Science.gov

Sample records for access solutions promise

  1. Solutions for Failing High Schools: Converging Visions and Promising Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legters, Nettie; Balfanz, Robert; McPartland, James

    Promising solutions to the failings of traditional comprehensive high schools were reviewed to identify basic principles and strategies for improving high schools nationwide. Selected research studies, policy documents, and promising high school programs were reviewed. The review revealed the following principles for helping high schools better…

  2. A Promising Development: "Promise" Scholarships Targeting Individual Communities Reduce Barriers to College Access--and Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses Promise Scholarships in community colleges and sources of funding. The following community colleges and their scholarships are mentioned in this article: (1) Oregon Promise, Oregon; (2) Ventura College Promise, California; (3) Kalamazoo Promise, Michigan; (4) Pittsburgh Promise, Pennsylvania; (5) SEED Scholarship, Delaware;…

  3. Cable Television and the Promise of Public Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenner, Lawrence A.

    The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has made provision for three access channels in new cable television systems: one each for the public, educational authorities, and the local government. The success of these access channels in instituting a two-way relationship between the public and commercial broadcasting is dependent on the presence…

  4. Optical solutions for unbundled access network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacîş Vasile, Irina Bristena

    2015-02-01

    The unbundling technique requires finding solutions to guarantee the economic and technical performances imposed by the nature of the services that can be offered. One of the possible solutions is the optic one; choosing this solution is justified for the following reasons: it optimizes the use of the access network, which is the most expensive part of a network (about 50% of the total investment in telecommunications networks) while also being the least used (telephone traffic on the lines has a low cost); it increases the distance between the master station/central and the terminal of the subscriber; the development of the services offered to the subscribers is conditioned by the subscriber network. For broadband services there is a need for support for the introduction of high-speed transport. A proper identification of the factors that must be satisfied and a comprehensive financial evaluation of all resources involved, both the resources that are in the process of being bought as well as extensions are the main conditions that would lead to a correct choice. As there is no single optimal technology for all development scenarios, which can take into account all access systems, a successful implementation is always done by individual/particularized scenarios. The method used today for the selection of an optimal solution is based on statistics and analysis of the various, already implemented, solutions, and on the experience that was already gained; the main evaluation criterion and the most unbiased one is the ratio between the cost of the investment and the quality of service, while serving an as large as possible number of customers.

  5. Unrealized Promises: Unequal Access, Affordability, and Excellence at Community Colleges in Southern California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Wenzl, Mary; Marquez, Rigoberto

    2012-01-01

    California community colleges are, by design, the only entry point to four-year institutions for the majority of students in the state. Yet, many of these institutions perpetuate racial and class segregation, thus disrupting the California Master Plan for Higher Education's promise of access, equity, and excellence in higher education. This report…

  6. Oxalic acid complexes: promising draw solutes for forward osmosis (FO) in protein enrichment.

    PubMed

    Ge, Qingchun; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2015-03-21

    Highly soluble oxalic acid complexes (OACs) were synthesized through a one-pot reaction. The OACs exhibit excellent performance as draw solutes in FO processes with high water fluxes and negligible reverse solute fluxes. Efficient protein enrichment was achieved. The diluted OACs can be recycled via nanofiltration and are promising as draw solutes.

  7. Internet access for everybody: The satellite solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittig, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    The use of the Internet has been grown tremendously within the last decade to more than one billion subscribers. The other five billion people on Earth cannot enjoy the possibilities offered by the Internet. The digital divide is everywhere: in the developing as well as in the developed part of the world. In the developing countries basic communication needs (voice, IP access) need to be provided to a large population not living in cities. In the developed part of the world people residing outside the large cities, on the nice country side, have still difficulties to get broadband access. The reason being, that the investment to install the network infrastructure to this minority part of the population is a major part of the total investment for the network. The benefit for the telecom operators is marginal to get these customers on board. In this paper an analysis of the Internet and satellite development is being presented and based on these historical data a prediction of a possible evolution of satellite communications and broadband access is performed. One result is that the capacity of the GEO ring at the Ka-band alone would allow to provide to each individual on Earth in 2050 (assumed to be 10 billion people) a monthly capacity of about 1 Gbyte for a charge of 1$ per month.

  8. Trends in communicative access solutions for children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Myrden, Andrew; Schudlo, Larissa; Weyand, Sabine; Zeyl, Timothy; Chau, Tom

    2014-08-01

    Access solutions may facilitate communication in children with limited functional speech and motor control. This study reviews current trends in access solution development for children with cerebral palsy, with particular emphasis on the access technology that harnesses a control signal from the user (eg, movement or physiological change) and the output device (eg, augmentative and alternative communication system) whose behavior is modulated by the user's control signal. Access technologies have advanced from simple mechanical switches to machine vision (eg, eye-gaze trackers), inertial sensing, and emerging physiological interfaces that require minimal physical effort. Similarly, output devices have evolved from bulky, dedicated hardware with limited configurability, to platform-agnostic, highly personalized mobile applications. Emerging case studies encourage the consideration of access technology for all nonverbal children with cerebral palsy with at least nascent contingency awareness. However, establishing robust evidence of the effectiveness of the aforementioned advances will require more expansive studies.

  9. Appliance Displays: Accessibility Challenges and Proposed Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Fusco, Giovanni; Tekin, Ender; Giudice, Nicholas A.; Coughlan, James M.

    2016-01-01

    People who are blind or visually impaired face difficulties using a growing array of everyday appliances because they are equipped with inaccessible electronic displays. We report developments on our “Display Reader” smartphone app, which uses computer vision to help a user acquire a usable image of a display and have the contents read aloud, to address this problem. Drawing on feedback from past and new studies with visually impaired volunteer participants, as well as from blind accessibility experts, we have improved and simplified our user interface and have also added the ability to read seven-segment digit displays. Our system works fully automatically and in real time, and we compare it with general-purpose assistive apps such as Be My Eyes, which recruit remote sighted assistants (RSAs) to answer questions about video captured by the user. Our discussions and preliminary experiment highlight the advantages and disadvantages of fully automatic approaches compared with RSAs, and suggest possible hybrid approaches to investigate in the future. PMID:26824081

  10. Appliance Displays: Accessibility Challenges and Proposed Solutions.

    PubMed

    Fusco, Giovanni; Tekin, Ender; Giudice, Nicholas A; Coughlan, James M

    2015-10-01

    People who are blind or visually impaired face difficulties using a growing array of everyday appliances because they are equipped with inaccessible electronic displays. We report developments on our "Display Reader" smartphone app, which uses computer vision to help a user acquire a usable image of a display and have the contents read aloud, to address this problem. Drawing on feedback from past and new studies with visually impaired volunteer participants, as well as from blind accessibility experts, we have improved and simplified our user interface and have also added the ability to read seven-segment digit displays. Our system works fully automatically and in real time, and we compare it with general-purpose assistive apps such as Be My Eyes, which recruit remote sighted assistants (RSAs) to answer questions about video captured by the user. Our discussions and preliminary experiment highlight the advantages and disadvantages of fully automatic approaches compared with RSAs, and suggest possible hybrid approaches to investigate in the future.

  11. America's College Promise: Situating President Obama's Initiative in the History of Federal Higher Education Aid and Access Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmadessa, Allison L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: America's College Promise (ACP) is a legislative initiative introduced by President Obama to increase access to higher education, to build the economy, and to support his earlier American Graduation Initiative. This legislation has the potential to settle among the ranks of the most influential federal higher education aid and access…

  12. Beyond the Yellow Bus: Promising Practices for Maximizing Access to Opportunity through Innovations in Student Transportation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Jeffrey M.; Makarewicz, Carrie; Miller, Ruth; Ehrman, Julia; McKoy, Deborah L.

    2014-01-01

    Access to safe, affordable, and convenient transportation shapes the 'geography of opportunity' for many children and youth. This study looks at how ?localities acrossthe country are implementing new and innovative alternative approaches to student transportation that expand regionaltransportation access for K-12 students, improve…

  13. Dynamic accessibility of inflow and outflow reconnective solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Tassi, E.; Titov, V. S.; Hornig, G.

    2005-11-15

    An analysis of the accessibility properties of exact stationary solutions of the resistive magnetohydrodynamics equations is presented. The issue is raised of whether such solutions, which describe a particular type of magnetic reconnection, can be obtained as the final state of a time-dependent evolution of the magnetic- and velocity-field disturbances superimposed onto background fields possessing a null point. Numerical experiments indicate that, whereas for the solutions of inflow type with super-Alfvenic background flow the imposed boundary conditions are sufficient to determine the accessed steady-state solution, in the case of outflow solutions with sub-Alfvenic background flow the final steady-state turns out to depend on the initial disturbance as well. It is found that the directions of the characteristic curves of the evolution equations and an implicit condition on the vorticity at the stagnation point are responsible for this behavior. Implications for the maximum current density attained in the final state are discussed. An argument to explain the appearance of damped oscillations in the evolution of the disturbance fields for the outflow case, as opposed to the flux pileup characterizing the inflow case, is also provided.

  14. Ethnicity and Adolescent Depression: Prevalence, Access to Services, and Promising Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagstaff, Amanda E.; Polo, Antonio J.

    2012-01-01

    Depression is more common among adolescents of ethnic minority backgrounds, who also are less likely to receive professional help. This article presents information about prevalence of depression and service use across ethnic groups, and then outlines several promising intervention programs that are designed for adolescents suffering from…

  15. The Effect of a Community College Promise Scholarship on Access and Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluhta, Elizabeth A.; Penny, G. Richard

    2013-01-01

    Based on a mixed methods case study design, the current study reports on a Promise Scholarship program offered by a community college and its affiliated foundation to graduating students at a nearby high school located in a low-income neighborhood of a large city and with a high proportion of African American and other students of color. Using a…

  16. Alternating access mechanisms of LeuT-fold transporters: trailblazing towards the promised energy landscapes.

    PubMed

    Kazmier, Kelli; Claxton, Derek P; Mchaourab, Hassane S

    2016-12-29

    Secondary active transporters couple the uphill translocation of substrates to electrochemical ion gradients. Transporter conformational motion, generically referred to as alternating access, enables a central ligand binding site to change its orientation relative to the membrane. Here we review themes of alternating access and the transduction of ion gradient energy to power this process in the LeuT-fold class of transporters where crystallographic, computational and spectroscopic approaches have converged to yield detailed models of transport cycles. Specifically, we compare findings for the Na(+)-coupled amino acid transporter LeuT and the Na(+)-coupled hydantoin transporter Mhp1. Although these studies have illuminated multiple aspects of transporter structures and dynamics, a number of questions remain unresolved that so far hinder understanding transport mechanisms in an energy landscape perspective.

  17. 76 FR 72403 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Primus Solutions, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ...] Access to Confidential Business Information by Primus Solutions, Inc. AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has authorized its contractor, Primus Solutions, Inc.,...

  18. A novel integrated mechanomyogram-vocalization access solution.

    PubMed

    Alves, Natasha; Falk, Tiago H; Chau, Tom

    2010-10-01

    We introduce a novel dual-switch control paradigm based on the simultaneous measurement of frontalis muscle mechanomyography (MMG) and vocalizations (humming) using a single contact microphone attached to the forehead. Vibrations of the face and skull during vocalization are manifested as periodic high-frequency components in the microphone signal recorded at the forehead. The presence of these periodic components is detected by a normalized cross-correlation function, while muscle contractions are detected using a continuous wavelet transform method. The dual-switch provides two independent binary control signals. Eleven participants, including one individual with severe physical disabilities, participated in a cued activation task in which the dual-switch exhibited sensitivities and specificities of 96.8±3% and 98.4±1%, respectively for vocalizations, and 99.7±0.5% and 99.2±0.5%, respectively for muscle contractions. Since skin vibrations due to voiced sounds and muscle contractions have non-overlapping dominant bandwidths, the performance of the MMG switch was not affected by vocalizations. This new integrated MMG-vocalization access solution affords the user two binary switches from a single access site, and may thus augment access alternatives for certain individuals with severe physical disabilities.

