograms of sediment. Sediment production was not strongly correlated with road segment slope but traffic was found to increase sediment production from 1.1 to 3.9 times as much sediment after traffic use. These results will help inform watershed scale sediment budgeting, and inform best management practices for road maintenance and construction. This study also adds to the understanding of the impacts of rural road use and construction associated with the changing land use from agricultural to natural gas extraction.

  14. Environmental assessment for the Area 5 radioactive waste management site access improvement at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The United States Department of Energy has prepared an Environmental Assessment which analyzes the potential environmental effects of improving access to its AREA 5 RWMS at the NTS. The EA evaluates the potential impacts of constructing an extension of the Cane Springs Road between Mercury Highway and the 5-01 Road. Three alternative actions are also evaluated: (1) construction of a new road along the existing alignment of the Powerline Road between Mercury Highway and the 5-01 Road, (2) upgrading the existing 5-01 Road, and (3) taking no action. The purpose and need for improving access to the RWMS are addressed in Section 1.0 of the EA. A detailed description of the proposed action and alternatives is in Section 2.0. Section 3.0 describes the affected environment and Section 4.0 the environmental effects of the proposed action and alternatives. Health and transportation effects, accident scenarios, cumulative effects, and other relevant information are found in Sections 5.0 through 12.0 of the EA. DOE determined that the alternative action of upgrading the existing 5-01 Road would best meet the needs of the agency.

  15. Recycled roads

    SciTech Connect

    Tarricone, P.

    1993-04-01

    This article examines the efforts of various states in the USA to recycle waste materials in highway construction as fill and pavements. The topics of the article include recycling used tires whole, ground, and shredded, cost of recycling, wood fiber chips as fill material in embankments, and mining wastes used to construct embankments and as coarse aggregates in asphalt pavement.

  16. Security during the Construction of New Nuclear Power Plants: Technical Basis for Access Authorization and Fitness-For-Duty Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Branch, Kristi M.; Baker, Kathryn A.

    2009-09-01

    A technical letter report to the NRC summarizing the findings of a benchmarking study, literature review, and workshop with experts on current industry standards and expert judgments about needs for security during the construction phase of critical infrastructure facilities in the post-September 11 U.S. context, with a special focus on the construction phase of nuclear power plants and personnel security measures.

  17. 23 CFR Appendix C to Subpart B of... - Additional Required Contract Provisions, Appalachian Development Highway System and Local Access...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional Required Contract Provisions, Appalachian... AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS REQUIRED CONTRACT PROVISIONS Federal-Aid Contracts (Appalachian Contracts) Pt..., Appalachian Development Highway System and Local Access Roads Contracts Other Than Construction...

  18. 23 CFR Appendix C to Subpart B of... - Additional Required Contract Provisions, Appalachian Development Highway System and Local Access...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional Required Contract Provisions, Appalachian... AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS REQUIRED CONTRACT PROVISIONS Federal-Aid Contracts (Appalachian Contracts) Pt..., Appalachian Development Highway System and Local Access Roads Contracts Other Than Construction...

  19. 23 CFR Appendix C to Subpart B of... - Additional Required Contract Provisions, Appalachian Development Highway System and Local Access...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional Required Contract Provisions, Appalachian... AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS REQUIRED CONTRACT PROVISIONS Federal-Aid Contracts (Appalachian Contracts) Pt..., Appalachian Development Highway System and Local Access Roads Contracts Other Than Construction...

  20. 23 CFR Appendix C to Subpart B of... - Additional Required Contract Provisions, Appalachian Development Highway System and Local Access...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional Required Contract Provisions, Appalachian... AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS REQUIRED CONTRACT PROVISIONS Federal-Aid Contracts (Appalachian Contracts) Pt..., Appalachian Development Highway System and Local Access Roads Contracts Other Than Construction...

  1. Constructing access in predictive medicine. Comparing classification for hereditary breast cancer risks in England, Germany and the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Aarden, Erik; Van Hoyweghen, Ine; Horstman, Klasien

    2011-02-01

    In the first decade of the twenty-first century, predictive forms of medicine, largely associated with genetics, have become increasingly prominent. This has given rise to questions about the social consequences of this development, for example with regard to the distribution of health care access. Drawing on qualitative interviews with clinic staff and public officials and on document analyses, we analyse how access to risk assessment and monitoring for hereditary breast cancer predispositions in Germany, the Netherlands and England is produced through the interaction of risk classification and health care organisation. For each of the three countries, we show how particular combinations of genetic testing and family history data, classification of risks and allocation of monitoring services in practice contribute to specific forms of inclusion and exclusion. Thus, we show how risk assessment and monitoring in Germany attributes a large role to genetic testing; how family history information plays a large role in the Netherlands; and how regional differences in health care have a significant influence in England. On the basis of our case study, we argue that health care organisation is an important facet of the allocation of health care access, as it plays an important role in mediating the influence of risk assessment technologies and risk categories in health care access. We conclude that the allocation of risk assessment and monitoring in predictive medicine deserve more extensive political attention. PMID:21208700

  2. Educating in the Design and Construction of Built Environments Accessible to Disabled People: The Leonardo da Vinci AWARD Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frattari, Antonio; Dalpra, Michela; Bernardi, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    An interdisciplinary partnership within an European Leonardo da Vinci project has developed a new approach aimed at educating secondary school students in the creation of built environments accessible to disabled people and at sensitizing them towards the inclusion of people with disabilities in all realms of social life. The AWARD (Accessible…

  3. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, T.I.; Bolen, W.P.

    2007-01-01

    Construction aggregates, primarily stone, sand and gravel, are recovered from widespread naturally occurring mineral deposits and processed for use primarily in the construction industry. They are mined, crushed, sorted by size and sold loose or combined with portland cement or asphaltic cement to make concrete products to build roads, houses, buildings, and other structures. Much smaller quantities are used in agriculture, cement manufacture, chemical and metallurgical processes, glass production and many other products.

  4. Utilisation of MSWI bottom ash as sub-base in road construction: first results from a large-scale test site.

    PubMed

    Hjelmar, Ole; Holm, Jesper; Crillesen, Kim

    2007-01-31

    The preferred management option for municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash in Denmark is utilisation rather than landfilling, but the current environmental quality criteria for bottom ash to be utilised in bulk quantities are rather strict. To evaluate the impact and risk assessments, upon which those criteria are based, a large-scale test site has been established. Three different MSWI bottom ashes have been used as sub-base in six test units ranging from 100 to 200 m2 with top covers of asphalt, flagstones and pebbles, respectively. All units, except one, are equipped with bottom liners and leachate collection equipment. The test site provides information on the leachate quality and quantity as a function of time under different conditions and on the flow pattern in asphalt and flagstone covered roads and squares with MSWI bottom ash sub-base. In addition, the leaching behaviour of the bottom ashes has been studied in the laboratory. The test site was established in October 2002 and the project is still ongoing. Water balance results indicate that the water flow distribution is strongly influenced by lateral flow on or in the upper part of the bottom ash layer and possibly by preferential flow. Comparisons between eluates from laboratory leaching tests on the bottom ashes and observations of the leachate from the site as a function of L/S show fairly good agreement for salts but less agreement for some trace elements. Most likely, this is partly due to the fact that the pH observed in the leachate from the field sites is lower than that observed in the eluates from the laboratory leaching tests. PMID:16621249

  5. Modeling spatial decisions with graph theory: logging roads and forest fragmentation in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Walker, Robert; Arima, Eugenio; Messina, Joe; Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Perz, Stephen; Vergara, Dante; Sales, Marcio; Pereira, Ritaumaria; Castro, Williams

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the spatial decision-making of loggers and implications for forest fragmentation in the Amazon basin. It provides a behavioral explanation for fragmentation by modeling how loggers build road networks, typically abandoned upon removal of hardwoods. Logging road networks provide access to land, and the settlers who take advantage of them clear fields and pastures that accentuate their spatial signatures. In shaping agricultural activities, these networks organize emergent patterns of forest fragmentation, even though the loggers move elsewhere. The goal of the article is to explicate how loggers shape their road networks, in order to theoretically explain an important type of forest fragmentation found in the Amazon basin, particularly in Brazil. This is accomplished by adapting graph theory to represent the spatial decision-making of loggers, and by implementing computational algorithms that build graphs interpretable as logging road networks. The economic behavior of loggers is conceptualized as a profit maximization problem, and translated into spatial decision-making by establishing a formal correspondence between mathematical graphs and road networks. New computational approaches, adapted from operations research, are used to construct graphs and simulate spatial decision-making as a function of discount rates, land tenure, and topographic constraints. The algorithms employed bracket a range of behavioral settings appropriate for areas of terras de volutas, public lands that have not been set aside for environmental protection, indigenous peoples, or colonization. The simulation target sites are located in or near so-called Terra do Meio, once a major logging frontier in the lower Amazon Basin. Simulation networks are compared to empirical ones identified by remote sensing and then used to draw inferences about factors influencing the spatial behavior of loggers. Results overall suggest that Amazonia's logging road networks induce more

  6. Case studies of geophysical imaging for road foundation design on soft soils and embankment risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteley, Robert J.; Kelly, Richard B.; Stewart, Simon B.

    2015-12-01

    Population growth along the coast of eastern Australia has increased demand for new and upgraded transport infrastructure within intervening coastal floodplains and steeper hinterland areas. This has created additional challenges for road foundation design. The floodplain areas in this region are underlain by considerable thicknesses of recently deposited alluvial and clayey marine sediments. If characterisation of these deposits is inadequate they can increase road construction costs and affect long-term road stability and serviceability. Case studies from a major coastal highway upgrade demonstrate how combining surface wave seismic and electrical geophysical imaging with conventional geotechnical testing enhances characterisation of these very soft and soft soils. The geophysical results also provide initial foundation design parameters such as void ratio and pre-consolidation pressure. A further significant risk issue for roads is potential embankment instability. This can occur during new road construction or when upgrades of existing embankments are required. Assessing the causes of instability of existing steeper embankments with drilling and probing is often difficult and costly due to access and safety problems. In these situations combinations of electrical, ground penetrating radar and P-wave seismic imaging technologies can rapidly provide information on the likely conditions below both the roadway and embankment. Case studies show the application of these technologies on two unstable road embankments. It is concluded that the application of both geophysical imaging and geotechnical testing is a cost-effective enhancement for site characterisation of soft soils and for risk assessment of potentially unstable embankments. This approach overcomes many of the current limitations of conventional methods of site investigation that provide point location data only. The incorporation of geophysics into a well crafted site investigation allows concentration on

  7. 30 CFR 816.150 - Roads: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... nontoxic-forming substances in road surfacing. (c) Design and construction limits and establishment of design criteria. To ensure environmental protection appropriate for their planned duration and use, including consideration of the type and size of equipment used, the design and construction...

