Science.gov

Sample records for access road unit

  1. RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report for the Gunsite 113 Access Road Unit (631-24G) - March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.

    1996-03-01

    Gunsite 113 Access Road Unit is located in the northeast corner of SRS. In the mid 1980`s, sparse vegetation, dead trees, and small mounds of soil were discovered on a portion of the road leading to Gunsite 113. This area became the Gunsite 113 Access Road Unit (Gunsite 113). The unit appears to have been used as a spoil dirt and / or road construction debris disposal area. There is no documentation or record of any hazardous substance management, disposal, or any type of waste disposal at this unit. Based upon the available evidence, there are no potential contaminants of concern available for evaluation by a CERCLA baseline risk assessment. Therefore, there is no determinable health risk associated with Gunsite 113. In addition, it is also reasonable to conclude that, since contamination is below risk-based levels, the unit presents no significant ecological risk. It is recommended that no further remedial action be performed at this unit.

  2. 4. View of Building 802 from the access road, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of Building 802 from the access road, facing northwest. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  3. Detail view of Bonita Ridge Access Road Retaining Wall showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of Bonita Ridge Access Road Retaining Wall showing drainpipes, camera facing northwest - Fort Barry, Bonita Ridge Access Road, Retaining Wall, Point Bonita, Marin Headlands, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  4. View of northern end of Bonita Ridge Access Road Retaining ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of northern end of Bonita Ridge Access Road Retaining Wall, camera facing northwest - Fort Barry, Bonita Ridge Access Road, Retaining Wall, Point Bonita, Marin Headlands, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  5. Detail view of reinforced concrete of Bonita Ridge Access Road ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of reinforced concrete of Bonita Ridge Access Road Retaining Wall, camera facing northwest - Fort Barry, Bonita Ridge Access Road, Retaining Wall, Point Bonita, Marin Headlands, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  6. United States Access Board

    MedlinePlus

    ... Communications & IT Access to information and communication technology (ICT) is addressed by Board standards and guidelines issued ... Engineer (November 3) Access Board Approves Rules on ICT Refresh and Medical Diagnostic Equipment (September 14) Access ...

  7. View of middle portion of Bonita Ridge Access Road Retaining ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of middle portion of Bonita Ridge Access Road Retaining Wall, showing Signal Corps Radar 296 Station 5 Tower concrete pier (top center), camera facing northwest - Fort Barry, Bonita Ridge Access Road, Retaining Wall, Point Bonita, Marin Headlands, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  8. Oblique view of Bonita Ridge Access Road Retaining Wall, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of Bonita Ridge Access Road Retaining Wall, showing southernmost portion of intact wall and portion of concrete drainage ditch from Signal Corps Radar 296 Station 5 Transmitter Building foundation above, camera facing west-north - Fort Barry, Bonita Ridge Access Road, Retaining Wall, Point Bonita, Marin Headlands, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  9. Contextual view of Bonita Ridge Access Road Retaining Wall, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of Bonita Ridge Access Road Retaining Wall, showing concrete stairway and ramp with Army Fire Control Station (Buildings 621 and 622) at far left, camera facing southwest - Fort Barry, Bonita Ridge Access Road, Retaining Wall, Point Bonita, Marin Headlands, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  10. 10. EASTERLY VIEW OF THE ACCESS ROAD TO THE DOWNSTREAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. EASTERLY VIEW OF THE ACCESS ROAD TO THE DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF BIG DALTON DAM EXTENDING FROM THE FOOTBRIDGE TO THE GAGING STATION. BIG DALTON DAM IN BACKGROUND. - Big Dalton Dam, 2600 Big Dalton Canyon Road, Glendora, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 9. SOUTHERLY VIEW OF THE ACCESS ROAD TO THE DOWNSTREAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. SOUTHERLY VIEW OF THE ACCESS ROAD TO THE DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF BIG DALTON DAM EXTENDING FROM THE DAM TO THE FOOTBRIDGE. VIEW FROM BIG DALTON DAM SHOWING THE TOE WEIR IN FOREGROUND AND FOOTBRIDGE IN BACKGROUND. - Big Dalton Dam, 2600 Big Dalton Canyon Road, Glendora, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. Context view shows approach of access road to summit, communication ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Context view shows approach of access road to summit, communication towers and NW corner of lookout tower at center right. Camera is pointed SE. - Chelan Butte Lookout, Summit of Chelan Butte, Chelan, Chelan County, WA

  13. 2. THREEQUARTER VIEW FROM ADJACENT ACCESS ROAD SHOWING THREE SPANS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. THREE-QUARTER VIEW FROM ADJACENT ACCESS ROAD SHOWING THREE SPANS AND NORTHWEST APPROACH SPANS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Red River Bridge, Spanning Red River at U.S. Highway 82, Garland, Miller County, AR

  14. 25 CFR 170.122 - Can a tribe close a cultural access road?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can a tribe close a cultural access road? 170.122 Section... ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Use of Irr and Cultural Access Roads § 170.122 Can a tribe close a cultural access road? (a) A tribe with jurisdiction over a...

  15. 25 CFR 170.122 - Can a tribe close a cultural access road?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can a tribe close a cultural access road? 170.122 Section... ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Use of Irr and Cultural Access Roads § 170.122 Can a tribe close a cultural access road? (a) A tribe with jurisdiction over a...

  16. 25 CFR 170.122 - Can a tribe close a cultural access road?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can a tribe close a cultural access road? 170.122 Section... ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Use of Irr and Cultural Access Roads § 170.122 Can a tribe close a cultural access road? (a) A tribe with jurisdiction over a...

  17. 25 CFR 170.122 - Can a tribe close a cultural access road?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe close a cultural access road? 170.122 Section... ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Use of Irr and Cultural Access Roads § 170.122 Can a tribe close a cultural access road? (a) A tribe with jurisdiction over a...

  18. 25 CFR 170.122 - Can a tribe close a cultural access road?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Can a tribe close a cultural access road? 170.122 Section... ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Use of Irr and Cultural Access Roads § 170.122 Can a tribe close a cultural access road? (a) A tribe with jurisdiction over a...

  19. CONTEXT PHOTOGRAPH OF BASE END STATIONS FROM ACCESS ROAD AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXT PHOTOGRAPH OF BASE END STATIONS FROM ACCESS ROAD AT MIDSLOPE, FACING NORTH. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT ARE STATIONS BARLOW, SAXTON, LEARY, MERRIAM (OUT OF VIEW BEHIND WW n ERA CONSTRUCTION), OSGOOD, AND FARLEY - White's Point Reservation, Base End Stations, Bounded by Voyager Circle & Mariner Drive, San Pedro, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. 3. VIEW OF WATER TANKS FROM ACCESS ROAD TO HATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF WATER TANKS FROM ACCESS ROAD TO HATCH ADIT. VIEW NORTH. LUCKY TIGER MILL OFFICE (FEATURE B-I) IN DISTANCE. (OCTOBER, 1995) - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, Water Tanks, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  1. 11. VIEW TO EAST; ACCESS ROAD AT SOUTH END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW TO EAST; ACCESS ROAD AT SOUTH END OF TERMINAL AT TRACK LEVEL, LOOKING ALONG GENERAL ALIGNMENT OF PROPOSED EXTENSION OF EL MONTE BUSWAY (Asano) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. 9. ACCESS ROAD FOR NORTHBOUND PARKWAY LANES AT AVENUE 60. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. ACCESS ROAD FOR NORTHBOUND PARKWAY LANES AT AVENUE 60. NOTE RAILING AT LEFT FOR BRIDGE SEEN IN CA-265-T-8. LOOKING 308°N. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Avenue 60 Bridge, Milepost 28.76, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 25 CFR 170.127 - What terms apply to access roads?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What terms apply to access roads? 170.127 Section 170.127 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Irr Housing Access Roads § 170.127...

  4. 25 CFR 170.127 - What terms apply to access roads?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What terms apply to access roads? 170.127 Section 170.127 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Irr Housing Access Roads § 170.127...

  5. 25 CFR 170.127 - What terms apply to access roads?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What terms apply to access roads? 170.127 Section 170.127 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Irr Housing Access Roads § 170.127...

  6. 25 CFR 170.127 - What terms apply to access roads?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What terms apply to access roads? 170.127 Section 170.127 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Irr Housing Access Roads § 170.127...

  7. 25 CFR 170.127 - What terms apply to access roads?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What terms apply to access roads? 170.127 Section 170.127 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Irr Housing Access Roads § 170.127...

  8. PERSPECTIVE OF HANGAR AND ACCESS ROAD LOOKING EAST (During the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE OF HANGAR AND ACCESS ROAD LOOKING EAST (During the 1940s the Arnold family leased part of their land to serve as a runway and airplane hangar. The building on the right of the photograph was originally two separate airplane hangars - they were joined in the early 1950s to provide covered combine parking between them. The building on the left of the photograph is a tractor shed. The building at a distance was gasoline and oil shed for the planes) - Arnold Farm, Hangar / Workshop, 1948 Arnold Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  9. 75 FR 2583 - Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ...) announces the availability of funds in Fiscal Year (FY) 2009 for the Over-the-Road Bus (OTRB) Accessibility... of an accessible over-the-road bus are listed in 49 CFR part 38, subpart G. The rule required 50.... Specifications describing the design features of an accessible over-the-road bus are listed in 49 CFR part...

  10. 77 FR 5295 - Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Announcement of Project Selections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Announcement of Project... Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 appropriations for the Over-the-Road Bus (OTRB) Accessibility Program, authorized... Accessibility Program makes funds available to private operators of over-the-road buses to help finance...

  11. 25 CFR 170.128 - Are housing access roads and housing streets eligible for IRR Program funding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are housing access roads and housing streets eligible for... INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Irr Housing Access Roads § 170.128 Are housing access roads and housing streets eligible for...

  12. 43 CFR 2812.5-2 - Payment to the United States for road use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Payment to the United States for road use... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.5-2 Payment to the United States for road... permittee receives a right to use a road constructed or acquired by the United States, which road is...

  13. 1. View of McKenzieRichey property from access road, facing northwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View of McKenzie-Richey property from access road, facing northwest. Note covered well, house, root cellar, barn and access road - McKenzie Property, North Bank of Sailor Gulch 750 feet northwest of intersection of U.S.F.S. Roads 651 & 349, Placerville, Boise County, ID

  14. 76 FR 17738 - Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Announcement of Project Selections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... Federal Transit Administration Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Announcement of Project Selections... be funded under Fiscal Year (FY) 2009 and 2010 appropriations for the Over-the- Road Bus (OTRB...). The OTRB Accessibility Program makes funds available to private operators of over-the-road buses...

  15. 27. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST DOWN THE WEST ACCESS ROAD. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST DOWN THE WEST ACCESS ROAD. THE FIRST LARGE PROTEST AT THE PLANT CAME IN 1978. IT WAS THE FIRST MAJOR PROTEST AT ANY DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PLANT. IN RESPONSE TO CONTINUING ANTI- NUCLEAR PROTESTS, IN PARTICULAR A 1979 RALLY THAT DREW 10,000 PARTICIPANTS, ROCKWELL EMPLOYEES AT THE PLANT FORMED A GRASSROOT ORGANIZATION, CITIZENS FOR ENERGY AND FREEDOM, AND ORGANIZED A PRO-NUCLEAR RALLY, 'POWER TO THE PEOPLE,' THAT ATTRACTED 16,000 PEOPLE (5/4/78). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  16. PAH Accessibility in Particulate Matter from Road-Impacted Environments.

    PubMed

    Allan, Ian J; O'Connell, Steven G; Meland, Sondre; Bæk, Kine; Grung, Merete; Anderson, Kim A; Ranneklev, Sissel B

    2016-08-01

    Snowmelt, surface runoff, or stormwater releases in urban environments can result in significant discharges of particulate matter-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into aquatic environments. Recently, more-specific activities such as road-tunnel washing have been identified as contributing to contaminant load to surface waters. However, knowledge of PAH accessibility in particulate matter (PM) of urban origin that may ultimately be released into urban surface waters is limited. In the present study, we evaluated the accessibility of PAHs associated with seven distinct (suspended) particulate matter samples collected from different urban sources. Laboratory-based infinite sink extractions with silicone rubber (SR) as the extractor phase demonstrated a similar pattern of PAH accessibility for most PM samples. Substantially higher accessible fractions were observed for the less-hydrophobic PAHs (between 40 and 80% of total concentrations) compared with those measured for the most-hydrophobic PAHs (<5% of total concentrations). When we focused on PAHs bound to PM from tunnel-wash waters, first-order desorption rates for PAHs with log Kow > 5.5 were found in line with those commonly found for slowly or very slowly desorbing sediment-associated contaminants. PAHs with log Kow < 5.5 were found at higher desorbing rates. The addition of detergents did not influence the extractability of lighter PAHs but increased desorption rates for the heavier PAHs, potentially contributing to increases in the toxicity of tunnel-wash waters when surfactants are used. The implications of total and accessible PAH concentrations measured in our urban PM samples are discussed in a context of management of PAH and PM emission to the surrounding aquatic environment. Although we only fully assessed PAHs in this work, further study should consider other contaminants such as OPAHs, which were also detected in all PM samples. PMID:27312518

  17. Title III Evaluation for the Access Road System

    SciTech Connect

    H.R. Montalv

    1998-07-28

    The objective of this evaluation is to provide recommendations to ensure consistency between the technical baseline requirements, baseline design, and the as-constructed Access Roads. Recommendations for resolving discrepancies between the as-constructed system, the technical baseline requirements, and the baseline design are included in this report. Cost and Schedule estimates are provided for all recommended modifications. This report does not address items which do not meet current safety or code requirements. These items are identified to the CMO and immediate action is taken to correct the situation. The report does identify safety and code items for which the A/E is recommending improvements. The recommended improvements will exceed the minimum requirements of applicable code and safety guide lines. These recommendations are intended to improve and enhance the operation and maintenance of the facility.

  18. 75 FR 20034 - Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Grants: Corrections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... 215 (73 FR 47046, Aug. 13, 2008). On October 1, 2008, DOL began using a revised special warranty for... Federal Transit Administration Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Grants: Corrections AGENCY: Federal..., 2010 Federal Transit Administration (FTA) Notice titled ``Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility...

  19. 77 FR 25529 - Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... this authorization, the DOL amended its implementing regulations at 29 CFR part 215 (73 FR 47046, Aug... TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Grants AGENCY: Federal... availability of funds in Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 for the Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility (OTRB)...

  20. 33 CFR 211.78 - Maintenance and conveyance of access roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Site Development and Use § 211.78 Maintenance and conveyance of access roads. The Government will not... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maintenance and conveyance of access roads. 211.78 Section 211.78 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF...

  1. 33 CFR 211.78 - Maintenance and conveyance of access roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Site Development and Use § 211.78 Maintenance and conveyance of access roads. The Government will not... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maintenance and conveyance of access roads. 211.78 Section 211.78 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF...

  2. 33 CFR 211.78 - Maintenance and conveyance of access roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Site Development and Use § 211.78 Maintenance and conveyance of access roads. The Government will not... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maintenance and conveyance of access roads. 211.78 Section 211.78 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. "Adam of the Road" by Elizabeth Janet Gray. Literature Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Mari Lu

    Intended as an aid to classroom teachers, this 48-page handbook presents a literature unit based on the children's book, "Adam of the Road" by Elizabeth Janet Gray. It begins with sample lesson plans, pre-reading activities, author information, a book summary, and vocabulary lists and suggested vocabulary activities. Next, chapters of "Adam of the…

  4. 43 CFR 2812.5-2 - Payment to the United States for road use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Payment to the United States for road use... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.5-2 Payment to the United States for road... any existing road or of any road constructed by the permittee upon the right-of-way. If the term...

  5. 43 CFR 2812.5-2 - Payment to the United States for road use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Payment to the United States for road use... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.5-2 Payment to the United States for road... any existing road or of any road constructed by the permittee upon the right-of-way. If the term...

  6. 43 CFR 2812.5-2 - Payment to the United States for road use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Payment to the United States for road use... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.5-2 Payment to the United States for road... any existing road or of any road constructed by the permittee upon the right-of-way. If the term...

  7. Warning! Slippery Road Ahead: Internet Access and District Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Joan M.

    1995-01-01

    As schools merge onto the information highway, districts must address their liability associated with Internet access. Schools need a practical policy supporting high access to global educational resources while limiting district liability. USENET provides easy access to controversial and pornographic materials. This article outlines federal…

  8. BARN EXTERIOR PERSPECTIVE OF WEST FAÇADE FROM ACCESS ROAD, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BARN EXTERIOR PERSPECTIVE OF WEST FAÇADE FROM ACCESS ROAD, LOOKING EAST. (A shed addition was added to the north end of the barn in the mid-1950s for squash storage. Another addition was built in the early 1970s to provide feeding and watering troughs for cattle. This image also shows the granary, on the right.) - Smith Farm, Barn, 399 Ebey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  9. 25 CFR 170.128 - Are housing access roads and housing streets eligible for IRR Program funding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the transportation planning process as required in subpart D, may include housing access roads and housing street projects on the Tribal Transportation Improvement Program (TTIP). IRR Program funds...

  10. Assessment of micro-regional internal accessibility based on road network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Ting; Li, Manchun; Jiang, Zhixin; Huang, Kang

    2007-06-01

    Accessibility is an important indicator of regional land-use, social justice and quality of life. It means the convenience from one place to another in a specified kind of transportation system. Wide-region based, most of the present domestic accessibility research took the high-grade highway such as highway and railway as entirely open road, without considering the service that high-grade highway provides based on intersection and railway station. This study extended to put forward arithmetic to deal with this problem in a micro-regional study area. Taking New District, Wuxi City, Jiangsu Province as a study case, this study researched the assessment of micro-regional internal accessibility based on road network including closed road. This study provides a tool to regional economical and social decision, and introduces a new view for studying relationship between people and land-use in micro-district.

  11. Hills, ridges, mountains, and roads: geographical factors and access to care in rural Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Ramsbottom-Lucier, M; Emmett, K; Rich, E C; Wilson, J F

    1996-01-01

    Access to health care remains an important issue facing many individuals. Barriers to health care include financial factors, characteristics of the individuals and of the health care delivery system, as well as geographical factors. Using a telephone survey of Kentucky residents, this study investigated the relationship between the road quality and county elevation and access to health care for individuals in rural and urban areas of the state. Controlling the comparison for known individual characteristics, community characteristics, and medical infrastructure characteristics, this study uncovered that worse road conditions, measured by a road "rideability" index, were associated with longer times to reach medical care. It also found an association between higher county elevations and shorter times to reach medical care.

  12. 33 CFR 211.78 - Maintenance and conveyance of access roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... access roads. 211.78 Section 211.78 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE REAL ESTATE ACTIVITIES OF THE CORPS OF ENGINEERS IN CONNECTION WITH CIVIL... of Engineers or the Director of Civil Works (Assistant to the Chief of Engineers for Civil Works)...

  13. ­­Estimating Forest Management Units from Road Network Maps in the Southeastern U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, D.; Hall, J.; Fu, C. S.; Binford, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    The most important factor affecting forest structure and function is the type of management undertaken in forest stands. Owners manage forests using appropriately sized areas to meet management objectives, which include economic return, sustainability, recreation, or esthetic enjoyment. Thus, the socio-environmental unit of study for forests should be the management unit. To study the ecological effects of different kinds of management activities, we must identify individual management units. Road networks, which provide access for human activities, are widely used in managing forests in the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain and Piedmont (SEUS). Our research question in this study is: How can we identify individual forest management units in an entire region? To answer it, we hypothesize that the road network defines management units on the landscape. Road-caused canopy openings are not always captured by satellite sensors, so it is difficult to delineate ecologically relevant patches based only on remote sensing data. We used a reliable, accurate and freely available road network data, OpenStreetMap (OSM), and the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) to delineate management units in a section of the SEUS defined by Landsat Wprldwide Reference System (WRS) II footprint path 17 row 39. The spatial frequency distributions of forest management units indicate that while units < 0.5 Ha comprised 64% of the units, these small units covered only 0.98% of the total forest area. Management units ≥ 0.5 Ha ranged from 0.5 to 160,770 Ha (the Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge). We compared the size-frequency distributions of management units with four independently derived management types: production, ecological, preservation, and passive management. Preservation and production management had the largest units, at 40.5 ± 2196.7 (s.d.) and 41.3 ± 273.5 Ha, respectively. Ecological and passive averaged about half as large at 19.2 ± 91.5 and 22.4 ± 96.0 Ha, respectively

  14. Distance to nearest road in the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watts, Raymond D.

    2005-01-01

    The new dataset is the first member of the National Overview Road Metrics (NORM) family of road related indicators.  This indicator measures straight-line or Euclidean distance (ED) to the nearest road, and is given the compound name NORM ED.  NORM ED data can be viewed and downloaded from the transportation section of the web viewer for The National Map, http://nationalmap.usgs.gov.  The full-resolution dataset for the conterminous states is made of 8.7 billion values.

  15. 36 CFR 9.32 - Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Non-Federal Oil and Gas Rights § 9.32 Access. (a) No access on, across or through lands or waters... CFR 2.17. (d) No access to a site outside a unit will be permitted across unit lands unless such access is by foot, pack animal, or designated road. Persons using designated roads for access to such...

  16. 36 CFR 9.32 - Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Non-Federal Oil and Gas Rights § 9.32 Access. (a) No access on, across or through lands or waters... CFR 2.17. (d) No access to a site outside a unit will be permitted across unit lands unless such access is by foot, pack animal, or designated road. Persons using designated roads for access to such...

  17. 36 CFR 9.32 - Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Non-Federal Oil and Gas Rights § 9.32 Access. (a) No access on, across or through lands or waters... CFR 2.17. (d) No access to a site outside a unit will be permitted across unit lands unless such access is by foot, pack animal, or designated road. Persons using designated roads for access to such...

  18. 43 CFR 2812.4-2 - Compensation payable by United States to permittee for use of road.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... permittee for use of road. 2812.4-2 Section 2812.4-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.4-2 Compensation payable by United States to permittee for use of road. In the event the United States itself removes forest...

  19. 43 CFR 2812.4-2 - Compensation payable by United States to permittee for use of road.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... permittee for use of road. 2812.4-2 Section 2812.4-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.4-2 Compensation payable by United States to permittee for use of road. In the event the United States itself removes forest...

  20. 43 CFR 2812.4-2 - Compensation payable by United States to permittee for use of road.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... permittee for use of road. 2812.4-2 Section 2812.4-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.4-2 Compensation payable by United States to permittee for use of road. In the event the United States itself removes forest...

  1. Effects of road traffic noise and the benefit of access to quietness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öhrström, E.; Skånberg, A.; Svensson, H.; Gidlöf-Gunnarsson, A.

    2006-08-01

    Socio-acoustic surveys were carried out as part of the Soundscape Support to Health research programme to assess the health effects of various soundscapes in residential areas. The study was designed to test whether having access to a quiet side of one's dwelling enhances opportunities for relaxation and reduces noise annoyance and other adverse health effects related to noise. The dwellings chosen were exposed to sound levels from road traffic ranging from about L=45-68 dB at the most-exposed side. The study involved 956 individuals aged 18-75 years. The results demonstrate that access to quiet indoor and outdoor sections of one's dwelling supports health; it produces a lower degree and extent of annoyance and disturbed daytime relaxation, improves sleep and contributes to physiological and psychological well-being. Having access to a quiet side of one's dwelling reduces disturbances by an average of 30-50% for the various critical effects, and corresponds to a reduction in sound levels of ( LAeq,24h) 5 dB at the most-exposed side. To protect most people (80%) from annoyance and other adverse effects, sound levels from road traffic should not exceed ( LAeq,24h) 60 dB at the most-exposed side, even if there is access to a quiet side of one's dwelling ( LAeq,24h⩽45 dB).

  2. Public expectations about access fees and road closures on public lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cline, K.; Lamb, B.L.; Ponds, P.D.

    2006-01-01

    It is sometimes suggested that land managers could better communicate with the general public by relying on people who are active in community affairs to frame the message. By comparing responses from the 'attentive' and general public on the Colorado Plateau in the USA, this study investigated the expected effects of using recreation access fees or road closures to manage recreation on public lands. Although neither the attentive nor general public strongly anticipated benefits from the two management options, the attentive public was more likely than the general public to report positive expectations. Those more likely to expect fewer benefits from the management options do so because of factors that are outside the influence of managers (e.g., socio-demographics and value orientation). The results point out challenges for building public support through mobilizing the attentive public to develop a positive management atmosphere with fees and road closures. ?? 2006 University of Newcastle upon Tyne.

  3. 43 CFR 2812.3-7 - Permittee's agreement with United States respecting compensation and adjustment of road use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the capital costs of the road system to be borne by such timber of the United States or embraced in... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Permittee's agreement with United States...-7 Permittee's agreement with United States respecting compensation and adjustment of road use....

  4. 7 CFR 636.19 - Access to operating unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Access to operating unit. 636.19 Section 636.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVES PROGRAM § 636.19 Access...

  5. 36 CFR 212.7 - Access procurement by the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Administration of the Forest Transportation System § 212.7 Access procurement by... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Access procurement by the... system of a State, county, or other local public road authority. Forest roads that are or will be part...

  6. Work-related road safety in Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States of America: an overview of regulatory approaches and recommendations to enhance strategy and practice

    PubMed Central

    Stuckey, R; Pratt, SG; Murray, W

    2015-01-01

    Work-related travel and transport by road is fundamental for industry, government and organisations. Traditionally, road safety interventions at societal level have focussed on improving road and vehicle engineering and changing road-user behaviour through transport laws and safety campaigns. Crash data indicate that significant numbers of road-user fatalities occur while driving to or for work. Therefore, workplace initiatives can improve both road and worker safety. This paper reviews regulatory approaches to work-related road safety (WRRS) in Australia, the United Kingdom and United States, identifying significant and consistent gaps in policy, management and research. In all three countries, responsibility for managing and regulating WRRS is spread across government agencies, without a single coordinating body. This paper makes the case that integrating management of WRRS into regulatory and non-regulatory occupational health and safety (OHS) initiatives would foster and support collaboration between research and practice communities, ensuring a comprehensive evidence base for future programs. PMID:26279686

  7. 70. VIEW OF UNIT 2 THROUGH ACCESS DOOR, LOOKING DOWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. VIEW OF UNIT 2 THROUGH ACCESS DOOR, LOOKING DOWN AT MAIN SHAFT. NOTE WELDER'S SIGNATURE IN SHADOWS IN UPPER LEFT CORNER AND PHOTOGRAPHER'S STROBE POWER CABLE IN LOWER RIGHT CORNER. ORIENTATION OF CAMERA IS FACING LEFT BANK, PERPENDICULAR TO RIVER FLOW - Swan Falls Dam, Snake River, Kuna, Ada County, ID

  8. 7 CFR 631.22 - Access to operating unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Access to operating unit. 631.22 Section 631.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING GREAT PLAINS CONSERVATION PROGRAM Miscellaneous §...

  9. 7 CFR 631.22 - Access to operating unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Access to operating unit. 631.22 Section 631.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING GREAT PLAINS CONSERVATION PROGRAM Miscellaneous §...

  10. 7 CFR 631.22 - Access to operating unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Access to operating unit. 631.22 Section 631.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING GREAT PLAINS CONSERVATION PROGRAM Miscellaneous §...

  11. 7 CFR 631.22 - Access to operating unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Access to operating unit. 631.22 Section 631.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING GREAT PLAINS CONSERVATION PROGRAM Miscellaneous §...

  12. Access road from State Route 240 to the 200 West Area, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct an access road on the Hanford Site, from State Route (SR) 240 to Beloit Avenue in the 200 West Area. Traffic volume during shift changes creates an extremely serious congestion and safety problem on Route 4S from the Wye barricade to the 200 Areas. A Risk Evaluation (Trost 1992) indicated that there is a probability of 1.53 fatal accidents on Route 4S within 2 years. To help alleviate this danger, a new 3.5-kilometer (2.2-mile)-long access road would be constructed from Beloit Avenue in the 200 West Area to SR 240. In addition, administrative controls such as redirecting traffic onto alternate routes would be used to further reduce traffic volume. The proposed access road would provide an alternative travel-to-work route for many outer area personnel, particularly those with destinations in the 200 West Area. This proposal is the most reasonable alternative to reduce the problem. While traffic safety would be greatly improved, a small portion of the shrub-steppe habitat would be disturbed. The DOE would offset any habitat damage by re-vegetation or other appropriate habitat enhancement activities elsewhere on the Hanford Site. This Environmental Assessment (EA) provides information about the environmental impacts of the proposed action, so a decision can be made to either prepare an Environmental Impact Statement or issue a Finding of No Significant Impact.

  13. Salting our landscape: an integrated catchment model using readily accessible data to assess emerging road salt contamination to streams.

    PubMed

    Jin, Li; Whitehead, Paul; Siegel, Donald I; Findlay, Stuart

    2011-05-01

    A new integrated catchment model for salinity has been developed to assess the transport of road salt from upland areas in watersheds to streams using readily accessible landscape, hydrologic, and meteorological data together with reported salt applications. We used Fishkill Creek (NY) as a representative watershed to test the model. Results showed good agreement between modeled and measured stream water chloride concentrations. These results suggest that a dominant mode of catchment simulation that does not entail complex deterministic modeling is an appropriate method to model salinization and to assess effects of future applications of road salt to streams. We heuristically increased and decreased salt applications by 100% and results showed that stream chloride concentrations increased by 13% and decreased by 7%, respectively. The model suggests that future management of salt application can reduce environmental concentrations, albeit over some time.

  14. Nonfatal injuries from off-road motorcycle riding among children and teens--United States, 2001-2004.

    PubMed

    2006-06-01

    Motorcycle crashes are a substantial public health problem for children and teens. During 2003, among persons aged roads. However, during 2003, at least 13 motorcycle riders aged roads. This report focuses on injuries associated with off-road motorcycle riding, an increasingly popular recreational activity among youths. To characterize nonfatal injuries among young off-road motorcycle riders in the United States, CDC analyzed data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP) during 2001-2004. Those data indicated that an estimated 23,800 off-road motorcyclists aged road motorcycle riding need to be strengthened; requiring minimum ages for off-road motorcycle riding might help prevent such injuries among children and teens.

  15. Along the Silk Road: People, Interaction, and Cultural Exchange. A Social Studies Unit Recommended for Grades 6-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This curriculum unit introduces students to the travelers and traders from the early part of the Han-Roman times up to the 14th century who took great risks in pursuit of silk. A variety of activities explore the development of the Silk Road trade routes, including journal writing, small group reading and writing activities, role play and…

  16. 77 FR 71865 - Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ...-route carriers after October 30, 2000, must be accessible with wheelchair lifts and tie downs that allow passengers to ride in their own wheelchairs. October 29, 2012 was the deadline whereby the fixed-route...

  17. Physical and Visual Accessibilities in Intensive Care Units: A Comparative Study of Open-Plan and Racetrack Units.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Mahbub; Khan, Nayma; Jones, Belinda

    2016-01-01

    This study compared physical and visual accessibilities and their associations with staff perception and interaction behaviors in 2 intensive care units (ICUs) with open-plan and racetrack layouts. For the study, physical and visual accessibilities were measured using the spatial analysis techniques of Space Syntax. Data on staff perception were collected from 81 clinicians using a questionnaire survey. The locations of 2233 interactions, and the location and length of another 339 interactions in these units were collected using systematic field observation techniques. According to the study, physical and visual accessibilities were different in the 2 ICUs, and clinicians' primary workspaces were physically and visually more accessible in the open-plan ICU. Physical and visual accessibilities affected how well clinicians' knew their peers and where their peers were located in these units. Physical and visual accessibilities also affected clinicians' perception of interaction and communication and of teamwork and collaboration in these units. Additionally, physical and visual accessibilities showed significant positive associations with interaction behaviors in these units, with the open-plan ICU showing stronger associations. However, physical accessibilities were less important than visual accessibilities in relation to interaction behaviors in these ICUs. The implications of these findings for ICU design are discussed. PMID:27575795

  18. A new gridded on-road CO2 emissions inventory for the United States, 1980-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gately, C.; Hutyra, L.; Sue Wing, I.

    2013-12-01

    On-road transportation is responsible for 28% of all U.S. fossil fuel CO2 emissions. However, mapping vehicle emissions at regional scales is challenging due to data limitations. Existing emission inventories have used spatial proxies such as population and road density to downscale national or state level data, which may introduce errors where the proxy variables and actual emissions are weakly correlated. We have developed a national on-road emissions inventory product based on roadway-level traffic data obtained from the Highway Performance Monitoring System. We produce annual estimates of on-road CO2 emissions at a 1km spatial resolution for the contiguous United States for the years 1980 through 2011. For the year 2011 we also produce an hourly emissions product at the 1km scale using hourly traffic volumes from hundreds of automated traffic counters across the country. National on-road emissions rose at roughly 2% per year from 1980 to 2006, with emissions peaking at 1.71 Tg CO2 in 2007. However, while national emissions have declined 6% since the peak, we observe considerable regional variation in emissions trends post-2007. While many states show stable or declining on-road emissions, several states and metropolitan areas in the Midwest, mountain west and south had emissions increases of 3-10% from 2008 to 2011. Our emissions estimates are consistent with state-reported totals of gasoline and diesel fuel consumption. This is in contrast to on-road CO2 emissions estimated by the Emissions Database of Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR), which we show to be inconsistent in matching on-road emissions to published fuel consumption at the scale of U.S. states, due to the non-linear relationships between emissions and EDGAR's chosen spatial proxies at these scales. Since our emissions estimates were generated independent of population density and other demographic data, we were able to conduct a panel regression analysis to estimate the relationship between these

  19. What Is the Unit of Visual Attention? Object for Selection, but Boolean Map for Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Liqiang

    2010-01-01

    In the past 20 years, numerous theories and findings have suggested that the unit of visual attention is the object. In this study, I first clarify 2 different meanings of unit of visual attention, namely the unit of access in the sense of measurement and the unit of selection in the sense of division. In accordance with this distinction, I argue…

  20. Magnetic survey of the Risher Road Open Metal Pit Waste Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Cumbest, R.J.

    1995-07-01

    The Risher Road Waste Unit is located at the base of a small bluff (approximately 30 ft high) composed of sand and gravel. Due to collapse of the face of the bluff a steep slope of colluvium has formed at the base. The area of investigation is located on the slope of colluvium, and is marked by the presence of two pin flags spaced approximately 25 ft apart parallel to the bluff face. In order to investigate the presence of buried metallic material that might indicate waste containers or other wash beneath the colluvial slope a magnetometer survey was conducted in and around the vicinity of the pin flags. The survey consisted of a 5-ft by 5-ft square grid node pattern in a 40-ft by 60-ft rectangle. Magnetic field and gradient anomalies were detected in the locations of the pin flags and can be attributed to the ferric composition of the pin flag shafts. Other magnetic field and gradient variations are at background levels and do not indicate the presence of buried ferric objects of any significant size.

  1. PERFORMANCE TRENDS IN LARGE 10-KM ROAD RUNNING RACES IN THE UNITED STATES

    PubMed Central

    Cushman, Dan M.; Markert, Matthew; Rho, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Our study examines the current trends of runners participating in 10-km road races in the United States. Finish times and ages of all runners participating in 10 of the largest 10-km running races in the United States between 2002–2005 and 2011 were recorded. Linear regression analysis was performed to examine the trends for age, sex, and finishing time for all participants completing the course in <1 hour. A total of 408,296 runners were analyzed. There was a significant annual decrease in the ratio of men to women finishers (p < 0.001, r2 = 0.976). The average finishing time of the top 10 (men, p ≤ 0.05), 100 (men and women, p ≤ 0.05), and 1,000 (men and women, p < 0.01) significantly decreased annually. The total number of subhour finishers increased annually across all races (194 men per year, r2 = 0.584, p = 0.045; 161 women per year, r2 = 0.779, p = 0.008), whereas the percentage of overall finishers completing the course in less than an hour significantly declined for men and women (p ≤ 0.003). There was a significant trend toward younger men in all top groups except for the single fastest runner (p ≤ 0.017). Our study demonstrates that for large 10-km U.S. races: the top men and women seem to be getting faster; there are more subhour finishers, with increasingly more women accomplishing this feat compared with men; an increasingly lower percentage of overall finishers is finishing in <1 hour; and the fastest men are also increasingly younger. PMID:24077377

  2. 7 CFR 636.19 - Access to operating unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM § 636.19 Access to... information necessary to evaluate the habitat development performance specified in the cost-share...

  3. 7 CFR 636.19 - Access to operating unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM § 636.19 Access to... information necessary to evaluate the habitat development performance specified in the cost-share...

  4. 7 CFR 636.19 - Access to operating unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM § 636.19 Access to... information necessary to evaluate the habitat development performance specified in the cost-share...

  5. 7 CFR 636.19 - Access to operating unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM § 636.19 Access to... information necessary to evaluate the habitat development performance specified in the cost-share...

  6. Record of decision remedial alternative selection for the Grace Road site (631-22G) operable unit: Final action

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.

    1997-01-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the Grace Road Site located at the Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina. The selected action was developed in accordance with CERCLA, as amended, and to the extent practicable, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The selected remedy satisfies both CERCLA and RCRA 3004 requirements. This decision is based on the Administrative Record File for this specific RCRA/CERCLA unit.

  7. The Road from the NASA Access to Space Study to a Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Richard W.; Cook, Stephen A.; Lockwood, Mary Kae

    1998-01-01

    NASA is cooperating with the aerospace industry to develop a space transportation system that provides reliable access-to-space at a much lower cost than is possible with today's launch vehicles. While this quest has been on-going for many years it received a major impetus when the U.S. Congress mandated as part of the 1993 NASA appropriations bill that: "In view of budget difficulties, present and future..., the National Aeronautics and Space Administration shall ... recommend improvements in space transportation." NASA, working with other organizations, including the Department of Transportation, and the Department of Defense identified three major transportation architecture options that were to be evaluated in the areas of reliability, operability and cost. These architectural options were: (1) retain and upgrade the Space Shuttle and the current expendable launch vehicles; (2) develop new expendable launch vehicles using conventional technologies and transition to these new vehicles beginning in 2005; and (3) develop new reusable vehicles using advanced technology, and transition to these vehicles beginning in 2008. The launch needs mission model was based on 1993 projections of civil, defense, and commercial payload requirements. This "Access to Space" study concluded that the option that provided the greatest potential for meeting the cost, operability, and reliability goals was a rocket-powered single-stage-to-orbit fully reusable launch vehicle (RLV) fleet designed with advanced technologies.

  8. Golf in the United States: an evolution of accessibility.

    PubMed

    Parziale, John R

    2014-09-01

    Golf affords physical and psychological benefits to persons who are physically challenged. Advances in adaptive technology, changes in golf course design, and rules modifications have enabled persons with neurological, musculoskeletal, and other impairments to play golf at a recreational, elite amateur, or professional level. The Americans with Disabilities Act has been cited in both federal and US Supreme Court rulings that have improved access for physically challenged golfers. Medical specialties, including physiatry, have played an important role in this process. This article reviews the history of golf's improvements in accessibility, and provides clinicians and physically challenged golfers with information that will facilitate participation in the sport.