  19. Graphene nanosheets and graphite oxide as promising adsorbents for removal of organic contaminants from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Ji, Liangliang; Chen, Wei; Xu, Zhaoyi; Zheng, Shourong; Zhu, Dongqiang

    2013-01-01

    Graphenes are an emerging class of carbon nanomaterials whose adsorption properties toward organic compounds have not been well understood. In the present study, graphene nanosheets were prepared by reoxidation and abrupt heating of graphite oxide, which was prepared by sequential chemical oxidation of commercial nonporous graphite powder. Adsorption properties of three aromatic compounds (naphthalene, 2-naphthol, and 1-naphthylamine) and one pharmaceutical compound (tylosin) on graphene nanosheets and graphite oxide were examined to explore the potential of these two adsorbents for the removal of organic contaminants from aqueous solutions. Compared with the literature data of adsorption on carbon nanotubes, adsorption of bulky, flexible tylosin on graphene nanosheets exhibited markedly faster adsorption kinetics, which can be attributed to their opened-up layer structure. Graphene nanosheets and graphite oxide showed similar sequences of adsorption affinity: 1-naphthylamine > 2-naphthol > tylosin > naphthalene (with much larger differences observed on graphite oxide). It was proposed that the strong adsorption of the three aromatic compounds was mainly due to π-π electron donor-acceptor interactions with the graphitic surfaces of adsorbents. Additionally, Lewis acid-base interaction was likely an important factor contributing to the strong adsorption of 1-naphthylamine and tylosin, especially for the O-functionality-abundant graphite oxide. After being normalized on the basis of adsorbent surface area, adsorption affinities of all four tested adsorbates on graphene nanosheets were very close to those on nonporous graphite powder, reflecting complete accessibility of the adsorbent surface area in adsorption.

  20. User perceptions of existing home access solutions and a novel home access device

    PubMed Central

    Mattie, Johanne L.; Borisoff, Jaimie F.; Wong, Angie S.; Miller, William C.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to evaluate end user perspectives of four existing home access solutions (HAS) and a newly designed experimental device (the ARISE). Method A cross-sectional design was used to evaluate the ARISE prototype against other HAS. Specifically, participants trialed stairs, a ramp, a platform lift (PL), a stair glide and the ARISE, after which they completed questionnaires aimed at soliciting their perspectives of these solutions. The time taken by participants to use each HAS was also collected. Results Five HAS design features were deemed as important by 90% of participants: ease of use, ability to use independently, reliability, safety and security. Time taken to use each HAS from fastest to slowest was: stairs, the ARISE, ramp, PL and stair glide. The ARISE prototype was rated as the first or second most preferred device by the most number of participants, followed by the PL, then the ramp. Conclusions Results from this study provide greater understanding of user perspectives of HAS. End user feedback on a novel prototype device has provided valuable insight into its usability and function, which should not only guide future development of this device, but also provide direction for other innovations around home access. PMID:25815678

  1. Action being character: a promising perspective on the solution concept of game theory.

    PubMed

    Deng, Kuiying; Chu, Tianguang

    2011-05-09

    The inconsistency of predictions from solution concepts of conventional game theory with experimental observations is an enduring question. These solution concepts are based on the canonical rationality assumption that people are exclusively self-regarding utility maximizers. In this article, we think this assumption is problematic and, instead, assume that rational economic agents act as if they were maximizing their implicit utilities, which turns out to be a natural extension of the canonical rationality assumption. Implicit utility is defined by a player's character to reflect his personal weighting between cooperative, individualistic, and competitive social value orientations. The player who actually faces an implicit game chooses his strategy based on the common belief about the character distribution for a general player and the self-estimation of his own character, and he is not concerned about which strategies other players will choose and will never feel regret about his decision. It is shown by solving five paradigmatic games, the Dictator game, the Ultimatum game, the Prisoner's Dilemma game, the Public Goods game, and the Battle of the Sexes game, that the framework of implicit game and its corresponding solution concept, implicit equilibrium, based on this alternative assumption have potential for better explaining people's actual behaviors in social decision making situations.

  2. Covalent triazine-based framework: A promising adsorbent for removal of perfluoroalkyl acids from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bingyu; Lee, Linda S; Wei, Chenhui; Fu, Heyun; Zheng, Shourong; Xu, Zhaoyi; Zhu, Dongqiang

    2016-09-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are highly stable, persistent, and ubiquitous in the environment with significant concerns growing with regards to both human and ecosystem health. Due to the high stability to both biological and chemical attack, the only currently feasible approach for their removal from water is adsorbent technology. The main objective of this study was to assess a covalent triazine-based framework (CTF) adsorbent for removal from aqueous solutions of perfluoro C4, C6, and C8 carboxylates and sulfonates including the two C8s most commonly monitored, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). Adsorption affinity and capacity were quantified and compared to three commonly used sorbents: pulverized microporous activated carbon, single-walled carbon nanotubes, and Amberlite IRA-400 anion-exchange resin. CTF adsorbent exhibited pronouncedly higher adsorption affinity and capacity of PFAAs than other test sorbents. The remarkably strong adsorption to CTF can be attributed to the favored electrostatic interaction between the protonated triazine groups on the inner wall of the hydrophobic CTF pore and the negatively charged head groups of the PFAAs intercalated between the CTF layers. The homogeneous, nanosized pores (1.2 nm) of CTF hindered adsorption of a large-sized dissolved humic acid, thus minimizing the suppression of PFAA adsorption. Additionally, regeneration of CTF was easily accomplished by simply raising pH > 11, which inhibited the electrostatic adsorptive interaction of PFAAs.

  3. The JSTOR Solution: Accessing and Preserving the Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, Kevin M.; Lougee, Wendy P.

    1997-01-01

    Describes JSTOR (Journal Storage), a not-for-profit organization located in New York City, established to use digital technology to preserve and make accessible core journal literature. Highlights include publisher participation and license agreements; scanning and optical character recognition; missing information; systems design; project goals;…

  4. Intermittent access to a sucrose solution for rats causes long-term increases in consumption.

    PubMed

    Eikelboom, Roelof; Hewitt, Randelle

    2016-10-15

    Intermittent access to palatable food can elevate consumption beyond an animal's immediate needs. If adult male rats (with ad lib access to food and water) are provided with a 4% sucrose solution, daily sucrose consumption is determined by the sucrose access schedule: access that is intermittent leads to high levels of consumption. In Experiment 1, sucrose solutions were first provided continuously or every second, third, or fourth day for 23.5h over 49days. Continuous-access sucrose consumption averaged 102g per day, while that for access every fourth day averaged 294g. Daily consumption averages for access every second and third day fell between these two extremes. When all rats were then given alternate-day access to sucrose for 24days in Phase II, the previously established consumption differences were maintained. Body weight was unaffected by sucrose access; rats adjusted their food consumption so that total calorie intake remained constant. In Experiment 2, compared to continuous 4% sucrose solution access, access every third day markedly elevated daily sucrose consumption after only four sucrose exposures. With this shorter Phase I, sucrose intake in the continuous group increased markedly when in Phase II all rats were given alternate day access. In Experiment 3, a lick-by-lick analysis of the difference in sucrose consumption between access every third day and continuous access revealed that all rats were consuming a similar number of sucrose meals; however, the meals were larger both in the first hour and over the whole 24h with intermittent access. This suggests a change in satiety as a mechanism underlying sucrose consumption difference.

  5. Beyond the Yellow Bus: Promising Practices for Maximizing Access to Opportunity through Innovations in Student Transportation. Policy Brief 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Cities & Schools, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Access to safe, affordable, and convenient transportation shapes the "geography of opportunity" for many children and youth. This study looks at how ?localities across the country are implementing new and innovative alternative approaches to student transportation that expand regional transportation access for K-12 students, improve…

  6. Technology solutions to support supervisory activities and also to provide information access to the society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paladini, D.; Mello, A. B.

    2016-07-01

    Inmetro's data about the conformity of certificated products, process and services are, usually, displayed at fragmented databases of difficult access for several reasons, for instance, the lack of computational solutions which allow this kind of access to its users. A discussion about some of the technological solutions to support supervisory activities by the appropriate regulatory bodies and also to provide information access to society in general is herein presented, along with a theoretical explanation of the pros and cons of such technologies to the conclusion that a mobile platform seems to be the best tool for the requirements of Inmetro.

  7. A Promising Practicum Pilot--Exploring Associate Teachers' Access and Interactions with a Web-Based Learning Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrarca, Diana

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores how a small group of associate teachers (i.e., the classroom teachers who host, supervise, and mentor teacher candidates during practicum placements) accessed and interacted with the Associate Teacher Learning Tool (ATLT), a web-based learning tool created specifically for this new group of users. The ATLT is grounded in…

  8. Accessing seismic data through geological interpretation: Challenges and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, R. W.; Clayton, S.; McCaffrey, B.

    2008-12-01

    Between them, the world's research programs, national institutions and corporations, especially oil and gas companies, have acquired substantial volumes of seismic reflection data. Although the vast majority are proprietary and confidential, significant data are released and available for research, including those in public data libraries. The challenge now is to maximise use of these data, by providing routes to seismic not simply on the basis of acquisition or processing attributes but via the geology they image. The Virtual Seismic Atlas (VSA: www.seismicatlas.org) meets this challenge by providing an independent, free-to-use community based internet resource that captures and shares the geological interpretation of seismic data globally. Images and associated documents are explicitly indexed by extensive metadata trees, using not only existing survey and geographical data but also the geology they portray. The solution uses a Documentum database interrogated through Endeca Guided Navigation, to search, discover and retrieve images. The VSA allows users to compare contrasting interpretations of clean data thereby exploring the ranges of uncertainty in the geometric interpretation of subsurface structure. The metadata structures can be used to link reports and published research together with other data types such as wells. And the VSA can link to existing data libraries. Searches can take different paths, revealing arrays of geological analogues, new datasets while providing entirely novel insights and genuine surprises. This can then drive new creative opportunities for research and training, and expose the contents of seismic data libraries to the world.

  9. A Needs Assessment of the Accessibility of Distance Education in the California Community College System. Part II: Costs and Promising Practices Associated with Making Distance Education Courses Accessible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farr, Beverly; Studier, Carol; Sipes, Laurel; Coombs, Norman

    2009-01-01

    As the number of online distance education (DE) courses mushrooms in the California community college system, the need to address the accessibility of these courses becomes more and more urgent. With this in mind, the California Community College System Office (CCCSO) retained MPR Associates, Inc. to complete a needs assessment to help determine…

  10. The Method behind the Madness: Acquiring Online Journals and a Solution to Provide Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skekel, Donna

    2005-01-01

    Libraries are seeking the best possible solution for integrating online journals into their collections. While exploring the different methods and technology available, many libraries still strive to fulfill the original "library mission" proposed by Charles Cutter in his "Rules for a Dictionary Catalog". Providing comprehensive access to…

  11. The Technology Information Environment with Industry (TIE-In): A mechanism for accessing laboratory solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Ang, J.A.; Machin, G.D.; Marek, E.L.

