Science.gov

Sample records for access road unit

  1. Statement of Basis/Proposed Plan for the Gunsite 113 Access Road Unit (631-24G)

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.

    1997-07-08

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the preferred remedial alternative for addressing the Gunsite 113 Access Road Unit located at SRS in Aiken, SC, and to provide an opportunity for public input into the remedial action selection process.

  2. RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report for the Gunsite 113 Access Road Unit (631-24G) - March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.

    1996-03-01

    Gunsite 113 Access Road Unit is located in the northeast corner of SRS. In the mid 1980`s, sparse vegetation, dead trees, and small mounds of soil were discovered on a portion of the road leading to Gunsite 113. This area became the Gunsite 113 Access Road Unit (Gunsite 113). The unit appears to have been used as a spoil dirt and / or road construction debris disposal area. There is no documentation or record of any hazardous substance management, disposal, or any type of waste disposal at this unit. Based upon the available evidence, there are no potential contaminants of concern available for evaluation by a CERCLA baseline risk assessment. Therefore, there is no determinable health risk associated with Gunsite 113. In addition, it is also reasonable to conclude that, since contamination is below risk-based levels, the unit presents no significant ecological risk. It is recommended that no further remedial action be performed at this unit.

  3. Record of Decision Remedial Alternative Selection for the Gunsite 113 Access Road (631-24G) Operable Unit: Final Action

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.

    1997-01-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the Gunsite 113 Access Road Unit located at the Savannah River Site near Aiken, SC. The selected action was developed in accordance with CERCLA, as amended, and to the extent practicable, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The selected remedy satisfies both CERCLA and RCRA 3004(U) requirements. This decision is based ont he Administrative Record File for this specific RCRA/CERCLA Unit.

  4. 4. View of Building 802 from the access road, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of Building 802 from the access road, facing northwest. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  5. Oblique view of Bonita Ridge Access Road Retaining Wall, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of Bonita Ridge Access Road Retaining Wall, showing southernmost portion of intact wall and portion of concrete drainage ditch from Signal Corps Radar 296 Station 5 Transmitter Building foundation above, camera facing west-north - Fort Barry, Bonita Ridge Access Road, Retaining Wall, Point Bonita, Marin Headlands, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  6. United States Access Board

    MedlinePlus

    ... disabilities through leadership in accessible design and the development of accessibility guidelines and standards for the built environment, transportation, communication, medical diagnostic equipment, and information technology. ...

  7. 2. THREEQUARTER VIEW FROM ADJACENT ACCESS ROAD SHOWING THREE SPANS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. THREE-QUARTER VIEW FROM ADJACENT ACCESS ROAD SHOWING THREE SPANS AND NORTHWEST APPROACH SPANS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Red River Bridge, Spanning Red River at U.S. Highway 82, Garland, Miller County, AR

  8. Context view shows approach of access road to summit, communication ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Context view shows approach of access road to summit, communication towers and NW corner of lookout tower at center right. Camera is pointed SE. - Chelan Butte Lookout, Summit of Chelan Butte, Chelan, Chelan County, WA

  9. 25 CFR 170.122 - Can a tribe close a cultural access road?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe close a cultural access road? 170.122 Section... ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Use of Irr and Cultural Access Roads § 170.122 Can a tribe close a cultural access road? (a) A tribe with jurisdiction over a...

  10. 25 CFR 170.122 - Can a tribe close a cultural access road?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can a tribe close a cultural access road? 170.122 Section... ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Use of Irr and Cultural Access Roads § 170.122 Can a tribe close a cultural access road? (a) A tribe with jurisdiction over a...

  11. 25 CFR 170.122 - Can a tribe close a cultural access road?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Can a tribe close a cultural access road? 170.122 Section... ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Use of Irr and Cultural Access Roads § 170.122 Can a tribe close a cultural access road? (a) A tribe with jurisdiction over a...

  12. 25 CFR 170.122 - Can a tribe close a cultural access road?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can a tribe close a cultural access road? 170.122 Section... ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Use of Irr and Cultural Access Roads § 170.122 Can a tribe close a cultural access road? (a) A tribe with jurisdiction over a...

  13. 25 CFR 170.122 - Can a tribe close a cultural access road?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can a tribe close a cultural access road? 170.122 Section... ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Use of Irr and Cultural Access Roads § 170.122 Can a tribe close a cultural access road? (a) A tribe with jurisdiction over a...

  14. 11. VIEW TO EAST; ACCESS ROAD AT SOUTH END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW TO EAST; ACCESS ROAD AT SOUTH END OF TERMINAL AT TRACK LEVEL, LOOKING ALONG GENERAL ALIGNMENT OF PROPOSED EXTENSION OF EL MONTE BUSWAY (Asano) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. CONTEXT PHOTOGRAPH OF BASE END STATIONS FROM ACCESS ROAD AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXT PHOTOGRAPH OF BASE END STATIONS FROM ACCESS ROAD AT MIDSLOPE, FACING NORTH. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT ARE STATIONS BARLOW, SAXTON, LEARY, MERRIAM (OUT OF VIEW BEHIND WW n ERA CONSTRUCTION), OSGOOD, AND FARLEY - White's Point Reservation, Base End Stations, Bounded by Voyager Circle & Mariner Drive, San Pedro, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. 3. VIEW OF WATER TANKS FROM ACCESS ROAD TO HATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF WATER TANKS FROM ACCESS ROAD TO HATCH ADIT. VIEW NORTH. LUCKY TIGER MILL OFFICE (FEATURE B-I) IN DISTANCE. (OCTOBER, 1995) - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, Water Tanks, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  17. 25 CFR 170.121 - What is a cultural access road?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What is a cultural access road? 170.121 Section 170.121 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Use of Irr and Cultural Access Roads §...

  18. 25 CFR 170.121 - What is a cultural access road?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What is a cultural access road? 170.121 Section 170.121 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Use of Irr and Cultural Access Roads §...

  19. 25 CFR 170.127 - What terms apply to access roads?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What terms apply to access roads? 170.127 Section 170.127 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Irr Housing Access Roads § 170.127...

  20. 25 CFR 170.121 - What is a cultural access road?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is a cultural access road? 170.121 Section 170.121 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Use of Irr and Cultural Access Roads §...

  1. 25 CFR 170.127 - What terms apply to access roads?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What terms apply to access roads? 170.127 Section 170.127 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Irr Housing Access Roads § 170.127...

  2. 25 CFR 170.127 - What terms apply to access roads?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What terms apply to access roads? 170.127 Section 170.127 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Irr Housing Access Roads § 170.127...

  3. 25 CFR 170.121 - What is a cultural access road?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is a cultural access road? 170.121 Section 170.121 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Use of Irr and Cultural Access Roads §...

  4. 25 CFR 170.121 - What is a cultural access road?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is a cultural access road? 170.121 Section 170.121 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Use of Irr and Cultural Access Roads §...

  5. 25 CFR 170.127 - What terms apply to access roads?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What terms apply to access roads? 170.127 Section 170.127 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Irr Housing Access Roads § 170.127...

  6. 25 CFR 170.127 - What terms apply to access roads?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What terms apply to access roads? 170.127 Section 170.127 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Irr Housing Access Roads § 170.127...

  7. PERSPECTIVE OF HANGAR AND ACCESS ROAD LOOKING EAST (During the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE OF HANGAR AND ACCESS ROAD LOOKING EAST (During the 1940s the Arnold family leased part of their land to serve as a runway and airplane hangar. The building on the right of the photograph was originally two separate airplane hangars - they were joined in the early 1950s to provide covered combine parking between them. The building on the left of the photograph is a tractor shed. The building at a distance was gasoline and oil shed for the planes) - Arnold Farm, Hangar / Workshop, 1948 Arnold Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  8. 33 CFR 211.78 - Maintenance and conveyance of access roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... access roads. 211.78 Section 211.78 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Site Development and Use § 211.78 Maintenance and conveyance of access roads. The Government will not construct any roads for the sole purpose of providing access to lands sold or to be sold for cottage...

  9. 33 CFR 211.78 - Maintenance and conveyance of access roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... access roads. 211.78 Section 211.78 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Site Development and Use § 211.78 Maintenance and conveyance of access roads. The Government will not construct any roads for the sole purpose of providing access to lands sold or to be sold for cottage...

  10. 33 CFR 211.78 - Maintenance and conveyance of access roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... access roads. 211.78 Section 211.78 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Site Development and Use § 211.78 Maintenance and conveyance of access roads. The Government will not construct any roads for the sole purpose of providing access to lands sold or to be sold for cottage...

  11. 33 CFR 211.78 - Maintenance and conveyance of access roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... access roads. 211.78 Section 211.78 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Site Development and Use § 211.78 Maintenance and conveyance of access roads. The Government will not construct any roads for the sole purpose of providing access to lands sold or to be sold for cottage...

  12. 77 FR 5295 - Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Announcement of Project Selections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Announcement of Project... Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 appropriations for the Over-the-Road Bus (OTRB) Accessibility Program, authorized... Accessibility Program makes funds available to private operators of over-the-road buses to help finance...

  13. 25 CFR 170.128 - Are housing access roads and housing streets eligible for IRR Program funding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are housing access roads and housing streets eligible for... INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Irr Housing Access Roads § 170.128 Are housing access roads and housing streets eligible for...

  14. 1. View of McKenzieRichey property from access road, facing northwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View of McKenzie-Richey property from access road, facing northwest. Note covered well, house, root cellar, barn and access road - McKenzie Property, North Bank of Sailor Gulch 750 feet northwest of intersection of U.S.F.S. Roads 651 & 349, Placerville, Boise County, ID

  15. 76 FR 17738 - Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Announcement of Project Selections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... Federal Transit Administration Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Announcement of Project Selections... be funded under Fiscal Year (FY) 2009 and 2010 appropriations for the Over-the- Road Bus (OTRB...). The OTRB Accessibility Program makes funds available to private operators of over-the-road buses...

  16. 25 CFR 170.128 - Are housing access roads and housing streets eligible for IRR Program funding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Are housing access roads and housing streets eligible for... Eligibility Irr Housing Access Roads § 170.128 Are housing access roads and housing streets eligible for IRR Program funding? Yes. IRR housing access roads and housing streets on public rights-of-way are...

  17. 27. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST DOWN THE WEST ACCESS ROAD. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST DOWN THE WEST ACCESS ROAD. THE FIRST LARGE PROTEST AT THE PLANT CAME IN 1978. IT WAS THE FIRST MAJOR PROTEST AT ANY DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PLANT. IN RESPONSE TO CONTINUING ANTI- NUCLEAR PROTESTS, IN PARTICULAR A 1979 RALLY THAT DREW 10,000 PARTICIPANTS, ROCKWELL EMPLOYEES AT THE PLANT FORMED A GRASSROOT ORGANIZATION, CITIZENS FOR ENERGY AND FREEDOM, AND ORGANIZED A PRO-NUCLEAR RALLY, 'POWER TO THE PEOPLE,' THAT ATTRACTED 16,000 PEOPLE (5/4/78). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  18. PAH Accessibility in Particulate Matter from Road-Impacted Environments.

    PubMed

    Allan, Ian J; O'Connell, Steven G; Meland, Sondre; Bæk, Kine; Grung, Merete; Anderson, Kim A; Ranneklev, Sissel B

    2016-08-01

    Snowmelt, surface runoff, or stormwater releases in urban environments can result in significant discharges of particulate matter-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into aquatic environments. Recently, more-specific activities such as road-tunnel washing have been identified as contributing to contaminant load to surface waters. However, knowledge of PAH accessibility in particulate matter (PM) of urban origin that may ultimately be released into urban surface waters is limited. In the present study, we evaluated the accessibility of PAHs associated with seven distinct (suspended) particulate matter samples collected from different urban sources. Laboratory-based infinite sink extractions with silicone rubber (SR) as the extractor phase demonstrated a similar pattern of PAH accessibility for most PM samples. Substantially higher accessible fractions were observed for the less-hydrophobic PAHs (between 40 and 80% of total concentrations) compared with those measured for the most-hydrophobic PAHs (<5% of total concentrations). When we focused on PAHs bound to PM from tunnel-wash waters, first-order desorption rates for PAHs with log Kow > 5.5 were found in line with those commonly found for slowly or very slowly desorbing sediment-associated contaminants. PAHs with log Kow < 5.5 were found at higher desorbing rates. The addition of detergents did not influence the extractability of lighter PAHs but increased desorption rates for the heavier PAHs, potentially contributing to increases in the toxicity of tunnel-wash waters when surfactants are used. The implications of total and accessible PAH concentrations measured in our urban PM samples are discussed in a context of management of PAH and PM emission to the surrounding aquatic environment. Although we only fully assessed PAHs in this work, further study should consider other contaminants such as OPAHs, which were also detected in all PM samples. PMID:27312518

  19. Title III Evaluation for the Access Road System

    SciTech Connect

    H.R. Montalv

    1998-07-28

    The objective of this evaluation is to provide recommendations to ensure consistency between the technical baseline requirements, baseline design, and the as-constructed Access Roads. Recommendations for resolving discrepancies between the as-constructed system, the technical baseline requirements, and the baseline design are included in this report. Cost and Schedule estimates are provided for all recommended modifications. This report does not address items which do not meet current safety or code requirements. These items are identified to the CMO and immediate action is taken to correct the situation. The report does identify safety and code items for which the A/E is recommending improvements. The recommended improvements will exceed the minimum requirements of applicable code and safety guide lines. These recommendations are intended to improve and enhance the operation and maintenance of the facility.

  20. "Adam of the Road" by Elizabeth Janet Gray. Literature Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Mari Lu

    Intended as an aid to classroom teachers, this 48-page handbook presents a literature unit based on the children's book, "Adam of the Road" by Elizabeth Janet Gray. It begins with sample lesson plans, pre-reading activities, author information, a book summary, and vocabulary lists and suggested vocabulary activities. Next, chapters of "Adam of the…

  1. 75 FR 20034 - Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Grants: Corrections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... 215 (73 FR 47046, Aug. 13, 2008). On October 1, 2008, DOL began using a revised special warranty for... Federal Transit Administration Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Grants: Corrections AGENCY: Federal..., 2010 Federal Transit Administration (FTA) Notice titled ``Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility...

  2. 77 FR 25529 - Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... this authorization, the DOL amended its implementing regulations at 29 CFR part 215 (73 FR 47046, Aug... TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Grants AGENCY: Federal... availability of funds in Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 for the Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility (OTRB)...

  3. 25 CFR 170.128 - Are housing access roads and housing streets eligible for IRR Program funding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Are housing access roads and housing streets eligible for IRR Program funding? 170.128 Section 170.128 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Irr Housing Access Roads § 170.128...

  4. 43 CFR 2812.5-2 - Payment to the United States for road use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Payment to the United States for road use... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.5-2 Payment to the United States for road... any existing road or of any road constructed by the permittee upon the right-of-way. If the term...

  5. 43 CFR 2812.5-2 - Payment to the United States for road use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Payment to the United States for road use... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.5-2 Payment to the United States for road... any existing road or of any road constructed by the permittee upon the right-of-way. If the term...

  6. 43 CFR 2812.5-2 - Payment to the United States for road use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Payment to the United States for road use... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.5-2 Payment to the United States for road... any existing road or of any road constructed by the permittee upon the right-of-way. If the term...

  7. 43 CFR 2812.5-2 - Payment to the United States for road use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Payment to the United States for road use... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.5-2 Payment to the United States for road... any existing road or of any road constructed by the permittee upon the right-of-way. If the term...

  8. 36 CFR 9.32 - Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR 2.17. (d) No access to a site outside a unit will be permitted across unit lands unless such access is by foot, pack animal, or designated road. Persons using designated roads for access to such...

  9. 36 CFR 9.32 - Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR 2.17. (d) No access to a site outside a unit will be permitted across unit lands unless such access is by foot, pack animal, or designated road. Persons using designated roads for access to such...

  10. 36 CFR 9.32 - Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR 2.17. (d) No access to a site outside a unit will be permitted across unit lands unless such access is by foot, pack animal, or designated road. Persons using designated roads for access to such...

  11. 36 CFR 9.32 - Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR 2.17. (d) No access to a site outside a unit will be permitted across unit lands unless such access is by foot, pack animal, or designated road. Persons using designated roads for access to such...

  12. Warning! Slippery Road Ahead: Internet Access and District Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Joan M.

    1995-01-01

    As schools merge onto the information highway, districts must address their liability associated with Internet access. Schools need a practical policy supporting high access to global educational resources while limiting district liability. USENET provides easy access to controversial and pornographic materials. This article outlines federal…

  13. Cost of crashes related to road conditions, United States, 2006.

    PubMed

    Zaloshnja, Eduard; Miller, Ted R

    2009-10-01

    This is the first study to estimate the cost of crashes related to road conditions in the U.S. To model the probability that road conditions contributed to the involvement of a vehicle in the crash, we used 2000-03 Large Truck Crash Causation Study (LTCCS) data, the only dataset that provides detailed information whether road conditions contributed to crash occurrence. We applied the logistic regression results to a costed national crash dataset in order to calculate the probability that road conditions contributed to the involvement of a vehicle in each crash. In crashes where someone was moderately to seriously injured (AIS-2-6) in a vehicle that harmfully impacted a large tree or medium or large non-breakaway pole, or if the first harmful event was collision with a bridge, we changed the calculated probability of being road-related to 1. We used the state distribution of costs of fatal crashes where road conditions contributed to crash occurrence or severity to estimate the respective state distribution of non-fatal crash costs. The estimated comprehensive cost of traffic crashes where road conditions contributed to crash occurrence or severity was $217.5 billion in 2006. This represented 43.6% of the total comprehensive crash cost. The large share of crash costs related to road design and conditions underlines the importance of these factors in highway safety. Road conditions are largely controllable. Road maintenance and upgrading can prevent crashes and reduce injury severity. PMID:20184840

  14. Parent-School Partnerships: Forked Roads to College Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sil, Susmita

    2007-01-01

    This article utilizes a social capital perspective to explore the benefits and harmful effects of strong ties between parents and schools in enhancing college access for students. While focusing on social capital in the form of parental participation, the article goes beyond a functionalist approach of the social capital theory as adopted by…

  15. 77 FR 71865 - Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... Federal Transit Administration Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Grant Program AGENCY: Federal Transit... applicants should contact the appropriate FTA Regional Office for grant-specific issues; or lan Flippin... discretionary funding should work with their FTA regional office to finalize the electronic grant application...

  16. ­­Estimating Forest Management Units from Road Network Maps in the Southeastern U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, D.; Hall, J.; Fu, C. S.; Binford, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    The most important factor affecting forest structure and function is the type of management undertaken in forest stands. Owners manage forests using appropriately sized areas to meet management objectives, which include economic return, sustainability, recreation, or esthetic enjoyment. Thus, the socio-environmental unit of study for forests should be the management unit. To study the ecological effects of different kinds of management activities, we must identify individual management units. Road networks, which provide access for human activities, are widely used in managing forests in the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain and Piedmont (SEUS). Our research question in this study is: How can we identify individual forest management units in an entire region? To answer it, we hypothesize that the road network defines management units on the landscape. Road-caused canopy openings are not always captured by satellite sensors, so it is difficult to delineate ecologically relevant patches based only on remote sensing data. We used a reliable, accurate and freely available road network data, OpenStreetMap (OSM), and the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) to delineate management units in a section of the SEUS defined by Landsat Wprldwide Reference System (WRS) II footprint path 17 row 39. The spatial frequency distributions of forest management units indicate that while units < 0.5 Ha comprised 64% of the units, these small units covered only 0.98% of the total forest area. Management units ≥ 0.5 Ha ranged from 0.5 to 160,770 Ha (the Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge). We compared the size-frequency distributions of management units with four independently derived management types: production, ecological, preservation, and passive management. Preservation and production management had the largest units, at 40.5 ± 2196.7 (s.d.) and 41.3 ± 273.5 Ha, respectively. Ecological and passive averaged about half as large at 19.2 ± 91.5 and 22.4 ± 96.0 Ha, respectively

  17. 43 CFR 2812.4-2 - Compensation payable by United States to permittee for use of road.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... permittee for use of road. 2812.4-2 Section 2812.4-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.4-2 Compensation payable by United States to permittee for use of road. In the event the United States itself removes forest...

  18. 43 CFR 2812.4-2 - Compensation payable by United States to permittee for use of road.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... permittee for use of road. 2812.4-2 Section 2812.4-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.4-2 Compensation payable by United States to permittee for use of road. In the event the United States itself removes forest...

  19. 43 CFR 2812.4-2 - Compensation payable by United States to permittee for use of road.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... permittee for use of road. 2812.4-2 Section 2812.4-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.4-2 Compensation payable by United States to permittee for use of road. In the event the United States itself removes forest...

  20. 43 CFR 2812.4-2 - Compensation payable by United States to permittee for use of road.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... permittee for use of road. 2812.4-2 Section 2812.4-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.4-2 Compensation payable by United States to permittee for use of road. In the event the United States itself removes forest...

  1. Effects of road traffic noise and the benefit of access to quietness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öhrström, E.; Skånberg, A.; Svensson, H.; Gidlöf-Gunnarsson, A.

    2006-08-01

    Socio-acoustic surveys were carried out as part of the Soundscape Support to Health research programme to assess the health effects of various soundscapes in residential areas. The study was designed to test whether having access to a quiet side of one's dwelling enhances opportunities for relaxation and reduces noise annoyance and other adverse health effects related to noise. The dwellings chosen were exposed to sound levels from road traffic ranging from about L=45-68 dB at the most-exposed side. The study involved 956 individuals aged 18-75 years. The results demonstrate that access to quiet indoor and outdoor sections of one's dwelling supports health; it produces a lower degree and extent of annoyance and disturbed daytime relaxation, improves sleep and contributes to physiological and psychological well-being. Having access to a quiet side of one's dwelling reduces disturbances by an average of 30-50% for the various critical effects, and corresponds to a reduction in sound levels of ( LAeq,24h) 5 dB at the most-exposed side. To protect most people (80%) from annoyance and other adverse effects, sound levels from road traffic should not exceed ( LAeq,24h) 60 dB at the most-exposed side, even if there is access to a quiet side of one's dwelling ( LAeq,24h⩽45 dB).

  2. Public expectations about access fees and road closures on public lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cline, K.; Lamb, B.L.; Ponds, P.D.

    2006-01-01

    It is sometimes suggested that land managers could better communicate with the general public by relying on people who are active in community affairs to frame the message. By comparing responses from the 'attentive' and general public on the Colorado Plateau in the USA, this study investigated the expected effects of using recreation access fees or road closures to manage recreation on public lands. Although neither the attentive nor general public strongly anticipated benefits from the two management options, the attentive public was more likely than the general public to report positive expectations. Those more likely to expect fewer benefits from the management options do so because of factors that are outside the influence of managers (e.g., socio-demographics and value orientation). The results point out challenges for building public support through mobilizing the attentive public to develop a positive management atmosphere with fees and road closures. ?? 2006 University of Newcastle upon Tyne.

  3. 43 CFR 2812.3-7 - Permittee's agreement with United States respecting compensation and adjustment of road use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... respecting compensation and adjustment of road use. 2812.3-7 Section 2812.3-7 Public Lands: Interior... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.3-7 Permittee's agreement with United States respecting compensation and adjustment of road use....

  4. 43 CFR 2812.3-7 - Permittee's agreement with United States respecting compensation and adjustment of road use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... respecting compensation and adjustment of road use. 2812.3-7 Section 2812.3-7 Public Lands: Interior... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.3-7 Permittee's agreement with United States respecting compensation and adjustment of road use....

  5. 43 CFR 2812.3-7 - Permittee's agreement with United States respecting compensation and adjustment of road use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... respecting compensation and adjustment of road use. 2812.3-7 Section 2812.3-7 Public Lands: Interior... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.3-7 Permittee's agreement with United States respecting compensation and adjustment of road use....

  6. 43 CFR 2812.3-7 - Permittee's agreement with United States respecting compensation and adjustment of road use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... respecting compensation and adjustment of road use. 2812.3-7 Section 2812.3-7 Public Lands: Interior... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.3-7 Permittee's agreement with United States respecting compensation and adjustment of road use....

  7. 7 CFR 636.19 - Access to operating unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Access to operating unit. 636.19 Section 636.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVES PROGRAM § 636.19 Access...

  8. Work-related road safety in Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States of America: an overview of regulatory approaches and recommendations to enhance strategy and practice

    PubMed Central

    Stuckey, R; Pratt, SG; Murray, W

    2015-01-01

    Work-related travel and transport by road is fundamental for industry, government and organisations. Traditionally, road safety interventions at societal level have focussed on improving road and vehicle engineering and changing road-user behaviour through transport laws and safety campaigns. Crash data indicate that significant numbers of road-user fatalities occur while driving to or for work. Therefore, workplace initiatives can improve both road and worker safety. This paper reviews regulatory approaches to work-related road safety (WRRS) in Australia, the United Kingdom and United States, identifying significant and consistent gaps in policy, management and research. In all three countries, responsibility for managing and regulating WRRS is spread across government agencies, without a single coordinating body. This paper makes the case that integrating management of WRRS into regulatory and non-regulatory occupational health and safety (OHS) initiatives would foster and support collaboration between research and practice communities, ensuring a comprehensive evidence base for future programs. PMID:26279686

  9. 7 CFR 631.22 - Access to operating unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Access to operating unit. 631.22 Section 631.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING GREAT PLAINS CONSERVATION PROGRAM Miscellaneous §...

  10. 7 CFR 631.22 - Access to operating unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Access to operating unit. 631.22 Section 631.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING GREAT PLAINS CONSERVATION PROGRAM Miscellaneous §...

  11. 7 CFR 631.22 - Access to operating unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Access to operating unit. 631.22 Section 631.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING GREAT PLAINS CONSERVATION PROGRAM Miscellaneous §...

  12. 7 CFR 631.22 - Access to operating unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Access to operating unit. 631.22 Section 631.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING GREAT PLAINS CONSERVATION PROGRAM Miscellaneous §...

  13. 70. VIEW OF UNIT 2 THROUGH ACCESS DOOR, LOOKING DOWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. VIEW OF UNIT 2 THROUGH ACCESS DOOR, LOOKING DOWN AT MAIN SHAFT. NOTE WELDER'S SIGNATURE IN SHADOWS IN UPPER LEFT CORNER AND PHOTOGRAPHER'S STROBE POWER CABLE IN LOWER RIGHT CORNER. ORIENTATION OF CAMERA IS FACING LEFT BANK, PERPENDICULAR TO RIVER FLOW - Swan Falls Dam, Snake River, Kuna, Ada County, ID

  14. 24 CFR 983.259 - Overcrowded, under-occupied, and accessible units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-occupied, and accessible units. (a) Family occupancy of wrong-size or accessible unit. The PHA subsidy standards determine the appropriate unit size for the family size and composition. If the PHA determines that a family is occupying a: (1) Wrong-size unit, or (2) Unit with accessibility features that...

  15. Access road from State Route 240 to the 200 West Area, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct an access road on the Hanford Site, from State Route (SR) 240 to Beloit Avenue in the 200 West Area. Traffic volume during shift changes creates an extremely serious congestion and safety problem on Route 4S from the Wye barricade to the 200 Areas. A Risk Evaluation (Trost 1992) indicated that there is a probability of 1.53 fatal accidents on Route 4S within 2 years. To help alleviate this danger, a new 3.5-kilometer (2.2-mile)-long access road would be constructed from Beloit Avenue in the 200 West Area to SR 240. In addition, administrative controls such as redirecting traffic onto alternate routes would be used to further reduce traffic volume. The proposed access road would provide an alternative travel-to-work route for many outer area personnel, particularly those with destinations in the 200 West Area. This proposal is the most reasonable alternative to reduce the problem. While traffic safety would be greatly improved, a small portion of the shrub-steppe habitat would be disturbed. The DOE would offset any habitat damage by re-vegetation or other appropriate habitat enhancement activities elsewhere on the Hanford Site. This Environmental Assessment (EA) provides information about the environmental impacts of the proposed action, so a decision can be made to either prepare an Environmental Impact Statement or issue a Finding of No Significant Impact.

  16. Salting our landscape: an integrated catchment model using readily accessible data to assess emerging road salt contamination to streams.

    PubMed

    Jin, Li; Whitehead, Paul; Siegel, Donald I; Findlay, Stuart

    2011-05-01

    A new integrated catchment model for salinity has been developed to assess the transport of road salt from upland areas in watersheds to streams using readily accessible landscape, hydrologic, and meteorological data together with reported salt applications. We used Fishkill Creek (NY) as a representative watershed to test the model. Results showed good agreement between modeled and measured stream water chloride concentrations. These results suggest that a dominant mode of catchment simulation that does not entail complex deterministic modeling is an appropriate method to model salinization and to assess effects of future applications of road salt to streams. We heuristically increased and decreased salt applications by 100% and results showed that stream chloride concentrations increased by 13% and decreased by 7%, respectively. The model suggests that future management of salt application can reduce environmental concentrations, albeit over some time. PMID:21316826

  17. Impact of road network on the structure of a multifunctional forest landscape unit in southern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Eker, Mehmet; Coban, Huseyin Oguz

    2010-01-01

    Forest roads have many kinds of direct and indirect effects such as physical, ecological, and socio-economic effects in landscape scale. In this study the relationship between forest road network and the structure of a multifunctionally planned forest landscape, in the south of Turkey was examined. The aim of the study was to determine whether or not the correlation between road network and landscape structure across a gradient of road density categorical road/no road approach and landscape pattern data from the managed forest landscapes existed. It was concerned with three type polygons that were forest functioning patches, compartments, and stand patches and were associated with higher road density or existing of road network. To quantify the case, it was analyzed whether the spatial structure of forest patches adjacent to roads differs from the spatial structure of forest patches away from roads. GIS was used to integrate quantitative indices of landscape structure. There was little negatively significant relationship between road density and patch area/size, patch perimeter and shape index of patton index (PI) and no correlation with patch number and Fractal Dimension (FD). The forest road network modified spatial pattern of patch shape through PI values. The road network increased the number of patch and decreased mean patch size. The existence of road network was more effective than topography index appearing of PI and FD in the roaded areas. It was indicated to potential reverse impacts of road network on spatial structure of forest compartments in terms of shape index (FD). Highest proportions of harvestable forest areas fall into roaded areas. The results define that road networks are effective on the spatial structure of forest landscape. The forest road network of study area has all probable ecological impacts of forest roads mentioned in context. PMID:20648828

  18. Fertility Treatments in the United States: Improving Access and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kissin, Dmitry M; Boulet, Sheree L; Jamieson, Denise J

    2016-08-01

    The recently released National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection, Prevention, and Management of Infertility calls for better access to high-quality infertility services and improved safety of fertility treatments. Both assisted reproductive technology (ART) and non-ART fertility treatments have allowed millions of patients worldwide to overcome infertility-a disease of the reproductive system and important public health issue. However, there are substantial disparities in access to effective treatments in the United States, largely attributable to high out-of-pocket costs, especially for ART. Moreover, the outcomes of fertility treatments are often complicated by the large proportion of multiple births with substantial health risks for both neonates and mothers. Prevention of multiple births is difficult during non-ART fertility treatments but can be effective with single-embryo transfer during ART. Several U.S. states have enacted legislative mandates that require private insurers to cover some portion of the costs associated with fertility treatments and thus reduce the financial pressure to transfer multiple embryos during ART. Although studies have shown that insurance coverage reduces per-cycle multiple births to a certain degree, states with insurance mandates have more ART-related multiple births attributable to substantially larger number of ART-conceived neonates. Experience from other countries shows that access to ART can be improved without concomitant increases in multiple births by providing reimbursement for ART in combination with restrictions on the number of embryos transferred per cycle. Such approaches may or may not be successful in the United States with its unique and complex health care system. PMID:27399992

  19. Along the Silk Road: People, Interaction, and Cultural Exchange. A Social Studies Unit Recommended for Grades 6-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This curriculum unit introduces students to the travelers and traders from the early part of the Han-Roman times up to the 14th century who took great risks in pursuit of silk. A variety of activities explore the development of the Silk Road trade routes, including journal writing, small group reading and writing activities, role play and…

  20. A new gridded on-road CO2 emissions inventory for the United States, 1980-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gately, C.; Hutyra, L.; Sue Wing, I.

    2013-12-01

    On-road transportation is responsible for 28% of all U.S. fossil fuel CO2 emissions. However, mapping vehicle emissions at regional scales is challenging due to data limitations. Existing emission inventories have used spatial proxies such as population and road density to downscale national or state level data, which may introduce errors where the proxy variables and actual emissions are weakly correlated. We have developed a national on-road emissions inventory product based on roadway-level traffic data obtained from the Highway Performance Monitoring System. We produce annual estimates of on-road CO2 emissions at a 1km spatial resolution for the contiguous United States for the years 1980 through 2011. For the year 2011 we also produce an hourly emissions product at the 1km scale using hourly traffic volumes from hundreds of automated traffic counters across the country. National on-road emissions rose at roughly 2% per year from 1980 to 2006, with emissions peaking at 1.71 Tg CO2 in 2007. However, while national emissions have declined 6% since the peak, we observe considerable regional variation in emissions trends post-2007. While many states show stable or declining on-road emissions, several states and metropolitan areas in the Midwest, mountain west and south had emissions increases of 3-10% from 2008 to 2011. Our emissions estimates are consistent with state-reported totals of gasoline and diesel fuel consumption. This is in contrast to on-road CO2 emissions estimated by the Emissions Database of Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR), which we show to be inconsistent in matching on-road emissions to published fuel consumption at the scale of U.S. states, due to the non-linear relationships between emissions and EDGAR's chosen spatial proxies at these scales. Since our emissions estimates were generated independent of population density and other demographic data, we were able to conduct a panel regression analysis to estimate the relationship between these

  1. Magnetic survey of the Risher Road Open Metal Pit Waste Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Cumbest, R.J.

    1995-07-01

    The Risher Road Waste Unit is located at the base of a small bluff (approximately 30 ft high) composed of sand and gravel. Due to collapse of the face of the bluff a steep slope of colluvium has formed at the base. The area of investigation is located on the slope of colluvium, and is marked by the presence of two pin flags spaced approximately 25 ft apart parallel to the bluff face. In order to investigate the presence of buried metallic material that might indicate waste containers or other wash beneath the colluvial slope a magnetometer survey was conducted in and around the vicinity of the pin flags. The survey consisted of a 5-ft by 5-ft square grid node pattern in a 40-ft by 60-ft rectangle. Magnetic field and gradient anomalies were detected in the locations of the pin flags and can be attributed to the ferric composition of the pin flag shafts. Other magnetic field and gradient variations are at background levels and do not indicate the presence of buried ferric objects of any significant size.

  2. Physical and Visual Accessibilities in Intensive Care Units: A Comparative Study of Open-Plan and Racetrack Units.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Mahbub; Khan, Nayma; Jones, Belinda

    2016-01-01

    This study compared physical and visual accessibilities and their associations with staff perception and interaction behaviors in 2 intensive care units (ICUs) with open-plan and racetrack layouts. For the study, physical and visual accessibilities were measured using the spatial analysis techniques of Space Syntax. Data on staff perception were collected from 81 clinicians using a questionnaire survey. The locations of 2233 interactions, and the location and length of another 339 interactions in these units were collected using systematic field observation techniques. According to the study, physical and visual accessibilities were different in the 2 ICUs, and clinicians' primary workspaces were physically and visually more accessible in the open-plan ICU. Physical and visual accessibilities affected how well clinicians' knew their peers and where their peers were located in these units. Physical and visual accessibilities also affected clinicians' perception of interaction and communication and of teamwork and collaboration in these units. Additionally, physical and visual accessibilities showed significant positive associations with interaction behaviors in these units, with the open-plan ICU showing stronger associations. However, physical accessibilities were less important than visual accessibilities in relation to interaction behaviors in these ICUs. The implications of these findings for ICU design are discussed. PMID:27575795

  3. Record of decision remedial alternative selection for the Grace Road site (631-22G) operable unit: Final action

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.

    1997-01-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the Grace Road Site located at the Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina. The selected action was developed in accordance with CERCLA, as amended, and to the extent practicable, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The selected remedy satisfies both CERCLA and RCRA 3004 requirements. This decision is based on the Administrative Record File for this specific RCRA/CERCLA unit.