  9. Geographic Access to High Capability Severe Acute Respiratory Failure Centers in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, David J.; Angus, Derek C.; Seymour, Christopher W.; Yealy, Donald M.; Carr, Brendan G.; Kurland, Kristen; Boujoukos, Arthur; Kahn, Jeremy M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Optimal care of adults with severe acute respiratory failure requires specific resources and expertise. We sought to measure geographic access to these centers in the United States. Design Cross-sectional analysis of geographic access to high capability severe acute respiratory failure centers in the United States. We defined high capability centers using two criteria: (1) provision of adult extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), based on either 2008–2013 Extracorporeal Life Support Organization reporting or provision of ECMO to 2010 Medicare beneficiaries; or (2) high annual hospital mechanical ventilation volume, based 2010 Medicare claims. Setting Nonfederal acute care hospitals in the United States. Measurements and Main Results We defined geographic access as the percentage of the state, region and national population with either direct or hospital-transferred access within one or two hours by air or ground transport. Of 4,822 acute care hospitals, 148 hospitals met our ECMO criteria and 447 hospitals met our mechanical ventilation criteria. Geographic access varied substantially across states and regions in the United States, depending on center criteria. Without interhospital transfer, an estimated 58.5% of the national adult population had geographic access to hospitals performing ECMO and 79.0% had geographic access to hospitals performing a high annual volume of mechanical ventilation. With interhospital transfer and under ideal circumstances, an estimated 96.4% of the national adult population had geographic access to hospitals performing ECMO and 98.6% had geographic access to hospitals performing a high annual volume of mechanical ventilation. However, this degree of geographic access required substantial interhospital transfer of patients, including up to two hours by air. Conclusions Geographic access to high capability severe acute respiratory failure centers varies widely across states and regions in the United States. Adequate

  10. Unit 5, STA. 19+00+RB, access rampcontext Johnstown Local Flood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 5, STA. 19+00+RB, access ramp-context - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  11. Unit 5, STA. 19+00+RB, access rampdetail Johnstown Local Flood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 5, STA. 19+00+RB, access ramp-detail - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  12. Disparities in access to effective treatment for infertility in the United States: an Ethics Committee opinion.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    In the United States, economic, racial, ethnic, geographic, and other disparities exist in access to fertility treatment and in treatment outcomes. This opinion examines the factors that contribute to these disparities and proposes actions to address them.

  13. 36 CFR 212.7 - Access procurement by the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Access procurement by the United States. 212.7 Section 212.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., reconstruction, improvement, or maintenance is essential to provide safe and economical access to National...

  14. Prefixes as Access Units in Visual Word Recognition: A Comparison of Italian and Dutch Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assink, Egbert M. H.; Vooijs, Caroline; Knuijt, Paul P. N. A.

    2000-01-01

    Compares morphological processing of skilled and less skilled Dutch readers. Focuses on the role of prefixes as access units in visual word recognition. Finds evidence for differential use of prefix information in undergraduate students and elementary school children. Concludes that the information accessed by prefixes is semantically combined…

  15. Internet Access in the European Union and in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Johannes M.; Berne, Michel; Maitland, Carleen F.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the effects of public policies towards traditional communications infrastructures on Internet access in Europe and the United States. Discusses competitive strategies and describes the influence of regulatory policies affecting market entry and the pricing of services on Internet access, based on empirical findings. (Author/LRW)

  16. Improving Immigrants' Access to Public Services in the United States: Language Access Policy and Policy Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperling, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    Language access mandates in the USA, which require that governmental services be provided in any needed language, have been largely ignored since their first enacting. However, the past decade has seen an increase in the number of national, state, and local efforts to accommodate limited English-proficient individuals. This article provides an…

  17. 25 CFR 162.019 - May a lease address access to the leased premises by roads or other infrastructure?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... applicable statutory and regulatory requirements, including 25 CFR part 169. Roads or other infrastructure within the leased premises do not require compliance with 25 CFR part 169 during the term of the lease... roads or other infrastructure? 162.019 Section 162.019 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT...

  18. 25 CFR 162.019 - May a lease address access to the leased premises by roads or other infrastructure?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... applicable statutory and regulatory requirements, including 25 CFR part 169. Roads or other infrastructure within the leased premises do not require compliance with 25 CFR part 169 during the term of the lease... roads or other infrastructure? 162.019 Section 162.019 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT...

  19. Access to care for Chagas disease in the United States: a health systems analysis.

    PubMed

    Manne-Goehler, Jennifer; Reich, Michael R; Wirtz, Veronika J

    2015-07-01

    There are 300,000 estimated cases of Chagas disease in the United States but limited data on access to care. This study analyzed trends in access to care for Chagas disease in the United States and assessed the national and state barriers to access. Data on cases in blood donors and drug releases were obtained from the AABB (formerly American Association of Blood Banks) and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), respectively. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 30 key informants at the national level and in five states where treatment had been released. Interview responses were analyzed according to the health systems dimensions of regulation, financing, payment, organization, and persuasion. Data indicate that 1,908 cases were identified in the blood donation system from 2007 to 2013 and that CDC released 422 courses of benznidazole or nifurtimox during this period. The barriers to access at the national level include limited diagnostic and institutionalized referral and care processes, lack of financing for patient-care activities, and limited awareness and training among providers. This study demonstrates that access to treatment of Chagas disease in the United States is limited. The lack of licensing is only one of several barriers to access, highlighting the need for a health systems perspective when scaling up access to these essential medicines.

  20. 43 CFR 2812.4-2 - Compensation payable by United States to permittee for use of road.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... maintenance of such road or road improvements. Current stumpage prices shall be determined by the application... permittee for use of road. 2812.4-2 Section 2812.4-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.4-2 Compensation payable...

  1. Indirect economic impact of landslide hazards by disruption to national road transportation networks; Scotland, United Kingdom.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postance, Benjamin; Hillier, John; Dijkstra, Tom; Dixon, Neil

    2016-04-01

    The failure of engineered or natural slopes which support or are adjacent to transportation systems often inflicts costly direct physical damage and indirect system disruption. The consequences and severity of indirect impacts vary according to which links, nodes or network facilities are physically disrupted. Moreover, it is often the case that multiple slope failure disruptions are triggered simultaneously following prolonged or intense precipitation events due to a degree of local homogeneity of slope characteristics and materials. This study investigates the application of national commuter statistics and network agent simulation to evaluate indirect impacts of landslide events disrupting the Scottish trunk road transportation network (UK). Previous studies often employ shortest pathway analysis whereas agent simulation has received relatively little attention. British Geological Survey GeoSure landslide susceptibility data is used to select 35 susceptible trunk road segments by means of neighbouring total area at risk. For each of the candidate 35 segments the network and zonal variation in travel time is calculated for a single day of disruption, economic impact is approximated using established governmental and industry transport planning and appraisal values. The results highlight that a number of trunk road segments incur indirect economic losses in the order of tens of thousands of pounds for each day of closure. Calculated losses at the A83 Rest and Be Thankful are 50% greater than previous estimates at £75 thousand per day of closure. Also highlighted are events in which economic impact is relatively minor, yet concentrating on particular communities that can become substantially isolated as a consequence of a single event. The findings of this study are of interest and support wider investigations exploring cost considerations for decision makers and mitigation strategies, in addition to identifying network topological and demand indicators conducive

  2. Kidney transplant access in the Southeastern United States: the need for a top-down transformation.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, T R

    2014-07-01

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) and poverty are highly prevalent conditions in the Southeastern United States. The American Southeast also has some of the lowest attainments of health status among its constituents. Transplantation rates are particularly low in the Southeast compared with other regions of the United States. These low kidney transplantation rates in the Southeast likely reflect poor access to medical care. This disproportionate lack of access to medical care among ESRD patients in the Southeast reflects the convergence and interaction of socioeconomic and biologic forces at the patient level interacting with the financial and organizational structure of the health-care system. Improving kidney transplant access in the Southeast will take disruptive political, financial and health system changes whose scope transcends transplant centers and dialysis units.

  3. Disparities and access to healthy food in the United States: A review of food deserts literature.

    PubMed

    Walker, Renee E; Keane, Christopher R; Burke, Jessica G

    2010-09-01

    Increasingly, studies are focusing on the role the local food environment plays in residents' ability to purchase affordable, healthy and nutritious foods. In a food desert, an area devoid of a supermarket, access to healthy food is limited. We conducted a systematic review of studies that focused on food access and food desert research in the United States. The 31 studies identified utilized 9 measures to assess food access. Results from these studies can be summarized primarily into four major statements. Findings from other countries offer insight into ways, in which future research, policy development and program implementation in the U.S. may continue to be explored. PMID:20462784

  4. Disparities and access to healthy food in the United States: A review of food deserts literature.

    PubMed

    Walker, Renee E; Keane, Christopher R; Burke, Jessica G

    2010-09-01

    Increasingly, studies are focusing on the role the local food environment plays in residents' ability to purchase affordable, healthy and nutritious foods. In a food desert, an area devoid of a supermarket, access to healthy food is limited. We conducted a systematic review of studies that focused on food access and food desert research in the United States. The 31 studies identified utilized 9 measures to assess food access. Results from these studies can be summarized primarily into four major statements. Findings from other countries offer insight into ways, in which future research, policy development and program implementation in the U.S. may continue to be explored.

  5. Experiences among undocumented migrants accessing primary care in the United Kingdom: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Poduval, Shoba; Howard, Natasha; Jones, Lucy; Murwill, Phil; McKee, Martin; Legido-Quigley, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Immigration is a key political issue in the United Kingdom. The 2014 Immigration Act includes a number of measures intended to reduce net immigration, including removing the right of non-European Economic Area migrants to access free health care. This change risks widening existing health and social inequalities. This study explored the experiences of undocumented migrants trying to access primary care in the United Kingdom, their perspectives on proposed access restrictions, and suggestions for policymakers. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 undocumented migrants and four volunteer staff at a charity clinic in London. Inductive thematic analysis drew out major themes. Many undocumented migrants already faced challenges accessing primary care. None of the migrants interviewed said that they would be able to afford charges to access primary care and most said they would have to wait until they were much more unwell and access care through Accident & Emergency (A&E) services. The consequences of limiting access to primary care, including threats to individual and public health consequences and the additional burden on the National Health Service, need to be fully considered by policymakers. The authors argue that an evidence-based approach would avoid legislation that targets vulnerable groups and provides no obvious economic or societal benefit.

  6. 12 CFR 1010.210 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 1010.210 Roads. (a) State the estimated cost to the developer of the proposed road system. (b) If the developer is to complete any roads providing access to the subdivision, submit copies of any bonds or...

  7. 43 CFR 2812.3-2 - Other roads and rights-of-way controlled by applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... controlled by applicant. In addition to the private road systems and rights-of-way described in § 2812.3-1 in the event the applicant controls directly or indirectly other roads or rights-of-way in any O. and C... pendency of the application, the United States is unreasonably denied access to its timber for...

  8. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 3): Limestone Road Superfund Site, operable unit 2, Cumberland, MD, June 28, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This Record of Decision (`ROD`) presents the final remedial action selected for Operable Unit 2 (`OU2`) of the Limestone Road Superfund Site (`Site`), located in Cumberland, Allegany County, Maryland. The selected remedy for the Site consists of the installation of a waterline and ancillary equipment (a pumping station and fire hydrants) to service residents in the vicinity of the Site. Implementation of deed restrictions on the previously capped areas of the Site to prevent use of such areas in such a manner as would cause disturbance of the caps; Implementation of a ground water management program to prevent installation of drinking water wells in the vicinity of the Site; Continuation of the long term ground water, surface water, and sediment monitoring plans currently being implemented pursuant to OU1; and Abandonment of existing residential water supply well.

  9. Access to Care for Methadone Maintenance Patients in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hettema, Jennifer E.; Sorensen, James L.

    2009-01-01

    This policy commentary addresses a significant access to care issue that faces methadone maintenance patients seeking residential treatment in the United States. Methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) has demonstrated strong efficacy in the outpatient treatment of opiate dependence. However, many opiate dependent patients are also in need of more…

  10. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): Savannah River Site (USDOE), Burma Road Rubble Pit (operable unit 32), Aiken, SC, June 18, 1996.

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The Burma Road Rubble Pit (BRRP) unit (231-4F) is listed as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) 3004(u) solid waste management unit/Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensatin and Liability Act (CERCLA) unit in Appendix C of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the Savannah River Site. Only non-hazardous, inert material (e.g., wood, trash, wire, bottles, plastic, rubble, foam, concrete, etc.) was placed at the BRRP source unit. Based on the results of the remedial investigation, no action is necessary at the BRRP unit soils to ensure the protection of human health and the environment.

  11. Climate change risks to United States infrastructure: impacts on coastal development, roads, bridges, and urban drainage

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in temperature, precipitation, sea level, and coastal storms will likely increase the vulnerability of infrastructure across the United States. Using four models of vulnerability, impacts, and adaptation of infrastructure, its deployment, and its role in protecting econom...

  12. 43 CFR 2812.3-7 - Permittee's agreement with United States respecting compensation and adjustment of road use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... licensees shall be required to amortise such capital cost; provisions for road maintenance; the use in... respecting compensation and adjustment of road use. 2812.3-7 Section 2812.3-7 Public Lands: Interior... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands §...

  13. 43 CFR 2812.3-7 - Permittee's agreement with United States respecting compensation and adjustment of road use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... licensees shall be required to amortise such capital cost; provisions for road maintenance; the use in... respecting compensation and adjustment of road use. 2812.3-7 Section 2812.3-7 Public Lands: Interior... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands §...

  14. 43 CFR 2812.3-7 - Permittee's agreement with United States respecting compensation and adjustment of road use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... licensees shall be required to amortise such capital cost; provisions for road maintenance; the use in... respecting compensation and adjustment of road use. 2812.3-7 Section 2812.3-7 Public Lands: Interior... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands §...

  15. The Road to United States Involvement in World War I: A Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Ted

    2002-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan to teach students about the events leading to the U.S. entry into World War I. Explains that the students pretend to be U.S. senators and debate whether the United States should enter the war. Includes handouts for use with this lesson. (CMK)

  16. [Access to health services: how users from a family health unit view it].

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Aurea Christina de Paula; Ferreira, Flávia; Cruz, Graziela Souza Pinto; Pedrosa, Inês de Cássia Franco

    2011-09-01

    The access to health service is a right of every Brazilian citizen, and it is closely related to the principles of receptiveness and bond. This qualitative study, that took the Users' Rights Charter as a reference, aims to analyze how users from a Family Health Unit in the city of Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, view access, receptiveness and bond. A case study was carried out and the data were collected through semi-structured interviews and interpreted through thematic analysis. The results show access perceived in a not always positive way, due to delays in treatment and a low resolution of cases, leading to the search for other services. The lack of knowledge by the user of his rights and the incipient organization of the service network explain, to some extent, the user's dissatisfaction, pointing to the need for the reorganization of the services and the network, as they are the gateway to the system.

  17. Public managed care and service access in outpatient substance abuse treatment units.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Emmeline; Wells, Rebecca; Alexander, Jeffrey A

    2011-10-01

    The continued growth of public managed behavioral health care has raised concerns about possible effects on services provided. This study uses a national sample of outpatient substance abuse treatment units surveyed in 2005 to examine associations between public managed care and service access, measured as both the types of services provided and the amount of treatment received by clients. The percentage of clients funded through public managed care versus other types of public funding was positively associated with treatment units' odds of providing some types of resource-intensive services and with the odds of providing transportation to clients, but was negatively associated with the average number of individual therapy sessions clients received over the course of treatment. In general, public managed care does not appear to restrict access to outpatient substance abuse treatment, although states should monitor these contracts to ensure clients receive adequate courses of individual treatment. PMID:21184286

  18. Access technology and dementia care: influences on residents' everyday lives in a secure unit.

    PubMed

    Margot-Cattin, Isabel; Nygård, Louise

    2006-06-01

    There is a need to understand how technology can best be used to facilitate well-being in people with dementia. This study sought to describe how access control technology influenced the everyday lives of people with dementia living in a secure unit. The staff members and the unit's residents participated in the study. Data were collected through ethnographic observations and semi-structured interviews over 6 months, and were analyzed using the constant comparative method. The results show how access technology supported the residents' sense of security, territoriality, orientation, and adaptation to the environment. However, certain conditions were necessary for these influences to appear. Overall, the results indicate that access control technology may be used to support the well-being of people with dementia, and to increase their opportunities to feel in place in a secure unit. However, there is an urgent need in the future for further exploration of the conditions for use of technology in the field of dementia care, and the necessity of making careful evaluations of the use of technology in this field cannot be overemphasized. PMID:16856468

  19. Barriers to accessing HIV services for Black African communities in Cambridgeshire, the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Shangase, Phindile; Egbe, Catherine O

    2015-02-01

    The majority of new HIV diagnoses in the United Kingdom (UK) occur in people with heterosexually acquired HIV infection, the majority of whom are African communities. Current research shows that despite health promotion efforts and advances in therapy these communities are accessing HIV care late. This study therefore explored barriers to equal access to HIV services by African migrants in the UK. Kleinman's (Patients and healers in the context of culture: an exploration of the borderland between anthropology, medicine, and psychiatry, vol 3. University of California Press, Berkeley, 1980) model of health care systems was applied in this research as a theoretical framework and lens through which the reported findings are viewed as it places health within the broader context of culture. In this research a qualitative approach with focus groups was used. A total of thirty participants were recruited from African migrant community organisations in Cambridgeshire in the East of England strategic health authority in order to study the experiences of African migrants when accessing sexual health services. It was found that barriers to equal access to HIV services exist for African communities in Cambridgeshire. These included language barriers and others bordering on the use of traditional medicine by African migrants, understanding of cultural diversity, awareness of how and where to access HIV services, and getting information about HIV. Findings highlighted the importance of taking the sectors of Kleinman's [1] model into consideration when planning HIV services for African communities. PMID:24878614

  20. The road to patient experience of care measurement: lessons from the United States

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Patient-centered care has become an increasing priority in the United States and plays a prominent role in recent healthcare reforms. One way the country has managed to advance patient-centered care is through establishment of a family of national patient experience surveys (the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems Plans (CAHPS). CAHPS is publicly reported for several types of providers and was recently tied to hospital reimbursement. This is part of a trend over the last two decades that has shifted provider-patient relationships from a traditional paternal approach to customer service and then to clinical partnership. The health care system in Israel, however, is still struggling to overcome barriers to change in this area. While community based biannual patient experience surveys are conducted by the Myers-JDC-Brookdale Institute, there is no comprehensive national approach to measuring the patient experience across a broad range of settings. Only recently did the Israeli Ministry of Health take its first steps to include patient experience as a dimension of health care quality. In its current position, Israel should learn from the U.S. experience with policies promoting patient-centered care, and specifically the impact on clinical services of measuring the patient experience. Looking at what has happened in the United States, we suggest three main lessons. First, there is a need for a set of national patient experience surveys that would be publicly reported and eventually tied to provider reimbursement. Secondly, the national survey tools should be customized to the unique characteristics of Israeli society and draw from recent research on patient-centeredness to include new and important domains such as patient activation and shared decision-making. Finally, newer technological approaches should be explored with the aim of increasing response rates and the timeliness and usefulness of the surveys. PMID:24044672

  1. The road to patient experience of care measurement: lessons from the United States.

    PubMed

    Zimlichman, Eyal; Rozenblum, Ronen; Millenson, Michael L

    2013-01-01

    Patient-centered care has become an increasing priority in the United States and plays a prominent role in recent healthcare reforms. One way the country has managed to advance patient-centered care is through establishment of a family of national patient experience surveys (the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems Plans (CAHPS). CAHPS is publicly reported for several types of providers and was recently tied to hospital reimbursement. This is part of a trend over the last two decades that has shifted provider-patient relationships from a traditional paternal approach to customer service and then to clinical partnership. The health care system in Israel, however, is still struggling to overcome barriers to change in this area. While community based biannual patient experience surveys are conducted by the Myers-JDC-Brookdale Institute, there is no comprehensive national approach to measuring the patient experience across a broad range of settings. Only recently did the Israeli Ministry of Health take its first steps to include patient experience as a dimension of health care quality.In its current position, Israel should learn from the U.S. experience with policies promoting patient-centered care, and specifically the impact on clinical services of measuring the patient experience. Looking at what has happened in the United States, we suggest three main lessons. First, there is a need for a set of national patient experience surveys that would be publicly reported and eventually tied to provider reimbursement. Secondly, the national survey tools should be customized to the unique characteristics of Israeli society and draw from recent research on patient-centeredness to include new and important domains such as patient activation and shared decision-making. Finally, newer technological approaches should be explored with the aim of increasing response rates and the timeliness and usefulness of the surveys.

  2. History of Nutrition: The Long Road Leading to the Dietary Reference Intakes for the United States and Canada.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Suzanne P; Yates, Allison A; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Barr, Susan I; Dwyer, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are reference values to guide the planning and assessing of nutrient intakes in the United States and Canada. The DRI framework was conceptualized in 1994, and the first reports were issued from 1997–2004, based on work by expert panels and subcommittees under the guidance of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine. Numerous conventions, challenges, and controversies were encountered during the process of defining and setting the DRIs, including the definition of the framework, the use of chronic disease endpoints, lack of data on requirements for children and youth, and methods for addressing nonessential bioactive substances with potential health benefits. DRIs may be used to plan and assess the nutrient intakes of both individuals and population groups, but the new paradigm particularly improved methods used for groups. It is now possible to estimate both the prevalence of inadequate intake and the prevalence of potentially excessive intake within a group. The DRIs have served as a potent influence on national nutrition policies, including those related to dietary guidance, food labeling, nutrition monitoring, food assistance programs, and military nutrition standards. Because of this important impact on nutrition policy, the DRIs must be based on the best possible and most up-to-date science. Unfortunately, no updates to specific DRIs are currently planned. Despite the long and challenging road that led to the current DRIs, it must not finish in a dead end. Monetary resources and political will are crucial to maintaining and continuously updating the DRIs.

  3. Curecanti-Blue Mesa-Salida 115-kV transmission lines access roads rehabilitation, maintenance, and construction project. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    Western Area Power Administration (Western) is a power marketing agency of the US Department of Energy, with jurisdiction in 15 western states. The Salt Lake City Area (SLCA) of Western performs the agency`s mission in parts of Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, Utah, Arizona, Wyoming, and Nevada. As part of its mission, Western owns, operates, and maintains a system of transmission lines for transmitting bulk electrical energy from points of generation to and between delivery points. Part of that system in southwestern Colorado includes the Blue Mesa-Curecanti and Blue Mesa-Salida 115-kV transmission lines. Western proposes to conduct maintenance and improve its access roads for these two transmission lines. This paper discusses the impacts to the existing environment as well as the environmental consequences resulting from the maintenance and construction that is proposed.

  4. Hemodialysis access at initiation in the United States, 2005 to 2007: still "catheter first".

    PubMed

    Foley, Robert N; Chen, Shu-Cheng; Collins, Allan J

    2009-10-01

    Despite the broad consensus that native arteriovenous fistula is the access of choice for hemodialysis, national-level information about vascular access at dialysis initiation has been unavailable in the United States. For incident hemodialysis patients, June 2005 to October 2007 (n=220,157), vascular access type was determined from the new Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Medical Evidence Report (form CMS-2728). Proportions with each type at first dialysis, demographic and clinical associations of each type, and associations between initial access type and survival were assessed. The mean patient age was 63.6 years; 29.4% of patients were African American, and for 44.5%, end-stage renal disease was due to diabetes. Vascular access proportions were: fistula, 13.2% of patients; graft, 4.3%; catheter/maturing fistula, 16.0%; catheter/maturing graft, 3.3%; and catheter alone, 63.2%. Adjusted odds ratios (vs. fistula) of catheter use alone were > or = 1.50 for lack of insurance (1.62 [95% confidence interval 1.62-1.68]), nephrologist care for 0 to 12 months (2.75 [2.69-2.81]), other (2.19 [2.09-2.29]), or unknown (1.53 [1.44-1.63]) cause of renal disease, institutional residence (1.51 [1.45-1.57]), and 7 of 18 end-stage renal disease networks. Over a mean follow-up of 1 year, 26.0% of the study population died. Compared with fistula, adjusted mortality hazards ratios were 1.39 (1.32-1.47) for grafts, 1.49 (1.44-1.55) for catheters/maturing fistulas, 1.74 (1.65-1.84) for catheters/maturing grafts, and 2.18 (2.11-2.26) for catheters alone. While geographic variability is pronounced, vascular access at dialysis inception is typically suboptimal; suboptimal access exhibits a graded association with mortality. Lack of timely access to specialty care appears to limit optimal access.

  5. Prescription drug accessibility and affordability in the United States and abroad.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Steve; Kennedy, Jae

    2010-06-01

    This issue brief contrasts prescription drug access, affordability, and costs in the United States with six other high-income countries, drawing from Commonwealth Fund survey data of patient experiences as well as international spending and pricing data. The analysis reveals that Americans, particularly the relatively young and healthy, are more likely to use prescription drugs than are residents of Australia, Canada, Germany, the Netherlands, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom, but they also experience more financial barriers in accessing medications and spend more out-of-pocket for prescriptions. In the U.S., there are also larger income-related inequities in pharmaceutical use. Despite access barriers and disparities, spending per person in the U.S. is far higher, likely the result of paying higher prices for similar medications and using a more expensive mix of drugs. The authors say that value-based benefit designs, reference pricing, and group purchasing could reduce financial barriers and keep down pharmaceutical spending. PMID:20614652

  6. Women's perceptions of access to prenatal care in the United States: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Phillippi, Julia C

    2009-01-01

    Women report many barriers to accessing prenatal care. This article reviews the literature from 1990 to the present on women's perceptions of access to prenatal care within the United States. Barriers can be classified into societal, maternal, and structural dimensions. Women may not be motivated to seek care, especially for unintended pregnancies. Societal and maternal reasons cited for poor motivation include a fear of medical procedures or disclosing the pregnancy to others, depression, and a belief that prenatal care is unnecessary. Structural barriers include long wait times, the location and hours of the clinic, language and attitude of the clinic staff and provider, the cost of services, and a lack of child-friendly facilities. Knowledge of women's views of access can help in development of policies to decrease barriers. Structural barriers could be reduced through changes in clinic policy and prenatal care format, and the creation of child-friendly waiting and examination rooms. Maternal and societal barriers can be addressed through community education. A focus in future research on facilitators of access can assist in creating open pathways to perinatal care for all women.

  7. Refugee Resettlement Patterns and State-Level Health Care Insurance Access in the United States.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Pooja; Venkatesh, Arjun Krishna

    2016-04-01

    We sought to evaluate the relationship between state-level implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) and resettlement patterns among refugees. We linked federal refugee resettlement data to ACA expansion data and found that refugee resettlement rates are not significantly different according to state-level insurance expansion or cost. Forty percent of refugees have resettled to states without Medicaid expansion. The wide state-level variability in implementation of the ACA should be considered by federal agencies seeking to optimize access to health insurance coverage among refugees who have resettled to the United States. PMID:26890186

  8. History of Nutrition: The Long Road Leading to the Dietary Reference Intakes for the United States and Canada.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Suzanne P; Yates, Allison A; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Barr, Susan I; Dwyer, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are reference values to guide the planning and assessing of nutrient intakes in the United States and Canada. The DRI framework was conceptualized in 1994, and the first reports were issued from 1997–2004, based on work by expert panels and subcommittees under the guidance of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine. Numerous conventions, challenges, and controversies were encountered during the process of defining and setting the DRIs, including the definition of the framework, the use of chronic disease endpoints, lack of data on requirements for children and youth, and methods for addressing nonessential bioactive substances with potential health benefits. DRIs may be used to plan and assess the nutrient intakes of both individuals and population groups, but the new paradigm particularly improved methods used for groups. It is now possible to estimate both the prevalence of inadequate intake and the prevalence of potentially excessive intake within a group. The DRIs have served as a potent influence on national nutrition policies, including those related to dietary guidance, food labeling, nutrition monitoring, food assistance programs, and military nutrition standards. Because of this important impact on nutrition policy, the DRIs must be based on the best possible and most up-to-date science. Unfortunately, no updates to specific DRIs are currently planned. Despite the long and challenging road that led to the current DRIs, it must not finish in a dead end. Monetary resources and political will are crucial to maintaining and continuously updating the DRIs. PMID:27180379

  9. Regulation, reimbursement, and the long road of implementation of personalized medicine--a perspective from the United States.

    PubMed

    Frueh, Felix W

    2013-01-01

    There is undisputed evidence that personalized medicine, that is, a more precise assessment of which medical intervention might best serve an individual patient on the basis of novel technology, such as molecular profiling, can have a significant impact on clinical outcomes. The field, however, is still new, and the demonstration of improved effectiveness compared with standard of care comes at a cost. How can we be sure that personalized medicine indeed provides a measurable clinical benefit, that we will be able to afford it, and that we can provide adequate access? The risk-benefit evaluation that accompanies each medical decision requires not only good clinical data but also an assessment of cost and infrastructure needed to provide access to technology. Several examples from the last decade illustrate which types of personalized medicines and diagnostic tests are easily being taken up in clinical practice and which types are more difficult to introduce. And as regulators and payers in the United States and elsewhere are taking on personalized medicine, an interesting convergence can be observed: better, more complete information for both approval and coverage decisions could be gained from a coordination of regulatory and reimbursement questions. Health economics and outcomes research (HEOR) emerges as an approach that can satisfy both needs. Although HEOR represents a well-established approach to demonstrate the effectiveness of interventions in many areas of medical practice, few HEOR studies exist in the field of personalized medicine today. It is reasonable to expect that this will change over the next few years.

  10. Road Traffic Related Injury Research and Informatics. New Opportunities for Biomedical and Health Informatics as a Contribution to the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals?

    PubMed

    Al-Shorbaji, N; Haux, R; Krishnamurthy, R; Marschollek, M; Mattfeld, D C; Bartolomeos, K; Reynolds, T A

    2015-01-01

    The United Nations has recently adopted 17 sustainable development goals for 2030, including ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being for all at all ages, and making cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable. Road injuries remain among the ten leading causes of death in the world, and are projected to increase with rapidly increasing motorisation globally. Lack of comprehensive data on road injuries has been identified as one of the barriers for effective implementation of proven road safety interventions. Building, linking and analysing electronic patient records in conjunction with establishing injury event and care registries can substantially contribute to healthy lives and safe transportation. Appropriate use of new technological approaches and health informatics best practices could provide significant added value to WHO's global road safety work and assist Member States in identifying prevention targets, monitoring progress and improving quality of care to reduce injury-related deaths. This paper encourages the initiation of new multidisciplinary research at a global level.

  11. Racial and ethnic differences in pediatric access to preemptive kidney transplantation in the United States.

    PubMed

    Patzer, R E; Sayed, B A; Kutner, N; McClellan, W M; Amaral, S

    2013-07-01

    Preemptive kidney transplantation is the optimal treatment for pediatric end stage renal disease patients to avoid increased morbidity and mortality associated with dialysis. It is unknown how race/ethnicity and poverty influence preemptive transplant access in pediatric. We examined the incidence of living donor or deceased donor preemptive transplantation among all black, white, and Hispanic children (<18 years) in the United States Renal Data System from 2000 to 2009. Adjusted risk ratios for preemptive transplant were calculated using multivariable-adjusted models and examined across health insurance and neighborhood poverty levels. Among 8,053 patients, 1117 (13.9%) received a preemptive transplant (66.9% from LD, 33.1% from DD). In multivariable analyses, there were significant racial/ethnic disparities in access to LD preemptive transplant where blacks were 66% (RR = 0.34; 95% CI: 0.28-0.43) and Hispanics 52% (RR = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.35-0.67) less likely to receive a LD preemptive transplant versus whites. Blacks were 22% less likely to receive a DD preemptive transplant versus whites (RR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.57-1.05), although results were not statistically significant. Future efforts to promote equity in preemptive transplant should address the critical issues of improving access to pre-ESRD nephrology care and overcoming barriers in living donation, including obstacles partially driven by poverty.

  12. EPA GHG Certification of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles: Development of Road Grade Profiles Representative of US Controlled Access Highways

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Eric; Duran, Adam; Burton, Evan; Gonder, Jeffrey; Kelly, Kenneth

    2015-05-12

    This report includes a detailed comparison of the TomTom national road grade database relative to a local road grade dataset generated by Southwest Research Institute and a national elevation dataset publically available from the U.S. Geological Survey. This analysis concluded that the TomTom national road grade database was a suitable source of road grade data for purposes of this study.

  13. 12 CFR 1010.210 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Roads. 1010.210 Section 1010.210 Banks and... § 1010.210 Roads. (a) State the estimated cost to the developer of the proposed road system. (b) If the developer is to complete any roads providing access to the subdivision, submit copies of any bonds or...

  14. 12 CFR 1010.210 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Roads. 1010.210 Section 1010.210 Banks and... § 1010.210 Roads. (a) State the estimated cost to the developer of the proposed road system. (b) If the developer is to complete any roads providing access to the subdivision, submit copies of any bonds or...

  15. Open access gastroscopy: second survey of current practice in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Silcock, J G; Bramble, M G

    1997-02-01

    In June 1990 a survey of members of the endoscopy section of the British Society of Gastroenterology showed that 47% of respondents were offering some form of open access gastroscopy (OAG). Only 10% offered true (non-censored) OAG. The survey was repeated in June 1994. The overall provision of OAG had risen to 74%, most of whom were offering true OAG. Censored OAG is still widely practised and characterised by referral letters to a consultant in contrast with the use of referral forms (p < 0.001). Referral forms are being increasingly used and are an effective way of capturing important data such as the patients' symptoms (100%), previous treatment (87%), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug or aspirin use (78%), suspected diagnosis (74%), and other medical conditions (72%). Forms were used to establish clinical responsibility with the general practitioner in 64% of units. Standardised referral and reporting forms were used by 27% of respondents. A perceived inability to cope with the expected workload was still the most commonly cited reason for not being able to offer OAG. Although 20% of units with a single handed endoscopist were able to offer OAG, this compared with 68% of units with two or more endoscopists (p < 0.001). Only three units indicated that an OAG service had had to be withdrawn, but a further 12 consultants (nine units) were now offering an age restricted service because of excessive workload. Two thirds of the respondents not offering OAG were hoping to do so in the near future. True OAG has increased from 10% to 41% in four years. PMID:9071930

  16. Welcome to the wild west: protecting access to cross border fertility care in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mutcherson, Kimberley M

    2012-01-01

    As has been the case with other types of medical tourism, the phenomenon of cross border fertility care ("CBFC") has sparked concern about the lack of global or even national harmonization in the regulation of the fertility industry. The diversity of laws around the globe leads would-be parents to forum shop for a welcoming place to make babies. Focusing specifically on the phenomenon of travel to the United States, this Article takes up the question of whether there should be any legal barriers to those who come to the United States seeking CBFC. In part, CBFC suffers from the same general concerns raised about the use of fertility treatment in general, but it is possible to imagine a subset of arguments that would lead to forbidding or at least discouraging people from coming to the United States for CBFC, either as a matter of law or policy. This paper stands in opposition to any such effort and contemplates the moral and ethical concerns about CBFC and how, and if, those concerns warrant expression in law. Part I describes the conditions that lead some couples and individuals to leave their home countries to access fertility treatments abroad and details why the United States, with its comparatively liberal regulation of ART, has become a popular CBFC destination for travelers from around the world. Part II offers and refutes arguments supporting greater domestic control over those who seek to satisfy their desires for CBFC in the United States by reasserting the importance of the right of procreation while also noting appropriate concerns about justice and equality in the market for babies. Part III continues the exploration of justice by investigating the question of international cooperation in legislating against perceived wrongs. This Part concludes that consistent legislation across borders is appropriate where there is consensus about the wrong of an act, but it is unnecessary and inappropriate where there remain cultural conflicts about certain

  17. Minimum Ages of Legal Access for Tobacco in the United States From 1863 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Apollonio, Dorie E.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, state laws establish a minimum age of legal access (MLA) for most tobacco products at 18 years. We reviewed the history of these laws with internal tobacco industry documents and newspaper archives from 1860 to 2014. The laws appeared in the 1880s; by 1920, half of states had set MLAs of at least 21 years. After 1920, tobacco industry lobbying eroded them to between 16 and 18 years. By the 1980s, the tobacco industry viewed restoration of higher MLAs as a critical business threat. The industry’s political advocacy reflects its assessment that recruiting youth smokers is critical to its survival. The increasing evidence on tobacco addiction suggests that restoring MLAs to 21 years would reduce smoking initiation and prevalence, particularly among those younger than 18 years. PMID:27196658

  18. Minimum Ages of Legal Access for Tobacco in the United States From 1863 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Apollonio, Dorie E; Glantz, Stanton A

    2016-07-01

    In the United States, state laws establish a minimum age of legal access (MLA) for most tobacco products at 18 years. We reviewed the history of these laws with internal tobacco industry documents and newspaper archives from 1860 to 2014. The laws appeared in the 1880s; by 1920, half of states had set MLAs of at least 21 years. After 1920, tobacco industry lobbying eroded them to between 16 and 18 years. By the 1980s, the tobacco industry viewed restoration of higher MLAs as a critical business threat. The industry's political advocacy reflects its assessment that recruiting youth smokers is critical to its survival. The increasing evidence on tobacco addiction suggests that restoring MLAs to 21 years would reduce smoking initiation and prevalence, particularly among those younger than 18 years. PMID:27196658

  19. Primary health care use and health care accessibility among adolescents in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Barakat-Haddad, C; Siddiqua, A

    2015-05-19

    This study examined primary health care use and accessibility among adolescents living in the United Arab Emirates. In a cross-sectional study, we collected health care use, sociodemographic and residential data for a sample of 6363 adolescents. Logistic regression modelling was used to examine predictors of health care use. The most-consulted health professionals were dentists or orthodontists, family doctors and eye specialists. Local adolescents were more likely to attend public clinics/hospitals than private facilities, while the opposite was true for expatriates. In the previous 12 months 22.6% of the participants had not obtained the health care they needed and 19.5% had not had a routine health check-up. Common reasons for not obtaining care were busy schedules, dislike/fear of doctors and long waiting times. Predictors of not obtaining needed care included nationality and income, while those for having a routine check-up were mother's education and car ownership. Improvements to the health care sector may increase health care accessibility among adolescents.

  20. Web Accessibility in Europe and the United States: What We Are Doing to Increase Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheaton, Joseph; Bertini, Patrizia

    2007-01-01

    Accessibility is hardly a new problem and certainly did not originate with the Web. Lack of access to buildings long preceded the call for accessible Web content. Although it is unlikely that rehabilitation educators look at Web page accessibility with indifference, many may also find it difficult to implement. The authors posit three reasons why…

  1. A Near-Road Modeling System for Community-Scale Assessments of Traffic-Related AirPollution in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Community Line Source (C-LINE) modeling system estimates emissions and dispersion of toxic air pollutants for roadways within the continental United States. It accesses publicly available traffic and meteorological datasets, and is optimized for use on community-sized areas (...

  2. Equalizing Access to Electronic Networked Resources: A Model for Rural Libraries in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senkevitch, Judith J.; Wolfram, Dietmar

    1994-01-01

    Provides an overview of the current state of networking technology in rural libraries and describes a model for educating rural librarians in accessing electronic networks. Topics discussed include information needs in rural libraries; telecommunications technology access in rural areas; and examples of services to enhance information access.…

  3. Proposed plan/Statement of basis for the Grace Road Site (631-22G) operable unit: Final action

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.

    1997-08-19

    This Statement of Basis/Proposed Plan is being issued by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), which functions as the lead agency for the Savannah River Site (SRS) remedial activities, with concurrence by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The purpose of this Statement of Basis/Proposed Plan is to describe the preferred alternative for addressing the Grace Road site (GRS) located at the Savannah River Site (SRS), in Aiken, South Carolina and to provide an opportunity for public input into the remedial action selection process.

  4. Evaluation of soybean germplasm accessions for resistance to Phakopsora pachyrhizi populations in the southeastern United States, 2009-2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] germplasm accessions from the USDA Soybean Germplasm Collection were screened for resistance to soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi) at up to five locations in the southeastern United States in 2009, 2011 and 2012. In 2009, plant introductions (PIs) from maturity gro...

  5. Research access to privately owned wetland basins in the prairie pothole region of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fellows, David P.; Buhl, Thomas K.