    1994-12-31

    The Technology Information Environment with Industry (TIE-In) is a system that helps users obtain laboratory-developed technical solutions without requiring that they duplicate the technical resources (in people, hardware and software) at the national laboratories. TIE-In is based on providing users with controlled access to distributed laboratory resources that are packaged in intelligent user interfaces. These interfaces help users obtain technical solutions without requiring that the user have specialized technical and computer expertise. As a designated DOE Technology Deployment Center/User Facility, industry users can access a broad range of laboratory-developed technologies on a cost-recovery basis. TIE-In will also be used to share laboratory resources with partners in US industry that help the DOE meet future manufacturing needs for the stewardship of our nation`s nuclear weapons stockpile.

  12. Temporary left ventricular assist device through an axillary access is a promising approach to improve outcomes in refractory cardiogenic shock patients.

    PubMed

    Doersch, Karen M; Tong, Carl W; Gongora, Enrique; Konda, Subbareddy; Sareyyupoglu, Basar

    2015-01-01

    Cardiogenic shock (CS) causes significant morbidity and mortality and such patients can deteriorate rapidly. Temporary left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are a promising approach to manage these patients. The following is a case series in which patients stabilized with a temporary LVAD for CS improvement were analyzed retrospectively. Between June 2011 and January 2014, 15 patients received temporary devices through an axillary approach (mean age: 53 ± 15, 93% male). Mean survival time was 317.8 ± 359.5 days (range: 6-936 days). During support there were no major bleeding events, infectious complications at the axillary access site, upper extremity edema, or emboli. The most of the patients recovered from CS (93%) were mobilized (67%) and were extubated (73%) while on temporary device support. Median times to extubation, intensive care unit discharge, and discontinuation of inotropic medications were: 1.63, 18, and 15 days, respectively. Four patients recovered to no device support and five received a long-term LVAD, all of whom remain alive. Therefore, implantation of a temporary LVAD through an axillary approach is a promising therapy for improving outcomes in patients needing mechanical circulatory support as a bridge to recovery or a definitive LVAD.

  13. Differences in bingeing behavior and cocaine reward following intermittent access to sucrose, glucose or fructose solutions.

    PubMed

    Rorabaugh, J M; Stratford, J M; Zahniser, N R

    2015-08-20

    Daily intermittent access to sugar solutions results in intense bouts of sugar intake (i.e. bingeing) in rats. Bingeing on sucrose, a disaccharide of glucose and fructose, has been associated with a "primed" mesolimbic dopamine (DA) pathway. Recent studies suggest glucose and fructose engage brain reward and energy-sensing mechanisms in opposing ways and may drive sucrose intake through unique neuronal circuits. Here, we examined in male Sprague-Dawley rats whether or not (1) intermittent access to isocaloric solutions of sucrose, glucose or fructose results in distinctive sugar-bingeing profiles and (2) previous sugar bingeing alters cocaine locomotor activation and/or reward, as determined by conditioned place preference (CPP). To encourage bingeing, rats were given 24-h access to water and 12-h-intermittent access to chow plus an intermittent bottle that contained water (control) or 8% solutions of sucrose, glucose or fructose for 9days, followed by ad libitum chow diet and a 10-day cocaine (15mg/kg; i.p.) CPP paradigm. By day 4 of the sugar-bingeing diet, sugar bingeing in the fructose group surpassed the glucose group, with the sucrose group being intermediate. All three sugar groups had similar chow and water intake throughout the diet. In contrast, controls exhibited chow bingeing by day 5 without altering water intake. Similar magnitudes of cocaine CPP were observed in rats with a history of sucrose, fructose or chow (control) bingeing. Notably, the glucose-bingeing rats did not demonstrate a significant cocaine CPP despite showing similar cocaine-induced locomotor activity as the other diet groups. Overall, these results show that fructose and glucose, the monosaccharide components of sucrose, produce divergent degrees of bingeing and cocaine reward.

  14. Differences in bingeing behavior and cocaine reward following intermittent access to sucrose, glucose or fructose solutions

    PubMed Central

    Rorabaugh, Jacki M.; Stratford, Jennifer M.; Zahniser, Nancy R.

    2015-01-01

    Daily intermittent access to sugar solutions results in intense bouts of sugar intake (i.e. bingeing) in rats. Bingeing on sucrose, a disaccharide of glucose and fructose, has been associated with a “primed” mesolimbic dopamine (DA) pathway. Recent studies suggest glucose and fructose engage brain reward and energy sensing mechanisms in opposing ways and may drive sucrose intake through unique neuronal circuits. Here, we examined in male Sprague-Dawley rats whether or not (1) intermittent access to isocaloric solutions of sucrose, glucose or fructose results in distinctive sugar bingeing profiles and (2) previous sugar bingeing alters cocaine locomotor activation and/or reward, as determined by conditioned place preference (CPP). To encourage bingeing, rats were given 24-h access to water and 12 h-intermittent access to chow plus an intermittent bottle that contained water (control) or 8% solutions of sucrose, glucose or fructose for 9 days, followed by ad libitum chow diet and a 10 day cocaine (15 mg/kg; i.p.) CPP paradigm. By day 4 of the sugar bingeing diet, sugar bingeing in the fructose group surpassed the glucose group, with the sucrose group being intermediate. All three sugar groups had similar chow and water intake throughout the diet. In contrast, controls exhibited chow bingeing by day 5 without altering water intake. Similar magnitudes of cocaine CPP were observed in rats with a history of sucrose, fructose or chow (control) bingeing. Notably, the glucosebingeing rats did not demonstrate a significant cocaine CPP despite showing similar cocaine-induced locomotor activity as the other diet groups. Overall, these results show that fructose and glucose, the monosaccharide components of sucrose, produce divergent degrees of bingeing and cocaine reward. PMID:26079112

  15. Need Finds Opportunity: 21st Century COTS Solution Promises to Improve the Student Experience and Address a Strategic Need

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    resources) into one accessible gateway. This single destination will serve as the central community resource that will enable the work- force, DAU...toward increasingly feature-rich and complex handsets —fea- ture-rich but less functional. Then came the iPhone. Function finally met form. It was...acquisition re- sources. Final Thoughts The intent is to field the Student Information System in 2012 in time for the 2013 registration cycle . Its success

  16. Sustained Resistive Switching in a Single Cu:7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane Nanowire: A Promising Material for Resistive Random Access Memory

    PubMed Central

    Basori, Rabaya; Kumar, Manoranjan; Raychaudhuri, Arup K.

    2016-01-01

    We report a new type of sustained and reversible unipolar resistive switching in a nanowire device made from a single strand of Cu:7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (Cu:TCNQ) nanowire (diameter <100 nm) that shows high ON/OFF ratio (~103), low threshold voltage of switching (~3.5 V) and large cycling endurance (>103). This indicates a promising material for high density resistive random access memory (ReRAM) device integration. Switching is observed in Cu:TCNQ single nanowire devices with two different electrode configuration: symmetric (C-Pt/Cu:TCNQ/C-Pt) and asymmetric (Cu/Cu:TCNQ/C-Pt), where contacts connecting the nanowire play an important role. This report also developed a method of separating out the electrode and material contributions in switching using metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) device model along with a direct 4-probe resistivity measurement of the nanowire in the OFF as well as ON state. The device model was followed by a phenomenological model of current transport through the nanowire device which shows that lowering of potential barrier at the contacts likely occur due to formation of Cu filaments in the interface between nanowire and contact electrodes. We obtain quantitative agreement of numerically analyzed results with the experimental switching data. PMID:27245099

  17. Solubility and crystallographic facet tailoring of (GaN)(1-x)(ZnO)(x) pseudobinary solid-solution nanostructures as promising photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Liu, Baodan; Yang, Wenjin; Cho, Yujin; Zhang, Xinglai; Dierre, Benjamin; Sekiguchi, Takashi; Wu, Aimin; Jiang, Xin

    2016-02-14

    (GaN)1-x(ZnO)x solid-solution nanostructures with superior crystallinity, large surface areas and visible light absorption have been regarded as promising photocatalysts for overall water splitting to produce H2. In this work, we report the preparation of (GaN)1-x(ZnO)x solid-solution nanorods with a high ZnO solubility up to 95% via a two-step synthetic route, which starts from a sol-gel reaction and follows with a nitridation process. Moreover, we clearly demonstrated that the crystallographic facets of (GaN)1-x(ZnO)x solid-solution nanorods can be finely tailored from non-polar {10̄10} to semipolar {10̄11} and then finally to mixed {10̄1} and polar {000̄1} by carefully controlling the growth temperature and nitridation time. Correspondingly, the ZnO content in the GaN lattice can be achieved in the range of ∼25%-95%. Room-temperature cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements on the three types of (GaN)1-x(ZnO)x solid-solution nanorods indicate that the minimum band-gap of 2.46 eV of the solid-solution nanorods is achieved under a ZnO solubility of 25%. The efficiency and versatility of our strategy in the band-gap and facet engineering of (GaN)1-x(ZnO)x solid-solution nanorods will enhance their promising photocatalytic utilizations like an overall water splitting for H2 production under visible-light irradiation.

  18. Accessibility

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Federal laws, including Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act, mandate that people with disabilities have access to the same information that someone without a disability would have. 508 standards cover electronic and information technology (EIT) products.

  19. sym-Trisubstituted 1,3,5-Triazine Derivatives as Promising Organic Corrosion Inhibitors for Steel in Acidic Solution.

    PubMed

    El-Faham, Ayman; Dahlous, Kholood A; Al Othman, Zeid A; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A; El-Mahdy, Gamal A

    2016-03-31

    Triazine derivatives, namely, 2,4,6-tris(quinolin-8-yloxy)-1,3,5-triazine (T3Q), N²,N⁴,N⁶-tris(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine (T3AMPy) and 2,2',2''-[(1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triyl)tris(azanediyl)] tris(ethan-1-ol) (T3EA) were synthesized and their inhibition of steel corrosion in hydrochloric acid solution was investigated using electrochemical techniques. The corrosion protection of the prepared compounds increased with increasing concentration and reached up to 98% at 250 ppm. The adsorption of T3Q, T3AMPy, and T3EA on the steel surface was in accordance with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The electrochemical results revealed that T3Q, T3AMPy and T3EA act as excellent organic inhibitors and can labeled as mixed type inhibitors. The efficiencies of the tested compounds were affected by the nature of the side chain present in the triazine ring, where T3EA gave the least inhibition while T3Q and T3AMPy gave higher and almost the same inhibition effects. The inhibition efficiencies obtained from the different electrochemical techniques were in good agreement.

  20. Tau method for the numerical solution of a fuzzy fractional kinetic model and its application to the oil palm frond as a promising source of xylose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadian, A.; Salahshour, S.; Baleanu, D.; Amirkhani, H.; Yunus, R.

    2015-08-01

    The Oil Palm Frond (a lignocellulosic material) is a high-yielding energy crop that can be utilized as a promising source of xylose. It holds the potential as a feedstock for bioethanol production due to being free and inexpensive in terms of collection, storage and cropping practices. The aim of the paper is to calculate the concentration and yield of xylose from the acid hydrolysis of the Oil Palm Frond through a fuzzy fractional kinetic model. The approximate solution of the derived fuzzy fractional model is achieved by using a tau method based on the fuzzy operational matrix of the generalized Laguerre polynomials. The results validate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed solution method for solving this type of fuzzy kinetic model.