  4. What Is the Unit of Visual Attention? Object for Selection, but Boolean Map for Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Liqiang

    2010-01-01

    In the past 20 years, numerous theories and findings have suggested that the unit of visual attention is the object. In this study, I first clarify 2 different meanings of unit of visual attention, namely the unit of access in the sense of measurement and the unit of selection in the sense of division. In accordance with this distinction, I argue…

  5. 25 CFR 170.128 - Are housing access roads and housing streets eligible for IRR Program funding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and... available after the projects are listed on the FHWA-approved IRRTIP. Toll, Ferry and Airport Facilities...

  6. 25 CFR 170.128 - Are housing access roads and housing streets eligible for IRR Program funding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and... available after the projects are listed on the FHWA-approved IRRTIP. Toll, Ferry and Airport Facilities...

  7. Evaluation of On-Road Vehicle Emission Trends in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harley, R. A.; Dallmann, T. R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2010-12-01

    Mobile sources contribute significantly to emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and black carbon (BC). These emissions lead to a variety of environmental problems including air pollution and climate change. At present, national and state-level mobile source emission inventories are developed using statistical models to predict emissions from large and diverse populations of vehicles. Activity is measured by total vehicle-km traveled, and pollutant emission factors are predicted based on laboratory testing of individual vehicles. Despite efforts to improve mobile source emission inventories, they continue to have large associated uncertainties. Alternate methods, such as the fuel-based approach used here, are needed to evaluate estimates of mobile source emissions and to help reduce uncertainties. In this study we quantify U.S. national emissions of NOx, CO, PM2.5, and BC from on-road diesel and gasoline vehicles for the years 1990-2010, including effects of a weakened national economy on fuel sales and vehicle travel from 2008-10. Pollutant emissions are estimated by multiplying total amounts of fuel consumed with emission factors expressed per unit of fuel burned. Fuel consumption is used as a measure of vehicle activity, and is based on records of taxable fuel sales. Pollutant emission factors are derived from roadside and tunnel studies, remote sensing measurements, and individual vehicle exhaust plume capture experiments. Emission factors are updated with new results from a summer 2010 field study conducted at the Caldecott tunnel in the San Francisco Bay Area.

  8. The Road from the NASA Access-to-Space Study to a Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Richard W.; Lockwood, Mary Kae; Cook, Stephen A.

    1998-01-01

    NASA has established a goal of providing low-cost reliable access to space. While this goal has been around for many years, it received a major impetus when the U.S Congress mandated the Access-to-Space study in 1993. This study concluded that a rocket powered single-stage-to-orbit vehicle offered the best opportunity for low-cost reliable space transportation by the first decade of the new millennium. This required a focused technology development program before such a vehicle could be built. NASA recognized that no commercial entity would commit to the development of a single-stage-to-orbit vehicle without the U.S. Government's participation. To this end, NASA entered into a cooperative agreement with industry to mature the required technologies. This effort includes the development of an experimental subscale-vehicle known as the X-33, an extensive ground-based program to provide the required additional technology development, and conceptual through preliminary design of an operational reusable launch vehicle. Following this effort, a decision will be made whether or not to proceed with the detailed design and fabrication of an operational vehicle.

  9. The Road from the NASA Access-to-Space Study to a Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Richard W.; Lockwood, Mary Kae; Cook, Stephen A.

    1998-01-01

    NASA has established a goal of providing low-cost reliable access to space. While this goal has been around for many years, it received a major impetus when the U.S. Congress mandated the Access-to-Space study in 1993. This study concluded that a rocket powered single-state-to-orbit vehicle offered the best opportunity for low-cost reliable space transportation by the first decade of the new millennium. This required a focused technology development program before such a vehicle could be built. NASA recognized that no commercial entity would commit to the development of a single-stage-to-orbit vehicle without the U.S. Government's participation. To this end, NASA entered into a cooperative agreement with industry to mature the required technologies. This effort includes the development of an experimental subscale-vehicle known as the X-33, an extensive ground-based program to provide the required additional technology development, and conceptual through preliminary design of an operational reusable launch vehicle. Following this effort, a decision will be made whether or not to proceed with the detailed design and fabrication of an operational vehicle.

  10. The Road from the NASA Access to Space Study to a Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Richard W.; Cook, Stephen A.; Lockwood, Mary Kae

    1998-01-01

    NASA is cooperating with the aerospace industry to develop a space transportation system that provides reliable access-to-space at a much lower cost than is possible with today's launch vehicles. While this quest has been on-going for many years it received a major impetus when the U.S. Congress mandated as part of the 1993 NASA appropriations bill that: "In view of budget difficulties, present and future..., the National Aeronautics and Space Administration shall ... recommend improvements in space transportation." NASA, working with other organizations, including the Department of Transportation, and the Department of Defense identified three major transportation architecture options that were to be evaluated in the areas of reliability, operability and cost. These architectural options were: (1) retain and upgrade the Space Shuttle and the current expendable launch vehicles; (2) develop new expendable launch vehicles using conventional technologies and transition to these new vehicles beginning in 2005; and (3) develop new reusable vehicles using advanced technology, and transition to these vehicles beginning in 2008. The launch needs mission model was based on 1993 projections of civil, defense, and commercial payload requirements. This "Access to Space" study concluded that the option that provided the greatest potential for meeting the cost, operability, and reliability goals was a rocket-powered single-stage-to-orbit fully reusable launch vehicle (RLV) fleet designed with advanced technologies.

  11. 7 CFR 636.19 - Access to operating unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM § 636.19 Access to... information necessary to evaluate the habitat development performance specified in the cost-share...

  12. 7 CFR 636.19 - Access to operating unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM § 636.19 Access to... information necessary to evaluate the habitat development performance specified in the cost-share...

  13. 7 CFR 636.19 - Access to operating unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM § 636.19 Access to... information necessary to evaluate the habitat development performance specified in the cost-share...

  14. 7 CFR 636.19 - Access to operating unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM § 636.19 Access to... information necessary to evaluate the habitat development performance specified in the cost-share...

  15. Geographic Access to High Capability Severe Acute Respiratory Failure Centers in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, David J.; Angus, Derek C.; Seymour, Christopher W.; Yealy, Donald M.; Carr, Brendan G.; Kurland, Kristen; Boujoukos, Arthur; Kahn, Jeremy M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Optimal care of adults with severe acute respiratory failure requires specific resources and expertise. We sought to measure geographic access to these centers in the United States. Design Cross-sectional analysis of geographic access to high capability severe acute respiratory failure centers in the United States. We defined high capability centers using two criteria: (1) provision of adult extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), based on either 2008–2013 Extracorporeal Life Support Organization reporting or provision of ECMO to 2010 Medicare beneficiaries; or (2) high annual hospital mechanical ventilation volume, based 2010 Medicare claims. Setting Nonfederal acute care hospitals in the United States. Measurements and Main Results We defined geographic access as the percentage of the state, region and national population with either direct or hospital-transferred access within one or two hours by air or ground transport. Of 4,822 acute care hospitals, 148 hospitals met our ECMO criteria and 447 hospitals met our mechanical ventilation criteria. Geographic access varied substantially across states and regions in the United States, depending on center criteria. Without interhospital transfer, an estimated 58.5% of the national adult population had geographic access to hospitals performing ECMO and 79.0% had geographic access to hospitals performing a high annual volume of mechanical ventilation. With interhospital transfer and under ideal circumstances, an estimated 96.4% of the national adult population had geographic access to hospitals performing ECMO and 98.6% had geographic access to hospitals performing a high annual volume of mechanical ventilation. However, this degree of geographic access required substantial interhospital transfer of patients, including up to two hours by air. Conclusions Geographic access to high capability severe acute respiratory failure centers varies widely across states and regions in the United States. Adequate

  16. Disparities in access to effective treatment for infertility in the United States: an Ethics Committee opinion.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    In the United States, economic, racial, ethnic, geographic, and other disparities exist in access to fertility treatment and in treatment outcomes. This opinion examines the factors that contribute to these disparities and proposes actions to address them. PMID:26364838

  17. 25 CFR 162.019 - May a lease address access to the leased premises by roads or other infrastructure?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... applicable statutory and regulatory requirements, including 25 CFR part 169. Roads or other infrastructure within the leased premises do not require compliance with 25 CFR part 169 during the term of the lease... roads or other infrastructure? 162.019 Section 162.019 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT...

  18. 25 CFR 162.019 - May a lease address access to the leased premises by roads or other infrastructure?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... applicable statutory and regulatory requirements, including 25 CFR part 169. Roads or other infrastructure within the leased premises do not require compliance with 25 CFR part 169 during the term of the lease... roads or other infrastructure? 162.019 Section 162.019 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT...

  19. Internet Access in the European Union and in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Johannes M.; Berne, Michel; Maitland, Carleen F.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the effects of public policies towards traditional communications infrastructures on Internet access in Europe and the United States. Discusses competitive strategies and describes the influence of regulatory policies affecting market entry and the pricing of services on Internet access, based on empirical findings. (Author/LRW)

  20. Prefixes as Access Units in Visual Word Recognition: A Comparison of Italian and Dutch Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assink, Egbert M. H.; Vooijs, Caroline; Knuijt, Paul P. N. A.

    2000-01-01

    Compares morphological processing of skilled and less skilled Dutch readers. Focuses on the role of prefixes as access units in visual word recognition. Finds evidence for differential use of prefix information in undergraduate students and elementary school children. Concludes that the information accessed by prefixes is semantically combined…

  1. Improving Immigrants' Access to Public Services in the United States: Language Access Policy and Policy Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperling, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    Language access mandates in the USA, which require that governmental services be provided in any needed language, have been largely ignored since their first enacting. However, the past decade has seen an increase in the number of national, state, and local efforts to accommodate limited English-proficient individuals. This article provides an…

  2. Indirect economic impact of landslide hazards by disruption to national road transportation networks; Scotland, United Kingdom.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postance, Benjamin; Hillier, John; Dijkstra, Tom; Dixon, Neil

    2016-04-01

    The failure of engineered or natural slopes which support or are adjacent to transportation systems often inflicts costly direct physical damage and indirect system disruption. The consequences and severity of indirect impacts vary according to which links, nodes or network facilities are physically disrupted. Moreover, it is often the case that multiple slope failure disruptions are triggered simultaneously following prolonged or intense precipitation events due to a degree of local homogeneity of slope characteristics and materials. This study investigates the application of national commuter statistics and network agent simulation to evaluate indirect impacts of landslide events disrupting the Scottish trunk road transportation network (UK). Previous studies often employ shortest pathway analysis whereas agent simulation has received relatively little attention. British Geological Survey GeoSure landslide susceptibility data is used to select 35 susceptible trunk road segments by means of neighbouring total area at risk. For each of the candidate 35 segments the network and zonal variation in travel time is calculated for a single day of disruption, economic impact is approximated using established governmental and industry transport planning and appraisal values. The results highlight that a number of trunk road segments incur indirect economic losses in the order of tens of thousands of pounds for each day of closure. Calculated losses at the A83 Rest and Be Thankful are 50% greater than previous estimates at £75 thousand per day of closure. Also highlighted are events in which economic impact is relatively minor, yet concentrating on particular communities that can become substantially isolated as a consequence of a single event. The findings of this study are of interest and support wider investigations exploring cost considerations for decision makers and mitigation strategies, in addition to identifying network topological and demand indicators conducive

  3. Access to care for Chagas disease in the United States: a health systems analysis.

    PubMed

    Manne-Goehler, Jennifer; Reich, Michael R; Wirtz, Veronika J

    2015-07-01

    There are 300,000 estimated cases of Chagas disease in the United States but limited data on access to care. This study analyzed trends in access to care for Chagas disease in the United States and assessed the national and state barriers to access. Data on cases in blood donors and drug releases were obtained from the AABB (formerly American Association of Blood Banks) and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), respectively. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 30 key informants at the national level and in five states where treatment had been released. Interview responses were analyzed according to the health systems dimensions of regulation, financing, payment, organization, and persuasion. Data indicate that 1,908 cases were identified in the blood donation system from 2007 to 2013 and that CDC released 422 courses of benznidazole or nifurtimox during this period. The barriers to access at the national level include limited diagnostic and institutionalized referral and care processes, lack of financing for patient-care activities, and limited awareness and training among providers. This study demonstrates that access to treatment of Chagas disease in the United States is limited. The lack of licensing is only one of several barriers to access, highlighting the need for a health systems perspective when scaling up access to these essential medicines. PMID:25986581

  4. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 3): Limestone Road Superfund Site, operable unit 2, Cumberland, MD, June 28, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This Record of Decision (`ROD`) presents the final remedial action selected for Operable Unit 2 (`OU2`) of the Limestone Road Superfund Site (`Site`), located in Cumberland, Allegany County, Maryland. The selected remedy for the Site consists of the installation of a waterline and ancillary equipment (a pumping station and fire hydrants) to service residents in the vicinity of the Site. Implementation of deed restrictions on the previously capped areas of the Site to prevent use of such areas in such a manner as would cause disturbance of the caps; Implementation of a ground water management program to prevent installation of drinking water wells in the vicinity of the Site; Continuation of the long term ground water, surface water, and sediment monitoring plans currently being implemented pursuant to OU1; and Abandonment of existing residential water supply well.

  5. [Expanded access program in the United States and Alimta program for malignant mesothelioma patients].

    PubMed

    Nambu, Yoshihiro

    2007-02-01

    In the United States, Expanded Access Program is allowed by FDA to facilitate the availability of promising new drugs to desperately ill patients as early in the drug development process as possible, before marketing begins, and to obtain additional data on the drug's safety and effectiveness. Eli Lilly conducted Alimta Expanded Access Programs for 1200 malignant mesothelioma patients with free of charge and obtained clinical efficacy and severe adverse events. The system development for Expanded Access Program should be discussed for future Japanese participation to this program. PMID:17301544

  6. Disparities and access to healthy food in the United States: A review of food deserts literature.

    PubMed

    Walker, Renee E; Keane, Christopher R; Burke, Jessica G

    2010-09-01

    Increasingly, studies are focusing on the role the local food environment plays in residents' ability to purchase affordable, healthy and nutritious foods. In a food desert, an area devoid of a supermarket, access to healthy food is limited. We conducted a systematic review of studies that focused on food access and food desert research in the United States. The 31 studies identified utilized 9 measures to assess food access. Results from these studies can be summarized primarily into four major statements. Findings from other countries offer insight into ways, in which future research, policy development and program implementation in the U.S. may continue to be explored. PMID:20462784

  7. Climate change risks to United States infrastructure: impacts on coastal development, roads, bridges, and urban drainage

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in temperature, precipitation, sea level, and coastal storms will likely increase the vulnerability of infrastructure across the United States. Using four models of vulnerability, impacts, and adaptation of infrastructure, its deployment, and its role in protecting econom...

  8. Accessibility

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/accessibility.html MedlinePlus Accessibility To use the sharing features on this page, ... Subscribe to RSS Follow us Disclaimers Copyright Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs ...

  9. Access to Care for Methadone Maintenance Patients in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hettema, Jennifer E.; Sorensen, James L.

    2009-01-01

    This policy commentary addresses a significant access to care issue that faces methadone maintenance patients seeking residential treatment in the United States. Methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) has demonstrated strong efficacy in the outpatient treatment of opiate dependence. However, many opiate dependent patients are also in need of more…

  10. The road to patient experience of care measurement: lessons from the United States

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Patient-centered care has become an increasing priority in the United States and plays a prominent role in recent healthcare reforms. One way the country has managed to advance patient-centered care is through establishment of a family of national patient experience surveys (the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems Plans (CAHPS). CAHPS is publicly reported for several types of providers and was recently tied to hospital reimbursement. This is part of a trend over the last two decades that has shifted provider-patient relationships from a traditional paternal approach to customer service and then to clinical partnership. The health care system in Israel, however, is still struggling to overcome barriers to change in this area. While community based biannual patient experience surveys are conducted by the Myers-JDC-Brookdale Institute, there is no comprehensive national approach to measuring the patient experience across a broad range of settings. Only recently did the Israeli Ministry of Health take its first steps to include patient experience as a dimension of health care quality. In its current position, Israel should learn from the U.S. experience with policies promoting patient-centered care, and specifically the impact on clinical services of measuring the patient experience. Looking at what has happened in the United States, we suggest three main lessons. First, there is a need for a set of national patient experience surveys that would be publicly reported and eventually tied to provider reimbursement. Secondly, the national survey tools should be customized to the unique characteristics of Israeli society and draw from recent research on patient-centeredness to include new and important domains such as patient activation and shared decision-making. Finally, newer technological approaches should be explored with the aim of increasing response rates and the timeliness and usefulness of the surveys. PMID:24044672

  11. [Symbolical violence in the access of disabled persons to basic health units].

    PubMed

    de França, Inacia Sátiro Xavier; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena Freitag; Baptista, Rosilene Santos; de França, Eurípedes Gil; Coura, Alexsandro Silva; de Souza, Jeová Alves

    2010-01-01

    A descriptive study which aimed to characterize the conditions of people with disabilities (PD) in the Basic Health Units-UBS. Data were collected in January 2009 in 20 UBSF. It was used digital camera and check list based on the 9050-NBR ABNT. The results showed: Access town - no traffic lights (100%) of lanes for pedestrians (100%), bumpy sidewalks (90%); Access in UBS: non-standard ports (30%) staircases without banisters (20%); floor outside the standard (75%), in disagreement with standard mobile (20%), drinking at odds with standard (55%), making it difficult to people with disabilities to use a filter (30%), has no drinking or filters (15%); telephones installed inadequately (55%); inaccessible restrooms (96%). Access to UBS of PD is permeated by the symbolic violence. PMID:21308230

  12. Curecanti-Blue Mesa-Salida 115-kV transmission lines access roads rehabilitation, maintenance, and construction project. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    Western Area Power Administration (Western) is a power marketing agency of the US Department of Energy, with jurisdiction in 15 western states. The Salt Lake City Area (SLCA) of Western performs the agency`s mission in parts of Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, Utah, Arizona, Wyoming, and Nevada. As part of its mission, Western owns, operates, and maintains a system of transmission lines for transmitting bulk electrical energy from points of generation to and between delivery points. Part of that system in southwestern Colorado includes the Blue Mesa-Curecanti and Blue Mesa-Salida 115-kV transmission lines. Western proposes to conduct maintenance and improve its access roads for these two transmission lines. This paper discusses the impacts to the existing environment as well as the environmental consequences resulting from the maintenance and construction that is proposed.

  13. Intake fractions of primary conserved air pollutants emitted from on-road vehicles in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobscheid, Agnes B.; Nazaroff, William W.; Spears, Michael; Horvath, Arpad; McKone, Thomas E.

    2012-12-01

    Vehicular air pollutant emissions are characterized by a high degree of spatial variability that is correlated with the distribution of people. The consequences of the spatial association between emissions and exposed populations have not been fully captured in lifecycle and other impact assessments. The intake fraction (iF) quantifies aggregate air-pollutant exposures attributable to sources. Utilizing source-receptor (S-R) relationships derived from the US Environmental Protection Agency's AERMOD steady-state plume model, we quantify the intake fraction of conserved pollutants emitted from on-road mobile sources and report here the first characterization across approximately 65,000 census tracts of the conterminous United States. Considering exposures out to 50 km from the source, the population-weighted mean iF is 8.6 parts per million (ppm). The population-weighted median generally increases with geographic scale, from 3.6 ppm for census tracts to 4.2 ppm for counties, and 5.1 ppm for states, while the population-weighted interquartile range (IQR) progressively narrows as geographic scale increases: 0.85-8.8 ppm for census tracts, 1.5-8.5 ppm for counties, and 3.2-7.5 ppm for states. Across the four US Census regions, the population weighted median iF varies from 2.2 ppm (South) to 7.5 ppm (West), and the census-tract IQR spans an order of magnitude in each region (2.1-17 ppm in the West; 0.55-6.9 ppm in the Midwest; 0.45-5.5 ppm in the South; and 1.8-18 ppm in the Northeast). The population-weighted mean intake fraction for populous urban counties is about two orders of magnitude greater than for sparsely populated rural counties. On a population-weighted average basis and considering the 50 km analysis range, 75% of the intake occurs in the same county as emissions.

  14. History of Nutrition: The Long Road Leading to the Dietary Reference Intakes for the United States and Canada.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Suzanne P; Yates, Allison A; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Barr, Susan I; Dwyer, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are reference values to guide the planning and assessing of nutrient intakes in the United States and Canada. The DRI framework was conceptualized in 1994, and the first reports were issued from 1997–2004, based on work by expert panels and subcommittees under the guidance of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine. Numerous conventions, challenges, and controversies were encountered during the process of defining and setting the DRIs, including the definition of the framework, the use of chronic disease endpoints, lack of data on requirements for children and youth, and methods for addressing nonessential bioactive substances with potential health benefits. DRIs may be used to plan and assess the nutrient intakes of both individuals and population groups, but the new paradigm particularly improved methods used for groups. It is now possible to estimate both the prevalence of inadequate intake and the prevalence of potentially excessive intake within a group. The DRIs have served as a potent influence on national nutrition policies, including those related to dietary guidance, food labeling, nutrition monitoring, food assistance programs, and military nutrition standards. Because of this important impact on nutrition policy, the DRIs must be based on the best possible and most up-to-date science. Unfortunately, no updates to specific DRIs are currently planned. Despite the long and challenging road that led to the current DRIs, it must not finish in a dead end. Monetary resources and political will are crucial to maintaining and continuously updating the DRIs. PMID:27180379

  15. Choice in maternity care: associations with unit supply, geographic accessibility and user characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    and second maternity unit is greater than 30 km can provide a simple measure of choice to complement indicators of geographic accessibility in evaluations of the impact of maternity unit closures. PMID:22905951

  16. Road Traffic Related Injury Research and Informatics. New Opportunities for Biomedical and Health Informatics as a Contribution to the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals?

    PubMed

    Al-Shorbaji, N; Haux, R; Krishnamurthy, R; Marschollek, M; Mattfeld, D C; Bartolomeos, K; Reynolds, T A

    2015-01-01

    The United Nations has recently adopted 17 sustainable development goals for 2030, including ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being for all at all ages, and making cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable. Road injuries remain among the ten leading causes of death in the world, and are projected to increase with rapidly increasing motorisation globally. Lack of comprehensive data on road injuries has been identified as one of the barriers for effective implementation of proven road safety interventions. Building, linking and analysing electronic patient records in conjunction with establishing injury event and care registries can substantially contribute to healthy lives and safe transportation. Appropriate use of new technological approaches and health informatics best practices could provide significant added value to WHO's global road safety work and assist Member States in identifying prevention targets, monitoring progress and improving quality of care to reduce injury-related deaths. This paper encourages the initiation of new multidisciplinary research at a global level. PMID:26395205

  17. 12 CFR 1010.210 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Roads. 1010.210 Section 1010.210 Banks and... § 1010.210 Roads. (a) State the estimated cost to the developer of the proposed road system. (b) If the developer is to complete any roads providing access to the subdivision, submit copies of any bonds or...

  18. 12 CFR 1010.210 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Roads. 1010.210 Section 1010.210 Banks and... § 1010.210 Roads. (a) State the estimated cost to the developer of the proposed road system. (b) If the developer is to complete any roads providing access to the subdivision, submit copies of any bonds or...

  19. 12 CFR 1010.210 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Roads. 1010.210 Section 1010.210 Banks and... § 1010.210 Roads. (a) State the estimated cost to the developer of the proposed road system. (b) If the developer is to complete any roads providing access to the subdivision, submit copies of any bonds or...

  20. EPA GHG Certification of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles: Development of Road Grade Profiles Representative of US Controlled Access Highways

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Eric; Duran, Adam; Burton, Evan; Gonder, Jeffrey; Kelly, Kenneth

    2015-05-12

    This report includes a detailed comparison of the TomTom national road grade database relative to a local road grade dataset generated by Southwest Research Institute and a national elevation dataset publically available from the U.S. Geological Survey. This analysis concluded that the TomTom national road grade database was a suitable source of road grade data for purposes of this study.

  1. Refugee Resettlement Patterns and State-Level Health Care Insurance Access in the United States.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Pooja; Venkatesh, Arjun Krishna

    2016-04-01

    We sought to evaluate the relationship between state-level implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) and resettlement patterns among refugees. We linked federal refugee resettlement data to ACA expansion data and found that refugee resettlement rates are not significantly different according to state-level insurance expansion or cost. Forty percent of refugees have resettled to states without Medicaid expansion. The wide state-level variability in implementation of the ACA should be considered by federal agencies seeking to optimize access to health insurance coverage among refugees who have resettled to the United States. PMID:26890186

  2. 24 CFR 1710.110 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roads. 1710.110 Section 1710.110... (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements § 1710.110 Roads. (a) Access to the subdivision. (1) Is access to the subdivision provided by public or private roads?...

  3. 12 CFR 1010.110 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Roads. 1010.110 Section 1010.110 Banks and... § 1010.110 Roads. (a) Access to the subdivision. (1) Is access to the subdivision provided by public or private roads? What type of surface do they have? How many lanes? What is the width of the wearing...

  4. 12 CFR 1010.110 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Roads. 1010.110 Section 1010.110 Banks and... § 1010.110 Roads. (a) Access to the subdivision. (1) Is access to the subdivision provided by public or private roads? What type of surface do they have? How many lanes? What is the width of the wearing...

  5. 24 CFR 1710.110 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Roads. 1710.110 Section 1710.110... (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements § 1710.110 Roads. (a) Access to the subdivision. (1) Is access to the subdivision provided by public or private roads?...

  6. 24 CFR 1710.110 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Roads. 1710.110 Section 1710.110... (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements § 1710.110 Roads. (a) Access to the subdivision. (1) Is access to the subdivision provided by public or private roads?...

  7. 12 CFR 1010.110 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Roads. 1010.110 Section 1010.110 Banks and... § 1010.110 Roads. (a) Access to the subdivision. (1) Is access to the subdivision provided by public or private roads? What type of surface do they have? How many lanes? What is the width of the wearing...

  8. 24 CFR 1710.110 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Roads. 1710.110 Section 1710.110... (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements § 1710.110 Roads. (a) Access to the subdivision. (1) Is access to the subdivision provided by public or private roads?...

  9. 24 CFR 1710.110 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Roads. 1710.110 Section 1710.110... (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements § 1710.110 Roads. (a) Access to the subdivision. (1) Is access to the subdivision provided by public or private roads?...

  10. Beyond Section 508: The Spectrum of Legal Requirements for Accessible e-Government Web Sites in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Paul T.

    2004-01-01

    In the United States, a number of federal laws establish requirements that electronic government (e-government) information and services be accessible to individuals with disabilities. These laws affect e-government Web sites at the federal, state, and local levels. To this point, research about the accessibility of e-government Web sites has…

  11. Access to and use of infertility services in the United States: framing the challenges.

    PubMed

    Adashi, Eli Y; Dean, Laura A

    2016-05-01

    An overview of access to and use of general infertility and assisted reproductive technology (ART) services in the United States (U.S.) shows a declining trend for the ever-use of infertility services. Moreover, the use of ART services lags relative to other member nations of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Access to and use of general infertility and ART services is primarily undermined by a severely constrained underwriting universe dominated by self-insured employers and by a finite number of state infertility insurance mandates. The contribution of traditional public and private payers to the underwriting of ART is limited. As compared with OECD member nations wherein the access to and underwriting of general infertility and ART services is universal, the current status quo in the U.S. can only be characterized as dismal. Further, the current state of affairs is socially unjust in that the right to build a family in the face of infertility appears to have become a function of economic prowess. Given the dominance of the self-insured employers as underwriters of general infertility and ART services, advocacy directed at this interest group is likely to prove most productive. Improving the state of underwriting of general infertility and ART services in the U.S. must be embraced as a central moral imperative and as an unwavering strategic goal of the professional societies entrusted with the reproductive health of women and men. PMID:26826275

  12. Geographic variability in access to primary kidney transplantation in the United States, 1996-2005.

    PubMed

    Ashby, V B; Kalbfleisch, J D; Wolfe, R A; Lin, M J; Port, F K; Leichtman, A B

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on geographic variability in patient access to kidney transplantation in the United States. It examines geographic differences and trends in access rates to kidney transplantation, in the component rates of wait-listing, and of living and deceased donor transplantation. Using data from Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network/Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, we studied 700,000+ patients under 75, who began chronic dialysis treatment, received their first living donor kidney transplant, or were placed on the waiting list pre-emptively. Relative rates of wait-listing and transplantation by State were calculated using Cox regression models, adjusted for patient demographics. There were geographic differences in access to the kidney waiting list and to a kidney transplant. Adjusted wait-list rates ranged from 37% lower to 64% higher than the national average. The living donor rate ranged from 57% lower to 166% higher, while the deceased donor transplant rate ranged from 60% lower to 150% higher than the national average. In general, States with higher wait-listing rates tended to have lower transplantation rates and States with lower wait-listing rates had higher transplant rates. Six States demonstrated both high wait-listing and deceased donor transplantation rates while six others, plus D.C. and Puerto Rico, were below the national average for both parameters. PMID:17428289

  13. Optimizing physician access to surgical intensive care unit laboratory information through mobile computing.

    PubMed Central

    Strain, J. J.; Felciano, R. M.; Seiver, A.; Acuff, R.; Fagan, L.

    1996-01-01

    Approximately 30 minutes of computer access time are required by surgical residents at Stanford University Medical Center (SUMC) to examine the lab values of all patients on a surgical intensive care unit (ICU) service, a task that must be performed several times a day. To reduce the time accessing this information and simultaneously increase the readability and currency of the data, we have created a mobile, pen-based user interface and software system that delivers lab results to surgeons in the ICU. The ScroungeMaster system, loaded on a portable tablet computer, retrieves lab results for a subset of patients from the central laboratory computer and stores them in a local database cache. The cache can be updated on command; this update takes approximately 2.7 minutes for all ICU patients being followed by the surgeon, and can be performed as a background task while the user continues to access selected lab results. The user interface presents lab results according to physiologic system. Which labs are displayed first is governed by a layout selection algorithm based on previous accesses to the patient's lab information, physician preferences, and the nature of the patient's medical condition. Initial evaluation of the system has shown that physicians prefer the ScroungeMaster interface to that of existing systems at SUMC and are satisfied with the system's performance. We discuss the evolution of ScroungeMaster and make observations on changes to physician work flow with the presence of mobile, pen-based computing in the ICU. PMID:8947778

  14. Welcome to the wild west: protecting access to cross border fertility care in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mutcherson, Kimberley M

    2012-01-01

    As has been the case with other types of medical tourism, the phenomenon of cross border fertility care ("CBFC") has sparked concern about the lack of global or even national harmonization in the regulation of the fertility industry. The diversity of laws around the globe leads would-be parents to forum shop for a welcoming place to make babies. Focusing specifically on the phenomenon of travel to the United States, this Article takes up the question of whether there should be any legal barriers to those who come to the United States seeking CBFC. In part, CBFC suffers from the same general concerns raised about the use of fertility treatment in general, but it is possible to imagine a subset of arguments that would lead to forbidding or at least discouraging people from coming to the United States for CBFC, either as a matter of law or policy. This paper stands in opposition to any such effort and contemplates the moral and ethical concerns about CBFC and how, and if, those concerns warrant expression in law. Part I describes the conditions that lead some couples and individuals to leave their home countries to access fertility treatments abroad and details why the United States, with its comparatively liberal regulation of ART, has become a popular CBFC destination for travelers from around the world. Part II offers and refutes arguments supporting greater domestic control over those who seek to satisfy their desires for CBFC in the United States by reasserting the importance of the right of procreation while also noting appropriate concerns about justice and equality in the market for babies. Part III continues the exploration of justice by investigating the question of international cooperation in legislating against perceived wrongs. This Part concludes that consistent legislation across borders is appropriate where there is consensus about the wrong of an act, but it is unnecessary and inappropriate where there remain cultural conflicts about certain

  15. Open access gastroscopy: second survey of current practice in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Silcock, J G; Bramble, M G

    1997-02-01

    In June 1990 a survey of members of the endoscopy section of the British Society of Gastroenterology showed that 47% of respondents were offering some form of open access gastroscopy (OAG). Only 10% offered true (non-censored) OAG. The survey was repeated in June 1994. The overall provision of OAG had risen to 74%, most of whom were offering true OAG. Censored OAG is still widely practised and characterised by referral letters to a consultant in contrast with the use of referral forms (p < 0.001). Referral forms are being increasingly used and are an effective way of capturing important data such as the patients' symptoms (100%), previous treatment (87%), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug or aspirin use (78%), suspected diagnosis (74%), and other medical conditions (72%). Forms were used to establish clinical responsibility with the general practitioner in 64% of units. Standardised referral and reporting forms were used by 27% of respondents. A perceived inability to cope with the expected workload was still the most commonly cited reason for not being able to offer OAG. Although 20% of units with a single handed endoscopist were able to offer OAG, this compared with 68% of units with two or more endoscopists (p < 0.001). Only three units indicated that an OAG service had had to be withdrawn, but a further 12 consultants (nine units) were now offering an age restricted service because of excessive workload. Two thirds of the respondents not offering OAG were hoping to do so in the near future. True OAG has increased from 10% to 41% in four years. PMID:9071930

  16. 49 CFR 1546.213 - Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for cargo personnel in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for...: Security threat assessments for cargo personnel in the United States. This section applies in the United...— (1) Each individual must successfully complete a security threat assessment or comparable...

  17. Understanding health-care access and utilization disparities among Latino children in the United States.

    PubMed

    Langellier, Brent A; Chen, Jie; Vargas-Bustamante, Arturo; Inkelas, Moira; Ortega, Alexander N

    2016-06-01

    It is important to understand the source of health-care disparities between Latinos and other children in the United States. We examine parent-reported health-care access and utilization among Latino, White, and Black children (≤17 years old) in the United States in the 2006-2011 National Health Interview Survey. Using Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition, we portion health-care disparities into two parts (1) those attributable to differences in the levels of sociodemographic characteristics (e.g., income) and (2) those attributable to differences in group-specific regression coefficients that measure the health-care 'return' Latino, White, and Black children receive on these characteristics. In the United States, Latino children are less likely than Whites to have a usual source of care, receive at least one preventive care visit, and visit a doctor, and are more likely to have delayed care. The return on sociodemographic characteristics explains 20-30% of the disparity between Latino and White children in the usual source of care, delayed care, and doctor visits and 40-50% of the disparity between Latinos and Blacks in emergency department use and preventive care. Much of the health-care disadvantage experienced by Latino children would persist if Latinos had the sociodemographic characteristics as Whites and Blacks. PMID:25395597

  18. Gatekeeping access to the midwifery unit: Managing complaints by bending the rules.

    PubMed

    Allan, Helen T; Odelius, Anki; Hunter, Billie J; Bryan, Karen; Knibb, Wendy; Shawe, Jill

    2015-11-01

    While poor communication between service users and front-line staff causes many service user complaints in the British National Health Service, staff rarely reflect on the causes of these complaints. We discuss findings from an action research project with midwives which suggest that the midwives struggled to fully understand complaints from women, their partners and families particularly about restricted visiting and the locked door to the midwifery unit. They responded to individual requests to visit out of hours while maintaining the general policy of restricted visiting. In this way, the door was a gatekeeping device which allowed access to the unit within certain rules. The locked door remained a barrier to women and their families and as a result was a common source of informal complaints. We argue that the locked door and restricted visiting to the midwifery unit were forms of gatekeeping and boundary making by midwives which reveals a tension between their espoused woman-centred care and contemporary midwifery practice which is increasingly constrained by institutional values. PMID:25631490

  19. Minimum Ages of Legal Access for Tobacco in the United States From 1863 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Apollonio, Dorie E; Glantz, Stanton A

    2016-07-01

    In the United States, state laws establish a minimum age of legal access (MLA) for most tobacco products at 18 years. We reviewed the history of these laws with internal tobacco industry documents and newspaper archives from 1860 to 2014. The laws appeared in the 1880s; by 1920, half of states had set MLAs of at least 21 years. After 1920, tobacco industry lobbying eroded them to between 16 and 18 years. By the 1980s, the tobacco industry viewed restoration of higher MLAs as a critical business threat. The industry's political advocacy reflects its assessment that recruiting youth smokers is critical to its survival. The increasing evidence on tobacco addiction suggests that restoring MLAs to 21 years would reduce smoking initiation and prevalence, particularly among those younger than 18 years. PMID:27196658

  20. Minimum Ages of Legal Access for Tobacco in the United States From 1863 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Apollonio, Dorie E.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, state laws establish a minimum age of legal access (MLA) for most tobacco products at 18 years. We reviewed the history of these laws with internal tobacco industry documents and newspaper archives from 1860 to 2014. The laws appeared in the 1880s; by 1920, half of states had set MLAs of at least 21 years. After 1920, tobacco industry lobbying eroded them to between 16 and 18 years. By the 1980s, the tobacco industry viewed restoration of higher MLAs as a critical business threat. The industry’s political advocacy reflects its assessment that recruiting youth smokers is critical to its survival. The increasing evidence on tobacco addiction suggests that restoring MLAs to 21 years would reduce smoking initiation and prevalence, particularly among those younger than 18 years. PMID:27196658

  1. Web Accessibility in Europe and the United States: What We Are Doing to Increase Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheaton, Joseph; Bertini, Patrizia

    2007-01-01

    Accessibility is hardly a new problem and certainly did not originate with the Web. Lack of access to buildings long preceded the call for accessible Web content. Although it is unlikely that rehabilitation educators look at Web page accessibility with indifference, many may also find it difficult to implement. The authors posit three reasons why…

  2. A Near-Road Modeling System for Community-Scale Assessments of Traffic-Related AirPollution in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Community Line Source (C-LINE) modeling system estimates emissions and dispersion of toxic air pollutants for roadways within the continental United States. It accesses publicly available traffic and meteorological datasets, and is optimized for use on community-sized areas (...