    1995-01-01

    We describe efforts to obtain access for research to 81 wetland basins on 69 farms in four zones of the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota, South Dakota, and Minnesota. Access was obtained to 54% of the farms in areas where land was intensively cropped and 87% of farms in areas of low cropping intensity. On average, 1.35 operators had to be contacted and 1.70 interviews were required to obtain a decision on access to a farm. On 77% of the farms, cooperators placed at least one restriction on access, most commonly requiring walking access only or notification before nighttime work. Cost of obtaining access averaged $265/farm in wages and travel expenses. No cooperators were willing to sign written access agreements. Operators rescinded access to four farms and drained three wetland basins during the first year; six of the seven sites lost were in the intensively cropped portion of a low-wetland-density zone. The difficulty of obtaining and retaining research access to privately owned wetland basins in intensively cropped areas may be related to landowner attitudes towards wetlands. Researchers may have to rely on remote sensing or consider payment for access to secure representative research sites in such areas. Unwillingness of cooperators to sign access agreements may jeopardize research by the newly formed National Biological Service and other resource management agencies.

  6. Roads and traffic: Effects on ecology and wildlife habitat use; applications for cooperative adaptive management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ouren, Douglas S.; Watts, Raymond D.

    2005-01-01

    The land of the United States in dissected by more than 4 million miles of roads that fragment wildlife habitat on both public and private lands. Traffic on these roads causes additional effects. On secondary roads, which provide access to the most natural habitat, the levels, timing, and types of traffic are seldom known. In order to understand the effects of traffic on wildlife, USGS is conducting research cooperatively with the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Forest Service, the National Park Service, and the Colorado Division of Wildlife.

  7. Vascular access and infection prevention and control: a national survey of routine practices in Irish haemodialysis units

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Margaret; Clarke, Michael; Mellotte, George; Plant, Liam; Fitzpatrick, Fidelma

    2013-01-01

    Background National and international guidelines recommend the use of effective vascular access (VA) and infection prevention and control practices within the haemodialysis environment. Establishing an arterio-venous fistula (AVF) and preventing central venous catheter (CVC)-related infections are ongoing challenges for all dialysis settings. We surveyed VA and routine infection prevention and control practices in dialysis units, to provide national data on these practices in Ireland. Methods A descriptive survey was emailed to nurse managers at all adult (n = 19) and children (n = 1) outpatient haemodialysis units in the Republic of Ireland. Data collected included AVF formation, CVC insertion and maintenance practices, VA use and surveillance of infection and screening protocols. Nineteen of the 20 units responded to the survey. Results The AVF prevalence was 49% for 1370 patients in 17 units who provided these data [mean prevalence per unit: 45.7% (SD 16.2)]; the CVC mean prevalence per unit was 52.5% (SD 16.0). Fourteen dialysis units experienced inadequate access to vascular surgical procedures either due to a lack of dedicated theatre time or hospital beds. Six units administered intravenous prophylactic antimicrobials prior to CVC insertion with only two units using a CVC insertion checklist at the time of catheter insertion. Conclusion In general, dialysis units in Ireland show a strong adherence to national guidelines. Compared with the 12 countries participating in the Dialysis Outcomes Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS 4), in 2010, AVF prevalence in Irish dialysis units is the second lowest. Recommendations include establishing an AVF national prevalence target rate, discontinuing the administration of intravenous prophylactic antimicrobials prior to CVC insertion and promoting the use of CVC insertion checklists. PMID:26019846

  8. United States Federal Health Care Websites: A Multimethod Evaluation of Website Accessibility for Individuals with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brobst, John L.

    2012-01-01

    The problem addressed by this study is the observed low levels of compliance with federal policy on website accessibility. The study examines the two key federal policies that promote website accessibility, using a side-by-side policy analysis technique. The analysis examines the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 and Section 508 of the…

  9. A culture gap in the United States: Implications for policy on limiting access to firearms for suicidal persons.

    PubMed

    Marino, Elizabeth; Wolsko, Christopher; Keys, Susan G; Pennavaria, Laura

    2016-09-01

    Suicide is a critical public health problem worldwide. In the United States (US), firearm ownership is common, and firearms account for the majority of deaths by suicide. While suicide prevention strategies may include limiting access to firearms, the contentious nature of gun regulations in the US, particularly among members of rural communities, often gives rise to constitutional concerns and political polarization that could inhibit suicidal persons from seeking the help they need. We examine potential outcomes of public health strategies in the US that encourage limiting access to firearms for populations who both value firearm ownership and are vulnerable to suicide. Based on preliminary results from a firearm safety study, we argue that attempts to limit access to firearms among those at risk of suicide will only succeed when the most affected cultural groups are engaged in collaborative discussions. PMID:27638246

  10. A culture gap in the United States: Implications for policy on limiting access to firearms for suicidal persons.

    PubMed

    Marino, Elizabeth; Wolsko, Christopher; Keys, Susan G; Pennavaria, Laura

    2016-09-01

    Suicide is a critical public health problem worldwide. In the United States (US), firearm ownership is common, and firearms account for the majority of deaths by suicide. While suicide prevention strategies may include limiting access to firearms, the contentious nature of gun regulations in the US, particularly among members of rural communities, often gives rise to constitutional concerns and political polarization that could inhibit suicidal persons from seeking the help they need. We examine potential outcomes of public health strategies in the US that encourage limiting access to firearms for populations who both value firearm ownership and are vulnerable to suicide. Based on preliminary results from a firearm safety study, we argue that attempts to limit access to firearms among those at risk of suicide will only succeed when the most affected cultural groups are engaged in collaborative discussions.

  11. 23 CFR 660.517 - Maneuver area roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maneuver area roads. 660.517 Section 660.517 Highways... PROGRAMS (DIRECT FEDERAL) Defense Access Roads § 660.517 Maneuver area roads. (a) Claims by a highway agency for costs incurred to restore, to their former condition, roads damaged by maneuvers involving...

  12. 23 CFR 660.517 - Maneuver area roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Maneuver area roads. 660.517 Section 660.517 Highways... PROGRAMS (DIRECT FEDERAL) Defense Access Roads § 660.517 Maneuver area roads. (a) Claims by a highway agency for costs incurred to restore, to their former condition, roads damaged by maneuvers involving...

  13. 23 CFR 660.517 - Maneuver area roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Maneuver area roads. 660.517 Section 660.517 Highways... PROGRAMS (DIRECT FEDERAL) Defense Access Roads § 660.517 Maneuver area roads. (a) Claims by a highway agency for costs incurred to restore, to their former condition, roads damaged by maneuvers involving...

  14. 23 CFR 660.517 - Maneuver area roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maneuver area roads. 660.517 Section 660.517 Highways... PROGRAMS (DIRECT FEDERAL) Defense Access Roads § 660.517 Maneuver area roads. (a) Claims by a highway agency for costs incurred to restore, to their former condition, roads damaged by maneuvers involving...

  15. 23 CFR 660.517 - Maneuver area roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Maneuver area roads. 660.517 Section 660.517 Highways... PROGRAMS (DIRECT FEDERAL) Defense Access Roads § 660.517 Maneuver area roads. (a) Claims by a highway agency for costs incurred to restore, to their former condition, roads damaged by maneuvers involving...

  16. An exploration of deaf women's access to mental health nurse education in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Sharples, Naomi

    2013-09-01

    Historically deaf people have been denied access to professional nurse education due to a range of language, communication and ideological barriers. The following study was set in the North of England and draws upon the Western experience and knowledge base of deaf people's experience of access to professional education. The aim of this study was to understand the experiences of the first British Sign Language using deaf qualified nurses before they entered the Pre-registration Diploma in Nursing Programme, during the programme and after the programme as they progressed into professional nursing roles. The purpose of the study was to gather the nurses' thoughts and feelings about their experiences and to analyse these using thematic analysis within a narrative interpretive tradition against a backdrop of Jurgen Habermas' critical theory and Paulo Freire's critical pedagogy. By drawing out significant themes to structure a deeper understanding of the nurses' unique positions, they offer a model for inclusive education practice that would support deaf people and people from minority groups into nursing and other health care professions. The signed narratives were video recorded and interpreted into written English transcripts which were then analysed to discover the underlying themes using Boyatzis' (1998) thematic analysis. The findings are set against an historical and contemporary setting of deaf people in Western society, their experiences of education, health and employment. These unique findings illustrate the significance of an accessible language environment for the nurses, the role of the organisation in ensuring access for the nurses and the impact of barriers to education and the clinical environment. The implications for education and practice supports the need to analyse the workforce required in deaf services, to scrutinize the access provided, to develop cultural competence skills, enhance the use of additional support mechanisms, generate accessible

  17. An exploration of deaf women's access to mental health nurse education in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Sharples, Naomi

    2013-09-01

    Historically deaf people have been denied access to professional nurse education due to a range of language, communication and ideological barriers. The following study was set in the North of England and draws upon the Western experience and knowledge base of deaf people's experience of access to professional education. The aim of this study was to understand the experiences of the first British Sign Language using deaf qualified nurses before they entered the Pre-registration Diploma in Nursing Programme, during the programme and after the programme as they progressed into professional nursing roles. The purpose of the study was to gather the nurses' thoughts and feelings about their experiences and to analyse these using thematic analysis within a narrative interpretive tradition against a backdrop of Jurgen Habermas' critical theory and Paulo Freire's critical pedagogy. By drawing out significant themes to structure a deeper understanding of the nurses' unique positions, they offer a model for inclusive education practice that would support deaf people and people from minority groups into nursing and other health care professions. The signed narratives were video recorded and interpreted into written English transcripts which were then analysed to discover the underlying themes using Boyatzis' (1998) thematic analysis. The findings are set against an historical and contemporary setting of deaf people in Western society, their experiences of education, health and employment. These unique findings illustrate the significance of an accessible language environment for the nurses, the role of the organisation in ensuring access for the nurses and the impact of barriers to education and the clinical environment. The implications for education and practice supports the need to analyse the workforce required in deaf services, to scrutinize the access provided, to develop cultural competence skills, enhance the use of additional support mechanisms, generate accessible

  18. Poor People, Poor Places and Access to Health Care in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, James B.

    2008-01-01

    Research suggests that community-level poverty is associated with access to health care net of individual-level characteristics, but no research investigates whether this association differs by individual-level income. Using data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys, the U.S. Census Bureau and the Health Resource and Services Administration,…

  19. Preserving Long-Term Access to United States Government Documents in Legacy Digital Formats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Kam A.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several decades, millions of digital objects of significant scientific, economic, cultural, and historic value have been published and distributed to libraries and archives on removable media. Providing long-term access to these documents, media files, and software executables is an increasingly complex task because of dependencies…

  20. 28 CFR 16.81 - Exemption of United States Attorneys Systems-limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Consumer Complaints (JUSTICE/USA-006). (4) Criminal Case Files (JUSTICE/USA-007). (5) Kline-District of..., Criminal Files (JUSTICE/USA-013). (9) Pre-trial Diversion Program Files (JUSTICE/USA-014). These exemptions... Systems-limited access. 16.81 Section 16.81 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION...

  1. 28 CFR 16.81 - Exemption of United States Attorneys Systems-limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Consumer Complaints (JUSTICE/USA-006). (4) Criminal Case Files (JUSTICE/USA-007). (5) Kline-District of..., Criminal Files (JUSTICE/USA-013). (9) Pre-trial Diversion Program Files (JUSTICE/USA-014). These exemptions... Systems-limited access. 16.81 Section 16.81 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION...

  2. 28 CFR 16.81 - Exemption of United States Attorneys Systems-limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Consumer Complaints (JUSTICE/USA-006). (4) Criminal Case Files (JUSTICE/USA-007). (5) Kline-District of..., Criminal Files (JUSTICE/USA-013). (9) Pre-trial Diversion Program Files (JUSTICE/USA-014). These exemptions... Systems-limited access. 16.81 Section 16.81 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION...

  3. 75 FR 28331 - Meaningful Access to United States Currency for Blind and Visually Impaired Persons

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    .... You may also e-mail electronic comments to meaningful.access@bep.gov . You may fax comments to 202-874... will be designated after BEP awards the CRPC contract. Except for the postage to mail application forms... the initial battery will be borne by the provider. Readers will be delivered by mail. There will be...

  4. Assessment and Access: Hispanics in Higher Education. SUNY Series, United States Hispanic Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Gary D., Ed.; And Others

    This book contains 10 papers on solutions and barriers to improving the access of Hispanic American students to higher education. Following an introductory essay on: "Advances in Assessment and the Potential for Increasing the Number of Hispanics in Higher Education" (G. D. Keller), the papers are organized into four parts. Papers in part I…

  5. Access to the Archives of United Nations Agencies: A RAMP Study with Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulate-Segura, Bodil

    Prepared under contract with the International Council on Archives (ICA), this study reviews expanded applications of archival research, the growing popular demand for information, and the resultant effect on the role of archives and archivists, especially in terms of access to records. Following an introductory discussion of the concept and role…

  6. Associations of supermarket accessibility with obesity and fruit and vegetable consumption in the conterminous United States

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Limited access to supermarkets may reduce consumption of healthy foods, resulting in poor nutrition and increased prevalence of obesity. Most studies have focused on accessibility of supermarkets in specific urban settings or localized rural communities. Less is known, however, about how supermarket accessibility is associated with obesity and healthy diet at the national level and how these associations differ in urban versus rural settings. We analyzed data on obesity and fruit and vegetable (F/V) consumption from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for 2000-2006 at the county level. We used 2006 Census Zip Code Business Patterns data to compute population-weighted mean distance to supermarket at the county level for different sizes of supermarket. Multilevel logistic regression models were developed to test whether population-weighted mean distance to supermarket was associated with both obesity and F/V consumption and to determine whether these relationships varied for urban (metropolitan) versus rural (nonmetropolitan) areas. Results Distance to supermarket was greater in nonmetropolitan than in metropolitan areas. The odds of obesity increased and odds of consuming F/V five times or more per day decreased as distance to supermarket increased in metropolitan areas for most store size categories. In nonmetropolitan areas, however, distance to supermarket had no associations with obesity or F/V consumption for all supermarket size categories. Conclusions Obesity prevalence increased and F/V consumption decreased with increasing distance to supermarket in metropolitan areas, but not in nonmetropolitan areas. These results suggest that there may be a threshold distance in nonmetropolitan areas beyond which distance to supermarket no longer impacts obesity and F/V consumption. In addition, obesity and food environments in nonmetropolitan areas are likely driven by a more complex set of social, cultural, and physical factors than a single

  7. Open access of publications by veterinary faculty in the United States and Canada.

    PubMed

    Nault, André J

    2011-01-01

    The free availability of full-text veterinary publications in MEDLINE-indexed journals by US and Canadian veterinary faculty from 2006-7 was determined. Additionally, publishing databases were searched to obtain general statistics on veterinary publishing. A survey of institutional initiatives to promote open-access journals and institutional repositories was also performed. Veterinary faculty published a total of 4,872 articles indexed by MEDLINE in 679 different journals. Of these articles, 1,334 (27%) were available as free full text and were published in 245 different journals. Although 51 veterinary-specific journals offering immediate and free full-text access were identified, few articles in this study appeared in these titles. Rather, most free scholarly articles by veterinary faculty appeared in journals with an embargo period. Academic veterinary institutions may want to recommend acceptance of alternate forms of information dissemination (such as open-access journals and journals published only digitally) to encourage greater global dissemination of their research findings. The promotion and use of digital institutional repositories is also an area for future investment and warrants additional research. PMID:21805933

  8. Open access of publications by veterinary faculty in the United States and Canada.

    PubMed

    Nault, André J

    2011-01-01

    The free availability of full-text veterinary publications in MEDLINE-indexed journals by US and Canadian veterinary faculty from 2006-7 was determined. Additionally, publishing databases were searched to obtain general statistics on veterinary publishing. A survey of institutional initiatives to promote open-access journals and institutional repositories was also performed. Veterinary faculty published a total of 4,872 articles indexed by MEDLINE in 679 different journals. Of these articles, 1,334 (27%) were available as free full text and were published in 245 different journals. Although 51 veterinary-specific journals offering immediate and free full-text access were identified, few articles in this study appeared in these titles. Rather, most free scholarly articles by veterinary faculty appeared in journals with an embargo period. Academic veterinary institutions may want to recommend acceptance of alternate forms of information dissemination (such as open-access journals and journals published only digitally) to encourage greater global dissemination of their research findings. The promotion and use of digital institutional repositories is also an area for future investment and warrants additional research.

  9. Road Rage

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2010-01-01

    Up to one-third of community participants report being perpetrators of road rage, indicating that various forms of road rage are relatively commonplace. However, only two percent or less of incidents culminate in serious damage to persons or vehicles. The most common offenders appear to be young and male. A number of factors may contribute to road rage, including environmental factors (e.g., greater number of miles driven per day, traffic density), nonspecific psychological factors (e.g., displaced aggression, attribution of blame to others), and bona fide Axis I and II disorders. The most common Axis I disorders appear to be related to alcohol and substance misuse, whereas possible Axis II disorders include borderline and antisocial personality disorders. Being aware of these contributory factors to road rage may improve general clinical awareness of the nature and treatment of perpetrators. PMID:20805914

  10. Traveling the National Road: A National Park Service Curriculum Based Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    In 1805, a U.S. Senate committee urged the building of a road that would connect the eastern United States with the western United States. The road came to be known as the National Road (or Cumberland Road). It began in Cumberland, Maryland, and eventually reached to Vandalia, Illinois. It was the first and only U.S. road built entirely with…

  11. Avenues and barriers to access of services for immigrant elders: state and local policies for OAA units on aging.

    PubMed

    Okafor, Maria C

    2009-07-01

    The diversification and aging of the US population has been at the root of many political and policy debates in recent years. Of particular interest has been the place of immigrants in an aging society, and what rights these immigrants are entitled to. The objective of this article is to describe the current avenues and barriers to access of services for immigrant elders and examine potential solutions for reform. The article begins with a historical overview of the policy issue, followed by the current status of the issue in the United States and suggestions for reform.

  12. Information Literacy Skills: Promoting University Access and Success in the United Arab Emirates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shana, Zuhrieh; Ishtaiwa, Fawzi

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this research is to assess the level of information literacy (IL) skills required for the transition-to-university experience across the United Arab Emirates (UAE). This research further seeks to shed light on the IL levels of incoming first-year university students and describe their perceptions of their IL skills. The research…

  13. 47 CFR 76.2000 - Exclusive access to multiple dwelling units generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to multiple dwelling units generally. (a) Prohibition. No cable operator or other provider of MVPD... contours 76.5 Boundaries, TV markets 76.53 Broadcast, Sports 76.67 Broadcast station, TV 76.5 C Cable TV... other TV signals 76.60 Carriage of TV stations, Mandatory 76.56 Carriage of TV stations,...

  14. 47 CFR 76.2000 - Exclusive access to multiple dwelling units generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... to multiple dwelling units generally. (a) Prohibition. No cable operator or other provider of MVPD... contours 76.5 Boundaries, TV markets 76.53 Broadcast, Sports 76.67 Broadcast station, TV 76.5 C Cable TV... other TV signals 76.60 Carriage of TV stations, Mandatory 76.56 Carriage of TV stations,...

  15. 47 CFR 76.2000 - Exclusive access to multiple dwelling units generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to multiple dwelling units generally. (a) Prohibition. No cable operator or other provider of MVPD... contours 76.5 Boundaries, TV markets 76.53 Broadcast, Sports 76.67 Broadcast station, TV 76.5 C Cable TV... other TV signals 76.60 Carriage of TV stations, Mandatory 76.56 Carriage of TV stations,...

  16. Comparative susceptibility of kudzu accessions from Southeastern United States to infection by Phakopsora pachyrhizi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, was first discovered in the United States (U.S.), in the fall of 2004. The potential for economic loss in the U.S. hinges largely on whether or not the pathogen can readily survive winters in the absence of soybean. Kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata...

  17. Distributed road assessment system

    DOEpatents

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W

    2014-03-25

    A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

  18. Access, affordability, and insurance complexity are often worse in the United States compared to ten other countries.

    PubMed

    Schoen, Cathy; Osborn, Robin; Squires, David; Doty, Michelle M

    2013-12-01

    The United States is in the midst of the most sweeping health insurance expansions and market reforms since the enactment of Medicare and Medicaid in 1965. Our 2013 survey of the general population in eleven countries-Australia, Canada, France, Germany, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States-found that US adults were significantly more likely than their counterparts in other countries to forgo care because of cost, to have difficulty paying for care even when insured, and to encounter time-consuming insurance complexity. Signaling the lack of timely access to primary care, adults in the United States and Canada reported long waits to be seen in primary care and high use of hospital emergency departments, compared to other countries. Perhaps not surprisingly, US adults were the most likely to endorse major reforms: Three out of four called for fundamental change or rebuilding. As US health insurance expansions unfold, the survey offers benchmarks to assess US progress from an international perspective, plus insights from other countries' coverage-related policies. PMID:24226092

  19. Access, affordability, and insurance complexity are often worse in the United States compared to ten other countries.

    PubMed

    Schoen, Cathy; Osborn, Robin; Squires, David; Doty, Michelle M

    2013-12-01

    The United States is in the midst of the most sweeping health insurance expansions and market reforms since the enactment of Medicare and Medicaid in 1965. Our 2013 survey of the general population in eleven countries-Australia, Canada, France, Germany, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States-found that US adults were significantly more likely than their counterparts in other countries to forgo care because of cost, to have difficulty paying for care even when insured, and to encounter time-consuming insurance complexity. Signaling the lack of timely access to primary care, adults in the United States and Canada reported long waits to be seen in primary care and high use of hospital emergency departments, compared to other countries. Perhaps not surprisingly, US adults were the most likely to endorse major reforms: Three out of four called for fundamental change or rebuilding. As US health insurance expansions unfold, the survey offers benchmarks to assess US progress from an international perspective, plus insights from other countries' coverage-related policies.

  20. Comparing racial and immigrant health status and health care access in later life in Canada and the United States.

    PubMed

    Prus, Steven G; Tfaily, Rania; Lin, Zhiqiu

    2010-09-01

    Little comparative research exists on health experiences and conditions of minority groups in Canada and the United States, despite both countries having a racially diverse population with a significant proportion of immigrants. This article explores race and immigrant disparities in health and health care access across the two countries. The study focus was on middle and old age given the change and increasing diversity in health and health care policy, such as Medicare. Logistic regression analysis of data from the 2002-2003 Joint Canada/United States Survey of Health shows that the joint effect of race and nativity on health outcomes - health differences between native and foreign-born Whites and non-Whites - is largely insignificant in Canada but considerable in the U.S. Non-White native and foreign-born Americans within both 45-to-64 and 65-and-over age groups experience significant disadvantage in health status and access to care, irrespective of health insurance coverage, demographic, socio-economic, and lifestyle factors.

  1. Racial/ethnic disparities in chronic diseases of youths and access to health care in the United States.

    PubMed

    Price, James H; Khubchandani, Jagdish; McKinney, Molly; Braun, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Racial/ethnic minorities are 1.5 to 2.0 times more likely than whites to have most of the major chronic diseases. Chronic diseases are also more common in the poor than the nonpoor and this association is frequently mediated by race/ethnicity. Specifically, children are disproportionately affected by racial/ethnic health disparities. Between 1960 and 2005 the percentage of children with a chronic disease in the United States almost quadrupled with racial/ethnic minority youth having higher likelihood for these diseases. The most common major chronic diseases of youth in the United States are asthma, diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension, dental disease, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, mental illness, cancers, sickle-cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, and a variety of genetic and other birth defects. This review will focus on the psychosocial rather than biological factors that play important roles in the etiology and subsequent solutions to these health disparities because they should be avoidable and they are inherently unjust. Finally, this review examines access to health services by focusing on health insurance and dental insurance coverage and access to school health services. PMID:24175301

  2. Consumer access to clozapine in Australia: how does this compare to New Zealand and the United Kingdom?

    PubMed Central

    Mcmillan, Sara S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Clozapine is an antipsychotic medication used in treatment resistant schizophrenia. However, clozapine is associated with a significant adverse effect profile and extensive monitoring is required to optimise consumer safety. Traditionally, clozapine can only be prescribed by a psychiatrist and dispensed at a hospital or hospital affiliated pharmacy in Australia. These restrictions could result in significant treatment burden for consumers taking clozapine. Objective: To identify (1) the different models of supply that exist for people living in the community taking clozapine in Australia and compare to those in New Zealand and the United Kingdom, and (2) explore how these supply models may impact on consumer burden from the perspective of professionals involved in the supply of clozapine. Method: Key informants were interviewed (n=8) from Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom regarding how consumers, who lived in the community, accessed clozapine. Data were analysed and led to the development of four clozapine supply models. These four models were further validated by an online survey of a wider sample (n=30). Data were analysed thematically and via simple descriptive statistics. Results: Clozapine supply varied depending on location. A secondary care model was utilised in the United Kingdom compared to a community based (primary care) model in New Zealand; Australia utilised a mixture of both secondary and primary care. A key theme from all study participants was that community pharmacy should be utilised to dispense clozapine to consumers living in the community, provided adequate training and safeguards are in place. It was noted that the utilisation of community pharmacies could improve access and flexibility, thereby reducing treatment burden for these consumers. Conclusion: There are predominately two models for supply of clozapine to consumers living in the community in Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. One model utilises

  3. Dialysis vascular access management by interventional nephrology programs at University Medical Centers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Vachharajani, Tushar J; Moossavi, Shahriar; Salman, Loay; Wu, Steven; Dwyer, Amy C; Ross, Jamie; Dukkipati, Ramanath; Maya, Ivan D; Yevzlin, Alexander S; Agarwal, Anil; Abreo, Kenneth D; Work, Jack; Asif, Arif

    2011-01-01

    The development of interventional nephrology has undoubtedly led to an improvement in patient care at many facilities across the United States. However, these services have traditionally been offered by interventional nephrologists in the private practice arena. While interventional nephrology was born in the private practice setting, several academic medical centers across the United States have now developed interventional nephrology programs. University Medical Centers (UMCs) that offer interventional nephrology face challenges, such as smaller dialysis populations, limited financial resources, and real or perceived political "turf" issues." Despite these hurdles, several UMCs have successfully established interventional nephrology as an intricate part of a larger nephrology program. This has largely been accomplished by consolidating available resources and collaborating with other specialties irrespective of the size of the dialysis population. The collaboration with other specialties also offers an opportunity to perform advanced procedures, such as application of excimer laser and endovascular ultrasound. As more UMCs establish interventional nephrology programs, opportunities for developing standardized training centers will improve, resulting in better quality and availability of nephrology-related procedures, and providing an impetus for research activities. PMID:21999740

  4. United States Human Access to Space, Exploration of the Moon and Preparation for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    In the past, men like Leonardo da Vinci and Jules Verne imagined the future and envisioned fantastic inventions such as winged flying machines, submarines, and parachutes, and posited human adventures like transoceanic flight and journeys to the Moon. Today, many of their ideas are reality and form the basis for our modern world. While individual visionaries like da Vinci and Verne are remembered for the accuracy of their predictions, today entire nations are involved in the process of envisioning and defining the future development of mankind, both on and beyond the Earth itself. Recently, Russian, European, and Chinese teams have all announced plans for developing their own next generation human space vehicles. The Chinese have announced their intention to conduct human lunar exploration, and have flown three crewed space missions since 2003, including a flight with three crew members to test their extravehicular (spacewalking) capabilities in September 2008. Very soon, the prestige, economic development, scientific discovery, and strategic security advantage historically associated with leadership in space exploration and exploitation may no longer be the undisputed province of the United States. Much like the sponsors of the seafaring explorers of da Vinci's age, we are motivated by the opportunity to obtain new knowledge and new resources for the growth and development of our own civilization. NASA's new Constellation Program, established in 2005, is tasked with maintaining the United States leadership in space, exploring the Moon, creating a sustained human lunar presence, and eventually extending human operations to Mars and beyond. Through 2008, the Constellation Program developed a full set of detailed program requirements and is now completing the preliminary design phase for the new Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle, and the associated infrastructure necessary for humans to explore the Moon. Component testing is well

  5. Accessibility to Oral Antiviral Therapy for Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Saab, Sammy; Jimenez, Melissa; Fong, Tiffany; Wu, Crystal; Bau, Sherona; Jamal, Zoha; Grotts, Jonathan; Elashoff, David

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Hepatitis C (HCV) direct acting antiviral agents (DAAs) are safe, effective, and tolerable. Most contraindications to interferon-based treatment are no long applicable. The aims of this study were to understand the predictors of approval to drug accessibility. Methods: We studied all consecutive patients with HCV prescribed DAAs between October 2014 and July 2015. Data on demographic, socio-economic status, comorbidities, baseline laboratory values, and assessment of liver disease severity, insurance, and specialty pharmacy type were collected. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of prescription approval. Results: In total, 410 patients were prescribed DAAs between October 2014 and July 2015. Of those, 332 (81%) patients were insurance approved for therapy. Of the 332 patients accepted, 251 were accepted after the first prescription attempt, and 38 were accepted after the second and third attempts. The number of attempts for the other 43 approved patients was unknown. Older age (p = 0.001), employment (p = 0.001), lack of comorbidities (p = 0.02), liver transplantation (p = 0.018), and advanced liver disease (p = 0.001) were more likely associated with obtaining approval. Household income was not associated with insurance approval. In the multivariate analysis, Medicare insurance (odds ratio [OR]) 2.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.96–7.20), lack of nonliver comorbidities (OR 2.72, 95% CI 1.35–5.43), and the presence of advanced liver disease (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.04–3.24) independently predicted drug approval. Conclusion: Despite the availability of DAAs for HCV, barriers from insurance carriers continue to impair widespread use. Patients with advanced liver disease, Medicare, and without comorbidities are most likely to be insurance approved for DAAs. PMID:27350937

  6. Celtic Roads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Building upon lessons learned is relevant to art and life. As an art teacher dealing with teens, the author tries to give her students an understanding of art as a window to the "big picture" as well as a practical, relevant skill. She developed this lesson plan, "Celtic Roads," with that objective in mind. The success rate is high, the product is…

  7. Improving access to competitive employment for service users in forensic psychiatric units.

    PubMed

    Beck, Charlotte; Wernham, Connie

    2014-01-01

    Employment has been proven to be an effective recovery tool and therapeutic intervention for those with severe and enduring mental health conditions. Aside from monetary reward, employment is a means of structuring time and provides a sense of worth and achievement, which enhances self-esteem and confidence. A social identity is developed through employment, encouraging social support and increasing social networks. Securing employment can bring about improved quality of life and positive change in one's social circumstances; therefore it can reduce symptoms associated with mental illness and potentially prevent re-offending, as the individual develops a sense of independence, self-efficacy, and value. Barriers to employment exist for forensic mental health service users and therefore it is imperative that employment needs are addressed at the earliest possible stage in recovery. An evaluation of employment activities across two forensic mental health units revealed a lack of appropriate employment opportunities for service users, and those roles available were not implemented in line with recommended best practice. In response to this issue several enterprises were established to offer opportunities for service users to engage in meaningful employment and develop skills that a future employer would value. Each enterprise responds to a business need within the units to ensure sustainability of services. The enterprises are essentially micro-businesses with social objectives whose surpluses are reinvested for the purpose of increasing opportunities for service users. The enterprises are underpinned by the philosophy of the Individual Placement and Support (IPS) model; empirical evidence suggests that the IPS model is the most effective intervention, based on the 'place then train' philosophy. The model recommends a focus upon rapid job search to achieve competitive employment for those who want to work; opportunities sourced should be consistent with individual

  8. Prion gene (PRNP) haplotype variation in United States goat breeds (Open Access publication)

    PubMed Central

    White, Stephen; Herrmann-Hoesing, Lynn; O'rourke, Katherine; Waldron, Daniel; Rowe, Joan; Alverson, Janet

    2008-01-01

    Scrapie eradication efforts cost 18 million dollars annually in the United States and rely heavily upon PRNP genotyping of sheep. Genetic resistance might reduce goat scrapie and limit the risk of goats serving as a scrapie reservoir, so PRNP coding sequences were examined from 446 goats of 10 breeds, 8 of which had not been previously examined at PRNP. The 10 observed alleles were all related to one of two central haplotypes by a single amino acid substitution. At least five of these alleles (M142, R143, S146, H154, and K222) have been associated with increased incubation time or decreased odds of scrapie. To the best of our knowledge, neither S146 nor K222 has been found in any goats with scrapie, though further evaluation will be required to demonstrate true resistance. S146 was more common, present in several breeds at widely varying frequencies, while K222 was observed only in two dairy breeds at low frequency. Overall, this study provides frequency data on PRNP alleles in US goats, shows the pattern of relationships between haplotypes, and demonstrates segregation of multiple scrapieassociated alleles in several breeds not examined before at PRNP. PMID:18694550

  9. State Parity Laws and Access to Treatment for Substance Use Disorder in the United States: Implications for Federal Parity Legislation

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Hefei; Cummings, Janet R.; Hockenberry, Jason M.; Gaydos, Laura M.; Druss, Benjamin G.

    2014-01-01

    Context The passage of the 2008 Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (MHPAEA) and the 2010 Affordable Care Act (ACA) incorporated parity for substance use disorder (SUD) into federal legislation. Yet prior research provides us with scant evidence as to whether federal parity legislation will hold the potential for improving access to SUD treatment. Objective This study examined the effect of state-level SUD parity laws on state-aggregate SUD treatment rates from 2000 to 2008, to shed light on the impact of the recent federal-level SUD parity legislation. Design A quasi-experimental study design using a two-way (state and year) fixed-effect method Setting and Participants All known specialty SUD treatment facilities in the United States Interventions State-level SUD parity laws between 2000 and 2008 Main Outcome Measures State-aggregate SUD treatment rates in: (1) all specialty SUD treatment facilities, and (2) specialty SUD treatment facilities accepting private insurance Results The implementation of any SUD parity law increased the treatment rate by 9 percent (p<0.01) in all specialty SUD treatment facilities and by 15 percent (p<0.05) in facilities accepting private insurance. Full parity and parity-if-offered (i.e., parity only if SUD coverage is offered) increased SUD treatment rate by 13 percent (p<0.05) and 8 percent (p<0.05) in all facilities, and by 21 percent (p<0.05) and 10 percent (p<0.05) in those accepting private insurance. Conclusions We found a positive effect of the implementation of state SUD parity legislation on access to specialty SUD treatment. Furthermore, the positive association was more pronounced in states with more comprehensive parity laws. Our findings suggest that federal parity legislation holds the potential to improve access to SUD treatment. PMID:24154931

  10. Filling in the GAPS: evaluating completeness and coverage of open-access biodiversity databases in the United States

    DOE PAGES

    Troia, Matthew J.; McManamay, Ryan A.

    2016-06-12

    Primary biodiversity data constitute observations of particular species at given points in time and space. Open-access electronic databases provide unprecedented access to these data, but their usefulness in characterizing species distributions and patterns in biodiversity depend on how complete species inventories are at a given survey location and how uniformly distributed survey locations are along dimensions of time, space, and environment. Our aim was to compare completeness and coverage among three open-access databases representing ten taxonomic groups (amphibians, birds, freshwater bivalves, crayfish, freshwater fish, fungi, insects, mammals, plants, and reptiles) in the contiguous United States. We compiled occurrence records frommore » the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS), and federally administered fish surveys (FFS). In this study, we aggregated occurrence records by 0.1° × 0.1° grid cells and computed three completeness metrics to classify each grid cell as well-surveyed or not. Next, we compared frequency distributions of surveyed grid cells to background environmental conditions in a GIS and performed Kolmogorov–Smirnov tests to quantify coverage through time, along two spatial gradients, and along eight environmental gradients. The three databases contributed >13.6 million reliable occurrence records distributed among >190,000 grid cells. The percent of well-surveyed grid cells was substantially lower for GBIF (5.2%) than for systematic surveys (BBS and FFS; 82.5%). Still, the large number of GBIF occurrence records produced at least 250 well-surveyed grid cells for six of nine taxonomic groups. Coverages of systematic surveys were less biased across spatial and environmental dimensions but were more biased in temporal coverage compared to GBIF data. GBIF coverages also varied among taxonomic groups, consistent with commonly recognized geographic, environmental, and institutional

  11. Filling in the GAPS: evaluating completeness and coverage of open-access biodiversity databases in the United States.

    PubMed

    Troia, Matthew J; McManamay, Ryan A

    2016-07-01

    Primary biodiversity data constitute observations of particular species at given points in time and space. Open-access electronic databases provide unprecedented access to these data, but their usefulness in characterizing species distributions and patterns in biodiversity depend on how complete species inventories are at a given survey location and how uniformly distributed survey locations are along dimensions of time, space, and environment. Our aim was to compare completeness and coverage among three open-access databases representing ten taxonomic groups (amphibians, birds, freshwater bivalves, crayfish, freshwater fish, fungi, insects, mammals, plants, and reptiles) in the contiguous United States. We compiled occurrence records from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS), and federally administered fish surveys (FFS). We aggregated occurrence records by 0.1° × 0.1° grid cells and computed three completeness metrics to classify each grid cell as well-surveyed or not. Next, we compared frequency distributions of surveyed grid cells to background environmental conditions in a GIS and performed Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests to quantify coverage through time, along two spatial gradients, and along eight environmental gradients. The three databases contributed >13.6 million reliable occurrence records distributed among >190,000 grid cells. The percent of well-surveyed grid cells was substantially lower for GBIF (5.2%) than for systematic surveys (BBS and FFS; 82.5%). Still, the large number of GBIF occurrence records produced at least 250 well-surveyed grid cells for six of nine taxonomic groups. Coverages of systematic surveys were less biased across spatial and environmental dimensions but were more biased in temporal coverage compared to GBIF data. GBIF coverages also varied among taxonomic groups, consistent with commonly recognized geographic, environmental, and institutional sampling biases. This

  12. Filling in the GAPS: evaluating completeness and coverage of open-access biodiversity databases in the United States.

    PubMed

    Troia, Matthew J; McManamay, Ryan A

    2016-07-01

    Primary biodiversity data constitute observations of particular species at given points in time and space. Open-access electronic databases provide unprecedented access to these data, but their usefulness in characterizing species distributions and patterns in biodiversity depend on how complete species inventories are at a given survey location and how uniformly distributed survey locations are along dimensions of time, space, and environment. Our aim was to compare completeness and coverage among three open-access databases representing ten taxonomic groups (amphibians, birds, freshwater bivalves, crayfish, freshwater fish, fungi, insects, mammals, plants, and reptiles) in the contiguous United States. We compiled occurrence records from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS), and federally administered fish surveys (FFS). We aggregated occurrence records by 0.1° × 0.1° grid cells and computed three completeness metrics to classify each grid cell as well-surveyed or not. Next, we compared frequency distributions of surveyed grid cells to background environmental conditions in a GIS and performed Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests to quantify coverage through time, along two spatial gradients, and along eight environmental gradients. The three databases contributed >13.6 million reliable occurrence records distributed among >190,000 grid cells. The percent of well-surveyed grid cells was substantially lower for GBIF (5.2%) than for systematic surveys (BBS and FFS; 82.5%). Still, the large number of GBIF occurrence records produced at least 250 well-surveyed grid cells for six of nine taxonomic groups. Coverages of systematic surveys were less biased across spatial and environmental dimensions but were more biased in temporal coverage compared to GBIF data. GBIF coverages also varied among taxonomic groups, consistent with commonly recognized geographic, environmental, and institutional sampling biases. This

  13. 36 CFR 228.12 - Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... other means of access, including but not limited to off-road vehicles, be used until the operator has... Minerals § 228.12 Access. An operator is entitled to access in connection with operations, but no...