  1. Evidence-based psychological treatments for mental disorders: modifiable barriers to access and possible solutions.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Allison G; Gumport, Nicole B

    2015-05-01

    The prevalence of mental disorders is high and appears to be growing, yet the majority of individuals who meet diagnostic criteria for a mental disorder are not able to access an adequate treatment. While evidence-based psychological treatments (EBPTs) are effective single or adjunctive treatments for mental disorders, there is also evidence that access to these treatments is diminishing. We seek to highlight modifiable barriers to these problems at the patient, therapist, treatment, organization and government-levels of analysis. A range of solutions to each set of contributors is offered and domains for future research are highlighted. In particular, we focus on the need to continue to work toward innovation in treatment development while also solving the difficulties relating to the dissemination of EBPTs. Several relatively new concepts in the field will be discussed (implementation cliff, program drift, voltage drop and deployment treatment development) and we contrast America and England as examples of government-level processes that are in the process of major change with respect to EBPTs. We conclude that there is a need for people in our field to become more knowledgeable about, and get involved in, shaping public policy.

  2. Evidence-based psychological treatments for mental disorders: Modifiable barriers to access and possible solutions

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Allison G.; Gumport, Nicole B.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of mental disorders is high and appears to be growing, yet the majority of individuals who meet diagnostic criteria for a mental disorder are not able to access an adequate treatment. While evidence-based psychological treatments (EBPTs) are effective single or adjunctive treatments for mental disorders, there is also evidence that access to these treatments is diminishing. We seek to highlight modifiable barriers to these problems at the patient, therapist, treatment, organization and government-levels of analysis. A range of solutions to each set of contributors is offered and domains for future research are highlighted. In particular, we focus on the need to continue to work toward innovation in treatment development while also solving the difficulties relating to the dissemination of EBPTs. Several relatively new concepts in the field will be discussed (implementation cliff, program drift, voltage drop and deployment treatment development) and we contrast America and England as examples of government-level processes that are in the process of major change with respect to EBPTs. We conclude that there is a need for people in our field to become more knowledgeable about, and get involved in, shaping public policy. PMID:25768982

  3. Keeping Promises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Gregory A.

    2005-01-01

    Commitments are between people, not schedules. Project management as practiced today creates a "commitment-free zone," because it assumes that people will commit to centrally managed schedules without providing a mechanism to ensure their work can be done. So they give it their best, but something always seems to come up ..."I tried, but you know how it is." This form of project management does not provide a mechanism to ensure that what should be done, can in fact be done at the required moment. Too often, promises reliable promise. made in coordination meetings are conditional and unreliable. It has been my experience that at times trust can be low and hard to build in this environment. The absence of reliable promises explains why on well-run projects, people are often only completing 30-50 percent of the deliverables they d promised for the week. We all know what a promise is; we have plenty of experience making them and receiving them from others. So what s the problem? The sad fact is that the project environment-like many other work environments- is often so filled with systemic dishonesty, that we don t expect promises that are reliable. Project managers excel when they manage their projects as networks of commitments and help their people learn to elicit and make reliable promises.

  4. Is the promise of methadone Kenya’s solution to managing HIV and addiction? A mixed-method mathematical modelling and qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Tim; Guise, Andy; Ndimbii, James; Strathdee, Steffanie; Ngugi, Elizabeth; Platt, Lucy; Kurth, Ann; Cleland, Charles; Vickerman, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Promoted globally as an evidence-based intervention in the prevention of HIV and treatment of heroin addiction among people who inject drugs (PWID), opioid substitution treatment (OST) can help control emerging HIV epidemics among PWID. With implementation in December 2014, Kenya is the third Sub-Saharan African country to have introduced OST. We combine dynamic mathematical modelling with qualitative sociological research to examine the ‘promise of methadone’ to Kenya. Methods, setting and participants We model the HIV prevention impact of OST in Nairobi, Kenya, at different levels of intervention coverage. We draw on thematic analyses of 109 qualitative interviews with PWID, and 43 with stakeholders, to chart their narratives of expectation in relation to the promise of methadone. Results The modelled impact of OST shows relatively slight reductions in HIV incidence (5–10%) and prevalence (2–4%) over 5 years at coverage levels (around 10%) anticipated in the planned roll-out of OST. However, there is a higher impact with increased coverage, with 40% coverage producing a 20% reduction in HIV incidence, even when accounting for relatively high sexual transmissions. Qualitative findings emphasise a culture of ‘rationed expectation’ in relation to access to care and a ‘poverty of drug treatment opportunity’. In this context, the promise of methadone may be narrated as a symbol of hope—both for individuals and community—in relation to addiction recovery. Conclusions Methadone offers HIV prevention potential, but there is a need to better model the effects of sexual HIV transmission in mediating the impact of OST among PWID in settings characterised by a combination of generalised and concentrated epidemics. We find that individual and community narratives of methadone as hope for recovery coexist with policy narratives positioning methadone primarily in relation to HIV prevention. Our analyses show the value of mixed

  5. Accessible high performance computing solutions for near real-time image processing for time critical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielski, Conrad; Lemoine, Guido; Syryczynski, Jacek

    2009-09-01

    High Performance Computing (HPC) hardware solutions such as grid computing and General Processing on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPGPU) are now accessible to users with general computing needs. Grid computing infrastructures in the form of computing clusters or blades are becoming common place and GPGPU solutions that leverage the processing power of the video card are quickly being integrated into personal workstations. Our interest in these HPC technologies stems from the need to produce near real-time maps from a combination of pre- and post-event satellite imagery in support of post-disaster management. Faster processing provides a twofold gain in this situation: 1. critical information can be provided faster and 2. more elaborate automated processing can be performed prior to providing the critical information. In our particular case, we test the use of the PANTEX index which is based on analysis of image textural measures extracted using anisotropic, rotation-invariant GLCM statistics. The use of this index, applied in a moving window, has been shown to successfully identify built-up areas in remotely sensed imagery. Built-up index image masks are important input to the structuring of damage assessment interpretation because they help optimise the workload. The performance of computing the PANTEX workflow is compared on two different HPC hardware architectures: (1) a blade server with 4 blades, each having dual quad-core CPUs and (2) a CUDA enabled GPU workstation. The reference platform is a dual CPU-quad core workstation and the PANTEX workflow total computing time is measured. Furthermore, as part of a qualitative evaluation, the differences in setting up and configuring various hardware solutions and the related software coding effort is presented.

  6. Launcher Roadmap for the CrVI Substitution of Surface Treatments. Screening of Trivalent-Chromium Conversion Solutions and First Promising Results for Repair Applications on Aluminium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debout, Vincent; Pettier, Sophie

    2014-06-01

    Airbus Defence and Space, Space System is involved in a global roadmap for launchers in order to substitute hexavalent chromium (CrVI) and Cadmium in the current surface treatments on metallic structures.Within this framework, a screening of trivalent chromium (CrIII) conversion solutions for touch-up applications has been carried out since this step is crucial to perform local application or to repair minor damages on launcher structures but it leads to higher risks of exposure for the workers.Three commercial CrIII conversion solutions have been evaluated on high performance aluminum alloys such as AA2024 T3 and AA7175 T7351 that are often used as structural materials.This preliminary investigation highlights the effect of surface preparation, rinsing and conversion process on the final corrosion performance of conversion coatings (CCs). The results are also discussed in terms of visual aspect and adhesion with new Cr-free primers.Two operating sets of parameters are identified with promising results that represent the first steps towards the development of a new Cr-free touch-up process.

  7. DOE Voluntary Partnership Program with Utilities and Local Governments Supports the Design of New Data Access Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Monisha; Burr, Andrew; Schulte, Andrew; Field-Macumber, Kristin; Cochran-Hameen, Erica; Marion, Flore

    2016-08-26

    The Better Buildings Energy Data Accelerator (BBEDA) is a unique effort that has supported 22 pairs of local governments and their utility companies to help building owners gain access to their whole-building energy data. Municipal and Utility BBEDA Partners committed to develop streamlined and easy-to-use solutions to provide whole-building energy data, especially for multitenant commercial buildings, by the end of 2015. As a result, building owners would be able to make data-driven decisions about their buildings by utilizing readily available energy consumption data for entire buildings. Traditionally, data access was difficult to implement due to technical barriers and the lack of clear value propositions for the utilities. During the past two years, BBEDA has taken a hands-on approach to overcome these barriers by offering a platform for the partners to discuss their challenges and solutions. Customized support was also provided to Partners building their local strategies. Based on the lessons learned from the partners, BBEDA developed a final toolkit with guiding documents that addressed key barriers and served as a resource for the other cities and utilities attempting to establish whole-building data access, including an exploration of opportunities to apply the whole-building data to various aspects of utility demand-side management (DSM) programs. BBEDA has been a catalyst for market transformation by addressing the upstream (to efficiency implementation) barrier of data access, demonstrated through the success of the BBEDA partners to address policy, engagement, and technical hurdles and arrive at replicable solutions to make data access a standard practice nationwide. As a result of best practices identified by the BBEDA, 18 utilities serving more than 2.6 million commercial customers nationwide will provide whole-building energy data access to building owners by 2017. This historic expansion of data accessibility will increase building energy

  8. Geoscience Information Network (USGIN) Solutions for Interoperable Open Data Access Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, M. L.; Richard, S. M.; Patten, K.

    2014-12-01

    The geosciences are leading development of free, interoperable open access to data. US Geoscience Information Network (USGIN) is a freely available data integration framework, jointly developed by the USGS and the Association of American State Geologists (AASG), in compliance with international standards and protocols to provide easy discovery, access, and interoperability for geoscience data. USGIN standards include the geologic exchange language 'GeoSciML' (v 3.2 which enables instant interoperability of geologic formation data) which is also the base standard used by the 117-nation OneGeology consortium. The USGIN deployment of NGDS serves as a continent-scale operational demonstration of the expanded OneGeology vision to provide access to all geoscience data worldwide. USGIN is developed to accommodate a variety of applications; for example, the International Renewable Energy Agency streams data live to the Global Atlas of Renewable Energy. Alternatively, users without robust data sharing systems can download and implement a free software packet, "GINstack" to easily deploy web services for exposing data online for discovery and access. The White House Open Data Access Initiative requires all federally funded research projects and federal agencies to make their data publicly accessible in an open source, interoperable format, with metadata. USGIN currently incorporates all aspects of the Initiative as it emphasizes interoperability. The system is successfully deployed as the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS), officially launched at the White House Energy Datapalooza in May, 2014. The USGIN Foundation has been established to ensure this technology continues to be accessible and available.

  9. Restricting access to publications from funded research: ethical issues and solutions.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, S; Vani, N Isai

    2010-01-01

    India is becoming one of the hubs of clinical research. Commensurate with these advances, the government funding for biomedical research in thrust areas is also increasing. The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Department of Science and Technology (DST) are some of the government organizations which provide financial support for various research projects. The results of the funded research projects are published in various international journals. Most of these journals have an access to paid subscribers only. Hence it is unethical to use the research grants from government (people's money) and not allow the scientific community free access to the results of the study. To tackle such issues, these agencies should sign the Berlin declaration and create open access repositories. A public access policy should be formulated and listed in JULIET. The funding bodies in India should also join Pubmed Central (PMC) to form PMC India so that every investigator who has received grants would submit the full text of the paper published from his study and these can be made freely accessible to everyone. Universities and research institutions should also develop institutional open access repositories. The public access policy has definitive advantages and should be implemented.

  10. Successful treatment of a LifeSite Hemodialysis Access System pocket infection with large-volume kanamycin solution irrigation.