  8. 30 CFR 816.150 - Roads: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... nontoxic-forming substances in road surfacing. (c) Design and construction limits and establishment of design criteria. To ensure environmental protection appropriate for their planned duration and use, including consideration of the type and size of equipment used, the design and construction...

  9. 30 CFR 816.150 - Roads: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... nontoxic-forming substances in road surfacing. (c) Design and construction limits and establishment of design criteria. To ensure environmental protection appropriate for their planned duration and use, including consideration of the type and size of equipment used, the design and construction...

  10. 30 CFR 817.150 - Roads: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...- and nontoxic-forming substances in road surfacing. (c) Design and construction limits and establishment of design criteria. To ensure environmental protection appropriate for their planned duration and use, including consideration of the type and size of equipment used, the design and construction...

  11. 30 CFR 816.150 - Roads: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... nontoxic-forming substances in road surfacing. (c) Design and construction limits and establishment of design criteria. To ensure environmental protection appropriate for their planned duration and use, including consideration of the type and size of equipment used, the design and construction...

  12. 30 CFR 817.150 - Roads: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...- and nontoxic-forming substances in road surfacing. (c) Design and construction limits and establishment of design criteria. To ensure environmental protection appropriate for their planned duration and use, including consideration of the type and size of equipment used, the design and construction...

  13. 30 CFR 817.150 - Roads: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...- and nontoxic-forming substances in road surfacing. (c) Design and construction limits and establishment of design criteria. To ensure environmental protection appropriate for their planned duration and use, including consideration of the type and size of equipment used, the design and construction...

  14. 30 CFR 817.150 - Roads: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...- and nontoxic-forming substances in road surfacing. (c) Design and construction limits and establishment of design criteria. To ensure environmental protection appropriate for their planned duration and use, including consideration of the type and size of equipment used, the design and construction...

  15. 2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  16. 20. GENERAL VIEW OF CONSTRUCTION LOOKING NORTHEAST SHOWING THE CONSTRUCTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. GENERAL VIEW OF CONSTRUCTION LOOKING NORTHEAST SHOWING THE CONSTRUCTION BRIDGE, GANTRY CRANE AND STRUCTURAL PIERS. - Wilson Dam & Hydroelectric Plant, Spanning Tennessee River at Wilson Dam Road (Route 133), Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  17. CROCKETT BARN AND BLOCKHOUSE FROM SOUTH FORT CASEY ROAD, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CROCKETT BARN AND BLOCKHOUSE FROM SOUTH FORT CASEY ROAD, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. The Crockett blockhouse was moved from its original location to a tract of land along South Fort Casey Road in 1938, making it more accessible to tourists. During the same year it was given to the Daughters of the Pioneers of Washington and restored by Works Progress Administration crews. - Crockett Farm, 1056 Fort Casey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  18. Construction and accessibility of a cross-species phenotype ontology along with gene annotations for biomedical research

    PubMed Central

    Köhler, Sebastian; Doelken, Sandra C; Ruef, Barbara J; Bauer, Sebastian; Washington, Nicole; Westerfield, Monte; Gkoutos, George; Schofield, Paul; Smedley, Damian; Lewis, Suzanna E; Robinson, Peter N; Mungall, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    Phenotype analyses, e.g. investigating metabolic processes, tissue formation, or organism behavior, are an important element of most biological and medical research activities. Biomedical researchers are making increased use of ontological standards and methods to capture the results of such analyses, with one focus being the comparison and analysis of phenotype information between species. We have generated a cross-species phenotype ontology for human, mouse and zebrafish that contains classes from the Human Phenotype Ontology, Mammalian Phenotype Ontology, and generated classes for zebrafish phenotypes. We also provide up-to-date annotation data connecting human genes to phenotype classes from the generated ontology. We have included the data generation pipeline into our continuous integration system ensuring stable and up-to-date releases. This article describes the data generation process and is intended to help interested researchers access both the phenotype annotation data and the associated cross-species phenotype ontology. The resource described here can be used in sophisticated semantic similarity and gene set enrichment analyses for phenotype data across species. The stable releases of this resource can be obtained from http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/hp/uberpheno/. PMID:24358873

  19. View from west to east of limited access sentry station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from west to east of limited access sentry station - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, LImited Area Sentry Station, Intersection of Service Road C & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  20. 43 CFR 2812.5-2 - Payment to the United States for road use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Payment to the United States for road use... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.5-2 Payment to the United States for road... any existing road or of any road constructed by the permittee upon the right-of-way. If the term...

  1. 43 CFR 2812.5-2 - Payment to the United States for road use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Payment to the United States for road use... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.5-2 Payment to the United States for road... any existing road or of any road constructed by the permittee upon the right-of-way. If the term...

  2. 43 CFR 2812.5-2 - Payment to the United States for road use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Payment to the United States for road use... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.5-2 Payment to the United States for road... any existing road or of any road constructed by the permittee upon the right-of-way. If the term...

  3. 43 CFR 2812.5-2 - Payment to the United States for road use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Payment to the United States for road use... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.5-2 Payment to the United States for road... any existing road or of any road constructed by the permittee upon the right-of-way. If the term...

  4. INFINITY construction contract signed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Key state and community leaders celebrated April 6 with the signing of a construction contract for the state-of-the-art INFINITY Science Center planned near John C. Stennis Space Center in south Mississippi. Gulfport Mayor George Schloegel (l to r), chair of non-profit INFINITY Science Center Inc., was joined for the signing ceremony at the Hancock Bank in Gulfport by Virginia Wagner, sister of late Hancock Bank President Leo Seal Jr.; and Roy Anderson III, president and CEO of Roy Anderson Corp. Seal was the first chair of INFINITY Science Center Inc., which has led in development of the project. Roy Anderson Corp. plans to begin construction on the 72,000-square-foot, $28 million science and education center in May. The Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT) also is set to begin construction of a $2 million access road to the new center. The April 6 ceremony was attended by numerous officials, including former Stennis Space Center Directors Jerry Hlass and Roy Estess; Mississippi Senate President Pro Tempore Billy Hewes, R-Gulfport; Mississippi Rep. Diane Peranich, D-Pass Christian; and MDOT Southern District Commissioner Wayne Brown.

  5. 25 CFR 247.20 - What are the road and trail prohibitions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are the road and trail prohibitions? 247.20 Section... RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.20 What are the road and trail prohibitions? (a) You cannot damage or leave in a damaged condition any road, trail, or segment thereof. (b) You cannot...

  6. 25 CFR 247.20 - What are the road and trail prohibitions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the road and trail prohibitions? 247.20 Section... RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.20 What are the road and trail prohibitions? (a) You cannot damage or leave in a damaged condition any road, trail, or segment thereof. (b) You cannot...

  7. 25 CFR 247.20 - What are the road and trail prohibitions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are the road and trail prohibitions? 247.20 Section... RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.20 What are the road and trail prohibitions? (a) You cannot damage or leave in a damaged condition any road, trail, or segment thereof. (b) You cannot...

  8. 25 CFR 247.20 - What are the road and trail prohibitions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What are the road and trail prohibitions? 247.20 Section... RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.20 What are the road and trail prohibitions? (a) You cannot damage or leave in a damaged condition any road, trail, or segment thereof. (b) You cannot...

  9. 25 CFR 247.20 - What are the road and trail prohibitions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What are the road and trail prohibitions? 247.20 Section... RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.20 What are the road and trail prohibitions? (a) You cannot damage or leave in a damaged condition any road, trail, or segment thereof. (b) You cannot...

  10. Quarry Haul Road Ecological Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    This biological survey was performed to document the summer flora and fauna found along the haul road constructed as part of the remedial action for the quarry bulk waste. State and Federal species listed as threatened or endangered were noted if encountered while surveying. Sampling locations were equally spaced along the quarry haul road, and a survey for vegetation and birds conducted at each location. Bird observations were conducted as breeding bird surveys once in June of 1991, and again in June of 1992. Each year's survey includes two observations in the early morning and one late in the evening. Vegetation surveys were conducted in 1991 using quadrants and transects. mammal, reptile, and amphibian sightings were noted as encountered.

  11. THE HAYLOFT OF THE JENNE BARN, SHOWING ITS UNIQUE CONSTRUCTION. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    THE HAYLOFT OF THE JENNE BARN, SHOWING ITS UNIQUE CONSTRUCTION. (The barn’s gambrel roof is supported by seven bents made-up of diagonal stilts, collar beams, and cross-bracing that tie into the support columns on the ground floor and the sill plates. Also visible are the cables installed across each bent in 2000-02 to reinforce the construction, the hay door at the gable end, and the ladder and opening accessing the barn’s ground floor.) - Jenne Farm, Barn, 538 Engle Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  12. Constructing Knowledge with Silk Road Visuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisland, Beverly Milner

    2008-01-01

    In this study a group of elementary teachers use illustrations, rather than written text, to introduce their students to the peoples and places of the ancient silk routes. The illustrations are from two picture books; "Marco Polo," written by Gian Paolo Cesaerani and illustrated by Piero Ventura (1977), and "We're Riding on a Caravan: An Adventure…

  13. Evaluating potential effects of an industrial road on winter habitat of caribou in North-Central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Ryan R.; Gustine, David D.; Joly, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, some caribou (Rangifer tarandus) populations are experiencing declines due partially to the expansion of industrial development. Caribou can exhibit behavioral avoidance of development, leading to indirect habitat loss, even if the actual footprint is small. Thus, it is important to understand before construction begins how much habitat might be affected by proposed development. In northern Alaska, an industrial road that has been proposed to facilitate mining transects a portion of the Western Arctic caribou herd's winter range. To understand how winter habitat use might be affected by the road, we estimated resource selection patterns during winter for caribou in a study area surrounding the proposed road. We assessed the reductions of habitat value associated with three proposed routes at three distance thresholds for disturbance. High-value winter habitat tended to occur in locally rugged areas that have not burned recently and have a high density of lichen and early dates of spring snowmelt. We found that 1.5% to 8.5% (146-848 km2) of existing high-value winter habitat in our study area might be reduced in quality. The three alternative routes were only marginally different. Our results suggest that the road would have minimal direct effects on high-value winter habitat; however, additional cumulative impacts to caribou (e.g., increased access by recreationists and hunters) should be considered before the full effects of the road can be estimated.