  3. Proposed plan/Statement of basis for the Grace Road Site (631-22G) operable unit: Final action

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.

    1997-08-19

    This Statement of Basis/Proposed Plan is being issued by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), which functions as the lead agency for the Savannah River Site (SRS) remedial activities, with concurrence by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The purpose of this Statement of Basis/Proposed Plan is to describe the preferred alternative for addressing the Grace Road site (GRS) located at the Savannah River Site (SRS), in Aiken, South Carolina and to provide an opportunity for public input into the remedial action selection process.

  4. Roads and traffic: Effects on ecology and wildlife habitat use; applications for cooperative adaptive management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ouren, Douglas S.; Watts, Raymond D.

    2005-01-01

    The land of the United States in dissected by more than 4 million miles of roads that fragment wildlife habitat on both public and private lands. Traffic on these roads causes additional effects. On secondary roads, which provide access to the most natural habitat, the levels, timing, and types of traffic are seldom known. In order to understand the effects of traffic on wildlife, USGS is conducting research cooperatively with the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Forest Service, the National Park Service, and the Colorado Division of Wildlife.

  5. 47 CFR 76.2000 - Exclusive access to multiple dwelling units generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Access to MDUs § 76.2000 Exclusive access... the exclusive right to provide any video programming service (alone or in combination with...

  6. 47 CFR 76.2000 - Exclusive access to multiple dwelling units generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Access to MDUs § 76.2000 Exclusive access... the exclusive right to provide any video programming service (alone or in combination with...

  7. 47 CFR 76.2000 - Exclusive access to multiple dwelling units generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Access to MDUs § 76.2000 Exclusive access... the exclusive right to provide any video programming service (alone or in combination with...

  8. 49 CFR 1546.213 - Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for cargo personnel in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for cargo personnel in the United States. 1546.213 Section 1546.213 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY FOREIGN AIR...

  9. Research access to privately owned wetland basins in the prairie pothole region of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fellows, D.P.; Buhl, T.K.

    1995-01-01

    We describe efforts to obtain access for research to 81 wetland basins on 69 farms in four zones of the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota, South Dakota, and Minnesota. Access was obtained to 54% of the farms in areas where land was intensively cropped and 87% of farms in areas of low cropping intensity. On average, 1.35 operators had to be contacted and 1.70 interviews were required to obtain a decision on access to a farm. On 77% of the farms, cooperators placed at least one restriction on access, most commonly requiring walking access only or notification before nighttime work. Cost of obtaining access averaged $265/farm in wages and travel expenses. No cooperators were willing to sign written access agreements. Operators rescinded access to four farms and drained three wetland basins during the first year; six of the seven sites lost were in the intensively cropped portion of a low-wetland-density zone. The difficulty of obtaining and retaining research access to privately owned wetland basins in intensively cropped areas may be related to landowner attitudes towards wetlands. Researchers may have to rely on remote sensing or consider payment for access to secure representative research sites in such areas. Unwillingness of cooperators to sign access agreements may jeopardize research by the newly formed National Biological Service and other resource management agencies.

  10. Extracting Road Vector Data from Raster Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Yao-Yi; Knoblock, Craig A.

    Raster maps are an important source of road information. Because of the overlapping map features (e.g., roads and text labels) and the varying image quality, extracting road vector data from raster maps usually requires significant user input to achieve accurate results. In this paper, we present an accurate road vectorization technique that minimizes user input by combining our previous work on extracting road pixels and road-intersection templates to extract accurate road vector data from raster maps. Our approach enables GIS applications to exploit the road information in raster maps for the areas where the road vector data are otherwise not easily accessible, such as the countries of the Middle East. We show that our approach requires minimal user input and achieves an average of 93.2% completeness and 95.6% correctness in an experiment using raster maps from various sources.

  11. Racial disparities in access to maternity care practices that support breastfeeding - United States, 2011.

    PubMed

    Lind, Jennifer N; Perrine, Cria G; Li, Ruowei; Scanlon, Kelley S; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence M

    2014-08-22

    Despite the well documented health benefits of breastfeeding, initiation of breastfeeding and breastfeeding duration rates among black infants in the United States are approximately 16% lower than among whites. Although many factors play a role in a woman's ability to breastfeed, experiences during the childbirth hospitalization are critical for establishing breastfeeding. To analyze whether the implementation by maternity facilities of practices that support breastfeeding varied depending on the racial composition of the area surrounding the facility, CDC linked data from its 2011 Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC) survey to U.S. Census data on the percentage of blacks living within the zip code area of each facility. The results of that analysis indicated that facilities in zip code areas where the percentage of black residents was >12.2% (the national average during 2007-2011) were less likely than facilities in zip code areas where the percentage was ≤12.2% to meet five of 10 mPINC indicators for recommended practices supportive of breastfeeding and more likely to implement one practice; differences for the other four practices were not statistically significant. Comparing facilities in areas with >12.2% black residents with facilities in areas with ≤12.2% black residents, the largest differences were in the percentage of facilities that implemented recommended practices related to early initiation of breastfeeding (46.0% compared with 59.9%), limited use of breastfeeding supplements (13.1% compared with 25.8%), and rooming-in (27.7% compared with 39.4%). These findings suggest there are racial disparities in access to maternity care practices known to support breastfeeding. PMID:25144543

  12. 23 CFR 660.517 - Maneuver area roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Maneuver area roads. 660.517 Section 660.517 Highways... PROGRAMS (DIRECT FEDERAL) Defense Access Roads § 660.517 Maneuver area roads. (a) Claims by a highway agency for costs incurred to restore, to their former condition, roads damaged by maneuvers involving...

  13. 23 CFR 660.517 - Maneuver area roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maneuver area roads. 660.517 Section 660.517 Highways... PROGRAMS (DIRECT FEDERAL) Defense Access Roads § 660.517 Maneuver area roads. (a) Claims by a highway agency for costs incurred to restore, to their former condition, roads damaged by maneuvers involving...

  14. 23 CFR 660.517 - Maneuver area roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Maneuver area roads. 660.517 Section 660.517 Highways... PROGRAMS (DIRECT FEDERAL) Defense Access Roads § 660.517 Maneuver area roads. (a) Claims by a highway agency for costs incurred to restore, to their former condition, roads damaged by maneuvers involving...

  15. 23 CFR 660.517 - Maneuver area roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Maneuver area roads. 660.517 Section 660.517 Highways... PROGRAMS (DIRECT FEDERAL) Defense Access Roads § 660.517 Maneuver area roads. (a) Claims by a highway agency for costs incurred to restore, to their former condition, roads damaged by maneuvers involving...

  16. 23 CFR 660.517 - Maneuver area roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maneuver area roads. 660.517 Section 660.517 Highways... PROGRAMS (DIRECT FEDERAL) Defense Access Roads § 660.517 Maneuver area roads. (a) Claims by a highway agency for costs incurred to restore, to their former condition, roads damaged by maneuvers involving...

  17. United States Federal Health Care Websites: A Multimethod Evaluation of Website Accessibility for Individuals with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brobst, John L.

    2012-01-01

    The problem addressed by this study is the observed low levels of compliance with federal policy on website accessibility. The study examines the two key federal policies that promote website accessibility, using a side-by-side policy analysis technique. The analysis examines the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 and Section 508 of the…

  18. 36 CFR 212.7 - Access procurement by the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., reconstruction, improvement, or maintenance is essential to provide safe and economical access to National Forest... whereby the grantor reserves the right to require haulers of Federal timber or other Federal products...

  19. 36 CFR 212.7 - Access procurement by the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., reconstruction, improvement, or maintenance is essential to provide safe and economical access to National Forest... whereby the grantor reserves the right to require haulers of Federal timber or other Federal products...

  20. 36 CFR 212.7 - Access procurement by the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., reconstruction, improvement, or maintenance is essential to provide safe and economical access to National Forest... whereby the grantor reserves the right to require haulers of Federal timber or other Federal products...

  1. An exploration of deaf women's access to mental health nurse education in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Sharples, Naomi

    2013-09-01

    Historically deaf people have been denied access to professional nurse education due to a range of language, communication and ideological barriers. The following study was set in the North of England and draws upon the Western experience and knowledge base of deaf people's experience of access to professional education. The aim of this study was to understand the experiences of the first British Sign Language using deaf qualified nurses before they entered the Pre-registration Diploma in Nursing Programme, during the programme and after the programme as they progressed into professional nursing roles. The purpose of the study was to gather the nurses' thoughts and feelings about their experiences and to analyse these using thematic analysis within a narrative interpretive tradition against a backdrop of Jurgen Habermas' critical theory and Paulo Freire's critical pedagogy. By drawing out significant themes to structure a deeper understanding of the nurses' unique positions, they offer a model for inclusive education practice that would support deaf people and people from minority groups into nursing and other health care professions. The signed narratives were video recorded and interpreted into written English transcripts which were then analysed to discover the underlying themes using Boyatzis' (1998) thematic analysis. The findings are set against an historical and contemporary setting of deaf people in Western society, their experiences of education, health and employment. These unique findings illustrate the significance of an accessible language environment for the nurses, the role of the organisation in ensuring access for the nurses and the impact of barriers to education and the clinical environment. The implications for education and practice supports the need to analyse the workforce required in deaf services, to scrutinize the access provided, to develop cultural competence skills, enhance the use of additional support mechanisms, generate accessible

  2. Road Rage

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2010-01-01

    Up to one-third of community participants report being perpetrators of road rage, indicating that various forms of road rage are relatively commonplace. However, only two percent or less of incidents culminate in serious damage to persons or vehicles. The most common offenders appear to be young and male. A number of factors may contribute to road rage, including environmental factors (e.g., greater number of miles driven per day, traffic density), nonspecific psychological factors (e.g., displaced aggression, attribution of blame to others), and bona fide Axis I and II disorders. The most common Axis I disorders appear to be related to alcohol and substance misuse, whereas possible Axis II disorders include borderline and antisocial personality disorders. Being aware of these contributory factors to road rage may improve general clinical awareness of the nature and treatment of perpetrators. PMID:20805914

  3. United States registered nurses' self-report of access to the Web.

    PubMed

    Kleib, Manal; Sales, Anne E; Andrea Baylon, Melba; Beaith, Amy; Lima, Isac

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the proportion and characteristics of Registered Nurses who reported having had an access to the Web in the year 2000 National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses. We conducted a secondary data analysis using more than 25 000 respondents to the year 2000 National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses. Using bivariate and logistic regression, we examined the association of reporting access to the Web with demographic, educational, and other characteristics of Registered Nurse respondents to the survey. We found that several factors were associated with the increased likelihood of Registered Nurses' reporting having had an access to the Web in the year 2000. These included race/ethnicity, marital and family status, highest level of nursing education, current enrollment in a nursing education program, annual household income, and continuing education in informatics. The likelihood of reporting having had access decreased with sex, age, experience since first nursing degree, and primary job responsibility. The results of this study indicate that having access to the Web enhances Registered Nurses' participation in professional development and continuing education opportunities. PMID:21048496

  4. Traveling the National Road: A National Park Service Curriculum Based Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    In 1805, a U.S. Senate committee urged the building of a road that would connect the eastern United States with the western United States. The road came to be known as the National Road (or Cumberland Road). It began in Cumberland, Maryland, and eventually reached to Vandalia, Illinois. It was the first and only U.S. road built entirely with…

  5. Poor People, Poor Places and Access to Health Care in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, James B.

    2008-01-01

    Research suggests that community-level poverty is associated with access to health care net of individual-level characteristics, but no research investigates whether this association differs by individual-level income. Using data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys, the U.S. Census Bureau and the Health Resource and Services Administration,…

  6. 28 CFR 16.81 - Exemption of United States Attorneys Systems-limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Consumer Complaints (JUSTICE/USA-006). (4) Criminal Case Files (JUSTICE/USA-007). (5) Kline-District of..., Criminal Files (JUSTICE/USA-013). (9) Pre-trial Diversion Program Files (JUSTICE/USA-014). These exemptions... Systems-limited access. 16.81 Section 16.81 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION...

  7. 28 CFR 16.81 - Exemption of United States Attorneys Systems-limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Consumer Complaints (JUSTICE/USA-006). (4) Criminal Case Files (JUSTICE/USA-007). (5) Kline-District of..., Criminal Files (JUSTICE/USA-013). (9) Pre-trial Diversion Program Files (JUSTICE/USA-014). These exemptions... Systems-limited access. 16.81 Section 16.81 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION...

  8. 28 CFR 16.81 - Exemption of United States Attorneys Systems-limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Consumer Complaints (JUSTICE/USA-006). (4) Criminal Case Files (JUSTICE/USA-007). (5) Kline-District of..., Criminal Files (JUSTICE/USA-013). (9) Pre-trial Diversion Program Files (JUSTICE/USA-014). These exemptions... Systems-limited access. 16.81 Section 16.81 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION...

  9. 28 CFR 16.81 - Exemption of United States Attorneys Systems-limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Consumer Complaints (JUSTICE/USA-006). (4) Criminal Case Files (JUSTICE/USA-007). (5) Kline-District of..., Criminal Files (JUSTICE/USA-013). (9) Pre-trial Diversion Program Files (JUSTICE/USA-014). These exemptions... Systems-limited access. 16.81 Section 16.81 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION...

  10. 28 CFR 16.81 - Exemption of United States Attorneys Systems-limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Consumer Complaints (JUSTICE/USA-006). (4) Criminal Case Files (JUSTICE/USA-007). (5) Kline-District of..., Criminal Files (JUSTICE/USA-013). (9) Pre-trial Diversion Program Files (JUSTICE/USA-014). These exemptions... Systems-limited access. 16.81 Section 16.81 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION...

  11. Improving College Access in the United States: Barriers and Policy Responses. NBER Working Paper No. 21781

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Lindsay C.; Scott-Clayton, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic gaps in college enrollment and attainment have widened over time, despite increasing returns to postsecondary education and significant policy efforts to improve access. We describe the barriers that students face during the transition to college and review the evidence on potential policy solutions. We focus primarily on research…

  12. Assessment and Access: Hispanics in Higher Education. SUNY Series, United States Hispanic Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Gary D., Ed.; And Others

    This book contains 10 papers on solutions and barriers to improving the access of Hispanic American students to higher education. Following an introductory essay on: "Advances in Assessment and the Potential for Increasing the Number of Hispanics in Higher Education" (G. D. Keller), the papers are organized into four parts. Papers in part I…

  13. Preserving Long-Term Access to United States Government Documents in Legacy Digital Formats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Kam A.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several decades, millions of digital objects of significant scientific, economic, cultural, and historic value have been published and distributed to libraries and archives on removable media. Providing long-term access to these documents, media files, and software executables is an increasingly complex task because of dependencies…

  14. Evaluations of soybean accessions for resistance to soybean rust in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the arrival of soybean rust in North America in November, 2004, field evaluations of accessions from the USDA soybean germplasm collection have been conducted at multiple locations in the southern USA. Plant Introductions (PIs) from maturity groups 000 to X have been tested, so late summer pla...

  15. Access to the Archives of United Nations Agencies: A RAMP Study with Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulate-Segura, Bodil

    Prepared under contract with the International Council on Archives (ICA), this study reviews expanded applications of archival research, the growing popular demand for information, and the resultant effect on the role of archives and archivists, especially in terms of access to records. Following an introductory discussion of the concept and role…

  16. Distributed road assessment system

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W

    2014-03-25

    A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

  17. Measurement of airborne concentrations of tire and road wear particles in urban and rural areas of France, Japan, and the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panko, Julie M.; Chu, Jennifer; Kreider, Marisa L.; Unice, Ken M.

    2013-06-01

    In addition to industrial facilities, fuel combustion, forest fires and dust erosion, exhaust and non-exhaust vehicle emissions are an important source of ambient air respirable particulate matter (PM10). Non-exhaust vehicle emissions are formed from wear particles of vehicle components such as brakes, clutches, chassis and tires. Although the non-exhaust particles are relatively minor contributors to the overall ambient air particulate load, reliable exposure estimates are few. In this study, a global sampling program was conducted to quantify tire and road wear particles (TRWP) in the ambient air in order to understand potential human exposures and the overall contribution of these particles to the PM10. The sampling was conducted in Europe, the United States and Japan and the sampling locations were selected to represent a variety of settings including both rural and urban core; and within each residential, commercial and recreational receptors. The air samples were analyzed using validated chemical markers for rubber polymer based on a pyrolysis technique. Results indicated that TRWP concentrations in the PM10 fraction were low with averages ranging from 0.05 to 0.70 μg m-3, representing an average PM10 contribution of 0.84%. The TRWP concentration in air was associated with traffic load and population density, but the trend was not statistically significant. Further, significant differences across days were not observed. This study provides a robust dataset to understand potential human exposures to airborne TRWP.

  18. Content and Accessibility of Shoulder and Elbow Fellowship Web Sites in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Young, Bradley L.; Oladeji, Lasun O.; Cichos, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Increasing numbers of training physicians are using the Internet to gather information about graduate medical education programs. The content and accessibility of web sites that provide this information have been demonstrated to influence applicants’ decisions. Assessments of orthopedic fellowship web sites including sports medicine, pediatrics, hand and spine have found varying degrees of accessibility and material. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accessibility and content of the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) fellowship web sites (SEFWs). Methods A complete list of ASES programs was obtained from a database on the ASES web site. The accessibility of each SEFWs was assessed by the existence of a functioning link found in the database and through Google®. Then, the following content areas of each SEFWs were evaluated: fellow education, faculty/previous fellow information, and recruitment. Results At the time of the study, 17 of the 28 (60.7%) ASES programs had web sites accessible through Google®, and only five (17.9%) had functioning links in the ASES database. Nine programs lacked a web site. Concerning web site content, the majority of SEFWs contained information regarding research opportunities, research requirements, case descriptions, meetings and conferences, teaching responsibilities, attending faculty, the application process, and a program description. Fewer than half of the SEFWs provided information regarding rotation schedules, current fellows, previous fellows, on-call expectations, journal clubs, medical school of current fellows, residency of current fellows, employment of previous fellows, current research, and previous research. Conclusions: A large portion of ASES fellowship programs lacked functioning web sites, and even fewer provided functioning links through the ASES database. Valuable information for potential applicants was largely inadequate across present SEFWs. PMID:27528833

  19. [Health care access and receptivity to users in a unit in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Ramos, Donatela Dourado; Lima, Maria Alice Dias da Silva

    2003-01-01

    This study focuses on users' views of factors influencing quality of care at a health care unit in the city of Porto Alegre, relating to access and receptivity. The data were collected using a semi-structured interview and participatory observation and treated using thematic analysis. The results compare ease and difficulties in geographic, economic, and functional access. Organization of services and professional competency were determinant factors in ease of reception, leading to user satisfaction. Poor reception and unsatisfactory professional performance were identified as difficulties. The study concluded that there is a need to increase the professional staff, train them in receiving users, implement a complementary modality for dental care, open the facility earlier for scheduling appointments, and prioritize care for residents of the catchment area. PMID:12700781

  20. 75 FR 28331 - Meaningful Access to United States Currency for Blind and Visually Impaired Persons

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ...The Department of the Treasury (Treasury) and the Bureau of Engraving and Printing (BEP) are issuing this Notice pursuant to the ruling in American Council of the Blind v. Paulson that ordered Treasury to provide meaningful access to U.S. currency to people who are blind and visually impaired pursuant to section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended. BEP seeks to develop a solution......

  1. Scale invariance in road networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalapala, Vamsi; Sanwalani, Vishal; Clauset, Aaron; Moore, Cristopher

    2006-02-01

    We study the topological and geographic structure of the national road networks of the United States, England, and Denmark. By transforming these networks into their dual representation, where roads are vertices and an edge connects two vertices if the corresponding roads ever intersect, we show that they exhibit both topological and geographic scale invariance. That is, we show that for sufficiently large geographic areas, the dual degree distribution follows a power law with exponent 2.2⩽α⩽2.4 , and that journeys, regardless of their length, have a largely identical structure. To explain these properties, we introduce and analyze a simple fractal model of road placement that reproduces the observed structure, and suggests a testable connection between the scaling exponent α and the fractal dimensions governing the placement of roads and intersections.

  2. Open access of publications by veterinary faculty in the United States and Canada.

    PubMed

    Nault, André J

    2011-01-01

    The free availability of full-text veterinary publications in MEDLINE-indexed journals by US and Canadian veterinary faculty from 2006-7 was determined. Additionally, publishing databases were searched to obtain general statistics on veterinary publishing. A survey of institutional initiatives to promote open-access journals and institutional repositories was also performed. Veterinary faculty published a total of 4,872 articles indexed by MEDLINE in 679 different journals. Of these articles, 1,334 (27%) were available as free full text and were published in 245 different journals. Although 51 veterinary-specific journals offering immediate and free full-text access were identified, few articles in this study appeared in these titles. Rather, most free scholarly articles by veterinary faculty appeared in journals with an embargo period. Academic veterinary institutions may want to recommend acceptance of alternate forms of information dissemination (such as open-access journals and journals published only digitally) to encourage greater global dissemination of their research findings. The promotion and use of digital institutional repositories is also an area for future investment and warrants additional research. PMID:21805933

  3. Information Literacy Skills: Promoting University Access and Success in the United Arab Emirates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shana, Zuhrieh; Ishtaiwa, Fawzi

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this research is to assess the level of information literacy (IL) skills required for the transition-to-university experience across the United Arab Emirates (UAE). This research further seeks to shed light on the IL levels of incoming first-year university students and describe their perceptions of their IL skills. The research…

  4. Comparative susceptibility of kudzu accessions from Southeastern United States to infection by Phakopsora pachyrhizi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, was first discovered in the United States (U.S.), in the fall of 2004. The potential for economic loss in the U.S. hinges largely on whether or not the pathogen can readily survive winters in the absence of soybean. Kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata...

  5. Celtic Roads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Building upon lessons learned is relevant to art and life. As an art teacher dealing with teens, the author tries to give her students an understanding of art as a window to the "big picture" as well as a practical, relevant skill. She developed this lesson plan, "Celtic Roads," with that objective in mind. The success rate is high, the product is…

  6. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Chronic Diseases of Youths and Access to Health Care in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Price, James H.; Braun, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Racial/ethnic minorities are 1.5 to 2.0 times more likely than whites to have most of the major chronic diseases. Chronic diseases are also more common in the poor than the nonpoor and this association is frequently mediated by race/ethnicity. Specifically, children are disproportionately affected by racial/ethnic health disparities. Between 1960 and 2005 the percentage of children with a chronic disease in the United States almost quadrupled with racial/ethnic minority youth having higher likelihood for these diseases. The most common major chronic diseases of youth in the United States are asthma, diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension, dental disease, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, mental illness, cancers, sickle-cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, and a variety of genetic and other birth defects. This review will focus on the psychosocial rather than biological factors that play important roles in the etiology and subsequent solutions to these health disparities because they should be avoidable and they are inherently unjust. Finally, this review examines access to health services by focusing on health insurance and dental insurance coverage and access to school health services. PMID:24175301

  7. Racial/ethnic disparities in chronic diseases of youths and access to health care in the United States.

    PubMed

    Price, James H; Khubchandani, Jagdish; McKinney, Molly; Braun, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Racial/ethnic minorities are 1.5 to 2.0 times more likely than whites to have most of the major chronic diseases. Chronic diseases are also more common in the poor than the nonpoor and this association is frequently mediated by race/ethnicity. Specifically, children are disproportionately affected by racial/ethnic health disparities. Between 1960 and 2005 the percentage of children with a chronic disease in the United States almost quadrupled with racial/ethnic minority youth having higher likelihood for these diseases. The most common major chronic diseases of youth in the United States are asthma, diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension, dental disease, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, mental illness, cancers, sickle-cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, and a variety of genetic and other birth defects. This review will focus on the psychosocial rather than biological factors that play important roles in the etiology and subsequent solutions to these health disparities because they should be avoidable and they are inherently unjust. Finally, this review examines access to health services by focusing on health insurance and dental insurance coverage and access to school health services. PMID:24175301

  8. Consumer access to clozapine in Australia: how does this compare to New Zealand and the United Kingdom?

    PubMed Central

    Mcmillan, Sara S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Clozapine is an antipsychotic medication used in treatment resistant schizophrenia. However, clozapine is associated with a significant adverse effect profile and extensive monitoring is required to optimise consumer safety. Traditionally, clozapine can only be prescribed by a psychiatrist and dispensed at a hospital or hospital affiliated pharmacy in Australia. These restrictions could result in significant treatment burden for consumers taking clozapine. Objective: To identify (1) the different models of supply that exist for people living in the community taking clozapine in Australia and compare to those in New Zealand and the United Kingdom, and (2) explore how these supply models may impact on consumer burden from the perspective of professionals involved in the supply of clozapine. Method: Key informants were interviewed (n=8) from Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom regarding how consumers, who lived in the community, accessed clozapine. Data were analysed and led to the development of four clozapine supply models. These four models were further validated by an online survey of a wider sample (n=30). Data were analysed thematically and via simple descriptive statistics. Results: Clozapine supply varied depending on location. A secondary care model was utilised in the United Kingdom compared to a community based (primary care) model in New Zealand; Australia utilised a mixture of both secondary and primary care. A key theme from all study participants was that community pharmacy should be utilised to dispense clozapine to consumers living in the community, provided adequate training and safeguards are in place. It was noted that the utilisation of community pharmacies could improve access and flexibility, thereby reducing treatment burden for these consumers. Conclusion: There are predominately two models for supply of clozapine to consumers living in the community in Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. One model utilises

  9. 36 CFR 228.12 - Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Access. 228.12 Section 228.12... Minerals § 228.12 Access. An operator is entitled to access in connection with operations, but no road... other means of access, including but not limited to off-road vehicles, be used until the operator...

  10. 36 CFR 228.12 - Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Access. 228.12 Section 228.12... Minerals § 228.12 Access. An operator is entitled to access in connection with operations, but no road... other means of access, including but not limited to off-road vehicles, be used until the operator...

  11. United States Human Access to Space, Exploration of the Moon and Preparation for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    In the past, men like Leonardo da Vinci and Jules Verne imagined the future and envisioned fantastic inventions such as winged flying machines, submarines, and parachutes, and posited human adventures like transoceanic flight and journeys to the Moon. Today, many of their ideas are reality and form the basis for our modern world. While individual visionaries like da Vinci and Verne are remembered for the accuracy of their predictions, today entire nations are involved in the process of envisioning and defining the future development of mankind, both on and beyond the Earth itself. Recently, Russian, European, and Chinese teams have all announced plans for developing their own next generation human space vehicles. The Chinese have announced their intention to conduct human lunar exploration, and have flown three crewed space missions since 2003, including a flight with three crew members to test their extravehicular (spacewalking) capabilities in September 2008. Very soon, the prestige, economic development, scientific discovery, and strategic security advantage historically associated with leadership in space exploration and exploitation may no longer be the undisputed province of the United States. Much like the sponsors of the seafaring explorers of da Vinci's age, we are motivated by the opportunity to obtain new knowledge and new resources for the growth and development of our own civilization. NASA's new Constellation Program, established in 2005, is tasked with maintaining the United States leadership in space, exploring the Moon, creating a sustained human lunar presence, and eventually extending human operations to Mars and beyond. Through 2008, the Constellation Program developed a full set of detailed program requirements and is now completing the preliminary design phase for the new Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle, and the associated infrastructure necessary for humans to explore the Moon. Component testing is well

  12. Washboard Road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElwaine, Jim; Dalziel, Stuart; Taberlet, Nicolas; Morris, Stephen

    2006-11-01

    The tendency of unpaved road surfaces to develop lateral ripples (``washboard'' or ``corrugated'' road) is annoyingly familiar to drivers on dry gravel roads. Similar ripples are well known on railroad tracks and many other rolling or sliding, load bearing surfaces. Our approach combined laboratory experiments, soft-particle direct numerical simulations and simple nonlinear dynamics models. The experiment consisted of a rotating table 60 cm in radius with a thick layer of sand forming a roadbed around the circumference. A 6 cm radius hard rubber wheel, with a support stationary in the lab frame, rolled on the sand layer. We varied the speed of the table and the details of the suspension of the wheel. The onset of the ripple pattern exhibits a sharp threshold and was strongly subcritical with a large hysteresis as a function of the speed of the table. The ripple pattern appears as small patches of travelling waves which eventually spread to the entire circumference. The ripples move slowly in the driving direction. Interesting secondary dynamics of the saturated ripples were observed. All of these effects are captured qualitatively by a 2D soft particle simulations. The simulations clearly indicate that neither compaction nor particle size segregation are crucial for the appearance of the ripples, and we present a simple model to describe the wavelength and amplitude of the ripples.

  13. Accessibility to Oral Antiviral Therapy for Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Saab, Sammy; Jimenez, Melissa; Fong, Tiffany; Wu, Crystal; Bau, Sherona; Jamal, Zoha; Grotts, Jonathan; Elashoff, David

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Hepatitis C (HCV) direct acting antiviral agents (DAAs) are safe, effective, and tolerable. Most contraindications to interferon-based treatment are no long applicable. The aims of this study were to understand the predictors of approval to drug accessibility. Methods: We studied all consecutive patients with HCV prescribed DAAs between October 2014 and July 2015. Data on demographic, socio-economic status, comorbidities, baseline laboratory values, and assessment of liver disease severity, insurance, and specialty pharmacy type were collected. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of prescription approval. Results: In total, 410 patients were prescribed DAAs between October 2014 and July 2015. Of those, 332 (81%) patients were insurance approved for therapy. Of the 332 patients accepted, 251 were accepted after the first prescription attempt, and 38 were accepted after the second and third attempts. The number of attempts for the other 43 approved patients was unknown. Older age (p = 0.001), employment (p = 0.001), lack of comorbidities (p = 0.02), liver transplantation (p = 0.018), and advanced liver disease (p = 0.001) were more likely associated with obtaining approval. Household income was not associated with insurance approval. In the multivariate analysis, Medicare insurance (odds ratio [OR]) 2.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.96–7.20), lack of nonliver comorbidities (OR 2.72, 95% CI 1.35–5.43), and the presence of advanced liver disease (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.04–3.24) independently predicted drug approval. Conclusion: Despite the availability of DAAs for HCV, barriers from insurance carriers continue to impair widespread use. Patients with advanced liver disease, Medicare, and without comorbidities are most likely to be insurance approved for DAAs. PMID:27350937

  14. The road not taken*

    PubMed Central

    Messerle, Judith

    2001-01-01

    The annual Janet Doe Lecture was established in l966 to honor Janet Doe, emerita librarian of the New York Academy of Medicine. The lecture focuses on either the history or philosophy of health sciences librarianship. This lecture addresses three fundamental values of the field, highlighting basic beliefs of the profession that are at risk: privacy, intellectual property rights, and access to quality information. It calls upon readers to make the everyday choices required to keep the value system of health sciences librarianship in place. Robert Frost's poignant poem ”The Road Not Taken” provides the metaphor for examining choices in an information economy. PMID:11209796

  15. Effects of a Wildfire on Road-stream Connectivity and Road Surface Erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosa-Perez, Gabriel; MacDonald, Lee

    2016-04-01

    Unpaved roads generate large amounts of sediment per unit area, and the impact of these high erosion rates depends on how much of this sediment is delivered to streams. In the western USA typically around 10-30% of the road length is connected to a stream, and this proportion tends to increase with increasing precipitation. Wildfires can greatly increase surface runoff and erosion rates, but we know of no studies that have evaluated how fires affect road surface erosion and road-stream connectivity. Hence the objective of this study was to quantify how: 1) fire severity affects the amount of road surface rilling, sediment deposition, and road-stream connectivity; and 2) how these effects are modified by road segment characteristics. The study area was 6.8 km of the unpaved Old Flowers Road just west of Fort Collins, Colorado, USA, as the forests along this road had burned in the 2012 High Park fire. Detailed data were collected for 141 hydrologically distinct road segments, including the hillslopes above the road, road segment characteristics, and the drainage features leaving the road. Nearly all of the road segments had a planar design, and mean segment length and active width were 50 m and 2.4 m, respectively. The road segments below areas burned at high and moderate severity had significantly more and larger rills than road segments below areas burned at low severity, and this can be attributed to the greater surface runoff from upslope. Road segment slope was an increasingly important control on the amount of rilling as burn severity increased, while the flatter segments tended to capture the sediment eroded from upslope. Three-quarters of the road segments had only a single drainage feature, indicating that the road generally collected and concentrated all of the dispersed runoff from upslope. All of the road segments in areas burned at high and moderate severity and 78% of the segments in areas burned at low severity were connected to the stream. These

  16. Improving access to competitive employment for service users in forensic psychiatric units

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Charlotte; Wernham, Connie

    2014-01-01

    Employment has been proven to be an effective recovery tool and therapeutic intervention for those with severe and enduring mental health conditions. Aside from monetary reward, employment is a means of structuring time and provides a sense of worth and achievement, which enhances self-esteem and confidence. A social identity is developed through employment, encouraging social support and increasing social networks. Securing employment can bring about improved quality of life and positive change in one's social circumstances; therefore it can reduce symptoms associated with mental illness and potentially prevent re-offending, as the individual develops a sense of independence, self-efficacy, and value. Barriers to employment exist for forensic mental health service users and therefore it is imperative that employment needs are addressed at the earliest possible stage in recovery. An evaluation of employment activities across two forensic mental health units revealed a lack of appropriate employment opportunities for service users, and those roles available were not implemented in line with recommended best practice. In response to this issue several enterprises were established to offer opportunities for service users to engage in meaningful employment and develop skills that a future employer would value. Each enterprise responds to a business need within the units to ensure sustainability of services. The enterprises are essentially micro-businesses with social objectives whose surpluses are reinvested for the purpose of increasing opportunities for service users. The enterprises are underpinned by the philosophy of the Individual Placement and Support (IPS) model; empirical evidence suggests that the IPS model is the most effective intervention, based on the ‘place then train’ philosophy. The model recommends a focus upon rapid job search to achieve competitive employment for those who want to work; opportunities sourced should be consistent with individual

  17. Improving access to competitive employment for service users in forensic psychiatric units.

    PubMed

    Beck, Charlotte; Wernham, Connie

    2014-01-01

    Employment has been proven to be an effective recovery tool and therapeutic intervention for those with severe and enduring mental health conditions. Aside from monetary reward, employment is a means of structuring time and provides a sense of worth and achievement, which enhances self-esteem and confidence. A social identity is developed through employment, encouraging social support and increasing social networks. Securing employment can bring about improved quality of life and positive change in one's social circumstances; therefore it can reduce symptoms associated with mental illness and potentially prevent re-offending, as the individual develops a sense of independence, self-efficacy, and value. Barriers to employment exist for forensic mental health service users and therefore it is imperative that employment needs are addressed at the earliest possible stage in recovery. An evaluation of employment activities across two forensic mental health units revealed a lack of appropriate employment opportunities for service users, and those roles available were not implemented in line with recommended best practice. In response to this issue several enterprises were established to offer opportunities for service users to engage in meaningful employment and develop skills that a future employer would value. Each enterprise responds to a business need within the units to ensure sustainability of services. The enterprises are essentially micro-businesses with social objectives whose surpluses are reinvested for the purpose of increasing opportunities for service users. The enterprises are underpinned by the philosophy of the Individual Placement and Support (IPS) model; empirical evidence suggests that the IPS model is the most effective intervention, based on the 'place then train' philosophy. The model recommends a focus upon rapid job search to achieve competitive employment for those who want to work; opportunities sourced should be consistent with individual

  18. Invasive Brown Treesnake movements at road edges indicate road-crossing avoidance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siers, Shane R; Savidge, Julie S; Reed, Robert N.