    PubMed

    Ross, John R

    2003-07-01

    Bridge devices-dialysis catheters and subcutaneous access devices-play a critical role in increasing the placement of arteriovenous (AV) fistulas by providing hemodialysis vascular access while AV fistulas mature. The LifeSite Hemodialysis Access System (Vasca Inc, Tewskburg, MA), a fully implantable, subcutaneous dual valve access system, has been shown to have lower complication rates, higher blood flow rates, and better long-term device survival than conventional tunneled hemodialysis catheters, indicating it may better meet the requirements for optimally bridging to a fistula. This case study of a 48-year-old black man undergoing chronic hemodialysis for renal failure because of insulin-dependent diabetes describes a simple approach for resolving localized pocket infections associated with the LifeSite System by drip irrigation of the valves and tissue pockets with an antibiotic solution. Eight weeks after implantation of the LifeSite System, the patient exhibited symptoms of infection of the lateral LifeSite valve tissue pocket, which on culture was shown to be caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Flushing the LifeSite valve and tissue pocket with a large volume of kanamycin solution, in conjunction with intravenous vancomycin and routine irrigation of the valve with isopropyl alcohol, resolved the infection after 1 treatment. The LifeSite System successfully bridged the patient to a transposed basilic vein fistula created through a 2-stage surgical procedure. The LifeSite System provided uninterrupted access for hemodialysis over a period of 6 months while the fistula matured. The LifeSite System should allow surgeons to attempt fistula construction in more patients, including diabetics, access-challenged patients, and patients with small vessels, who may benefit from a nontraditional surgical approach toward fistula creation.

  11. Computer and World Wide Web accessibility by visually disabled patients: problems and solutions.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Michael F; Cole, Roy G; Gupta, Suhit; Kaiser, Gail E; Starren, Justin B

    2005-01-01

    Rapid advances in information technology have dramatically transformed the world during the past several decades. Access to computers and the World Wide Web is increasingly required for education and employment, as well as for many activities of daily living. Although these changes have improved society in many respects, they present an obstacle for visually disabled patients who may have significant difficulty processing the visual cues presented by modern graphical user interfaces. This article reviews the specific barriers to computer and Web access faced by visually disabled patients, describes clinical evaluation methods, summarizes traditional low vision methods as well as newer assistive computer technologies for universal accessibility, and discusses emerging technologies and future directions in this area.

  12. An Accessible Two-Dimensional Solution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Experiment on Human Ubiquitin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rovnyak, David; Thompson, Laura E.

    2005-01-01

    Solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is an invaluable tool in structural and molecular biology research, but may be underutilized in undergraduate laboratories because instrumentation for performing structural studies of macromolecules in aqueous solutions is not yet widely available for use in undergraduate laboratories. We have…

  13. Old Solutions in A New Age: Cataloging and the Future of Access to Government Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutto, Dena Holiman

    1996-01-01

    Discusses cataloging in light of continuing needs and developments in access to government information. Recommends ways the library community, government information providers, and automation specialists can cooperatively reexamine bibliographic standards; expand tape loading to non-U.S. depository collections; link bibliographic databases with…

  14. Promising More Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    When NASA needed a real-time, online database system capable of tracking documentation changes in its propulsion test facilities, engineers at Stennis Space Center joined with ECT International, of Brookfield, Wisconsin, to create a solution. Through NASA's Dual-Use Program, ECT developed Exdata, a software program that works within the company's existing Promise software. Exdata not only satisfied NASA s requirements, but also expanded ECT s commercial product line. Promise, ECT s primary product, is an intelligent software program with specialized functions for designing and documenting electrical control systems. An addon to AutoCAD software, Promis e generates control system schematics, panel layouts, bills of material, wire lists, and terminal plans. The drawing functions include symbol libraries, macros, and automatic line breaking. Primary Promise customers include manufacturing companies, utilities, and other organizations with complex processes to control.

  15. Intermittent access to a sucrose solution impairs metabolism in obesity-prone but not obesity-resistant mice.

    PubMed

    Soto, Marion; Chaumontet, Catherine; Mauduit, Charles-David; Fromentin, Gilles; Palme, Rupert; Tomé, Daniel; Even, Patrick

    2016-02-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with overweight and obesity. In this study, we hypothesized that obesity-prone (OP) mice fed a high-fat high-sucrose diet (HFHS) are more sensitive to consumption of sucrose-sweetened water (SSW) than obesity-resistant (OR) mice. After 3weeks of ad libitum access to the HFHS diet (7.5h/day), 180 male mice were classified as either OP (upper quartile of body weight gain, 5.2±0.1g, n=45) or OR (lower quartile, 3.2±0.1g, n=45). OP and OR mice were subsequently divided into 3 subgroups that had access to HFHS (7.5h/day) for 16weeks, supplemented with: i) water (OP/water and OR/water); ii) water and SSW (12.6% w/v), available for 2h/day randomly when access to HFHS was available and for 5 randomly-chosen days/week (OP/SSW and OR/SSW); or iii) water and SSW for 8weeks, then only water for 8weeks (OP/SSW-water and OR/SSW-water). OR/SSW mice decreased their food intake compared to OR/water mice, while OP/SSW mice exhibited an increase in food and total energy intake compared to OP/water mice. OP/SSW mice also gained more body weight and fat mass than OP/water mice, showed an increase in liver triglycerides and developed insulin resistance. These effects were fully reversed in OP/SSW-water mice. In the gut, OR/SSW mice, but not OP/SSW mice, had an increase GLP-1 and CCK response to a liquid meal compared to mice drinking only water. OP/SSW mice had a decreased expression of melanocortin receptor 4 in the hypothalamus and increased expression of delta opioid receptor in the nucleus accumbens compared to OP/water mice when fasted that could explain the hyperphagia in these mice. When access to the sucrose solution was removed for 8weeks, OP mice had increased dopaminergic and opioidergic response to a sucrose solution. Thus, intermittent access to a sucrose solution in mice fed a HFHS diet induces changes in the gut and brain signaling, leading to increased energy intake and adverse metabolic consequences only in mice

  16. Gold(I) Carbenoids: On-Demand Access to Gold(I) Carbenes in Solution.

    PubMed

    Sarria Toro, Juan M; García-Morales, Cristina; Raducan, Mihai; Smirnova, Ekaterina S; Echavarren, Antonio M

    2017-02-06

    Chloromethylgold(I) complexes of phosphine, phosphite, and N-heterocyclic carbene ligands are easily synthesized by reaction of trimethylsilyldiazomethane with the corresponding gold chloride precursors. Activation of these gold(I) carbenoids with a variety of chloride scavengers promotes reactivity typical of metallocarbenes in solution, namely homocoupling to ethylene, olefin cyclopropanation, and Buchner ring expansion of benzene.

  17. Gold(I) Carbenoids: On‐Demand Access to Gold(I) Carbenes in Solution

    PubMed Central

    Sarria Toro, Juan M.; García‐Morales, Cristina; Raducan, Mihai; Smirnova, Ekaterina S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Chloromethylgold(I) complexes of phosphine, phosphite, and N‐heterocyclic carbene ligands are easily synthesized by reaction of trimethylsilyldiazomethane with the corresponding gold chloride precursors. Activation of these gold(I) carbenoids with a variety of chloride scavengers promotes reactivity typical of metallocarbenes in solution, namely homocoupling to ethylene, olefin cyclopropanation, and Buchner ring expansion of benzene. PMID:28090747

  18. Public-domain-software solution to data-access problems for numerical modelers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenter, Harry; Signell, Richard

    1992-01-01

    Unidata's network Common Data Form, netCDF, provides users with an efficient set of software for scientific-data-storage, retrieval, and manipulation. The netCDF file format is machine-independent, direct-access, self-describing, and in the public domain, thereby alleviating many problems associated with accessing output from large hydrodynamic models. NetCDF has programming interfaces in both the Fortran and C computer language with an interface to C++ planned for release in the future. NetCDF also has an abstract data type that relieves users from understanding details of the binary file structure; data are written and retrieved by an intuitive, user-supplied name rather than by file position. Users are aided further by Unidata's inclusion of the Common Data Language, CDL, a printable text-equivalent of the contents of a netCDF file. Unidata provides numerous operators and utilities for processing netCDF files. In addition, a number of public-domain and proprietary netCDF utilities from other sources are available at this time or will be available later this year. The U.S. Geological Survey has produced and is producing a number of public-domain netCDF utilities.

  19. [Distribution of drinking water in French Guyana: issues and solutions for improving access].

    PubMed

    Mansotte, François; Margueron, Thomas; Maison, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    French Guyana is located in South America, and it is confronted with an endemic situation where waterborne diseases are widespread, especially among those 30,000 people without access to drinking water. In 2007, two notices of the French High Council for Public Health were issued, one concerning vaccination against typhoid and the other on conditions for improving water supply in Guyana. The latter served as a basis for proposing and implementing actions to "improve water quality for those who did not have access to it". Some foundation for further action was provided due to actions developed during the 1991 cholera outbreak there, when hand pumps and fountains were installed, and rainwater collection was promoted at the household level. Top priority is given to water supply provided by public facilities, especially through hand pumps. Rainwater harvest and storage is promoted for remote and very isolated households, including tools for purification through the use of a Brazilian-made ceramic filter. Important challenges are identified for the further, such as: conducting an evaluation of those technical choices made, developing a social and cultural understanding of drinking water and sanitation among the users, distribution and training for the use of water quality test kits, data sharing and exchange of good practice with neighbouring countries and an accurate mapping of enteric disease cases recorded in local health facilities.

  20. GOES: Challenges and Solutions Associated with Accessing, Processing, and Visualizing Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheeseman, S.; Christensen, P. R.; Prashad, L. C.; Dickenshied, S.; Edwards, C. S.; Noss, D.

    2011-12-01

    Roughly 80 images of our planet are captured every day from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite 13 (GOES-13), a geosynchronous weather satellite, which covers the Atlantic side of the western hemisphere. The GOES-13 multichannel imager measures radiant energy and reflected solar energy from the Earth's surface and atmosphere in five different wavelengths - four in the infrared (3.8-4.0μm, 10.2-11.2μm, 11.5-12.5μm at 4km resolution and 6.5-7.0μm at 8km resolution) and one visible band (0.55-0.75μm at 1km resolution). GOES-13 is one of three among the third generation of instruments which are operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Individual image files range from 800kB in the infrared to 12MB for daytime visible imagery and a year's set can add up to more than 170GB in the infrared alone -- half the visible archive. This high data volume is not easily accessible for most researchers to store and access for fast longitudinal analysis. Additionally, no comprehensive archive of full resolution GOES data currently exist for the public to access processed and georeferenced for rapid visualization and analysis. GOES data are not only valuable for researchers to study climate over time but would be useful for practitioners to better understand many global anomalies from hurricane patterns to urban heat islands. The Mars Space Flight Facility at Arizona State University has developed a processing and georeferencing algorithm and a data storage system for GOES-13 data. The automated system has been collecting and archiving GOES-13 infrared and visible imagery daily since 9/28/10 and has acquired over 140,000 images so far. The data will be accessible for researchers and the public to view and analyze through the NASA open source geographic information system (GIS) software package Java Mission Planning and Analysis for the Earth (J-Earth). Users have the ability to access our entire archive of GOES-13 imagery through J

  1. A SOA broker solution for standard discovery and access services: the GI-cat framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldrini, Enrico

    2010-05-01

    GI-cat ideal users are data providers or service providers within the geoscience community. The former have their data already available through an access service (e.g. an OGC Web Service) and would have it published through a standard catalog service, in a seamless way. The latter would develop a catalog broker and let users query and access different geospatial resources through one or more standard interfaces and Application Profiles (AP) (e.g. OGC CSW ISO AP, CSW ebRIM/EO AP, etc.). GI-cat actually implements a broker components (i.e. a middleware service) which carries out distribution and mediation functionalities among "well-adopted" catalog interfaces and data access protocols. GI-cat also publishes different discovery interfaces: the OGC CSW ISO and ebRIM Application Profiles (the latter coming with support for the EO and CIM extension packages) and two different OpenSearch interfaces developed in order to explore Web 2.0 possibilities. An extended interface is also available to exploit all available GI-cat features, such as interruptible incremental queries and queries feedback. Interoperability tests performed in the context of different projects have also pointed out the importance to enforce compatibility with existing and wide-spread tools of the open source community (e.g. GeoNetwork and Deegree catalogs), which was then achieved. Based on a service-oriented framework of modular components, GI-cat can effectively be customized and tailored to support different deployment scenarios. In addition to the distribution functionality an harvesting approach has been lately experimented, allowing the user to switch between a distributed and a local search giving thus more possibilities to support different deployment scenarios. A configurator tool is available in order to enable an effective high level configuration of the broker service. A specific geobrowser was also naturally developed, for demonstrating the advanced GI-cat functionalities. This client

  2. Multiple user access and testing for PreNotiS: a fast mobile event reporting solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Michael; Kumar, Abhinav; Akopian, David; Agaian, Sos S.