  14. 7. VIEW OF OLD ENTRANCE ROAD (NOW WILLOW FLATS ROAD) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF OLD ENTRANCE ROAD (NOW WILLOW FLATS ROAD) FACING EAST INTO PARK. - Arches National Park Main Entrance Road, Beginning at U.S. Highway 191, approximately 6 miles north of Moab, Moab, Grand County, UT

  15. 7. LASSEN PARK ROAD BRIDGE AT SULFUR WORKS. NOTE ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. LASSEN PARK ROAD BRIDGE AT SULFUR WORKS. NOTE ROAD TRAVERSING DISTANT RIDGE BEYOND BRIDGE. SEEN FROM WEST OF HIGHWAY FROM OLD HIGHWAY LOOP. LOOKING E. - Lassen Park Road, Mineral, Tehama County, CA

  16. Roads and Airfields I (Programed Instruction). Engineer Subcourse 64-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Engineer School, Fort Belvoir, VA.

    The document is a programed text for a correspondence course in the planning, construction, and maintenance of military roads and airfields. There are seven lessons: construction requirements and design criteria; road reconnaissance and site selection; airfield reconnaissance and site selection; layout procedures, construction staking, and field…

  17. Conceptual design report, TWRS Privatization Phase I, site development and roads, subproject W-505

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, G.

    1997-06-05

    This document includes Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the site development, construction of new roads and improvements at existing road intersections, habitat mitigation, roadway lighting, and construction power needed for the construction of two Private Contractor (PC) Facilities. Approximately 50 hectare (124 acres) land parcel, east of the Grout Facility, is planned for the PC facilities.

  18. 30 CFR 817.151 - Primary roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... erosion, a primary road shall be located, insofar as is practicable, on the most stable available surface... maintained in a free and operating condition and to prevent or control erosion at inlets and outlets; (3... ensure that low-water crossings are designed, constructed, and maintained to prevent erosion of...

  19. 30 CFR 816.151 - Primary roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... (1) To minimize erosion, a primary road shall be located, insofar as is practicable, on the most... installed as designed, and maintained in a free and operating condition and to prevent or control erosion at... authority shall ensure that low-water crossings are designed, constructed, and maintained to prevent...

  20. 30 CFR 817.151 - Primary roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... erosion, a primary road shall be located, insofar as is practicable, on the most stable available surface... maintained in a free and operating condition and to prevent or control erosion at inlets and outlets; (3... ensure that low-water crossings are designed, constructed, and maintained to prevent erosion of...

  1. 30 CFR 816.151 - Primary roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... (1) To minimize erosion, a primary road shall be located, insofar as is practicable, on the most... installed as designed, and maintained in a free and operating condition and to prevent or control erosion at... authority shall ensure that low-water crossings are designed, constructed, and maintained to prevent...

  2. 36 CFR 212.10 - Maximum economy National Forest System roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Forest System roads. 212.10 Section 212.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... economy National Forest System roads. The Chief may acquire, construct, reconstruct, improve, and maintain National Forest System roads within and near the National Forests and other lands administered by...

  3. 36 CFR 212.10 - Maximum economy National Forest System roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Forest System roads. 212.10 Section 212.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... economy National Forest System roads. The Chief may acquire, construct, reconstruct, improve, and maintain National Forest System roads within and near the National Forests and other lands administered by...

  4. 36 CFR 212.10 - Maximum economy National Forest System roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Forest System roads. 212.10 Section 212.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... economy National Forest System roads. The Chief may acquire, construct, reconstruct, improve, and maintain National Forest System roads within and near the National Forests and other lands administered by...

  5. 36 CFR 212.10 - Maximum economy National Forest System roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Forest System roads. 212.10 Section 212.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... economy National Forest System roads. The Chief may acquire, construct, reconstruct, improve, and maintain National Forest System roads within and near the National Forests and other lands administered by...

  6. 36 CFR 212.10 - Maximum economy National Forest System roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Forest System roads. 212.10 Section 212.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... economy National Forest System roads. The Chief may acquire, construct, reconstruct, improve, and maintain National Forest System roads within and near the National Forests and other lands administered by...

  7. Roads to Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauer, Ezra

    1991-01-01

    Contends that the level of safety built into roads is largely unpremeditated and that roads and highways are not as safe as they might be. Discusses practices, standards, and deficiencies in highway and traffic safety related to geometric design and traffic engineering. Recommends increased transportation engineering professionalism and public…

  8. The Road Less Traveled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKim, Brent

    2007-01-01

    The federal journey into public education has followed a long and winding road. Most educators know that the federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act is simply the latest version of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), which dates all the way back to 1965. In the years since its initial passage, the ESEA road has taken a number of…

  9. Corrugation of roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Both, Joseph A.; Hong, Daniel C.; Kurtze, Douglas A.

    2001-12-01

    We present a one dimensional model for the development of corrugations in roads subjected to compressive forces from a flux of cars. The cars are modeled as damped harmonic oscillators translating with constant horizontal velocity across the surface, and the road surface is subject to diffusive relaxation. We derive dimensionless coupled equations of motion for the positions of the cars and the road surface H( x, t), which contain two phenomenological variables: an effective diffusion constant Δ( H) that characterizes the relaxation of the road surface, and a function a( H) that characterizes the plasticity or erodibility of the road bed. Linear stability analysis shows that corrugations grow if the speed of the cars exceeds a critical value, which decreases if the flux of cars is increased. Modifying the model to enforce the simple fact that the normal force exerted by the road can never be negative seems to lead to restabilized, quasi-steady road shapes, in which the corrugation amplitude and phase velocity remain fixed.

  10. Haul road dust control

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, W.R.; Organiscak, J.A.

    2007-10-15

    A field study was conducted to measure dust from haul trucks at a limestone quarry and a coal preparation plant waste hauling operation. The study found that primarily wind, distance and road treatment conditions notably affected the dust concentrations at locations next to, 50 ft from, and 100 ft away from the unpaved haulage road. Airborne dust measured along the unpaved haul road showed that high concentrations of fugitive dust can be generated with these concentrations rapidly decreasing to nearly background levels within 100 ft of the road. Instantaneous respirable dust measurements illustrated that the trucks generate a real-time dust cloud that has a peak concentration with a time-related decay rate as the dust moves past the sampling locations. The respirable dust concentrations and peak levels were notably diminished as the dust cloud was transported, diluted, and diffused by the wind over the 100 ft distance from the road. Individual truck concentrations and peak levels measured next to the dry road surface test section were quite variable and dependent on wind conditions, particularly wind direction, with respect to reaching the sampling location. The vast majority of the fugitive airborne dust generated from unpaved and untreated haulage roads was non-respirable. 6 figs.

  11. 14. VIEW OF NORTHSOUTH ROAD WHICH PARALLELS ROAD TO HATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF NORTH-SOUTH ROAD WHICH PARALLELS ROAD TO HATCH ADIT (FEATURE B-28). NOTE MODERN 'LAY DOWN' FENCE ON ROAD. ROAD LIES TO THE WEST OF THE HATCH ADIT AND PHOTOGRAPH IS VIEW TO THE SOUTH. (OCTOBER, 1995) - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  12. 4. CONSTRUCTION DETAIL, SW CORNER, SHOWING RETAINING WALL, BRIDGE WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. CONSTRUCTION DETAIL, SW CORNER, SHOWING RETAINING WALL, BRIDGE WALL AND EROSION ON ROAD SURFACE. - Bridalveil Fall Bridge No. 3, Spanning Bridalveil Creek on carriage road, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  13. 15. Newfound Gap parking area with construction scar looking W. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Newfound Gap parking area with construction scar looking W. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Newfound Gap Road, Between Gatlinburg, TN & Cherokee, NC, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  14. Space Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagaman, Jane A. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The purpose was to present to the aerospace community an in-depth review of Experimental Assembly of Structures on EVA (EASE)/Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structures (ACCESS) space flight experiments and to present the status of activities regarding future space flight experiments and accompanying technology developments that will demonstrate the capability of on-orbit construction required for the Space Station.

  15. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  16. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, L.M.

    1998-05-05

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find at the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was not heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past. 2 figs.

  17. Polarimetric road ice detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummond, Krista

    This thesis investigated the science behind polarimetric road ice detection systems. Laboratory Mueller matrix measurements of a simulated road under differing surface conditions were collected searching for a discriminatory polarization property. These Mueller matrices were decomposed into depolarization, diattenuation, and retardance. Individual sample surface polarization properties were then calculated from these three unique matrices and compared. Specular and off-specular reflection responses of each sample were collected. Four polarization properties stood out for having high separation between dry and iced measurements: Depolarization Index, Linear Diattenuation, Linear Polarizance, and Linear Retardance. Through our investigation polarimetric ice detection is possible. Continued research of the polarization properties of road ice can result in the development of a road ice detection system. Proposed deployment methods of such a system have been outlined following the analysis of the data collected in this experiment.

  18. A Holographic Road Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

    1979-01-01

    Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

  19. Road boundary detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sowers, J.; Mehrotra, R.; Sethi, I. K.

    1989-01-01

    A method for extracting road boundaries using the monochrome image of a visual road scene is presented. The statistical information regarding the intensity levels present in the image along with some geometrical constraints concerning the road are the basics of this approach. Results and advantages of this technique compared to others are discussed. The major advantages of this technique, when compared to others, are its ability to process the image in only one pass, to limit the area searched in the image using only knowledge concerning the road geometry and previous boundary information, and dynamically adjust for inconsistencies in the located boundary information, all of which helps to increase the efficacy of this technique.

  20. Handbook of road safety research

    SciTech Connect

    Grime, G.

    1987-01-01

    This book describes the road safety, accident investigation or vehicle and highway design. This book also discusses the nature and cause of road accidents. It discusses the following contents: Forward; Preface; The main features of the accident situation in Great Britain; The interacting roles of road environment, vehicle and road user in accidents; Roads - features which may be related to accidents; Movements of vehicles and road users before accidents; What happens to vehicles during and after accidents; Injuries to road users; The potential for savings in accidents involving injury; General remarks on accident investigation; Appendices References.