  14. Autonomous Information Unit for Fine-Grain Data Access Control and Information Protection in a Net-Centric System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, Edward T.; Woo, Simon S.; James, Mark; Paloulian, George K.

    2012-01-01

    As communication and networking technologies advance, networks will become highly complex and heterogeneous, interconnecting different network domains. There is a need to provide user authentication and data protection in order to further facilitate critical mission operations, especially in the tactical and mission-critical net-centric networking environment. The Autonomous Information Unit (AIU) technology was designed to provide the fine-grain data access and user control in a net-centric system-testing environment to meet these objectives. The AIU is a fundamental capability designed to enable fine-grain data access and user control in the cross-domain networking environments, where an AIU is composed of the mission data, metadata, and policy. An AIU provides a mechanism to establish trust among deployed AIUs based on recombining shared secrets, authentication and verify users with a username, X.509 certificate, enclave information, and classification level. AIU achieves data protection through (1) splitting data into multiple information pieces using the Shamir's secret sharing algorithm, (2) encrypting each individual information piece using military-grade AES-256 encryption, and (3) randomizing the position of the encrypted data based on the unbiased and memory efficient in-place Fisher-Yates shuffle method. Therefore, it becomes virtually impossible for attackers to compromise data since attackers need to obtain all distributed information as well as the encryption key and the random seeds to properly arrange the data. In addition, since policy can be associated with data in the AIU, different user access and data control strategies can be included. The AIU technology can greatly enhance information assurance and security management in the bandwidth-limited and ad hoc net-centric environments. In addition, AIU technology can be applicable to general complex network domains and applications where distributed user authentication and data protection are

  15. View west along Tatnic Road and Hartford Road (Route 6) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View west along Tatnic Road and Hartford Road (Route 6) showing West Brooklyn Green, 10 Tatnic Road, and 126 Hartford Road - West Brooklyn Green, Tatnic Road & Hartford Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  16. Difficulties in access and estimates of public beds in intensive care units in the state of Rio de Janeiro

    PubMed Central

    Goldwasser, Rosane Sonia; Lobo, Maria Stella de Castro; de Arruda, Edilson Fernandes; Angelo, Simone Aldrey; Silva, José Roberto Lapa e; de Salles, André Assis; David, Cid Marcos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the required number of public beds for adults in intensive care units in the state of Rio de Janeiro to meet the existing demand and compare results with recommendations by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. METHODS The study uses a hybrid model combining time series and queuing theory to predict the demand and estimate the number of required beds. Four patient flow scenarios were considered according to bed requests, percentage of abandonments and average length of stay in intensive care unit beds. The results were plotted against Ministry of Health parameters. Data were obtained from the State Regulation Center from 2010 to 2011. RESULTS There were 33,101 medical requests for 268 regulated intensive care unit beds in Rio de Janeiro. With an average length of stay in regulated ICUs of 11.3 days, there would be a need for 595 active beds to ensure system stability and 628 beds to ensure a maximum waiting time of six hours. Deducting current abandonment rates due to clinical improvement (25.8%), these figures fall to 441 and 417. With an average length of stay of 6.5 days, the number of required beds would be 342 and 366, respectively; deducting abandonment rates, 254 and 275. The Brazilian Ministry of Health establishes a parameter of 118 to 353 beds. Although the number of regulated beds is within the recommended range, an increase in beds of 122.0% is required to guarantee system stability and of 134.0% for a maximum waiting time of six hours. CONCLUSIONS Adequate bed estimation must consider reasons for limited timely access and patient flow management in a scenario that associates prioritization of requests with the lowest average length of stay. PMID:27191155

  17. The road not taken*

    PubMed Central

    Messerle, Judith

    2001-01-01

    The annual Janet Doe Lecture was established in l966 to honor Janet Doe, emerita librarian of the New York Academy of Medicine. The lecture focuses on either the history or philosophy of health sciences librarianship. This lecture addresses three fundamental values of the field, highlighting basic beliefs of the profession that are at risk: privacy, intellectual property rights, and access to quality information. It calls upon readers to make the everyday choices required to keep the value system of health sciences librarianship in place. Robert Frost's poignant poem ”The Road Not Taken” provides the metaphor for examining choices in an information economy. PMID:11209796

  18. Washboard Road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElwaine, Jim; Dalziel, Stuart; Taberlet, Nicolas; Morris, Stephen

    2006-11-01

    The tendency of unpaved road surfaces to develop lateral ripples (``washboard'' or ``corrugated'' road) is annoyingly familiar to drivers on dry gravel roads. Similar ripples are well known on railroad tracks and many other rolling or sliding, load bearing surfaces. Our approach combined laboratory experiments, soft-particle direct numerical simulations and simple nonlinear dynamics models. The experiment consisted of a rotating table 60 cm in radius with a thick layer of sand forming a roadbed around the circumference. A 6 cm radius hard rubber wheel, with a support stationary in the lab frame, rolled on the sand layer. We varied the speed of the table and the details of the suspension of the wheel. The onset of the ripple pattern exhibits a sharp threshold and was strongly subcritical with a large hysteresis as a function of the speed of the table. The ripple pattern appears as small patches of travelling waves which eventually spread to the entire circumference. The ripples move slowly in the driving direction. Interesting secondary dynamics of the saturated ripples were observed. All of these effects are captured qualitatively by a 2D soft particle simulations. The simulations clearly indicate that neither compaction nor particle size segregation are crucial for the appearance of the ripples, and we present a simple model to describe the wavelength and amplitude of the ripples.

  19. Effects of a Wildfire on Road-stream Connectivity and Road Surface Erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosa-Perez, Gabriel; MacDonald, Lee

    2016-04-01

    Unpaved roads generate large amounts of sediment per unit area, and the impact of these high erosion rates depends on how much of this sediment is delivered to streams. In the western USA typically around 10-30% of the road length is connected to a stream, and this proportion tends to increase with increasing precipitation. Wildfires can greatly increase surface runoff and erosion rates, but we know of no studies that have evaluated how fires affect road surface erosion and road-stream connectivity. Hence the objective of this study was to quantify how: 1) fire severity affects the amount of road surface rilling, sediment deposition, and road-stream connectivity; and 2) how these effects are modified by road segment characteristics. The study area was 6.8 km of the unpaved Old Flowers Road just west of Fort Collins, Colorado, USA, as the forests along this road had burned in the 2012 High Park fire. Detailed data were collected for 141 hydrologically distinct road segments, including the hillslopes above the road, road segment characteristics, and the drainage features leaving the road. Nearly all of the road segments had a planar design, and mean segment length and active width were 50 m and 2.4 m, respectively. The road segments below areas burned at high and moderate severity had significantly more and larger rills than road segments below areas burned at low severity, and this can be attributed to the greater surface runoff from upslope. Road segment slope was an increasingly important control on the amount of rilling as burn severity increased, while the flatter segments tended to capture the sediment eroded from upslope. Three-quarters of the road segments had only a single drainage feature, indicating that the road generally collected and concentrated all of the dispersed runoff from upslope. All of the road segments in areas burned at high and moderate severity and 78% of the segments in areas burned at low severity were connected to the stream. These

  20. Secondary Measures of Access to Abortion Services in the United States, 2011 and 2012: Gestational Age Limits, Cost, and Harassment

    PubMed Central

    Jerman, Jenna; Jones, Rachel K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Aspects of U.S. clinical abortion service provision such as gestational age limits, charges for abortion services, and anti-abortion harassment can impact the accessibility of abortion; this study documents changes in these measures between 2008 and 2012. Methods In 2012 and 2013, we surveyed all known abortion-providing facilities in the United States (n = 1,720). This study summarizes information obtained about gestational age limits, charges, and exposure to anti-abortion harassment among clinics; response rates for relevant items ranged from 54% (gestational limits) to 80% (exposure to harassment). Weights were constructed to compensate for nonresponding facilities. We also examine the distribution of abortions and abortion facilities by region. Findings Almost all abortion facilities (95%) offered abortions at 8 weeks’ gestation; 72% did so at 12 weeks, 34% at 20 weeks, and 16% at 24 weeks in 2012. In 2011 and 2012, the median charge for a surgical abortion at 10 weeks gestation was $495, and $500 for an early medication abortion, compared with $503 and $524 (adjusted for inflation) in 2009. In 2011, 84% of clinics experienced at least one form of harassment, only slightly higher than found in 2009. Hospitals and physicians’ offices accounted for a substantially smaller proportion of facilities in the Midwest and South. Clinics in the Midwest and South were exposed to more harassment than their counterparts in the Northeast and West. Conclusions Although there was a substantial decline in abortion incidence between 2008 and 2011, the secondary measures of abortion access examined in this study changed little during this time period. PMID:24981401

  1. Invasive Brown Treesnake movements at road edges indicate road-crossing avoidance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siers, Shane R; Savidge, Julie S; Reed, Robert N.

    2014-01-01

    Roads have significant impacts on the dispersal of wildlife. Although this poses a threat to the abundance and diversity of desirable flora and fauna, it also affords some opportunity for enhancing control of invasive species. Roads are the most common terrain features that may affect the rate of landscape-scale movements of invasive Brown Treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) throughout Guam. We radio tracked 45 free-ranging Brown Treesnakes in close proximity to two roads in Guam and recorded instances where daily relocations of snakes spanned roads. Then we reconstructed observed movement histories with randomized turning angles, which served as a useful null hypothesis for assessing the effect of roads or road edge habitat on Brown Treesnake movement patterns. Random walk simulations demonstrated that Brown Treesnakes crossed these roads at a rate far lower than would be expected if snake movement was random with respect to roads and road edge habitat. We discuss two alternative hypotheses for these results: 1) habitat gaps posed by roads physically or behaviorally restrict snake movement; or 2) road edges provide preferred foraging habitat from which snakes are reluctant to depart. Because roads often form the boundaries of jurisdictional and management units, the effects of roads on the movement of invasive Brown Treesnakes will influence the prospects for success of future landscape-level suppression efforts.

  2. The current acceptance, accessibility and recognition of Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine in the United States in the public, governmental, and industrial sectors.

    PubMed

    Park, Jongbae J; Beckman-Harned, Selena; Cho, Gayoung; Kim, Duckhee; Kim, Hangon

    2012-06-01

    To assess the current level of acceptance in the United States of complementary and alternative medicine, recent research into the prevalence, acceptance, accessibility, and recognition of complementary and alternative therapies were reviewed. Several signs point to an increasing acceptance of complementary and alternative medicine in the United States; the use of complementary and alternative medicine is significantly increasing, many aspects of Chinese medicine and Ayurveda are becoming mainstream, practitioners in the United States are beginning to be licensed, and insurance companies are beginning to cover some complementary and alternative therapies. Remaining challenges to true acceptance include the restrictive Western mindset, the absence of published studies, a lack of consistent manufacturing processes and quality standards, and a fear of adulteration. Although the field still faces many challenges, alternative and complementary medicine, including Chinese medicine and Ayurvedic medicine, is becoming more accepted and accessible in the United States.

  3. Does traffic-related air pollution explain associations of aircraft and road traffic noise exposure on children's health and cognition? A secondary analysis of the United Kingdom sample from the RANCH project.

    PubMed

    Clark, Charlotte; Crombie, Rosanna; Head, Jenny; van Kamp, Irene; van Kempen, Elise; Stansfeld, Stephen A

    2012-08-15

    The authors examined whether air pollution at school (nitrogen dioxide) is associated with poorer child cognition and health and whether adjustment for air pollution explains or moderates previously observed associations between aircraft and road traffic noise at school and children's cognition in the 2001-2003 Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise Exposure and Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH) project. This secondary analysis of a subsample of the United Kingdom RANCH sample examined 719 children who were 9-10 years of age from 22 schools around London's Heathrow airport for whom air pollution data were available. Data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Air pollution exposure levels at school were moderate, were not associated with a range of cognitive and health outcomes, and did not account for or moderate associations between noise exposure and cognition. Aircraft noise exposure at school was significantly associated with poorer recognition memory and conceptual recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Aircraft noise exposure was also associated with poorer reading comprehension and information recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Road traffic noise was not associated with cognition or health before or after adjustment for air pollution. Moderate levels of air pollution do not appear to confound associations of noise on cognition and health, but further studies of higher air pollution levels are needed.

  4. UK publicly funded Clinical Trials Units supported a controlled access approach to share individual participant data but highlighted concerns

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Carolyn; Sydes, Matthew; Murray, Gordon; Woolfall, Kerry; Clarke, Mike; Williamson, Paula; Tudur Smith, Catrin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Evaluate current data sharing activities of UK publicly funded Clinical Trial Units (CTUs) and identify good practices and barriers. Study Design and Setting Web-based survey of Directors of 45 UK Clinical Research Collaboration (UKCRC)–registered CTUs. Results Twenty-three (51%) CTUs responded: Five (22%) of these had an established data sharing policy and eight (35%) specifically requested consent to use patient data beyond the scope of the original trial. Fifteen (65%) CTUs had received requests for data, and seven (30%) had made external requests for data in the previous 12 months. CTUs supported the need for increased data sharing activities although concerns were raised about patient identification, misuse of data, and financial burden. Custodianship of clinical trial data and requirements for a CTU to align its policy to their parent institutes were also raised. No CTUs supported the use of an open access model for data sharing. Conclusion There is support within the publicly funded UKCRC-registered CTUs for data sharing, but many perceived barriers remain. CTUs are currently using a variety of approaches and procedures for sharing data. This survey has informed further work, including development of guidance for publicly funded CTUs, to promote good practice and facilitate data sharing. PMID:26169841

  5. The contribution of on-road studies of road user behaviour to improving road safety.

    PubMed

    Lenné, Michael G

    2013-09-01

    For over 40 years transport safety researchers have been using methods of vehicle instrumentation to gain greater insights into the factors that contribute to road user crash risk and the associated crash factors. In the previous decade in particular the widespread availability of lower cost and more advanced methods of vehicle instrumentation and recording technologies are supporting the increasing number of on-road research studies worldwide. The design of these studies ranges from multi-method studies using instrumented test vehicles and defined driving routes, to field operational tests, through to much larger and more naturalistic studies. It is timely to assess the utility of these methods for studying the influences of driver characteristics and states, the design and operation of the road system, and the influences of in-vehicle technologies on behaviour and safety for various road user groups. This special issue considers the extent to which on-road studies using vehicle instrumentation have been used to advance knowledge across these areas of road safety research. The papers included in this issue illustrate how research using instrumented test vehicles continues to generate new knowledge, and how the larger scale United States and European naturalistic and field operational test studies are providing a wealth of data about road user behaviour in real traffic. This is balanced with a number of studies that present methodological developments in data collection and analysis methods that, while promising, need further validation. The use of on-road methods to accurately describe the behaviours occurring in everyday real-world conditions, to quantify risks for safety critical events, and an improved understanding of the factors that contribute to risk, clearly has huge potential to promote further road trauma reductions.

  6. HOW FAR TO THE NEAREST ROAD?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological impacts from roads may be the rule rather than the exception in most watersheds of the conterminous United States. We measured total area, and forestland area located within nine distances of the nearest road of any type in each of 2,108 watersheds nationwide. Overall,...

  7. Wilderness Accessibility for People with Disabilities. A Report to the President and the Congress of the United States on Section 507 (a) of the Americans with Disabilities Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilderness Inquiry Inc.

    This federally mandated study summarizes federal policies and regulations and identifies issues relevant to wilderness accessibility for people with disabilities. The report is based on review of existing federal policies and regulations; a survey of federal unit managers of the National Wilderness Preservation System (NWPS); a survey of programs…

  8. Accessing Inpatient Rehabilitation after Acute Severe Stroke: Age, Mobility, Prestroke Function and Hospital Unit Are Associated with Discharge to Inpatient Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakkennes, Sharon; Hill, Keith D.; Brock, Kim; Bernhardt, Julie; Churilov, Leonid

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the variables associated with discharge to inpatient rehabilitation following acute severe stroke and to determine whether hospital unit contributed to access. Five acute hospitals in Victoria, Australia participated in this study. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they had suffered an acute severe…

  9. Fatty acid composition of fourteen seashore mallow (Kosteletzkya pentacarpos) seed oil accessions collected from the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seashore mallow (Kosteletzkya pentacarpos) is a flowering perennial halophytic herb belonging to the family Malvaceae that is found in marshes along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States. Fourteen accessions were collected from wild populations along the Atlantic (n = 8) and Gulf (n = 6)...

  10. 30 CFR 784.18 - Relocation or use of public roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relocation or use of public roads. 784.18... PLAN § 784.18 Relocation or use of public roads. Each application shall describe, with appropriate maps...-of-way line of any public road, except where mine access or haul roads join that right-of-way; or...

  11. 30 CFR 780.33 - Relocation or use of public roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Relocation or use of public roads. 780.33... PLAN § 780.33 Relocation or use of public roads. Each application shall describe, with appropriate maps... line of any public road, except where mine access or haul roads join that right-of-way; or...

  12. 30 CFR 780.33 - Relocation or use of public roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Relocation or use of public roads. 780.33... PLAN § 780.33 Relocation or use of public roads. Each application shall describe, with appropriate maps... line of any public road, except where mine access or haul roads join that right-of-way; or...

  13. 30 CFR 784.18 - Relocation or use of public roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Relocation or use of public roads. 784.18... PLAN § 784.18 Relocation or use of public roads. Each application shall describe, with appropriate maps...-of-way line of any public road, except where mine access or haul roads join that right-of-way; or...

  14. 30 CFR 780.33 - Relocation or use of public roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relocation or use of public roads. 780.33... PLAN § 780.33 Relocation or use of public roads. Each application shall describe, with appropriate maps... line of any public road, except where mine access or haul roads join that right-of-way; or...

  15. 30 CFR 780.33 - Relocation or use of public roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Relocation or use of public roads. 780.33... PLAN § 780.33 Relocation or use of public roads. Each application shall describe, with appropriate maps... line of any public road, except where mine access or haul roads join that right-of-way; or...

  16. 30 CFR 784.18 - Relocation or use of public roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Relocation or use of public roads. 784.18... PLAN § 784.18 Relocation or use of public roads. Each application shall describe, with appropriate maps...-of-way line of any public road, except where mine access or haul roads join that right-of-way; or...

  17. 25 CFR 170.120 - What restrictions apply to the use of an Indian Reservation Road?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Reservation Road? 170.120 Section 170.120 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Use of Irr and Cultural Access Roads § 170.120 What restrictions apply to the use of an...

  18. 30 CFR 784.18 - Relocation or use of public roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Relocation or use of public roads. 784.18... PLAN § 784.18 Relocation or use of public roads. Each application shall describe, with appropriate maps...-of-way line of any public road, except where mine access or haul roads join that right-of-way; or...

  19. 25 CFR 170.120 - What restrictions apply to the use of an Indian Reservation Road?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Reservation Road? 170.120 Section 170.120 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Use of Irr and Cultural Access Roads § 170.120 What restrictions apply to the use of an...

  20. 30 CFR 784.18 - Relocation or use of public roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Relocation or use of public roads. 784.18... PLAN § 784.18 Relocation or use of public roads. Each application shall describe, with appropriate maps...-of-way line of any public road, except where mine access or haul roads join that right-of-way; or...

  1. 30 CFR 780.33 - Relocation or use of public roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Relocation or use of public roads. 780.33... PLAN § 780.33 Relocation or use of public roads. Each application shall describe, with appropriate maps... line of any public road, except where mine access or haul roads join that right-of-way; or...

  2. 36 CFR 13.702 - Off-Road Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Off-Road Vehicles. 13.702... NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Bering Land Bridge National Preserve § 13.702 Off-Road Vehicles. The use of off-road vehicles for purposes of reindeer grazing may be permitted...

  3. Sustainable road safety: a new (?) neighbourhood road pattern that saves VRU lives.

    PubMed

    Wei, Vicky Feng; Lovegrove, Gord

    2012-01-01

    Both the UN (2007) and World Health Organizations (2004) have declared the enormous social and economic burden imposed on society by injuries due to road collisions as a major global problem. While the road safety problem is not new, this prominent global declaration sends an important signal of frustration regarding progress to date on reducing road collisions. It is clear that governments, communities, businesses and the public must discover ways of reducing this burden, especially as it relates to vulnerable road users (VRUs), typically meaning pedestrian and bicyclist road users. Recent comparisons of global VRU collisions statistics suggest that, in addition to mixed land use density, the layout of neighbourhood roads plays a vital role in the encouragement of walkable, safe and quiet, yet accessible and sustainable communities. The purpose of this paper was to: The Dutch Sustainable Road Safety (SRS) Program has produced a number of innovative land use and transportation initiatives for vehicular road users as well as non-vehicular VRUs. Following from the Dutch initiatives, these new 3-way offset, and fused grid neighbourhood patterns appear to not only have positive effects in encouraging mode split (i.e. increasing walking and bicycling, and transit), slowing traffic, and reducing energy consumption and GHG emissions; but also, to hold potential to improve road safety. To test the road safety hypothesis, UBCO researchers evaluated the level of road safety relative to five neighbourhood patterns - grid, culs-de-sac, and Dutch Sustainable Road Safety (SRS) (or limited access), 3-way offset, and fused grid networks. Analysis using standard transportation planning methodology revealed that they would maintain both mobility and accessibility. Analysis using standard road safety analysis methodology further revealed that these 3-way offset, and fused grid patterns would significantly improve road safety levels by as much as 60% compared to prevalent patterns (i

  4. Decision support for road system analysis and modification on the Tahoe National Forest.

    PubMed

    Girvetz, Evan; Shilling, Fraser

    2003-08-01

    The United States Forest Service is required to analyze road systems on each of the national forests for potential environmental impacts. We have developed a novel and inexpensive way to do this using the Ecosystem Management Decision Support program (EMDS). We used EMDS to integrate a user-developed fuzzy logic knowledge base with a grid-based geographic information system to evaluate the degree of truth for assertions about a road's environmental impact. Using spatial data for natural and human processes in the Tahoe National Forest (TNF, California, USA), we evaluated the assertion "the road has a high potential for impacting the environment." We found a high level of agreement between the products of this evaluation and ground observations of a TNF transportation engineer, as well as occurrences of road failures. We used the modeled potential environmental impact to negatively weight roads for a least-cost path network analysis to 1573 points of interest in the forest. The network analysis showed that out of 8233 km of road analyzed in the forest, 3483 km (42%) must be kept in a modified road network to ensure access to these points. We found that the modified network had improved patch characteristics, such as significantly fewer "cherry stem" roads intruding into patches, an improved area-weighted mean shape index, and larger mean patch sizes, as compared to the original network. This analysis system could be used by any public agency to analyze infrastructure for environmental or other risk and included in other mandated analyses such as risks to watersheds.

  5. [Access to medical appointments by men with sexually transmitted diseases at a health unit in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Araújo, Maria Alix Leite; Leitão, Glória da Conceição Mesquita

    2005-01-01

    Access to healthcare services is one of the important aspects of the Unified National Health System in Brazil, and the supply and management of such services is the responsibility of municipalities. This study focuses on difficulties faced by men with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in accessing appointments for treatment. This was a qualitative study of men treated at an STD clinic in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil, in November 2003, using content analysis technique and interpretation of interviews, focusing on access as the category. Men with STDs encountered extensive difficulty in accessing medical appointments, even when they used different strategies for this purpose. Scheduling of services is incompatible with patients' available time. At the primary care level, the supply of appointments for STDs scarcely exists. More investment is needed in the Unified National Health System in order to improve access to appointments for men with STDs, and the supply of services should take the population's demand into account.

  6. Do minority and poor neighborhoods have higher access to fast-food restaurants in the United States?

    PubMed Central

    James, Peter; Arcaya, Mariana C.; Parker, Devin M.; Tucker-Seeley, Reginald

    2016-01-01

    Background Disproportionate access to unhealthy foods in poor or minority neighborhoods may be a primary determinant of obesity disparities. We investigated whether fast-food access varies by Census block group (CBG) percent black and poverty. Methods We measured the average driving distance from each CBG population-weighted centroid to the five closest top ten fast-food chains and CBG percent black and percent below poverty Results Among 209,091 CBGs analyzed (95.1% of all US CBGs), CBG percent black was positively associated with fast-food access controlling for population density and percent poverty (average distance to fast food was 3.56 miles closer (95% CI: -3.64, -3.48) in CBGs with the highest versus lowest quartile of percentage of black residents). Poverty was not independently associated with fast-food access. The relationship between fast-food access and race was stronger in CBGs with higher levels of poverty (p for interaction <0.0001). Conclusions Predominantly black neighborhoods had higher access to fast-food while poverty was not an independent predictor of fast-food access. PMID:24945103

  7. An energy-efficient SIMD DSP with multiple VLIW configurations and an advanced memory access unit for LTE-A modem LSIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomono, Mitsuru; Ito, Makiko; Nomura, Yoshitaka; Mouri, Makoto; Hirose, Yoshio

    2015-12-01

    Energy efficiency is the most important factor in the design of wireless modem LSIs for mobile handset systems. We have developed an energy-efficient SIMD DSP for LTE-A modem LSIs. Our DSP has mainly two hardware features in order to reduce energy consumption. The first one is multiple VLIW configurations to minimize accesses to instruction memories. The second one is an advanced memory access unit to realize complex memory accesses required for wireless baseband processing. With these features, performance of our DSP is about 1.7 times faster than a base DSP on average for standard LTE-A Libraries. Our DSP achieves about 20% improvement in energy efficiency compared to a base DSP for LTE-A modem LSIs.

  8. Supporting drivers in forming correct expectations about transitions between rural road categories.

    PubMed

    Stelling-Konczak, Agnieszka; Aarts, Letty; Duivenvoorden, Kirsten; Goldenbeld, Charles

    2011-01-01

    In order to support drivers in forming the right expectations on the road, road categories are being made recognisable and predictable in the Netherlands. The present study investigated which of the selected road layouts can make rural road categories most recognisable for road users, especially in transitions from one road category to another. A second objective was to study whether explicit information could contribute to a better recognisability of transitions. The experiment was performed with a series of photographs showing sections of two road categories with an intersection in between. The road layout of road categories varied in markings and separation of driving direction (within-subjects factor). Informed and non-informed participants (between-subjects factor) had to indicate their expectations regarding speed limit and access restriction of each road section, before and after a transition. The results show that for transitions between distributor and through roads, the physicality of separation of driving direction is a better distinctive characteristic than the currently used edge marking. The green centre marking on through roads also enhances recognisability, but only with additional information. As far as transitions between distributor and access roads are concerned, the results demonstrate that this type of transitions is better recognised when no markings on access roads are present. Physical separation of driving directions on distributor roads also improves recognisability, although this layout is associated with higher speed limits. Providing explicit information has in general a positive effect on the reconisability of transitions. Implications are discussed in the light of potential safety effects.

  9. Environmental assessment for the Area 5 radioactive waste management site access improvement at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The United States Department of Energy has prepared an Environmental Assessment which analyzes the potential environmental effects of improving access to its AREA 5 RWMS at the NTS. The EA evaluates the potential impacts of constructing an extension of the Cane Springs Road between Mercury Highway and the 5-01 Road. Three alternative actions are also evaluated: (1) construction of a new road along the existing alignment of the Powerline Road between Mercury Highway and the 5-01 Road, (2) upgrading the existing 5-01 Road, and (3) taking no action. The purpose and need for improving access to the RWMS are addressed in Section 1.0 of the EA. A detailed description of the proposed action and alternatives is in Section 2.0. Section 3.0 describes the affected environment and Section 4.0 the environmental effects of the proposed action and alternatives. Health and transportation effects, accident scenarios, cumulative effects, and other relevant information are found in Sections 5.0 through 12.0 of the EA. DOE determined that the alternative action of upgrading the existing 5-01 Road would best meet the needs of the agency.

  10. 1. VIEW OF THE WATER FILTRATION PLANT FROM THE ACCESS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF THE WATER FILTRATION PLANT FROM THE ACCESS ROAD, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  11. 2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  12. Optimal policies for aggregate recycling from decommissioned forest roads.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Matthew; Sessions, John

    2008-08-01

    To mitigate the adverse environmental impact of forest roads, especially degradation of endangered salmonid habitat, many public and private land managers in the western United States are actively decommissioning roads where practical and affordable. Road decommissioning is associated with reduced long-term environmental impact. When decommissioning a road, it may be possible to recover some aggregate (crushed rock) from the road surface. Aggregate is used on many low volume forest roads to reduce wheel stresses transferred to the subgrade, reduce erosion, reduce maintenance costs, and improve driver comfort. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for aggregate to be recovered and used elsewhere on the road network, at a reduced cost compared to purchasing aggregate from a quarry. This article investigates the potential for aggregate recycling to provide an economic incentive to decommission additional roads by reducing transport distance and aggregate procurement costs for other actively used roads. Decommissioning additional roads may, in turn, result in improved aquatic habitat. We present real-world examples of aggregate recycling and discuss the advantages of doing so. Further, we present mixed integer formulations to determine optimal levels of aggregate recycling under economic and environmental objectives. Tested on an example road network, incorporation of aggregate recycling demonstrates substantial cost-savings relative to a baseline scenario without recycling, increasing the likelihood of road decommissioning and reduced habitat degradation. We find that aggregate recycling can result in up to 24% in cost savings (economic objective) and up to 890% in additional length of roads decommissioned (environmental objective).

  13. Optimal Policies for Aggregate Recycling from Decommissioned Forest Roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Matthew; Sessions, John

    2008-08-01

    To mitigate the adverse environmental impact of forest roads, especially degradation of endangered salmonid habitat, many public and private land managers in the western United States are actively decommissioning roads where practical and affordable. Road decommissioning is associated with reduced long-term environmental impact. When decommissioning a road, it may be possible to recover some aggregate (crushed rock) from the road surface. Aggregate is used on many low volume forest roads to reduce wheel stresses transferred to the subgrade, reduce erosion, reduce maintenance costs, and improve driver comfort. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for aggregate to be recovered and used elsewhere on the road network, at a reduced cost compared to purchasing aggregate from a quarry. This article investigates the potential for aggregate recycling to provide an economic incentive to decommission additional roads by reducing transport distance and aggregate procurement costs for other actively used roads. Decommissioning additional roads may, in turn, result in improved aquatic habitat. We present real-world examples of aggregate recycling and discuss the advantages of doing so. Further, we present mixed integer formulations to determine optimal levels of aggregate recycling under economic and environmental objectives. Tested on an example road network, incorporation of aggregate recycling demonstrates substantial cost-savings relative to a baseline scenario without recycling, increasing the likelihood of road decommissioning and reduced habitat degradation. We find that aggregate recycling can result in up to 24% in cost savings (economic objective) and up to 890% in additional length of roads decommissioned (environmental objective).

  14. Optimal policies for aggregate recycling from decommissioned forest roads.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Matthew; Sessions, John

    2008-08-01

    To mitigate the adverse environmental impact of forest roads, especially degradation of endangered salmonid habitat, many public and private land managers in the western United States are actively decommissioning roads where practical and affordable. Road decommissioning is associated with reduced long-term environmental impact. When decommissioning a road, it may be possible to recover some aggregate (crushed rock) from the road surface. Aggregate is used on many low volume forest roads to reduce wheel stresses transferred to the subgrade, reduce erosion, reduce maintenance costs, and improve driver comfort. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for aggregate to be recovered and used elsewhere on the road network, at a reduced cost compared to purchasing aggregate from a quarry. This article investigates the potential for aggregate recycling to provide an economic incentive to decommission additional roads by reducing transport distance and aggregate procurement costs for other actively used roads. Decommissioning additional roads may, in turn, result in improved aquatic habitat. We present real-world examples of aggregate recycling and discuss the advantages of doing so. Further, we present mixed integer formulations to determine optimal levels of aggregate recycling under economic and environmental objectives. Tested on an example road network, incorporation of aggregate recycling demonstrates substantial cost-savings relative to a baseline scenario without recycling, increasing the likelihood of road decommissioning and reduced habitat degradation. We find that aggregate recycling can result in up to 24% in cost savings (economic objective) and up to 890% in additional length of roads decommissioned (environmental objective). PMID:18481140

  15. CROCKETT BARN AND BLOCKHOUSE FROM SOUTH FORT CASEY ROAD, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CROCKETT BARN AND BLOCKHOUSE FROM SOUTH FORT CASEY ROAD, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. The Crockett blockhouse was moved from its original location to a tract of land along South Fort Casey Road in 1938, making it more accessible to tourists. During the same year it was given to the Daughters of the Pioneers of Washington and restored by Works Progress Administration crews. - Crockett Farm, 1056 Fort Casey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  16. The importance of accurate road data for spatial applications in public health: customizing a road network

    PubMed Central

    Frizzelle, Brian G; Evenson, Kelly R; Rodriguez, Daniel A; Laraia, Barbara A

    2009-01-01

    Background Health researchers have increasingly adopted the use of geographic information systems (GIS) for analyzing environments in which people live and how those environments affect health. One aspect of this research that is often overlooked is the quality and detail of the road data and whether or not it is appropriate for the scale of analysis. Many readily available road datasets, both public domain and commercial, contain positional errors or generalizations that may not be compatible with highly accurate geospatial locations. This study examined the accuracy, completeness, and currency of four readily available public and commercial sources for road data (North Carolina Department of Transportation, StreetMap Pro, TIGER/Line 2000, TIGER/Line 2007) relative to a custom road dataset which we developed and used for comparison. Methods and Results A custom road network dataset was developed to examine associations between health behaviors and the environment among pregnant and postpartum women living in central North Carolina in the United States. Three analytical measures were developed to assess the comparative accuracy and utility of four publicly and commercially available road datasets and the custom dataset in relation to participants' residential locations over three time periods. The exclusion of road segments and positional errors in the four comparison road datasets resulted in between 5.9% and 64.4% of respondents lying farther than 15.24 meters from their nearest road, the distance of the threshold set by the project to facilitate spatial analysis. Agreement, using a Pearson's correlation coefficient, between the customized road dataset and the four comparison road datasets ranged from 0.01 to 0.82. Conclusion This study demonstrates the importance of examining available road datasets and assessing their completeness, accuracy, and currency for their particular study area. This paper serves as an example for assessing the feasibility of readily

  17. New Roads and Human Health: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Matt; Petticrew, Mark; Ogilvie, David; Hamilton, Val

    2003-01-01

    We sought to synthesize evidence of the health effects of construction of new roads by systematically reviewing observational studies of such effects. We included and critically appraised 32 studies. The review suggested that out-of-town bypasses decrease injuries on main roads through or around towns, although more robust evidence is needed on effects on secondary roads. New major urban roads have statistically insignificant effects on injury incidence. New major roads between towns decrease injuries. Out-of-town bypasses reduce disturbance and community severance in towns but increase them elsewhere. Major urban roads increase disturbance and severance. More robust research is needed in this area, particularly regarding effects of new roads on respiratory health, mental health, access to health services, and physical activity. PMID:12948964

  18. The Promise and Challenge of Increasing Access to Higher Education: Notes from a Romanian/United States Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florea, Silvia; Horvat, Erin McNamara

    2009-01-01

    The internal processes of higher education have implications for the cohesion and shape of societies as well as for the quality of life of individuals. The comparison of the historical evolution of access to higher education in the American and European/Romanian contrasted countries reveals the presence of several norms successively constraining…

  19. Matching Up to the Information Society: An Evaluation of the EU, the EU Accession Countries, Switzerland and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graafland-Essers, Irma; Cremonini, Leon; Ettedgui, Emile; Botterman, Maarten

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the current understanding of the advancement of the Information Society within the European Union and countries that are up for accession in 2004, and is based on the SIBIS (Statistical Indicators Benchmarking the Information Society) surveys and analyses per SIBIS theme and country. The report is unique in its coherent and…

  20. Accessing Stem-Focused Education: Factors That Contribute to the Opportunity to Attend Stem High Schools across the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers-Chapman, M. Felicity

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, policy makers, researchers, and educators have focused on the preparation of individuals in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) fields. One popular policy lever is STEM-focused high schools. The purpose of this study is to identify which student populations have access to STEM secondary schools. By comparing…

  1. State preemption of local tobacco control policies restricting smoking, advertising, and youth access--United States, 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    2011-08-26

    Preemptive state tobacco control legislation prohibits localities from enacting tobacco control laws that are more stringent than state law. State preemption provisions can preclude any type of local tobacco control policy. The three broad types of state preemption tracked by CDC include preemption of local policies that restrict 1) smoking in workplaces and public places, 2) tobacco advertising, and 3) youth access to tobacco products. A Healthy People 2020 objective (TU-16) calls for eliminating state laws that preempt any type of local tobacco control law. A previous study reported that the number of states that preempt local smoking restrictions in one or more of three settings (government worksites, private-sector worksites, and restaurants) has decreased substantially in recent years. To measure progress toward achieving Healthy People 2020 objectives, this study expands on the previous analysis to track changes in state laws that preempt local advertising and youth access restrictions and to examine policy changes from December 31, 2000, to December 31, 2010. This new analysis found that, in contrast with the substantial progress achieved during the past decade in reducing the number of states that preempt local smoking restrictions, no progress has been made in reducing the number of states that preempt local advertising restrictions and youth access restrictions. Increased progress in removing state preemption provisions will be needed to achieve the relevant Healthy People 2020 objective.

  2. Pollutant concentrations in road runoff: Southeast Queensland case study

    SciTech Connect

    Drapper, D.; Tomlinson, R.; Williams, P.

    2000-04-01

    This paper discusses the results of research into the pollutants in runoff from road pavement surfaces following natural rainfall events. Road runoff water quality was monitored at 21 sites centering around Brisbane, in southeast Queensland, Australia. The sites were selected according to traffic volumes, surrounding land use, pavement surface type, ease of access, and commercial vehicle percentage. Bridge sites were chosen for convenience of sample collection and minimized infrastructure modification. First flush grab samplers were permanently installed at each site to collect the first 20 L of runoff from one of the bridge drainage scuppers. The runoff samples were tested for a number of heavy metals, hydrocarbons, pesticides, and other physical characteristics. The observed results fall within the ranges of concentrations reported internationally and nationally but do not typically follow the 30,000 average annual daily traffic results reported in the United States. Traffic volumes have not been found to be the best indicator of road runoff pollutant concentrations. Interevent duration has been found to be a statistically significant factor for pollutant concentrations. Sites incorporating exit lanes have recorded higher concentrations of acid-extractable copper and zinc, tending to support the hypothesis that brake pad and tire wear caused by rapid deceleration contributes to the concentrations of these metals in road runoff. Laser particle sizing has shown that a significant proportion of the sediment found in the runoff is <100 {micro}m. However, these particulates do settle in water within 24 h, under laboratory conditions. This may be due to the presence of heavy metals.

  3. Expanding Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    There is no question that the United States lags behind most industrialized nations in consumer access to broadband Internet service. For many policy makers and activists, this shortfall marks the latest phase in the struggle to overcome the digital divide. To remedy this lack of broadband affordability and availability, one start-up firm--with…

  4. Study on the energy-efficient scheme based on the interconnection of optical-network-units for next generation optical access network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Yunxin; Jiang, Ning; Qiu, Kun; Xue, Chenpeng

    2014-12-01

    An energy-efficient scheme based on the interconnection of optical network unit (ONU) is introduced, which can significantly reduce the energy consumption of the low-traffic operation. The energy consumption model for the ONU-interconnected optical access network (OAN) based on the electronic switch (ES) technology is established, and the energy efficiency of the proposed scheme is analyzed and compared with that of the OAN using optical switch (OS). The simulation results demonstrate that the ONU-interconnected scheme can efficiently reduce the energy consumption of OAN, and it shows a good energy consumption performance under daily traffic model.