    2014-01-01

    Roads have significant impacts on the dispersal of wildlife. Although this poses a threat to the abundance and diversity of desirable flora and fauna, it also affords some opportunity for enhancing control of invasive species. Roads are the most common terrain features that may affect the rate of landscape-scale movements of invasive Brown Treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) throughout Guam. We radio tracked 45 free-ranging Brown Treesnakes in close proximity to two roads in Guam and recorded instances where daily relocations of snakes spanned roads. Then we reconstructed observed movement histories with randomized turning angles, which served as a useful null hypothesis for assessing the effect of roads or road edge habitat on Brown Treesnake movement patterns. Random walk simulations demonstrated that Brown Treesnakes crossed these roads at a rate far lower than would be expected if snake movement was random with respect to roads and road edge habitat. We discuss two alternative hypotheses for these results: 1) habitat gaps posed by roads physically or behaviorally restrict snake movement; or 2) road edges provide preferred foraging habitat from which snakes are reluctant to depart. Because roads often form the boundaries of jurisdictional and management units, the effects of roads on the movement of invasive Brown Treesnakes will influence the prospects for success of future landscape-level suppression efforts.

  19. Access, quality, and costs of care at physician owned hospitals in the United States: observational study

    PubMed Central

    Orav, E John; Jena, Anupam B; Dudzinski, David M; Le, Sidney T; Jha, Ashish K

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare physician owned hospitals (POHs) with non-POHs on metrics around patient populations, quality of care, costs, and payments. Design Observational study. Setting Acute care hospitals in 95 hospital referral regions in the United States, 2010. Participants 2186 US acute care hospitals (219 POHs and 1967 non-POHs). Main outcome measures Proportions of patients using Medicaid and those from ethnic and racial minority groups; hospital performance on patient experience metrics, care processes, risk adjusted 30 day mortality, and readmission rates; costs of care; care payments; and Medicare market share. Results The 219 POHs were more often small (<100 beds), for profit, and in urban areas. 120 of these POHs were general (non-specialty) hospitals. Compared with patients from non-POHs, those from POHs were younger (77.4 v 78.4 years, P<0.001), less likely to be admitted through an emergency department (23.2% v. 29.0%, P<0.001), equally likely to be black (5.1% v 5.5%, P=0.85) or to use Medicaid (14.9% v 15.4%, P=0.75), and had similar numbers of chronic diseases and predicted mortality scores. POHs and non-POHs performed similarly on patient experience scores, processes of care, risk adjusted 30 day mortality, 30 day readmission rates, costs, and payments for acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, and pneumonia. Conclusion Although POHs may treat slightly healthier patients, they do not seem to systematically select more profitable or less disadvantaged patients or to provide lower value care. PMID:26333819

  20. Filling in the GAPS: evaluating completeness and coverage of open-access biodiversity databases in the United States

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Troia, Matthew J.; McManamay, Ryan A.

    2016-06-12

    Primary biodiversity data constitute observations of particular species at given points in time and space. Open-access electronic databases provide unprecedented access to these data, but their usefulness in characterizing species distributions and patterns in biodiversity depend on how complete species inventories are at a given survey location and how uniformly distributed survey locations are along dimensions of time, space, and environment. Our aim was to compare completeness and coverage among three open-access databases representing ten taxonomic groups (amphibians, birds, freshwater bivalves, crayfish, freshwater fish, fungi, insects, mammals, plants, and reptiles) in the contiguous United States. We compiled occurrence records frommore » the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS), and federally administered fish surveys (FFS). In this study, we aggregated occurrence records by 0.1° × 0.1° grid cells and computed three completeness metrics to classify each grid cell as well-surveyed or not. Next, we compared frequency distributions of surveyed grid cells to background environmental conditions in a GIS and performed Kolmogorov–Smirnov tests to quantify coverage through time, along two spatial gradients, and along eight environmental gradients. The three databases contributed >13.6 million reliable occurrence records distributed among >190,000 grid cells. The percent of well-surveyed grid cells was substantially lower for GBIF (5.2%) than for systematic surveys (BBS and FFS; 82.5%). Still, the large number of GBIF occurrence records produced at least 250 well-surveyed grid cells for six of nine taxonomic groups. Coverages of systematic surveys were less biased across spatial and environmental dimensions but were more biased in temporal coverage compared to GBIF data. GBIF coverages also varied among taxonomic groups, consistent with commonly recognized geographic, environmental, and institutional

  1. Filling in the GAPS: evaluating completeness and coverage of open-access biodiversity databases in the United States.

    PubMed

    Troia, Matthew J; McManamay, Ryan A

    2016-07-01

    Primary biodiversity data constitute observations of particular species at given points in time and space. Open-access electronic databases provide unprecedented access to these data, but their usefulness in characterizing species distributions and patterns in biodiversity depend on how complete species inventories are at a given survey location and how uniformly distributed survey locations are along dimensions of time, space, and environment. Our aim was to compare completeness and coverage among three open-access databases representing ten taxonomic groups (amphibians, birds, freshwater bivalves, crayfish, freshwater fish, fungi, insects, mammals, plants, and reptiles) in the contiguous United States. We compiled occurrence records from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS), and federally administered fish surveys (FFS). We aggregated occurrence records by 0.1° × 0.1° grid cells and computed three completeness metrics to classify each grid cell as well-surveyed or not. Next, we compared frequency distributions of surveyed grid cells to background environmental conditions in a GIS and performed Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests to quantify coverage through time, along two spatial gradients, and along eight environmental gradients. The three databases contributed >13.6 million reliable occurrence records distributed among >190,000 grid cells. The percent of well-surveyed grid cells was substantially lower for GBIF (5.2%) than for systematic surveys (BBS and FFS; 82.5%). Still, the large number of GBIF occurrence records produced at least 250 well-surveyed grid cells for six of nine taxonomic groups. Coverages of systematic surveys were less biased across spatial and environmental dimensions but were more biased in temporal coverage compared to GBIF data. GBIF coverages also varied among taxonomic groups, consistent with commonly recognized geographic, environmental, and institutional sampling biases. This

  2. Autonomous Information Unit for Fine-Grain Data Access Control and Information Protection in a Net-Centric System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, Edward T.; Woo, Simon S.; James, Mark; Paloulian, George K.

    2012-01-01

    As communication and networking technologies advance, networks will become highly complex and heterogeneous, interconnecting different network domains. There is a need to provide user authentication and data protection in order to further facilitate critical mission operations, especially in the tactical and mission-critical net-centric networking environment. The Autonomous Information Unit (AIU) technology was designed to provide the fine-grain data access and user control in a net-centric system-testing environment to meet these objectives. The AIU is a fundamental capability designed to enable fine-grain data access and user control in the cross-domain networking environments, where an AIU is composed of the mission data, metadata, and policy. An AIU provides a mechanism to establish trust among deployed AIUs based on recombining shared secrets, authentication and verify users with a username, X.509 certificate, enclave information, and classification level. AIU achieves data protection through (1) splitting data into multiple information pieces using the Shamir's secret sharing algorithm, (2) encrypting each individual information piece using military-grade AES-256 encryption, and (3) randomizing the position of the encrypted data based on the unbiased and memory efficient in-place Fisher-Yates shuffle method. Therefore, it becomes virtually impossible for attackers to compromise data since attackers need to obtain all distributed information as well as the encryption key and the random seeds to properly arrange the data. In addition, since policy can be associated with data in the AIU, different user access and data control strategies can be included. The AIU technology can greatly enhance information assurance and security management in the bandwidth-limited and ad hoc net-centric environments. In addition, AIU technology can be applicable to general complex network domains and applications where distributed user authentication and data protection are

  3. Difficulties in access and estimates of public beds in intensive care units in the state of Rio de Janeiro

    PubMed Central

    Goldwasser, Rosane Sonia; Lobo, Maria Stella de Castro; de Arruda, Edilson Fernandes; Angelo, Simone Aldrey; Silva, José Roberto Lapa e; de Salles, André Assis; David, Cid Marcos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the required number of public beds for adults in intensive care units in the state of Rio de Janeiro to meet the existing demand and compare results with recommendations by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. METHODS The study uses a hybrid model combining time series and queuing theory to predict the demand and estimate the number of required beds. Four patient flow scenarios were considered according to bed requests, percentage of abandonments and average length of stay in intensive care unit beds. The results were plotted against Ministry of Health parameters. Data were obtained from the State Regulation Center from 2010 to 2011. RESULTS There were 33,101 medical requests for 268 regulated intensive care unit beds in Rio de Janeiro. With an average length of stay in regulated ICUs of 11.3 days, there would be a need for 595 active beds to ensure system stability and 628 beds to ensure a maximum waiting time of six hours. Deducting current abandonment rates due to clinical improvement (25.8%), these figures fall to 441 and 417. With an average length of stay of 6.5 days, the number of required beds would be 342 and 366, respectively; deducting abandonment rates, 254 and 275. The Brazilian Ministry of Health establishes a parameter of 118 to 353 beds. Although the number of regulated beds is within the recommended range, an increase in beds of 122.0% is required to guarantee system stability and of 134.0% for a maximum waiting time of six hours. CONCLUSIONS Adequate bed estimation must consider reasons for limited timely access and patient flow management in a scenario that associates prioritization of requests with the lowest average length of stay. PMID:27191155

  4. HOW FAR TO THE NEAREST ROAD?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological impacts from roads may be the rule rather than the exception in most watersheds of the conterminous United States. We measured total area, and forestland area located within nine distances of the nearest road of any type in each of 2,108 watersheds nationwide. Overall,...

  5. Does Traffic-related Air Pollution Explain Associations of Aircraft and Road Traffic Noise Exposure on Children's Health and Cognition? A Secondary Analysis of the United Kingdom Sample From the RANCH Project

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Charlotte; Crombie, Rosanna; Head, Jenny; van Kamp, Irene; van Kempen, Elise; Stansfeld, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined whether air pollution at school (nitrogen dioxide) is associated with poorer child cognition and health and whether adjustment for air pollution explains or moderates previously observed associations between aircraft and road traffic noise at school and children's cognition in the 2001–2003 Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise Exposure and Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH) project. This secondary analysis of a subsample of the United Kingdom RANCH sample examined 719 children who were 9–10 years of age from 22 schools around London's Heathrow airport for whom air pollution data were available. Data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Air pollution exposure levels at school were moderate, were not associated with a range of cognitive and health outcomes, and did not account for or moderate associations between noise exposure and cognition. Aircraft noise exposure at school was significantly associated with poorer recognition memory and conceptual recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Aircraft noise exposure was also associated with poorer reading comprehension and information recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Road traffic noise was not associated with cognition or health before or after adjustment for air pollution. Moderate levels of air pollution do not appear to confound associations of noise on cognition and health, but further studies of higher air pollution levels are needed. PMID:22842719

  6. Does traffic-related air pollution explain associations of aircraft and road traffic noise exposure on children's health and cognition? A secondary analysis of the United Kingdom sample from the RANCH project.

    PubMed

    Clark, Charlotte; Crombie, Rosanna; Head, Jenny; van Kamp, Irene; van Kempen, Elise; Stansfeld, Stephen A

    2012-08-15

    The authors examined whether air pollution at school (nitrogen dioxide) is associated with poorer child cognition and health and whether adjustment for air pollution explains or moderates previously observed associations between aircraft and road traffic noise at school and children's cognition in the 2001-2003 Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise Exposure and Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH) project. This secondary analysis of a subsample of the United Kingdom RANCH sample examined 719 children who were 9-10 years of age from 22 schools around London's Heathrow airport for whom air pollution data were available. Data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Air pollution exposure levels at school were moderate, were not associated with a range of cognitive and health outcomes, and did not account for or moderate associations between noise exposure and cognition. Aircraft noise exposure at school was significantly associated with poorer recognition memory and conceptual recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Aircraft noise exposure was also associated with poorer reading comprehension and information recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Road traffic noise was not associated with cognition or health before or after adjustment for air pollution. Moderate levels of air pollution do not appear to confound associations of noise on cognition and health, but further studies of higher air pollution levels are needed. PMID:22842719

  7. 25 CFR 170.120 - What restrictions apply to the use of an Indian Reservation Road?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What restrictions apply to the use of an Indian Reservation Road? 170.120 Section 170.120 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Use of Irr and Cultural Access Roads § 170.120...

  8. 30 CFR 780.33 - Relocation or use of public roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Relocation or use of public roads. 780.33... PLAN § 780.33 Relocation or use of public roads. Each application shall describe, with appropriate maps... line of any public road, except where mine access or haul roads join that right-of-way; or...

  9. 25 CFR 170.120 - What restrictions apply to the use of an Indian Reservation Road?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Reservation Road? 170.120 Section 170.120 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Use of Irr and Cultural Access Roads § 170.120 What restrictions apply to the use of an...

  10. 30 CFR 784.18 - Relocation or use of public roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Relocation or use of public roads. 784.18... PLAN § 784.18 Relocation or use of public roads. Each application shall describe, with appropriate maps...-of-way line of any public road, except where mine access or haul roads join that right-of-way; or...

  11. 30 CFR 780.33 - Relocation or use of public roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relocation or use of public roads. 780.33... PLAN § 780.33 Relocation or use of public roads. Each application shall describe, with appropriate maps... line of any public road, except where mine access or haul roads join that right-of-way; or...

  12. 30 CFR 784.18 - Relocation or use of public roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relocation or use of public roads. 784.18... PLAN § 784.18 Relocation or use of public roads. Each application shall describe, with appropriate maps...-of-way line of any public road, except where mine access or haul roads join that right-of-way; or...

  13. 30 CFR 784.18 - Relocation or use of public roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Relocation or use of public roads. 784.18... PLAN § 784.18 Relocation or use of public roads. Each application shall describe, with appropriate maps...-of-way line of any public road, except where mine access or haul roads join that right-of-way; or...

  14. 30 CFR 780.33 - Relocation or use of public roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Relocation or use of public roads. 780.33... PLAN § 780.33 Relocation or use of public roads. Each application shall describe, with appropriate maps... line of any public road, except where mine access or haul roads join that right-of-way; or...

  15. 30 CFR 784.18 - Relocation or use of public roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Relocation or use of public roads. 784.18... PLAN § 784.18 Relocation or use of public roads. Each application shall describe, with appropriate maps...-of-way line of any public road, except where mine access or haul roads join that right-of-way; or...

  16. 30 CFR 780.33 - Relocation or use of public roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Relocation or use of public roads. 780.33... PLAN § 780.33 Relocation or use of public roads. Each application shall describe, with appropriate maps... line of any public road, except where mine access or haul roads join that right-of-way; or...

  17. 30 CFR 784.18 - Relocation or use of public roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Relocation or use of public roads. 784.18... PLAN § 784.18 Relocation or use of public roads. Each application shall describe, with appropriate maps...-of-way line of any public road, except where mine access or haul roads join that right-of-way; or...

  18. 30 CFR 780.33 - Relocation or use of public roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Relocation or use of public roads. 780.33... PLAN § 780.33 Relocation or use of public roads. Each application shall describe, with appropriate maps... line of any public road, except where mine access or haul roads join that right-of-way; or...

  19. 36 CFR 254.33 - Road rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Road rights-of-way. 254.33... ADJUSTMENTS Conveyance of Small Tracts § 254.33 Road rights-of-way. (a) Reserved or acquired road right-of-way... by lands not owned by the United States. (b) Forest Service officials shall consider public...

  20. 36 CFR 254.33 - Road rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Road rights-of-way. 254.33... ADJUSTMENTS Conveyance of Small Tracts § 254.33 Road rights-of-way. (a) Reserved or acquired road right-of-way... by lands not owned by the United States. (b) Forest Service officials shall consider public...

  1. 36 CFR 254.33 - Road rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Road rights-of-way. 254.33... ADJUSTMENTS Conveyance of Small Tracts § 254.33 Road rights-of-way. (a) Reserved or acquired road right-of-way... by lands not owned by the United States. (b) Forest Service officials shall consider public...

  2. 36 CFR 254.33 - Road rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Road rights-of-way. 254.33... ADJUSTMENTS Conveyance of Small Tracts § 254.33 Road rights-of-way. (a) Reserved or acquired road right-of-way... by lands not owned by the United States. (b) Forest Service officials shall consider public...

  3. 36 CFR 254.33 - Road rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Road rights-of-way. 254.33... ADJUSTMENTS Conveyance of Small Tracts § 254.33 Road rights-of-way. (a) Reserved or acquired road right-of-way... by lands not owned by the United States. (b) Forest Service officials shall consider public...

  4. UK publicly funded Clinical Trials Units supported a controlled access approach to share individual participant data but highlighted concerns

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Carolyn; Sydes, Matthew; Murray, Gordon; Woolfall, Kerry; Clarke, Mike; Williamson, Paula; Tudur Smith, Catrin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Evaluate current data sharing activities of UK publicly funded Clinical Trial Units (CTUs) and identify good practices and barriers. Study Design and Setting Web-based survey of Directors of 45 UK Clinical Research Collaboration (UKCRC)–registered CTUs. Results Twenty-three (51%) CTUs responded: Five (22%) of these had an established data sharing policy and eight (35%) specifically requested consent to use patient data beyond the scope of the original trial. Fifteen (65%) CTUs had received requests for data, and seven (30%) had made external requests for data in the previous 12 months. CTUs supported the need for increased data sharing activities although concerns were raised about patient identification, misuse of data, and financial burden. Custodianship of clinical trial data and requirements for a CTU to align its policy to their parent institutes were also raised. No CTUs supported the use of an open access model for data sharing. Conclusion There is support within the publicly funded UKCRC-registered CTUs for data sharing, but many perceived barriers remain. CTUs are currently using a variety of approaches and procedures for sharing data. This survey has informed further work, including development of guidance for publicly funded CTUs, to promote good practice and facilitate data sharing. PMID:26169841

  5. Wilderness Accessibility for People with Disabilities. A Report to the President and the Congress of the United States on Section 507 (a) of the Americans with Disabilities Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilderness Inquiry Inc.

    This federally mandated study summarizes federal policies and regulations and identifies issues relevant to wilderness accessibility for people with disabilities. The report is based on review of existing federal policies and regulations; a survey of federal unit managers of the National Wilderness Preservation System (NWPS); a survey of programs…

  6. Fatty acid composition of fourteen seashore mallow (Kosteletzkya pentacarpos) seed oil accessions collected from the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seashore mallow (Kosteletzkya pentacarpos) is a flowering perennial halophytic herb belonging to the family Malvaceae that is found in marshes along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States. Fourteen accessions were collected from wild populations along the Atlantic (n = 8) and Gulf (n = 6)...

  7. Accessing Inpatient Rehabilitation after Acute Severe Stroke: Age, Mobility, Prestroke Function and Hospital Unit Are Associated with Discharge to Inpatient Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakkennes, Sharon; Hill, Keith D.; Brock, Kim; Bernhardt, Julie; Churilov, Leonid

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the variables associated with discharge to inpatient rehabilitation following acute severe stroke and to determine whether hospital unit contributed to access. Five acute hospitals in Victoria, Australia participated in this study. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they had suffered an acute severe…

  8. In the United States, "Opt-Out" States Show No Increase in Access to Anesthesia Services for Medicare Beneficiaries Compared with Non-"Opt-Out" States.

    PubMed

    Sun, Eric C; Miller, Thomas R; Halzack, Nicholas M

    2016-05-01

    In the United States, anesthesia care can be provided by anesthesiologists or nurse anesthetists. Since 2001, 17 states have exercised their right to "opt-out" of the federal requirement that a physician supervise the administration of anesthesia by a nurse anesthetist, with the majority citing increased access to anesthesia care as the rationale for their decision. By using Medicare data, we found that most (4 of 5) cohorts of "opt-out" states likely experienced smaller growth in anesthesia utilization rates compared with non-"opt-out" states, suggesting that opt-out was not associated with an increase in access to anesthesia care. PMID:26895523

  9. Access for Whom, Access to What? The Role of the "Disadvantaged Student" Market in the Rise of For-Profit Higher Education in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrity, Bonnie K. Fox; Garrison, Mark J.; Fiedler, Roger C.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the role of Pell grants in the rise of for-profit colleges and universities (FPCUs) in the United States by examining National Center for Education Statistics data (Pell are financial "needs-based" grants to students to offset cost of tuition; Pell grants are the main source of federal financial support available to FPCUs).…

  10. Do minority and poor neighborhoods have higher access to fast-food restaurants in the United States?

    PubMed Central

    James, Peter; Arcaya, Mariana C.; Parker, Devin M.; Tucker-Seeley, Reginald

    2016-01-01

    Background Disproportionate access to unhealthy foods in poor or minority neighborhoods may be a primary determinant of obesity disparities. We investigated whether fast-food access varies by Census block group (CBG) percent black and poverty. Methods We measured the average driving distance from each CBG population-weighted centroid to the five closest top ten fast-food chains and CBG percent black and percent below poverty Results Among 209,091 CBGs analyzed (95.1% of all US CBGs), CBG percent black was positively associated with fast-food access controlling for population density and percent poverty (average distance to fast food was 3.56 miles closer (95% CI: -3.64, -3.48) in CBGs with the highest versus lowest quartile of percentage of black residents). Poverty was not independently associated with fast-food access. The relationship between fast-food access and race was stronger in CBGs with higher levels of poverty (p for interaction <0.0001). Conclusions Predominantly black neighborhoods had higher access to fast-food while poverty was not an independent predictor of fast-food access. PMID:24945103

  11. Understanding structural barriers to accessing HIV testing and prevention services among black men who have sex with men (BMSM) in the United States.

    PubMed

    Levy, Matthew E; Wilton, Leo; Phillips, Gregory; Glick, Sara Nelson; Kuo, Irene; Brewer, Russell A; Elliott, Ayana; Watson, Christopher; Magnus, Manya

    2014-05-01

    Structural-level factors have contributed to the substantial disproportionate rates of HIV among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) in the United States. Despite insufficient HIV testing patterns, however, there is a void in research investigating the relationship between structural factors and access to HIV testing and prevention services among BMSM. Building on previous scholarly work and incorporating a dynamic social systems conceptual framework, we conducted a comprehensive review of the literature on structural barriers to HIV testing and prevention services among BMSM across four domains: healthcare, stigma and discrimination, incarceration, and poverty. We found that BMSM experience inadequate access to culturally competent services, stigma and discrimination that impede access to services, a deficiency of services in correctional institutions, and limited services in areas where BMSM live. Structural interventions that eliminate barriers to HIV testing and prevention services and provide BMSM with core skills to navigate complex systems are needed. PMID:24531769

  12. An energy-efficient SIMD DSP with multiple VLIW configurations and an advanced memory access unit for LTE-A modem LSIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomono, Mitsuru; Ito, Makiko; Nomura, Yoshitaka; Mouri, Makoto; Hirose, Yoshio

    2015-12-01

    Energy efficiency is the most important factor in the design of wireless modem LSIs for mobile handset systems. We have developed an energy-efficient SIMD DSP for LTE-A modem LSIs. Our DSP has mainly two hardware features in order to reduce energy consumption. The first one is multiple VLIW configurations to minimize accesses to instruction memories. The second one is an advanced memory access unit to realize complex memory accesses required for wireless baseband processing. With these features, performance of our DSP is about 1.7 times faster than a base DSP on average for standard LTE-A Libraries. Our DSP achieves about 20% improvement in energy efficiency compared to a base DSP for LTE-A modem LSIs.

  13. Understanding Structural Barriers to Accessing HIV Testing and Prevention Services Among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men (BMSM) in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wilton, Leo; Phillips, Gregory; Glick, Sara Nelson; Kuo, Irene; Brewer, Russell A.; Elliott, Ayana; Watson, Christopher; Magnus, Manya

    2015-01-01

    Structural-level factors have contributed to the substantial disproportionate rates of HIV among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) in the United States. Despite insufficient HIV testing patterns, however, there is a void in research investigating the relationship between structural factors and access to HIV testing and prevention services among BMSM. Building on previous scholarly work and incorporating a dynamic social systems conceptual framework, we conducted a comprehensive review of the literature on structural barriers to HIV testing and prevention services among BMSM across four domains: healthcare, stigma and discrimination, incarceration, and poverty. We found that BMSM experience inadequate access to culturally competent services, stigma and discrimination that impede access to services, a deficiency of services in correctional institutions, and limited services in areas where BMSM live. Structural interventions that eliminate barriers to HIV testing and prevention services and provide BMSM with core skills to navigate complex systems are needed. PMID:24531769

  14. 2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  15. Optimal policies for aggregate recycling from decommissioned forest roads.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Matthew; Sessions, John

    2008-08-01

    To mitigate the adverse environmental impact of forest roads, especially degradation of endangered salmonid habitat, many public and private land managers in the western United States are actively decommissioning roads where practical and affordable. Road decommissioning is associated with reduced long-term environmental impact. When decommissioning a road, it may be possible to recover some aggregate (crushed rock) from the road surface. Aggregate is used on many low volume forest roads to reduce wheel stresses transferred to the subgrade, reduce erosion, reduce maintenance costs, and improve driver comfort. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for aggregate to be recovered and used elsewhere on the road network, at a reduced cost compared to purchasing aggregate from a quarry. This article investigates the potential for aggregate recycling to provide an economic incentive to decommission additional roads by reducing transport distance and aggregate procurement costs for other actively used roads. Decommissioning additional roads may, in turn, result in improved aquatic habitat. We present real-world examples of aggregate recycling and discuss the advantages of doing so. Further, we present mixed integer formulations to determine optimal levels of aggregate recycling under economic and environmental objectives. Tested on an example road network, incorporation of aggregate recycling demonstrates substantial cost-savings relative to a baseline scenario without recycling, increasing the likelihood of road decommissioning and reduced habitat degradation. We find that aggregate recycling can result in up to 24% in cost savings (economic objective) and up to 890% in additional length of roads decommissioned (environmental objective). PMID:18481140

  16. Optimal Policies for Aggregate Recycling from Decommissioned Forest Roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Matthew; Sessions, John

    2008-08-01

    To mitigate the adverse environmental impact of forest roads, especially degradation of endangered salmonid habitat, many public and private land managers in the western United States are actively decommissioning roads where practical and affordable. Road decommissioning is associated with reduced long-term environmental impact. When decommissioning a road, it may be possible to recover some aggregate (crushed rock) from the road surface. Aggregate is used on many low volume forest roads to reduce wheel stresses transferred to the subgrade, reduce erosion, reduce maintenance costs, and improve driver comfort. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for aggregate to be recovered and used elsewhere on the road network, at a reduced cost compared to purchasing aggregate from a quarry. This article investigates the potential for aggregate recycling to provide an economic incentive to decommission additional roads by reducing transport distance and aggregate procurement costs for other actively used roads. Decommissioning additional roads may, in turn, result in improved aquatic habitat. We present real-world examples of aggregate recycling and discuss the advantages of doing so. Further, we present mixed integer formulations to determine optimal levels of aggregate recycling under economic and environmental objectives. Tested on an example road network, incorporation of aggregate recycling demonstrates substantial cost-savings relative to a baseline scenario without recycling, increasing the likelihood of road decommissioning and reduced habitat degradation. We find that aggregate recycling can result in up to 24% in cost savings (economic objective) and up to 890% in additional length of roads decommissioned (environmental objective).

  17. Environmental assessment for the Area 5 radioactive waste management site access improvement at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The United States Department of Energy has prepared an Environmental Assessment which analyzes the potential environmental effects of improving access to its AREA 5 RWMS at the NTS. The EA evaluates the potential impacts of constructing an extension of the Cane Springs Road between Mercury Highway and the 5-01 Road. Three alternative actions are also evaluated: (1) construction of a new road along the existing alignment of the Powerline Road between Mercury Highway and the 5-01 Road, (2) upgrading the existing 5-01 Road, and (3) taking no action. The purpose and need for improving access to the RWMS are addressed in Section 1.0 of the EA. A detailed description of the proposed action and alternatives is in Section 2.0. Section 3.0 describes the affected environment and Section 4.0 the environmental effects of the proposed action and alternatives. Health and transportation effects, accident scenarios, cumulative effects, and other relevant information are found in Sections 5.0 through 12.0 of the EA. DOE determined that the alternative action of upgrading the existing 5-01 Road would best meet the needs of the agency.

  18. CROCKETT BARN AND BLOCKHOUSE FROM SOUTH FORT CASEY ROAD, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CROCKETT BARN AND BLOCKHOUSE FROM SOUTH FORT CASEY ROAD, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. The Crockett blockhouse was moved from its original location to a tract of land along South Fort Casey Road in 1938, making it more accessible to tourists. During the same year it was given to the Daughters of the Pioneers of Washington and restored by Works Progress Administration crews. - Crockett Farm, 1056 Fort Casey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  19. New Roads and Human Health: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Matt; Petticrew, Mark; Ogilvie, David; Hamilton, Val

    2003-01-01

    We sought to synthesize evidence of the health effects of construction of new roads by systematically reviewing observational studies of such effects. We included and critically appraised 32 studies. The review suggested that out-of-town bypasses decrease injuries on main roads through or around towns, although more robust evidence is needed on effects on secondary roads. New major urban roads have statistically insignificant effects on injury incidence. New major roads between towns decrease injuries. Out-of-town bypasses reduce disturbance and community severance in towns but increase them elsewhere. Major urban roads increase disturbance and severance. More robust research is needed in this area, particularly regarding effects of new roads on respiratory health, mental health, access to health services, and physical activity. PMID:12948964

  20. View from west to east of limited access sentry station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from west to east of limited access sentry station - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, LImited Area Sentry Station, Intersection of Service Road C & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  1. Conceptual design and analysis of roads and road construction machinery for initial lunar base operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sines, Jeffrey L.; Banks, Joel; Efatpenah, Keyanoush

    1990-06-01

    Recent developments have made it possible for scientists and engineers to consider returning to the Moon to build a manned lunar base. The base can be used to conduct scientific research, develop new space technology, and utilize the natural resources of the Moon. Areas of the base will be separated, connected by a system of roads that reduce the power requirements of vehicles traveling on them. Feasible road types for the lunar surface were analyzed and a road construction system was designed for initial lunar base operations. A model was also constructed to show the system configuration and key operating features. The alternate designs for the lunar road construction system were developed in four stages: analyze and select a road type; determine operations and machinery needed to produce the road; develop machinery configurations; and develop alternates for several machine components. A compacted lunar soil road was selected for initial lunar base operations. The only machinery required to produce this road were a grader and a compactor. The road construction system consists of a main drive unit which is used for propulsion, a detachable grader assembly, and a towed compactor.

  2. Conceptual design and analysis of roads and road construction machinery for initial lunar base operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sines, Jeffrey L.; Banks, Joel; Efatpenah, Keyanoush

    1990-01-01

    Recent developments have made it possible for scientists and engineers to consider returning to the Moon to build a manned lunar base. The base can be used to conduct scientific research, develop new space technology, and utilize the natural resources of the Moon. Areas of the base will be separated, connected by a system of roads that reduce the power requirements of vehicles traveling on them. Feasible road types for the lunar surface were analyzed and a road construction system was designed for initial lunar base operations. A model was also constructed to show the system configuration and key operating features. The alternate designs for the lunar road construction system were developed in four stages: analyze and select a road type; determine operations and machinery needed to produce the road; develop machinery configurations; and develop alternates for several machine components. A compacted lunar soil road was selected for initial lunar base operations. The only machinery required to produce this road were a grader and a compactor. The road construction system consists of a main drive unit which is used for propulsion, a detachable grader assembly, and a towed compactor.

  3. Unofficial Road Building in the Amazon: Socioeconomic and Biophysical Explanations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perz, Stephen G.; Caldas, Marcellus M.; Arima, Eugenio; Walker, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Roads have manifold social and environmental impacts, including regional development, social conflicts and habitat fragmentation. 'Road ecology' has emerged as an approach to evaluate the various ecological and hydrological impacts of roads. This article aims to complement road ecology by examining the socio-spatial processes of road building itself. Focusing on the Brazilian Amazon, a heavily-studied context due to forest fragmentation by roads, the authors consider non-state social actors who build 'unofficial roads' for the purpose of gaining access to natural resources to support livelihoods and community development. They examine four case studies of roads with distinct histories in order to explain the socio-spatial processes behind road building in terms of profit maximization, land tenure claims, co-operative and conflictive political ecologies, and constraints as well as opportunities afforded by the biophysical environment. The study cases illustrate the need for a multi-pronged theoretical approach to understanding road building, and call for more attention to the role of non-state actors in unofficial road construction.

  4. The Promise and Challenge of Increasing Access to Higher Education: Notes from a Romanian/United States Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florea, Silvia; Horvat, Erin McNamara

    2009-01-01

    The internal processes of higher education have implications for the cohesion and shape of societies as well as for the quality of life of individuals. The comparison of the historical evolution of access to higher education in the American and European/Romanian contrasted countries reveals the presence of several norms successively constraining…

  5. Matching Up to the Information Society: An Evaluation of the EU, the EU Accession Countries, Switzerland and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graafland-Essers, Irma; Cremonini, Leon; Ettedgui, Emile; Botterman, Maarten

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the current understanding of the advancement of the Information Society within the European Union and countries that are up for accession in 2004, and is based on the SIBIS (Statistical Indicators Benchmarking the Information Society) surveys and analyses per SIBIS theme and country. The report is unique in its coherent and…

  6. Accessing Stem-Focused Education: Factors That Contribute to the Opportunity to Attend Stem High Schools across the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers-Chapman, M. Felicity

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, policy makers, researchers, and educators have focused on the preparation of individuals in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) fields. One popular policy lever is STEM-focused high schools. The purpose of this study is to identify which student populations have access to STEM secondary schools. By comparing…

  7. Delay and restricted access of new molecules in Turkey compared to the United States and European Union

    PubMed Central

    Şahin, Toros; Yeşil, Atakan; Topcu, Türker

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study compares the performances of new-molecule (NM) launches in Turkey with those in the European Union and United States for the years 2007–2013. Methods The Thomson Reuters Newport Horizon for Innovators Database is used to identify NMs with a launch date after January 1, 2007, worldwide and marketing authorization approval after January 1, 2007, in the European Union. The launch dates for the European Union, the United States, and Turkey were retrieved from the same database. Data for Turkey were confirmed via IMS and RxMedia. Results Out of 183 records identified that are launched in the European Union, the United States, or both, 44 of the NMs are launched in Turkey (24%). Conclusion The results of this study show that 24% of the NMs that are launched in either the European Union or United States were able to be launched in Turkey with a mean delay of 821 days (2.25 years).

  8. 25 CFR 247.20 - What are the road and trail prohibitions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are the road and trail prohibitions? 247.20 Section... RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.20 What are the road and trail prohibitions? (a) You cannot damage or leave in a damaged condition any road, trail, or segment thereof. (b) You cannot...

  9. 25 CFR 247.20 - What are the road and trail prohibitions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the road and trail prohibitions? 247.20 Section... RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.20 What are the road and trail prohibitions? (a) You cannot damage or leave in a damaged condition any road, trail, or segment thereof. (b) You cannot...

  10. 25 CFR 247.20 - What are the road and trail prohibitions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are the road and trail prohibitions? 247.20 Section... RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.20 What are the road and trail prohibitions? (a) You cannot damage or leave in a damaged condition any road, trail, or segment thereof. (b) You cannot...

  11. 25 CFR 247.20 - What are the road and trail prohibitions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What are the road and trail prohibitions? 247.20 Section... RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.20 What are the road and trail prohibitions? (a) You cannot damage or leave in a damaged condition any road, trail, or segment thereof. (b) You cannot...

  12. 25 CFR 247.20 - What are the road and trail prohibitions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What are the road and trail prohibitions? 247.20 Section... RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.20 What are the road and trail prohibitions? (a) You cannot damage or leave in a damaged condition any road, trail, or segment thereof. (b) You cannot...

  13. A review of high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel-cell (HT-PEMFC)-based auxiliary power units for diesel-powered road vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yongfeng; Lehnert, Werner; Janßen, Holger; Samsun, Remzi Can; Stolten, Detlef

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents an extensive review of research on the development of auxiliary power units with enhanced reformate tolerance for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs). Developments in diesel reforming for fuel cells as auxiliary power units (APUs), single fuel cells and stacks and systems are outlined in detail and key findings are presented. Summaries of HT-PEMFC APU applications and start-up times for HT-PEMFC systems are then given. A summary of cooling HT-PEMFC stacks using a classic schematic diagram of a 24-cell HT-PEMFC stack, with a cooling plate for every third cell, is also presented as part of a stack analysis. Finally, a summary of CO tolerances for fuel cells is given, along with the effects of different CO volume fractions on polarization curves, the fraction of CO coverage, hydrogen coverage, anode overpotential and cell potential.