  1. Road networks predict human influence on Amazonian bird communities.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sadia E; Lees, Alexander C; Moura, Nárgila G; Gardner, Toby A; Barlow, Jos; Ferreira, Joice; Ewers, Robert M

    2014-11-22

    Road building can lead to significant deleterious impacts on biodiversity, varying from direct road-kill mortality and direct habitat loss associated with road construction, to more subtle indirect impacts from edge effects and fragmentation. However, little work has been done to evaluate the specific effects of road networks and biodiversity loss beyond the more generalized effects of habitat loss. Here, we compared forest bird species richness and composition in the municipalities of Santarém and Belterra in Pará state, eastern Brazilian Amazon, with a road network metric called 'roadless volume (RV)' at the scale of small hydrological catchments (averaging 3721 ha). We found a significant positive relationship between RV and both forest bird richness and the average number of unique species (species represented by a single record) recorded at each site. Forest bird community composition was also significantly affected by RV. Moreover, there was no significant correlation between RV and forest cover, suggesting that road networks may impact biodiversity independently of changes in forest cover. However, variance partitioning analysis indicated that RV has partially independent and therefore additive effects, suggesting that RV and forest cover are best used in a complementary manner to investigate changes in biodiversity. Road impacts on avian species richness and composition independent of habitat loss may result from road-dependent habitat disturbance and fragmentation effects that are not captured by total percentage habitat cover, such as selective logging, fire, hunting, traffic disturbance, edge effects and road-induced fragmentation. PMID:25274363

  2. Large roads reduce bat activity across multiple species.

    PubMed

    Kitzes, Justin; Merenlender, Adina

    2014-01-01

    Although the negative impacts of roads on many terrestrial vertebrate and bird populations are well documented, there have been few studies of the road ecology of bats. To examine the effects of large roads on bat populations, we used acoustic recorders to survey bat activity along ten 300 m transects bordering three large highways in northern California, applying a newly developed statistical classifier to identify recorded calls to the species level. Nightly counts of bat passes were analyzed with generalized linear mixed models to determine the relationship between bat activity and distance from a road. Total bat activity recorded at points adjacent to roads was found to be approximately one-half the level observed at 300 m. Statistically significant road effects were also found for the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis), big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus), and silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans). The road effect was found to be temperature dependent, with hot days both increasing total activity at night and reducing the difference between activity levels near and far from roads. These results suggest that the environmental impacts of road construction may include degradation of bat habitat and that mitigation activities for this habitat loss may be necessary to protect bat populations. PMID:24823689

  3. Large Roads Reduce Bat Activity across Multiple Species

    PubMed Central

    Kitzes, Justin; Merenlender, Adina

    2014-01-01

    Although the negative impacts of roads on many terrestrial vertebrate and bird populations are well documented, there have been few studies of the road ecology of bats. To examine the effects of large roads on bat populations, we used acoustic recorders to survey bat activity along ten 300 m transects bordering three large highways in northern California, applying a newly developed statistical classifier to identify recorded calls to the species level. Nightly counts of bat passes were analyzed with generalized linear mixed models to determine the relationship between bat activity and distance from a road. Total bat activity recorded at points adjacent to roads was found to be approximately one-half the level observed at 300 m. Statistically significant road effects were also found for the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis), big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus), and silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans). The road effect was found to be temperature dependent, with hot days both increasing total activity at night and reducing the difference between activity levels near and far from roads. These results suggest that the environmental impacts of road construction may include degradation of bat habitat and that mitigation activities for this habitat loss may be necessary to protect bat populations. PMID:24823689

  4. Geotextiles in Flexible Pavement Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alungbe, Gabriel D.

    2004-01-01

    People everywhere in the developed world regularly drive on paved roads. Learning about the construction techniques and materials used in paving benefits technology and construction students. This article discusses the use of geosynthetic textiles in pavement construction. It presents background on pavements and describes geotextiles and drainage…

  5. Paving the way for invasive species: road type and the spread of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia).

    PubMed

    Joly, Martin; Bertrand, Pascale; Gbangou, Roland Y; White, Marie-Catherine; Dubé, Jean; Lavoie, Claude

    2011-09-01

    Roads function as prime habitats and corridors for invasive plant species. Yet despite the diversity of road types, there is little research on the influence of these types on the spread of invaders. Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia), a plant producing large amounts of allergenic pollen, was selected as a species model for examining the impact of road type on the spread of invasive plants. We examined this relationship in an agricultural region of Quebec, Canada. We mapped plant distribution along different road types, and constructed a model of species presence. Common ragweed was found in almost all sampling sites located along regional (97%) and local paved (81%) roads. However, verges of unpaved local roads were rarely (13%) colonized by the plant. A model (53% of variance explained), constructed with only four variables (paved regional roads, paved local roads, recently mown road verges, forest cover), correctly predicted (success rate: 89%) the spatial distribution of common ragweed. Results support the hypothesis that attributes associated with paved roads strongly favour the spread of an opportunistic invasive plant species. Specifically, larger verges and greater disturbance associated with higher traffic volume create propitious conditions for common ragweed. To date, emphasis has been placed on controlling the plant in agricultural fields, even though roadsides are probably a much larger seed source. Strategies for controlling the weed along roads have only focused on major highways, even though the considerable populations along local roads also contribute to the production of pollen. Management prioritizations developed to control common ragweed are thus questionable. PMID:21710219

  6. Paving the Way for Invasive Species: Road Type and the Spread of Common Ragweed ( Ambrosia artemisiifolia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joly, Martin; Bertrand, Pascale; Gbangou, Roland Y.; White, Marie-Catherine; Dubé, Jean; Lavoie, Claude

    2011-09-01

    Roads function as prime habitats and corridors for invasive plant species. Yet despite the diversity of road types, there is little research on the influence of these types on the spread of invaders. Common ragweed ( Ambrosia artemisiifolia), a plant producing large amounts of allergenic pollen, was selected as a species model for examining the impact of road type on the spread of invasive plants. We examined this relationship in an agricultural region of Quebec, Canada. We mapped plant distribution along different road types, and constructed a model of species presence. Common ragweed was found in almost all sampling sites located along regional (97%) and local paved (81%) roads. However, verges of unpaved local roads were rarely (13%) colonized by the plant. A model (53% of variance explained), constructed with only four variables (paved regional roads, paved local roads, recently mown road verges, forest cover), correctly predicted (success rate: 89%) the spatial distribution of common ragweed. Results support the hypothesis that attributes associated with paved roads strongly favour the spread of an opportunistic invasive plant species. Specifically, larger verges and greater disturbance associated with higher traffic volume create propitious conditions for common ragweed. To date, emphasis has been placed on controlling the plant in agricultural fields, even though roadsides are probably a much larger seed source. Strategies for controlling the weed along roads have only focused on major highways, even though the considerable populations along local roads also contribute to the production of pollen. Management prioritizations developed to control common ragweed are thus questionable.

  7. Road dust emissions from paved roads measured using different mobile systems.

    PubMed

    Pirjola, Liisa; Johansson, Christer; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Stojiljkovic, Ana; Karlsson, Hans; Hussein, Tareq

    2010-12-01

    Very few real-world measurements of road dust suspension have been performed to date. This study compares two different techniques (referred to as Sniffer and Emma) to measure road dust emissions. The main differences between the systems are the construction of the inlet, different instruments for recording particulate matter (PM) levels, and different loads on the wheel axes (the weight of Sniffer was much higher than that of Emma). Both systems showed substantial small-scale variations of emission levels along the road, likely depending on-road surface conditions. The variations observed correlated quite well, and the discrepancies are likely a result of variations in dust load on the road surface perpendicular to the driving direction that cause variations in the measurements depending on slightly different paths driven by the two vehicles. Both systems showed a substantial influence on the emission levels depending on the type of tire used. The summer tire showed much lower suspension than the winter tires (one nonstudded and one studded). However, the relative importance of the nonstudded versus studded tire was rather different. For the ratio of studded/nonstudded, Emma shows higher values on all road sections compared with Sniffer. Both techniques showed increased emission levels with increasing vehicle speed. When the speed increased from 50 to 80 km hr(-1), the relative concentrations increased by 30-170% depending on the tire type and dust load. However, for road sections that were very dirty, Sniffer showed a much higher relative increase in the emission level with the nonstudded tire. Sniffer's absolute concentrations were mostly higher than Emma's. Possible reasons for the differences are discussed in the paper. Both systems can be used for studying relative road dust emissions and for designing air quality management strategies. PMID:21243896

  8. Cultural Resource Investigations for a Multipurpose Haul Road on the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Brenda R. Pace; Cameron Brizzee; Hollie Gilbert; Clayton Marler; Julie Braun Williams

    2010-08-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is considering options for construction of a multipurpose haul road to transport materials and wastes between the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) and other Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site facilities. The proposed road will be closed to the public and designed for limited year-round use. Two primary options are under consideration: a new route south of the existing T-25 power line road and an upgrade to road T-24. In the Spring of 2010, archaeological field surveys and initial coordination and field reconnaissance with representatives from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes were completed to identify any resources that may be adversely affected by the proposed road construction and to develop recommendations to protect any listed or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. The investigations showed that 24 archaeological resources and one historic marker are located in the area of potential effects for road construction and operation south of the T-25 powerline road and 27archaeological resources are located in the area of potential effects for road construction and operation along road T-24. Generalized tribal concerns regarding protection of natural resources were also documented in both road corridors. This report outlines recommendations for additional investigations and protective measures that can be implemented to minimize adverse impacts to the identified resources.

  9. View east along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View east along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the north side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  10. View northwest along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northwest along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the north side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  11. View southeast along Pomfret Road (Route 169) showing residence on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast along Pomfret Road (Route 169) showing residence on the east side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  12. View northeast across Hyde Road showing a residenc on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northeast across Hyde Road showing a residenc on the east side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  13. View north along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing residences on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing residences on the east side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  14. View north along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing residences on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing residences on west side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  15. View southeast across Providence Road (Route 6) showing a residence ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast across Providence Road (Route 6) showing a residence on the south side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  16. View northeast along Pomfret Road (Route 169) showing rersidences on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northeast along Pomfret Road (Route 169) showing rersidences on the east side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  17. View southwest along Hartford Road (Route 6) showing residences on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest along Hartford Road (Route 6) showing residences on the north side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  18. View southwest along Brown Road showing residential and commercial buildings ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest along Brown Road showing residential and commercial buildings on the north and south sides of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  19. Road Maps for Learning: A Bird's Eye View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunne, Timothy T.