  5. Conceptual design and analysis of roads and road construction machinery for initial lunar base operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sines, Jeffrey L.; Banks, Joel; Efatpenah, Keyanoush

    1990-01-01

    Recent developments have made it possible for scientists and engineers to consider returning to the Moon to build a manned lunar base. The base can be used to conduct scientific research, develop new space technology, and utilize the natural resources of the Moon. Areas of the base will be separated, connected by a system of roads that reduce the power requirements of vehicles traveling on them. Feasible road types for the lunar surface were analyzed and a road construction system was designed for initial lunar base operations. A model was also constructed to show the system configuration and key operating features. The alternate designs for the lunar road construction system were developed in four stages: analyze and select a road type; determine operations and machinery needed to produce the road; develop machinery configurations; and develop alternates for several machine components. A compacted lunar soil road was selected for initial lunar base operations. The only machinery required to produce this road were a grader and a compactor. The road construction system consists of a main drive unit which is used for propulsion, a detachable grader assembly, and a towed compactor.

  6. Perinatal health inequalities and accessibility of maternity services in a rural French region: closing maternity units in Burgundy.

    PubMed

    Combier, Evelyne; Charreire, Hélène; Le Vaillant, Marc; Michaut, Francis; Ferdynus, Cyril; Amat-Roze, Jeanne-Marie; Gouyon, Jean-Bernard; Quantin, Catherine; Zeitlin, Jennifer

    2013-11-01

    Maternity unit closures in France have increased travel time for pregnant women in rural areas. We assessed the impact of travel time to the closest unit on perinatal outcomes and care in Burgundy using multilevel analyses of data on deliveries from 2000 to 2009. A travel time of 30min or more increased risks of fetal heart rate anomalies, meconium-stained amniotic fluid, out-of-hospital births, and pregnancy hospitalizations; a positive but non-significant gradient existed between travel time and perinatal mortality. The effects of long travel distances on perinatal outcomes and care should be factored into closure decisions.

  7. Unofficial Road Building in the Amazon: Socioeconomic and Biophysical Explanations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perz, Stephen G.; Caldas, Marcellus M.; Arima, Eugenio; Walker, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Roads have manifold social and environmental impacts, including regional development, social conflicts and habitat fragmentation. 'Road ecology' has emerged as an approach to evaluate the various ecological and hydrological impacts of roads. This article aims to complement road ecology by examining the socio-spatial processes of road building itself. Focusing on the Brazilian Amazon, a heavily-studied context due to forest fragmentation by roads, the authors consider non-state social actors who build 'unofficial roads' for the purpose of gaining access to natural resources to support livelihoods and community development. They examine four case studies of roads with distinct histories in order to explain the socio-spatial processes behind road building in terms of profit maximization, land tenure claims, co-operative and conflictive political ecologies, and constraints as well as opportunities afforded by the biophysical environment. The study cases illustrate the need for a multi-pronged theoretical approach to understanding road building, and call for more attention to the role of non-state actors in unofficial road construction.

  8. On the Outskirts of National Health Reform: A Comparative Assessment of Health Insurance and Access to Care in Puerto Rico and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Portela, Maria; Sommers, Benjamin D

    2015-01-01

    Context Puerto Rico is the United States’ largest territory, home to nearly 4 million American citizens. Yet it has remained largely on the outskirts of US health policy, including the Affordable Care Act (ACA). This article presents an overview of Puerto Rico’s health care system and a comparative analysis of coverage and access to care in Puerto Rico and the mainland United States. Methods We analyzed 2011-2012 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, and 2012 data from the American Community Survey and its counterpart, the Puerto Rico Community Survey. Among adults 18 and older, we examined health insurance coverage; access measures, such as having a usual source of care and cost-related delays in care; self-reported health; and the receipt of recommended preventive services, such as cancer screening and glucose testing. We used multivariate regression models to compare Puerto Rico and the mainland United States, adjusted for age, income, race/ethnicity, and other demographic variables. Findings Uninsured rates were significantly lower in Puerto Rico (unadjusted 7.4% versus 15.0%, adjusted difference: −12.0%, p < 0.001). Medicaid was far more common in Puerto Rico. Puerto Rican residents were more likely than those in the mainland United States to have a usual source of care and to have had a checkup within the past year, and fewer experienced cost-related delays in care. Screening rates for diabetes, mammograms, and Pap smears were comparable or better in Puerto Rico, while colonoscopy rates were lower. Self-reported health was slightly worse, but obesity and smoking rates were lower. Conclusions Despite its far poorer population, Puerto Rico outperforms the mainland United States on several measures of coverage and access. Congressional policies capping federal Medicaid funds to the territory, however, have contributed to major budgetary challenges. While the ACA has significantly increased federal resources in Puerto Rico, ongoing

  9. Culturally Diverse and Underserved Populations of Gifted Students in the United States and in Taiwan: Equitable Access to Gifted Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Ya-Ting

    2014-01-01

    There is a continuing increase in the African American and Hispanic student populations in public schools. The students who are invited to gifted programs are overwhelmingly White. This is the situation in schools in the United States and also in Taiwan. Misunderstanding or unawareness of culture difference among educators might contribute to…

  10. Access to Education in Africa: Responding to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chataika, Tsitsi; Mckenzie, Judith Anne; Swart, Estelle; Lyner-Cleophas, Marcia

    2012-01-01

    Article 24 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities mandates that disabled people should have full rights to education in inclusive settings. However, to ensure that educational polices and settings are designed to meet this criterion seems challenging to African countries that have ratified this Convention. This…

  11. Race/Ethnicity and Geographic Access to Medicaid Substance Use Disorder Treatment Facilities in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Janet R.; Wen, Hefei; Ko, Michelle; Druss, Benjamin G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although substance use disorders (SUD) are prevalent and associated with adverse consequences, treatment rates remain extremely low. Unlike physical and mental health problems, treatment for SUD is predominantly provided in a separate specialty sector and more heavily financed by public sources. The Medicaid expansion under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) has the potential to increase access to treatment for SUD, but only if an infrastructure exists to serve new enrollees. Objective This study examines the availability of outpatient SUD treatment facilities that accept Medicaid across U.S. counties, and whether counties with a higher percentage of racial/ethnic minorities are more likely to have gaps in this infrastructure. Design We used data from the 2009 National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services and the 2011-2012 Area Resource file to examine sociodemographic factors associated with county-level access to SUD treatment facilities that serve Medicaid enrollees. We estimated a probit model with state indicators to adjust for state-level heterogeneity in demographics, politics, and policies. Independent variables assessed county racial/ethnic composition (i.e., percentage Black and percentage Hispanic), percentage living in poverty, percentage living in a rural area, percentage insured with Medicaid, percentage uninsured, and total population. Participants U.S. Counties in all 50 states. Main Outcome Measure Dichotomous indicator for counties with at least one outpatient SUD treatment facility that accepts Medicaid. Results About sixty percent of U.S. counties have at least one outpatient SUD facility that accepts Medicaid, although this rate is lower in many Southern and Midwestern states. Counties with a higher percentage of Black (Marginal Effect [M.E.]=−3.1; 95% CI= −5.2,−0.9%), rural (M.E.=−9.2%; 95% CI=−11.1%,−7.4%), and/or uninsured (M.E.= −9.5%, 95% CI=−13.0%,−5.9%) residents are less likely to have one of these

  12. Linguistic acculturation and perceptions of quality, access, and discrimination in health care among Latinos in the United States.

    PubMed

    Becerra, David; Androff, David; Messing, Jill T; Castillo, Jason; Cimino, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between acculturation and Latinos' perceptions of health care treatment quality, discrimination, and access to health information. The results of this study indicated that participants who had lower levels of acculturation perceived: 1) greater discrimination in health care treatment; 2) a lower quality of health care treatment; 3) less confidence filling out health related forms; and 4) greater challenges understanding written information about their medical conditions. Participants who identified as immigrants also perceived that their poor quality of medical care was due to their inability to pay and to their race/ethnicity.

  13. A review of high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel-cell (HT-PEMFC)-based auxiliary power units for diesel-powered road vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yongfeng; Lehnert, Werner; Janßen, Holger; Samsun, Remzi Can; Stolten, Detlef

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents an extensive review of research on the development of auxiliary power units with enhanced reformate tolerance for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs). Developments in diesel reforming for fuel cells as auxiliary power units (APUs), single fuel cells and stacks and systems are outlined in detail and key findings are presented. Summaries of HT-PEMFC APU applications and start-up times for HT-PEMFC systems are then given. A summary of cooling HT-PEMFC stacks using a classic schematic diagram of a 24-cell HT-PEMFC stack, with a cooling plate for every third cell, is also presented as part of a stack analysis. Finally, a summary of CO tolerances for fuel cells is given, along with the effects of different CO volume fractions on polarization curves, the fraction of CO coverage, hydrogen coverage, anode overpotential and cell potential.

  14. Improving Access to Preschool and Postsecondary Education. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Education and Health of the Joint Economic Committee. Congress of the United States, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session (December 14-15, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

    Joint hearings on the process of improving access to preschool and postsecondary education in the United States were convened to examine the economic significance of improved access to the nation. James H. Scheuer presided. These 2 days of hearings were the last of 11 days; information given on the previous days, which focused on what the country…

  15. 25 CFR 247.20 - What are the road and trail prohibitions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the road and trail prohibitions? 247.20 Section... RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.20 What are the road and trail prohibitions? (a) You cannot damage or leave in a damaged condition any road, trail, or segment thereof. (b) You cannot...

  16. 25 CFR 247.20 - What are the road and trail prohibitions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What are the road and trail prohibitions? 247.20 Section... RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.20 What are the road and trail prohibitions? (a) You cannot damage or leave in a damaged condition any road, trail, or segment thereof. (b) You cannot...

  17. 25 CFR 247.20 - What are the road and trail prohibitions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What are the road and trail prohibitions? 247.20 Section... RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.20 What are the road and trail prohibitions? (a) You cannot damage or leave in a damaged condition any road, trail, or segment thereof. (b) You cannot...

  18. 25 CFR 247.20 - What are the road and trail prohibitions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are the road and trail prohibitions? 247.20 Section... RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.20 What are the road and trail prohibitions? (a) You cannot damage or leave in a damaged condition any road, trail, or segment thereof. (b) You cannot...

  19. 25 CFR 247.20 - What are the road and trail prohibitions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are the road and trail prohibitions? 247.20 Section... RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.20 What are the road and trail prohibitions? (a) You cannot damage or leave in a damaged condition any road, trail, or segment thereof. (b) You cannot...

  20. What is fair? Choice, fairness, and transparency in access to prescription medicines in the United States and Australia.

    PubMed

    Lopert, Ruth; Rosenbaum, Sara

    2007-01-01

    The importance of prescription drugs to modern medical practice, coupled with their increasing costs, has strengthened imperatives for national health policies that ensure safety and quality, facilitate affordable access, and promote rational use. Australia has made universal and affordable prescription drug coverage a priority for decades, within a policy framework that emphasizes equity and increasing transparency in coverage design and payment decisions. By contrast, the U.S. lacks such a national policy. Furthermore, federal Medicare reforms aimed at making appropriate drug coverage affordable and accessible employs two icons of the U.S. perception of fairness--the right to choose and the right to challenge coverage design limits--that mask the limited nature of the assistance. As the U.S. seeks to impose its values and priorities on other nations through the negotiation of bilateral and regional trade agreements, it becomes important to consider the two national experiences, in order to avoid trading illusory notions of fairness for true population equity. PMID:18076515

  1. Vision Zero--a road safety policy innovation.

    PubMed

    Belin, Matts-Åke; Tillgren, Per; Vedung, Evert

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine Sweden's Vision Zero road safety policy. In particular, the paper focuses on how safety issues were framed, which decisions were made, and what are the distinctive features of Vision Zero. The analysis reveals that the decision by the Swedish Parliament to adopt Vision Zero as Sweden's road safety policy was a radical innovation. The policy is different in kind from traditional traffic safety policy with regard to problem formulation, its view on responsibility, its requirements for the safety of road users, and the ultimate objective of road safety work. The paper briefly examines the implications of these findings for national and global road safety efforts that aspire to achieving innovative road safety policies in line with the Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011-2020, declared by the United Nations General Assembly in March 2010.

  2. Quantifying the influence of safe road systems and legal licensing age on road mortality among young adolescents: steps towards system thinking.

    PubMed

    Twisk, Divera; Commandeur, Jacques J F; Bos, Niels; Shope, Jean T; Kok, Gerjo

    2015-01-01

    Based on existing literature, a system thinking approach was used to set up a conceptual model on the interrelationships among the components influencing adolescent road mortality, distinguishing between components at the individual level and at the system level. At the individual level the role of risk behaviour (sometimes deliberate and sometimes from inexperience or other non-deliberate causes) in adolescent road mortality is well documented. However, little is known about the extent to which the 'road system' itself may also have an impact on younger adolescents' road mortality. This, by providing a safe or unsafe road environment for all road users (System-induced exposure) and by allowing access to high-risk vehicles at a young or older age through the legal licensing age. This study seeks to explore these relationships by analysing the extent to which the road mortality of 10 to 17 year olds in various jurisdictions can be predicted from the System-induced Exposure (SiE) in a jurisdiction and from its legal licensing age to drive motor vehicles. SiE was operationalized as the number of road fatalities per 10(5) inhabitants/all ages together, but excluding the 10 to 17 year olds. Data on road fatalities during the years 2001 through 2008 were obtained from the OECD International Road Traffic Accident Database (IRTAD) and from the USA NHTSA's Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) database for 29 early and 10 late licensing jurisdictions. Linear mixed models were fitted with annual 'Adolescent road mortality per capita' for 2001 through 2008 as the dependent variable, and time-dependent 'SiE' and time-independent 'Licensing system' as predictor variables. To control for different levels of motorisation, the time-dependent variable 'Annual per capita vehicle distance travelled' was used as a covariate. Licensing system of a jurisdiction was entered as a categorical predictor variable with late licensing countries as a baseline group. The study found support

  3. Accessing inpatient rehabilitation after acute severe stroke: age, mobility, prestroke function and hospital unit are associated with discharge to inpatient rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Hakkennes, Sharon; Hill, Keith D; Brock, Kim; Bernhardt, Julie; Churilov, Leonid

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the variables associated with discharge to inpatient rehabilitation following acute severe stroke and to determine whether hospital unit contributed to access. Five acute hospitals in Victoria, Australia participated in this study. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they had suffered an acute severe stroke (Mobility Scale for Acute Stroke ≤ 15). Physiotherapists assessed patients on day 3 poststroke, collecting demographic information and information relating to their prestroke status, social status and current status. Stepwise logistic-regression modelling was used to examine the association between age, type of stroke, prestroke living situation, comorbidities, availability of carer on discharge, current mobility, bladder continence, bowel continence, cognition and communication and the dependent variable, discharge destination (rehabilitation/other). The resulting model was analysed using hierarchical logistic regression with hospital unit as the clustering variable. Of the 108 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria, 70 (64.8%) were discharged to rehabilitation. The variables independently associated with discharge to rehabilitation were younger age [odds ratio (OR)=0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.83-0.95, P=0.001], independent premorbid functional status (OR=14.92, 95% CI=2.43-91.60, P=0.004) and higher level of current mobility (OR=1.31, 95% CI=1.02-1.66, P<0.03). The multilevel model estimated that 12% of the total variability in discharge destination was explained by differences between the hospital units (ρ=0.12, 95% CI=0.02-0.55, P=0.048). The results indicate that the variables associated with discharge to rehabilitation following severe stroke are younger age, independent prestroke functional status and higher level of current mobility. In addition, organizational factors play a role in selection for rehabilitation, suggesting inequity in access for this patient group. PMID:22728683

  4. Effectiveness of a neonatal intensive care unit access intercom linked audiovisual display monitor highlighting infection control procedures.

    PubMed

    El-Kafrawy, Ula; Taylor, Robert J; Francis, Natalie; Boussabaine, Emaan; Badrideen, Maysoon

    2013-08-01

    This prospective interventional study aimed at increasing knowledge and adherence to 4 infection control standards by visitors to a neonatal intensive care unit. Visitors were interviewed and observed for knowledge of and adherence to the standards pre- and postinstallation of an audiovisual display monitor, which demonstrates handwashing and delivers an auditory and written list of the standards. Handwashing adherence and watch removal improved from 79.2% to 100% and 67% to 89.7%, respectively. Recall of the standards increased from 19% to 81%.

  5. Assessing impacts of roads: application of a standard assessment protocol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duniway, Michael C.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive management of road networks depends on timely data that accurately reflect the impacts those systems are having on ecosystem processes and associated services. In the absence of reliable data, land managers are left with little more than observations and perceptions to support management decisions of road-associated disturbances. Roads can negatively impact the soil, hydrologic, plant, and animal processes on which virtually all ecosystem services depend. The Interpreting Indicators of Rangeland Health (IIRH) protocol is a qualitative method that has been demonstrated to be effective in characterizing impacts of roads. The goal of this study were to develop, describe, and test an approach for using IIRH to systematically evaluate road impacts across large, diverse arid and semiarid landscapes. We developed a stratified random sampling approach to plot selection based on ecological potential, road inventory data, and image interpretation of road impacts. The test application on a semiarid landscape in southern New Mexico, United States, demonstrates that the approach developed is sensitive to road impacts across a broad range of ecological sites but that not all the types of stratification were useful. Ecological site and road inventory strata accounted for significant variability in the functioning of ecological processes but stratification based on apparent impact did not. Analysis of the repeatability of IIRH applied to road plots indicates that the method is repeatable but consensus evaluations based on multiple observers should be used to minimize risk of bias. Landscape-scale analysis of impacts by roads of contrasting designs (maintained dirt or gravel roads vs. non- or infrequently maintained roads) suggests that future travel management plans for the study area should consider concentrating traffic on fewer roads that are well designed and maintained. Application of the approach by land managers will likely provide important insights into

  6. 7. LASSEN PARK ROAD BRIDGE AT SULFUR WORKS. NOTE ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. LASSEN PARK ROAD BRIDGE AT SULFUR WORKS. NOTE ROAD TRAVERSING DISTANT RIDGE BEYOND BRIDGE. SEEN FROM WEST OF HIGHWAY FROM OLD HIGHWAY LOOP. LOOKING E. - Lassen Park Road, Mineral, Tehama County, CA

  7. 7. VIEW OF OLD ENTRANCE ROAD (NOW WILLOW FLATS ROAD) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF OLD ENTRANCE ROAD (NOW WILLOW FLATS ROAD) FACING EAST INTO PARK. - Arches National Park Main Entrance Road, Beginning at U.S. Highway 191, approximately 6 miles north of Moab, Moab, Grand County, UT

  8. Understanding benefits and addressing misperceptions and barriers to intrauterine device access among populations in the United States.

    PubMed

    Yoost, Jennie

    2014-01-01

    Three intrauterine devices (IUDs), one copper and two containing the progestin levonorgestrel, are available for use in the United States. IUDs offer higher rates of contraceptive efficacy than nonlong-acting methods, and several studies have demonstrated higher satisfaction rates and continuation rates of any birth control method. This efficacy is not affected by age or parity. The safety of IUDs is well studied, and the risks of pelvic inflammatory disease, perforation, expulsion, and ectopic pregnancy are all of very low incidence. Noncontraceptive benefits include decreased menstrual blood loss, improved dysmenorrhea, improved pelvic pain associated with endometriosis, and protection of the endometrium from hyperplasia. The use of IUDs is accepted in patients with multiple medical problems who may have contraindications to other birth control methods. Yet despite well-published data, concerns and misperceptions still persist, especially among younger populations and nulliparous women. Medical governing bodies advocate for use of IUDs in these populations, as safety and efficacy is unchanged, and IUDs have been shown to decrease unintended pregnancies. Dispersion of accurate information among patients and practitioners is needed to further increase the acceptability and use of IUDs.

  9. Health care providers and direct-to-consumer access and advertising of genetic testing in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Marketing pressures, regulatory policies, clinical guidelines, and consumer demand all affect health care providers' knowledge and use of health-related genetic tests that are sold and/or advertised to consumers. In addition, clinical guidelines, regulatory policies, and educational efforts are needed to promote the informed use of genetic tests that are sold and advertised to consumers and health care providers. A shift in culture regarding the regulation of genetic tests that are sold directly to consumers is suggested: by recent actions taken by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), including letters sent to direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing companies stating that their tests meet the definition of medical devices; by public meetings held by the FDA to discuss laboratory developed tests; and by the convening of the Molecular and Clinical Genetics Panel to gather input on scientific issues concerning DTC genetic tests that make medical claims. This review provides a brief overview of DTC advertising and the regulation of pharmaceuticals and genetic tests in the United States. It highlights recent changes in the regulatory culture regarding genetic tests that are sold to consumers, and discusses the impact on health care providers of selling and advertising genetic tests directly to consumers. PMID:22204616

  10. Roads to Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauer, Ezra

    1991-01-01

    Contends that the level of safety built into roads is largely unpremeditated and that roads and highways are not as safe as they might be. Discusses practices, standards, and deficiencies in highway and traffic safety related to geometric design and traffic engineering. Recommends increased transportation engineering professionalism and public…

  11. The Road Less Traveled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKim, Brent

    2007-01-01

    The federal journey into public education has followed a long and winding road. Most educators know that the federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act is simply the latest version of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), which dates all the way back to 1965. In the years since its initial passage, the ESEA road has taken a number of…

  12. Road landslide information management and forecasting system base on GIS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei Dong; Du, Xiang Gang; Xie, Cui Ming

    2009-09-01

    Take account of the characters of road geological hazard and its supervision, it is very important to develop the Road Landslides Information Management and Forecasting System based on Geographic Information System (GIS). The paper presents the system objective, function, component modules and key techniques in the procedure of system development. The system, based on the spatial information and attribute information of road geological hazard, was developed and applied in Guizhou, a province of China where there are numerous and typical landslides. The manager of communication, using the system, can visually inquire all road landslides information based on regional road network or on the monitoring network of individual landslide. Furthermore, the system, integrated with mathematical prediction models and the GIS's strongpoint on spatial analyzing, can assess and predict landslide developing procedure according to the field monitoring data. Thus, it can efficiently assists the road construction or management units in making decision to control the landslides and to reduce human vulnerability.

  13. Development and assessment of road weather information in Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sanghoo; Lee, Jonghak; Kim, Mingyu; Choi, Youngjean

    2016-04-01

    Road-based transport is essential for populations operating in large urban environments. Driving conditions are impacted by the intensity of rainfall. However, rainfall is not directly measured on roads. In this study, we evaluated road weather prediction accuracy using representative rainfall days in Seoul, South Korea, during 2013.Data were collected by 190 weather stations, of which 33 were located within 20 meters of a road and were used as model validation sites, while the remaining 157 were used as model fitting sites. Inverse distance weighting (IDW) and ordinary kriging (OK) based on variograms were considered for interpolation. We used the bias, root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), and correlation coefficient (CC) as the prediction performance criteria. The prediction performance of OK was higher than that of IDW. As expected, prediction performance increased when the number of rainfall observations increased. We also simulated road conditions using the accumulated historical rainfall data. Generating road information for the entire urban road network is very expensive; therefore, 177,599 road positions were reproduced from 22,184 road link units. Finally, safe driving speeds were calculated from simulated rainfall, stopping distance, and visibility distance.We hope that the results of this study will provide a basis for the safety information given to road users.

  14. Direction based Hazard Routing Protocol (DHRP) for disseminating road hazard information using road side infrastructures in VANETs.

    PubMed

    Berlin, M A; Anand, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents Direction based Hazard Routing Protocol (DHRP) for disseminating information about fixed road hazards such as road blocks, tree fall, boulders on road, snow pile up, landslide, road maintenance work and other obstacles to the vehicles approaching the hazardous location. The proposed work focuses on dissemination of hazard messages on highways with sparse traffic. The vehicle coming across the hazard would report the presence of the hazard. It is proposed to use Road Side fixed infrastructure Units for reliable and timely delivery of hazard messages to vehicles. The vehicles can then take appropriate safety action to avoid the hazardous location. The proposed protocol has been implemented and tested using SUMO simulator to generate road traffic and NS 2.33 network simulator to analyze the performance of DHRP. The performance of the proposed protocol was also compared with simple flooding protocol and the results are presented.

  15. Direction based Hazard Routing Protocol (DHRP) for disseminating road hazard information using road side infrastructures in VANETs.

    PubMed

    Berlin, M A; Anand, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents Direction based Hazard Routing Protocol (DHRP) for disseminating information about fixed road hazards such as road blocks, tree fall, boulders on road, snow pile up, landslide, road maintenance work and other obstacles to the vehicles approaching the hazardous location. The proposed work focuses on dissemination of hazard messages on highways with sparse traffic. The vehicle coming across the hazard would report the presence of the hazard. It is proposed to use Road Side fixed infrastructure Units for reliable and timely delivery of hazard messages to vehicles. The vehicles can then take appropriate safety action to avoid the hazardous location. The proposed protocol has been implemented and tested using SUMO simulator to generate road traffic and NS 2.33 network simulator to analyze the performance of DHRP. The performance of the proposed protocol was also compared with simple flooding protocol and the results are presented. PMID:24834371

  16. Haul road dust control

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, W.R.; Organiscak, J.A.

    2007-10-15

    A field study was conducted to measure dust from haul trucks at a limestone quarry and a coal preparation plant waste hauling operation. The study found that primarily wind, distance and road treatment conditions notably affected the dust concentrations at locations next to, 50 ft from, and 100 ft away from the unpaved haulage road. Airborne dust measured along the unpaved haul road showed that high concentrations of fugitive dust can be generated with these concentrations rapidly decreasing to nearly background levels within 100 ft of the road. Instantaneous respirable dust measurements illustrated that the trucks generate a real-time dust cloud that has a peak concentration with a time-related decay rate as the dust moves past the sampling locations. The respirable dust concentrations and peak levels were notably diminished as the dust cloud was transported, diluted, and diffused by the wind over the 100 ft distance from the road. Individual truck concentrations and peak levels measured next to the dry road surface test section were quite variable and dependent on wind conditions, particularly wind direction, with respect to reaching the sampling location. The vast majority of the fugitive airborne dust generated from unpaved and untreated haulage roads was non-respirable. 6 figs.

  17. Corrugation of roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Both, Joseph A.; Hong, Daniel C.; Kurtze, Douglas A.

    2001-12-01

    We present a one dimensional model for the development of corrugations in roads subjected to compressive forces from a flux of cars. The cars are modeled as damped harmonic oscillators translating with constant horizontal velocity across the surface, and the road surface is subject to diffusive relaxation. We derive dimensionless coupled equations of motion for the positions of the cars and the road surface H( x, t), which contain two phenomenological variables: an effective diffusion constant Δ( H) that characterizes the relaxation of the road surface, and a function a( H) that characterizes the plasticity or erodibility of the road bed. Linear stability analysis shows that corrugations grow if the speed of the cars exceeds a critical value, which decreases if the flux of cars is increased. Modifying the model to enforce the simple fact that the normal force exerted by the road can never be negative seems to lead to restabilized, quasi-steady road shapes, in which the corrugation amplitude and phase velocity remain fixed.

  18. 14. VIEW OF NORTHSOUTH ROAD WHICH PARALLELS ROAD TO HATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF NORTH-SOUTH ROAD WHICH PARALLELS ROAD TO HATCH ADIT (FEATURE B-28). NOTE MODERN 'LAY DOWN' FENCE ON ROAD. ROAD LIES TO THE WEST OF THE HATCH ADIT AND PHOTOGRAPH IS VIEW TO THE SOUTH. (OCTOBER, 1995) - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  19. Testing road surface treatments to reduce erosion in forest roads in Honduras [Tratamientos de la superficie de rodadura para reducir la erosion en caminos forestales en Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rivera, Samuel; Kershner, Jeffrey L.; Keller, Gordon R.

    2009-01-01

    Testing road surface treatments to reduce erosion in forest roads in Honduras. Cien. Inv. Agr. 36(3):425-432. Using forest roads produces more erosion and sedimentation than any other forest or agricultural activity. This study evaluated soil losses from a forest road in central Honduras over two consecutive years. We divided a 400-m segment of road into 8 experimental units, each 50 m in length. Four units were treated with Best Management Practices (BMPs) and four were left untreated. The BMP treatments included reshaping the road prism, installing culverts and reshaping of road ditches, compacting 20-cm layers of the road tread, crowning the road surface (3% slope, double drainage), longitudinal sloping (less than 12%), and adding a 10-cm layer of gravel (crush size = 0.63 cm). Soil movement was measured daily during the rainy seasons. The highest soil loss occurred in the control road, around 500 m3 km-1 per year, while the road treated with BMP lost approximately 225 m3km-1 per year. These results show that road surface erosion can be reduced up to 50% with the implementation of surface treatments.

  20. Speed, road injury, and public health.

    PubMed

    Richter, Elihu D; Berman, Tamar; Friedman, Lee; Ben-David, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    We review milestones in the history of increases in speed limits and travel speeds ("speed creep") and risks for road deaths and injury. Reduced speed limits, speed-camera networks, and speed calming substantially reduce these tolls in absolute numbers-a trend that is apparent in the United Kingdom, Australia, France, and other countries, but not in the United States, which has raised speed limits and does not have speed-camera networks. Newtonian relationships between the fourth power of small increases or reductions in speed and large increases or reductions in deaths state the case for speed control. Speed adaptation and the interaction between speed and other determinants of injury risks, including congestion and countermeasures, enter into these relationships. Speed-camera networks and speed calming lead to large, sustainable, and highly cost-effective drops in road deaths and injuries and should target entire populations, not merely high-risk subgroups or situations. Yet, there are major barriers to preventive strategies based on the discovery that speed kills. Modal shifts from speed on roads to speed on rail, lower maximum vehicle speeds, and speed-camera networks are required for progress toward Vision Zero-the goal of no road deaths-through Killing Speed. The human cost of the delay in killing speed in the United States may be as high as 20,000 lives lost per year. PMID:16533112

  1. Speed, road injury, and public health.

    PubMed

    Richter, Elihu D; Berman, Tamar; Friedman, Lee; Ben-David, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    We review milestones in the history of increases in speed limits and travel speeds ("speed creep") and risks for road deaths and injury. Reduced speed limits, speed-camera networks, and speed calming substantially reduce these tolls in absolute numbers-a trend that is apparent in the United Kingdom, Australia, France, and other countries, but not in the United States, which has raised speed limits and does not have speed-camera networks. Newtonian relationships between the fourth power of small increases or reductions in speed and large increases or reductions in deaths state the case for speed control. Speed adaptation and the interaction between speed and other determinants of injury risks, including congestion and countermeasures, enter into these relationships. Speed-camera networks and speed calming lead to large, sustainable, and highly cost-effective drops in road deaths and injuries and should target entire populations, not merely high-risk subgroups or situations. Yet, there are major barriers to preventive strategies based on the discovery that speed kills. Modal shifts from speed on roads to speed on rail, lower maximum vehicle speeds, and speed-camera networks are required for progress toward Vision Zero-the goal of no road deaths-through Killing Speed. The human cost of the delay in killing speed in the United States may be as high as 20,000 lives lost per year.

  2. A Holographic Road Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

    1979-01-01

    Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

  3. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, L.M.

    1998-05-05

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find at the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was not heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past. 2 figs.

  4. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  5. Arrive alive: road safety in Kenya and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lamont, Mark; Lee, Rebekah

    2015-04-01

    This article is among the first historical considerations of road safety in Africa. It argues that race and class, as colonial dualisms, analytically frame two defining moments in the development of African automobility and its infrastructure-"Africanization" in the first decade of Kenya's political independence from Britain, 1963-75, and democratization in postapartheid South Africa. We argue that recent road safety interventions in both countries exemplify an "epidemiological turn" influenced by public health constructions of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. African states' framing of road safety in behaviorist terms has obscured larger debates around redressing the historical legacies of racialized access to roads and the technopolitics of African automobility. Civic involvement in road safety initiatives has tended to be limited, although the specter of road carnage has entered into the public imagination, largely through the death of high profile Africans. However, some African road users continue to pursue alternative, and often culturally embedded, strategies to mitigate the dangers posed by life "on the road." PMID:26005088

  6. Road safety control: Application in urban environment in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charisoudis, A.; Mintsis, G.; Basbas, S.; Taxiltaris, Ch.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine what is and what is not a "road safety control" on the one hand and on the other hand to examine the procedure of the realization of this control in different countries in the level of the organization as well as in the level of the praxis through the Road Safety Manuals of each country. The countries under examination are: The United Kinghdom, Danish, U.S.A, Australia and New Zeeland. The Road Safety Manual of the International Organization World Road Association-PIARC is also mentioned. Finally examples of the application of road safety control, which were realized in the frame of the research programs of the research team of the Department of Transportation Engineering, School of Rural and Surveing, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki in the town of Aridea, are given.(in Greeks)

  7. View east along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View east along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the north side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  8. View northwest along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northwest along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the north side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  9. Off-road cycling injuries. An overview.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, R P; Kronisch, R L

    1995-05-01

    Off-road bicycles, commonly called 'mountain bikes', have become increasingly popular worldwide since their introduction in the western US in the late 1970s. This popularity is partly because these vehicles can be ridden on a wide variety of terrain which is not accessible to other types of bicycle. Although early versions were rather crude, off-road bicycles today typically include high strength, lightweight frames with a wide array of available suspension and braking systems. Virtually all aspects of the technology continue to evolve, including components and protective equipment. As the popularity of off-road cycling has increased, so too has the interest and level of participation in the competitive aspects of the sport. Currently, 2 organisations--the National Off-Road Bicycle Association (NORBA) and the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI)--sponsor the major events within the US and around the world. To date, the majority of studies have been descriptive in nature, with data collected via self-report, questionnaire formats. Only 1 prospective study has been reported thus far, which surveyed a major international competition held in the US in 1994. Injury rates calculated on the basis of injuries per ride or event in competitive venues have been reported, ranging from 0.2 to 0.39% compared with 0.30% for recreational participants. Retrospective data collected from recreational and competitive riders indicate that from 20 to 88% of those surveyed reported having sustained an injury during the previous year of participation. The majority of injuries appear to be acute, traumatic episodes involving the extremities, with contusions and abrasions being the most common. In general, the incidence of more severe injuries such as dislocations, fractures and concussions is low. Comparisons between road and off-road cycling events indicate that off-road cyclists sustain more fractures, dislocations and concussions than their road-event counterparts. Future research should

  10. Rapid road repair vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Mara, L.M.

    1999-09-07

    Disclosed are improvements to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

  11. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1999-01-01

    Disclosed are improvments to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

  12. Data, Data Everywhere, but Access Remains a Big Issue for Researchers: A Review of Access Policies for Publicly-Funded Patient-Level Health Care Data in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Doshi, Jalpa A.; Hendrick, Franklin B.; Graff, Jennifer S.; Stuart, Bruce C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: High quality research regarding treatment effectiveness, quality, and value is critical for improving the U.S. health care system. Recognition of this has led federal and state officials to better leverage existing data sources such as medical claims and survey data, but access must be balanced with privacy concerns. Methods: We reviewed and catalogued data access policies for a selection of publicly-funded federal and state datasets to investigate how such policies may be promoting or limiting research activities. Results: We found significant variation in data access policies across federal agencies and across state agencies, including variation for multiple datasets available from the same agency. We also observed numerous indirect hurdles to use of data, including complex data use application procedures, high user fees, and prolonged wait times for data delivery. Conclusions: Policy makers and data owners should consider making changes to data access policies to maximize the utility and availability of these valuable resources. PMID:27141517

  13. 24. OLD TIOGA ROAD VIEW, NOW MAY LAKE ROAD , ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. OLD TIOGA ROAD VIEW, NOW MAY LAKE ROAD , AT SNOW FLAT. MOUNT HOFFMAN AT CENTER REAR. LOOKING NW. GIS: N-37 49 34.6 / W-119 29 58.2 - Tioga Road, Between Crane Flat & Tioga Pass, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  14. VIEW OF MAIN ENTRANCE ROAD FACING SOUTH. SPUR ROAD TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MAIN ENTRANCE ROAD FACING SOUTH. SPUR ROAD TO WINDOWS SECTION AT LEFT, BALANCED ROCK NEAR CENTER OF PHOTO - Arches National Park Main Entrance Road, Beginning at U.S. Highway 191, approximately 6 miles north of Moab, Moab, Grand County, UT

  15. 6. VIEW OF MAIN ENTRANCE ROAD FACING SOUTH. SPUR ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF MAIN ENTRANCE ROAD FACING SOUTH. SPUR ROAD TO WINDOWS SECTION AT LEFT, BALANCED ROCK NEAR CENTER OF PHOTO. - Arches National Park Main Entrance Road, Beginning at U.S. Highway 191, approximately 6 miles north of Moab, Moab, Grand County, UT

  16. Training Guide: Road Transport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan Page, Ltd., London (England).

    The third in a series of guides to British industrial training, this publication begins with a survey of training issues and tasks confronting the Road Transport Industry Training Board (RTITB). This is followed by information on RTITB policies and provisions; RTITB members, officers, and committees; apprenticeships and other training schemes;…

  17. Road-Cleaning Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    Roadways are literally soaked with petrochemical byproducts, oils, gasoline, and other volatile substances that eventually run off into sewers and end up in rivers, waterways, and other undesirable places. Can the roads be cleaned of these wastes, with their proper disposal? Can vehicles, robots, or other devices be designed that could be driven…

  18. On the Road

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mary Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Veteran development officers say the experience of visiting and traveling to different places or countries often feels like an endless cycle of getting lost, missing flights, and eating midnight dinners from hotel vending machines. Despite ongoing travel challenges, experienced road warriors have learned how to maximize their effectiveness,…

  19. 78 FR 46607 - Certain Off-The-Road Tires From China Institution of Five-Year Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... COMMISSION Certain Off-The-Road Tires From China Institution of Five-Year Reviews AGENCY: United States... determine whether revocation of the antidumping and countervailing duty orders on certain off-the-road tires... published antidumping and countervailing duty orders on imports of certain off-the-road tires from China...

  20. Teaching Three-Dimensional Structural Chemistry Using Crystal Structure Databases. 2. Teaching Units that Utilize an Interactive Web-Accessible Subset of the Cambridge Structural Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battle, Gary M.; Allen, Frank H.; Ferrence, Gregory M.

    2010-01-01

    A series of online interactive teaching units have been developed that illustrate the use of experimentally measured three-dimensional (3D) structures to teach fundamental chemistry concepts. The units integrate a 500-structure subset of the Cambridge Structural Database specially chosen for their pedagogical value. The units span a number of key…

  1. [Supervising road safety in Peru].

    PubMed

    Sagástegui, Freddy

    2010-06-01

    In this article some problems in road safety are described, which have been detected by the Ombudsman of Peru, as part of its role of public administration supervisor, amongst these problems we mention: lack of and inadequate elaboration of the statistics on road traffic accidents, the inconsistency of the National Council for Road Security and the lack of responsibility of the local and regional governments reflected by the lack of application of the National Plan of Road Safety. Facing this, the Ombudsman suggests that the State develops a rigorous statistical system, strengthens the National Council of Road Safety and that the different sectors of the government develop the mentioned National Plan.

  2. Can we prevent road rage?

    PubMed

    Asbridge, Mark; Smart, Reginald G; Mann, Robert E

    2006-04-01

    Road rage has become a serious concern in many countries, and preventive efforts are required. This article reviews what can be done to prevent road rage by exploring potential prevention avenues in five areas. First, legal changes aimed at increasing the penalties for road rage behavior could be instituted, drawing on models from aggressive-driving or impaired-driving laws. A second approach would involve the adoption of court programs for convicted road ragers. Third, car redesign offers a means of reducing crime through environmental design. Fourth, mass media education could be implemented to inform drivers of the risk from road rage and how to avoid situations that facilitate road rage. Finally, prevention efforts could be directed to long-term societal changes that emphasize structural modifications, such as reducing congestion on the roads, reduced driver stress, or promoting public transportation. The strengths and weaknesses of these strategies are discussed.