  14. Clinical demand for and access to images and interpretations of chest radiographs in a medical intensive care unit serviced by an integrated PACS-radiology information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shile, Peter E.; Kundel, Harold L.; Seshadri, Sridhar B.; Carey, Bruce; Kishore, Sheel; Brikman, Inna; Feingold, Eric R.; Lanken, Paul N.

    1994-05-01

    Digital communication systems have been proposed as a means of improving the flow of information between radiologists and other physicians. In the intensive care unit (ICU), physicians require more rapid access to images and interpretations than physicians in most other hospital settings. Thus these systems must be designed to ensure that rapid exchange of radiological information can be achieved. To better define system design for the electronic communication of radiological information to ICUs, this study examined bottlenecks in information flow through an integrated PACS-Radiology Information System.

  15. Study on the energy-efficient scheme based on the interconnection of optical-network-units for next generation optical access network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Yunxin; Jiang, Ning; Qiu, Kun; Xue, Chenpeng

    2014-12-01

    An energy-efficient scheme based on the interconnection of optical network unit (ONU) is introduced, which can significantly reduce the energy consumption of the low-traffic operation. The energy consumption model for the ONU-interconnected optical access network (OAN) based on the electronic switch (ES) technology is established, and the energy efficiency of the proposed scheme is analyzed and compared with that of the OAN using optical switch (OS). The simulation results demonstrate that the ONU-interconnected scheme can efficiently reduce the energy consumption of OAN, and it shows a good energy consumption performance under daily traffic model.

  16. Expanding Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    There is no question that the United States lags behind most industrialized nations in consumer access to broadband Internet service. For many policy makers and activists, this shortfall marks the latest phase in the struggle to overcome the digital divide. To remedy this lack of broadband affordability and availability, one start-up firm--with…

  17. Assessing impacts of roads: application of a standard assessment protocol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duniway, Michael C.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive management of road networks depends on timely data that accurately reflect the impacts those systems are having on ecosystem processes and associated services. In the absence of reliable data, land managers are left with little more than observations and perceptions to support management decisions of road-associated disturbances. Roads can negatively impact the soil, hydrologic, plant, and animal processes on which virtually all ecosystem services depend. The Interpreting Indicators of Rangeland Health (IIRH) protocol is a qualitative method that has been demonstrated to be effective in characterizing impacts of roads. The goal of this study were to develop, describe, and test an approach for using IIRH to systematically evaluate road impacts across large, diverse arid and semiarid landscapes. We developed a stratified random sampling approach to plot selection based on ecological potential, road inventory data, and image interpretation of road impacts. The test application on a semiarid landscape in southern New Mexico, United States, demonstrates that the approach developed is sensitive to road impacts across a broad range of ecological sites but that not all the types of stratification were useful. Ecological site and road inventory strata accounted for significant variability in the functioning of ecological processes but stratification based on apparent impact did not. Analysis of the repeatability of IIRH applied to road plots indicates that the method is repeatable but consensus evaluations based on multiple observers should be used to minimize risk of bias. Landscape-scale analysis of impacts by roads of contrasting designs (maintained dirt or gravel roads vs. non- or infrequently maintained roads) suggests that future travel management plans for the study area should consider concentrating traffic on fewer roads that are well designed and maintained. Application of the approach by land managers will likely provide important insights into

  18. On the Outskirts of National Health Reform: A Comparative Assessment of Health Insurance and Access to Care in Puerto Rico and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Portela, Maria; Sommers, Benjamin D

    2015-01-01

    Context Puerto Rico is the United States’ largest territory, home to nearly 4 million American citizens. Yet it has remained largely on the outskirts of US health policy, including the Affordable Care Act (ACA). This article presents an overview of Puerto Rico’s health care system and a comparative analysis of coverage and access to care in Puerto Rico and the mainland United States. Methods We analyzed 2011-2012 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, and 2012 data from the American Community Survey and its counterpart, the Puerto Rico Community Survey. Among adults 18 and older, we examined health insurance coverage; access measures, such as having a usual source of care and cost-related delays in care; self-reported health; and the receipt of recommended preventive services, such as cancer screening and glucose testing. We used multivariate regression models to compare Puerto Rico and the mainland United States, adjusted for age, income, race/ethnicity, and other demographic variables. Findings Uninsured rates were significantly lower in Puerto Rico (unadjusted 7.4% versus 15.0%, adjusted difference: −12.0%, p < 0.001). Medicaid was far more common in Puerto Rico. Puerto Rican residents were more likely than those in the mainland United States to have a usual source of care and to have had a checkup within the past year, and fewer experienced cost-related delays in care. Screening rates for diabetes, mammograms, and Pap smears were comparable or better in Puerto Rico, while colonoscopy rates were lower. Self-reported health was slightly worse, but obesity and smoking rates were lower. Conclusions Despite its far poorer population, Puerto Rico outperforms the mainland United States on several measures of coverage and access. Congressional policies capping federal Medicaid funds to the territory, however, have contributed to major budgetary challenges. While the ACA has significantly increased federal resources in Puerto Rico, ongoing

  19. Culturally Diverse and Underserved Populations of Gifted Students in the United States and in Taiwan: Equitable Access to Gifted Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Ya-Ting

    2014-01-01

    There is a continuing increase in the African American and Hispanic student populations in public schools. The students who are invited to gifted programs are overwhelmingly White. This is the situation in schools in the United States and also in Taiwan. Misunderstanding or unawareness of culture difference among educators might contribute to…

  20. Access to Education in Africa: Responding to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chataika, Tsitsi; Mckenzie, Judith Anne; Swart, Estelle; Lyner-Cleophas, Marcia

    2012-01-01

    Article 24 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities mandates that disabled people should have full rights to education in inclusive settings. However, to ensure that educational polices and settings are designed to meet this criterion seems challenging to African countries that have ratified this Convention. This…

  1. Recycled rubber roads

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    The paper describes several innovative approaches for recycling old tires in the construction of roads. In one, 18 inches of shredded tire chips (2 X 2 inches) were used on top of 6-8 inches of small stone to construct a road across a sanitary landfill. No compacting or linders were needed. In another application, sidewall mats linked together with steel strapping were used as a sub-base for a road across a swampy area. A third application uses 1/2 inch bits of groundup rubber tires as a replacement for aggregate in an asphalt road base.

  2. 7. VIEW OF OLD ENTRANCE ROAD (NOW WILLOW FLATS ROAD) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF OLD ENTRANCE ROAD (NOW WILLOW FLATS ROAD) FACING EAST INTO PARK. - Arches National Park Main Entrance Road, Beginning at U.S. Highway 191, approximately 6 miles north of Moab, Moab, Grand County, UT

  3. 7. LASSEN PARK ROAD BRIDGE AT SULFUR WORKS. NOTE ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. LASSEN PARK ROAD BRIDGE AT SULFUR WORKS. NOTE ROAD TRAVERSING DISTANT RIDGE BEYOND BRIDGE. SEEN FROM WEST OF HIGHWAY FROM OLD HIGHWAY LOOP. LOOKING E. - Lassen Park Road, Mineral, Tehama County, CA

  4. Roads to Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauer, Ezra

    1991-01-01

    Contends that the level of safety built into roads is largely unpremeditated and that roads and highways are not as safe as they might be. Discusses practices, standards, and deficiencies in highway and traffic safety related to geometric design and traffic engineering. Recommends increased transportation engineering professionalism and public…

  5. The Road Less Traveled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKim, Brent

    2007-01-01

    The federal journey into public education has followed a long and winding road. Most educators know that the federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act is simply the latest version of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), which dates all the way back to 1965. In the years since its initial passage, the ESEA road has taken a number of…

  6. Development and assessment of road weather information in Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sanghoo; Lee, Jonghak; Kim, Mingyu; Choi, Youngjean

    2016-04-01

    Road-based transport is essential for populations operating in large urban environments. Driving conditions are impacted by the intensity of rainfall. However, rainfall is not directly measured on roads. In this study, we evaluated road weather prediction accuracy using representative rainfall days in Seoul, South Korea, during 2013.Data were collected by 190 weather stations, of which 33 were located within 20 meters of a road and were used as model validation sites, while the remaining 157 were used as model fitting sites. Inverse distance weighting (IDW) and ordinary kriging (OK) based on variograms were considered for interpolation. We used the bias, root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), and correlation coefficient (CC) as the prediction performance criteria. The prediction performance of OK was higher than that of IDW. As expected, prediction performance increased when the number of rainfall observations increased. We also simulated road conditions using the accumulated historical rainfall data. Generating road information for the entire urban road network is very expensive; therefore, 177,599 road positions were reproduced from 22,184 road link units. Finally, safe driving speeds were calculated from simulated rainfall, stopping distance, and visibility distance.We hope that the results of this study will provide a basis for the safety information given to road users.

  7. 40 CFR 86.129-80 - Road load power, test weight, and inertia weight class determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Road load power, test weight, and... Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.129-80 Road load...—light-duty trucks. (1) The power absorption unit shall be adjusted to reproduce road load power at...

  8. Historic Image: view of Axial Cemetery Road and Sections 1 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Historic Image: view of Axial Cemetery Road and Sections 1 and 2, from Receiving Vault looking to the entrance. Photograph 8 November 1937. NCA History Collection - Cypress Hills National Cemetery, Jamaica Avenue Unit, 625 Jamaica Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  9. Corrugation of roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Both, Joseph A.; Hong, Daniel C.; Kurtze, Douglas A.

    2001-12-01

    We present a one dimensional model for the development of corrugations in roads subjected to compressive forces from a flux of cars. The cars are modeled as damped harmonic oscillators translating with constant horizontal velocity across the surface, and the road surface is subject to diffusive relaxation. We derive dimensionless coupled equations of motion for the positions of the cars and the road surface H( x, t), which contain two phenomenological variables: an effective diffusion constant Δ( H) that characterizes the relaxation of the road surface, and a function a( H) that characterizes the plasticity or erodibility of the road bed. Linear stability analysis shows that corrugations grow if the speed of the cars exceeds a critical value, which decreases if the flux of cars is increased. Modifying the model to enforce the simple fact that the normal force exerted by the road can never be negative seems to lead to restabilized, quasi-steady road shapes, in which the corrugation amplitude and phase velocity remain fixed.

  10. Haul road dust control

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, W.R.; Organiscak, J.A.

    2007-10-15

    A field study was conducted to measure dust from haul trucks at a limestone quarry and a coal preparation plant waste hauling operation. The study found that primarily wind, distance and road treatment conditions notably affected the dust concentrations at locations next to, 50 ft from, and 100 ft away from the unpaved haulage road. Airborne dust measured along the unpaved haul road showed that high concentrations of fugitive dust can be generated with these concentrations rapidly decreasing to nearly background levels within 100 ft of the road. Instantaneous respirable dust measurements illustrated that the trucks generate a real-time dust cloud that has a peak concentration with a time-related decay rate as the dust moves past the sampling locations. The respirable dust concentrations and peak levels were notably diminished as the dust cloud was transported, diluted, and diffused by the wind over the 100 ft distance from the road. Individual truck concentrations and peak levels measured next to the dry road surface test section were quite variable and dependent on wind conditions, particularly wind direction, with respect to reaching the sampling location. The vast majority of the fugitive airborne dust generated from unpaved and untreated haulage roads was non-respirable. 6 figs.

  11. QuickStats: Percentage of Physicians Who Have Electronic Access to Patient Health Information from Outside Their Medical Practice,*(,)† by State - United States, 2015.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, approximately half (50.3%) of the physicians in the United States had information from other providers outside of their practice electronically available at the point of care. There was wide variation by state, ranging from 34.6% in Idaho to 76.4% in South Dakota. Sixteen states and the District of Columbia were in the range with the lowest percentage of physicians with electronic access to more comprehensive patient information (34.6%-47.2%). Another 16 states were in the middle range (47.3%-57.0%). The 18 states with the highest percentage of physicians having such information electronically available were in the top range (57.1%- 76.4%). PMID:27583972

  12. Tunable optical frequency comb enabled scalable and cost-effective multiuser orthogonal frequency-division multiple access passive optical network with source-free optical network units.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Zhang, Chongfu; Liu, Deming; Qiu, Kun; Liu, Shuang

    2012-10-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a multiuser orthogonal frequency-division multiple access passive optical network (OFDMA-PON) with source-free optical network units (ONUs), enabled by tunable optical frequency comb generation technology. By cascading a phase modulator (PM) and an intensity modulator and dynamically controlling the peak-to-peak voltage of a PM driven signal, a tunable optical frequency comb source can be generated. It is utilized to assist the configuration of a multiple source-free ONUs enhanced OFDMA-PON where simultaneous and interference-free multiuser upstream transmission over a single wavelength can be efficiently supported. The proposed multiuser OFDMA-PON is scalable and cost effective, and its feasibility is successfully verified by experiment. PMID:23027243

  13. 14. VIEW OF NORTHSOUTH ROAD WHICH PARALLELS ROAD TO HATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF NORTH-SOUTH ROAD WHICH PARALLELS ROAD TO HATCH ADIT (FEATURE B-28). NOTE MODERN 'LAY DOWN' FENCE ON ROAD. ROAD LIES TO THE WEST OF THE HATCH ADIT AND PHOTOGRAPH IS VIEW TO THE SOUTH. (OCTOBER, 1995) - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  14. Health care providers and direct-to-consumer access and advertising of genetic testing in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Marketing pressures, regulatory policies, clinical guidelines, and consumer demand all affect health care providers' knowledge and use of health-related genetic tests that are sold and/or advertised to consumers. In addition, clinical guidelines, regulatory policies, and educational efforts are needed to promote the informed use of genetic tests that are sold and advertised to consumers and health care providers. A shift in culture regarding the regulation of genetic tests that are sold directly to consumers is suggested: by recent actions taken by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), including letters sent to direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing companies stating that their tests meet the definition of medical devices; by public meetings held by the FDA to discuss laboratory developed tests; and by the convening of the Molecular and Clinical Genetics Panel to gather input on scientific issues concerning DTC genetic tests that make medical claims. This review provides a brief overview of DTC advertising and the regulation of pharmaceuticals and genetic tests in the United States. It highlights recent changes in the regulatory culture regarding genetic tests that are sold to consumers, and discusses the impact on health care providers of selling and advertising genetic tests directly to consumers. PMID:22204616

  15. Understanding benefits and addressing misperceptions and barriers to intrauterine device access among populations in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Yoost, Jennie

    2014-01-01

    Three intrauterine devices (IUDs), one copper and two containing the progestin levonorgestrel, are available for use in the United States. IUDs offer higher rates of contraceptive efficacy than nonlong-acting methods, and several studies have demonstrated higher satisfaction rates and continuation rates of any birth control method. This efficacy is not affected by age or parity. The safety of IUDs is well studied, and the risks of pelvic inflammatory disease, perforation, expulsion, and ectopic pregnancy are all of very low incidence. Noncontraceptive benefits include decreased menstrual blood loss, improved dysmenorrhea, improved pelvic pain associated with endometriosis, and protection of the endometrium from hyperplasia. The use of IUDs is accepted in patients with multiple medical problems who may have contraindications to other birth control methods. Yet despite well-published data, concerns and misperceptions still persist, especially among younger populations and nulliparous women. Medical governing bodies advocate for use of IUDs in these populations, as safety and efficacy is unchanged, and IUDs have been shown to decrease unintended pregnancies. Dispersion of accurate information among patients and practitioners is needed to further increase the acceptability and use of IUDs. PMID:25050062

  16. Health care providers and direct-to-consumer access and advertising of genetic testing in the United States.

    PubMed

    Myers, Melanie F

    2011-01-01

    Marketing pressures, regulatory policies, clinical guidelines, and consumer demand all affect health care providers' knowledge and use of health-related genetic tests that are sold and/or advertised to consumers. In addition, clinical guidelines, regulatory policies, and educational efforts are needed to promote the informed use of genetic tests that are sold and advertised to consumers and health care providers. A shift in culture regarding the regulation of genetic tests that are sold directly to consumers is suggested: by recent actions taken by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), including letters sent to direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing companies stating that their tests meet the definition of medical devices; by public meetings held by the FDA to discuss laboratory developed tests; and by the convening of the Molecular and Clinical Genetics Panel to gather input on scientific issues concerning DTC genetic tests that make medical claims. This review provides a brief overview of DTC advertising and the regulation of pharmaceuticals and genetic tests in the United States. It highlights recent changes in the regulatory culture regarding genetic tests that are sold to consumers, and discusses the impact on health care providers of selling and advertising genetic tests directly to consumers. PMID:22204616

  17. Testing road surface treatments to reduce erosion in forest roads in Honduras [Tratamientos de la superficie de rodadura para reducir la erosion en caminos forestales en Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rivera, Samuel; Kershner, Jeffrey L.; Keller, Gordon R.

    2009-01-01

    Testing road surface treatments to reduce erosion in forest roads in Honduras. Cien. Inv. Agr. 36(3):425-432. Using forest roads produces more erosion and sedimentation than any other forest or agricultural activity. This study evaluated soil losses from a forest road in central Honduras over two consecutive years. We divided a 400-m segment of road into 8 experimental units, each 50 m in length. Four units were treated with Best Management Practices (BMPs) and four were left untreated. The BMP treatments included reshaping the road prism, installing culverts and reshaping of road ditches, compacting 20-cm layers of the road tread, crowning the road surface (3% slope, double drainage), longitudinal sloping (less than 12%), and adding a 10-cm layer of gravel (crush size = 0.63 cm). Soil movement was measured daily during the rainy seasons. The highest soil loss occurred in the control road, around 500 m3 km-1 per year, while the road treated with BMP lost approximately 225 m3km-1 per year. These results show that road surface erosion can be reduced up to 50% with the implementation of surface treatments.

  18. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  19. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, L.M.

    1998-05-05

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find at the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was not heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past. 2 figs.

  20. Polarimetric road ice detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummond, Krista

    This thesis investigated the science behind polarimetric road ice detection systems. Laboratory Mueller matrix measurements of a simulated road under differing surface conditions were collected searching for a discriminatory polarization property. These Mueller matrices were decomposed into depolarization, diattenuation, and retardance. Individual sample surface polarization properties were then calculated from these three unique matrices and compared. Specular and off-specular reflection responses of each sample were collected. Four polarization properties stood out for having high separation between dry and iced measurements: Depolarization Index, Linear Diattenuation, Linear Polarizance, and Linear Retardance. Through our investigation polarimetric ice detection is possible. Continued research of the polarization properties of road ice can result in the development of a road ice detection system. Proposed deployment methods of such a system have been outlined following the analysis of the data collected in this experiment.

  1. A Holographic Road Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

    1979-01-01

    Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

  2. Road boundary detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sowers, J.; Mehrotra, R.; Sethi, I. K.

    1989-01-01

    A method for extracting road boundaries using the monochrome image of a visual road scene is presented. The statistical information regarding the intensity levels present in the image along with some geometrical constraints concerning the road are the basics of this approach. Results and advantages of this technique compared to others are discussed. The major advantages of this technique, when compared to others, are its ability to process the image in only one pass, to limit the area searched in the image using only knowledge concerning the road geometry and previous boundary information, and dynamically adjust for inconsistencies in the located boundary information, all of which helps to increase the efficacy of this technique.

  3. Speed, road injury, and public health.

    PubMed

    Richter, Elihu D; Berman, Tamar; Friedman, Lee; Ben-David, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    We review milestones in the history of increases in speed limits and travel speeds ("speed creep") and risks for road deaths and injury. Reduced speed limits, speed-camera networks, and speed calming substantially reduce these tolls in absolute numbers-a trend that is apparent in the United Kingdom, Australia, France, and other countries, but not in the United States, which has raised speed limits and does not have speed-camera networks. Newtonian relationships between the fourth power of small increases or reductions in speed and large increases or reductions in deaths state the case for speed control. Speed adaptation and the interaction between speed and other determinants of injury risks, including congestion and countermeasures, enter into these relationships. Speed-camera networks and speed calming lead to large, sustainable, and highly cost-effective drops in road deaths and injuries and should target entire populations, not merely high-risk subgroups or situations. Yet, there are major barriers to preventive strategies based on the discovery that speed kills. Modal shifts from speed on roads to speed on rail, lower maximum vehicle speeds, and speed-camera networks are required for progress toward Vision Zero-the goal of no road deaths-through Killing Speed. The human cost of the delay in killing speed in the United States may be as high as 20,000 lives lost per year. PMID:16533112

  4. A simple device unit consisting of all NiO storage and switch elements for multilevel terabit nonvolatile random access memory.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myoung-Jae; Ahn, Seung-Eon; Lee, Chang Bum; Kim, Chang-Jung; Jeon, Sanghun; Chung, U-In; Yoo, In-Kyeong; Park, Gyeong-Su; Han, Seungwu; Hwang, In Rok; Park, Bae-Ho

    2011-11-01

    Present charge-based silicon memories are unlikely to reach terabit densities because of scaling limits. As the feature size of memory shrinks to just tens of nanometers, there is insufficient volume available to store charge. Also, process temperatures higher than 800 °C make silicon incompatible with three-dimensional (3D) stacking structures. Here we present a device unit consisting of all NiO storage and switch elements for multilevel terabit nonvolatile random access memory using resistance switching. It is demonstrated that NiO films are scalable to around 30 nm and compatible with multilevel cell technology. The device unit can be a building block for 3D stacking structure because of its simple structure and constituent, high performance, and process temperature lower than 300 °C. Memory resistance switching of NiO storage element is accompanied by an increase in density of grain boundary while threshold resistance switching of NiO switch element is controlled by current flowing through NiO film. PMID:21988144

  5. Handbook of road safety research

    SciTech Connect

    Grime, G.

    1987-01-01

    This book describes the road safety, accident investigation or vehicle and highway design. This book also discusses the nature and cause of road accidents. It discusses the following contents: Forward; Preface; The main features of the accident situation in Great Britain; The interacting roles of road environment, vehicle and road user in accidents; Roads - features which may be related to accidents; Movements of vehicles and road users before accidents; What happens to vehicles during and after accidents; Injuries to road users; The potential for savings in accidents involving injury; General remarks on accident investigation; Appendices References.

  6. Arterial roads and area socioeconomic status are predictors of fast food restaurant density in King County, WA

    PubMed Central

    Hurvitz, Philip M; Moudon, Anne V; Rehm, Colin D; Streichert, Laura C; Drewnowski, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Background Fast food restaurants reportedly target specific populations by locating in lower-income and in minority neighborhoods. Physical proximity to fast food restaurants has been associated with higher obesity rates. Objective To examine possible associations, at the census tract level, between area demographics, arterial road density, and fast food restaurant density in King County, WA, USA. Methods Data on median household incomes, property values, and race/ethnicity were obtained from King County and from US Census data. Fast food restaurant addresses were obtained from Public Health-Seattle & King County and were geocoded. Fast food density was expressed per tract unit area and per capita. Arterial road density was a measure of vehicular and pedestrian access. Multivariate logistic regression models containing both socioeconomic status and road density were used in data analyses. Results Over one half (53.1%) of King County census tracts had at least one fast food restaurant. Mean network distance from dwelling units to a fast food restaurant countywide was 1.40 km, and 1.07 km for census tracts containing at least one fast food restaurant. Fast food restaurant density was significantly associated in regression models with low median household income (p < 0.001) and high arterial road density (p < 0.001) but not with percent of residents who were nonwhite. Conclusion No significant association was observed between census tract minority status and fast food density in King County. Although restaurant density was linked to low household incomes, that effect was attenuated by arterial road density. Fast food restaurants in King County are more likely to be located in lower income neighborhoods and higher traffic areas. PMID:19630979

  7. Road safety control: Application in urban environment in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charisoudis, A.; Mintsis, G.; Basbas, S.; Taxiltaris, Ch.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine what is and what is not a "road safety control" on the one hand and on the other hand to examine the procedure of the realization of this control in different countries in the level of the organization as well as in the level of the praxis through the Road Safety Manuals of each country. The countries under examination are: The United Kinghdom, Danish, U.S.A, Australia and New Zeeland. The Road Safety Manual of the International Organization World Road Association-PIARC is also mentioned. Finally examples of the application of road safety control, which were realized in the frame of the research programs of the research team of the Department of Transportation Engineering, School of Rural and Surveing, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki in the town of Aridea, are given.(in Greeks)

  8. View east along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View east along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the north side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  9. View northwest along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northwest along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the north side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  10. View southeast along Pomfret Road (Route 169) showing residence on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast along Pomfret Road (Route 169) showing residence on the east side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  11. View northeast across Hyde Road showing a residenc on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northeast across Hyde Road showing a residenc on the east side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  12. View north along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing residences on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing residences on the east side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  13. View north along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing residences on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing residences on west side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  14. View southeast across Providence Road (Route 6) showing a residence ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast across Providence Road (Route 6) showing a residence on the south side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  15. View northeast along Pomfret Road (Route 169) showing rersidences on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northeast along Pomfret Road (Route 169) showing rersidences on the east side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  16. View southwest along Hartford Road (Route 6) showing residences on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest along Hartford Road (Route 6) showing residences on the north side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  17. View southwest along Brown Road showing residential and commercial buildings ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest along Brown Road showing residential and commercial buildings on the north and south sides of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  18. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1999-01-01

    Disclosed are improvments to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

  19. VIEW OF MAIN ENTRANCE ROAD FACING SOUTH. SPUR ROAD TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MAIN ENTRANCE ROAD FACING SOUTH. SPUR ROAD TO WINDOWS SECTION AT LEFT, BALANCED ROCK NEAR CENTER OF PHOTO - Arches National Park Main Entrance Road, Beginning at U.S. Highway 191, approximately 6 miles north of Moab, Moab, Grand County, UT

  20. 6. VIEW OF MAIN ENTRANCE ROAD FACING SOUTH. SPUR ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF MAIN ENTRANCE ROAD FACING SOUTH. SPUR ROAD TO WINDOWS SECTION AT LEFT, BALANCED ROCK NEAR CENTER OF PHOTO. - Arches National Park Main Entrance Road, Beginning at U.S. Highway 191, approximately 6 miles north of Moab, Moab, Grand County, UT

  1. 24. OLD TIOGA ROAD VIEW, NOW MAY LAKE ROAD , ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. OLD TIOGA ROAD VIEW, NOW MAY LAKE ROAD , AT SNOW FLAT. MOUNT HOFFMAN AT CENTER REAR. LOOKING NW. GIS: N-37 49 34.6 / W-119 29 58.2 - Tioga Road, Between Crane Flat & Tioga Pass, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  2. 25. At Willard, corner of Willard Road and Oklahoma Road. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. At Willard, corner of Willard Road and Oklahoma Road. Metal flume section (once located elsewhere, over another road). Note skewed section. South/southwest 260 degrees. - Broughton Flume, Hood River Junction on Columbia River at Washington/Oregon border, Hood, Skamania County, WA

  3. 19. At Willard, corner of Willard Road and Oklahoma Road. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. At Willard, corner of Willard Road and Oklahoma Road. Metal flume section (once located elsewhere, over another road). Note skewed section. North/northeast 80 degrees. - Broughton Flume, Hood River Junction on Columbia River at Washington/Oregon border, Hood, Skamania County, WA

  4. Vapor absorption refrigeration in road transport vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Horuz, I.

    1999-08-01

    This study includes an experimental investigation into the use of vapor absorption refrigeration (VAR) systems in road transport vehicles using the waste heat in the exhaust gases of the main propulsion unit as the energy source. This would provide an alternative to the conventional vapor compression refrigeration system and its associated internal combustion engine. The performance of a VAR system fired by natural gas is compared with that of the same system driven by engine exhaust gases. This showed that the exhaust-gas-driven system produced the same performance characteristics as the gas-fired system. It also suggested that, with careful design, inserting the VAR system generator into the main engine exhaust system need not impair the performance of the vehicle propulsion unit. A comparison of the capital and running costs of the conventional and proposed alternative system is made. Suggestions are also made regarding operation of the VAR system during off-road/slow running conditions.

  5. Classification of road surface profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Rouillard, V.; Bruscella, B.; Sek, M.

    2000-02-01

    This paper introduces a universal classification methodology for discretely sampled sealed bituminous road profile data for the study of shock and vibrations related to the road transportation process. Data representative of a wide variety of Victorian (Australia) road profiles were used to develop a universal classification methodology with special attention to their non-Gaussian and nonstationary properties. This resulted in the design of computer software to automatically detect and extract transient events from the road spatial acceleration data as well as to identify segments of the constant RMS level enabling transients to be analyzed separately from the underlying road process. Nine universal classification parameters are introduced to describe road profile spatial acceleration based on the statistical characteristics of the transient amplitude and stationary RMS segments. Results from this study are aimed at the areas of road transport simulation as well as road surface characterization.

  6. On the Road

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mary Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Veteran development officers say the experience of visiting and traveling to different places or countries often feels like an endless cycle of getting lost, missing flights, and eating midnight dinners from hotel vending machines. Despite ongoing travel challenges, experienced road warriors have learned how to maximize their effectiveness,…

  7. Training Guide: Road Transport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan Page, Ltd., London (England).

    The third in a series of guides to British industrial training, this publication begins with a survey of training issues and tasks confronting the Road Transport Industry Training Board (RTITB). This is followed by information on RTITB policies and provisions; RTITB members, officers, and committees; apprenticeships and other training schemes;…

  8. Road-Cleaning Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    Roadways are literally soaked with petrochemical byproducts, oils, gasoline, and other volatile substances that eventually run off into sewers and end up in rivers, waterways, and other undesirable places. Can the roads be cleaned of these wastes, with their proper disposal? Can vehicles, robots, or other devices be designed that could be driven…

  9. Fine-Scale Road Stretch Forecasting along Main Danish Roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahura, A.; Petersen, C.; Sattler, K.; Sass, B.

    2009-09-01

    The DMI has in collaboration with the Danish Road Directorate (DRD) for almost two decades used a Road Condition Model (RCM) system (based on a dense road observations network and the numerical weather prediction model - HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model, HIRLAM) to provide operational forecasts of main road conditions at selected road stations of the Danish road network. As of Jan 2009, there are 357 road stations (equipped in total with 456 sensors), where measurements and forecasts of road surface temperature, air and dew point temperatures are conducted. Forecasts of other important meteorological parameters such as cloud cover and precipitations as well as radar and satellite images are also distributed to the users through the web-based interface vejvejr.dk and through DMI and DRD web-pages. For icing conditions, new technology has made it easy to vary the dose of spreaded salt, making it possible to use salt only on the parts of the road network where it is really needed. In our study measurements of road surface temperature from road stations and salt spreaders have additionally been used to examine both road stations and road stretches forecasts along the main roads of the Danish Road Network (accounting almost 23 thousand points located at distances of 250 m). These results showed critical importance of availability of detailed characteristics of the roads surroundings. To make local forecasts in a specific point all possible local detailed information is needed. Since high resolution models running at faster supercomputers as well as detailed physiographic datasets now are available, it is possible to improve the modelling and parameterization of significant physical processes influencing the formation of the slippery road conditions. First of all, it is based on a new dataset available from Kort og Matrikel styrelsen, the so-called Danish Height Model (Danmarks Højdemodel) which is a very detailed set of data with horizontal resolution of a few meters

  10. 77 FR 26785 - Implementation of Indian Reservation Roads Program and Streamlining the Federal Delivery of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... the Question 10 consultations, please see 75 FR 40849 (July 14, 2010). The update will include... announcing tribal consultations to discuss the following topics: (1) Changes in calculation of the Relative... Proposed Roads and Access Roads will contribute to the calculation of the RNDF for IRR Program funds....

  11. Geographic Access to Burn Center Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Matthew B.; Kramer, C. Bradley; Nelson, Jason; Rivara, Frederick P.; Gibran, Nicole S.; Concannon, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Context The delivery of burn care is a resource-intensive endeavor that requires specialized personnel and equipment. The optimal geographic distribution of burn centers has long been debated; however, the current distribution of centers relative to geographic area and population is unknown. Objective To estimate the proportion of the US population living within 1 and 2 hours by rotary air transport (helicopter) or ground transport of a burn care facility. Design and Setting A cross-sectional analysis of geographic access to US burn centers utilizing the 2000 US census, road and speed limit data, the Atlas and Database of Air Medical Services database, and the 2008 American Burn Association Directory. Main Outcome Measure The proportion of state, regional, and national population living within 1 and 2 hours by air transport or ground transport of a burn care facility. Results In 2008, there were 128 self-reported burn centers in the United States including 51 American Burn Association–verified centers. An estimated 25.1% and 46.3% of the US population live within 1 and 2 hours by ground transport, respectively, of a verified burn center. By air, 53.9% and 79.0% of the population live within 1 and 2 hours, respectively, of a verified center. There was significant regional variation in access to verified burn centers by both ground and rotary air transport. The greatest proportion of the population with access was highest in the northeast region and lowest in the southern United States. Conclusion Nearly 80% of the US population lives within 2 hours by ground or rotary air transport of a verified burn center; however, there is both state and regional variation in geographic access to these centers. PMID:19861669

  12. View southeast to Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing the Israel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast to Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing the Israel Putnam Memorial - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  13. View northwest along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing the Unitarian ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northwest along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing the Unitarian Church and the Federated Church of Christ - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  14. Data, Data Everywhere, but Access Remains a Big Issue for Researchers: A Review of Access Policies for Publicly-Funded Patient-Level Health Care Data in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Doshi, Jalpa A.; Hendrick, Franklin B.; Graff, Jennifer S.; Stuart, Bruce C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: High quality research regarding treatment effectiveness, quality, and value is critical for improving the U.S. health care system. Recognition of this has led federal and state officials to better leverage existing data sources such as medical claims and survey data, but access must be balanced with privacy concerns. Methods: We reviewed and catalogued data access policies for a selection of publicly-funded federal and state datasets to investigate how such policies may be promoting or limiting research activities. Results: We found significant variation in data access policies across federal agencies and across state agencies, including variation for multiple datasets available from the same agency. We also observed numerous indirect hurdles to use of data, including complex data use application procedures, high user fees, and prolonged wait times for data delivery. Conclusions: Policy makers and data owners should consider making changes to data access policies to maximize the utility and availability of these valuable resources. PMID:27141517

  15. A cooperative transponder system for improved traffic safety, localizing road users in the 5 GHz band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffer, B.; Kalverkamp, G.; Chaabane, M.; Biebl, E. M.

    2012-09-01

    We present a multi-user cooperative mobile transponder system which enables cars to localize pedestrians, bicyclists and other road users in order to improve traffic safety. The system operates at a center frequency of 5.768 GHz, offering the ability to test precision localization technology at frequencies close to the newly designated automotive safety related bands around 5.9 GHz. By carrying out a roundtrip time of flight measurement, the sensor can determine the distance from the onboard localization unit of a car to a road user who is equipped with an active transponder, employing the idea of a secondary radar and pulse compression. The onboard unit sends out a pseudo noise coded interrogation pulse, which is answered by one or more transponders after a short waiting time. Each transponder uses a different waiting time in order to allow for time division multiple access. We present the system setup as well as range measurement results, achieving an accuracy up to centimeters for the distance measurement and a range in the order of hundred meters. We also discuss the effect of clock drift and offset on distance accuracy for different waiting times and show how the system can be improved to further increase precision in a multiuser environment.