    2011-01-01

    The notion of the road map, advocated by Black, Wilson, and Yao (2011), and the associated minutiae of the construct map have several powerful features. At one level these notions assist the teacher to select and embody a suitable sequence of constructs within a specified curriculum. Whatever disparate sequenced pathways individual learners may…

  20. A review of models relevant to road safety.

    PubMed

    Hughes, B P; Newstead, S; Anund, A; Shu, C C; Falkmer, T

    2015-01-01

    It is estimated that more than 1.2 million people die worldwide as a result of road traffic crashes and some 50 million are injured per annum. At present some Western countries' road safety strategies and countermeasures claim to have developed into 'Safe Systems' models to address the effects of road related crashes. Well-constructed models encourage effective strategies to improve road safety. This review aimed to identify and summarise concise descriptions, or 'models' of safety. The review covers information from a wide variety of fields and contexts including transport, occupational safety, food industry, education, construction and health. The information from 2620 candidate references were selected and summarised in 121 examples of different types of model and contents. The language of safety models and systems was found to be inconsistent. Each model provided additional information regarding style, purpose, complexity and diversity. In total, seven types of models were identified. The categorisation of models was done on a high level with a variation of details in each group and without a complete, simple and rational description. The models identified in this review are likely to be adaptable to road safety and some of them have previously been used. None of systems theory, safety management systems, the risk management approach, or safety culture was commonly or thoroughly applied to road safety. It is concluded that these approaches have the potential to reduce road trauma. PMID:24997016

  1. Roads, interrupted dispersal, and genetic diversity in timber rattlesnakes.

    PubMed

    Clark, Rulon W; Brown, William S; Stechert, Randy; Zamudio, Kelly R

    2010-08-01

    Anthropogenic habitat modification often creates barriers to animal movement, transforming formerly contiguous habitat into a patchwork of habitat islands with low connectivity. Roadways are a feature of most landscapes that can act as barriers or filters to migration among local populations. Even small and recently constructed roads can have a significant impact on population genetic structure of some species, but not others. We developed a research approach that combines fine-scale molecular genetics with behavioral and ecological data to understand the impacts of roads on population structure and connectivity. We used microsatellite markers to characterize genetic variation within and among populations of timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) occupying communal hibernacula (dens) in regions bisected by roadways. We examined the impact of roads on seasonal migration, genetic diversity, and gene flow among populations. Snakes in hibernacula isolated by roads had significantly lower genetic diversity and higher genetic differentiation than snakes in hibernacula in contiguous habitat. Genetic-assignment analyses revealed that interruption to seasonal migration was the mechanism underlying these patterns. Our results underscore the sizeable impact of roads on this species, despite their relatively recent construction at our study sites (7 to 10 generations of rattlesnakes), the utility of population genetics for studies of road ecology, and the need for mitigating effects of roads. PMID:20151984

  2. The Research of Road Traffic Based on Floating Car Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junyou; Jian, Meng; Tang, Rui

    Based on the analysis of floating car traffic information acquisition and processing system structure and construction frame, combining the Zibo floating car features and road conditions, using historical data provided by Zibo city bus companies, adopting the ArcGIS Engine of ESRI company as a map components, putting forward the nearest point estimate map matching algorithms, combining data fusion technology based on Kalman filter and road running speed calibration algorithm, predicting road traffic running status in certain period and express it in the GIS map, this paper completed the design, the practice has proved the suggested method is feasible.

  3. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1999-01-01

    Disclosed are improvments to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

  4. A Tool to Analyze Environmental Impacts of Forest Roads on Forest Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, A.; Tarboton, D. G.; Luce, C. H.; Black, T. A.

    2006-12-01

    The construction and use of forest roads can have impacts on geomorphic processes and erosion patterns in forested basins. Analyzing these impacts will help the forest managers to effectively manage the road and road drainage system and hence minimize the negative impacts of forest roads. To manage forest roads effectively the USDA Forest Service (USFS) has developed a road inventory from GPS road surveys. The primary goal of the inventory is to document the condition of the roads, sources of sediment, and how sediments that originate from the road prism are ultimately routed to the hillslope and stream network. The Forest service road inventory is stored in Geographic Information System (GIS) shapefiles following a data structure that has been developed for this purpose. In this project a GIS tool was developed to use the road inventory information to analyze the effects of forest roads on forest basins. This tool is based on a formal database schema (database model) for the representation of forest road and road drainage information. A pre-processing tool was developed to ingest information from the USFS road inventory into the database, performing quality control and consistency checks. The functionality of the GIS tool is divided into three modules. The first module calculates the sediment production for each road segment from slope, length, road surface condition and road- side drain vegetation information in the road inventory. In this calculation slope is derived by overlaying the road path on a Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Sediment production is accumulated to drain points by adding the sediment production from contributing road segments. These drain point sediment loadings are then used in a DEM weighted flow accumulation function to calculate sediment load inputs to streams. The second module analyzes the impact of forest roads on terrain stability. Terrain stability is assessed by calculating the specific discharge due to road drainage and using this

  5. The road surveying system of the federal highway research institute - a performance evaluation of road segmentation algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streiter, R.; Wanielik, G.

    2013-07-01

    The construction of highways and federal roadways is subject to many restrictions and designing rules. The focus is on safety, comfort and smooth driving. Unfortunately, the planning information for roadways and their real constitution, course and their number of lanes and lane widths is often unsure or not available. Due to digital map databases of roads raised much interest during the last years and became one major cornerstone of innovative Advanced Driving Assistance Systems (ADASs), the demand for accurate and detailed road information increases considerably. Within this project a measurement system for collecting high accurate road data was developed. This paper gives an overview about the sensor configuration within the measurement vehicle, introduces the implemented algorithms and shows some applications implemented in the post processing platform. The aim is to recover the origin parametric description of the roadway and the performance of the measurement system is being evaluated against several original road construction information.

  6. VIEW OF MAIN ENTRANCE ROAD FACING SOUTH. SPUR ROAD TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MAIN ENTRANCE ROAD FACING SOUTH. SPUR ROAD TO WINDOWS SECTION AT LEFT, BALANCED ROCK NEAR CENTER OF PHOTO - Arches National Park Main Entrance Road, Beginning at U.S. Highway 191, approximately 6 miles north of Moab, Moab, Grand County, UT

  7. 6. VIEW OF MAIN ENTRANCE ROAD FACING SOUTH. SPUR ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF MAIN ENTRANCE ROAD FACING SOUTH. SPUR ROAD TO WINDOWS SECTION AT LEFT, BALANCED ROCK NEAR CENTER OF PHOTO. - Arches National Park Main Entrance Road, Beginning at U.S. Highway 191, approximately 6 miles north of Moab, Moab, Grand County, UT

  8. 24. OLD TIOGA ROAD VIEW, NOW MAY LAKE ROAD , ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. OLD TIOGA ROAD VIEW, NOW MAY LAKE ROAD , AT SNOW FLAT. MOUNT HOFFMAN AT CENTER REAR. LOOKING NW. GIS: N-37 49 34.6 / W-119 29 58.2 - Tioga Road, Between Crane Flat & Tioga Pass, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  9. 25. At Willard, corner of Willard Road and Oklahoma Road. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. At Willard, corner of Willard Road and Oklahoma Road. Metal flume section (once located elsewhere, over another road). Note skewed section. South/southwest 260 degrees. - Broughton Flume, Hood River Junction on Columbia River at Washington/Oregon border, Hood, Skamania County, WA

  10. 19. At Willard, corner of Willard Road and Oklahoma Road. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. At Willard, corner of Willard Road and Oklahoma Road. Metal flume section (once located elsewhere, over another road). Note skewed section. North/northeast 80 degrees. - Broughton Flume, Hood River Junction on Columbia River at Washington/Oregon border, Hood, Skamania County, WA

  11. 25 CFR Appendix D to Subpart C - Cost To Construct

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Cost To Construct D Appendix D to Subpart C Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Funding Pt. 170, Subpt. C, App. D Appendix D to Subpart C—Cost To Construct Cost To Construct (Appendix D includes...

  12. Determination of road dust loadings and chemical characteristics using resuspension.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianhua; Wang, Wei; Liu, Hongjie; Ren, Lihong

    2012-03-01

    The contribution of fugitive dust from traffic to air pollution can no longer be ignored in China. In order to obtain the road dust loadings and to understand the chemical characteristics of PM(10) and PM(2.5) from typical road dust, different paved roads in eight districts of Beijing were selected for dust collection during the four seasons of 2005. Ninety-eight samples from 28 roads were obtained. The samples were resuspended using equipment assembled to simulate the rising process of road dust caused by the wind or wheels in order to obtain the PM(10) and PM(2.5) filter samples. The average road dust loading was 3.82 g m(-2), with the highest of 24.22 g m(-2) being in Hutongs in the rural-urban continuum during winter. The road dust loadings on higher-grade roads were lower than those on lower-grade roads. Attention should be paid to the pollution in the rural-urban continuum areas. The sums of element abundances measured were 16.17% and 18.50% for PM(10) and PM(2.5) in road dust. The average abundances of OC and EC in PM(10) and PM(2.5) in road dust were 11.52%, 2.01% and 12.50%, 2.06%, respectively. The abundance of elements, water-soluble ions, and OC, EC in PM(10) and PM(2.5) resuspended from road dust did not change greatly with seasons and road types. The soil dust, construction dust, dust emitted from burning coal, vehicle exhaust, and deposition of particles in the air were the main sources of road dust in Beijing. Affected by the application of snow-melting agents in Beijing during winter, the amount of Cl( - ) and Na( + ) was much higher during that time than in the other seasons. This will have a certain influence on roads, bridges, vegetations, and groundwater. PMID:21559919

  13. Classification of road surface profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Rouillard, V.; Bruscella, B.; Sek, M.

    2000-02-01

    This paper introduces a universal classification methodology for discretely sampled sealed bituminous road profile data for the study of shock and vibrations related to the road transportation process. Data representative of a wide variety of Victorian (Australia) road profiles were used to develop a universal classification methodology with special attention to their non-Gaussian and nonstationary properties. This resulted in the design of computer software to automatically detect and extract transient events from the road spatial acceleration data as well as to identify segments of the constant RMS level enabling transients to be analyzed separately from the underlying road process. Nine universal classification parameters are introduced to describe road profile spatial acceleration based on the statistical characteristics of the transient amplitude and stationary RMS segments. Results from this study are aimed at the areas of road transport simulation as well as road surface characterization.

  14. On the Road

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mary Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Veteran development officers say the experience of visiting and traveling to different places or countries often feels like an endless cycle of getting lost, missing flights, and eating midnight dinners from hotel vending machines. Despite ongoing travel challenges, experienced road warriors have learned how to maximize their effectiveness,…

  15. Training Guide: Road Transport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan Page, Ltd., London (England).

    The third in a series of guides to British industrial training, this publication begins with a survey of training issues and tasks confronting the Road Transport Industry Training Board (RTITB). This is followed by information on RTITB policies and provisions; RTITB members, officers, and committees; apprenticeships and other training schemes;…

  16. Road-Cleaning Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    Roadways are literally soaked with petrochemical byproducts, oils, gasoline, and other volatile substances that eventually run off into sewers and end up in rivers, waterways, and other undesirable places. Can the roads be cleaned of these wastes, with their proper disposal? Can vehicles, robots, or other devices be designed that could be driven…

  17. Fine-Scale Road Stretch Forecasting along Main Danish Roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahura, A.; Petersen, C.; Sattler, K.; Sass, B.