    2011-06-01

    The PreNotiS (preventive notification system) was proposed to address the current lack in consumer prevention and disaster informatics systems. The underscore of this letter is to propose PreNotiS as a provision of trusted proxies of information sourcing to be integral to the disaster informatics framework. To promote loose coupling among subsystems, PreNotiS has evolved into a model-view-controller (MVC) architecture via object-oriented incremental prototyping. The MVC specifies how all subsystems and how they interact with each other. A testing framework is also proposed for the PreNotiS to verify multiple concurrent user access which might be observable during disasters. The framework relies on conceptually similar self-test modules to help with serviceability.

  3. ACCESS MARS: Study of the viability of Mars Caves as an alternative to surface-based habitation solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Poch, Antoni; Laufer, Ren; Zavaleta, Jhony; Davila, Alfonso; Gallardo, Beatriz; Antonakopoulos, Konstantinos; de Carufel, Guy

    This paper summarizes a team project report that was produced during the Summer Space Program of the International Space University, held at NASA-Ames Research Center (CA, USA), by 56 students from 15 countries. Chair of the team project was René Laufer. Facilitators were Alfonso Dévila and Jhonny Zavaleta, and teacher associate supporting the team was a Beatriz Gallardo. Currently proposed Mars missions have identified a number of challenges such as high levels of radiation, harsh climate and limited launch windows. Recently discovered lava tubes on Mars present potential solutions to some of these issues, but raise a variety of intriguing new challenges. These encompass not only technological and engineering considerations, but also legal, ethical and societal issues such as planetary protection and crew safety. This paper assesses the feasibility of overcoming such challenges through the exploitation of Mars caves. Cave suitability is considered with respect to size, type, location and their potential to mitigate hazards. They are also assessed with respect to their potential for scientific work adhering to astrobiology guidelines and the search for extra-terrestrial life. This report compares surface and subsurface habitat options. Engineering challenges arising from the use of caves are addressed along with proposals for alternate architecture solutions. Different types of habitat are described and evaluated. The implications of sub-surface operations on thermal control, communications and power systems are investigated, and recommendations given. Crew selection, training methods and life support system solutions are also addressed. A Mission architecture analysis from the same Team Project is given in another paper from the same authors, at COSPAR 2010 B02 Technical Session. The ACCESS Mars Team concludes that using lava tubes as human habitats is not merely a viable habitat solution for a Mars expedition, but also potentially more beneficial than proposed

  4. Metabolic effects of intermittent access to caloric or non-caloric sweetened solutions in mice fed a high-caloric diet.

    PubMed

    Soto, Marion; Chaumontet, Catherine; Even, Patrick C; Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Tomé, Daniel; Fromentin, Gilles

    2017-03-24

    Human consumption of obesogenic diets and soft drinks, sweetened with different molecules, is increasing worldwide, and increases the risk of metabolic diseases. We hypothesized that the chronic consumption of caloric (sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), maltodextrin) and non-caloric (sucralose) solutions under 2-hour intermittent access, alongside the consumption of a high-fat high-sucrose diet, would result in differential obesity-associated metabolic abnormalities in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice had ad libitum access to an HFHS diet and to water (water control group). In addition, some mice had access, 2h/day, 5days/week (randomly chosen) for 12weeks, to different solutions: i) a sucrose solution (2.1kJ/ml), ii) an HFCS solution (2.1kJ/ml), iii) a maltodextrin solution (2.1kJ/ml) and a sucralose solution (60mM) (n=15/group). Despite no changes in total caloric intake, 2h-intermittent access to the sucrose, HFCS or maltodextrin solutions led to increased body weight and accumulation of lipids in the liver when compared to the group consuming water only. The HFCS and sucrose solutions induced a higher fat mass in various fat depots, glucose intolerance, increased glucose oxidation at the expense of lipid oxidation, and a lower hypothalamic expression of NPY in the fasted state. HFCS also reduced proopiomelanocortin expression in the hypothalamus. 2h-intermittent access to sucralose did not result in significant changes in body composition, but caused a stronger expression of CART in the hypothalamus. Finally, sucrose intake showed a trend to increase the expression of various receptors in the nucleus accumbens, linked to dopamine, opioid and endocannabinoid signaling. In conclusion, 2h-intermittent access to caloric solutions (especially those sweetened with sucrose and HFCS), but not sucralose, resulted in adverse metabolic consequences in high-fat high-sucrose-fed mice.

  5. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-05-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  6. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan; Jersey Inst Ansari, New; Jersey Inst, New

    2005-04-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  7. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-06-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  8. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Building access control (BAC)--a catchall phrase to describe the systems that control access to facilities across campus--has traditionally been handled with remarkably low-tech solutions: (1) manual locks; (2) electronic locks; and (3) ID cards with magnetic strips. Recent improvements have included smart cards and keyless solutions that make use…

  9. The Pd-catalyzed hydrodechlorination of chlorophenols in aqueous solutions under mild conditions: a promising approach to practical use in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chuanhai; Liu, Ying; Zhou, Shiwei; Yang, Cuiyun; Liu, Sujing; Xu, Jie; Yu, Junbao; Chen, Jiping; Liang, Xinmiao

    2009-09-30

    Catalytic hydrotreating of chlorophenols was carried out in water with Pd/C at 25 degrees C under atmospheric pressure. 1.0% (w/w) monocholophenols was completely dechlorinated within 60 min. Phenol, cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol were formed. In contrast to the dechlorination of monochlorophenols, the hydrogenation reaction of polychlorinated phenols became difficult and reaction rates were strongly dependent upon the number of the chlorine atoms. The solvent property had a considerably important influence on the dechlorination reaction. Water as a solvent showed more advantages than organic solvents. It was much easier to be hydrodechlorinated for chlorophenols in aqueous solutions. However, the presence of THF, dioxane, DMSO or DMF in water was disadvantageous to the reaction and easily to cause Pd/C deactivation. Additionally, when different halogenated organic compounds were present in aqueous solution, the dehalogenation reaction was the competitive hydrogenation process.

  10. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-03-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  11. Promises, promises for neuroscience and law.

    PubMed

    Buckholtz, Joshua W; Faigman, David L

    2014-09-22

    Stunning technical advances in the ability to image the human brain have provoked excited speculation about the application of neuroscience to other fields. The 'promise' of neuroscience for law has been touted with particular enthusiasm. Here, we contend that this promise elides fundamental conceptual issues that limit the usefulness of neuroscience for law. Recommendations for overcoming these challenges are offered.

  12. IFLA General Conference, 1986. Pre-Conference Seminar on Automated Systems for Access to Multilingual and Multiscript Library materials: Problems and Solutions. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, The Hague (Netherlands).

    A seminar which considered problems and solutions regarding automated systems for access to multilingual and multiscript library materials was held as a pre-session before the IFLA general conference in 1986. Papers presented include: (1) "Romanized and Transliterated Databases of Asian Language Materials--History, Problems, and…

  13. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-02-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  14. Developing Mathematically Promising Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Linda Jensen, Ed.

    This book, written on the recommendation of the Task Force on Mathematically Promising Students, investigates issues involving the development of promising mathematics students. Recommendations are made concerning topics such as the definition of promising students; the identification of such students; appropriate curriculum, instruction, and…

  15. Cyberinfrastructure at IRIS: Challenges and Solutions Providing Integrated Data Access to EarthScope and Other Earth Science Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahern, T. K.; Barga, R.; Casey, R.; Kamb, L.; Parastatidis, S.; Stromme, S.; Weertman, B. T.

    2008-12-01

    While mature methods of accessing seismic data from the IRIS DMC have existed for decades, the demands for improved interdisciplinary data integration call for new approaches. Talented software teams at the IRIS DMC, UNAVCO and the ICDP in Germany, have been developing web services for all EarthScope data including data from USArray, PBO and SAFOD. These web services are based upon SOAP and WSDL. The EarthScope Data Portal was the first external system to access data holdings from the IRIS DMC using Web Services. EarthScope will also draw more heavily upon products to aid in cross-disciplinary data reuse. A Product Management System called SPADE allows archive of and access to heterogeneous data products, presented as XML documents, at the IRIS DMC. Searchable metadata are extracted from the XML and enable powerful searches for products from EarthScope and other data sources. IRIS is teaming with the External Research Group at Microsoft Research to leverage a powerful Scientific Workflow Engine (Trident) and interact with the web services developed at centers such as IRIS to enable access to data services as well as computational services. We believe that this approach will allow web- based control of workflows and the invocation of computational services that transform data. This capability will greatly improve access to data across scientific disciplines. This presentation will review some of the traditional access tools as well as many of the newer approaches that use web services, scientific workflow to improve interdisciplinary data access.

  16. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-01-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks

    Guest Editors Jun Zheng, University of Ottawa Nirwan Ansari, New Jersey Institute of Technology

    Submission Deadline: 1 June 2005

    Background

    With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the

  17. Balancing Patient Access to Fetoscopic Laser Photocoagulation for Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome With Maintaining Procedural Competence: Are Collaborative Services Part of the Solution?

    PubMed

    Edwards, Andrew G; Teoh, Mark; Hodges, Ryan J; Palma-Dias, Ricardo; Cole, Stephen A; Fung, Alison M; Walker, Susan P

    2016-06-01

    The benefits of fetoscopic laser photocoagulation (FLP) for treatment of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) have been recognized for over a decade, yet access to FLP remains limited in many settings. This means at a population level, the potential benefits of FLP for TTTS are far from being fully realized. In part, this is because there are many centers where the case volume is relatively low. This creates an inevitable tension; on one hand, wanting FLP to be readily accessible to all women who may need it, yet on the other, needing to ensure that a high degree of procedural competence is maintained. Some of the solutions to these apparently competing priorities may be found in novel training solutions to achieve, and maintain, procedural proficiency, and with the increased utilization of 'competence based' assessment and credentialing frameworks. We suggest an under-utilized approach is the development of collaborative surgical services, where pooling of personnel and resources can improve timely access to surgery, improve standardized assessment and management of TTTS, minimize the impact of the surgical learning curve, and facilitate audit, education, and research. When deciding which centers should offer laser for TTTS and how we decide, we propose some solutions from a collaborative model.