  16. Is road safety management linked to road safety performance?

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George

    2013-10-01

    This research aims to explore the relationship between road safety management and road safety performance at country level. For that purpose, an appropriate theoretical framework is selected, namely the 'SUNflower' pyramid, which describes road safety management systems in terms of a five-level hierarchy: (i) structure and culture, (ii) programmes and measures, (iii) 'intermediate' outcomes'--safety performance indicators (SPIs), (iv) final outcomes--fatalities and injuries, and (v) social costs. For each layer of the pyramid, a composite indicator is implemented, on the basis of data for 30 European countries. Especially as regards road safety management indicators, these are estimated on the basis of Categorical Principal Component Analysis upon the responses of a dedicated road safety management questionnaire, jointly created and dispatched by the ETSC/PIN group and the 'DaCoTA' research project. Then, quasi-Poisson models and Beta regression models are developed for linking road safety management indicators and other indicators (i.e. background characteristics, SPIs) with road safety performance. In this context, different indicators of road safety performance are explored: mortality and fatality rates, percentage reduction in fatalities over a given period, a composite indicator of road safety final outcomes, and a composite indicator of 'intermediate' outcomes (SPIs). The results of the analyses suggest that road safety management can be described on the basis of three composite indicators: "vision and strategy", "budget, evaluation and reporting", and "measurement of road user attitudes and behaviours". Moreover, no direct statistical relationship could be established between road safety management indicators and final outcomes. However, a statistical relationship was found between road safety management and 'intermediate' outcomes, which were in turn found to affect 'final' outcomes, confirming the SUNflower approach on the consecutive effect of each layer

  17. Simulator of Road Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danišovič, Peter; Schlosser, František; Šrámek, Juraj; Rázga, Martin

    2015-05-01

    A Tunnel Traffic & Operation Simulator is a device of the Centre of Transport Research at the University of Žilina. The Simulator allows managing technological equipment of virtual two-tube highway tunnel, which is interconnected with simulation of vehicle traffic in tunnel. Changes of the traffic-operation states and other equipment are reflecting at the simulated traffic, as well as simulations of various emergency events in traffic initiate changes in tunnel detecting and measuring devices. It is thus possible to simulate emergency states, which can be affected by various faults of technology as well as by climatic conditions. The solutions can be found in irreplaceable experiences of Slovak road tunnel operators, changes of trafficoperation states, visualizations of operator technological display screens, technological devices labelling in order to increase operational safety of road tunnels.

  18. Road Traffic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckenbauer, Thomas

    Road traffic is the most interfering noise source in developed countries. According to a publication of the European Union (EU) at the end of the twentieth century [1], about 40% of the population in 15 EU member states is exposed to road traffic noise at mean levels exceeding 55 dB(A). Nearly 80 million people, 20% of the population, are exposed to levels exceeding 65 dB(A) during daytime and more than 30% of the population is exposed to levels exceeding 55 dB(A) during night time. Such high noise levels cause health risks and social disorders (aggressiveness, protest, and helplessness), interference of communication and disturbance of sleep; the long- and short-term consequences cause adverse cardiovascular effects, detrimental hormonal responses (stress hormones), and possible disturbance of the human metabolism (nutrition) and the immune system. Even performance at work and school could be impaired.

  19. Tweets on the Road

    PubMed Central

    Lenormand, Maxime; Tugores, Antònia; Colet, Pere; Ramasco, José J.

    2014-01-01

    The pervasiveness of mobile devices, which is increasing daily, is generating a vast amount of geo-located data allowing us to gain further insights into human behaviors. In particular, this new technology enables users to communicate through mobile social media applications, such as Twitter, anytime and anywhere. Thus, geo-located tweets offer the possibility to carry out in-depth studies on human mobility. In this paper, we study the use of Twitter in transportation by identifying tweets posted from roads and rails in Europe between September 2012 and November 2013. We compute the percentage of highway and railway segments covered by tweets in 39 countries. The coverages are very different from country to country and their variability can be partially explained by differences in Twitter penetration rates. Still, some of these differences might be related to cultural factors regarding mobility habits and interacting socially online. Analyzing particular road sectors, our results show a positive correlation between the number of tweets on the road and the Average Annual Daily Traffic on highways in France and in the UK. Transport modality can be studied with these data as well, for which we discover very heterogeneous usage patterns across the continent. PMID:25141161

  20. Experiments on Washboard Road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Stephen; Taberlet, Nicolas; McElwaine, James; Dalziel, Stuart

    2007-03-01

    Granular surfaces to develop lateral ripples (so-called ``washboard" or ``corrugated" road) under the action of rolling wheels. Similar ripples are observed on railroad tracks and many other rolling, load bearing surfaces. Our aim was to investigate this instability of the flat road surface from the point of view of driven, dissipative granular dynamics. We report the results of both laboratory experiments and soft-particle direct numerical simulations. The experiment consisted of a rotating table 60 cm in radius with a thick layer of sand forming a roadbed around the circumference. A 6 cm radius hard rubber wheel, with a support stationary in the lab frame, rolled on the sand layer. We varied the speed of the table, the details of the grains and the suspension of the wheel. The ripple pattern appears as small patches of travelling waves which eventually spread to the entire circumference. The ripples drift slowly in the driving direction. Interesting secondary dynamics of the saturated ripples were observed, as well as various ripple creation and destruction events. The wavelength of the ripples can be quantized by the finite circumference of the road. All of these effects are captured qualitatively by 2D soft particle simulations in which a disk rolls over a 2D bed of polydisperse particles in a periodic box.

  1. Tweets on the road.

    PubMed

    Lenormand, Maxime; Tugores, Antònia; Colet, Pere; Ramasco, José J

    2014-01-01

    The pervasiveness of mobile devices, which is increasing daily, is generating a vast amount of geo-located data allowing us to gain further insights into human behaviors. In particular, this new technology enables users to communicate through mobile social media applications, such as Twitter, anytime and anywhere. Thus, geo-located tweets offer the possibility to carry out in-depth studies on human mobility. In this paper, we study the use of Twitter in transportation by identifying tweets posted from roads and rails in Europe between September 2012 and November 2013. We compute the percentage of highway and railway segments covered by tweets in 39 countries. The coverages are very different from country to country and their variability can be partially explained by differences in Twitter penetration rates. Still, some of these differences might be related to cultural factors regarding mobility habits and interacting socially online. Analyzing particular road sectors, our results show a positive correlation between the number of tweets on the road and the Average Annual Daily Traffic on highways in France and in the UK. Transport modality can be studied with these data as well, for which we discover very heterogeneous usage patterns across the continent. PMID:25141161

  2. Road to the Future: Strategies for Wildlife Crossings and Youth Empowerment to Improve Wildlife Habitat in Roaded Landscapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Dawn Renee

    2010-01-01

    As the footprint of human society expands upon the earth, habitat loss and landscape fragmentation is an increasing global problem. That problem includes loss of native habitats as these areas are harvested, converted to agricultural crops, and occupied by human settlement. Roads increase human access to previously inaccessible areas, encourage…

  3. Road traffic injuries in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Romão, Francelina; Nizamo, Hanifa; Mapasse, Domingos; Rafico, Momede Mussá; José, João; Mataruca, Simão; Efron, M Lúcia; Omondi, Lucas O; Leifert, Thelma; Bicho, Joaquim M L Marungo

    2003-01-01

    Road traffic injuries affect the economy, health and quality of life of the people of Mozambique. Current road safety programmes are inadequate and inefficient given the magnitude of the problem. Data reported on road traffic crashes in the period 1990 to 2000 from the National Institute for Road Safety, the traffic police and the Central Hospital of Maputo were reviewed. The burden of road traffic injuries in Mozambique is rising, with at least three people killed daily. The age group most affected is 25-38 (39.35%), followed by 16-24 (20.79%). The main causes of crashes include reckless driving, drunken driving, roads with potholes, inadequate signs, lack of protection for pedestrians, and inadequate traffic law enforcement. However, the data are not adequate to reveal the true magnitude of the problem. Data collected by different sources are incomplete and not coordinated with other sources and databases. In urban areas, however, better response to crashes, treatment of the injured, reporting and data collection is attributable to a greater concentration of police and medical facilities. Road traffic safety programmes in Mozambique are inadequate and inefficient, starting with the data collection system. Improvement of injury surveillance systems is needed to help make road traffic safety a national development agenda priority and for developing and implementing road safety policies. For road safety programmes to be effective, government must facilitate stakeholders' involvement, and the clear definition of government activities, civil society activities and public-private partnerships need to be established. PMID:12772487

  4. Closer view from west to east of limited access sentry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Closer view from west to east of limited access sentry station, sally port. Seen in the left background is the fuel oil pumping station (Building #805) - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, LImited Area Sentry Station, Intersection of Service Road C & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  5. DETAIL VIEW OF SRB/ET ACCESS PANELS, THROUGH VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORMS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF SRB/ET ACCESS PANELS, THROUGH VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORMS E-NORTH, E-SOUTH, B-NORTH, AND B-SOUTH, HB-3, FACING NORTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  6. 49 CFR 38.159 - Mobility aid accessibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mobility aid accessibility. 38.159 Section 38.159 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Over-the-Road Buses and Systems § 38.159 Mobility aid accessibility. (a)(1) General. All...

  7. 25 CFR 700.341 - Access to life estate leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Visitors and residents shall use the existing road systems and access rights of way when traveling to and... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Access to life estate leases. 700.341 Section 700.341... Life Estate Leases § 700.341 Access to life estate leases. (a) Family members and other persons...

  8. Effects on road safety of new urban arterial roads.

    PubMed

    Amundsen, Astrid H; Elvik, Rune

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the effects on road safety of new urban arterial roads in Oslo, Norway, and a synthesis of evidence from similar studies that have evaluated the safety effects of new urban arterial roads in other cities. A before-and-after study was made of four urban arterial road projects in Oslo. The study controlled for general accident trends in Oslo and for regression-to-the-mean. A statistically non-significant reduction of 9% in the number of injury accidents was found for all four projects combined. The effects on safety of new urban arterial roads were found to vary, depending on whether a new arterial road was built, or an existing arterial road upgraded by means of lane additions and reconstruction of junctions to interchanges. New arterial roads tend to induce more traffic, which tends to offset the benefits of a lower accident rate on the new roads. The results for other cities are very consistent with those for Oslo. For a total of seven cases in which new arterial roads were built, a statistically non-significant reduction of 1% in the number of injury accidents was found. Two cases that involved lane additions and converting at-grade junctions to interchanges resulted in a mean accident reduction of 51%, which was highly significant. On the average, the nine arterial road projects from which evidence was summarised resulted in a net induced traffic of 16%, and a net reduction in accident rate (accidents per million vehicle kilometres) of 18%. These effects almost cancel each other, leading to a very small net change in the expected number of accidents. PMID:14572833

  9. Road traffic injuries in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Deysi Yasmin; Fernández, Francisco José; Acero Velásquez, Hugo

    2003-01-01

    Road traffic injuries are a leading public health problem in Colombia. Pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users, especially in the main urban centers of Bogotá, Medellin and Cali. Data analyzed in this report include official statistics from the National Police and the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences for 1996-2000, and results of a study conducted at the National University of Colombia in 2000. Methods from the Highway Capacity Manual were used for determining physical and technical variables, and a Geographical Information System tool was used for the location and spatial analysis of the road traffic crashes. Pedestrians accounted for close to 32% of injuries and 40% of the deaths from road traffic crashes. The problem of road traffic crashes existed predominately in urban areas. In the main urban centers, pedestrians constituted nearly 68% of road traffic crash victims. The high level of risky road use behaviors demonstrated by pedestrians and drivers, and inadequate infrastructure for safe mobility of pedestrians in some sections of the road network were the main contributing factors. Major improvements were achieved in Bogotá following enhancements to the municipal transport system and other policies introduced since 1995. In conclusion, policies and programs for improving road safety, in particular pedestrian safety, and strengthening urban planning are top priority. PMID:12772483

  10. Surface-Water Exchange through Culverts beneath State Road 9336 within Everglades National Park, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaffranek, Raymond W.; Stewart, Marc A.; Nowacki, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected hydrologic data between June 2004 and December 2005 to investigate the temporal and spatial nature of flow exchanges through culverts beneath State Road 9336 within Everglades National Park. Continuous data collected during the study measured flow velocity, water level, salinity, conductivity, and water-temperature in or near seven culverts between Pa-hay-okee Overlook access road and Nine Mile Pond. The two culverts east of Pa-hay-okee Overlook access road flowed into Taylor Slough Basin from 87 to 96 percent of the study period, whereas flows through five culverts between Pa-hay-okee Overlook access road and Nine Mile Pond flowed into Shark River Slough Basin from 70 to 99 percent of the study period. Synoptic flow discharges measured at all culverts during three intensive field efforts revealed a net discharge into Taylor Slough Basin from Shark River Slough Basin through culverts between Royal Palm Road and Pa-hay-okee Overlook access road, and into Shark River Slough Basin from Taylor Slough Basin through culverts between Pa-hay-okee Overlook access road and Nine Mile Pond. Data collected during the study and presented in this report provided additional knowledge of the magnitude, direction, and nature of flow exchanges through the road culverts.

  11. Systematic Development of Intelligent Systems for Public Road Transport

    PubMed Central

    García, Carmelo R.; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; Cristóbal, Teresa; Padrón, Gabino; Alayón, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture model for the development of intelligent systems for public passenger transport by road. The main objective of our proposal is to provide a framework for the systematic development and deployment of telematics systems to improve various aspects of this type of transport, such as efficiency, accessibility and safety. The architecture model presented herein is based on international standards on intelligent transport system architectures, ubiquitous computing and service-oriented architecture for distributed systems. To illustrate the utility of the model, we also present a use case of a monitoring system for stops on a public passenger road transport network. PMID:27438836

  12. Systematic Development of Intelligent Systems for Public Road Transport.

    PubMed

    García, Carmelo R; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; Cristóbal, Teresa; Padrón, Gabino; Alayón, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture model for the development of intelligent systems for public passenger transport by road. The main objective of our proposal is to provide a framework for the systematic development and deployment of telematics systems to improve various aspects of this type of transport, such as efficiency, accessibility and safety. The architecture model presented herein is based on international standards on intelligent transport system architectures, ubiquitous computing and service-oriented architecture for distributed systems. To illustrate the utility of the model, we also present a use case of a monitoring system for stops on a public passenger road transport network. PMID:27438836

  13. 12. View west of access bridge to top of filtration ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. View west of access bridge to top of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  14. 17. Sliding access doors typical of those covering opening to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Sliding access doors typical of those covering opening to filtration bed. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  15. 24. Personnel access ladder, from upper level of launch facility ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Personnel access ladder, from upper level of launch facility - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  16. 25. Personnel access ladder, from lower level of launch facility ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Personnel access ladder, from lower level of launch facility - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  17. 10. REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF FROM SOUTHEASTERN EDGE, ACCESS RAMPS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF FROM SOUTHEASTERN EDGE, ACCESS RAMPS AT LEFT AND RIGHT, VIEW TOWARDS NORTHWEST. - Glenn L. Martin Company, Titan Missile Test Facilities, Captive Test Stand D-1, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  18. 8. REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF FROM NORTHWEST EDGE, ACCESS RAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF FROM NORTHWEST EDGE, ACCESS RAMP IN FOREGROUND, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTHEAST. - Glenn L. Martin Company, Titan Missile Test Facilities, CaptiveTest Stand D-3, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  19. On the road to prevention: road injury and health promotion.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Mark; Thompson, Jason

    2014-04-01

    Road traffic injuries are already the leading cause of injury mortality and morbidity globally and by 2030 are predicted to be the fifth leading cause of mortality in the world. Australia has seen a dramatic reduction in road deaths and serious injuries since the 1970s and holds an international reputation for road traffic injury prevention due, in part, to its success in pioneering the multidisciplinary and intersectoral approach needed to address this significant issue and by applying an evidence-led approach to policy development. The paper will discuss Australia's early success in road traffic injury prevention (road safety), particularly the achievements following the implementation of targeted programs that focussed on road user behaviours for which health promotion played a role. The most successful of these programs was the introduction of comprehensive seat belt laws, random breath testing and more recently, strategic speed enforcement programs. Amid an array of significant challenges faced by the transport system in the future, the rapid development in information and communication technologies applied to transport is likely to provide the next generation of road safety benefits. The potential for a semi-autonomous transport system is likely to provide the next significant decline in road fatalities and serious injuries over the next 2 decades and the role of health promotion in relation to raising community engagement and building coalitions to increase uptake of new technologies will be discussed. PMID:24739772

  20. 25. White Plains Road Bridge in foreground; Unionport Road Bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. White Plains Road Bridge in foreground; Unionport Road Bridge in background. Van Nest, Bronx Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 12.75./78. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York County, NY

  1. 25 CFR 170.813 - When can access to IRR transportation facilities be restricted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When can access to IRR transportation facilities be restricted? 170.813 Section 170.813 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.813 When can access to...

  2. 25 CFR 170.813 - When can access to IRR transportation facilities be restricted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When can access to IRR transportation facilities be restricted? 170.813 Section 170.813 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.813 When can access to...

  3. Freight on a Low-Carbon Diet: Accessibility, Freightsheds, and Commodities.

    PubMed

    Taptich, Michael N; Horvath, Arpad

    2015-10-01

    The freight infrastructure network (e.g., roads, railways, waterways, etc.) is the backbone of nearly all trade partnerships in the United States and abroad. The manner in which the individual portions of its constituent parts are interrelated or arranged plays an important role for determining the environmental footprint of goods moved within the network. Herein, we compare the spatial distribution of potential consumer-producer exchanges (i.e., accessibility) under varying greenhouse gas (GHG) budgets or preferences for minimal transportation-related GHG emissions. We conduct case studies using two freight modes (truck and intermodal rail) for two representative commodities: meat/seafood and paper articles. Results across all counties in the United States indicate that the geographic area in which trade is possible, given a GHG budget, varies by transportation mode, location, and commodity. Our results suggest that intermodal terminal availability is an important determinant of low-GHG accessibility. Since only a fraction of road-to-rail terminals accommodate meat/seafood (4.9%) and paper (0.7%), the United States could increase its expected GHG savings associated with truck-to-rail mode-switching policies by 70% (+20 kg CO2,e/ton for meat/seafood) and 310% (+30 kg CO2,e/ton for paper) by upgrading current terminals to allow the exchange of all types of goods. PMID:26339921

  4. View southwest along Route Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing commercial ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest along Route Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing commercial and residential buildings on the east and west sides of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  5. View northeast along Wauregan Road (Route 205) showing a residence ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northeast along Wauregan Road (Route 205) showing a residence on east side of the road from just south of the intersection of Routes 205 and 169 - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  6. RTP AREA ROAD GRADE MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Grade data collection with GPS equipment is important because the load model component of the MEASURE model uses grade to predict the vehicle load. To date, data collection has been conducted for high priority roads and this task will include other roads not included in the firs...

  7. Information Access and Exchange among Small Worlds in a Democratic Society: The Role of Policy in Shaping Information Behavior in the Post-9/11 United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Paul T.; Burnett, Gary

    2005-01-01

    Every democratic society relies on deliberation and dialogue between social groups with varying perspectives to provide for the representation of the diverse members of the society. Meaningful deliberation is based on open access to information by individuals and free exchange of information between different social groups. Policy developments in…

  8. An Initial Survey and Description of How Selected United States Government Libraries, Information Centers, and Information Services Provide Public Access to Information via the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, Thomas A.

    The purpose of this survey was to describe how selected U.S. government agencies provide information to the public via Internet services. A total of 19 World Wide Web sites were selected for the survey. Findings are reported related to types of resources made available, how sites identify available information, accessibility of information…

  9. Matching Up to the Information Society: An Evaluation of the EU, the EU Accession Countries, Switzerland and the United States. Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graafland-Essers, Irma; Cremonini, Leon; Ettedgui, Emile; Botterman, Maarten

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the current understanding of the advancement of the Information Society within the European Union and countries that are up for accession in 2004, and is based on the SIBIS (Statistical Indicators Benchmarking the Information Society) surveys and analyses per SIBIS theme and country. The report is unique in its coherent and…

  10. The Social Implications of Health Care Reform: Reducing Access Barriers to Health Care Services for Uninsured Hispanic and Latino Americans in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Mitchell A.; Inguanzo, Marian M.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. health care system is currently facing one of its most significant social challenges in decades in terms of its ability to provide access to primary care services to the millions of Americans who have lost their health insurance coverage in the recent economic recession. National statistics compiled by the U.S. Census Bureau for 2009…

  11. Information Technology and People with Disabilities: The Current State of Federal Accessibility. Presented by The Attorney General to The President of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. Civil Rights Div.

    This report responds to requirements of Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act, as amended in 1998, concerning the accessibility of federal electronic and information technology to individuals with disabilities. It contains the results of the first executive branch-wide Section 508 evaluation and recommends specific inexpensive, cost-effective, and…

  12. Road safety performance indicators for the interurban road network.

    PubMed

    Yannis, George; Weijermars, Wendy; Gitelman, Victoria; Vis, Martijn; Chaziris, Antonis; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Azevedo, Carlos Lima

    2013-11-01

    Various road safety performance indicators (SPIs) have been proposed for different road safety research areas, mainly as regards driver behaviour (e.g. seat belt use, alcohol, drugs, etc.) and vehicles (e.g. passive safety); however, no SPIs for the road network and design have been developed. The objective of this research is the development of an SPI for the road network, to be used as a benchmark for cross-region comparisons. The developed SPI essentially makes a comparison of the existing road network to the theoretically required one, defined as one which meets some minimum requirements with respect to road safety. This paper presents a theoretical concept for the determination of this SPI as well as a translation of this theory into a practical method. Also, the method is applied in a number of pilot countries namely the Netherlands, Portugal, Greece and Israel. The results show that the SPI could be efficiently calculated in all countries, despite some differences in the data sources. In general, the calculated overall SPI scores were realistic and ranged from 81 to 94%, with the exception of Greece where the SPI was relatively lower (67%). However, the SPI should be considered as a first attempt to determine the safety level of the road network. The proposed method has some limitations and could be further improved. The paper presents directions for further research to further develop the SPI. PMID:23268762

  13. Silk Roads or Steppe Roads? The Silk Roads in World History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, David

    2000-01-01

    Explores the prehistory of the Silk Roads, reexamines their structure and history in the classical era, and explores shifts in their geography in the last one thousand years. Explains that a revised understanding of the Silk Roads demonstrates how the Afro-Eurasian land mass has been linked by networks of exchange since the Bronze Age. (CMK)

  14. Ice Roads in the Northwest Territories: The Intersection of Climate, Economics, and Transportation Policy (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntington, H.; Sturm, M.; Goldstein, M.; Douglas, T. A.

    2010-12-01

    Ice roads would seem to be an obvious, and potentially sensitive, point of interaction between climate and human activity. An interdisciplinary study of ice roads in the vicinity of Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada, suggests that the real story is more complex. The feasibility of ice roads clearly has basic climatic requirements: there has to be enough cold weather to form enough ice to support vehicles. Beyond that basic requirement, though, lie a host of technical innovations in the construction and management of ice roads, extending the “natural” life of ice roads and providing more reliable and consistent transportation than climate alone would allow. In addition, the use of ice roads involves on economic need (for example, in re-supplying diamond mines), public policy (for example, providing access to remote communities), and funding (roads may cost thousands of dollars per kilometer, each year). In this paper, we explore the various factors that affect ice road viability, identifying key variables for monitoring and modeling to provide researchers and ice road managers with information to help determine optimal courses of action in a variable and changing climate.

  15. A GPS-based Real-time Road Traffic Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanti, Kamal Kumar

    In recent years, monitoring systems are astonishingly inclined towards ever more automatic; reliably interconnected, distributed and autonomous operation. Specifically, the measurement, logging, data processing and interpretation activities may be carried out by separate units at different locations in near real-time. The recent evolution of mobile communication devices and communication technologies has fostered a growing interest in the GIS & GPS-based location-aware systems and services. This paper describes a real-time road traffic monitoring system based on integrated mobile field devices (GPS/GSM/IOs) working in tandem with advanced GIS-based application software providing on-the-fly authentications for real-time monitoring and security enhancement. The described system is developed as a fully automated, continuous, real-time monitoring system that employs GPS sensors and Ethernet and/or serial port communication techniques are used to transfer data between GPS receivers at target points and a central processing computer. The data can be processed locally or remotely based on the requirements of client’s satisfaction. Due to the modular architecture of the system, other sensor types may be supported with minimal effort. Data on the distributed network & measurements are transmitted via cellular SIM cards to a Control Unit, which provides for post-processing and network management. The Control Unit may be remotely accessed via an Internet connection. The new system will not only provide more consistent data about the road traffic conditions but also will provide methods for integrating with other Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). For communication between the mobile device and central monitoring service GSM technology is used. The resulting system is characterized by autonomy, reliability and a high degree of automation.

  16. CLEAN-ROADS project: air quality considerations after the application of a novel MDSS on winter road maintenance activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pretto, Ilaria; Malloci, Elisa; Tonidandel, Gabriele; Benedetti, Guido; Di Napoli, Claudia; Piazza, Andrea; Apolloni, Roberto; Cavaliere, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    on sodium chloride, which releases Na+ and Cl-, the estimation of the contribution of road salting to PM10 concentration can be carried out considering only measured concentrations of Na+ and Cl-. However, the presence of these elements might not be due exclusively to salting activities. For this reason data collected during first winter campaign were analysed using the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) Model developed by United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to identify the presence of Na+ and Cl- in emission profiles of other PM10 sources (e.g., biomass burning, traffic) [3]. Through this study new guidelines have been defined for the optimization of current road management operations, and their applicability to other area in the Province of Trento has been assessed for future purposes. [1] Pretto I. et al., SIRWEC 2014 conference proceedings, ID:0019 (2014) [2] Ambient Air Quality and Cleaner Air for Europe (CAFE) Directive (2008/50/EC) [3] http://www.epa.gov/air-research/positive-matrix-factorization-model-environmental-data-analyses

  17. Estimating the human recovery costs of seriously injured road crash casualties.

    PubMed

    Bambach, M R; Mitchell, R J

    2015-12-01

    Road crashes result in substantial trauma and costs to societies around the world. Robust costing methods are an important tool to estimate costs associated with road trauma, and are key inputs into policy development and cost-benefit analysis for road safety programmes and infrastructure projects. With an expanding focus on seriously injured road crash casualties, in addition to the long standing focus on fatalities, methods for costing seriously injured casualties are becoming increasingly important. Some road safety agencies are defining a seriously injured casualty as an individual that was admitted to hospital following a road crash, and as a result, hospital separation data provide substantial potential for estimating the costs associated with seriously injured road crash casualties. The aim of this study is to establish techniques for estimating the human recovery costs of (non-fatal) seriously injured road crash casualties directly from hospital separation data. An individuals' road crash-related hospitalisation record and their personal injury insurance claim were linked for road crashes that occurred in New South Wales, Australia. These records provided the means for estimating all of the costs to the casualty directly related to their recovery from their injuries. A total of 10,897 seriously injured road crash casualties were identified and four methods for estimating their recovery costs were examined, using either unit record or aggregated hospital separation data. The methods are shown to provide robust techniques for estimating the human recovery costs of seriously injured road crash casualties, that may prove useful for identifying, implementing and evaluating safety programmes intended to reduce the incidence of road crash-related serious injuries. PMID:26436488

  18. Freedom Road: Colonial Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    While historical fiction by Jean Fritz as well as titles like Robert Lawson's "Ben and Me" (1939) or "Mr. Revere and I" (1954) and Esther Forbes's "Johnny Tremain" (1943) are widely known classics that bring this period to life, recent years have yielded a wealth of new offerings--many of which are accessible picture books or read-alouds. These…

  19. 34. At Willard, Oklahoma Road north of Willard Road, at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. At Willard, Oklahoma Road north of Willard Road, at the site of the former Cook House for Willard Mill (upper mill that cut cants for Broughton Lumber Company's flume). Section of feeder after Lava Creek, looking down flume. Note extra large size of "V" in water supply vs. cant portions of flume. South/southeast 170 degrees. - Broughton Flume, Hood River Junction on Columbia River at Washington/Oregon border, Hood, Skamania County, WA

  20. 30 CFR 816.150 - Roads: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Roads: general. 816.150 Section 816.150 Mineral... PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.150 Roads: general. (a) Road classification system. (1) Each road, as defined in § 701.5 of this chapter, shall...

  1. 30 CFR 817.151 - Primary roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Primary roads. 817.151 Section 817.151 Mineral... roads. Primary roads shall meet the requirements of § 817.150 and the additional requirements of this section. (a) Certification. The construction or reconstruction of primary roads shall be certified in...

  2. 25 CFR 265.3 - Roads prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Roads prohibited. 265.3 Section 265.3 Indians BUREAU OF... ON INDIAN RESERVATIONS § 265.3 Roads prohibited. (a) Within the boundaries of this officially... highways, roads, truck trails, work roads, and all other types of ways constructed to make possible...

  3. 25 CFR 265.3 - Roads prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Roads prohibited. 265.3 Section 265.3 Indians BUREAU OF... ON INDIAN RESERVATIONS § 265.3 Roads prohibited. (a) Within the boundaries of this officially... highways, roads, truck trails, work roads, and all other types of ways constructed to make possible...

  4. 30 CFR 817.150 - Roads: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Roads: General. 817.150 Section 817.150 Mineral... PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.150 Roads: General. (a) Road classification system. (1) Each road, as defined in § 701.5 of this chapter, shall...

  5. 30 CFR 816.151 - Primary roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Primary roads. 816.151 Section 816.151 Mineral... roads. Primary roads shall meet the requirements of section 816.150 and the additional requirements of this section. (a) Certification. The construction or reconstruction of primary roads shall be...

  6. 25 CFR 265.3 - Roads prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Roads prohibited. 265.3 Section 265.3 Indians BUREAU OF... ON INDIAN RESERVATIONS § 265.3 Roads prohibited. (a) Within the boundaries of this officially... highways, roads, truck trails, work roads, and all other types of ways constructed to make possible...

  7. 25 CFR 265.3 - Roads prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Roads prohibited. 265.3 Section 265.3 Indians BUREAU OF... ON INDIAN RESERVATIONS § 265.3 Roads prohibited. (a) Within the boundaries of this officially... highways, roads, truck trails, work roads, and all other types of ways constructed to make possible...

  8. Plated wire random access memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gouldin, L. D.

    1975-01-01

    A program was conducted to construct 4096-work by 18-bit random access, NDRO-plated wire memory units. The memory units were subjected to comprehensive functional and environmental tests at the end-item level to verify comformance with the specified requirements. A technical description of the unit is given, along with acceptance test data sheets.

  9. Estuary Data Mapper: A Stand-Alone Tool for Geospatial Data Access, Visualization and Download for Estuaries and Coastal Watersheds of the United States. (UNH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA Estuary Data Mapper (EDM; http://badger.epa.gov/rsig/edm/index.html) has been designed as a free stand-alone tool for geospatial data discovery, visualization, and data download for estuaries and their associated watersheds in the conterminous United States. EDM requi...

  10. Estuary Data Mapper: A Stand-Alone Tool for Geospatial Data Access, Visualization and Download for Estuaries and Coastal Watersheds of the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA Estuary Data Mapper (EDM; http://badger.epa.gov/rsig/edm/index.html) has been designed as a free stand-alone tool for geospatial data discovery, visualization, and data download for estuaries and their associated watersheds in the conterminous United States. EDM requi...

  11. The Dilemma of Mountain Roads

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountain roads and trails are proliferating throughout developing Southeast Asia with severe but largely unrecognized long-term consequences related to effects of landslides and surface erosion on communities and downstream resources.

  12. MAJOR ROADS COVERAGE AND DATASET

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (TIGER) system contains digital descriptions of water and transportation features - rivers, lakes, roads, railroads, etc. - as well as major power lines and pipelines. This coverage is a subset of the larger TIGER ...

  13. Web Accessibility and Accessibility Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Ravonne A.; Huprich, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Section 508 of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) mandates that programs and services be accessible to people with disabilities. While schools of library and information science (SLIS*) and university libraries should model accessible Web sites, this may not be the case. This article examines previous studies about the Web accessibility of…

  14. Influence of solid noise barriers on near-road and on-road air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldauf, Richard W.; Isakov, Vlad; Deshmukh, Parikshit; Venkatram, Akula; Yang, Bo; Zhang, K. Max

    2016-03-01

    Public health concerns regarding adverse health effects for populations spending significant amounts of time near high traffic roadways has increased substantially in recent years. Roadside features, including solid noise barriers, have been investigated as potential methods that can be implemented in a relatively short time period to reduce air pollution exposures from nearby traffic. A field study was conducted to determine the influence of noise barriers on both on-road and downwind pollutant concentrations near a large highway in Phoenix, Arizona, USA. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, ultrafine particles, and black carbon were measured using a mobile platform and fixed sites along two limited-access stretches of highway that contained a section of noise barrier and a section with no noise barrier at-grade with the surrounding terrain. Results of the study showed that pollutant concentrations behind the roadside barriers were significantly lower relative to those measured in the absence of barriers. The reductions ranged from 50% within 50 m from the barrier to about 30% as far as 300 m from the barrier. Reductions in pollutant concentrations generally began within the first 50 m of the barrier edge; however, concentrations were highly variable due to vehicle activity behind the barrier and along nearby urban arterial roadways. The concentrations on the highway, upwind of the barrier, varied depending on wind direction. Overall, the on-road concentrations in front of the noise barrier were similar to those measured in the absence of the barrier, contradicting previous modeling results that suggested roadside barriers increase pollutant levels on the road. Thus, this study suggests that noise barriers do reduce potential pollutant exposures for populations downwind of the road, and do not likely increase exposures to traffic-related pollutants for vehicle passengers on the highway.

  15. Road Weather and Connected Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisano, P.; Boyce, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    On average, there are over 5.8 M vehicle crashes each year of which 23% are weather-related. Weather-related crashes are defined as those crashes that occur in adverse weather or on slick pavement. The vast majority of weather-related crashes happen on wet pavement (74%) and during rainfall (46%). Connected vehicle technologies hold the promise to transform road-weather management by providing improved road weather data in real time with greater temporal and geographic accuracy. This will dramatically expand the amount of data that can be used to assess, forecast, and address the impacts that weather has on roads, vehicles, and travelers. The use of vehicle-based measurements of the road and surrounding atmosphere with other, more traditional weather data sources, and create road and atmospheric hazard products for a variety of users. The broad availability of road weather data from mobile sources will vastly improve the ability to detect and forecast weather and road conditions, and will provide the capability to manage road-weather response on specific roadway links. The RWMP is currently demonstrating how weather, road conditions, and related vehicle data can be used for decision making through an innovative Integrated Mobile Observations project. FHWA is partnering with 3 DOTs (MN, MI, & NV) to pilot these applications. One is a mobile alerts application called the Motorists Advisories and Warnings (MAW) and a maintenance decision support application. These applications blend traditional weather information (e.g., radar, surface stations) with mobile vehicle data (e.g., temperature, brake status, wiper status) to determine current weather conditions. These weather conditions, and other road-travel-relevant information, are provided to users via web and phone applications. The MAW provides nowcasts and short-term forecasts out to 24 hours while the EMDSS application can provide forecasts up to 72 hours in advance. The three DOTs have placed readers and external

  16. 34. COULTERVILLE ROAD AT CENTER AND EL PORTAL ROAD/HIGHWAY 140 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. COULTERVILLE ROAD AT CENTER AND EL PORTAL ROAD/HIGHWAY 140 AT BOTTOM. ROCK SLIDES ARE AT THE COOKIE CLIFFS, BOTTOM RIGHT. NOTE OLD STAGE COACH ROAD JUST ABOVE THE EL PORTAL ROAD IN LOWER RIGHT TO LEFT OF ROCK SLIDE AREA. - Yosemite National Park Roads & Bridges, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  17. Observations of Novae From ROAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambsch, F.-J.

    2014-12-01

    The author discusses observations of galactic novae and some extragalactic supernovae from his remote observatory ROAD (Remote Observatory Atacama Desert) he commenced in August 2011 with Nova Lupi 2011 (PR Lup). The observed novae are mainly chosen according to AAVSO Alert Notices and AAVSO Special Notices as published on their website. Examples of dense observations of different novae are presented. The focus goes to the different behaviors of their light curves. It also demonstrates the capability of the remote observatory ROAD.

  18. Observations of Novae from ROAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambsch, Franz-Josef

    2014-05-01

    The author discusses observations of galactic novae and some extragalactic supernovae from his remote observatory ROAD (Remote Observatory Atacama Desert) he commenced in August 2011 with Nova Lupi 2011 (PR Lup). The observed novae are mainly chosen according to alert notices and special notices of the AAVSO as published on their website. Examples of dense observations of different novae are presented. The focus goes to the different behaviors of their light curves. It also demonstrates the capability of the remote observatory ROAD.

  19. Automatic inspection of road surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rughooputh, Harry C. S.; Rughooputh, Soonil D. D. V.; Kinser, Jason M.