    2009-09-01

    The DMI has in collaboration with the Danish Road Directorate (DRD) for almost two decades used a Road Condition Model (RCM) system (based on a dense road observations network and the numerical weather prediction model - HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model, HIRLAM) to provide operational forecasts of main road conditions at selected road stations of the Danish road network. As of Jan 2009, there are 357 road stations (equipped in total with 456 sensors), where measurements and forecasts of road surface temperature, air and dew point temperatures are conducted. Forecasts of other important meteorological parameters such as cloud cover and precipitations as well as radar and satellite images are also distributed to the users through the web-based interface vejvejr.dk and through DMI and DRD web-pages. For icing conditions, new technology has made it easy to vary the dose of spreaded salt, making it possible to use salt only on the parts of the road network where it is really needed. In our study measurements of road surface temperature from road stations and salt spreaders have additionally been used to examine both road stations and road stretches forecasts along the main roads of the Danish Road Network (accounting almost 23 thousand points located at distances of 250 m). These results showed critical importance of availability of detailed characteristics of the roads surroundings. To make local forecasts in a specific point all possible local detailed information is needed. Since high resolution models running at faster supercomputers as well as detailed physiographic datasets now are available, it is possible to improve the modelling and parameterization of significant physical processes influencing the formation of the slippery road conditions. First of all, it is based on a new dataset available from Kort og Matrikel styrelsen, the so-called Danish Height Model (Danmarks Højdemodel) which is a very detailed set of data with horizontal resolution of a few meters

  18. 24 CFR 3280.713 - Accessibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Heating, Cooling and Fuel Burning Systems § 3280.713 Accessibility. Every appliance shall be accessible for inspection, service, repair, and replacement without removing permanent construction. For those purposes, inlet piping supplying the...

  19. 77 FR 26785 - Implementation of Indian Reservation Roads Program and Streamlining the Federal Delivery of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... the Question 10 consultations, please see 75 FR 40849 (July 14, 2010). The update will include... announcing tribal consultations to discuss the following topics: (1) Changes in calculation of the Relative... Proposed Roads and Access Roads will contribute to the calculation of the RNDF for IRR Program funds....

  20. View southeast to Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing the Israel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast to Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing the Israel Putnam Memorial - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  1. View northwest along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing the Unitarian ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northwest along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing the Unitarian Church and the Federated Church of Christ - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  2. Road centerline extraction from airborne LiDAR point cloud based on hierarchical fusion and optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Zhenyang; Hu, Youjian; Jin, Shuanggen; Yevenyo, Yao Ziggah

    2016-08-01

    Road information acquisition is an important part of city informatization construction. Airborne LiDAR provides a new means of acquiring road information. However, the existing road extraction methods using LiDAR point clouds always decide the road intensity threshold based on experience, which cannot obtain the optimal threshold to extract a road point cloud. Moreover, these existing methods are deficient in removing the interference of narrow roads and several attached areas (e.g., parking lot and bare ground) to main roads extraction, thereby imparting low completeness and correctness to the city road network extraction result. Aiming at resolving the key technical issues of road extraction from airborne LiDAR point clouds, this paper proposes a novel method to extract road centerlines from airborne LiDAR point clouds. The proposed approach is mainly composed of three key algorithms, namely, Skewness balancing, Rotating neighborhood, and Hierarchical fusion and optimization (SRH). The skewness balancing algorithm used for the filtering was adopted as a new method for obtaining an optimal intensity threshold such that the "pure" road point cloud can be obtained. The rotating neighborhood algorithm on the other hand was developed to remove narrow roads (corridors leading to parking lots or sidewalks), which are not the main roads to be extracted. The proposed hierarchical fusion and optimization algorithm caused the road centerlines to be unaffected by certain attached areas and ensured the road integrity as much as possible. The proposed method was tested using the Vaihingen dataset. The results demonstrated that the proposed method can effectively extract road centerlines in a complex urban environment with 91.4% correctness and 80.4% completeness.

  3. Micromorphological investigation on ring road sediments of the Early Bronze Age site Tell Chuera, Syria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritzsch, Dagmar; Thiemeyer, Heinrich

    2010-05-01

    Tell Chuera is an Early Bronze Age settlement mount in NE-Syria close to the Turkish border. With a diameter of almost 1 km and a height of 18 m it is one of the biggest tells in the region between the rivers Balikh and Khabur. In 1958 the structures of the city wall was known first by Orthmann (1990). This city wall was built of air-dried mud bricks. The age of the founding of this construction is not yet clear. The earliest pottery from the place is dated around 2500 BC to 2350 BC. Inside the fortification a road was detected, which was first excavated by Novak (1995). We took sediment monoliths in 2004 from a new trench, which shows the same situation of the road. A geomagnetic prospection, that included the whole site, suggests that the road was part of the planned extension of the lower town and serves as a circular road (Meyer, in prep.). The micromorphological investigation focussed on the question, how the road was used. Did animals have had access to the town? The thin sections show different indications of the anthropogenic influence. In all samples pseudomorphs after straw are visible. In many parts ash, charred wood fragments, bone fragments, melted material and fragments of basalt and flint were observable, too. These materials are typical for sediments in streets (cf. Goldberg & Macphail, 2006). In some parts of the thin sections faecal spherulites and dung remains with faecal spherulites give an idea that ruminants used the road as well as men. Trampling structures support this assumption. Moreover, leaching of calcite, its redeposition in mottles, pseudomycels and concretions, hydromorphic stains and the translocation of silt indicate postdepositional pedogenic processes. Literature Goldberg, P., & Macphail, R. I. (2006). Practical and theoretical geoarchaeology: UK Blackwell Publishing. Meyer, J.-W. (in prep.). Überlegungen zur Siedlungsstruktur - eine erste Analyse der Ergebnisse der geomagnetischen Prospektion. In J.-W. Meyer (Ed.), Ausgrabungen

  4. Do Bat Gantries and Underpasses Help Bats Cross Roads Safely?

    PubMed Central

    Berthinussen, Anna; Altringham, John

    2012-01-01

    Major roads can reduce bat abundance and diversity over considerable distances. To mitigate against these effects and comply with environmental law, many European countries install bridges, gantries or underpasses to make roads permeable and safer to cross. However, through lack of appropriate monitoring, there is little evidence to support their effectiveness. Three underpasses and four bat gantries were investigated in northern England. Echolocation call recordings and observations were used to determine the number of bats using underpasses in preference to crossing the road above, and the height at which bats crossed. At gantries, proximity to the gantry and height of crossing bats were measured. Data were compared to those from adjacent, severed commuting routes that had no crossing structure. At one underpass 96% of bats flew through it in preference to crossing the road. This underpass was located on a pre-construction commuting route that allowed bats to pass without changing flight height or direction. At two underpasses attempts to divert bats from their original commuting routes were unsuccessful and bats crossed the road at the height of passing vehicles. Underpasses have the potential to allow bats to cross roads safely if built on pre-construction commuting routes. Bat gantries were ineffective and used by a very small proportion of bats, even up to nine years after construction. Most bats near gantries crossed roads along severed, pre-construction commuting routes at heights that put them in the path of vehicles. Crossing height was strongly correlated with verge height, suggesting that elevated verges may have some value in mitigation, but increased flight height may be at the cost of reduced permeability. Green bridges should be explored as an alternative form of mitigation. Robust monitoring is essential to assess objectively the case for mitigation and to ensure effective mitigation. PMID:22719941

  5. Do bat gantries and underpasses help bats cross roads safely?

    PubMed

    Berthinussen, Anna; Altringham, John

    2012-01-01

    Major roads can reduce bat abundance and diversity over considerable distances. To mitigate against these effects and comply with environmental law, many European countries install bridges, gantries or underpasses to make roads permeable and safer to cross. However, through lack of appropriate monitoring, there is little evidence to support their effectiveness. Three underpasses and four bat gantries were investigated in northern England. Echolocation call recordings and observations were used to determine the number of bats using underpasses in preference to crossing the road above, and the height at which bats crossed. At gantries, proximity to the gantry and height of crossing bats were measured. Data were compared to those from adjacent, severed commuting routes that had no crossing structure. At one underpass 96% of bats flew through it in preference to crossing the road. This underpass was located on a pre-construction commuting route that allowed bats to pass without changing flight height or direction. At two underpasses attempts to divert bats from their original commuting routes were unsuccessful and bats crossed the road at the height of passing vehicles. Underpasses have the potential to allow bats to cross roads safely if built on pre-construction commuting routes. Bat gantries were ineffective and used by a very small proportion of bats, even up to nine years after construction. Most bats near gantries crossed roads along severed, pre-construction commuting routes at heights that put them in the path of vehicles. Crossing height was strongly correlated with verge height, suggesting that elevated verges may have some value in mitigation, but increased flight height may be at the cost of reduced permeability. Green bridges should be explored as an alternative form of mitigation. Robust monitoring is essential to assess objectively the case for mitigation and to ensure effective mitigation. PMID:22719941

  6. Is road safety management linked to road safety performance?

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George

    2013-10-01

    This research aims to explore the relationship between road safety management and road safety performance at country level. For that purpose, an appropriate theoretical framework is selected, namely the 'SUNflower' pyramid, which describes road safety management systems in terms of a five-level hierarchy: (i) structure and culture, (ii) programmes and measures, (iii) 'intermediate' outcomes'--safety performance indicators (SPIs), (iv) final outcomes--fatalities and injuries, and (v) social costs. For each layer of the pyramid, a composite indicator is implemented, on the basis of data for 30 European countries. Especially as regards road safety management indicators, these are estimated on the basis of Categorical Principal Component Analysis upon the responses of a dedicated road safety management questionnaire, jointly created and dispatched by the ETSC/PIN group and the 'DaCoTA' research project. Then, quasi-Poisson models and Beta regression models are developed for linking road safety management indicators and other indicators (i.e. background characteristics, SPIs) with road safety performance. In this context, different indicators of road safety performance are explored: mortality and fatality rates, percentage reduction in fatalities over a given period, a composite indicator of road safety final outcomes, and a composite indicator of 'intermediate' outcomes (SPIs). The results of the analyses suggest that road safety management can be described on the basis of three composite indicators: "vision and strategy", "budget, evaluation and reporting", and "measurement of road user attitudes and behaviours". Moreover, no direct statistical relationship could be established between road safety management indicators and final outcomes. However, a statistical relationship was found between road safety management and 'intermediate' outcomes, which were in turn found to affect 'final' outcomes, confirming the SUNflower approach on the consecutive effect of each layer

  7. Simulator of Road Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danišovič, Peter; Schlosser, František; Šrámek, Juraj; Rázga, Martin

    2015-05-01

    A Tunnel Traffic & Operation Simulator is a device of the Centre of Transport Research at the University of Žilina. The Simulator allows managing technological equipment of virtual two-tube highway tunnel, which is interconnected with simulation of vehicle traffic in tunnel. Changes of the traffic-operation states and other equipment are reflecting at the simulated traffic, as well as simulations of various emergency events in traffic initiate changes in tunnel detecting and measuring devices. It is thus possible to simulate emergency states, which can be affected by various faults of technology as well as by climatic conditions. The solutions can be found in irreplaceable experiences of Slovak road tunnel operators, changes of trafficoperation states, visualizations of operator technological display screens, technological devices labelling in order to increase operational safety of road tunnels.