  3. Road Traffic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckenbauer, Thomas

    Road traffic is the most interfering noise source in developed countries. According to a publication of the European Union (EU) at the end of the twentieth century [1], about 40% of the population in 15 EU member states is exposed to road traffic noise at mean levels exceeding 55 dB(A). Nearly 80 million people, 20% of the population, are exposed to levels exceeding 65 dB(A) during daytime and more than 30% of the population is exposed to levels exceeding 55 dB(A) during night time. Such high noise levels cause health risks and social disorders (aggressiveness, protest, and helplessness), interference of communication and disturbance of sleep; the long- and short-term consequences cause adverse cardiovascular effects, detrimental hormonal responses (stress hormones), and possible disturbance of the human metabolism (nutrition) and the immune system. Even performance at work and school could be impaired.

  4. Road to the Future: Strategies for Wildlife Crossings and Youth Empowerment to Improve Wildlife Habitat in Roaded Landscapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Dawn Renee

    2010-01-01

    As the footprint of human society expands upon the earth, habitat loss and landscape fragmentation is an increasing global problem. That problem includes loss of native habitats as these areas are harvested, converted to agricultural crops, and occupied by human settlement. Roads increase human access to previously inaccessible areas, encourage…

  5. DETAIL VIEW OF SRB/ET ACCESS PANELS, THROUGH VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORMS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF SRB/ET ACCESS PANELS, THROUGH VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORMS E-NORTH, E-SOUTH, B-NORTH, AND B-SOUTH, HB-3, FACING NORTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  6. Accessibility Videos.

    PubMed

    Kurppa, Ari; Nordlund, Marika

    2016-01-01

    It can be difficult to understand accessibility, if you do not have the personal experience. The Accessibility Centre ESKE produced short videos which demonstrate the meaning of accessibility in different situations. Videos will raise accessibility awareness of architects, other planners and professionals in the construction field and maintenance. PMID:27534282

  7. Northern approach stone arch permits access to park in panther ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northern approach stone arch permits access to park in panther hollow below. - Schenley Park Bridge over Panther Hollow, Spanning Panther Hollow at Panther Hollow Road, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  8. 12. View west of access bridge to top of filtration ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. View west of access bridge to top of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  9. 17. Sliding access doors typical of those covering opening to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Sliding access doors typical of those covering opening to filtration bed. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  10. Use of certain alternative fuels in road transport in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gis, W.; Pielecha, J.; Waśkiewicz, J.; Gis, M.; Menes, M.

    2016-09-01

    The development of biomethane and hydrogen technology in the road transport in the EU countries is recommended, among the others, in the Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council 2014/94/EU of 22 October 2014. Under the provisions of the said Directive, it is recommended to EU countries to use biomethane and progressively ensure accessibility to hydrogen cars on their territories, and above all to ensure the possibility of driving hydrogen vehicles between the member States. The territorial accessibility for biomethane vehicles is determined by the availability of biomethane refuelling infrastructure in the first place in cities and then on the road network distances recommended in this directive. The territorial accessibility for hydrogen vehicles is determined by the availability of hydrogen refuelling infrastructure, in the first place along the TEN-T network. The article presents the possibilities of using these alternative fuels in Poland, presenting some of the results of research and analysis in this area.

  11. Urbanization, roads, and rural population change in the Ecuadorian Andes.

    PubMed

    Rudel, T K; Richards, S

    1990-01-01

    "Like many developing countries Ecuador has experienced extensive ubanization in the past twenty-five years as well as a shift in the pattern of rural population change between the 1960s and 1970s. Rural places with difficult access to cities (without roads and located far from cities) gained population during the 1960s but lost population during the 1970s. Rural places with easy access to cities (i.e., located near cities or on all-weather roads) continued to gain population during the 1970s. The explanation for the differential ability of rural places to retain their population during the 1970s focuses on increases in labor circulation by peasants and growth in the numbers of small, urban-oriented manufacturing and agricultural enterprises in accessible rural areas. The article concludes with a discussion on the implications of these findings for policies to reduce rates of rural-urban migration."

  12. The Social Implications of Health Care Reform: Reducing Access Barriers to Health Care Services for Uninsured Hispanic and Latino Americans in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Mitchell A.; Inguanzo, Marian M.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. health care system is currently facing one of its most significant social challenges in decades in terms of its ability to provide access to primary care services to the millions of Americans who have lost their health insurance coverage in the recent economic recession. National statistics compiled by the U.S. Census Bureau for 2009…

  13. Matching Up to the Information Society: An Evaluation of the EU, the EU Accession Countries, Switzerland and the United States. Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graafland-Essers, Irma; Cremonini, Leon; Ettedgui, Emile; Botterman, Maarten

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the current understanding of the advancement of the Information Society within the European Union and countries that are up for accession in 2004, and is based on the SIBIS (Statistical Indicators Benchmarking the Information Society) surveys and analyses per SIBIS theme and country. The report is unique in its coherent and…

  14. Information Technology and People with Disabilities: The Current State of Federal Accessibility. Presented by The Attorney General to The President of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. Civil Rights Div.

    This report responds to requirements of Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act, as amended in 1998, concerning the accessibility of federal electronic and information technology to individuals with disabilities. It contains the results of the first executive branch-wide Section 508 evaluation and recommends specific inexpensive, cost-effective, and…

  15. Freight on a Low-Carbon Diet: Accessibility, Freightsheds, and Commodities.

    PubMed

    Taptich, Michael N; Horvath, Arpad

    2015-10-01

    The freight infrastructure network (e.g., roads, railways, waterways, etc.) is the backbone of nearly all trade partnerships in the United States and abroad. The manner in which the individual portions of its constituent parts are interrelated or arranged plays an important role for determining the environmental footprint of goods moved within the network. Herein, we compare the spatial distribution of potential consumer-producer exchanges (i.e., accessibility) under varying greenhouse gas (GHG) budgets or preferences for minimal transportation-related GHG emissions. We conduct case studies using two freight modes (truck and intermodal rail) for two representative commodities: meat/seafood and paper articles. Results across all counties in the United States indicate that the geographic area in which trade is possible, given a GHG budget, varies by transportation mode, location, and commodity. Our results suggest that intermodal terminal availability is an important determinant of low-GHG accessibility. Since only a fraction of road-to-rail terminals accommodate meat/seafood (4.9%) and paper (0.7%), the United States could increase its expected GHG savings associated with truck-to-rail mode-switching policies by 70% (+20 kg CO2,e/ton for meat/seafood) and 310% (+30 kg CO2,e/ton for paper) by upgrading current terminals to allow the exchange of all types of goods. PMID:26339921

  16. Freight on a Low-Carbon Diet: Accessibility, Freightsheds, and Commodities.

    PubMed

    Taptich, Michael N; Horvath, Arpad

    2015-10-01

    The freight infrastructure network (e.g., roads, railways, waterways, etc.) is the backbone of nearly all trade partnerships in the United States and abroad. The manner in which the individual portions of its constituent parts are interrelated or arranged plays an important role for determining the environmental footprint of goods moved within the network. Herein, we compare the spatial distribution of potential consumer-producer exchanges (i.e., accessibility) under varying greenhouse gas (GHG) budgets or preferences for minimal transportation-related GHG emissions. We conduct case studies using two freight modes (truck and intermodal rail) for two representative commodities: meat/seafood and paper articles. Results across all counties in the United States indicate that the geographic area in which trade is possible, given a GHG budget, varies by transportation mode, location, and commodity. Our results suggest that intermodal terminal availability is an important determinant of low-GHG accessibility. Since only a fraction of road-to-rail terminals accommodate meat/seafood (4.9%) and paper (0.7%), the United States could increase its expected GHG savings associated with truck-to-rail mode-switching policies by 70% (+20 kg CO2,e/ton for meat/seafood) and 310% (+30 kg CO2,e/ton for paper) by upgrading current terminals to allow the exchange of all types of goods.

  17. Surface-Water Exchange through Culverts beneath State Road 9336 within Everglades National Park, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaffranek, Raymond W.; Stewart, Marc A.; Nowacki, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected hydrologic data between June 2004 and December 2005 to investigate the temporal and spatial nature of flow exchanges through culverts beneath State Road 9336 within Everglades National Park. Continuous data collected during the study measured flow velocity, water level, salinity, conductivity, and water-temperature in or near seven culverts between Pa-hay-okee Overlook access road and Nine Mile Pond. The two culverts east of Pa-hay-okee Overlook access road flowed into Taylor Slough Basin from 87 to 96 percent of the study period, whereas flows through five culverts between Pa-hay-okee Overlook access road and Nine Mile Pond flowed into Shark River Slough Basin from 70 to 99 percent of the study period. Synoptic flow discharges measured at all culverts during three intensive field efforts revealed a net discharge into Taylor Slough Basin from Shark River Slough Basin through culverts between Royal Palm Road and Pa-hay-okee Overlook access road, and into Shark River Slough Basin from Taylor Slough Basin through culverts between Pa-hay-okee Overlook access road and Nine Mile Pond. Data collected during the study and presented in this report provided additional knowledge of the magnitude, direction, and nature of flow exchanges through the road culverts.

  18. 25 CFR 170.813 - When can access to IRR transportation facilities be restricted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When can access to IRR transportation facilities be restricted? 170.813 Section 170.813 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.813 When can access to...

  19. 25 CFR 170.813 - When can access to IRR transportation facilities be restricted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When can access to IRR transportation facilities be restricted? 170.813 Section 170.813 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.813 When can access to...

  20. 25 CFR 170.813 - When can access to IRR transportation facilities be restricted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When can access to IRR transportation facilities be restricted? 170.813 Section 170.813 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.813 When can access to...

  1. 25 CFR 170.813 - When can access to IRR transportation facilities be restricted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When can access to IRR transportation facilities be restricted? 170.813 Section 170.813 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.813 When can access to...

  2. 25 CFR 170.813 - When can access to IRR transportation facilities be restricted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true When can access to IRR transportation facilities be restricted? 170.813 Section 170.813 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.813 When can access to...

  3. 24 CFR 1710.110 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (4) Who is responsible for road maintenance? If the roads are to be maintained by a public authority... for maintaining the roads and that, if maintenance is not performed, the roads may soon deteriorate... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roads. 1710.110 Section...

  4. 12 CFR 1010.110 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... paragraph. (4) Who is responsible for road maintenance? If the roads are to be maintained by a public... responsible for maintaining the roads and that, if maintenance is not performed, the roads may soon... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Roads. 1010.110 Section 1010.110 Banks...

  5. 24 CFR 1710.110 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (4) Who is responsible for road maintenance? If the roads are to be maintained by a public authority... for maintaining the roads and that, if maintenance is not performed, the roads may soon deteriorate... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Roads. 1710.110 Section...

  6. 24 CFR 1710.110 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (4) Who is responsible for road maintenance? If the roads are to be maintained by a public authority... for maintaining the roads and that, if maintenance is not performed, the roads may soon deteriorate... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Roads. 1710.110 Section...

  7. 24 CFR 1710.110 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (4) Who is responsible for road maintenance? If the roads are to be maintained by a public authority... for maintaining the roads and that, if maintenance is not performed, the roads may soon deteriorate... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Roads. 1710.110 Section...

  8. 12 CFR 1010.110 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... paragraph. (4) Who is responsible for road maintenance? If the roads are to be maintained by a public... responsible for maintaining the roads and that, if maintenance is not performed, the roads may soon... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Roads. 1010.110 Section 1010.110 Banks...

  9. 12 CFR 1010.110 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... paragraph. (4) Who is responsible for road maintenance? If the roads are to be maintained by a public... responsible for maintaining the roads and that, if maintenance is not performed, the roads may soon... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Roads. 1010.110 Section 1010.110 Banks...

  10. 24 CFR 1710.110 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (4) Who is responsible for road maintenance? If the roads are to be maintained by a public authority... for maintaining the roads and that, if maintenance is not performed, the roads may soon deteriorate... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Roads. 1710.110 Section...

  11. Systematic Development of Intelligent Systems for Public Road Transport.

    PubMed

    García, Carmelo R; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; Cristóbal, Teresa; Padrón, Gabino; Alayón, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture model for the development of intelligent systems for public passenger transport by road. The main objective of our proposal is to provide a framework for the systematic development and deployment of telematics systems to improve various aspects of this type of transport, such as efficiency, accessibility and safety. The architecture model presented herein is based on international standards on intelligent transport system architectures, ubiquitous computing and service-oriented architecture for distributed systems. To illustrate the utility of the model, we also present a use case of a monitoring system for stops on a public passenger road transport network. PMID:27438836

  12. Systematic Development of Intelligent Systems for Public Road Transport

    PubMed Central

    García, Carmelo R.; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; Cristóbal, Teresa; Padrón, Gabino; Alayón, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture model for the development of intelligent systems for public passenger transport by road. The main objective of our proposal is to provide a framework for the systematic development and deployment of telematics systems to improve various aspects of this type of transport, such as efficiency, accessibility and safety. The architecture model presented herein is based on international standards on intelligent transport system architectures, ubiquitous computing and service-oriented architecture for distributed systems. To illustrate the utility of the model, we also present a use case of a monitoring system for stops on a public passenger road transport network. PMID:27438836

  13. 40 CFR 86.129-80 - Road load power, test weight, and inertia weight class determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... a 5,500 lb equivalent test weight. (b) Power absorption unit adjustment—light-duty trucks. (1) The power absorption unit shall be adjusted to reproduce road load power at 50 mph true speed. The indicated...) Power absorption unit adjustment—light-duty vehicles. (1) The power absorption unit shall be adjusted...

  14. On the road to prevention: road injury and health promotion.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Mark; Thompson, Jason

    2014-04-01

    Road traffic injuries are already the leading cause of injury mortality and morbidity globally and by 2030 are predicted to be the fifth leading cause of mortality in the world. Australia has seen a dramatic reduction in road deaths and serious injuries since the 1970s and holds an international reputation for road traffic injury prevention due, in part, to its success in pioneering the multidisciplinary and intersectoral approach needed to address this significant issue and by applying an evidence-led approach to policy development. The paper will discuss Australia's early success in road traffic injury prevention (road safety), particularly the achievements following the implementation of targeted programs that focussed on road user behaviours for which health promotion played a role. The most successful of these programs was the introduction of comprehensive seat belt laws, random breath testing and more recently, strategic speed enforcement programs. Amid an array of significant challenges faced by the transport system in the future, the rapid development in information and communication technologies applied to transport is likely to provide the next generation of road safety benefits. The potential for a semi-autonomous transport system is likely to provide the next significant decline in road fatalities and serious injuries over the next 2 decades and the role of health promotion in relation to raising community engagement and building coalitions to increase uptake of new technologies will be discussed. PMID:24739772

  15. 25. White Plains Road Bridge in foreground; Unionport Road Bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. White Plains Road Bridge in foreground; Unionport Road Bridge in background. Van Nest, Bronx Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 12.75./78. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York County, NY

  16. Network unites payers, physicians, hospitals. System participants work together to improve access to care and to design cost-saving incentives.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, J

    1993-05-01

    Through Sacred Heart Health System (SHHS), Eugene, OR, physicians, payers, and hospitals are designing a network that will integrate care and improve access by reducing healthcare costs. Together, system members design cost-saving incentives and the products the system offers the community. They promote managed care as the most efficient means to coordinate care and reduce costs. All participants share in the risks of a capitated payment system. Since the system pulled together the payers, physician groups, and hospitals, many of these entities' management functions were consolidated at the system level to avoid duplication and reduce administrative costs. Bringing in physicians was the most difficult yet important aspect of forming a successful network. Working with two physician groups in the community, the system's sponsor-the Sisters of St. Joseph of Peace, Health and Hospital Services-developed the Physician Practice Board. The board, representing 300 physicians, meets weekly and makes recommendations on issues that affect physicians. SHHS also added innovative new functions such as an integrated medical cost management and continuous quality improvement program. Another key to success is a clinically oriented information system, which will allow the system to track patients once they leave the hospital. It also will provide a better understanding of what things have an impact on outcomes and will reduce paperwork. A portion of the system's revenue is designated for initiatives to improve access. And the system recently appointed a tack force on access to explore what they can do in cooperation with others in the community. PMID:10125358

  17. Web Accessibility and Accessibility Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Ravonne A.; Huprich, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Section 508 of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) mandates that programs and services be accessible to people with disabilities. While schools of library and information science (SLIS*) and university libraries should model accessible Web sites, this may not be the case. This article examines previous studies about the Web accessibility of…

  18. Plated wire random access memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gouldin, L. D.

    1975-01-01

    A program was conducted to construct 4096-work by 18-bit random access, NDRO-plated wire memory units. The memory units were subjected to comprehensive functional and environmental tests at the end-item level to verify comformance with the specified requirements. A technical description of the unit is given, along with acceptance test data sheets.

  19. The Road to Accreditation. Readings on Early Education and Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gifford, Jean

    This document provides a collection of articles, speeches, and newsletter excerpts covering the accreditation of child care programs in Australia and the United States. The collection contains the following speeches and articles: (1) "The Road to Accreditation," on the history of accreditation in the two countries; (2) "The Case for Child Care…

  20. A survey of accessibility and utilisation of chiropractic services for wheelchair-users in the United Kingdom: What are the issues?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background People with physical disabilities experience barriers to healthcare across all services despite a legal and moral obligation to the contrary. Complementary medicine is considered as supplementary to conventional care and integration of these approaches is essential to achieve optimal care. This paper explores the utilisation of chiropractic services and practitioner experiences of treating wheelchair-users which appears under-reported. Methods A 20 item questionnaire was posted to 250 randomly selected chiropractors registered with the General Chiropractic Council. Follow-up questionnaires were sent 7 days after the initial return date. Quantitative data were subjected to frequency analysis. Results The response rate was 64% (n = 161). The majority (66%) of chiropractors had been in practice less than 10 years and were practice owners (50%). Fifty-two percent of chiropractors sampled had treated a patient in a wheelchair in the previous 5 years. The majority (87%) had treated between 1 and 5 such patients. Patients with multiple sclerosis, stroke and cerebral palsy most commonly presented for treatment. The majority of patients' presenting complaint was musculoskeletal in origin, primarily for pain control. Only 13% of respondents worked in a fully accessible clinic. Impracticality of alterations was the most common reason for inaccessibility. Conclusions Wheelchair-users seem to be an underserved patient group in relation to chiropractic services. Chiropractic management is primarily utilised for pain control in patients with physical disabilities in which mobility may be improved or maintained. Co-management of wheelchair-users with GPs appears to be desirable in order to achieve optimal patient care however more research is required regarding the efficacy of chiropractic treatment for a range of disabling conditions. Physical access was identified as a key barrier to accessing care. PMID:21914167

  1. Estuary Data Mapper: A Stand-Alone Tool for Geospatial Data Access, Visualization and Download for Estuaries and Coastal Watersheds of the United States. (UNH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA Estuary Data Mapper (EDM; http://badger.epa.gov/rsig/edm/index.html) has been designed as a free stand-alone tool for geospatial data discovery, visualization, and data download for estuaries and their associated watersheds in the conterminous United States. EDM requi...

  2. Estuary Data Mapper: A Stand-Alone Tool for Geospatial Data Access, Visualization and Download for Estuaries and Coastal Watersheds of the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA Estuary Data Mapper (EDM; http://badger.epa.gov/rsig/edm/index.html) has been designed as a free stand-alone tool for geospatial data discovery, visualization, and data download for estuaries and their associated watersheds in the conterminous United States. EDM requi...

  3. Health Care Access and Utilization Among Adults Aged 18-64, by Race and Hispanic Origin: United States, 2013 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Michael E; Ward, Brian W; Adams, Patricia F

    2015-07-01

    In 2014, U.S. adults could buy a private health insurance plan through the Health Insurance Marketplace or state-based exchanges established as part of the Affordable Care Act. Moreover, some states opted to expand Medicaid coverage to low-income adults. Data from the 2013 and 2014 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) are used to describe recent changes in health insurance coverage and selected measures of health care access and utilization for adults aged 18–64, by race and Hispanic origin.

  4. Silk Roads or Steppe Roads? The Silk Roads in World History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, David

    2000-01-01

    Explores the prehistory of the Silk Roads, reexamines their structure and history in the classical era, and explores shifts in their geography in the last one thousand years. Explains that a revised understanding of the Silk Roads demonstrates how the Afro-Eurasian land mass has been linked by networks of exchange since the Bronze Age. (CMK)

  5. 36 CFR 212.57 - Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas. 212.57 Section 212.57 Parks... Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.57 Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas. For each administrative unit of the National...

  6. 36 CFR 212.57 - Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas. 212.57 Section 212.57 Parks... Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.57 Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas. For each administrative unit of the National...

  7. 36 CFR 212.57 - Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas. 212.57 Section 212.57 Parks... Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.57 Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas. For each administrative unit of the National...

  8. 36 CFR 212.57 - Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas. 212.57 Section 212.57 Parks... Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.57 Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas. For each administrative unit of the National...

  9. 36 CFR 212.57 - Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas. 212.57 Section 212.57 Parks... Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.57 Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas. For each administrative unit of the National...

  10. 78 FR 73560 - Certain Off-The-Road Tires From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... COMMISSION Certain Off-The-Road Tires From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the Countervailing Duty Order and Antidumping Duty Order On Certain Off-The-Road Tires From China AGENCY: United... order on certain off-the-road tires from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence...

  11. A GPS-based Real-time Road Traffic Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanti, Kamal Kumar

    In recent years, monitoring systems are astonishingly inclined towards ever more automatic; reliably interconnected, distributed and autonomous operation. Specifically, the measurement, logging, data processing and interpretation activities may be carried out by separate units at different locations in near real-time. The recent evolution of mobile communication devices and communication technologies has fostered a growing interest in the GIS & GPS-based location-aware systems and services. This paper describes a real-time road traffic monitoring system based on integrated mobile field devices (GPS/GSM/IOs) working in tandem with advanced GIS-based application software providing on-the-fly authentications for real-time monitoring and security enhancement. The described system is developed as a fully automated, continuous, real-time monitoring system that employs GPS sensors and Ethernet and/or serial port communication techniques are used to transfer data between GPS receivers at target points and a central processing computer. The data can be processed locally or remotely based on the requirements of client’s satisfaction. Due to the modular architecture of the system, other sensor types may be supported with minimal effort. Data on the distributed network & measurements are transmitted via cellular SIM cards to a Control Unit, which provides for post-processing and network management. The Control Unit may be remotely accessed via an Internet connection. The new system will not only provide more consistent data about the road traffic conditions but also will provide methods for integrating with other Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). For communication between the mobile device and central monitoring service GSM technology is used. The resulting system is characterized by autonomy, reliability and a high degree of automation.

  12. 77 FR 8255 - Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site, Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... AGENCY Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site, Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of Settlement. SUMMARY: Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), the United States Environmental Protection Agency...

  13. 77 FR 2981 - Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site; Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... AGENCY Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site; Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of settlement. SUMMARY: Under Section 122(h)(1) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), the United States...

  14. CLEAN-ROADS project: air quality considerations after the application of a novel MDSS on winter road maintenance activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pretto, Ilaria; Malloci, Elisa; Tonidandel, Gabriele; Benedetti, Guido; Di Napoli, Claudia; Piazza, Andrea; Apolloni, Roberto; Cavaliere, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    on sodium chloride, which releases Na+ and Cl-, the estimation of the contribution of road salting to PM10 concentration can be carried out considering only measured concentrations of Na+ and Cl-. However, the presence of these elements might not be due exclusively to salting activities. For this reason data collected during first winter campaign were analysed using the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) Model developed by United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to identify the presence of Na+ and Cl- in emission profiles of other PM10 sources (e.g., biomass burning, traffic) [3]. Through this study new guidelines have been defined for the optimization of current road management operations, and their applicability to other area in the Province of Trento has been assessed for future purposes. [1] Pretto I. et al., SIRWEC 2014 conference proceedings, ID:0019 (2014) [2] Ambient Air Quality and Cleaner Air for Europe (CAFE) Directive (2008/50/EC) [3] http://www.epa.gov/air-research/positive-matrix-factorization-model-environmental-data-analyses

  15. 2. General Road view looking SW. Great Smoky Mountains ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. General Road view looking SW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Heintooga Round Bottom Road & Balsam Mountain Road, Between Blue Ridge Parkway & Big Cove Road, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  16. Freedom Road: Colonial Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    While historical fiction by Jean Fritz as well as titles like Robert Lawson's "Ben and Me" (1939) or "Mr. Revere and I" (1954) and Esther Forbes's "Johnny Tremain" (1943) are widely known classics that bring this period to life, recent years have yielded a wealth of new offerings--many of which are accessible picture books or read-alouds. These…

  17. Estimating the human recovery costs of seriously injured road crash casualties.

    PubMed

    Bambach, M R; Mitchell, R J

    2015-12-01

    Road crashes result in substantial trauma and costs to societies around the world. Robust costing methods are an important tool to estimate costs associated with road trauma, and are key inputs into policy development and cost-benefit analysis for road safety programmes and infrastructure projects. With an expanding focus on seriously injured road crash casualties, in addition to the long standing focus on fatalities, methods for costing seriously injured casualties are becoming increasingly important. Some road safety agencies are defining a seriously injured casualty as an individual that was admitted to hospital following a road crash, and as a result, hospital separation data provide substantial potential for estimating the costs associated with seriously injured road crash casualties. The aim of this study is to establish techniques for estimating the human recovery costs of (non-fatal) seriously injured road crash casualties directly from hospital separation data. An individuals' road crash-related hospitalisation record and their personal injury insurance claim were linked for road crashes that occurred in New South Wales, Australia. These records provided the means for estimating all of the costs to the casualty directly related to their recovery from their injuries. A total of 10,897 seriously injured road crash casualties were identified and four methods for estimating their recovery costs were examined, using either unit record or aggregated hospital separation data. The methods are shown to provide robust techniques for estimating the human recovery costs of seriously injured road crash casualties, that may prove useful for identifying, implementing and evaluating safety programmes intended to reduce the incidence of road crash-related serious injuries.

  18. Perinatal outcomes among migrant mothers in the United Kingdom: Is it a matter of biology, behaviour, policy, social determinants or access to health care?

    PubMed

    Puthussery, Shuby

    2016-04-01

    This paper examines trends in perinatal outcomes among migrant mothers in the UK, and it explores potential contributors to disparities focusing on pregnancy, birth and the first year of life. Trends in perinatal outcomes indicate that ethnic minority grouping, regardless of migrant status, is a significant risk factor for unfavourable outcomes. It is unclear whether migrant status per se adds to this risk as within-group comparisons between UK-born and foreign-born women show variable findings. The role of biological and behavioural factors in producing excess unfavourable outcomes among ethnic minority mothers, although indicated, is yet to be fully understood. UK policies have salient aspects that address ethnic inequalities, but their wide focus obscures provisions for migrant mothers. Direct associations between socio-economic factors, ethnicity and adverse infant outcomes are evident. Evidence is consistent about differential access to and utilisation of health services among ethnic minority mothers, in particular recently arrived migrants, refugees and asylum seekers. PMID:26527304

  19. 40 CFR 86.129-80 - Road load power, test weight, and inertia weight class determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... power, test weight, and inertia weight class determination. (a) (b) Power absorption unit adjustment—light-duty trucks. (1) The power absorption unit shall be adjusted to reproduce road load power at 50... of the table. (c) Power absorption unit adjustment—light-duty vehicles. (1) The power absorption...

  20. 30 CFR 816.151 - Primary roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Primary roads. 816.151 Section 816.151 Mineral... roads. Primary roads shall meet the requirements of section 816.150 and the additional requirements of this section. (a) Certification. The construction or reconstruction of primary roads shall be...

  1. 30 CFR 817.151 - Primary roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Primary roads. 817.151 Section 817.151 Mineral... roads. Primary roads shall meet the requirements of § 817.150 and the additional requirements of this section. (a) Certification. The construction or reconstruction of primary roads shall be certified in...

  2. 25 CFR 265.3 - Roads prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Roads prohibited. 265.3 Section 265.3 Indians BUREAU OF... ON INDIAN RESERVATIONS § 265.3 Roads prohibited. (a) Within the boundaries of this officially... highways, roads, truck trails, work roads, and all other types of ways constructed to make possible...

  3. CARPORT OF UNIT B WITH THE AREA BETWEEN UNITS TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CARPORT OF UNIT B WITH THE AREA BETWEEN UNITS TO THE RIGHT. VIEW FACING NORTH - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Duplex Type 1, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. OBLIQUE VIEW OF UNIT B. THE SPACE BETWEEN UNITS IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF UNIT B. THE SPACE BETWEEN UNITS IS ON THE RIGHT. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Duplex Type 1, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. OBLIQUE VIEW OF UNIT A. THE SPACE BETWEEN UNITS IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF UNIT A. THE SPACE BETWEEN UNITS IS ON THE LEFT. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Duplex Type 1, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. CARPORT OF UNIT B. THE SPACE BETWEEN UNITS IS IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CARPORT OF UNIT B. THE SPACE BETWEEN UNITS IS IN THE BACKGROUND AT LEFT. VIEW FACING SOUTH - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Duplex Type 1, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. Gold or green: the debate on open access policies.

    PubMed

    Abadal, Ernest

    2013-09-01

    The movement for open access to science seeks to achieve unrestricted and free access to academic publications on the Internet. To this end, two mechanisms have been established: the gold road, in which scientific journals are openly accessible, and the green road, in which publications are self-archived in repositories. The publication of the Finch Report in 2012, advocating exclusively the adoption of the gold road, generated a debate as to whether either of the two options should be prioritized. The recommendations of the Finch Report stirred controversy among academicians specialized in open access issues, who felt that the role played by repositories was not adequately considered and because the green road places the burden of publishing costs basically on authors. The Finch Report's conclusions are compatible with the characteristics of science communication in the UK and they could surely also be applied to the (few) countries with a powerful publishing industry and substantial research funding. In Spain, both the current national legislation and the existing rules at universities largely advocate the green road. This is directly related to the structure of scientific communication in Spain, where many journals have little commercial significance, the system of charging a fee to authors has not been adopted, and there is a good repository infrastructure. As for open access policies, the performance of the scientific communication system in each country should be carefully analyzed to determine the most suitable open access strategy. PMID:24568035

  8. Gold or green: the debate on open access policies.

    PubMed

    Abadal, Ernest

    2013-09-01

    The movement for open access to science seeks to achieve unrestricted and free access to academic publications on the Internet. To this end, two mechanisms have been established: the gold road, in which scientific journals are openly accessible, and the green road, in which publications are self-archived in repositories. The publication of the Finch Report in 2012, advocating exclusively the adoption of the gold road, generated a debate as to whether either of the two options should be prioritized. The recommendations of the Finch Report stirred controversy among academicians specialized in open access issues, who felt that the role played by repositories was not adequately considered and because the green road places the burden of publishing costs basically on authors. The Finch Report's conclusions are compatible with the characteristics of science communication in the UK and they could surely also be applied to the (few) countries with a powerful publishing industry and substantial research funding. In Spain, both the current national legislation and the existing rules at universities largely advocate the green road. This is directly related to the structure of scientific communication in Spain, where many journals have little commercial significance, the system of charging a fee to authors has not been adopted, and there is a good repository infrastructure. As for open access policies, the performance of the scientific communication system in each country should be carefully analyzed to determine the most suitable open access strategy.

  9. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Building access control (BAC)--a catchall phrase to describe the systems that control access to facilities across campus--has traditionally been handled with remarkably low-tech solutions: (1) manual locks; (2) electronic locks; and (3) ID cards with magnetic strips. Recent improvements have included smart cards and keyless solutions that make use…

  10. Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  11. Influence of solid noise barriers on near-road and on-road air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldauf, Richard W.; Isakov, Vlad; Deshmukh, Parikshit; Venkatram, Akula; Yang, Bo; Zhang, K. Max

    2016-03-01

    Public health concerns regarding adverse health effects for populations spending significant amounts of time near high traffic roadways has increased substantially in recent years. Roadside features, including solid noise barriers, have been investigated as potential methods that can be implemented in a relatively short time period to reduce air pollution exposures from nearby traffic. A field study was conducted to determine the influence of noise barriers on both on-road and downwind pollutant concentrations near a large highway in Phoenix, Arizona, USA. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, ultrafine particles, and black carbon were measured using a mobile platform and fixed sites along two limited-access stretches of highway that contained a section of noise barrier and a section with no noise barrier at-grade with the surrounding terrain. Results of the study showed that pollutant concentrations behind the roadside barriers were significantly lower relative to those measured in the absence of barriers. The reductions ranged from 50% within 50 m from the barrier to about 30% as far as 300 m from the barrier. Reductions in pollutant concentrations generally began within the first 50 m of the barrier edge; however, concentrations were highly variable due to vehicle activity behind the barrier and along nearby urban arterial roadways. The concentrations on the highway, upwind of the barrier, varied depending on wind direction. Overall, the on-road concentrations in front of the noise barrier were similar to those measured in the absence of the barrier, contradicting previous modeling results that suggested roadside barriers increase pollutant levels on the road. Thus, this study suggests that noise barriers do reduce potential pollutant exposures for populations downwind of the road, and do not likely increase exposures to traffic-related pollutants for vehicle passengers on the highway.

  12. State Government on the Road

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conn, Bernard

    1977-01-01

    A traveling road show of performing artists and craftsman has been organized in the state of New York to bring shows and demonstrations of creative art to the parks of rural communities throughout the state. (JD)

  13. The Dilemma of Mountain Roads

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountain roads and trails are proliferating throughout developing Southeast Asia with severe but largely unrecognized long-term consequences related to effects of landslides and surface erosion on communities and downstream resources.

  14. Road impacts in Brazilian Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfaff, Alexander; Barbieri, Alisson; Ludewigs, Thomas; Merry, Frank; Perz, Stephen; Reis, Eustaquio

    We examine the evidence on Amazonian road impacts with a strong emphasis on context. Impacts of a new road, on either deforestation or socioeconomic outcomes, depend upon the conditions into which roads are placed. Conditions that matter include the biophysical setting, such as slope, rainfall, and soil quality, plus externally determined socioeconomic factors like national policies, exchange rates, and the global prices of beef and soybeans. Influential conditions also include all prior infrastructural investments and clearing rates. Where development has already arrived, with significant economic activity and clearing, roads may decrease forest less and raise output more than where development is arriving, while in pristine areas, short-run clearing may be lower than immense long-run impacts. Such differences suggest careful consideration of where to invest further in transport.

  15. Road Weather and Connected Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisano, P.; Boyce, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    On average, there are over 5.8 M vehicle crashes each year of which 23% are weather-related. Weather-related crashes are defined as those crashes that occur in adverse weather or on slick pavement. The vast majority of weather-related crashes happen on wet pavement (74%) and during rainfall (46%). Connected vehicle technologies hold the promise to transform road-weather management by providing improved road weather data in real time with greater temporal and geographic accuracy. This will dramatically expand the amount of data that can be used to assess, forecast, and address the impacts that weather has on roads, vehicles, and travelers. The use of vehicle-based measurements of the road and surrounding atmosphere with other, more traditional weather data sources, and create road and atmospheric hazard products for a variety of users. The broad availability of road weather data from mobile sources will vastly improve the ability to detect and forecast weather and road conditions, and will provide the capability to manage road-weather response on specific roadway links. The RWMP is currently demonstrating how weather, road conditions, and related vehicle data can be used for decision making through an innovative Integrated Mobile Observations project. FHWA is partnering with 3 DOTs (MN, MI, & NV) to pilot these applications. One is a mobile alerts application called the Motorists Advisories and Warnings (MAW) and a maintenance decision support application. These applications blend traditional weather information (e.g., radar, surface stations) with mobile vehicle data (e.g., temperature, brake status, wiper status) to determine current weather conditions. These weather conditions, and other road-travel-relevant information, are provided to users via web and phone applications. The MAW provides nowcasts and short-term forecasts out to 24 hours while the EMDSS application can provide forecasts up to 72 hours in advance. The three DOTs have placed readers and external

  16. Impact of the healthcare payment system on patient access to oral anticancer drugs: an illustration from the French and United States contexts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Oral anticancer drugs (OADs) allow treating a growing range of cancers. Despite their convenience, their acceptance by healthcare professionals and patients may be affected by medical, economical and organizational factors. The way the healthcare payment system (HPS) reimburses OADs or finances hospital activities may impact patients’ access to such drugs. We discuss how the HPS in France and USA may generate disincentives to the use of OADs in certain circumstances. Discussion French public and private hospitals are financed by National Health Insurance (NHI) according to the nature and volume of medical services provided annually. Patients receiving intravenous anticancer drugs (IADs) in a hospital setting generate services, while those receiving OADs shift a part of service provision from the hospital to the community. In 2013, two million outpatient IADs sessions were performed, representing a cost of €815 million to the NHI, but positive contribution margin of €86 million to hospitals. Substitution of IADs by OADs mechanically induces a shortfall in hospital income related to hospitalizations. Such economic constraints may partially contribute to making physicians reluctant to prescribe OADs. In the US healthcare system, coverage for OADs is less favorable than coverage for injectable anticancer drugs. In 2006, a Cancer Drug Coverage Parity Act was adopted by several states in order to provide patients with better coverage for OADs. Nonetheless, the complexity of reimbursement systems and multiple reimbursement channels from private insurance represent real economic barriers which may prevent patients with low income being treated with OADs. From an organizational perspective, in both countries the use of OADs generates additional activities related to physician consultations, therapeutic education and healthcare coordination between hospitals and community settings, which are not considered in the funding of hospitals activities so far

  17. 34. COULTERVILLE ROAD AT CENTER AND EL PORTAL ROAD/HIGHWAY 140 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. COULTERVILLE ROAD AT CENTER AND EL PORTAL ROAD/HIGHWAY 140 AT BOTTOM. ROCK SLIDES ARE AT THE COOKIE CLIFFS, BOTTOM RIGHT. NOTE OLD STAGE COACH ROAD JUST ABOVE THE EL PORTAL ROAD IN LOWER RIGHT TO LEFT OF ROCK SLIDE AREA. - Yosemite National Park Roads & Bridges, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  18. Observations of Novae From ROAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambsch, F.-J.

    2014-12-01

    The author discusses observations of galactic novae and some extragalactic supernovae from his remote observatory ROAD (Remote Observatory Atacama Desert) he commenced in August 2011 with Nova Lupi 2011 (PR Lup). The observed novae are mainly chosen according to AAVSO Alert Notices and AAVSO Special Notices as published on their website. Examples of dense observations of different novae are presented. The focus goes to the different behaviors of their light curves. It also demonstrates the capability of the remote observatory ROAD.

  19. Observations of Novae from ROAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambsch, Franz-Josef

    2014-05-01

    The author discusses observations of galactic novae and some extragalactic supernovae from his remote observatory ROAD (Remote Observatory Atacama Desert) he commenced in August 2011 with Nova Lupi 2011 (PR Lup). The observed novae are mainly chosen according to alert notices and special notices of the AAVSO as published on their website. Examples of dense observations of different novae are presented. The focus goes to the different behaviors of their light curves. It also demonstrates the capability of the remote observatory ROAD.

  20. 7. Southeast end and northeast rear, dock no. 492. Access ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Southeast end and northeast rear, dock no. 492. Access road in foreground. View to northwest. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  1. 12. Northwest end and southwest rear, dock no. 493. Access ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Northwest end and southwest rear, dock no. 493. Access road in foreground. View to east. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  2. Prospect for Development of Open Access in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miguel, Sandra; Bongiovani, Paola C.; Gomez, Nancy D.; Bueno-de-la-Fuente, Gema

    2013-01-01

    This perspective article presents an overview of the Open Access movement in Argentina, from a global and regional (Latin American) context. The article describes the evolution and current state of initiatives by examining two principal approaches to Open Access in Argentina: "golden" and "green roads". The article will then turn its attention to:…

  3. Soil geohazard mapping for improved asset management of UK local roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, O. G.; Hallett, S. H.; Farewell, T. S.