    2000-03-01

    Traditional inspections of road surfaces for the condition assessment and for locating cracks are time-consuming, expensive and can prove to be dangerous. What is ideally required would be a fully equipped automated inspecting vehicle capable of high precision location and characterization of road surface cracks over the width of the road (single pass). We propose an automatic crack monitoring system (akin to HARRIS - UK) with the video-based subsystem substituted by Global Positioning Systems for more accurate positioning. Besides, our technique avoids the storage of large volumes of scanned images of 'acceptable' road surface conditions. A pulse coupled neural network (PCNN) is used as a preprocessor for each scanned image to detect cracks while another PCNN segments this image to characterize identified defects. The latter image is then stored as binary image along with the GPS data. The type of cracks is later identified (offline) from the recorded binary images. This mode of data collection leads to a more accurate, less costly and faster automated system. Our results for road surface (concrete and bituminous) images reveal the suitability of this novel technique for a fully automated road inspection system for crack identification and characterization.

  20. Method for estimating road salt contamination of Norwegian lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitterød, Nils-Otto; Wike Kronvall, Kjersti; Turtumøygaard, Stein; Haaland, Ståle

    2013-04-01

    Consumption of road salt in Norway, used to improve winter road conditions, has been tripled during the last two decades, and there is a need to quantify limits for optimal use of road salt to avoid further environmental harm. The purpose of this study was to implement methodology to estimate chloride concentration in any given water body in Norway. This goal is feasible to achieve if the complexity of solute transport in the landscape is simplified. The idea was to keep computations as simple as possible to be able to increase spatial resolution of input functions. The first simplification we made was to treat all roads exposed to regular salt application as steady state sources of sodium chloride. This is valid if new road salt is applied before previous contamination is removed through precipitation. The main reasons for this assumption are the significant retention capacity of vegetation; organic matter; and soil. The second simplification we made was that the groundwater table is close to the surface. This assumption is valid for major part of Norway, which means that topography is sufficient to delineate catchment area at any location in the landscape. Given these two assumptions, we applied spatial functions of mass load (mass NaCl pr. time unit) and conditional estimates of normal water balance (volume of water pr. time unit) to calculate steady state chloride concentration along the lake perimeter. Spatial resolution of mass load and estimated concentration along the lake perimeter was 25 m x 25 m while water balance had 1 km x 1 km resolution. The method was validated for a limited number of Norwegian lakes and estimation results have been compared to observations. Initial results indicate significant overlap between measurements and estimations, but only for lakes where the road salt is the major contribution for chloride contamination. For lakes in catchments with high subsurface transmissivity, the groundwater table is not necessarily following the

  1. 43 CFR 36.12 - Temporary access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... appropriate Federal agency for an access permit by providing the relevant information requested in the SF 299... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Temporary access. 36.12 Section 36.12... ACROSS, AND ACCESS INTO, CONSERVATION SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA § 36.12 Temporary access. (a) For...

  2. 43 CFR 36.12 - Temporary access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... appropriate Federal agency for an access permit by providing the relevant information requested in the SF 299... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary access. 36.12 Section 36.12... ACROSS, AND ACCESS INTO, CONSERVATION SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA § 36.12 Temporary access. (a) For...

  3. Effects of road decommissioning on carbon stocks, losses, and emissions in north coastal California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madej, Mary A.; Seney, Joseph; van Mantgem, Philip

    2013-01-01

    During the last 3 decades, many road removal projects have been implemented on public and private lands in the United States to reduce erosion and other impacts from abandoned or unmaintained forest roads. Although effective in decreasing sediment production from roads, such activities have a carbon (C) cost as well as representing a carbon savings for an ecosystem. We assessed the carbon budget implications of 30 years of road decommissioning in Redwood National Park in north coastal California. Road restoration techniques, which evolved during the program, were associated with various carbon costs and savings. Treatment of 425 km of logging roads from 1979 to 2009 saved 72,000 megagrams (Mg) C through on-site soil erosion prevention, revegetation, and soil development on formerly compacted roads. Carbon sequestration will increase in time as forests and soils develop more fully on the restored sites. The carbon cost for this road decommissioning work, based on heavy equipment and vehicle fuel emissions, short-term soil loss, and clearing of vegetation, was 23,000 Mg C, resulting in a net carbon savings of 49,000 Mg C to date. Nevertheless, the degree to which soil loss is a carbon sink or source in steep mountainous watersheds needs to be further examined. The ratio of carbon costs to savings will differ by ecosystem and road removal methodology, but the procedure outlined here to assess carbon budgets on restoration sites should be transferable to other systems.

  4. Soil geohazard mapping for improved asset management of UK local roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, O. G.; Hallett, S. H.; Farewell, T. S.

    2015-09-01

    Unclassified roads comprise 60 % of the road network in the United Kingdom (UK). The resilience of this locally important network is declining. It is considered by the Institution of Civil Engineers to be "at risk" and is ranked 26th in the world. Many factors contribute to the degradation and ultimate failure of particular road sections. However, several UK local authorities have identified that in drought conditions, road sections founded upon shrink-swell susceptible clay soils undergo significant deterioration compared with sections on non-susceptible soils. This arises from the local road network having little, if any, structural foundations. Consequently, droughts in East Anglia have resulted in millions of pounds of damage, leading authorities to seek emergency governmental funding. This paper assesses the use of soil-related geohazard assessments in providing soil-informed maintenance strategies for the asset management of the locally important road network of the UK. A case study draws upon the UK administrative county of Lincolnshire, where road assessment data have been analysed against mapped clay-subsidence risk. This reveals a statistically significant relationship between road condition and susceptible clay soils. Furthermore, incorporation of UKCP09 future climate projections within the geohazard models has highlighted roads likely to be at future risk of clay-related subsidence.

  5. Soil geohazard mapping for improved asset management of UK local roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, O. G.; Hallett, S. H.; Farewell, T. S.

    2015-05-01

    Unclassified roads comprise 60% of the road network in the United Kingdom (UK). The resilience of this locally important network is declining. It is considered by the Institution of Civil Engineers to be "at risk" and is ranked 26th in the world. Many factors contribute to the degradation and ultimate failure of particular road sections. However, several UK local authorities have identified that in drought conditions, road sections founded upon shrink/swell susceptible clay soils undergo significant deterioration compared with sections on non-susceptible soils. This arises from the local road network having little, if any structural foundations. Consequently, droughts in East Anglia have resulted in millions of pounds of damage, leading authorities to seek emergency governmental funding. This paper assesses the use of soil-related geohazard assessments in providing soil-informed maintenance strategies for the asset management of the locally important road network of the UK. A case study draws upon the UK administrative county of Lincolnshire, where road assessment data have been analysed against mapped clay-subsidence risk. This reveals a statistically significant relationship between road condition and susceptible clay soils. Furthermore, incorporation of UKCP09 future climate projections within the geohazard models has highlighted roads likely to be at future risk of clay-related subsidence.

  6. CARPORT OF UNIT B. THE SPACE BETWEEN UNITS IS IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CARPORT OF UNIT B. THE SPACE BETWEEN UNITS IS IN THE BACKGROUND AT LEFT. VIEW FACING SOUTH - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Duplex Type 1, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. OBLIQUE VIEW OF UNIT B. THE SPACE BETWEEN UNITS IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF UNIT B. THE SPACE BETWEEN UNITS IS ON THE RIGHT. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Duplex Type 1, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. CARPORT OF UNIT B WITH THE AREA BETWEEN UNITS TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CARPORT OF UNIT B WITH THE AREA BETWEEN UNITS TO THE RIGHT. VIEW FACING NORTH - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Duplex Type 1, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. OBLIQUE VIEW OF UNIT A. THE SPACE BETWEEN UNITS IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF UNIT A. THE SPACE BETWEEN UNITS IS ON THE LEFT. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Duplex Type 1, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. Perinatal outcomes among migrant mothers in the United Kingdom: Is it a matter of biology, behaviour, policy, social determinants or access to health care?

    PubMed

    Puthussery, Shuby

    2016-04-01

    This paper examines trends in perinatal outcomes among migrant mothers in the UK, and it explores potential contributors to disparities focusing on pregnancy, birth and the first year of life. Trends in perinatal outcomes indicate that ethnic minority grouping, regardless of migrant status, is a significant risk factor for unfavourable outcomes. It is unclear whether migrant status per se adds to this risk as within-group comparisons between UK-born and foreign-born women show variable findings. The role of biological and behavioural factors in producing excess unfavourable outcomes among ethnic minority mothers, although indicated, is yet to be fully understood. UK policies have salient aspects that address ethnic inequalities, but their wide focus obscures provisions for migrant mothers. Direct associations between socio-economic factors, ethnicity and adverse infant outcomes are evident. Evidence is consistent about differential access to and utilisation of health services among ethnic minority mothers, in particular recently arrived migrants, refugees and asylum seekers. PMID:26527304

  11. Gold or green: the debate on open access policies.

    PubMed

    Abadal, Ernest

    2013-09-01

    The movement for open access to science seeks to achieve unrestricted and free access to academic publications on the Internet. To this end, two mechanisms have been established: the gold road, in which scientific journals are openly accessible, and the green road, in which publications are self-archived in repositories. The publication of the Finch Report in 2012, advocating exclusively the adoption of the gold road, generated a debate as to whether either of the two options should be prioritized. The recommendations of the Finch Report stirred controversy among academicians specialized in open access issues, who felt that the role played by repositories was not adequately considered and because the green road places the burden of publishing costs basically on authors. The Finch Report's conclusions are compatible with the characteristics of science communication in the UK and they could surely also be applied to the (few) countries with a powerful publishing industry and substantial research funding. In Spain, both the current national legislation and the existing rules at universities largely advocate the green road. This is directly related to the structure of scientific communication in Spain, where many journals have little commercial significance, the system of charging a fee to authors has not been adopted, and there is a good repository infrastructure. As for open access policies, the performance of the scientific communication system in each country should be carefully analyzed to determine the most suitable open access strategy. PMID:24568035

  12. Road safety and road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Mansuri, Farah A.; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H.; Zalat, Marwa M.; Qabshawi, Reem I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the changing trends and crucial preventive approaches to road traffic accidents (RTAs) adopted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 2.5 decades, and to analyze aspects previously overlooked. Methods: This systematic review was based on evidence of RTAs in KSA. All articles published during the last 25 years on road traffic accident in KSA were analyzed. This study was carried out from December 2013 to May 2014 in the Department of Family and Community Medicine, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, KSA. Results: Road traffic accidents accounted for 83.4% of all trauma admissions in 1984-1989, and no such overall trend was studied thereafter. The most frequently injured body regions as reported in the latest studies were head and neck, followed by upper and lower extremities, which was found to be opposite to that of the studies reported earlier. Hospital data showed an 8% non-significant increase in road accident mortalities in contrast to police records of a 27% significant reduction during the years 2005-2010. Excessive speeding was the most common cause reported in all recent and past studies. Conclusion: Disparity was common in the type of reporting of RTAs, outcome measures, and possible causes over a period of 2.5 decade. All research exclusively looked into the drivers’ faults. A sentinel surveillance of road crashes should be kept in place in the secondary and tertiary care hospitals for all regions of KSA. PMID:25828277

  13. The Road to Shadowland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Divakaruni, Chitra Banerjee

    2010-01-01

    Divakaruni reflects on her path to becoming an author for children, including her formative encounters with stories told by her grandfather in her native India, and experiences as a mother and as an Indian woman in the post-9/11 context of the United States.

  14. 12. Northwest end and southwest rear, dock no. 493. Access ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Northwest end and southwest rear, dock no. 493. Access road in foreground. View to east. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  15. 7. Southeast end and northeast rear, dock no. 492. Access ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Southeast end and northeast rear, dock no. 492. Access road in foreground. View to northwest. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  16. Prospect for Development of Open Access in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miguel, Sandra; Bongiovani, Paola C.; Gomez, Nancy D.; Bueno-de-la-Fuente, Gema

    2013-01-01

    This perspective article presents an overview of the Open Access movement in Argentina, from a global and regional (Latin American) context. The article describes the evolution and current state of initiatives by examining two principal approaches to Open Access in Argentina: "golden" and "green roads". The article will then turn its attention to:…

  17. Road Nail: Experimental Solar Powered Intelligent Road Marking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samardžija, Dragan; Teslić, Nikola; Todorović, Branislav M.; Kovač, Erne; Isailović, Đorđe; Miladinović, Bojan

    2012-03-01

    Driving in low visibility conditions (night time, fog or heavy precipitation) is particularly challenging task with an increased probability of traffic accidents and possible injuries. Road Nail is a solar powered intelligent road marking system of wirelessly networked signaling devices that improve driver safety in low visibility conditions along hazardous roadways. Nails or signaling devices are autonomous nodes with capability to accumulate energy, exchange wireless messages, detect approaching vehicles and emit signalization light. We have built an experimental test-bed that consists of 20 nodes and a cellular gateway. Implementation details of the above system, including extensive measurements and performance evaluations in realistic field deployments are presented. A novel distributed network topology discovery scheme is proposed which integrates both sensor and wireless communication aspects, where nodes act autonomously. Finally, integration of the Road Nail system with the cellular network and the Internet is described.

  18. Encapsulating urban traffic rhythms into road networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junjie; Wei, Dong; He, Kun; Gong, Hang; Wang, Pu

    2014-01-01

    Using road GIS (geographical information systems) data and travel demand data for two U.S. urban areas, the dynamical driver sources of each road segment were located. A method to target road clusters closely related to urban traffic congestion was then developed to improve road network efficiency. The targeted road clusters show different spatial distributions at different times of a day, indicating that our method can encapsulate dynamical travel demand information into the road networks. As a proof of concept, when we lowered the speed limit or increased the capacity of road segments in the targeted road clusters, we found that both the number of congested roads and extra travel time were effectively reduced. In addition, the proposed modeling framework provided new insights on the optimization of transport efficiency in any infrastructure network with a specific supply and demand distribution. PMID:24553203

  19. Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  20. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Building access control (BAC)--a catchall phrase to describe the systems that control access to facilities across campus--has traditionally been handled with remarkably low-tech solutions: (1) manual locks; (2) electronic locks; and (3) ID cards with magnetic strips. Recent improvements have included smart cards and keyless solutions that make use…

  1. Deaths from international terrorism compared with road crash deaths in OECD countries

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, N; Thomson, G

    2005-01-01

    Methods: Data on deaths from international terrorism (US State Department database) were collated (1994–2003) and compared to the road injury deaths (year 2000 and 2001 data) from the OECD International Road Transport Accident Database. Results: In the 29 OECD countries for which comparable data were available, the annual average death rate from road injury was approximately 390 times that from international terrorism. The ratio of annual road to international terrorism deaths (averaged over 10 years) was lowest for the United States at 142 times. In 2001, road crash deaths in the US were equal to those from a September 11 attack every 26 days. Conclusions: There is a large difference in the magnitude of these two causes of deaths from injury. Policy makers need to be aware of this when allocating resources to preventing these two avoidable causes of mortality. PMID:16326764

  2. ROAD CLASS 3 TRANSPORTATION DIGITAL LINE GRAPHS FOR THE MID-ATLANTIC INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT (MAIA) STUDY AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set is a geographic information system (GIS) coverage of the lower level divided roads and streets (Class 3 Roads) for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment (MAIA) Project region. The coverage was produced using U...

  3. ROAD CLASS 4 TRANSPORTATION DIGITAL LINE GRAPHS FOR THE MID-ATLANTIC INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT (MAIA) STUDY AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set is a geographic information system (GIS) coverage of the lower level roads and streets (Class 4 Roads) for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment (MAIA) Project region. The coverage was produced using US Geolog...

  4. An integrated material metabolism model for stocks of urban road system in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhen; Hu, Dan; Zhang, Fuhua; Huang, Guolong; Xiao, Qiang

    2014-02-01

    Rapid urbanization has greatly altered the urban metabolism of material and energy. As a significant part of the infrastructure, urban roads are being rapidly developed worldwide. Quantitative analysis of metabolic processes on urban road systems, especially the scale, composition and spatial distribution of their stocks, could help to assess the resource appropriation and potential environmental impacts, as well as improve urban metabolism models. In this paper, an integrated model, which covered all types of roads, intersection structures and ancillary facilities, was built for calculating the material stocks of urban road systems. Based on a bottom-up method, the total stocks were disassembled into a number of stock parts rather than obtained by input-output data, which provided an approach promoting data availability and inner structure understanding. The combination with GIS enabled the model to tackle the complex structures of road networks and avoid double counting. In the case study of Beijing, the following results are shown: 1) The total stocks for the entire road system reached 159 million tons, of which nearly 80% was stored in roads, and 20% in ancillary facilities. 2) Macadam was the largest stock (111 million tons), while stone mastic asphalt, polyurethane plastics, and atactic polypropylene accounted for smaller components of the overall system. 3) The stock per unit area of pedestrian overcrossing was higher than that of the other stock units in the entire system, and its steel stocks reached 0.49 t/m(2), which was 10 times as high as that in interchanges. 4) The high stock areas were mainly distributed in ring-shaped and radial expressways, as well as in major interchanges. 5) Expressways and arterials were excessively emphasized, while minor roads were relatively ignored. However, the variation of cross-sectional thickness in branches and neighborhood roads will have a significant impact on the scale of material stocks in the entire road system

  5. A global strategy for road building.

    PubMed

    Laurance, William F; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Sloan, Sean; O'Connell, Christine S; Mueller, Nathan D; Goosem, Miriam; Venter, Oscar; Edwards, David P; Phalan, Ben; Balmford, Andrew; Van Der Ree, Rodney; Arrea, Irene Burgues

    2014-09-11

    The number and extent of roads will expand dramatically this century. Globally, at least 25 million kilometres of new roads are anticipated by 2050; a 60% increase in the total length of roads over that in 2010. Nine-tenths of all road construction is expected to occur in developing nations, including many regions that sustain exceptional biodiversity and vital ecosystem services. Roads penetrating into wilderness or frontier areas are a major proximate driver of habitat loss and fragmentation, wildfires, overhunting and other environmental degradation, often with irreversible impacts on ecosystems. Unfortunately, much road proliferation is chaotic or poorly planned, and the rate of expansion is so great that it often overwhelms the capacity of environmental planners and managers. Here we present a global scheme for prioritizing road building. This large-scale zoning plan seeks to limit the environmental costs of road expansion while maximizing its benefits for human development, by helping to increase agricultural production, which is an urgent priority given that global food demand could double by mid-century. Our analysis identifies areas with high environmental values where future road building should be avoided if possible, areas where strategic road improvements could promote agricultural development with relatively modest environmental costs, and 'conflict areas' where road building could have sizeable benefits for agriculture but with serious environmental damage. Our plan provides a template for proactively zoning and prioritizing roads during the most explosive era of road expansion in human history. PMID:25162528

  6. Photogrammetric Techniques for Road Surface Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knyaz, V. A.; Chibunichev, A. G.

    2016-06-01

    The quality and condition of a road surface is of great importance for convenience and safety of driving. So the investigations of the behaviour of road materials in laboratory conditions and monitoring of existing roads are widely fulfilled for controlling a geometric parameters and detecting defects in the road surface. Photogrammetry as accurate non-contact measuring method provides powerful means for solving different tasks in road surface reconstruction and analysis. The range of dimensions concerned in road surface analysis can have great variation from tenths of millimetre to hundreds meters and more. So a set of techniques is needed to meet all requirements of road parameters estimation. Two photogrammetric techniques for road surface analysis are presented: for accurate measuring of road pavement and for road surface reconstruction based on imagery obtained from unmanned aerial vehicle. The first technique uses photogrammetric system based on structured light for fast and accurate surface 3D reconstruction and it allows analysing the characteristics of road texture and monitoring the pavement behaviour. The second technique provides dense 3D model road suitable for road macro parameters estimation.

  7. China takes to the roads.

    PubMed

    Roberts, I

    1995-05-20

    China is undergoing rapid motorisation--motor vehicle registrations are growing at a rate of 10%-20% a year. Road trauma is already a major public health problem, and road deaths, officially estimated to be around 50,000 a year, will almost certainly rise with increasing motorisation. China, with its millions of bicycles, currently has one of the most environmentally friendly transportation systems on the planet. However, as the trend towards car travel continues, the problems of congestion and environmental pollution so evident in the West will also become critical public health issues in China. PMID:7773048

  8. CLOSEUP VIEW OF A GENERATOR UNIT WITH ITS ASSOCIATED INSTRUMENTATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CLOSE-UP VIEW OF A GENERATOR UNIT WITH ITS ASSOCIATED INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL PANEL. - Wilson Dam & Hydroelectric Plant, Turbine & Generator Unit, Spanning Tennessee River at Wilson Dam Road (Route 133), Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  9. A quantitative study of sediment delivery and stream pollution from different forest road types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, Gary J.; Noske, Philip J.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to quantify, and enable the prediction of, sediment delivery and water pollution impacts from a spectrum of forest roads. Ten 100-200 m long sections of forest road were selected to incorporate a wide range of the key physical site factors that are likely to affect the rate of sediment generation. Each road section was permanently instrumented for 1 year to measure rainfall and runoff continuously. Suspended load, bedload, and traffic were integrated measurements over 2- to 3-week site-service intervals. Total annual sediment load (normalized for slope) varied about 25-fold, from 216 mg m-2 per millimetre of rain for a high-quality gravel surfaced road with minimal traffic to 5373 mg m-2 per millimetre of rain for an unsurfaced road on an erodible subsoil with moderate light-vehicle traffic. For the seven gravel-surfaced roads in this study, truck traffic (axles/week) explained 97% of the variation in annual sediment delivery (per unit of rainfall) from the road. Equations are proposed that allow annual sediment delivery rates to be estimated when net rainfall, road slope, road area, and truck traffic are known. Roads produce runoff rapidly and were found to deliver sediment for about the same duration as rainfall is falling, in this study varying between 5 and 10% of the time. The patterns of sediment delivery measured from the experimental roads (frequency, duration, and intensity) in this study are similar to levels that have been shown to alter the composition of in-stream macroinvertebrate communities in small (e.g. <10 l s-1), clean, mountain streams. However, in larger well-mixed streams (e.g. >500 l s-1), dilution is sufficient to prevent concentrations reaching critical levels that are likely to result in biological impacts. Copyright

  10. Estimating under-reporting of road crash injuries to police using multiple linked data collections.

    PubMed

    Watson, Angela; Watson, Barry; Vallmuur, Kirsten

    2015-10-01

    The reliance on police data for the counting of road crash injuries can be problematic, as it is well known that not all road crash injuries are reported to police which under-estimates the overall burden of road crash injuries. The aim of this study was to use multiple linked data sources to estimate the extent of under-reporting of road crash injuries to police in the Australian state of Queensland. Data from the Queensland Road Crash Database (QRCD), the Queensland Hospital Admitted Patients Data Collection (QHAPDC), Emergency Department Information System (EDIS), and the Queensland Injury Surveillance Unit (QISU) for the year 2009 were linked. The completeness of road crash cases reported to police was examined via discordance rates between the police data (QRCD) and the hospital data collections. In addition, the potential bias of this discordance (under-reporting) was assessed based on gender, age, road user group, and regional location. Results showed that the level of under-reporting varied depending on the data set with which the police data was compared. When all hospital data collections are examined together the estimated population of road crash injuries was approximately 28,000, with around two-thirds not linking to any record in the police data. The results also showed that the under-reporting was more likely for motorcyclists, cyclists, males, young people, and injuries occurring in Remote and Inner Regional areas. These results have important implications for road safety research and policy in terms of: prioritising funding and resources; targeting road safety interventions into areas of higher risk; and estimating the burden of road crash injuries. PMID:26162640

  11. Road safety alerting system with radar and GPS cooperation in a VANET environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santamaria, Amilcare Francesco; Sottile, Cesare; De Rango, Floriano; Voznak, Miroslav

    2014-05-01

    New applications in wireless environments are increasing and keeping even more interests from the developer companies and researchers. In particular, in these last few years the government and institutional organization for road safety spent a lot of resources and money to promote Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET) technology, also car manufactures are giving a lot of contributions on this field as well. In our paper, we propose an innovative system to increase road safety, matching the requests of the market allowing a cooperation between on-board devices. The vehicles are equipped with On Board Unit (OBU) and On Board Radar Unit (OBRU), which can spread alerting messages around the network regarding warning and dangerous situations exploiting IEEE802.llp standard. Vehicles move along roads observing the environment, traffic and road conditions, and vehicles parameters as well. These information can be elaborated and shared between neighbors, Road Side Unit (RSU)s and, of course, with Internet, allowing inter-system communications exploiting an Road Traffic Manager (RTM). Radar systems task it the detection of the environment in order to increase the knowledge of current conditions of the roads, for example it is important to identify obstacles, road accidents, dangerous situations and so on. Once detected exploiting onboard devices, such as Global Position System (GPS) receiver it is possible to know the exact location of the caught event and after a data elaboration the information is spread along the network. Once the drivers are advised, they can make some precautionary actions such as reduction of traveling speed or modification of current road path. In this work the routing algorithms, which have the main goal to rapidly disseminate information, are also been investigated.

  12. General road detection from a single image.

    PubMed

    Kong, Hui; Audibert, Jean-Yves; Ponce, Jean

    2010-08-01

    Given a single image of an arbitrary road, that may not be well-paved, or have clearly delineated edges, or some a priori known color or texture distribution, is it possible for a computer to find this road? This paper addresses this question by decomposing the road detection process into two steps: the estimation of the vanishing point associated with the main (straight) part of the road, followed by the segmentation of the corresponding road area based upon the detected vanishing point. The main technical contributions of the proposed approach are a novel adaptive soft voting scheme based upon a local voting region using high-confidence voters, whose texture orientations are computed using Gabor filters, and a new vanishing-point-constrained edge detection technique for detecting road boundaries. The proposed method has been implemented, and experiments with 1003 general road images demonstrate that it is effective at detecting road regions in challenging conditions. PMID:20371404

  13. Road surface texture and skid resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Minh-Tan; Cerezo, Veronique

    2015-12-01

    This paper deals with the relationship between road surface texture and skid resistance. Mechanisms underlying the tire/wet road friction are first described. Definitions of road surface irregularities scales are given. The rest of the paper is then focused on the macrotexture and microtexture scales and their respective roles in what happens at the tire/road interface. Existing methods to measure and characterize the road surface texture are presented. On the one hand, problems encountered when using sensors developed for machined surfaces for the measurement of road surface profiles or cartographies are discussed. On the other hand, potential improvements when applying characterization methods developed for machined surfaces to road surfaces are highlighted. The paper presents finally modeling approaches to calculate friction forces from road surface texture. The generalized form of the models is presented from which terms related respectively to the macrotexture and the microtexture are identified. Approaches used to calculate these terms, integrating eventually other variables, are presented.

  14. Access to health care

    PubMed Central

    Fortin, Martin; Maltais, Danielle; Hudon, Catherine; Lapointe, Lise; Ntetu, Antoine Lutumba

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore access to health care for patients presenting with multiple chronic conditions and to identify barriers and factors conducive to access. DESIGN Qualitative study with focus groups. SETTING Family practice unit in Chicoutimi (Saguenay), Que. PARTICIPANTS Twenty-five male and female adult patients with at least four chronic conditions but no cognitive disorders or decompensating conditions. METHODS For this pilot study, only three focus group discussions were held. MAIN FINDINGS The main barriers to accessing follow-up appointments included long waits on the telephone, automated telephone-answering systems, and needing to attend at specific times to obtain appointments. The main barriers to specialized care were long waiting times and the need to get prescriptions and referrals from family physicians. Factors reported conducive to access included systematic callbacks and the personal involvement of family physicians. Good communication between family physicians and specialists was also perceived to be an important factor in access. CONCLUSION Systematic callbacks, family physicians’ personal efforts to obtain follow-up visits, and better physician-specialist communication were all suggested as ways to improve access to care for patients with multiple chronic conditions. PMID:16926944

  15. 2. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING AT GLENDALE ROAD CROSSING OF DEEP CREEK LAKE (PHOTOGRAPH BY RUTHVAN MORROW) - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  16. 1. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING AT GLENDALE ROAD CROSSING OF DEEP CREEK LAKE (PHOTOGRAPH BY RUTHVAN MORROW) - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  17. 35. PRATER GRADE ROAD VIEW, FACING NW. NOTE WEATHERING STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. PRATER GRADE ROAD VIEW, FACING NW. NOTE WEATHERING STEEL RAIL AND ROAD CUT IN DISTANCE. MONTEZUMA VALLEY OVERLOOK IS JUST TO RIGHT OF DISTANT ROAD CUT. - Mesa Verde National Park Main Entrance Road, Cortez, Montezuma County, CO

  18. 6. ELEVATED, OBLIQUE VIEW OF INTERSECTION INFRASTRUCTURE AT LATROBE ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. ELEVATED, OBLIQUE VIEW OF INTERSECTION INFRASTRUCTURE AT LATROBE ROAD AND WHITE ROCK ROAD; VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Placerville Road, White Rock Road between Clarksville & White Rock, El Dorado Hills, El Dorado County, CA

  19. Old Big Oak Flat Road at intersection with New Tioga ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Old Big Oak Flat Road at intersection with New Tioga Road. Note gate for road to Tamarack Campground - Big Oak Flat Road, Between Big Oak Flat Entrance & Merced River, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  20. 3. ENVIRONMENT, FROM SOUTH, SHOWING RIVER ROAD RIDGE CARRYING CASSELMAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. ENVIRONMENT, FROM SOUTH, SHOWING RIVER ROAD RIDGE CARRYING CASSELMAN RIVER ROAD OVER CASSELMAN RIVER - River Road Bridge, Crossing Casselman River on Casselman River Road, Grantsville, Garrett County, MD

  1. Disparities in Healthcare Access and Utilization among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder from Immigrant Non-English Primary Language Households in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Sue C.; Yu, Stella M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in United State (US) has surged from 1 in 150 children in 2007 to 1 in 88 children in 2012 with substantial increase in immigrant minority groups including Hispanic and Somali children. Our study objective is to examine the associations between household language among children with ASD and national health quality indicators attainment. Methods: We conducted bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses using cross-sectional data from the publicly-available 2009-2010 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs (NS-CSHCN) to investigate the association between household language use and quality indicators of medical home, adequate insurance, and early and continuous screening. Results: Approximately, 28% of parents of children with ASD from non-English primary language (NEPL) households reported their child having severe ASD as compared with 13% of parents from English primary language (EPL) households. Older children were more likely to have care that met the early and continuous screening quality indicator, while lower income children and uninsured children were less likely to have met this indicator. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Despite the lack of differences in the attainment of quality indicators by household language, the higher severity found in children in NEPL households suggests that they are exceptionally vulnerable. Enhanced early screening and identification for these children and supporting their parents in navigating the complex US health care delivery system would increase their participation in early intervention services. Immigration of children with special health care needs from around the world to the US has been increasing from countries with diverse healthcare systems. Our findings will help to inform policies and interventions to reduce health disparities for children with ASD from immigrant populations. As the prevalence of ASD has increased

  2. Calibration of Speed Enforcement Down-The-Road Radars

    PubMed Central

    Jendzurski, John; Paulter, Nicholas G.

    2009-01-01

    We examine the measurement uncertainty associated with different methods of calibrating the ubiquitous down-the-road (DTR) radar used in speed enforcement. These calibration methods include the use of audio frequency sources, tuning forks, a fifth wheel attached to the rear of the vehicle with the radar unit, and the speedometer of the vehicle. We also provide an analysis showing the effect of calibration uncertainty on DTR-radar speed measurement uncertainty.

  3. Road safety education for schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Thein, M M; Lee, J

    1993-01-01

    In Singapore 6% of mortality of children below the age of 15 years is due to traffic related accidents. Prevention is a function of school educational outreach, modification of driver's behavior, and distancing children from vehicles. Singapore's road safety education program for schoolchildren is described as directed to children aged 7-12 years. Education takes place in al road safety park on a permanent four acre site that models a miniature road setting. The traffic police conduct the sessions among 500 students daily. Lessons involve basic instruction in safety principles and a test of knowledge followed by a traffic game. The objective is use role plays of pedestrians, motorists and cyclists to test skills, to help children identify traffic hazards, and to teach practical safety prevention measures. Secondary school students are trained as marshalls for the road safety park. The traffic police also conduct training among senior citizens and among cyclists. The park is open to the public and private groups on Sundays. During 1981-92 over 600,000 children were trained. Other strategies that indirectly affect the safety of children include drunk driving checks, speed checks, campaigns against drunk driving, education programs for motorists, safety education for cyclists and motorcyclists, and mass media promotion of safety. Since 1991-92 school zones are marked with speed bumps and signs. Pedestrian walkways are improved, and policy are acting against drivers not yielding the right of way to pedestrians. PMID:8185797

  4. Pollution-free road lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreuder, Duco A.

    They relate to reducing road accidents and some forms of crime but also enhance the social safety of residents and pedestrians and the amenity for residents. Road traffic in developing countries is much more hazardous than in industrialized countries. Accident rates in 'low' income countries may be as much as 35 times higher than in 'high' income countries. Thus, it might be much more cost-effective to light roads in the developing world than in the industrialized world. Fighting light pollution is more pressing in developing countries as most of the major high-class astronomical observatories are there. Astronomical observations are disturbed by light from outdoor lighting installations, part of which is scattered in the atmosphere to form 'sky glow'. The International Lighting Commission CIE has published a Technical Report giving general guidance for lighting designers and policy makers on the reduction of the sky glow. Lighting improves visibility, essential for almost all human activity. However, light that hits the road contributes to visibility only if it is reflected. In poorly designed lighting equipment much of the lumen output of the lamps is sent directly upwards. This can be avoided by properly defined light fittings. The light output of fittings is determined by their optical quality and by the installation maintenance factor. Open fittings are to be preferred. If mounted horizontally, they make street lighting with the least light pollution.

  5. Road Map for a Dream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenlon, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    The transition into kindergarten is a challenge for any student, but it can be especially difficult for students with disabilities and their families. In this article, Amanda Fenlon suggests that by planning ahead families and schools can smooth that transition and put students on the right road. She encourages families to work with their child's…

  6. Road map for utility diversification

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J.D.; Ross, W.W.

    1982-12-23

    Under a growing impetus to shift their business emphasis, utility companies can find the road to diversification rife with problems and uncertainties. Studies of possible new business opportunities come relatively easy, but success in embarking upon them is anything but easy. This article provides useful insights into the process, and points out some important prerequisites for successful diversification efforts. 17 references, 2 figures.

  7. 30 CFR 816.151 - Primary roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Primary roads. 816.151 Section 816.151 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.151 Primary roads. Primary roads shall meet...

  8. 30 CFR 817.151 - Primary roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Primary roads. 817.151 Section 817.151 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.151 Primary roads. Primary roads shall...

  9. On the Road: Hitchhiking on the Highway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Abraham

    1973-01-01

    People on the road seem to arrange themselves according to three main types: students, street and road people, and runaways. From the perspective of conventional society road people are threatening, for the latter have defined dropping out in a way at least appealing to those who cannot conform to the responsibilities of adulthood. (Author)

  10. 24 CFR 1710.210 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Roads. 1710.210 Section 1710.210... (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements § 1710.210 Roads. (a) State the estimated cost to the developer of the proposed road system. (b) If the developer is...

  11. 14 CFR 151.89 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Roads. 151.89 Section 151.89 Aeronautics... AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.89 Roads. (a) Federal-aid Airport Program funds may not be used to resolve highway problems. Only those airport entrance roads that are...

  12. 14 CFR 151.89 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Roads. 151.89 Section 151.89 Aeronautics... AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.89 Roads. (a) Federal-aid Airport Program funds may not be used to resolve highway problems. Only those airport entrance roads that are...

  13. 30 CFR 780.37 - Road systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Road systems. 780.37 Section 780.37 Mineral... MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 780.37 Road systems... plans and drawings for each road, as defined in § 701.5 of this chapter, to be constructed, used,...

  14. 30 CFR 780.37 - Road systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Road systems. 780.37 Section 780.37 Mineral... MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 780.37 Road systems... plans and drawings for each road, as defined in § 701.5 of this chapter, to be constructed, used,...

  15. 30 CFR 784.24 - Road systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Road systems. 784.24 Section 784.24 Mineral... UNDERGROUND MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 784.24 Road... shall submit plans and drawings for each road, as defined in § 701.5 of this chapter, to be...

  16. 30 CFR 784.24 - Road systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Road systems. 784.24 Section 784.24 Mineral... UNDERGROUND MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 784.24 Road... shall submit plans and drawings for each road, as defined in § 701.5 of this chapter, to be...

  17. 30 CFR 784.24 - Road systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Road systems. 784.24 Section 784.24 Mineral... UNDERGROUND MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 784.24 Road... shall submit plans and drawings for each road, as defined in § 701.5 of this chapter, to be...