  8. Road Traffic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckenbauer, Thomas

    Road traffic is the most interfering noise source in developed countries. According to a publication of the European Union (EU) at the end of the twentieth century [1], about 40% of the population in 15 EU member states is exposed to road traffic noise at mean levels exceeding 55 dB(A). Nearly 80 million people, 20% of the population, are exposed to levels exceeding 65 dB(A) during daytime and more than 30% of the population is exposed to levels exceeding 55 dB(A) during night time. Such high noise levels cause health risks and social disorders (aggressiveness, protest, and helplessness), interference of communication and disturbance of sleep; the long- and short-term consequences cause adverse cardiovascular effects, detrimental hormonal responses (stress hormones), and possible disturbance of the human metabolism (nutrition) and the immune system. Even performance at work and school could be impaired.

  9. Tweets on the Road

    PubMed Central

    Lenormand, Maxime; Tugores, Antònia; Colet, Pere; Ramasco, José J.

    2014-01-01

    The pervasiveness of mobile devices, which is increasing daily, is generating a vast amount of geo-located data allowing us to gain further insights into human behaviors. In particular, this new technology enables users to communicate through mobile social media applications, such as Twitter, anytime and anywhere. Thus, geo-located tweets offer the possibility to carry out in-depth studies on human mobility. In this paper, we study the use of Twitter in transportation by identifying tweets posted from roads and rails in Europe between September 2012 and November 2013. We compute the percentage of highway and railway segments covered by tweets in 39 countries. The coverages are very different from country to country and their variability can be partially explained by differences in Twitter penetration rates. Still, some of these differences might be related to cultural factors regarding mobility habits and interacting socially online. Analyzing particular road sectors, our results show a positive correlation between the number of tweets on the road and the Average Annual Daily Traffic on highways in France and in the UK. Transport modality can be studied with these data as well, for which we discover very heterogeneous usage patterns across the continent. PMID:25141161

  10. Experiments on Washboard Road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Stephen; Taberlet, Nicolas; McElwaine, James; Dalziel, Stuart

    2007-03-01

    Granular surfaces to develop lateral ripples (so-called ``washboard" or ``corrugated" road) under the action of rolling wheels. Similar ripples are observed on railroad tracks and many other rolling, load bearing surfaces. Our aim was to investigate this instability of the flat road surface from the point of view of driven, dissipative granular dynamics. We report the results of both laboratory experiments and soft-particle direct numerical simulations. The experiment consisted of a rotating table 60 cm in radius with a thick layer of sand forming a roadbed around the circumference. A 6 cm radius hard rubber wheel, with a support stationary in the lab frame, rolled on the sand layer. We varied the speed of the table, the details of the grains and the suspension of the wheel. The ripple pattern appears as small patches of travelling waves which eventually spread to the entire circumference. The ripples drift slowly in the driving direction. Interesting secondary dynamics of the saturated ripples were observed, as well as various ripple creation and destruction events. The wavelength of the ripples can be quantized by the finite circumference of the road. All of these effects are captured qualitatively by 2D soft particle simulations in which a disk rolls over a 2D bed of polydisperse particles in a periodic box.

  11. Tweets on the road.

    PubMed

    Lenormand, Maxime; Tugores, Antònia; Colet, Pere; Ramasco, José J

    2014-01-01

    The pervasiveness of mobile devices, which is increasing daily, is generating a vast amount of geo-located data allowing us to gain further insights into human behaviors. In particular, this new technology enables users to communicate through mobile social media applications, such as Twitter, anytime and anywhere. Thus, geo-located tweets offer the possibility to carry out in-depth studies on human mobility. In this paper, we study the use of Twitter in transportation by identifying tweets posted from roads and rails in Europe between September 2012 and November 2013. We compute the percentage of highway and railway segments covered by tweets in 39 countries. The coverages are very different from country to country and their variability can be partially explained by differences in Twitter penetration rates. Still, some of these differences might be related to cultural factors regarding mobility habits and interacting socially online. Analyzing particular road sectors, our results show a positive correlation between the number of tweets on the road and the Average Annual Daily Traffic on highways in France and in the UK. Transport modality can be studied with these data as well, for which we discover very heterogeneous usage patterns across the continent. PMID:25141161

  12. Road to the Future: Strategies for Wildlife Crossings and Youth Empowerment to Improve Wildlife Habitat in Roaded Landscapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Dawn Renee

    2010-01-01

    As the footprint of human society expands upon the earth, habitat loss and landscape fragmentation is an increasing global problem. That problem includes loss of native habitats as these areas are harvested, converted to agricultural crops, and occupied by human settlement. Roads increase human access to previously inaccessible areas, encourage…

  13. Road traffic injuries in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Romão, Francelina; Nizamo, Hanifa; Mapasse, Domingos; Rafico, Momede Mussá; José, João; Mataruca, Simão; Efron, M Lúcia; Omondi, Lucas O; Leifert, Thelma; Bicho, Joaquim M L Marungo

    2003-01-01

    Road traffic injuries affect the economy, health and quality of life of the people of Mozambique. Current road safety programmes are inadequate and inefficient given the magnitude of the problem. Data reported on road traffic crashes in the period 1990 to 2000 from the National Institute for Road Safety, the traffic police and the Central Hospital of Maputo were reviewed. The burden of road traffic injuries in Mozambique is rising, with at least three people killed daily. The age group most affected is 25-38 (39.35%), followed by 16-24 (20.79%). The main causes of crashes include reckless driving, drunken driving, roads with potholes, inadequate signs, lack of protection for pedestrians, and inadequate traffic law enforcement. However, the data are not adequate to reveal the true magnitude of the problem. Data collected by different sources are incomplete and not coordinated with other sources and databases. In urban areas, however, better response to crashes, treatment of the injured, reporting and data collection is attributable to a greater concentration of police and medical facilities. Road traffic safety programmes in Mozambique are inadequate and inefficient, starting with the data collection system. Improvement of injury surveillance systems is needed to help make road traffic safety a national development agenda priority and for developing and implementing road safety policies. For road safety programmes to be effective, government must facilitate stakeholders' involvement, and the clear definition of government activities, civil society activities and public-private partnerships need to be established. PMID:12772487

  14. A suite of methods for representing activity space in a healthcare accessibility study

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Jill E; Spencer, John; Preisser, John S; Gesler, Wilbert M; Arcury, Thomas A

    2005-01-01

    Background "Activity space" has been used to examine how people's habitual movements interact with their environment, and can be used to examine accessibility to healthcare opportunities. Traditionally, the standard deviational ellipse (SDE), a Euclidean measure, has been used to represent activity space. We describe the construction and application of the SDE at one and two standard deviations, and three additional network-based measures of activity space using common tools in GIS: the road network buffer (RNB), the 30-minute standard travel time polygon (STT), and the relative travel time polygon (RTT). We compare the theoretical and methodological assumptions of each measure, and evaluate the measures by examining access to primary care services, using data from western North Carolina. Results Individual accessibility is defined as the availability of healthcare opportunities within that individual's activity space. Access is influenced by the shape and area of an individual's activity space, the spatial distribution of opportunities, and by the spatial structures that constrain and direct movement through space; the shape and area of the activity space is partly a product of how it is conceptualized and measured. Network-derived measures improve upon the SDE by incorporating the spatial structures (roads) that channel movement. The area of the STT is primarily influenced by the location of a respondent's residence within the road network hierarchy, with residents living near primary roads having the largest activity spaces. The RNB was most descriptive of actual opportunities and can be used to examine bypassing. The area of the RTT had the strongest correlation with a healthcare destination being located inside the activity space. Conclusion The availability of geospatial technologies and data create multiple options for representing and operationalizing the construct of activity space. Each approach has its strengths and limitations, and presents a different

  15. Going-to-the-Sun Road: A Model of Landscape Engineering. Teaching with Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Fay

    Soaring mountain peaks, glaciers, deep-blue lakes, and lush forests delight the senses of visitors who drive on Going-to-the-Sun Road through Glacier National Park in northwestern Montana. The construction of the Going-to-the-Sun-Road, dedicated in 1933, made this experience available to the many visitors who come to the park by car. Building this…

  16. Closer view from west to east of limited access sentry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Closer view from west to east of limited access sentry station, sally port. Seen in the left background is the fuel oil pumping station (Building #805) - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, LImited Area Sentry Station, Intersection of Service Road C & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  17. DETAIL VIEW OF SRB/ET ACCESS PANELS, THROUGH VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORMS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF SRB/ET ACCESS PANELS, THROUGH VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORMS E-NORTH, E-SOUTH, B-NORTH, AND B-SOUTH, HB-3, FACING NORTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  18. 25 CFR 170.473 - What happens when a construction project ends?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What happens when a construction project ends? 170.473 Section 170.473 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Planning, Design, and Construction of Indian Reservation Roads Program Facilities Construction and Construction Monitoring...

  19. 49 CFR 38.159 - Mobility aid accessibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mobility aid accessibility. 38.159 Section 38.159 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Over-the-Road Buses and Systems § 38.159 Mobility aid accessibility. (a)(1) General. All...

  20. 25 CFR 700.341 - Access to life estate leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Visitors and residents shall use the existing road systems and access rights of way when traveling to and... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Access to life estate leases. 700.341 Section 700.341... Life Estate Leases § 700.341 Access to life estate leases. (a) Family members and other persons...