    2015-09-01

    Unclassified roads comprise 60 % of the road network in the United Kingdom (UK). The resilience of this locally important network is declining. It is considered by the Institution of Civil Engineers to be "at risk" and is ranked 26th in the world. Many factors contribute to the degradation and ultimate failure of particular road sections. However, several UK local authorities have identified that in drought conditions, road sections founded upon shrink-swell susceptible clay soils undergo significant deterioration compared with sections on non-susceptible soils. This arises from the local road network having little, if any, structural foundations. Consequently, droughts in East Anglia have resulted in millions of pounds of damage, leading authorities to seek emergency governmental funding. This paper assesses the use of soil-related geohazard assessments in providing soil-informed maintenance strategies for the asset management of the locally important road network of the UK. A case study draws upon the UK administrative county of Lincolnshire, where road assessment data have been analysed against mapped clay-subsidence risk. This reveals a statistically significant relationship between road condition and susceptible clay soils. Furthermore, incorporation of UKCP09 future climate projections within the geohazard models has highlighted roads likely to be at future risk of clay-related subsidence.

  4. Soil geohazard mapping for improved asset management of UK local roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, O. G.; Hallett, S. H.; Farewell, T. S.

    2015-05-01

    Unclassified roads comprise 60% of the road network in the United Kingdom (UK). The resilience of this locally important network is declining. It is considered by the Institution of Civil Engineers to be "at risk" and is ranked 26th in the world. Many factors contribute to the degradation and ultimate failure of particular road sections. However, several UK local authorities have identified that in drought conditions, road sections founded upon shrink/swell susceptible clay soils undergo significant deterioration compared with sections on non-susceptible soils. This arises from the local road network having little, if any structural foundations. Consequently, droughts in East Anglia have resulted in millions of pounds of damage, leading authorities to seek emergency governmental funding. This paper assesses the use of soil-related geohazard assessments in providing soil-informed maintenance strategies for the asset management of the locally important road network of the UK. A case study draws upon the UK administrative county of Lincolnshire, where road assessment data have been analysed against mapped clay-subsidence risk. This reveals a statistically significant relationship between road condition and susceptible clay soils. Furthermore, incorporation of UKCP09 future climate projections within the geohazard models has highlighted roads likely to be at future risk of clay-related subsidence.

  5. Effects of road decommissioning on carbon stocks, losses, and emissions in north coastal California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madej, Mary A.; Seney, Joseph; van Mantgem, Philip

    2013-01-01

    During the last 3 decades, many road removal projects have been implemented on public and private lands in the United States to reduce erosion and other impacts from abandoned or unmaintained forest roads. Although effective in decreasing sediment production from roads, such activities have a carbon (C) cost as well as representing a carbon savings for an ecosystem. We assessed the carbon budget implications of 30 years of road decommissioning in Redwood National Park in north coastal California. Road restoration techniques, which evolved during the program, were associated with various carbon costs and savings. Treatment of 425 km of logging roads from 1979 to 2009 saved 72,000 megagrams (Mg) C through on-site soil erosion prevention, revegetation, and soil development on formerly compacted roads. Carbon sequestration will increase in time as forests and soils develop more fully on the restored sites. The carbon cost for this road decommissioning work, based on heavy equipment and vehicle fuel emissions, short-term soil loss, and clearing of vegetation, was 23,000 Mg C, resulting in a net carbon savings of 49,000 Mg C to date. Nevertheless, the degree to which soil loss is a carbon sink or source in steep mountainous watersheds needs to be further examined. The ratio of carbon costs to savings will differ by ecosystem and road removal methodology, but the procedure outlined here to assess carbon budgets on restoration sites should be transferable to other systems.

  6. Accessibility Dynamics in a Warming Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, S.; Smith, L. C.; Agnew, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    A promising area of future research is the intersection of the physical manifestations of climate change with the human response. We present a first modeling framework integrating the changing accessibility regimes of the Arctic maritime and terrestrial environments. Climate change has spurred global interest in the Arctic as an arena of new potential for petroleum exploration and intercontinental shipping. While General Circulation Models predict thickness and extent of sea ice throughout the 21st century, the degree to which ice thinning and recession will increase transportation access at the circumpolar scale is not well understood. At the same time, warming of the Arctic terrestrial environment foreshadows a shorter winter road operating season and reduced access for communities and industries reliant on these temporary roads for winter ground transport. CCSM3 temperature data and CSIM5 sea ice data for two periods of analysis (2000-2014; 2045-2059) were integrated with GLC2000 land cover, ETOPO2 elevation and slope, VMAP0 infrastructure, and other terrain feature datasets to calculate circumpolar accessibility for a baseline and a future scenario. Accessibility data were combined in a GIS to produce maps of changing transportation access on land and at sea by mid-century. For the period 2045-2059, access at sea was found to increase substantially throughout the Arctic for ships with some icebreaking capability: previously inaccessible thick ice cover decreased in the central Arctic Ocean by an average of 64% annually. Conversely, terrestrial access by winter roads was found to decrease markedly in November and April while access along inland waterways increased in October. As climate change brings warmer temperatures to some of the world’s remotest communities, the remoteness of communities itself undergoes a profound change. This study attempts to provide a physical basis to the discussion of human activity in the Arctic over the next 50 years.

  7. Road safety and road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Mansuri, Farah A.; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H.; Zalat, Marwa M.; Qabshawi, Reem I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the changing trends and crucial preventive approaches to road traffic accidents (RTAs) adopted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 2.5 decades, and to analyze aspects previously overlooked. Methods: This systematic review was based on evidence of RTAs in KSA. All articles published during the last 25 years on road traffic accident in KSA were analyzed. This study was carried out from December 2013 to May 2014 in the Department of Family and Community Medicine, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, KSA. Results: Road traffic accidents accounted for 83.4% of all trauma admissions in 1984-1989, and no such overall trend was studied thereafter. The most frequently injured body regions as reported in the latest studies were head and neck, followed by upper and lower extremities, which was found to be opposite to that of the studies reported earlier. Hospital data showed an 8% non-significant increase in road accident mortalities in contrast to police records of a 27% significant reduction during the years 2005-2010. Excessive speeding was the most common cause reported in all recent and past studies. Conclusion: Disparity was common in the type of reporting of RTAs, outcome measures, and possible causes over a period of 2.5 decade. All research exclusively looked into the drivers’ faults. A sentinel surveillance of road crashes should be kept in place in the secondary and tertiary care hospitals for all regions of KSA. PMID:25828277

  8. The Road to Shadowland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Divakaruni, Chitra Banerjee

    2010-01-01

    Divakaruni reflects on her path to becoming an author for children, including her formative encounters with stories told by her grandfather in her native India, and experiences as a mother and as an Indian woman in the post-9/11 context of the United States.

  9. The impact of roads on the demography of grizzly bears in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Boulanger, John; Stenhouse, Gordon B

    2014-01-01

    One of the principal factors that have reduced grizzly bear populations has been the creation of human access into grizzly bear habitat by roads built for resource extraction. Past studies have documented mortality and distributional changes of bears relative to roads but none have attempted to estimate the direct demographic impact of roads in terms of both survival rates, reproductive rates, and the interaction of reproductive state of female bears with survival rate. We applied a combination of survival and reproductive models to estimate demographic parameters for threatened grizzly bear populations in Alberta. Instead of attempting to estimate mean trend we explored factors which caused biological and spatial variation in population trend. We found that sex and age class survival was related to road density with subadult bears being most vulnerable to road-based mortality. A multi-state reproduction model found that females accompanied by cubs of the year and/or yearling cubs had lower survival rates compared to females with two year olds or no cubs. A demographic model found strong spatial gradients in population trend based upon road density. Threshold road densities needed to ensure population stability were estimated to further refine targets for population recovery of grizzly bears in Alberta. Models that considered lowered survival of females with dependant offspring resulted in lower road density thresholds to ensure stable bear populations. Our results demonstrate likely spatial variation in population trend and provide an example how demographic analysis can be used to refine and direct conservation measures for threatened species.

  10. Gaining Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Discusses issues schools and universities have encountered in complying with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and making their facilities more accessible to the disabled. The ADA's vagueness and the architect's need for understanding the regulations is highlighted. (GR)

  11. Equal Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Patta, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Presents an interview with Stephen McCarthy, co-partner and president of Equal Access ADA Consulting Architects of San Diego, California, about designing schools to naturally integrate compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). (EV)

  12. Capital access.

    PubMed

    Towne, Jennifer

    2004-06-01

    To maintain their viability, hospitals are being compelled to invest in big capital projects such as information technology and renovation and construction. This gatefold examines the trends in credit and capital, and how they affect hospitals' access to money.

  13. Access to health care

    PubMed Central

    Fortin, Martin; Maltais, Danielle; Hudon, Catherine; Lapointe, Lise; Ntetu, Antoine Lutumba

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore access to health care for patients presenting with multiple chronic conditions and to identify barriers and factors conducive to access. DESIGN Qualitative study with focus groups. SETTING Family practice unit in Chicoutimi (Saguenay), Que. PARTICIPANTS Twenty-five male and female adult patients with at least four chronic conditions but no cognitive disorders or decompensating conditions. METHODS For this pilot study, only three focus group discussions were held. MAIN FINDINGS The main barriers to accessing follow-up appointments included long waits on the telephone, automated telephone-answering systems, and needing to attend at specific times to obtain appointments. The main barriers to specialized care were long waiting times and the need to get prescriptions and referrals from family physicians. Factors reported conducive to access included systematic callbacks and the personal involvement of family physicians. Good communication between family physicians and specialists was also perceived to be an important factor in access. CONCLUSION Systematic callbacks, family physicians’ personal efforts to obtain follow-up visits, and better physician-specialist communication were all suggested as ways to improve access to care for patients with multiple chronic conditions. PMID:16926944

  14. Road Nail: Experimental Solar Powered Intelligent Road Marking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samardžija, Dragan; Teslić, Nikola; Todorović, Branislav M.; Kovač, Erne; Isailović, Đorđe; Miladinović, Bojan

    2012-03-01

    Driving in low visibility conditions (night time, fog or heavy precipitation) is particularly challenging task with an increased probability of traffic accidents and possible injuries. Road Nail is a solar powered intelligent road marking system of wirelessly networked signaling devices that improve driver safety in low visibility conditions along hazardous roadways. Nails or signaling devices are autonomous nodes with capability to accumulate energy, exchange wireless messages, detect approaching vehicles and emit signalization light. We have built an experimental test-bed that consists of 20 nodes and a cellular gateway. Implementation details of the above system, including extensive measurements and performance evaluations in realistic field deployments are presented. A novel distributed network topology discovery scheme is proposed which integrates both sensor and wireless communication aspects, where nodes act autonomously. Finally, integration of the Road Nail system with the cellular network and the Internet is described.

  15. Encapsulating Urban Traffic Rhythms into Road Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junjie; Wei, Dong; He, Kun; Gong, Hang; Wang, Pu

    2014-02-01

    Using road GIS (geographical information systems) data and travel demand data for two U.S. urban areas, the dynamical driver sources of each road segment were located. A method to target road clusters closely related to urban traffic congestion was then developed to improve road network efficiency. The targeted road clusters show different spatial distributions at different times of a day, indicating that our method can encapsulate dynamical travel demand information into the road networks. As a proof of concept, when we lowered the speed limit or increased the capacity of road segments in the targeted road clusters, we found that both the number of congested roads and extra travel time were effectively reduced. In addition, the proposed modeling framework provided new insights on the optimization of transport efficiency in any infrastructure network with a specific supply and demand distribution.

  16. Encapsulating urban traffic rhythms into road networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junjie; Wei, Dong; He, Kun; Gong, Hang; Wang, Pu

    2014-01-01

    Using road GIS (geographical information systems) data and travel demand data for two U.S. urban areas, the dynamical driver sources of each road segment were located. A method to target road clusters closely related to urban traffic congestion was then developed to improve road network efficiency. The targeted road clusters show different spatial distributions at different times of a day, indicating that our method can encapsulate dynamical travel demand information into the road networks. As a proof of concept, when we lowered the speed limit or increased the capacity of road segments in the targeted road clusters, we found that both the number of congested roads and extra travel time were effectively reduced. In addition, the proposed modeling framework provided new insights on the optimization of transport efficiency in any infrastructure network with a specific supply and demand distribution.

  17. Encapsulating urban traffic rhythms into road networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junjie; Wei, Dong; He, Kun; Gong, Hang; Wang, Pu

    2014-01-01

    Using road GIS (geographical information systems) data and travel demand data for two U.S. urban areas, the dynamical driver sources of each road segment were located. A method to target road clusters closely related to urban traffic congestion was then developed to improve road network efficiency. The targeted road clusters show different spatial distributions at different times of a day, indicating that our method can encapsulate dynamical travel demand information into the road networks. As a proof of concept, when we lowered the speed limit or increased the capacity of road segments in the targeted road clusters, we found that both the number of congested roads and extra travel time were effectively reduced. In addition, the proposed modeling framework provided new insights on the optimization of transport efficiency in any infrastructure network with a specific supply and demand distribution. PMID:24553203

  18. Disparities in Healthcare Access and Utilization among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder from Immigrant Non-English Primary Language Households in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Sue C.; Yu, Stella M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in United State (US) has surged from 1 in 150 children in 2007 to 1 in 88 children in 2012 with substantial increase in immigrant minority groups including Hispanic and Somali children. Our study objective is to examine the associations between household language among children with ASD and national health quality indicators attainment. Methods: We conducted bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses using cross-sectional data from the publicly-available 2009-2010 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs (NS-CSHCN) to investigate the association between household language use and quality indicators of medical home, adequate insurance, and early and continuous screening. Results: Approximately, 28% of parents of children with ASD from non-English primary language (NEPL) households reported their child having severe ASD as compared with 13% of parents from English primary language (EPL) households. Older children were more likely to have care that met the early and continuous screening quality indicator, while lower income children and uninsured children were less likely to have met this indicator. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Despite the lack of differences in the attainment of quality indicators by household language, the higher severity found in children in NEPL households suggests that they are exceptionally vulnerable. Enhanced early screening and identification for these children and supporting their parents in navigating the complex US health care delivery system would increase their participation in early intervention services. Immigration of children with special health care needs from around the world to the US has been increasing from countries with diverse healthcare systems. Our findings will help to inform policies and interventions to reduce health disparities for children with ASD from immigrant populations. As the prevalence of ASD has increased

  19. 36 CFR 9.32 - Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR 2.17. (d) No access to a site outside a unit will be permitted across unit lands unless such... subsurface, resulting from surface subsidence, fracture of geological formations with resultant fresh...

  20. CLOSEUP VIEW OF A GENERATOR UNIT WITH ITS ASSOCIATED INSTRUMENTATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CLOSE-UP VIEW OF A GENERATOR UNIT WITH ITS ASSOCIATED INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL PANEL. - Wilson Dam & Hydroelectric Plant, Turbine & Generator Unit, Spanning Tennessee River at Wilson Dam Road (Route 133), Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  1. Deaths from international terrorism compared with road crash deaths in OECD countries

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, N; Thomson, G

    2005-01-01

    Methods: Data on deaths from international terrorism (US State Department database) were collated (1994–2003) and compared to the road injury deaths (year 2000 and 2001 data) from the OECD International Road Transport Accident Database. Results: In the 29 OECD countries for which comparable data were available, the annual average death rate from road injury was approximately 390 times that from international terrorism. The ratio of annual road to international terrorism deaths (averaged over 10 years) was lowest for the United States at 142 times. In 2001, road crash deaths in the US were equal to those from a September 11 attack every 26 days. Conclusions: There is a large difference in the magnitude of these two causes of deaths from injury. Policy makers need to be aware of this when allocating resources to preventing these two avoidable causes of mortality. PMID:16326764

  2. An integrated material metabolism model for stocks of urban road system in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhen; Hu, Dan; Zhang, Fuhua; Huang, Guolong; Xiao, Qiang

    2014-02-01

    Rapid urbanization has greatly altered the urban metabolism of material and energy. As a significant part of the infrastructure, urban roads are being rapidly developed worldwide. Quantitative analysis of metabolic processes on urban road systems, especially the scale, composition and spatial distribution of their stocks, could help to assess the resource appropriation and potential environmental impacts, as well as improve urban metabolism models. In this paper, an integrated model, which covered all types of roads, intersection structures and ancillary facilities, was built for calculating the material stocks of urban road systems. Based on a bottom-up method, the total stocks were disassembled into a number of stock parts rather than obtained by input-output data, which provided an approach promoting data availability and inner structure understanding. The combination with GIS enabled the model to tackle the complex structures of road networks and avoid double counting. In the case study of Beijing, the following results are shown: 1) The total stocks for the entire road system reached 159 million tons, of which nearly 80% was stored in roads, and 20% in ancillary facilities. 2) Macadam was the largest stock (111 million tons), while stone mastic asphalt, polyurethane plastics, and atactic polypropylene accounted for smaller components of the overall system. 3) The stock per unit area of pedestrian overcrossing was higher than that of the other stock units in the entire system, and its steel stocks reached 0.49 t/m(2), which was 10 times as high as that in interchanges. 4) The high stock areas were mainly distributed in ring-shaped and radial expressways, as well as in major interchanges. 5) Expressways and arterials were excessively emphasized, while minor roads were relatively ignored. However, the variation of cross-sectional thickness in branches and neighborhood roads will have a significant impact on the scale of material stocks in the entire road system

  3. An integrated material metabolism model for stocks of urban road system in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhen; Hu, Dan; Zhang, Fuhua; Huang, Guolong; Xiao, Qiang

    2014-02-01

    Rapid urbanization has greatly altered the urban metabolism of material and energy. As a significant part of the infrastructure, urban roads are being rapidly developed worldwide. Quantitative analysis of metabolic processes on urban road systems, especially the scale, composition and spatial distribution of their stocks, could help to assess the resource appropriation and potential environmental impacts, as well as improve urban metabolism models. In this paper, an integrated model, which covered all types of roads, intersection structures and ancillary facilities, was built for calculating the material stocks of urban road systems. Based on a bottom-up method, the total stocks were disassembled into a number of stock parts rather than obtained by input-output data, which provided an approach promoting data availability and inner structure understanding. The combination with GIS enabled the model to tackle the complex structures of road networks and avoid double counting. In the case study of Beijing, the following results are shown: 1) The total stocks for the entire road system reached 159 million tons, of which nearly 80% was stored in roads, and 20% in ancillary facilities. 2) Macadam was the largest stock (111 million tons), while stone mastic asphalt, polyurethane plastics, and atactic polypropylene accounted for smaller components of the overall system. 3) The stock per unit area of pedestrian overcrossing was higher than that of the other stock units in the entire system, and its steel stocks reached 0.49 t/m(2), which was 10 times as high as that in interchanges. 4) The high stock areas were mainly distributed in ring-shaped and radial expressways, as well as in major interchanges. 5) Expressways and arterials were excessively emphasized, while minor roads were relatively ignored. However, the variation of cross-sectional thickness in branches and neighborhood roads will have a significant impact on the scale of material stocks in the entire road system.

  4. Photogrammetric Techniques for Road Surface Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knyaz, V. A.; Chibunichev, A. G.

    2016-06-01

    The quality and condition of a road surface is of great importance for convenience and safety of driving. So the investigations of the behaviour of road materials in laboratory conditions and monitoring of existing roads are widely fulfilled for controlling a geometric parameters and detecting defects in the road surface. Photogrammetry as accurate non-contact measuring method provides powerful means for solving different tasks in road surface reconstruction and analysis. The range of dimensions concerned in road surface analysis can have great variation from tenths of millimetre to hundreds meters and more. So a set of techniques is needed to meet all requirements of road parameters estimation. Two photogrammetric techniques for road surface analysis are presented: for accurate measuring of road pavement and for road surface reconstruction based on imagery obtained from unmanned aerial vehicle. The first technique uses photogrammetric system based on structured light for fast and accurate surface 3D reconstruction and it allows analysing the characteristics of road texture and monitoring the pavement behaviour. The second technique provides dense 3D model road suitable for road macro parameters estimation.

  5. A global strategy for road building.

    PubMed

    Laurance, William F; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Sloan, Sean; O'Connell, Christine S; Mueller, Nathan D; Goosem, Miriam; Venter, Oscar; Edwards, David P; Phalan, Ben; Balmford, Andrew; Van Der Ree, Rodney; Arrea, Irene Burgues

    2014-09-11

    The number and extent of roads will expand dramatically this century. Globally, at least 25 million kilometres of new roads are anticipated by 2050; a 60% increase in the total length of roads over that in 2010. Nine-tenths of all road construction is expected to occur in developing nations, including many regions that sustain exceptional biodiversity and vital ecosystem services. Roads penetrating into wilderness or frontier areas are a major proximate driver of habitat loss and fragmentation, wildfires, overhunting and other environmental degradation, often with irreversible impacts on ecosystems. Unfortunately, much road proliferation is chaotic or poorly planned, and the rate of expansion is so great that it often overwhelms the capacity of environmental planners and managers. Here we present a global scheme for prioritizing road building. This large-scale zoning plan seeks to limit the environmental costs of road expansion while maximizing its benefits for human development, by helping to increase agricultural production, which is an urgent priority given that global food demand could double by mid-century. Our analysis identifies areas with high environmental values where future road building should be avoided if possible, areas where strategic road improvements could promote agricultural development with relatively modest environmental costs, and 'conflict areas' where road building could have sizeable benefits for agriculture but with serious environmental damage. Our plan provides a template for proactively zoning and prioritizing roads during the most explosive era of road expansion in human history.

  6. China takes to the roads.

    PubMed

    Roberts, I

    1995-05-20

    China is undergoing rapid motorisation--motor vehicle registrations are growing at a rate of 10%-20% a year. Road trauma is already a major public health problem, and road deaths, officially estimated to be around 50,000 a year, will almost certainly rise with increasing motorisation. China, with its millions of bicycles, currently has one of the most environmentally friendly transportation systems on the planet. However, as the trend towards car travel continues, the problems of congestion and environmental pollution so evident in the West will also become critical public health issues in China.

  7. Hemodialysis access - self care

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency - hemodialysis access; Chronic kidney failure - hemodialysis access; Chronic renal failure - hemodialysis access; dialysis - hemodialysis access

  8. Estimating under-reporting of road crash injuries to police using multiple linked data collections.

    PubMed

    Watson, Angela; Watson, Barry; Vallmuur, Kirsten

    2015-10-01

    The reliance on police data for the counting of road crash injuries can be problematic, as it is well known that not all road crash injuries are reported to police which under-estimates the overall burden of road crash injuries. The aim of this study was to use multiple linked data sources to estimate the extent of under-reporting of road crash injuries to police in the Australian state of Queensland. Data from the Queensland Road Crash Database (QRCD), the Queensland Hospital Admitted Patients Data Collection (QHAPDC), Emergency Department Information System (EDIS), and the Queensland Injury Surveillance Unit (QISU) for the year 2009 were linked. The completeness of road crash cases reported to police was examined via discordance rates between the police data (QRCD) and the hospital data collections. In addition, the potential bias of this discordance (under-reporting) was assessed based on gender, age, road user group, and regional location. Results showed that the level of under-reporting varied depending on the data set with which the police data was compared. When all hospital data collections are examined together the estimated population of road crash injuries was approximately 28,000, with around two-thirds not linking to any record in the police data. The results also showed that the under-reporting was more likely for motorcyclists, cyclists, males, young people, and injuries occurring in Remote and Inner Regional areas. These results have important implications for road safety research and policy in terms of: prioritising funding and resources; targeting road safety interventions into areas of higher risk; and estimating the burden of road crash injuries.

  9. Road safety alerting system with radar and GPS cooperation in a VANET environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santamaria, Amilcare Francesco; Sottile, Cesare; De Rango, Floriano; Voznak, Miroslav

    2014-05-01

    New applications in wireless environments are increasing and keeping even more interests from the developer companies and researchers. In particular, in these last few years the government and institutional organization for road safety spent a lot of resources and money to promote Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET) technology, also car manufactures are giving a lot of contributions on this field as well. In our paper, we propose an innovative system to increase road safety, matching the requests of the market allowing a cooperation between on-board devices. The vehicles are equipped with On Board Unit (OBU) and On Board Radar Unit (OBRU), which can spread alerting messages around the network regarding warning and dangerous situations exploiting IEEE802.llp standard. Vehicles move along roads observing the environment, traffic and road conditions, and vehicles parameters as well. These information can be elaborated and shared between neighbors, Road Side Unit (RSU)s and, of course, with Internet, allowing inter-system communications exploiting an Road Traffic Manager (RTM). Radar systems task it the detection of the environment in order to increase the knowledge of current conditions of the roads, for example it is important to identify obstacles, road accidents, dangerous situations and so on. Once detected exploiting onboard devices, such as Global Position System (GPS) receiver it is possible to know the exact location of the caught event and after a data elaboration the information is spread along the network. Once the drivers are advised, they can make some precautionary actions such as reduction of traveling speed or modification of current road path. In this work the routing algorithms, which have the main goal to rapidly disseminate information, are also been investigated.

  10. Benefits and impacts of road removal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Switalski, T.A.; Bissonette, J.A.; DeLuca, T.H.; Luce, C.H.; Madej, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Road removal is being used to mitigate the physical and ecological impacts of roads and to restore both public and private lands. Although many federal and state agencies and private landowners have created protocols for road removal and priorities for restoration, research has not kept pace with the rate of removal. Some research has been conducted on hydrologic and geomorphic restoration following road removal, but no studies have directly addressed restoring wildlife habitat. Road removal creates a short-term disturbance which may temporarily increase sediment loss. However, long-term monitoring and initial research have shown that road removal reduces chronic erosion and the risk of landslides. We review the hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological benefits and impacts of three methods of road removal, identify knowledge gaps, and propose questions for future research, which is urgently needed to quantify how effectively road removal restores terrestrial, riparian, and aquatic habitat and other ecosystem processes.

  11. Road surface texture and skid resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Minh-Tan; Cerezo, Veronique

    2015-12-01

    This paper deals with the relationship between road surface texture and skid resistance. Mechanisms underlying the tire/wet road friction are first described. Definitions of road surface irregularities scales are given. The rest of the paper is then focused on the macrotexture and microtexture scales and their respective roles in what happens at the tire/road interface. Existing methods to measure and characterize the road surface texture are presented. On the one hand, problems encountered when using sensors developed for machined surfaces for the measurement of road surface profiles or cartographies are discussed. On the other hand, potential improvements when applying characterization methods developed for machined surfaces to road surfaces are highlighted. The paper presents finally modeling approaches to calculate friction forces from road surface texture. The generalized form of the models is presented from which terms related respectively to the macrotexture and the microtexture are identified. Approaches used to calculate these terms, integrating eventually other variables, are presented.

  12. Easy Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettelman, Alan

    2009-01-01

    School and university restrooms, locker and shower rooms have specific ADA accessibility requirements that serve the needs of staff, students and campus visitors who are disabled as a result of injury, illness or age. Taking good care of them is good for the reputation of a sensitive community institution, and fosters positive public relations.…

  13. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2012-01-01

    As faculty members add online and multimedia elements to their courses, colleges and universities across the country are realizing that there is a lot of work to be done to ensure that disabled students (and employees) have equal access to course material and university websites. Unfortunately, far too few schools consider the task a top priority.…

  14. 6. ELEVATED, OBLIQUE VIEW OF INTERSECTION INFRASTRUCTURE AT LATROBE ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. ELEVATED, OBLIQUE VIEW OF INTERSECTION INFRASTRUCTURE AT LATROBE ROAD AND WHITE ROCK ROAD; VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Placerville Road, White Rock Road between Clarksville & White Rock, El Dorado Hills, El Dorado County, CA

  15. View southeast along Hartford Road (Route 6) showing the front ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast along Hartford Road (Route 6) showing the front yard of 10 Tatnic Road, West Brooklyn Green, and 5 Tatnic Roa - West Brooklyn Green, Tatnic Road & Hartford Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  16. 3. ENVIRONMENT, FROM SOUTH, SHOWING RIVER ROAD RIDGE CARRYING CASSELMAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. ENVIRONMENT, FROM SOUTH, SHOWING RIVER ROAD RIDGE CARRYING CASSELMAN RIVER ROAD OVER CASSELMAN RIVER - River Road Bridge, Crossing Casselman River on Casselman River Road, Grantsville, Garrett County, MD

  17. 35. PRATER GRADE ROAD VIEW, FACING NW. NOTE WEATHERING STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. PRATER GRADE ROAD VIEW, FACING NW. NOTE WEATHERING STEEL RAIL AND ROAD CUT IN DISTANCE. MONTEZUMA VALLEY OVERLOOK IS JUST TO RIGHT OF DISTANT ROAD CUT. - Mesa Verde National Park Main Entrance Road, Cortez, Montezuma County, CO

  18. 2. CAPE ROYAL ROAD VIEW. POST ON RIGHT SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CAPE ROYAL ROAD VIEW. POST ON RIGHT SIDE OF ROAD, CENTER OF IMAGE, MARKS CULVERT LOCATION. FACING SSW. - Cape Royal Road, Between North Entrance Road & Cape Royal, Grand Canyon, Coconino County, AZ

  19. 1. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING AT GLENDALE ROAD CROSSING OF DEEP CREEK LAKE (PHOTOGRAPH BY RUTHVAN MORROW) - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  20. 2. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING AT GLENDALE ROAD CROSSING OF DEEP CREEK LAKE (PHOTOGRAPH BY RUTHVAN MORROW) - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  1. Calibration of Speed Enforcement Down-The-Road Radars

    PubMed Central

    Jendzurski, John; Paulter, Nicholas G.

    2009-01-01

    We examine the measurement uncertainty associated with different methods of calibrating the ubiquitous down-the-road (DTR) radar used in speed enforcement. These calibration methods include the use of audio frequency sources, tuning forks, a fifth wheel attached to the rear of the vehicle with the radar unit, and the speedometer of the vehicle. We also provide an analysis showing the effect of calibration uncertainty on DTR-radar speed measurement uncertainty. PMID:27504217

  2. A Physics Road Rally

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyes, Mark A.; Ortman-Link, Whitney

    2009-02-01

    Our school recently acquired Vernier's Wireless Dynamics Sensor System (WDSS). The WDSS consists of a three-axis accelerometer, altimeter, and force sensor that has the ability to remotely collect data for later transfer to a computer.2 While our primary purpose for acquiring the WDSS was to enhance our amusement park physics experiments, we decided to test one of the WDSS units by using it to collect data during the drive home from school one day, since measuring the acceleration of a car is one of the experiments suggested in the Vernier Wireless Dynamics Sensor System User Manual. We taped the device to the floor of the car with its +x-axis pointed forward and its +y-axis pointed to the left. The WDSS was configured to take five samples per second for a total time period of 10 minutes.

  3. An assessment of road impacts on wildlife populations in U.S. national parks.

    PubMed

    Ament, Rob; Clevenger, Anthony P; Yu, Olivia; Hardy, Amanda

    2008-09-01

    Current United States National Park Service (NPS) management is challenged to balance visitor use with the environmental and social consequences of automobile use. Wildlife populations in national parks are increasingly vulnerable to road impacts. Other than isolated reports on the incidence of road-related mortality, there is little knowledge of how roads might affect wildlife populations throughout the national park system. Researchers at the Western Transportation Institute synthesized information obtained from a system-wide survey of resource managers to assess the magnitude of their concerns on the impacts of roads on park wildlife. The results characterize current conditions and help identify wildlife-transportation conflicts. A total of 196 national park management units (NPS units) were contacted and 106 responded to our questionnaire. Park resource managers responded that over half of the NPS units' existing transportation systems were at or above capacity, with traffic volumes currently high or very high in one quarter of them and traffic expected to increase in the majority of units. Data is not generally collected systematically on road-related mortality to wildlife, yet nearly half of the respondents believed road-caused mortality significantly affected wildlife populations. Over one-half believed habitat fragmentation was affecting wildlife populations. Despite these expressed concerns, only 36% of the NPS units used some form of mitigation method to reduce road impacts on wildlife. Nearly half of the respondents expect that these impacts would only worsen in the next five years. Our results underscore the importance for a more systematic approach to address wildlife-roadway conflicts for a situation that is expected to increase in the next five to ten years.

  4. Modeling road-cycling performance.

    PubMed

    Olds, T S; Norton, K I; Lowe, E L; Olive, S; Reay, F; Ly, S

    1995-04-01

    This paper presents a complete set of equations for a "first principles" mathematical model of road-cycling performance, including corrections for the effect of winds, tire pressure and wheel radius, altitude, relative humidity, rotational kinetic energy, drafting, and changed drag. The relevant physiological, biophysical, and environmental variables were measured in 41 experienced cyclists completing a 26-km road time trial. The correlation between actual and predicted times was 0.89 (P < or = 0.0001), with a mean difference of 0.74 min (1.73% of mean performance time) and a mean absolute difference of 1.65 min (3.87%). Multiple simulations were performed where model inputs were randomly varied using a normal distribution about the measured values with a SD equivalent to the estimated day-to-day variability or technical error of measurement in each of the inputs. This analysis yielded 95% confidence limits for the predicted times. The model suggests that the main physiological factors contributing to road-cycling performance are maximal O2 consumption, fractional utilization of maximal O2 consumption, mechanical efficiency, and projected frontal area. The model is then applied to some practical problems in road cycling: the effect of drafting, the advantage of using smaller front wheels, the effects of added mass, the importance of rotational kinetic energy, the effect of changes in drag due to changes in bicycle configuration, the normalization of performances under different conditions, and the limits of human performance. PMID:7615475

  5. Road Transport Industry Training Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Industrial Training International, 1975

    1975-01-01

    The Road Transport Industry Training Board has recognized that manpower planning was the key to estimating the industry's training needs. The effective training methods discussed are: management training, Group Training Associations, apprentice training, direct training, and mobile-training service. (Author/BP)

  6. Road Map for a Dream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenlon, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    The transition into kindergarten is a challenge for any student, but it can be especially difficult for students with disabilities and their families. In this article, Amanda Fenlon suggests that by planning ahead families and schools can smooth that transition and put students on the right road. She encourages families to work with their child's…

  7. Pollution-free road lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreuder, Duco A.

    They relate to reducing road accidents and some forms of crime but also enhance the social safety of residents and pedestrians and the amenity for residents. Road traffic in developing countries is much more hazardous than in industrialized countries. Accident rates in 'low' income countries may be as much as 35 times higher than in 'high' income countries. Thus, it might be much more cost-effective to light roads in the developing world than in the industrialized world. Fighting light pollution is more pressing in developing countries as most of the major high-class astronomical observatories are there. Astronomical observations are disturbed by light from outdoor lighting installations, part of which is scattered in the atmosphere to form 'sky glow'. The International Lighting Commission CIE has published a Technical Report giving general guidance for lighting designers and policy makers on the reduction of the sky glow. Lighting improves visibility, essential for almost all human activity. However, light that hits the road contributes to visibility only if it is reflected. In poorly designed lighting equipment much of the lumen output of the lamps is sent directly upwards. This can be avoided by properly defined light fittings. The light output of fittings is determined by their optical quality and by the installation maintenance factor. Open fittings are to be preferred. If mounted horizontally, they make street lighting with the least light pollution.

  8. Thalidomide's long and winding road.

    PubMed

    Hanna, L

    1998-04-01

    Thalidomide is a drug associated with devastating side effects. First prescribed in the late 1950s as a sedative, thalidomide caused more than 12,000 disfiguring birth defects, most commonly truncated arms and legs in infants, referred to as seal flipper limbs. Most alarming was that no link was made between the drug and birth defects in animal studies. The drug vanished from the market, except for use in treating leprosy. The history of the drug's use is outlined, along with its effects in treating progressive diseases such as HIV. The drug has never received marketing approval from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), however, it was imported illegally by buyers' clubs in the United States. Results of several trials, including a Mexican study, showed the effectiveness of the drug. Side effects include sedation, rash, and neurotoxicity; some preliminary results suggest use of thalidomide can increase viral loads. Two expanded access programs exist today, and the manufacturer, Celgene, estimates that fewer than 10,000 patients will take the drug in its first year on the market due to safety concerns. Toratogenic drug concerns and preventing birth defects are critically important. The drug appears to be effective in non-pregnant patients and those suffering from diverse immune system and infectious disorders.

  9. Data, modelling and inference in road traffic networks.

    PubMed

    Gibbens, Richard J; Saatci, Yunus

    2008-06-13

    In this paper, we study UK road traffic data and explore a range of modelling and inference questions that arise from them. For example, loop detectors on the M25 motorway record speed and flow measurements at regularly spaced locations as well as the entry and exit lanes of junctions. An exploratory study of these data helps us to better understand and quantify the nature of congestion on the road network. From a traveller's perspective it is crucially important to understand the overall journey times and we look at methods to improve our ability to predict journey times given access jointly to both real-time and historical loop detector data. Throughout this paper we will comment on related work derived from US freeway data.

  10. 30 CFR 780.37 - Road systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... authorizes land surveyors to certify the design of primary roads a qualified registered professional land surveyor, with experience in the design and construction of roads, as meeting the requirements of this... cross sections, design drawings and specifications for road widths, gradients, surfacing materials,...

  11. 30 CFR 780.37 - Road systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... authorizes land surveyors to certify the design of primary roads a qualified registered professional land surveyor, with experience in the design and construction of roads, as meeting the requirements of this... cross sections, design drawings and specifications for road widths, gradients, surfacing materials,...

  12. 30 CFR 780.37 - Road systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... authorizes land surveyors to certify the design of primary roads a qualified registered professional land surveyor, with experience in the design and construction of roads, as meeting the requirements of this... cross sections, design drawings and specifications for road widths, gradients, surfacing materials,...

  13. 30 CFR 780.37 - Road systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... authorizes land surveyors to certify the design of primary roads a qualified registered professional land surveyor, with experience in the design and construction of roads, as meeting the requirements of this... cross sections, design drawings and specifications for road widths, gradients, surfacing materials,...

  14. 24 CFR 1710.210 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Roads. 1710.210 Section 1710.210... (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements § 1710.210 Roads. (a) State the estimated cost to the developer of the proposed road system. (b) If the developer is...

  15. 14 CFR 151.89 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Roads. 151.89 Section 151.89 Aeronautics... AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.89 Roads. (a) Federal-aid Airport Program funds may not be used to resolve highway problems. Only those airport entrance roads that are...

  16. 24 CFR 1710.210 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roads. 1710.210 Section 1710.210... (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements § 1710.210 Roads. (a) State the estimated cost to the developer of the proposed road system. (b) If the developer is...

  17. HOW FAR TO THE NEAREST ROAD?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increases in impervious surface area lead to declines in chemical and biological indicators of water quality .Roads are an important aspect of impervious surface, and distance to roads is an indicator of the potential threat to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Although roads a...

  18. 49 CFR 391.31 - Road test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Road test. 391.31 Section 391.31 Transportation... COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Tests § 391.31 Road test. (a) Except as provided in subpart G, a... test and has been issued a certificate of driver's road test in accordance with this section. (b)...

  19. 24 CFR 1710.210 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Roads. 1710.210 Section 1710.210... (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements § 1710.210 Roads. (a) State the estimated cost to the developer of the proposed road system. (b) If the developer is...

  20. 24 CFR 1710.210 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Roads. 1710.210 Section 1710.210... (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements § 1710.210 Roads. (a) State the estimated cost to the developer of the proposed road system. (b) If the developer is...

  1. 24 CFR 1710.210 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Roads. 1710.210 Section 1710.210... (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements § 1710.210 Roads. (a) State the estimated cost to the developer of the proposed road system. (b) If the developer is...