  18. 30 CFR 780.37 - Road systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Road systems. 780.37 Section 780.37 Mineral... MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 780.37 Road systems... plans and drawings for each road, as defined in § 701.5 of this chapter, to be constructed, used,...

  19. 24 CFR 1710.210 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roads. 1710.210 Section 1710.210... (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements § 1710.210 Roads. (a) State the estimated cost to the developer of the proposed road system. (b) If the developer is...

  20. 14 CFR 151.89 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Roads. 151.89 Section 151.89 Aeronautics... AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.89 Roads. (a) Federal-aid Airport Program funds may not be used to resolve highway problems. Only those airport entrance roads that are...

  1. 30 CFR 784.24 - Road systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Road systems. 784.24 Section 784.24 Mineral... UNDERGROUND MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 784.24 Road... shall submit plans and drawings for each road, as defined in § 701.5 of this chapter, to be...

  2. 14 CFR 151.89 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Roads. 151.89 Section 151.89 Aeronautics... AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.89 Roads. (a) Federal-aid Airport Program funds may not be used to resolve highway problems. Only those airport entrance roads that are...

  3. 30 CFR 780.37 - Road systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Road systems. 780.37 Section 780.37 Mineral... MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 780.37 Road systems... plans and drawings for each road, as defined in § 701.5 of this chapter, to be constructed, used,...

  4. 30 CFR 784.24 - Road systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Road systems. 784.24 Section 784.24 Mineral... UNDERGROUND MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 784.24 Road... shall submit plans and drawings for each road, as defined in § 701.5 of this chapter, to be...

  5. 24 CFR 1710.210 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Roads. 1710.210 Section 1710.210... (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements § 1710.210 Roads. (a) State the estimated cost to the developer of the proposed road system. (b) If the developer is...

  6. 24 CFR 1710.210 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Roads. 1710.210 Section 1710.210... (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements § 1710.210 Roads. (a) State the estimated cost to the developer of the proposed road system. (b) If the developer is...

  7. 24 CFR 1710.210 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Roads. 1710.210 Section 1710.210... (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements § 1710.210 Roads. (a) State the estimated cost to the developer of the proposed road system. (b) If the developer is...

  8. 30 CFR 780.37 - Road systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Road systems. 780.37 Section 780.37 Mineral... MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 780.37 Road systems... plans and drawings for each road, as defined in § 701.5 of this chapter, to be constructed, used,...

  9. 49 CFR 391.31 - Road test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Road test. 391.31 Section 391.31 Transportation... COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Tests § 391.31 Road test. (a) Except as provided in subpart G, a... test and has been issued a certificate of driver's road test in accordance with this section. (b)...

  10. HOW FAR TO THE NEAREST ROAD?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increases in impervious surface area lead to declines in chemical and biological indicators of water quality .Roads are an important aspect of impervious surface, and distance to roads is an indicator of the potential threat to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Although roads a...

  11. An analysis of the accessibility of video lottery terminals: the case of Montréal

    PubMed Central

    Robitaille, Éric; Herjean, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Background Researchers and public health officials in Canada, the United States and Australia have for some time noted broader geographic accessibility to gambling establishments, above all in socioeconomically underprivileged communities. This increase in availability could lead to more and more gambling problems. This article focuses, in an ecological perspective, in particular on a spatial analysis of the geographic accessibility of sites possessing a VLT permit in the Montréal area, i.e. Montréal Island, the South Shore and Laval, from the standpoint of the development of an indicator of the vulnerability (socioeconomic components and demographic components) to gambling of populations at the level of certain neighbourhood units (dissemination areas). With the recent development of geographic information systems (GIS), it is now possible to ascertain accessibility to services much more accurately, for example by taking into account the configuration of the road network. Results The findings of our analysis reveal widespread geographic accessibility to sites possessing a VLT permit in the downtown area and in pericentral districts. In some neighbourhood units, a site possessing a VLT permit may be within a three-minute walk. In the region studied overall, average walking time to a VLT site is nine minutes. Access to this type of service on foot is usually limited in the outskirts. However, a number of groups of sites possessing VLT permits are found along certain axial highways. According to local spatial self-correlation analyses, the findings suggest a significant link between walking accessibility to sites possessing VLT permits and the vulnerability of the communities. In a number of neighbourhood units with ready access to VLT's the populations display high vulnerability. Conclusion These findings reveal that accessibility to sites possessing a VLT permit is often linked to the vulnerability (socioeconomic and demographic components) of communities

  12. Image feature based GPS trace filtering for road network generation and road segmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Jiangye; Cheriyadat, Anil M.

    2015-10-19

    We propose a new method to infer road networks from GPS trace data and accurately segment road regions in high-resolution aerial images. Unlike previous efforts that rely on GPS traces alone, we exploit image features to infer road networks from noisy trace data. The inferred road network is used to guide road segmentation. We show that the number of image segments spanned by the traces and the trace orientation validated with image features are important attributes for identifying GPS traces on road regions. Based on filtered traces , we construct road networks and integrate them with image features to segment road regions. Lastly, our experiments show that the proposed method produces more accurate road networks than the leading method that uses GPS traces alone, and also achieves high accuracy in segmenting road regions even with very noisy GPS data.

  13. Image feature based GPS trace filtering for road network generation and road segmentation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yuan, Jiangye; Cheriyadat, Anil M.

    2015-10-19

    We propose a new method to infer road networks from GPS trace data and accurately segment road regions in high-resolution aerial images. Unlike previous efforts that rely on GPS traces alone, we exploit image features to infer road networks from noisy trace data. The inferred road network is used to guide road segmentation. We show that the number of image segments spanned by the traces and the trace orientation validated with image features are important attributes for identifying GPS traces on road regions. Based on filtered traces , we construct road networks and integrate them with image features to segmentmore » road regions. Lastly, our experiments show that the proposed method produces more accurate road networks than the leading method that uses GPS traces alone, and also achieves high accuracy in segmenting road regions even with very noisy GPS data.« less

  14. Automatic Recognition of Road Signs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Yasuo; Kohashi, Yuuichirou; Ishikawa, Naoto; Nakajima, Masato

    2002-11-01

    The increase in traffic accidents is becoming a serious social problem with the recent rapid traffic increase. In many cases, the driver"s carelessness is the primary factor of traffic accidents, and the driver assistance system is demanded for supporting driver"s safety. In this research, we propose the new method of automatic detection and recognition of road signs by image processing. The purpose of this research is to prevent accidents caused by driver"s carelessness, and call attention to a driver when the driver violates traffic a regulation. In this research, high accuracy and the efficient sign detecting method are realized by removing unnecessary information except for a road sign from an image, and detect a road sign using shape features. At first, the color information that is not used in road signs is removed from an image. Next, edges except for circular and triangle ones are removed to choose sign shape. In the recognition process, normalized cross correlation operation is carried out to the two-dimensional differentiation pattern of a sign, and the accurate and efficient method for detecting the road sign is realized. Moreover, the real-time operation in a software base was realized by holding down calculation cost, maintaining highly precise sign detection and recognition. Specifically, it becomes specifically possible to process by 0.1 sec(s)/frame using a general-purpose PC (CPU: Pentium4 1.7GHz). As a result of in-vehicle experimentation, our system could process on real time and has confirmed that detection and recognition of a sign could be performed correctly.

  15. Dog Bites among Off-Road Cyclists: A Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Majid; Shafiei, Masih; Kordi, Ramin

    2012-01-01

    Background As the field of off-road cycling is usually remote areas with limited access to medical care, off-road cyclists are at higher risk of animal attacks and related injuries. Case presentation We report two cases of dog attacks in off-road cycling and discuss the basic principles in prevention and management of such incidents. The cyclists received all 5-dose regimen of the rabies vaccine and returned to sport after 6 weeks. During 6-month follow-up period, no complications were observed. Conclusions To reduce the probability of dog attacks and its complications, the off-road cyclists should be familiar with some basic principles. They should also be educated about initial on-site management of the related injuries, which may have a great impact on decreasing further complications. PMID:22461967

  16. 32 CFR 323.5 - Access to systems of records information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 323.5 Access to systems of records... General Counsel, Defense Logistics Agency, ATTN: DGA, Suite 1644, 8725 John J. Kingman Road, Fort Belvoir... Logistics Agency, ATTN: DGA, 8725 John J. Kingman Road, Suite 1644, Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6221. Any...

  17. 32 CFR 323.5 - Access to systems of records information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 323.5 Access to systems of records... General Counsel, Defense Logistics Agency, ATTN: DGA, Suite 1644, 8725 John J. Kingman Road, Fort Belvoir... Logistics Agency, ATTN: DGA, 8725 John J. Kingman Road, Suite 1644, Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6221. Any...

  18. 2. VIEW OF SWITCHBACKS IN FORESTA ROAD (OLD DAVIS CUTOFF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF SWITCHBACKS IN FORESTA ROAD (OLD DAVIS CUT-OFF ROAD). NOTE FORESTA ROAD BRIDGE IN LOWER LEFT. ROAD CURVE HIDDEN IN TREES AT CENTER. NOTE ROAD CUT AT LEFT. LOOKING SSW. GIS: N-37"40'47.4"/W-119"47'22.2 - Foresta Road, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  19. Mobile vehicle road and weather observation quality check methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koller, Daniel Raymond

    Today State Departments of Transportation rely more and more on road weather data to make maintenance decisions. Inaccurate data can result in wrong treatment applications or inadequate staffing levels to maintain the roadway at the desired level of service. Previous methods of road condition data reporting have been limited to static in situ sensor stations. These road weather information systems (RWIS) provide varied data about precipitation, winds, temperature, and more, but their siting does not always provide an accurate representation of weather and road conditions along the roadway. The use of mobile data collection from vehicles travelling the highway corridors may assist in the locations where RWIS sitings are sparse or non-existent. The United States Department of Transporation's "Connected Vehicle" (formally IntelliDrive) research project is designed to create a fully connected transportation system providing road and weather data collection from an extensive array of vehicles. While the implementation of Connected Vehicle is in the future, some of the theories and technologies are already in place today. Several states, as a part of the Pooled Fund Study Maintenance Decision Support System (MDSS), have equipped their winter maintenance vehicles with Mobile Data Collection Automated / Vehicle Location (MDC/AVL) systems. In addition, since 1996, automobiles sold in the United States are required to be equipped with an Onboard Diagnostic Version 2 (OBDII) port that streams live data from sensors located in and around the vehicle. While these sensors were designed for vehicle diagnostics, some of the data can be used to determine weather characteristics around the vehicle. The OBDII data can be collected by a smartphone and sent to a server in real time to be processed. These mobile systems may fill the information gap along the roads that stationary environmental sensor stations are not able to collect. Particular concern and care needs to be focused on

  20. Road Development and the Geography of Hunting by an Amazonian Indigenous Group: Consequences for Wildlife Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa, Santiago; Branch, Lyn C.; Cueva, Rubén

    2014-01-01

    Protected areas are essential for conservation of wildlife populations. However, in the tropics there are two important factors that may interact to threaten this objective: 1) road development associated with large-scale resource extraction near or within protected areas; and 2) historical occupancy by traditional or indigenous groups that depend on wildlife for their survival. To manage wildlife populations in the tropics, it is critical to understand the effects of roads on the spatial extent of hunting and how wildlife is used. A geographical analysis can help us answer questions such as: How do roads affect spatial extent of hunting? How does market vicinity relate to local consumption and trade of bushmeat? How does vicinity to markets influence choice of game? A geographical analysis also can help evaluate the consequences of increased accessibility in landscapes that function as source-sink systems. We applied spatial analyses to evaluate the effects of increased landscape and market accessibility by road development on spatial extent of harvested areas and wildlife use by indigenous hunters. Our study was conducted in Yasuní Biosphere Reserve, Ecuador, which is impacted by road development for oil extraction, and inhabited by the Waorani indigenous group. Hunting activities were self-reported for 12–14 months and each kill was georeferenced. Presence of roads was associated with a two-fold increase of the extraction area. Rates of bushmeat extraction and trade were higher closer to markets than further away. Hunters located closer to markets concentrated their effort on large-bodied species. Our results clearly demonstrate that placing roads within protected areas can seriously reduce their capacity to sustain wildlife populations and potentially threaten livelihoods of indigenous groups who depend on these resources for their survival. Our results critically inform current policy debates regarding resource extraction and road building near or within

  1. Road development and the geography of hunting by an Amazonian indigenous group: consequences for wildlife conservation.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Santiago; Branch, Lyn C; Cueva, Rubén

    2014-01-01

    Protected areas are essential for conservation of wildlife populations. However, in the tropics there are two important factors that may interact to threaten this objective: 1) road development associated with large-scale resource extraction near or within protected areas; and 2) historical occupancy by traditional or indigenous groups that depend on wildlife for their survival. To manage wildlife populations in the tropics, it is critical to understand the effects of roads on the spatial extent of hunting and how wildlife is used. A geographical analysis can help us answer questions such as: How do roads affect spatial extent of hunting? How does market vicinity relate to local consumption and trade of bushmeat? How does vicinity to markets influence choice of game? A geographical analysis also can help evaluate the consequences of increased accessibility in landscapes that function as source-sink systems. We applied spatial analyses to evaluate the effects of increased landscape and market accessibility by road development on spatial extent of harvested areas and wildlife use by indigenous hunters. Our study was conducted in Yasuní Biosphere Reserve, Ecuador, which is impacted by road development for oil extraction, and inhabited by the Waorani indigenous group. Hunting activities were self-reported for 12-14 months and each kill was georeferenced. Presence of roads was associated with a two-fold increase of the extraction area. Rates of bushmeat extraction and trade were higher closer to markets than further away. Hunters located closer to markets concentrated their effort on large-bodied species. Our results clearly demonstrate that placing roads within protected areas can seriously reduce their capacity to sustain wildlife populations and potentially threaten livelihoods of indigenous groups who depend on these resources for their survival. Our results critically inform current policy debates regarding resource extraction and road building near or within

  2. Hemodialysis access - self care

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency - hemodialysis access; Chronic kidney failure - hemodialysis access; Chronic renal failure - hemodialysis access; dialysis - hemodialysis access

  3. Road Safety Barriers, the Need and Influence on Road Traffic Accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butāns, Ž.; Gross, K. A.; Gridnevs, A.; Karzubova, E.

    2015-11-01

    Constantly increasing intensity of road traffic and the allowed speed limits seem to impose stronger requirements on road infrastructure and use of road safety systems. One of the ways to improve road safety is the use of road restraint systems. Road safety barriers allow not only reducing the number of road traffic accidents, but also lowering the severity of accidents. The paper provides information on the technical requirements of road safety barriers. Various types of road safety barriers and their selection criteria for different types of road sections are discussed. The article views an example of a road traffic accident, which is also modelled by PC-Crash computer program. The given example reflects a road accident mechanism in case of a car-to-barrier collision, and provides information about the typical damage to the car and the barrier. The paper describes an impact of the road safety barrier type and its presence on the road traffic accident mechanism. Implementation and maintenance costs of different barrier types are viewed. The article presents a discussion on the necessity to use road safety barriers, as well as their optimal choice.

  4. Using CART to segment road images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Bob; Lienhart, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    The 2005 DARPA Grand Challenge is a 132 mile race through the desert with autonomous robotic vehicles. Lasers mounted on the car roof provide a map of the road up to 20 meters ahead of the car but the car needs to see further in order to go fast enough to win the race. Computer vision can extend that map of the road ahead but desert road is notoriously similar to the surrounding desert. The CART algorithm (Classification and Regression Trees) provided a machine learning boost to find road while at the same time measuring when that road could not be distinguished from surrounding desert.

  5. A Fuel-Based Assessment of On-Road and Off-Road Mobile Source Emission Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallmann, T. R.; Harley, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    Mobile sources contribute significantly to emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the United States. These emissions lead to a variety of environmental concerns including adverse human health effects and climate change. In the electric power sector, sulfur dioxide (SO2) and NOx emissions from power plants are measured directly using continuous emission monitoring systems. In contrast for mobile sources, statistical models are used to estimate average emissions from a very large and diverse population of engines. Despite much effort aimed at improving them, mobile source emission inventories continue to have large associated uncertainties. Alternate methods are needed to help evaluate estimates of mobile source emissions and quantify and reduce the associated uncertainties. In this study, a fuel-based approach is used to estimate emissions from mobile sources, including on-road and off-road gasoline and diesel engines. In this approach, engine activity is measured by fuel consumed (in contrast EPA mobile source emission models are based on vehicle km of travel and total amount of engine work output for on-road and off-road engines, respectively). Fuel consumption is defined in this study based on highway fuel tax reports for on-road engines, and from surveys of fuel wholesalers who sell tax-exempt diesel fuel for use in various off-road sectors such as agriculture, construction, and mining. Over the decade-long time period (1996-2006) that is the focus of the present study, national sales of taxable gasoline and diesel fuel intended for on-road use increased by 15 and 43%, respectively. Diesel fuel use by off-road equipment increased by about 20% over the same time period. Growth in fuel consumption offset some of the reductions in pollutant emission factors that occurred during this period. This study relies on in-use measurements of mobile source emission factors, for example from roadside and tunnel studies, remote sensing, and

  6. Geo-Hazards and Mountain Road Development in Nepal: Understanding the Science-Policy-Governance Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugar, Sumit; Dahal, Vaskar

    2015-04-01

    informed other road development schemes in Nepal. Geomorphological surveys and robust geo-hazard assessments that factor the spatial and temporal dimensions of the seismic, fluvial and sediment hazards along the road corridor are critical for sustainable development of mountain roads. However, scientific and technical research studies seldom inform mountain road development primarily due to lack of co-ordination between the respective government agencies, access to journal papers in developing countries and unwillingness to adopt novel interventions in rural road construction practices. These challenges are further exacerbated by weak governance and lack of proper policy enforcement that often leads to construction of poorly engineered roads, thereby increasing the risk of rural infrastructural damage from geo-hazards. Though there exists a disconnect between the science-policy-governance interface where information on geo-hazards is neglected in mountain road development due to lack of scientific research and government apathy, there is an opportunity to spur dialogue and sensitize these issues via trans-disciplinary approaches on disaster risk management.

  7. GENERAL VIEW OF VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORM CNORTH, HB3, FACING NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORM C-NORTH, HB-3, FACING NORTHEAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  8. GENERAL VIEW OF VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORM ENORTH, HB3, FACING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORM E-NORTH, HB-3, FACING NORTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  9. GENERAL VIEW OF VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORM ENORTH, HB3, FACING NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORM E-NORTH, HB-3, FACING NORTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  10. GENERAL VIEW OF VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORM DNORTH, HB3, FACING NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORM D-NORTH, HB-3, FACING NORTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  11. GENERAL VIEW OF VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORM CNORTH, HB3, FACING NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORM C-NORTH, HB-3, FACING NORTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  12. GENERAL VIEW OF NORTH VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORMS, HB3, FACING NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF NORTH VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORMS, HB-3, FACING NORTHEAST TOWARDS CEILING - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  13. GENERAL VIEW OF VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORM BNORTH, HB3, FACING NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORM B-NORTH, HB-3, FACING NORTHEAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  14. GENERAL VIEW OF VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORM DNORTH, HB3, FACING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORM D-NORTH, HB-3, FACING NORTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  15. GENERAL VIEW OF VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORM BNORTH, HB3, FACING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORM B-NORTH, HB-3, FACING NORTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  16. GENERAL VIEW OF NORTH VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORMS, HB3, FACING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF NORTH VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORMS, HB-3, FACING NORTH TOWARDS FLOOR - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  17. Urban development and road safety.

    PubMed

    Henning-Hager, U

    1986-04-01

    There is still not sufficient in-depth knowledge available concerning the type and extent of the interdependencies between the large number of factors that influence, on the one hand, urban and transport planning, and on the other hand, road safety. If such in-depth knowledge did, in fact, exist this information would make it possible to recommend courses of action to urban planning authorities. The present study aims to remove this data deficit so that planning authorities may be able to assess not only the effects expected from individual measures but also to evaluate, with respect to the level of road safety, an entire planning area. The empirical study is based on 21 typical residential areas for which a total of 56 characteristics (variables) relating to the following sectors have been identified as descriptors of the accident situation: transport; local development structure; infrastructure facilities other than those intended for transport; and population structure. The statistical analysis was undertaken in two steps: correlation analysis of all variables; identification of the determinants of significance for road safety; and establishment of a non-linear regression model based on seven variables to express the relationship between transport provisions and traffic volumes as well as the quality of supply and demand in quantitative terms. By means of the regression model the accident load can, in principle, be assessed for any given residential area. The correlation analysis showed that there are still further influential factors which are of importance for road safety. Attempts were therefore made to identify the variables displaying a significant relationship to the model variables and which could thus, owing to their effects on the latter and the resulting linkage with road safety, be considered as "background variables." Whereas the majority of the model variables are to be ascribed to the transport sector, the so-called "background variables" mainly

  18. Road Extraction from High Resolution Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özkaya, M.

    2012-07-01

    Roads are significant objects of an infrastructure and the extraction of roads from aerial and satellite images are important for different applications such as automated map generation and change detection. Roads are also important to detect other structures such as buildings and urban areas. In this paper, the road extraction approach is based on Active Contour Models for 1-meter resolution gray level images. Active Contour Models contains Snake Approach. During applications, the road structure was separated as salient-roads, non-salient roads and crossings and extraction of these is provided by using Ribbon Snake and Ziplock Snake methods. These methods are derived from traditional snake model. Finally, various experimental results were presented. Ribbon and Ziplock Snake methods were compared for both salient and non-salient roads. Also these methods were used to extract roads in an image. While Ribbon snake is described for extraction of salient roads in an image, Ziplock snake is applied for extraction of non-salient roads. Beside these, some constant variables in literature were redefined and expressed in a formula as depending on snake approach and a new approach for extraction of crossroads were described and tried.

  19. Understanding Road Usage Patterns in Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pu; Hunter, Timothy; Bayen, Alexandre M.; Schechtner, Katja; González, Marta C.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we combine the most complete record of daily mobility, based on large-scale mobile phone data, with detailed Geographic Information System (GIS) data, uncovering previously hidden patterns in urban road usage. We find that the major usage of each road segment can be traced to its own - surprisingly few - driver sources. Based on this finding we propose a network of road usage by defining a bipartite network framework, demonstrating that in contrast to traditional approaches, which define road importance solely by topological measures, the role of a road segment depends on both: its betweeness and its degree in the road usage network. Moreover, our ability to pinpoint the few driver sources contributing to the major traffic flow allows us to create a strategy that achieves a significant reduction of the travel time across the entire road system, compared to a benchmark approach.

  20. Road user behaviour changes following a self-explaining roads intervention.

    PubMed

    Mackie, Hamish W; Charlton, Samuel G; Baas, Peter H; Villasenor, Pablo C

    2013-01-01

    The self-explaining roads (SER) approach uses road designs that evoke correct expectations and driving behaviours from road users to create a safe and user-friendly road network. Following the implementation of an SER process and retrofitting of local and collector roads in a suburb within Auckland City, lower speeds on local roads and less variation in speed on both local and collector roads were achieved, along with a closer match between actual and perceived safe speeds. Preliminary analyses of crash data shows that the project has resulted in a 30% reduction crash numbers and an 86% reduction in crash costs per annum, since the road changes were completed. In order to further understand the outcomes from this project, a study was carried out to measure the effects of the SER intervention on the activity and behaviour of all road users. Video was collected over nine separate days, at nine different locations, both before and after SER construction. Road user behaviour categories were developed for all potential road users at different location types and then used to code the video data. Following SER construction, on local roads there was a relatively higher proportion of pedestrians, less uniformity in vehicle lane keeping and less indicating by motorists along with less through traffic, reflecting a more informal/low speed local road environment. Pedestrians were less constrained on local roads following SER construction, possibly reflecting a perceptually safer and more user-friendly environment. These behaviours were not generally evident on collector roads, a trend also shown by the previous study of speed changes. Given that one of the objectives of SER is to match road user behaviour with functionally different road categories, the road user behaviour differences demonstrated on different road types within the SER trial area provides further reinforcement of a successful SER trial. PMID:22868249

  1. Hemodialysis access - self care

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency - hemodialysis access; Chronic kidney failure - hemodialysis access; Chronic renal failure - ...

  2. 36 CFR 13.120 - Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Access. 13.120 Section 13.120... SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Cabins General Provisions § 13.120 Access. (a) A permittee under this subpart who...) When issuing a permit under this subpart, the Superintendent shall provide for reasonable access...

  3. 36 CFR 9.3 - Access permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... units of the National Park System in Alaska, regulations at 43 CFR part 36 govern access to claims, and... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Access permits. 9.3 Section 9... MANAGEMENT Mining and Mining Claims § 9.3 Access permits. (a) All special use or other permits dealing...

  4. 36 CFR 9.3 - Access permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... units of the National Park System in Alaska, regulations at 43 CFR part 36 govern access to claims, and... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Access permits. 9.3 Section 9... MANAGEMENT Mining and Mining Claims § 9.3 Access permits. (a) All special use or other permits dealing...

  5. 36 CFR 13.120 - Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Access. 13.120 Section 13.120... SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Cabins General Provisions § 13.120 Access. (a) A permittee under this subpart who...) When issuing a permit under this subpart, the Superintendent shall provide for reasonable access...

  6. 43 CFR 3802.4-2 - Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Access. 3802.4-2 Section 3802.4-2 Public... and Mining, Wilderness Review Program § 3802.4-2 Access. (a) An operator is entitled to non-exclusive access to his mining operations consistent with provisions of the United States mining laws...

  7. 40 CFR 258.25 - Access requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Access requirements. 258.25 Section 258.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.25 Access requirements. Owners or operators of all MSWLF units must control public access...

  8. Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Cold Weather On-road Testing of the Chevrolet Volt

    SciTech Connect

    Smart, John

    2015-03-01

    This report details cold weather on-road testing of a Chevrolet Volt. It quantifies changes in efficiency and electric range as ambient temperature changes. It will be published to INL's AVTA website as an INL technical report and will be accessible to the general public.

  9. New Norcia Library Lecture: How Many Roads Must a Library Walk down?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missingham, Roxanne

    2012-01-01

    Libraries have welcomed the opportunity offered in the twenty-first century to place content on the roads and channels that are now available through the Internet to provide access to our rich and diverse collections. Amidst the enormous amount of information available the great collections sometimes are "dead ends" from a reader's point of view…

  10. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2012-01-01

    As faculty members add online and multimedia elements to their courses, colleges and universities across the country are realizing that there is a lot of work to be done to ensure that disabled students (and employees) have equal access to course material and university websites. Unfortunately, far too few schools consider the task a top priority.…

  11. Easy Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettelman, Alan

    2009-01-01

    School and university restrooms, locker and shower rooms have specific ADA accessibility requirements that serve the needs of staff, students and campus visitors who are disabled as a result of injury, illness or age. Taking good care of them is good for the reputation of a sensitive community institution, and fosters positive public relations.…

  12. Quarry Haul Road Ecological Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    This biological survey was performed to document the summer flora and fauna found along the haul road constructed as part of the remedial action for the quarry bulk waste. State and Federal species listed as threatened or endangered were noted if encountered while surveying. Sampling locations were equally spaced along the quarry haul road, and a survey for vegetation and birds conducted at each location. Bird observations were conducted as breeding bird surveys once in June of 1991, and again in June of 1992. Each year's survey includes two observations in the early morning and one late in the evening. Vegetation surveys were conducted in 1991 using quadrants and transects. mammal, reptile, and amphibian sightings were noted as encountered.

  13. Roads, railways, and childhood cancers

    PubMed Central

    Knox, E G

    2006-01-01

    Study objectives To locate geographical sources of engine exhaust emissions in Great Britain and to link them with the birth addresses of children dying from cancer. To estimate the cancer initiating roles of nearby roads and railways and to measure effective ranges. Design Birth and death addresses of all children born between 1955 and 1980 in Great Britain, and dying from leukaemia or other cancer during those years, were linked to locations of railway stations, bus stations, ferry terminals, railways, roads, canals, and rivers. Nearest distances to births and deaths were measured, and migration data relating to children who had moved house were analysed. Excesses of close to hazard birth addresses, compared with close to hazard death addresses, indicate a high prenatal or early postnatal risk of cancer initiation. Setting and subjects Child cancer birth and death addresses and their map references were extracted from an earlier inquiry. Map references of putative hazards were downloaded from the Ordnance Survey national digital map of Great Britain. These data are recorded to a precision of one metre and have ground accuracies around 20 metres. Main results Significant birth excesses were found within short distances of bus stations, railway stations, ferries, railways, and A,B class roads, with a relative risk of 2.1 within 100 m, tapering to neutral after 3.0 km. About 24% of child cancers were attributable to these joint birth proximities. Roads exerted the major effect. Conclusions Child cancer initiations are strongly determined by prenatal or early postnatal exposures to engine exhaust gases, probably through maternal inhalation and accumulation of carcinogens over many months. The main active substance is probably 1,3‐butadiene. PMID:16415262

  14. UnitedHealth Group

    Cancer.gov

    UnitedHealth Group provides accessible and affordable services, improved quality of care, coordinated health care efforts, and a supportive environment for shared decision making between patients and their physicians.

  15. Space Radar Image of Hampton Roads, Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image shows the Hampton Roads, Virginia region, where the James River (upper left center) flows into the Chesapeake Bay. The city of Norfolk is the bright area on the peninsula in the lower center. Norfolk is home to a large naval base, part of which can be seen as the bright white port facilities near the center of the image. The cities of Hampton and Newport News occupy the peninsula in the upper right of the image. The dark blue areas on this peninsula are the runways of Langley Air Force Base, which also houses NASA's Langley Research Center. Forested areas, including suburbs, appear as green on the image. Cities appear as green, white and orange. The purple areas along the shorelines are wetlands; blue areas are cleared for agricultural use. Faint ship wakes can be seen in the water behind ships entering and leaving Hampton Roads. Scientists are using radar images like this one to study delicate coastal environments and the effects of urbanization and other human activities on the ecosystem and landscape. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture (SIR-C/X-SAR) imaging radar when it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 5, 1994. The image is centered at 36.9 degrees north latitude, 76.4 degrees west longitude. North is towards the upper right. The area shown is 37 kilometers by 29 kilometers (23 miles by 18 miles). Colors are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's ongoing Mission to Planet Earth program.

  16. Optimal Maintenance Works for the Aborshada Road in the Western Region of Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssef, Medhat Abdelrahman; Elbasher, Abdelbary Altayb

    2014-09-01

    In this research, the condition of a road pavement was investigated for the Aborshada Road in the Gharian region of Libya to determine the optimal maintenance works. Previously, a simple engineering judgment was the only procedure followed by the Gharian municipal engineers for evaluating pavements and prioritizing maintenance. The surface condition of the Aborshada Road pavement was investigated using "the Pavement Condition Index (PCI)" visual technique. The pavement was inspected to survey the different distresses in each sample unit. Ninteen pavement distresses were classified according to the PCI standards (PCI for roads and parking lots became an ASTM standard in 2007 (D6433-07)). It was necessary to know the most common distresses of the Aborshada Road to provide assistance for the decision maker in his evaluation of the pavement and the optimum repair method to be selected. This study reveals the actual performance of the pavements and suggests the research required for dealing with the pavement maintenance problem in Libya, especially in the western region. The best maintenance alternative for Aborshada Road was Case No. 3 (Potholes, Long. & Trans. Cracking and Alligator Crack Maintenance). Also, the most common pavement distresses on the Aborshada Road were Distress Nos. 1, 3, 6, 7, 10 and 13 according to the ASTM - D6433-07 classification

  17. The Global Burden of Road Injury: Its Relevance to the Emergency Physician

    PubMed Central

    Kohl, Vanessa P.; Walker, David M.; Tomassoni, Anthony J.; Cone, David C.; Vaca, Federico E.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Road traffic crash fatalities in the United States are at the lowest level since 1950. The reduction in crash injury burden is attributed to several factors: public education and prevention programs, traffic safety policies and enforcement, improvements in vehicle design, and prehospital services coupled with emergency and acute trauma care. Globally, the disease burden of road traffic injuries is rising. In 1990, road traffic injuries ranked ninth in the ten leading causes of the global burden of disease. By 2030, estimates show that road traffic injuries will be the fifth leading causes of death in the world. Historically, emergency medicine has played a pivotal role in contributing to the success of the local, regional, and national traffic safety activities focused on crash and injury prevention. Objective. We report on the projected trend of the global burden of road traffic injuries and fatalities and describe ongoing global initiatives to reduce road traffic morbidity and mortality. Discussion. We present key domains where emergency medicine can contribute through international collaboration to address global road traffic-related morbidity and mortality. Conclusion. International collaborative programs and research offer important opportunities for emergency medicine physicians to make a meaningful impact on the global burden of disease. PMID:24719768

  18. Road-traffic pollution and asthma – using modelled exposure assessment for routine public health surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Elspeth C; Maheswaran, Ravi; Daly, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Asthma is a common disease and appears to be increasing in prevalence. There is evidence linking air pollution, including that from road-traffic, with asthma. Road traffic is also on the increase. Routine surveillance of the impact of road-traffic pollution on asthma, and other diseases, would be useful in informing local and national government policy in terms of managing the environmental health risk. Several methods for exposure assessment have been used in studies examining the association between asthma and road traffic pollution. These include comparing asthma prevalence in areas designated as high and low pollution areas, using distance from main roads as a proxy for exposure to road traffic pollution, using traffic counts to estimate exposure, using vehicular miles travelled and using modelling techniques. Although there are limitations to all these methods, the modelling approach has the advantage of incorporating several variables and may be used for prospective health impact assessment. The modelling approach is already in routine use in the United Kingdom in support of the government's strategy for air quality management. Combining information from such models with routinely collected health data would form the basis of a routine public health surveillance system. Such a system would facilitate prospective health impact assessment, enabling policy decisions concerned with road-traffic to be made with knowledge of the potential implications. It would also allow systematic monitoring of the health impacts when the policy decisions and plans have been implemented. PMID:15485575

  19. Seismic risk assessment for road in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyfur, Mona Foralisa; Pribadi, Krishna S.

    2016-05-01

    Road networks in Indonesia consist of 446,000 km of national, provincial and local roads as well as toll highways. Indonesia is one of countries that exposed to various natural hazards, such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, etc. Within the Indonesian archipelago, several global tectonic plates interact, such as the Indo-Australian, Pacific, Eurasian, resulting in a complex geological setting, characterized by the existence of seismically active faults and subduction zones and a chain of more than one hundred active volcanoes. Roads in Indonesia are vital infrastructure needed for people and goods movement, thus supporting community life and economic activities, including promoting regional economic development. Road damages and losses due to earthquakes have not been studied widely, whereas road disruption caused enormous economic damage. The aim of this research is to develop a method to analyse risk caused by seismic hazard to roads. The seismic risk level of road segment is defined using an earthquake risk index, adopting the method of Earthquake Disaster Risk Index model developed by Davidson (1997). Using this method, road segments' risk level can be defined and compared, and road risk map can be developed as a tool for prioritizing risk mitigation programs for road networks in Indonesia.

  20. Towards remote sensing of Arctic ice roads and associated human activities using SUOMI NPP night light images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, M.; Smith, L. C.; Stephenson, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    Ice roads are often the only cost-effective means of transporting goods and supplies to communities, mines, and other sites in remote parts of the Arctic. Yet, there is no global dataset for Arctic ice roads. However, remotely sensed images from the SUOMI NPP day/night band (DNB) of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) may allow for the construction of such a dataset. The DNB's high sensitivity to low-level light suggests that while it is not feasible to view ice roads at night per se, other prominent features associated with ice roads can serve as proxies. Using a time series of images taken in winter 2012, 2013, and 2014, SUOMI NPP images are compared with Landsat 8 images and an existing map of the Tibbitt to Contwoyto ice road in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, Canada. First results reveal that while the ice road's exact path cannot be discerned, key points of human activity along the way can be made out. This bodes well for future applications of DNB imagery to detect ice roads in places like the Russian Federation, for which there is a dearth of publicly available maps. Knowing the location of ice roads is important for two reasons. First, these data can signal sites of natural resource extraction in places for which information is not widely disseminated, such as in the Russian Far East. Second, new geospatial datasets for ice roads can be combined with models assessing impacts of climate change on circumpolar land accessibility (Stephenson et al. 2011) in order to understand where the structural integrity of ice roads may be at risk. As warming temperatures threaten to shorten the season for ice roads, communities and mines alike will need to prepare for changes to their transportation infrastructure, made out of the changing landscape itself.