  1. Effects on road safety of new urban arterial roads.

    PubMed

    Amundsen, Astrid H; Elvik, Rune

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the effects on road safety of new urban arterial roads in Oslo, Norway, and a synthesis of evidence from similar studies that have evaluated the safety effects of new urban arterial roads in other cities. A before-and-after study was made of four urban arterial road projects in Oslo. The study controlled for general accident trends in Oslo and for regression-to-the-mean. A statistically non-significant reduction of 9% in the number of injury accidents was found for all four projects combined. The effects on safety of new urban arterial roads were found to vary, depending on whether a new arterial road was built, or an existing arterial road upgraded by means of lane additions and reconstruction of junctions to interchanges. New arterial roads tend to induce more traffic, which tends to offset the benefits of a lower accident rate on the new roads. The results for other cities are very consistent with those for Oslo. For a total of seven cases in which new arterial roads were built, a statistically non-significant reduction of 1% in the number of injury accidents was found. Two cases that involved lane additions and converting at-grade junctions to interchanges resulted in a mean accident reduction of 51%, which was highly significant. On the average, the nine arterial road projects from which evidence was summarised resulted in a net induced traffic of 16%, and a net reduction in accident rate (accidents per million vehicle kilometres) of 18%. These effects almost cancel each other, leading to a very small net change in the expected number of accidents. PMID:14572833

  2. Road traffic injuries in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Deysi Yasmin; Fernández, Francisco José; Acero Velásquez, Hugo

    2003-01-01

    Road traffic injuries are a leading public health problem in Colombia. Pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users, especially in the main urban centers of Bogotá, Medellin and Cali. Data analyzed in this report include official statistics from the National Police and the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences for 1996-2000, and results of a study conducted at the National University of Colombia in 2000. Methods from the Highway Capacity Manual were used for determining physical and technical variables, and a Geographical Information System tool was used for the location and spatial analysis of the road traffic crashes. Pedestrians accounted for close to 32% of injuries and 40% of the deaths from road traffic crashes. The problem of road traffic crashes existed predominately in urban areas. In the main urban centers, pedestrians constituted nearly 68% of road traffic crash victims. The high level of risky road use behaviors demonstrated by pedestrians and drivers, and inadequate infrastructure for safe mobility of pedestrians in some sections of the road network were the main contributing factors. Major improvements were achieved in Bogotá following enhancements to the municipal transport system and other policies introduced since 1995. In conclusion, policies and programs for improving road safety, in particular pedestrian safety, and strengthening urban planning are top priority. PMID:12772483

  3. Surface-Water Exchange through Culverts beneath State Road 9336 within Everglades National Park, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaffranek, Raymond W.; Stewart, Marc A.; Nowacki, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected hydrologic data between June 2004 and December 2005 to investigate the temporal and spatial nature of flow exchanges through culverts beneath State Road 9336 within Everglades National Park. Continuous data collected during the study measured flow velocity, water level, salinity, conductivity, and water-temperature in or near seven culverts between Pa-hay-okee Overlook access road and Nine Mile Pond. The two culverts east of Pa-hay-okee Overlook access road flowed into Taylor Slough Basin from 87 to 96 percent of the study period, whereas flows through five culverts between Pa-hay-okee Overlook access road and Nine Mile Pond flowed into Shark River Slough Basin from 70 to 99 percent of the study period. Synoptic flow discharges measured at all culverts during three intensive field efforts revealed a net discharge into Taylor Slough Basin from Shark River Slough Basin through culverts between Royal Palm Road and Pa-hay-okee Overlook access road, and into Shark River Slough Basin from Taylor Slough Basin through culverts between Pa-hay-okee Overlook access road and Nine Mile Pond. Data collected during the study and presented in this report provided additional knowledge of the magnitude, direction, and nature of flow exchanges through the road culverts.

  4. DETAIL OF CROCKETT BARN WALL CONSTRUCTION, UPPER LEVEL. The wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF CROCKETT BARN WALL CONSTRUCTION, UPPER LEVEL. The wall construction of the Crockett barn includes a layer of diagonal sheathing that is exposed on the interior. - Crockett Farm, Barn, 1056 Fort Casey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  5. Systematic Development of Intelligent Systems for Public Road Transport

    PubMed Central

    García, Carmelo R.; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; Cristóbal, Teresa; Padrón, Gabino; Alayón, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture model for the development of intelligent systems for public passenger transport by road. The main objective of our proposal is to provide a framework for the systematic development and deployment of telematics systems to improve various aspects of this type of transport, such as efficiency, accessibility and safety. The architecture model presented herein is based on international standards on intelligent transport system architectures, ubiquitous computing and service-oriented architecture for distributed systems. To illustrate the utility of the model, we also present a use case of a monitoring system for stops on a public passenger road transport network. PMID:27438836

  6. Systematic Development of Intelligent Systems for Public Road Transport.

    PubMed

    García, Carmelo R; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; Cristóbal, Teresa; Padrón, Gabino; Alayón, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture model for the development of intelligent systems for public passenger transport by road. The main objective of our proposal is to provide a framework for the systematic development and deployment of telematics systems to improve various aspects of this type of transport, such as efficiency, accessibility and safety. The architecture model presented herein is based on international standards on intelligent transport system architectures, ubiquitous computing and service-oriented architecture for distributed systems. To illustrate the utility of the model, we also present a use case of a monitoring system for stops on a public passenger road transport network. PMID:27438836

  7. 12. View west of access bridge to top of filtration ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. View west of access bridge to top of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  8. 17. Sliding access doors typical of those covering opening to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Sliding access doors typical of those covering opening to filtration bed. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  9. 24. Personnel access ladder, from upper level of launch facility ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Personnel access ladder, from upper level of launch facility - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  10. 25. Personnel access ladder, from lower level of launch facility ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Personnel access ladder, from lower level of launch facility - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  11. 10. REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF FROM SOUTHEASTERN EDGE, ACCESS RAMPS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF FROM SOUTHEASTERN EDGE, ACCESS RAMPS AT LEFT AND RIGHT, VIEW TOWARDS NORTHWEST. - Glenn L. Martin Company, Titan Missile Test Facilities, Captive Test Stand D-1, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  12. 8. REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF FROM NORTHWEST EDGE, ACCESS RAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF FROM NORTHWEST EDGE, ACCESS RAMP IN FOREGROUND, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTHEAST. - Glenn L. Martin Company, Titan Missile Test Facilities, CaptiveTest Stand D-3, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  13. On the road to prevention: road injury and health promotion.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Mark; Thompson, Jason

    2014-04-01

    Road traffic injuries are already the leading cause of injury mortality and morbidity globally and by 2030 are predicted to be the fifth leading cause of mortality in the world. Australia has seen a dramatic reduction in road deaths and serious injuries since the 1970s and holds an international reputation for road traffic injury prevention due, in part, to its success in pioneering the multidisciplinary and intersectoral approach needed to address this significant issue and by applying an evidence-led approach to policy development. The paper will discuss Australia's early success in road traffic injury prevention (road safety), particularly the achievements following the implementation of targeted programs that focussed on road user behaviours for which health promotion played a role. The most successful of these programs was the introduction of comprehensive seat belt laws, random breath testing and more recently, strategic speed enforcement programs. Amid an array of significant challenges faced by the transport system in the future, the rapid development in information and communication technologies applied to transport is likely to provide the next generation of road safety benefits. The potential for a semi-autonomous transport system is likely to provide the next significant decline in road fatalities and serious injuries over the next 2 decades and the role of health promotion in relation to raising community engagement and building coalitions to increase uptake of new technologies will be discussed. PMID:24739772

  14. 25. White Plains Road Bridge in foreground; Unionport Road Bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. White Plains Road Bridge in foreground; Unionport Road Bridge in background. Van Nest, Bronx Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 12.75./78. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York County, NY

  15. Roads to Consider in Assessments of Extraction Activities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural resource extraction in large undeveloped areas often necessitates construction of roads that substantially contribute to the environmental risk of the activity. Based on a scenario of potential mining in a large virtually roadless salmonid-rich watershed, we consider the ...

  16. 35. RESERVOIR TANKS ALONG DAMIEN ROAD NEAR KAUHAKO CRATER (282'). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. RESERVOIR TANKS ALONG DAMIEN ROAD NEAR KAUHAKO CRATER (282'). WOOD TANK AT LEFT WAS ERECTED CA. 1969. CEMENT-LINED MASONRY TANKS WITH CORRUGATED METAL ROOF, CONSTRUCTED CA. 1894, ARE LOCATED AT RIGHT. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  17. Environmental Assessment for Proposed Access Control and Traffic Improvements at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2002-08-23

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has assigned a continuing role to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in carrying out NNSA's national security mission. It is imperative that LANL continue this enduring responsibility and that NNSA adequately safeguard LANL capabilities. NNSA has identified the need to restrict vehicular access to certain areas within LANL for the purpose of permanently enhancing the physical security environment at LANL. It has also identified the need to change certain traffic flow patterns for the purpose of enhancing physical safety at LANL. The Proposed Action would include the construction of eastern and western bypass roads around the LANL Technical Area (TA) 3 area and the installation of vehicle access controls and related improvements to enhance security along Pajarito Road and in the LANL core area. This Proposed Action would modify the current roadway network and traffic patterns. It would also result in traversing Areas of Environmental Interest identified in the LANL Habitat Management Plan, demolition of part of an historic structure at Building 3-40, and traversing several potential release sites and part of the Los Alamos County landfill. The No Action Alternative was also considered. Under this alternative NNSA would not construct the eastern or western bypass roads, any access-control stations, or related improvements. Diamond Drive would continue to serve as the primary conduit for most vehicle traffic within the LANL core area regardless of actual trip destinations. The No Action Alternative does not meet NNSA's purpose and need for action. The proposed bypass road corridors traverse both developed and undeveloped areas. Several potential release sites are present. These would either be sampled and remediated in accordance with New Mexico Environment Department requirements before construction or avoided to allow for future remediation. In some cases, contaminant levels may fall below remediation thresholds

  18. 25 CFR 170.813 - When can access to IRR transportation facilities be restricted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When can access to IRR transportation facilities be restricted? 170.813 Section 170.813 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.813 When can access to...

  19. 25 CFR 170.813 - When can access to IRR transportation facilities be restricted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When can access to IRR transportation facilities be restricted? 170.813 Section 170.813 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.813 When can access to...

  20. Road roughness evaluation using in-pavement strain sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiming; Deng, Fodan; Huang, Ying; Bridgelall, Raj

    2015-11-01

    The international roughness index (IRI) is a characterization of road roughness or ride quality that transportation agencies most often report. The prevalent method of acquiring IRI data requires instrumented vehicles and technicians with specialized training to interpret the results. The extensive labor and high cost requirements associated with the existing approaches limit data collection to at most once per year for portions of the national highway system. Agencies characterize roughness only for some secondary roads but much less frequently, such as once every five years, resulting in outdated roughness information. This research developed a real-time roughness evaluation approach that links the output of durable in-pavement strain sensors to prevailing indices that summarize road roughness. Field experiments validated the high consistency of the approach by showing that it is within 3.3% of relative IRI estimates. After their installation and calibration during road construction, the ruggedized strain sensors will report road roughness continuously. Thus, the solution will provide agencies a real-time roughness monitoring solution over the remaining service life of road assets.