  2. 42 CFR 424.106 - Criteria for determining whether the hospital was the most accessible.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... factors in determining whether a nonparticipating hospital in a rural area meets the accessibility... transportation facilities available to these hospitals. (3) The quality of the roads to each hospital. (4)...

  3. 42 CFR 424.106 - Criteria for determining whether the hospital was the most accessible.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... factors in determining whether a nonparticipating hospital in a rural area meets the accessibility... transportation facilities available to these hospitals. (3) The quality of the roads to each hospital. (4)...

  4. 42 CFR 424.106 - Criteria for determining whether the hospital was the most accessible.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... whether a nonparticipating hospital in a rural area meets the accessibility requirements: (1) The relative... available to these hospitals. (3) The quality of the roads to each hospital. (4) The availability of beds...

  5. 42 CFR 424.106 - Criteria for determining whether the hospital was the most accessible.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... factors in determining whether a nonparticipating hospital in a rural area meets the accessibility... transportation facilities available to these hospitals. (3) The quality of the roads to each hospital. (4)...

  6. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 552 - Authorized Activities for Fort Lewis Maneuver Area Access

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Installation service and maintenance (AR 420-74, FL Reg 350-30) Non-DOD personnel in transit on public-access...) Dog training (not allowed 1 April through 31 July in selected areas) Horseback riding on roads...

  7. GENERAL VIEW OF VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORM BNORTH, HB3, FACING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORM B-NORTH, HB-3, FACING NORTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  8. GENERAL VIEW OF VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORM BNORTH, HB3, FACING NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORM B-NORTH, HB-3, FACING NORTHEAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  9. GENERAL VIEW OF VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORM ENORTH, HB3, FACING NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORM E-NORTH, HB-3, FACING NORTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  10. GENERAL VIEW OF VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORM CNORTH, HB3, FACING NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORM C-NORTH, HB-3, FACING NORTHEAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  11. GENERAL VIEW OF VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORM CNORTH, HB3, FACING NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORM C-NORTH, HB-3, FACING NORTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  12. GENERAL VIEW OF NORTH VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORMS, HB3, FACING NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF NORTH VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORMS, HB-3, FACING NORTHEAST TOWARDS CEILING - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  13. GENERAL VIEW OF NORTH VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORMS, HB3, FACING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF NORTH VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORMS, HB-3, FACING NORTH TOWARDS FLOOR - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  14. GENERAL VIEW OF VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORM ENORTH, HB3, FACING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORM E-NORTH, HB-3, FACING NORTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  15. GENERAL VIEW OF VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORM DNORTH, HB3, FACING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORM D-NORTH, HB-3, FACING NORTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  16. GENERAL VIEW OF VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORM DNORTH, HB3, FACING NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF VEHICLE ACCESS PLATFORM D-NORTH, HB-3, FACING NORTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  17. Image feature based GPS trace filtering for road network generation and road segmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Jiangye; Cheriyadat, Anil M.

    2015-10-19

    We propose a new method to infer road networks from GPS trace data and accurately segment road regions in high-resolution aerial images. Unlike previous efforts that rely on GPS traces alone, we exploit image features to infer road networks from noisy trace data. The inferred road network is used to guide road segmentation. We show that the number of image segments spanned by the traces and the trace orientation validated with image features are important attributes for identifying GPS traces on road regions. Based on filtered traces , we construct road networks and integrate them with image features to segment road regions. Lastly, our experiments show that the proposed method produces more accurate road networks than the leading method that uses GPS traces alone, and also achieves high accuracy in segmenting road regions even with very noisy GPS data.

  18. Image feature based GPS trace filtering for road network generation and road segmentation

    DOE PAGES

    Yuan, Jiangye; Cheriyadat, Anil M.

    2015-10-19

    We propose a new method to infer road networks from GPS trace data and accurately segment road regions in high-resolution aerial images. Unlike previous efforts that rely on GPS traces alone, we exploit image features to infer road networks from noisy trace data. The inferred road network is used to guide road segmentation. We show that the number of image segments spanned by the traces and the trace orientation validated with image features are important attributes for identifying GPS traces on road regions. Based on filtered traces , we construct road networks and integrate them with image features to segmentmore » road regions. Lastly, our experiments show that the proposed method produces more accurate road networks than the leading method that uses GPS traces alone, and also achieves high accuracy in segmenting road regions even with very noisy GPS data.« less

  19. 2. VIEW OF SWITCHBACKS IN FORESTA ROAD (OLD DAVIS CUTOFF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF SWITCHBACKS IN FORESTA ROAD (OLD DAVIS CUT-OFF ROAD). NOTE FORESTA ROAD BRIDGE IN LOWER LEFT. ROAD CURVE HIDDEN IN TREES AT CENTER. NOTE ROAD CUT AT LEFT. LOOKING SSW. GIS: N-37"40'47.4"/W-119"47'22.2 - Foresta Road, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  20. UnitedHealth Group

    Cancer.gov

    UnitedHealth Group provides accessible and affordable services, improved quality of care, coordinated health care efforts, and a supportive environment for shared decision making between patients and their physicians.

  1. Mobile vehicle road and weather observation quality check methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koller, Daniel Raymond

    Today State Departments of Transportation rely more and more on road weather data to make maintenance decisions. Inaccurate data can result in wrong treatment applications or inadequate staffing levels to maintain the roadway at the desired level of service. Previous methods of road condition data reporting have been limited to static in situ sensor stations. These road weather information systems (RWIS) provide varied data about precipitation, winds, temperature, and more, but their siting does not always provide an accurate representation of weather and road conditions along the roadway. The use of mobile data collection from vehicles travelling the highway corridors may assist in the locations where RWIS sitings are sparse or non-existent. The United States Department of Transporation's "Connected Vehicle" (formally IntelliDrive) research project is designed to create a fully connected transportation system providing road and weather data collection from an extensive array of vehicles. While the implementation of Connected Vehicle is in the future, some of the theories and technologies are already in place today. Several states, as a part of the Pooled Fund Study Maintenance Decision Support System (MDSS), have equipped their winter maintenance vehicles with Mobile Data Collection Automated / Vehicle Location (MDC/AVL) systems. In addition, since 1996, automobiles sold in the United States are required to be equipped with an Onboard Diagnostic Version 2 (OBDII) port that streams live data from sensors located in and around the vehicle. While these sensors were designed for vehicle diagnostics, some of the data can be used to determine weather characteristics around the vehicle. The OBDII data can be collected by a smartphone and sent to a server in real time to be processed. These mobile systems may fill the information gap along the roads that stationary environmental sensor stations are not able to collect. Particular concern and care needs to be focused on

  2. Road development and the geography of hunting by an Amazonian indigenous group: consequences for wildlife conservation.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Santiago; Branch, Lyn C; Cueva, Rubén

    2014-01-01

    Protected areas are essential for conservation of wildlife populations. However, in the tropics there are two important factors that may interact to threaten this objective: 1) road development associated with large-scale resource extraction near or within protected areas; and 2) historical occupancy by traditional or indigenous groups that depend on wildlife for their survival. To manage wildlife populations in the tropics, it is critical to understand the effects of roads on the spatial extent of hunting and how wildlife is used. A geographical analysis can help us answer questions such as: How do roads affect spatial extent of hunting? How does market vicinity relate to local consumption and trade of bushmeat? How does vicinity to markets influence choice of game? A geographical analysis also can help evaluate the consequences of increased accessibility in landscapes that function as source-sink systems. We applied spatial analyses to evaluate the effects of increased landscape and market accessibility by road development on spatial extent of harvested areas and wildlife use by indigenous hunters. Our study was conducted in Yasuní Biosphere Reserve, Ecuador, which is impacted by road development for oil extraction, and inhabited by the Waorani indigenous group. Hunting activities were self-reported for 12-14 months and each kill was georeferenced. Presence of roads was associated with a two-fold increase of the extraction area. Rates of bushmeat extraction and trade were higher closer to markets than further away. Hunters located closer to markets concentrated their effort on large-bodied species. Our results clearly demonstrate that placing roads within protected areas can seriously reduce their capacity to sustain wildlife populations and potentially threaten livelihoods of indigenous groups who depend on these resources for their survival. Our results critically inform current policy debates regarding resource extraction and road building near or within

  3. Road Development and the Geography of Hunting by an Amazonian Indigenous Group: Consequences for Wildlife Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa, Santiago; Branch, Lyn C.; Cueva, Rubén

    2014-01-01

    Protected areas are essential for conservation of wildlife populations. However, in the tropics there are two important factors that may interact to threaten this objective: 1) road development associated with large-scale resource extraction near or within protected areas; and 2) historical occupancy by traditional or indigenous groups that depend on wildlife for their survival. To manage wildlife populations in the tropics, it is critical to understand the effects of roads on the spatial extent of hunting and how wildlife is used. A geographical analysis can help us answer questions such as: How do roads affect spatial extent of hunting? How does market vicinity relate to local consumption and trade of bushmeat? How does vicinity to markets influence choice of game? A geographical analysis also can help evaluate the consequences of increased accessibility in landscapes that function as source-sink systems. We applied spatial analyses to evaluate the effects of increased landscape and market accessibility by road development on spatial extent of harvested areas and wildlife use by indigenous hunters. Our study was conducted in Yasuní Biosphere Reserve, Ecuador, which is impacted by road development for oil extraction, and inhabited by the Waorani indigenous group. Hunting activities were self-reported for 12–14 months and each kill was georeferenced. Presence of roads was associated with a two-fold increase of the extraction area. Rates of bushmeat extraction and trade were higher closer to markets than further away. Hunters located closer to markets concentrated their effort on large-bodied species. Our results clearly demonstrate that placing roads within protected areas can seriously reduce their capacity to sustain wildlife populations and potentially threaten livelihoods of indigenous groups who depend on these resources for their survival. Our results critically inform current policy debates regarding resource extraction and road building near or within

  4. Road development and the geography of hunting by an Amazonian indigenous group: consequences for wildlife conservation.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Santiago; Branch, Lyn C; Cueva, Rubén

    2014-01-01

    Protected areas are essential for conservation of wildlife populations. However, in the tropics there are two important factors that may interact to threaten this objective: 1) road development associated with large-scale resource extraction near or within protected areas; and 2) historical occupancy by traditional or indigenous groups that depend on wildlife for their survival. To manage wildlife populations in the tropics, it is critical to understand the effects of roads on the spatial extent of hunting and how wildlife is used. A geographical analysis can help us answer questions such as: How do roads affect spatial extent of hunting? How does market vicinity relate to local consumption and trade of bushmeat? How does vicinity to markets influence choice of game? A geographical analysis also can help evaluate the consequences of increased accessibility in landscapes that function as source-sink systems. We applied spatial analyses to evaluate the effects of increased landscape and market accessibility by road development on spatial extent of harvested areas and wildlife use by indigenous hunters. Our study was conducted in Yasuní Biosphere Reserve, Ecuador, which is impacted by road development for oil extraction, and inhabited by the Waorani indigenous group. Hunting activities were self-reported for 12-14 months and each kill was georeferenced. Presence of roads was associated with a two-fold increase of the extraction area. Rates of bushmeat extraction and trade were higher closer to markets than further away. Hunters located closer to markets concentrated their effort on large-bodied species. Our results clearly demonstrate that placing roads within protected areas can seriously reduce their capacity to sustain wildlife populations and potentially threaten livelihoods of indigenous groups who depend on these resources for their survival. Our results critically inform current policy debates regarding resource extraction and road building near or within

  5. Road Safety Barriers, the Need and Influence on Road Traffic Accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butāns, Ž.; Gross, K. A.; Gridnevs, A.; Karzubova, E.

    2015-11-01

    Constantly increasing intensity of road traffic and the allowed speed limits seem to impose stronger requirements on road infrastructure and use of road safety systems. One of the ways to improve road safety is the use of road restraint systems. Road safety barriers allow not only reducing the number of road traffic accidents, but also lowering the severity of accidents. The paper provides information on the technical requirements of road safety barriers. Various types of road safety barriers and their selection criteria for different types of road sections are discussed. The article views an example of a road traffic accident, which is also modelled by PC-Crash computer program. The given example reflects a road accident mechanism in case of a car-to-barrier collision, and provides information about the typical damage to the car and the barrier. The paper describes an impact of the road safety barrier type and its presence on the road traffic accident mechanism. Implementation and maintenance costs of different barrier types are viewed. The article presents a discussion on the necessity to use road safety barriers, as well as their optimal choice.

  6. Using CART to segment road images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Bob; Lienhart, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    The 2005 DARPA Grand Challenge is a 132 mile race through the desert with autonomous robotic vehicles. Lasers mounted on the car roof provide a map of the road up to 20 meters ahead of the car but the car needs to see further in order to go fast enough to win the race. Computer vision can extend that map of the road ahead but desert road is notoriously similar to the surrounding desert. The CART algorithm (Classification and Regression Trees) provided a machine learning boost to find road while at the same time measuring when that road could not be distinguished from surrounding desert.

  7. Geo-Hazards and Mountain Road Development in Nepal: Understanding the Science-Policy-Governance Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugar, Sumit; Dahal, Vaskar

    2015-04-01

    informed other road development schemes in Nepal. Geomorphological surveys and robust geo-hazard assessments that factor the spatial and temporal dimensions of the seismic, fluvial and sediment hazards along the road corridor are critical for sustainable development of mountain roads. However, scientific and technical research studies seldom inform mountain road development primarily due to lack of co-ordination between the respective government agencies, access to journal papers in developing countries and unwillingness to adopt novel interventions in rural road construction practices. These challenges are further exacerbated by weak governance and lack of proper policy enforcement that often leads to construction of poorly engineered roads, thereby increasing the risk of rural infrastructural damage from geo-hazards. Though there exists a disconnect between the science-policy-governance interface where information on geo-hazards is neglected in mountain road development due to lack of scientific research and government apathy, there is an opportunity to spur dialogue and sensitize these issues via trans-disciplinary approaches on disaster risk management.

  8. Prediction of Erosion from Forest Road Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Thomas; Nelson, Nathan; Cissel, Richard; Luce, Charles

    2013-04-01

    Roads are widely acknowledged as a major source of sediment to headwater streams in forests. While a number of tools have evolved to evaluate individual road segments, many questions exist about the interaction of road networks and stream networks at larger scales. A number of ad-hoc hypotheses have emerged to use GIS layers to roughly estimate road contributions to sediment for watersheds, but validation of such models is difficult without detailed observations of as-built condition and performance of forest road drainage systems. We present analysis of detailed measurements from five watershed scale road inventory projects using the Geomorphic Road Analysis and Inventory Package (GRAIP, http://www.fs.fed.us/GRAIP/). The common outcome of all analyses is that a small fraction of the road network and their associated drainage is responsible for the great majority of fine sediment inputs. Stream crossings not only represented a dominant location of sediment delivery, but nearly a quarter had a high risk of becoming plugged and overtopped or a potential for flow diversion down the road after plugging. In some locations, gully risks showed threshold-like behavior relative to a combination of contributing road segment length and the slope of the discharge hillslope. Using insights gained from the detailed inventories, we developed a method to subsample segments in a road network to infer sediment inputs to the stream network. Validation of the approach shows good agreement with observations, with proportional errors becoming small with increasing watershed size.

  9. Understanding Road Usage Patterns in Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pu; Hunter, Timothy; Bayen, Alexandre M.; Schechtner, Katja; González, Marta C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we combine the most complete record of daily mobility, based on large-scale mobile phone data, with detailed Geographic Information System (GIS) data, uncovering previously hidden patterns in urban road usage. We find that the major usage of each road segment can be traced to its own - surprisingly few - driver sources. Based on this finding we propose a network of road usage by defining a bipartite network framework, demonstrating that in contrast to traditional approaches, which define road importance solely by topological measures, the role of a road segment depends on both: its betweeness and its degree in the road usage network. Moreover, our ability to pinpoint the few driver sources contributing to the major traffic flow allows us to create a strategy that achieves a significant reduction of the travel time across the entire road system, compared to a benchmark approach. PMID:23259045

  10. Road user behaviour changes following a self-explaining roads intervention.

    PubMed

    Mackie, Hamish W; Charlton, Samuel G; Baas, Peter H; Villasenor, Pablo C

    2013-01-01

    The self-explaining roads (SER) approach uses road designs that evoke correct expectations and driving behaviours from road users to create a safe and user-friendly road network. Following the implementation of an SER process and retrofitting of local and collector roads in a suburb within Auckland City, lower speeds on local roads and less variation in speed on both local and collector roads were achieved, along with a closer match between actual and perceived safe speeds. Preliminary analyses of crash data shows that the project has resulted in a 30% reduction crash numbers and an 86% reduction in crash costs per annum, since the road changes were completed. In order to further understand the outcomes from this project, a study was carried out to measure the effects of the SER intervention on the activity and behaviour of all road users. Video was collected over nine separate days, at nine different locations, both before and after SER construction. Road user behaviour categories were developed for all potential road users at different location types and then used to code the video data. Following SER construction, on local roads there was a relatively higher proportion of pedestrians, less uniformity in vehicle lane keeping and less indicating by motorists along with less through traffic, reflecting a more informal/low speed local road environment. Pedestrians were less constrained on local roads following SER construction, possibly reflecting a perceptually safer and more user-friendly environment. These behaviours were not generally evident on collector roads, a trend also shown by the previous study of speed changes. Given that one of the objectives of SER is to match road user behaviour with functionally different road categories, the road user behaviour differences demonstrated on different road types within the SER trial area provides further reinforcement of a successful SER trial.

  11. 36 CFR 294.43 - Prohibition on road construction and reconstruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provided for by statute or treaty, or (2) A road is needed to protect public health and safety in cases of... provision, subject to the legal rights identified in 36 CFR 294.43(b)(1), the responsible official must... or public access, public health and safety, or uses authorized under permit, easement or other...

  12. 36 CFR 294.43 - Prohibition on road construction and reconstruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provided for by statute or treaty, or (2) A road is needed to protect public health and safety in cases of... provision, subject to the legal rights identified in 36 CFR 294.43(b)(1), the responsible official must... or public access, public health and safety, or uses authorized under permit, easement or other...

  13. New Norcia Library Lecture: How Many Roads Must a Library Walk down?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missingham, Roxanne

    2012-01-01

    Libraries have welcomed the opportunity offered in the twenty-first century to place content on the roads and channels that are now available through the Internet to provide access to our rich and diverse collections. Amidst the enormous amount of information available the great collections sometimes are "dead ends" from a reader's point of view…

  14. Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Cold Weather On-road Testing of the Chevrolet Volt

    SciTech Connect

    Smart, John

    2015-03-01

    This report details cold weather on-road testing of a Chevrolet Volt. It quantifies changes in efficiency and electric range as ambient temperature changes. It will be published to INL's AVTA website as an INL technical report and will be accessible to the general public.

  15. Hemodialysis access procedures

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic-dialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-dialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency-dialysis access; Chronic kidney failure-dialysis access; Chronic renal failure-dialysis access

  16. Quarry Haul Road Ecological Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    This biological survey was performed to document the summer flora and fauna found along the haul road constructed as part of the remedial action for the quarry bulk waste. State and Federal species listed as threatened or endangered were noted if encountered while surveying. Sampling locations were equally spaced along the quarry haul road, and a survey for vegetation and birds conducted at each location. Bird observations were conducted as breeding bird surveys once in June of 1991, and again in June of 1992. Each year's survey includes two observations in the early morning and one late in the evening. Vegetation surveys were conducted in 1991 using quadrants and transects. mammal, reptile, and amphibian sightings were noted as encountered.

  17. Optimal Maintenance Works for the Aborshada Road in the Western Region of Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssef, Medhat Abdelrahman; Elbasher, Abdelbary Altayb

    2014-09-01

    In this research, the condition of a road pavement was investigated for the Aborshada Road in the Gharian region of Libya to determine the optimal maintenance works. Previously, a simple engineering judgment was the only procedure followed by the Gharian municipal engineers for evaluating pavements and prioritizing maintenance. The surface condition of the Aborshada Road pavement was investigated using "the Pavement Condition Index (PCI)" visual technique. The pavement was inspected to survey the different distresses in each sample unit. Ninteen pavement distresses were classified according to the PCI standards (PCI for roads and parking lots became an ASTM standard in 2007 (D6433-07)). It was necessary to know the most common distresses of the Aborshada Road to provide assistance for the decision maker in his evaluation of the pavement and the optimum repair method to be selected. This study reveals the actual performance of the pavements and suggests the research required for dealing with the pavement maintenance problem in Libya, especially in the western region. The best maintenance alternative for Aborshada Road was Case No. 3 (Potholes, Long. & Trans. Cracking and Alligator Crack Maintenance). Also, the most common pavement distresses on the Aborshada Road were Distress Nos. 1, 3, 6, 7, 10 and 13 according to the ASTM - D6433-07 classification

  18. The Global Burden of Road Injury: Its Relevance to the Emergency Physician

    PubMed Central

    Kohl, Vanessa P.; Walker, David M.; Tomassoni, Anthony J.; Cone, David C.; Vaca, Federico E.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Road traffic crash fatalities in the United States are at the lowest level since 1950. The reduction in crash injury burden is attributed to several factors: public education and prevention programs, traffic safety policies and enforcement, improvements in vehicle design, and prehospital services coupled with emergency and acute trauma care. Globally, the disease burden of road traffic injuries is rising. In 1990, road traffic injuries ranked ninth in the ten leading causes of the global burden of disease. By 2030, estimates show that road traffic injuries will be the fifth leading causes of death in the world. Historically, emergency medicine has played a pivotal role in contributing to the success of the local, regional, and national traffic safety activities focused on crash and injury prevention. Objective. We report on the projected trend of the global burden of road traffic injuries and fatalities and describe ongoing global initiatives to reduce road traffic morbidity and mortality. Discussion. We present key domains where emergency medicine can contribute through international collaboration to address global road traffic-related morbidity and mortality. Conclusion. International collaborative programs and research offer important opportunities for emergency medicine physicians to make a meaningful impact on the global burden of disease. PMID:24719768

  19. Seismic risk assessment for road in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyfur, Mona Foralisa; Pribadi, Krishna S.

    2016-05-01

    Road networks in Indonesia consist of 446,000 km of national, provincial and local roads as well as toll highways. Indonesia is one of countries that exposed to various natural hazards, such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, etc. Within the Indonesian archipelago, several global tectonic plates interact, such as the Indo-Australian, Pacific, Eurasian, resulting in a complex geological setting, characterized by the existence of seismically active faults and subduction zones and a chain of more than one hundred active volcanoes. Roads in Indonesia are vital infrastructure needed for people and goods movement, thus supporting community life and economic activities, including promoting regional economic development. Road damages and losses due to earthquakes have not been studied widely, whereas road disruption caused enormous economic damage. The aim of this research is to develop a method to analyse risk caused by seismic hazard to roads. The seismic risk level of road segment is defined using an earthquake risk index, adopting the method of Earthquake Disaster Risk Index model developed by Davidson (1997). Using this method, road segments' risk level can be defined and compared, and road risk map can be developed as a tool for prioritizing risk mitigation programs for road networks in Indonesia.

  20. 36 CFR 9.32 - Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR 2.17. (d) No access to a site outside a unit will be permitted across unit lands unless such... result in the drill hole crossing into the unit and passing under any land or water the surface of which... subsurface, resulting from surface subsidence, fracture of geological formations with resultant fresh...

  1. Towards remote sensing of Arctic ice roads and associated human activities using SUOMI NPP night light images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, M.; Smith, L. C.; Stephenson, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    Ice roads are often the only cost-effective means of transporting goods and supplies to communities, mines, and other sites in remote parts of the Arctic. Yet, there is no global dataset for Arctic ice roads. However, remotely sensed images from the SUOMI NPP day/night band (DNB) of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) may allow for the construction of such a dataset. The DNB's high sensitivity to low-level light suggests that while it is not feasible to view ice roads at night per se, other prominent features associated with ice roads can serve as proxies. Using a time series of images taken in winter 2012, 2013, and 2014, SUOMI NPP images are compared with Landsat 8 images and an existing map of the Tibbitt to Contwoyto ice road in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, Canada. First results reveal that while the ice road's exact path cannot be discerned, key points of human activity along the way can be made out. This bodes well for future applications of DNB imagery to detect ice roads in places like the Russian Federation, for which there is a dearth of publicly available maps. Knowing the location of ice roads is important for two reasons. First, these data can signal sites of natural resource extraction in places for which information is not widely disseminated, such as in the Russian Far East. Second, new geospatial datasets for ice roads can be combined with models assessing impacts of climate change on circumpolar land accessibility (Stephenson et al. 2011) in order to understand where the structural integrity of ice roads may be at risk. As warming temperatures threaten to shorten the season for ice roads, communities and mines alike will need to prepare for changes to their transportation infrastructure, made out of the changing landscape itself.

  2. Road-networks, a practical indicator of human impacts on biodiversity in Tropical forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosaka, T.; Yamada, T.; Okuda, T.

    2014-02-01

    Tropical forests sustain the most diverse plants and animals in the world, but are also being lost most rapidly. Rapid assessment and monitoring using remote sensing on biodiversity of tropical forests is needed to predict and evaluate biodiversity loss by human activities. Identification of reliable indicators of forest biodiversity and/or its loss is an urgent issue. In the present paper, we propose the density of road networks in tropical forests can be a good and practical indicator of human impacts on biodiversity in tropical forests through reviewing papers and introducing our preliminary survey in peninsular Malaysia. Many previous studies suggest a strong negative impact of forest roads on biodiversity in tropical rainforests since they changes microclimate, soil properties, drainage patterns, canopy openness and forest accessibility. Moreover, our preliminary survey also showed that even a narrow logging road (6 m wide) significantly lowered abundance of dung beetles (well-known bio-indicator in biodiversity survey in tropical forests) near the road. Since these road networks are readily to be detected with remote sensing approach such as aerial photographs and Lider, regulation and monitoring of the road networks using remote sensing techniques is a key to slow down the rate of biodiversity loss due to forest degradation in tropical forests.

  3. Rockfall hazard assessment along a road on Peloritani Mounts (northeastern Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, G.; Mineo, S.; Rapisarda, F.

    2013-12-01

    A hazard assessment has been performed on rock slopes impending over a segment of the Taorminese Road, which connects two popular tourist destinations in northeastern Sicily: the urban centers of Taormina and Castelmola. The road crosses steep, rock slopes, with a complex geological and tectonic history. The section of the road close to Castelmola is often affected by rockfall phenomena, causing injury to people and serious damage to buildings and traffic. The study analyzes the geostructural setting of the unstable rock masses, by evaluating their mechanical properties and the kinematics of potential failures. Rockfall simulations confirm that falling rocks would involve the Taorminese Road with different kinetic energy rates and prove useful for suggesting the most suitable mitigation technologies for future remedial works. The modified Rockfall Hazard Rating System has been applied to highlight the different levels of hazard along the road. The compiled hazard map shows that the slopes need urgent remedial works, especially because Taorminese is the only access road to Castelmola and its interruption would lead to the isolation of the entire village.

  4. Rockfall hazard assessment along a road on the Peloritani Mountains (northeastern Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, G.; Mineo, S.; Rapisarda, F.

    2014-10-01

    A hazard assessment has been performed on rock slopes impending over a segment of the Taorminese Road, which connects two popular tourist destinations in northeastern Sicily: the urban centers of Taormina and Castelmola. The road crosses steep rock slopes with a complex geological and tectonic history. The section of the road close to Castelmola is often affected by rockfall phenomena, causing injury to people and serious damage to buildings and traffic. The study analyzes the geostructural setting of the unstable rock masses, by evaluating their mechanical properties and the kinematics of potential failures. Rockfall simulations confirm that falling rocks would involve the Taorminese Road with different kinetic energy rates and prove useful for suggesting the most suitable mitigation technologies for future remedial works. The modified Rockfall Hazard Rating System has been applied to highlight the different levels of hazard along the road. The compiled hazard map shows that portions of the slopes need urgent remedial works, especially because Taorminese is the only access road to Castelmola and its interruption would lead to the isolation of the village.

  5. A fuel-based assessment of off-road diesel engine emissions.

    PubMed

    Kean, A J; Sawyer, R F; Harley, R A

    2000-11-01

    The use of diesel engines in off-road applications is a significant source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM10). Such off-road applications include railroad locomotives, marine vessels, and equipment used for agriculture, construction, logging, and mining. Emissions from these sources are only beginning to be controlled. Due to the large number of these engines and their wide range of applications, total activity and emissions from these sources are uncertain. A method for estimating the emissions from off-road diesel engines based on the quantity of diesel fuel consumed is presented. Emission factors are normalized by fuel consumption, and total activity is estimated by the total fuel consumed. Total exhaust emissions from off-road diesel equipment (excluding locomotives and marine vessels) in the United States during 1996 have been estimated to be 1.2 x 10(9) kg NOx and 1.2 x 10(8) kg PM10. Emissions estimates published by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are 2.3 times higher for both NOx and exhaust PM10 emissions than estimates based directly on fuel consumption. These emissions estimates disagree mainly due to differences in activity estimates, rather than to differences in the emission factors. All current emission inventories for off-road engines are uncertain because of the limited in-use emissions testing that has been performed on these engines. Regional- and state-level breakdowns in diesel fuel consumption by off-road mobile sources are also presented. Taken together with on-road measurements of diesel engine emissions, results of this study suggest that in 1996, off-road diesel equipment (including agriculture, construction, logging, and mining equipment, but not locomotives or marine vessels) was responsible for 10% of mobile source NOx emissions nationally, whereas on-road diesel vehicles contributed 33%.

  6. Impacts of road deicing salt on the demography of vernal pool-breeding amphibians.

    PubMed

    Karraker, Nancy E; Gibbs, James P; Vonesh, James R

    2008-04-01

    Deicing agents, primarily road salt, are applied to roads in 26 states in the United States and in a number of European countries, yet the scale of impacts of road salt on aquatic organisms remains largely under-studied. The issue is germane to amphibian conservation because both adult and larval amphibians are known to be particularly sensitive to changes in their osmolar environments. In this study, we combined survey, experimental, and demographic modeling approaches to evaluate the possible effects of road salt on two common vernal-pond-breeding amphibian species, the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) and the wood frog (Rana sylvatica). We found that in the Adirondack Mountain Region of New York (USA), road salt traveled up to 172 m from the highway into wetlands. Surveys showed that egg mass densities of spotted salamanders (A. maculatum) and wood frogs (R. sylvatica) were two times higher in forest pools than roadside pools, but this pattern was better explained by road proximity than by increased salinity. Experiments demonstrated that embryonic and larval survival were reduced at moderate (500 muS) and high conductivities (3000 muS) in A. maculatum and at high conductivities in R. sylvatica. Demographic models suggest that such egg and larval stage effects of salt may have important impacts on populations near roads, particularly in the case of A. maculatum, for which salt exposure may lead to local extinction. For both species, the effect of road salt was dependent upon the strength of larval density dependence and declined rapidly with distance from the roadside, with the greatest negative effects being limited to within 50 m. Based on this evidence, we argue that efforts to protect local populations of A. maculatum and R. sylvatica in roadside wetlands should, in part, be aimed at reducing application of road salt near wetlands with high conductivity levels. PMID:18488630

  7. The road plan model: Information model for planning road building activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azinhal, Rafaela K.; Moura-Pires, Fernando

    1994-01-01

    The general building contractor is presented with an information model as an approach for deriving a high-level work plan of construction activities applied to road building. Road construction activities are represented in a Road Plan Model (RPM), which is modeled in the ISO standard STEP/EXPRESS and adopts various concepts from the GARM notation. The integration with the preceding road design stage and the succeeding phase of resource scheduling is discussed within the framework of a Road Construction Model. Construction knowledge is applied to the road design and the terrain model of the surrounding road infrastructure for the instantiation of the RPM. Issues regarding the implementation of a road planner application supporting the RPM are discussed.

  8. 20. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE EAST OF THE ACCESS RAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE EAST OF THE ACCESS RAMP TO THE HOT DISASSEMBLY AREA FROM THE COLD ASSEMBLY AREA. - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance Assembly & Dissassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Junction of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  9. The Language of Information Technology: Accessibility in the Information Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warmkessel, Marjorie M.

    The language of information technology is discussed, with a focus on accessibility in the information society. The metaphors of information technology as an "information superhighway" or "infobahn" are analyzed; limitations of the "road system" and developments of Internet systems are considered. The concept of connectivity of the rhizome in "A…

  10. Context view, looking northeast along the Wellton Canal and access ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Context view, looking northeast along the Wellton Canal and access road at the Radial Gate Check. Antelope Hill is visible in the background - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Radial Gate Check with Drop, Wellton Canal 9.9, West of Avenue 34 East & north of County Ninth Street, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  11. Hangar no. 2 west doors. Note access door at bottom ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Hangar no. 2 west doors. Note access door at bottom center of left door. Note structure at bottom outside of doors for door opening mechanisms. Looking 124 ESE. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Southern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Near intersection of Windmill Road & Johnson Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  12. DETAIL VIEW OF THE ORBITER NOSE ACCESS PLATFORMS, MAIN FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF THE ORBITER NOSE ACCESS PLATFORMS, MAIN FLOOR LEVELS, PLATFORMS E-SOUTH AND E-NORTH, HB-3, FACING NORTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  13. Contextual view of Point Bonita Ridge, showing Bonita Ridge access ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of Point Bonita Ridge, showing Bonita Ridge access road retaining wall and location of Signal Corps Radar (S.C.R.) 296 Station 5 Transmitter Building foundation (see stake at center left), camera facing north - Fort Barry, Signal Corps Radar 296, Station 5, Transmitter Building Foundation, Point Bonita, Marin Headlands, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  14. 49 CFR 38.159 - Mobility aid accessibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Vehicle Safety Standards (49 CFR part 571), shall also be provided for use by wheelchair or mobility aid... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mobility aid accessibility. 38.159 Section 38.159... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Over-the-Road Buses and Systems § 38.159 Mobility aid...

  15. 2. View east of filtration bed building. Access bridge to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View east of filtration bed building. Access bridge to earth covering over reinforced concrete roof is at center right of photograph. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  16. Automatic Construction of Hierarchical Road Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Weiping

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes an automated method of constructing a hierarchical road network given a single dataset, without the presence of thematic attributes. The method is based on a pattern graph which maintains nodes and paths as junctions and through-traffic roads. The hierarchy is formed incrementally in a top-down fashion for highways, ramps, and major roads directly connected to ramps; and bottom-up for the rest of major and minor roads. Through reasoning and analysis, ramps are identified as unique characteristics for recognizing and assembling high speed roads. The method makes distinctions on the types of ramps by articulating their connection patterns with highways. Major and minor roads will be identified by both quantitative and qualitative analysis of spatial properties and by discovering neighbourhood patterns revealed in the data. The result of the method would enrich data description and support comprehensive queries on sorted exit or entry points on highways and their related roads. The enrichment on road network data is important to a high successful rate of feature matching for road networks and to geospatial data integration.

  17. Impacts of a Wildfire on Road Surface Erosion and Road-stream Connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosa-Perez, G.; MacDonald, L. H.

    2015-12-01

    Unpaved roads are a major hydrologic disturbance and source of sediment in forested watersheds. High- and moderate-severity wildfires should increase road sediment production due to the increased surface runoff from upslope, and increase road-stream connectivity due to the increased runoff and decrease in downslope surface roughness, but there has been no study of these interactions. Hence the goal of this study was to quantify how fire severity affects road surface erosion features and road-stream connectivity. Detailed data were collected one year after the High Park wildfire along 6.8 km of an unpaved road west of Fort Collins, Colorado. Road segments below areas burned at high and moderate severity had significantly more rills than segments below areas burned at low severity. Road segment slope was an increasingly important control on the proportion of segment length with rills with increasing burn severity, and this is consistent with the known increases in surface runoff. Flatter road segments acted as barriers that accumulated sediment eroded from the hillslopes above the road. All of the road segments in areas burned at high and moderate severity had drainage features that extended to a stream, and 78% of the segments in areas burned at low severity were connected. These exceptionally high rates of road-stream connectivity are attributed to the increased runoff from upslope, the concentration of that runoff by the road surface to a single drainage point, and the reduced infiltration and trapping capacity of the burned area below the road. The results show the need to either outslope the roads or increase the frequency of constructed drainage features after wildfires, particularly for the steeper road segments in areas burned at high or moderate severity.

  18. Road Network Generalization Based on Float CAR Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Cheng; Li, Wenjing; Jia, Hongguo

    2016-06-01

    Road generalization is not only helpful to simplify complicated road networks but can also satisfy the needs of reasonable display of roads under varying scales, thus offering basis for updating and grading urban roads. This paper proposes a selection method for road network generalization by integrating road-associated vehicle trajectory dynamic properties and road features and calculating the importance of urban roads. First of all, the location and motion information of floating vehicles are associated to relevant roads to generate the dynamic properties of roads. Then, the dynamic and static properties of roads are analyzed, and the cluster analysis is conducted to the trajectory points at road intersections to obtain the importance of some road intersections there are vehicles passing by. Afterwards, the weights of roads are calculated using the dominance rough set, the roads are ranked by weight and the practical significance of ranking results is analyzed. Finally, the selection rules for the basic framework of road network are determined to meet with different requirements and guarantee both connectivity and completeness of road networks. The results show that the relative importance of roads is made clear by taking advantage of the rough set and the generalized road network highlights the distribution and connection of urban main roads.

  19. Seeing red on the road.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Romnán, Amparo; Megías, Alberto; Díaz-Piedra, Carolina; Catena, Andrés; Di Stasi, Leandro L

    2015-01-01

    Human and animal research has found that red perception is associated with specific behavioral reactions, generally characterized by intense responses. Here, we explored whether red cars are perceived as more dangerous than other colored cars. One hundred Spanish drivers examined several road scenarios which involved hazardous cars with different colors: red, green, yellow, black, gray, and white. Driver's behavior (response time and probability of braking) and the perceived level of risk for each scenario were analyzed. Although car color affected participants' response times, contrary to expectations, red cars did not elicit faster responses or higher perceived levels of risk. PMID:26489219

  20. Brazilian Amazon Roads and Parks: Temporal & Spatial Deforestation Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfaff, A.; Robalino, J.

    2011-12-01

    Heterogeneous Forest Impacts of Transport Infrastructure: spatial frontier dynamics & impacts of Brazilian Amazon road changes Prior research on road impacts has almost completely ignored heterogeneity of impacts and as a result both empirically understated potential impact and missed policy potential. We note von Thunen's model suggests not only heterogeneity with distance from market but also specifically road impacts rising then falling with distance ('non-monoThunicity') Endogenous development and partial adjustment dynamics support this for the short run. Causal effects result from studying Brazilian Amazon deforestation (1976-87, 2000-04) using matching for short-run responses to lagged new roads changes (1968-75, 1985-00). We show the critical role of prior development, proxied by 1968 and 1985 road distances, for which exact matching addresses development trends and transforms impact estimates. Splitting the sample on this measure finds confirmation of the nonmonotonic predictions: new road impacts are relatively low if a prior road was close, such that prior transport access and endogenous development dynamics compete with the new road for influence, but also if a prior road was far, since first-decade adjustment in pristine areas is limited; yet in between these bounds, investments immediately raise deforestation significantly. This pattern helps to explain lower estimates within research on a single average impact. It suggests potential for REDD if a country chooses to shift its spatial transport networks. Protected Areas & Brazilian Amazon Deforestation: modeling and testing the impacts of varied PA strategies We model and then estimate the impacts of multiple types of protected areas upon 2000 - 2004 deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Our modeling starts with federal versus state objectives and predicts differences in both choice and implementation of each PA strategy that we examine. Our empirical examination brings not only breakdowns sufficient