  18. Comparison of freezing tolerance, compatible solutes and polyamines in geographically diverse collections of Thellungiella sp. and Arabidopsis thaliana accessions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Thellungiella has been proposed as an extremophile alternative to Arabidopsis to investigate environmental stress tolerance. However, Arabidopsis accessions show large natural variation in their freezing tolerance and here the tolerance ranges of collections of accessions in the two species were compared. Results Leaf freezing tolerance of 16 Thellungiella accessions was assessed with an electrolyte leakage assay before and after 14 days of cold acclimation at 4°C. Soluble sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, raffinose) and free polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, spermine) were quantified by HPLC, proline photometrically. The ranges in nonacclimated freezing tolerance completely overlapped between Arabidopsis and Thellungiella. After cold acclimation, some Thellungiella accessions were more freezing tolerant than any Arabidopsis accessions. Acclimated freezing tolerance was correlated with sucrose levels in both species, but raffinose accumulation was lower in Thellungiella and only correlated with freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis. The reverse was true for leaf proline contents. Polyamine levels were generally similar between the species. Only spermine content was higher in nonacclimated Thellungiella plants, but decreased during acclimation and was negatively correlated with freezing tolerance. Conclusion Thellungiella is not an extremophile with regard to freezing tolerance, but some accessions significantly expand the range present in Arabidopsis. The metabolite data indicate different metabolic adaptation strategies between the species. PMID:22863402

  19. The Kalamazoo Promise Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartik, Timothy J.; Lachowska, Marta

    2014-01-01

    This study takes advantage of the unexpected announcement of the Kalamazoo Promise to study its effects on student achievement and behavior in high school. The Kalamazoo Promise provides college scholarships to graduates of Kalamazoo Public Schools (KPS), a midsized urban school district in Michigan that is racially and economically diverse.…

  20. Keeping the Promise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whissemore, Tabitha

    2016-01-01

    Since its launch in September 2015, Heads Up America has collected information on nearly 125 promise programs across the country, many of which were instituted long before President Barack Obama announced the America's College Promise (ACP) plan in 2015. At least 27 new free community college programs have launched in states, communities, and at…

  1. A clearing house for diagnostic testing: the solution to ensure access to and use of patented genetic inventions?

    PubMed Central

    van Zimmeren, Esther; Verbeure, Birgit; Matthijs, Gert; Van Overwalle, Geertrui

    2006-01-01

    In genetic diagnostics, the emergence of a so-called "patent thicket" is imminent. Such an overlapping set of patent rights may have restrictive effects on further research and development of diagnostic tests, and the provision of clinical diagnostic services. Currently, two models that may facilitate access to and use of patented genetic inventions are attracting much debate in various national and international fora: patent pools and clearing houses. In this article, we explore the concept of clearing houses. Several types of clearing houses are identified. First, we describe and discuss two types that would provide access to information on the patented inventions: the information clearing house and the technology exchange clearing house. Second, three types of clearing houses are analysed that not only offer access to information but also provide an instrument to facilitate the use of the patented inventions: the open access clearing house, the standardized licences clearing house and the royalty collection clearing house. A royalty collection clearing house for genetic diagnostic testing would be the most comprehensive as it would serve several functions: identifying patents and patent claims essential to diagnostic testing, matching licensees with licensors, developing and supplying standardized licences, collecting royalties, monitoring whether users respect licensing conditions, and providing dispute resolution services such as mediation and arbitration. In this way, it might function as an effective model for users to facilitate access to and use of the patented inventions. However, it remains to be seen whether patent holders with a strong patent portfolio will be convinced by the advantages of the royalty collection clearing house and be willing to participate. PMID:16710543

  2. A win-win solution?: A critical analysis of tiered pricing to improve access to medicines in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tiered pricing - the concept of selling drugs and vaccines in developing countries at prices systematically lower than in industrialized countries - has received widespread support from industry, policymakers, civil society, and academics as a way to improve access to medicines for the poor. We carried out case studies based on a review of international drug price developments for antiretrovirals, artemisinin combination therapies, drug-resistant tuberculosis medicines, liposomal amphotericin B (for visceral leishmaniasis), and pneumococcal vaccines. Discussion We found several critical shortcomings to tiered pricing: it is inferior to competition for achieving the lowest sustainable prices; it often involves arbitrary divisions between markets and/or countries, which can lead to very high prices for middle-income markets; and it leaves a disproportionate amount of decision-making power in the hands of sellers vis-à-vis consumers. In many developing countries, resources are often stretched so tight that affordability can only be approached by selling medicines at or near the cost of production. Policies that "de-link" the financing of R&D from the price of medicines merit further attention, since they can reward innovation while exploiting robust competition in production to generate the lowest sustainable prices. However, in special cases - such as when market volumes are very small or multi-source production capacity is lacking - tiered pricing may offer the only practical option to meet short-term needs for access to a product. In such cases, steps should be taken to ensure affordability and availability in the longer-term. Summary To ensure access to medicines for populations in need, alternate strategies should be explored that harness the power of competition, avoid arbitrary market segmentation, and/or recognize government responsibilities. Competition should generally be the default option for achieving affordability, as it has proven superior

  3. Book of Renovations. A Compilation of Drawings Depicting the Most Common Problems and Solutions to Renovating Existing Buildings and Facilities to Make Them Accessible to and Usable by People with Physical Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Bruce H., Ed.

    This booklet presents a compilation of ideas and illustrations intended to solve many accessibility problems of physically handicapped persons using older buildings and facilities which were built before legislation and regulations mandating accessibility for disabled persons were passed. The solutions pictured in the booklet are intended to meet…

  4. ENVRI PLUS: European initiative towards technical and research cultural solutions for across-disciplines accessible Research Infrastructure products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmi, A.; Kutsch, W. L.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental Research Infrastructures are often built as bottom-up initiatives to provide products for specific target group, which often is very discipline specific. However, the societal or environmental challenges are typically not concentrated on specific disciplines, and require usage of data sets from many RIs. ENVRI PLUS is an initiative where the European environmental RIs work together to provide common technical background (in physical observation technologies and in data products and descriptions) to make the RI products more usable to user groups outside of the original RI target groups. ENVRI PLUS also includes many policy and dissemination concentrated actions to make the RI operations coherent and understandable to both scientists and other potential users. The actions include building common technological capital of the RIs (physical and data-oriented), creating common access procedures (especially for cross-diciplinary access), developing ethical guidelines and related policies, distributing know-how between RIs and building common communication and collaboration system for European environmental RIs. All ENVRI PLUS products are free to use, e.g. for use of new or existing environmental RIs worldwide.

  5. The Promise of a College Scholarship Transforms a District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Gary W.; Ash, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Promise programs are place-based scholarships, generally tied to a city or school district, offering near-universal access to all living in the "place." While Promise programs share some characteristics with other scholarship programs, they're unique because they seek to change communities and schools. Underlying such promise programs is…

  6. Volume and accessibility of entrained (solution) methane in deep geopressured reservoirs - tertiary formations of the Texas Gulf Coast. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, A.R.; Dodge, M.M.; Posey, J.S.; Morton, R.A.

    1980-10-01

    The objective of this project was to appraise the total volume of in-place methane dissolved in formation waters of deep sandstone reservoirs of the onshore Texas Gulf Coast within the stratigraphic section extending from the base of significant hydrocarbon production (8000 ft)* to the deepest significant sandstone occurrence. The area of investigation is about 50,000 mi/sup 2/. Factors that determine the total methane resource are reservoir bulk volume, porosity, and methane solubility; the latter is controlled by the temperature, pressure, and salinity of formation waters. Regional assessment of the volume and the distribution of potential sandstone reservoirs was made from a data base of 880 electrical well logs, from which a grid of 24 dip cross sections and 4 strike cross sections was constructed. Solution methane content in each of nine formations or divisions of formations was determined for each subdivision. The distribution of solution methane in the Gulf Coast was described on the basis of five reservoir models. Each model was characterized by depositional environment, reservoir continuity, porosity, permeability, and methane solubility.

  7. Early free access to hypertonic NaCl solution induces a long-term effect on drinking, brain cell activity and gene expression of adult rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Macchione, A F; Beas, C; Dadam, F M; Caeiro, X E; Godino, A; Ponce, L F; Amigone, J L; Vivas, L

    2015-07-09

    Exposure to an altered osmotic environment during a pre/postnatal period can differentially program the fluid intake and excretion pattern profile in a way that persists until adulthood. However, knowledge about the programming effects on the underlying brain neurochemical circuits of thirst and hydroelectrolyte balance, and its relation with behavioral outputs, is limited. We evaluated whether early voluntary intake of hypertonic NaCl solution may program adult offspring fluid balance, plasma vasopressin, neural activity, and brain vasopressin and angiotensinergic receptor type 1a (AT1a)-receptor gene expression. The manipulation (M) period covered dams from 1 week before conception until offspring turned 1-month-old. The experimental groups were (i) Free access to hypertonic NaCl solution (0.45 M NaCl), food (0.18% NaCl) and water [M-Na]; and (ii) Free access to food and water only [M-Ctrol]. Male offspring (2-month-old) were subjected to iv infusion (0.15 ml/min) of hypertonic (1.5M NaCl), isotonic (0.15M NaCl) or sham infusion during 20 min. Cumulative water intake (140 min) and drinking latency to the first lick were recorded from the start of the infusion. Our results indicate that, after systemic sodium overload, the M-Na group had increased water intake, and diminished neuronal activity (Fos-immunoreactivity) in the subfornical organ (SFO) and nucleus of the solitary tract. They also showed reduced relative vasopressin (AVP)-mRNA and AT1a-mRNA expression at the supraoptic nucleus and SFO, respectively. The data indicate that the availability of a rich source of sodium during the pre/postnatal period induces a long-term effect on drinking, neural activity, and brain gene expression implicated in the control of hydroelectrolyte balance.

  8. Dense central office solution for point-to-point fibre access including a novel compact dual bi-directional fibre optical transceiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvidsson, Gunnar; Junique, Stéphane; Persson, Karl-Åke; Sundberg, Erland

    2006-07-01

    The centralized Point-to-Point fibre access approach with a dedicated single mode optical fibre link connecting each customer to a Central Office (CO) has advantages regarding future-proofness, security, and simple and low-cost optical links and transceivers. The potential bottleneck in handling the large number of optical fibres that need to be terminated in the CO, and combined with optoelectronic components, has been studied within the IST 6th Framework Programme integrated project MUSE. The key parts in the CO are the passive cabinet where customer fibres are accessible through fibre connectors in the Optical Distribution Frame (ODF), and the active cabinet with switching equipment and optical transceivers. For the passive cabinet we conclude, that the most efficient solution is that each connection from the active cabinet to a customer passes only one ODF, and that small form factor connectors are used. For the active cabinet we have demonstrated the feasibility of an SFF-size module containing two bi-directional transceiver units by building and successfully testing a prototype, increasing the customer port density by a factor of two compared to commercial transceivers. The power consumption, which impacts power supply, cooling and cost, has been analyzed, and we propose measures to significantly decrease the power consumption.

  9. Access to Investigational Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... access to investigational drugs being developed by pharmaceutical companies? Are there specific criteria used to determine whether ... laboratory. If the results are promising, the drug company or sponsor must apply for FDA approval to ...

  10. Scaling up access to oral rehydration solution for diarrhea: Learning from historical experience in low– and high–performing countries

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Shelby E.; Morris, Saul S.; Gilbert, Sarah Skye; Mosites, Emily; Hackleman, Rob; Weum, Kristoffer L.M.; Pintye, Jillian; Manhart, Lisa E.; Hawes, Stephen E.

    2013-01-01

    Aim This paper aims to identify factors that systematically predict why some countries that have tried to scale up oral rehydration solution (ORS) have succeeded, and others have not. Methods We examined ORS coverage over time, across countries, and through case studies. We conducted expert interviews and literature and data searches to better understand the history of ORS scale–up efforts and why they failed or succeeded in nine countries. We used qualitative, pairwise (or three–country) comparisons of geographically or otherwise similar countries that had different outcomes in terms of ORS scale–up. An algorithm was developed which scored country performance across key supply, demand and financing activities to quantitatively assess the scale–up efforts in each country. Results The vast majority of countries have neither particularly low nor encouragingly high ORS use rates. We observed three clearly identifiable contrasts between countries that achieved and sustained high ORS coverage and those that did not. Key partners across sectors have critical roles to play to effectively address supply– and demand–side barriers. Efforts must synchronize demand generation, private provider outreach and public sector work. Many donor funds are either suspended or redirected in the event of political instability, exacerbating the health challenges faced by countries in these contexts. We found little information on the cost of scale–up efforts. Conclusions We identified a number of characteristics of successful ORS scale–up programs, including involvement of a broad range of key players, addressing supply and demand generation together, and working with both public and private sectors. Dedicated efforts are needed to launch and sustain success, including monitoring and evaluation plans to track program costs and impacts. These case studies were designed to inform programmatic decision–making; thus, rigorous academic methods to qualitatively and

  11. International Collaboration: Promises and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Widmer, R. Jay; Widmer, Jocelyn M.; Lerman, Amir

    2015-01-01

    We currently face a myriad of grand global challenges in fields such as poverty, the environment, education, science, and medicine. However, our current means of dealing with such challenges has fallen short, and ingenious solutions are required to overcome the inherent resistance to progress toward ameliorating such difficulties. Here, we highlight the promises and challenges of international collaboration in achieving success toward these trials. We note prior successes in fields such as education, medicine, science, and environmental issues made to date, yet at the same time we do note deficiencies and shortcomings in these efforts. Hence, the notion of international collaboration should be strengthened and encouraged by governments, non-profit organizations, and others moving forward using creative means to bring talented teams together to tackle these challenges across the globe. PMID:25973264

  12. [Promising technologies in surgery].

    PubMed

    Kotiv, B N; Maĭstrenko, N A

    2013-06-01

    In modern conditions of local wars and armed conflicts, the basic principle of medical care is to reduce injuries stages of medical evacuation, aimed at accelerating the provision of specialized surgical care. In this regard, significantly increases the need for the development and implementation of new high-tech methods that can improve quality of care, both on the battlefield and on the stages of specialized surgical care. A promising direction is the introduction into clinical practice: minimally invasive technologies, the concept of hybrid navigation surgery, operations with the use of laser technology and robotics, advanced and extremely extensive interventions to cancer patients; technology reduces blood loss, use of cell therapy, transplantation techniques, the development of the concept of organ transplantation, lost in combat trauma, the creation of artificial organs and tissues, the creation of personal protective equipment, integrated with a system of combat, etc.

  13. Credible threats and promises.

    PubMed

    McNamara, John M; Houston, Alasdair I

    2002-11-29

    We consider various implications of information about the other player in two-player evolutionary games. A simple model of desertion shows that information about the partner's behaviour can be disadvantageous, and highlights the idea of credible threats. We then discuss the general issue of whether the partner can convince the focal player that it will behave in a specific way, i.e. whether the focal player can make credible threats or promises. We show that when desertion decisions depend on reserves, a player can manipulate its reserves so as to create a credible threat of desertion. We then extend previous work on the evolution of trust and commitment, discussing conditions under which it is advantageous to assume that a partner will behave in a certain way even though it is not in its best interest.

  14. Chronic restricted access to 10% sucrose solution in adolescent and young adult rats impairs spatial memory and alters sensitivity to outcome devaluation.

    PubMed

    Kendig, Michael D; Boakes, Robert A; Rooney, Kieron B; Corbit, Laura H

    2013-08-15

    Although increasing consumption of sugar drinks is recognized as a significant public health concern, little is known about (a) the cognitive effects resulting from sucrose consumption; and (b) whether the long-term effects of sucrose consumption are more pronounced for adolescents. This experiment directly compared performance on a task of spatial learning and memory (the Morris Water Maze) and sensitivity to outcome devaluation following 28 days of 2-h/day access to a 10% sucrose solution in adolescent and young-adult Wistar rats. Sucrose groups developed elevated fasting blood glucose levels after the diet intervention, despite drawing <15% of calories from sucrose and gaining no more weight than controls. In subsequent behavioral testing, sucrose groups were impaired on the Morris Water Maze, with some residual deficits in spatial memory observed more than 6 weeks after the end of sucrose exposure. Further, results from outcome devaluation testing indicated that in the older cohort of rats, those fed sucrose showed reduced sensitivity to devaluation of the outcome, suggestive of differences in instrumental learning following sucrose exposure. Data provide strong evidence that sucrose consumption can induce deficits in spatial cognition and reward-oriented behavior at levels that resemble patterns of sugar drink consumption in young people, and which can remain long after exposure.

  15. The Promise Rich vs. The Promise Poor. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    America's Promise Alliance (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    The second "Every Child, Every Promise" research brief examines the association between a family's income and the presence of the Five Promises in their child's life. The report documents the Promise gap that exists between children in low-income families and those in higher income families. Although parents in low-income families are typically…

  16. A Substrate Access Tunnel in the Cytosolic Domain Is Not an Essential Feature of the Solute Carrier 4 (SLC4) Family of Bicarbonate Transporters*

    PubMed Central

    Shnitsar, Volodymyr; Li, Jing; Li, Xuyao; Calmettes, Charles; Basu, Arghya; Casey, Joseph R.; Moraes, Trevor F.; Reithmeier, Reinhart A. F.

    2013-01-01

    Anion exchanger 1 (AE1; Band 3; SLC4A1) is the founding member of the solute carrier 4 (SLC4) family of bicarbonate transporters that includes chloride/bicarbonate AEs and Na+-bicarbonate co-transporters (NBCs). These membrane proteins consist of an amino-terminal cytosolic domain involved in protein interactions and a carboxyl-terminal membrane domain that carries out the transport function. Mutation of a conserved arginine residue (R298S) in the cytosolic domain of NBCe1 (SLC4A4) is linked to proximal renal tubular acidosis and results in impaired transport function, suggesting that the cytosolic domain plays a role in substrate permeation. Introduction of single and double mutations at the equivalent arginine (Arg283) and at an interacting glutamate (Glu85) in the cytosolic domain of human AE1 (cdAE1) had no effect on the cell surface expression or the transport activity of AE1 expressed in HEK-293 cells. In addition, the membrane domain of AE1 (mdAE1) efficiently mediated anion transport. A 2.1-Å resolution crystal structure of cdΔ54AE1 (residues 55–356 of cdAE1) lacking the amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal disordered regions, produced at physiological pH, revealed an extensive hydrogen-bonded network involving Arg283 and Glu85. Mutations at these residues affected the pH-dependent conformational changes and stability of cdΔ54AE1. As these structural alterations did not impair functional expression of AE1, the cytosolic and membrane domains operate independently. A substrate access tunnel within the cytosolic domain is not present in AE1 and therefore is not an essential feature of the SLC4 family of bicarbonate transporters. PMID:24121512

  17. Telepsychiatry: Promise, potential, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Savita; Chakrabarti, Subho; Shah, Ruchita

    2013-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence and potentially disabling consequences of mental disorders, specialized mental health services are extremely deficient, leading to the so-called 'Mental Health Gap'. Moreover, the services are concentrated in the urban areas, further worsening the rural-urban and tertiary primary care divide. Strengthening of and expanding the existing human resources and infrastructure, and integrating mental health into primary care appear to be the two major solutions. However, both the strategies are riddled with logistic difficulties and have a long gestation period. In such a scenario, telepsychiatry or e-mental health, defined as the use of information and communication technology to provide or support psychiatric services across distances, appears to be a promising answer. Due to its enormous potential, a review of the existing literature becomes imperative. An extensive search of literature was carried out and has been presented to delineate the modes of communication, acceptability and satisfaction, reliability, outcomes, cost-effectiveness, and legal and ethical challenges related to telepsychiatry. Telepsychiatry has been applied for direct patient care (diagnosis and management), consultation, and training, education, and research purposes. Both real-time, live interaction (synchronous) and store-forward (asynchronous) types of technologies have been used for these purposes. A growing amount of literature shows that training, supervision, and consultation by specialists to primary care physicians through telepsychiatry has several advantages. In this background, we have further focused on the models of telepsychiatry best suited for India, considering that mental health care can be integrated into primary care and taken to the doorstep of patients in the community.

  18. Granting Each Equal Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walling, Linda Lucas

    1992-01-01

    Summarizes federal legislation regarding equal access for students with disabilities and discusses environmental barriers to accessibility in the library media center. Solutions to these design problems are suggested in the following areas: material formats and space requirements; the physical setting, including furniture, floor coverings,…

  19. Empower: access to medicine - working towards early access.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Jennifer Bryant; Turgoose, James; Hargrave, James

    2015-01-01

    Empower: Access to Medicine's contribution will document the founding of Empower: Access to Medicine and tactics used to create a lobbying campaign designed to facilitate the debate around barriers to medical innovation and patient access to medicines. The article will detail the evolution of the campaign's goals and the potential solutions to an expensive and slow system. Specifically the submission will look at the influence that Empower: Access to Medicine had on the Government's thinking and development of an early access scheme.

  20. Nanotechnology: Its Promise and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Vicki Colvin

    2009-05-14

    Vicki Colvin of Rice University talks about how nanotechnology-enabled systems, with dimensions on the scale of a billionth of a meter, offer great promise for solving difficult social problems and creating enormous possibilities.

  1. It's not as simple as it sounds: Problems and solutions in accessing and using administrative child welfare data for evaluating the impact of early childhood interventions☆

    PubMed Central

    Green, Beth L.; Ayoub, Catherine; Dym Bartlett, Jessica; Furrer, Carrie; Von Ende, Adam; Chazan-Cohen, Rachel; Klevens, Joanne; Nygren, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in using administrative data collected by state child welfare agencies as a source of information for research and evaluation. The challenges of obtaining access to and using these data, however, have not been well documented. This study describes the processes used to access child welfare records in six different states and the approach to combining and using the information gathered to evaluate the impact of the Early Head Start program on children's involvement with the child welfare system from birth through age eleven. We provide “lessons learned” for researchers who are attempting to use this information, including being prepared for long delays in access to information, the need for deep understanding of how child welfare agencies record and code information, and for considerable data management work for translating agency records into analysis-ready datasets. While accessing and using this information is not easy, and the data have a number of limitations, we suggest that the benefits can outweigh the challenges and that these records can be a useful source of information for policy-relevant child welfare research. PMID:26744551

  2. Arteriovenous Access

    PubMed Central

    MacRae, Jennifer M.; Dipchand, Christine; Oliver, Matthew; Moist, Louise; Yilmaz, Serdar; Lok, Charmaine; Leung, Kelvin; Clark, Edward; Hiremath, Swapnil; Kappel, Joanne; Kiaii, Mercedeh; Luscombe, Rick; Miller, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Complications of vascular access lead to morbidity and may reduce quality of life. In this module, we review both infectious and noninfectious arteriovenous access complications including neuropathy, aneurysm, and high-output access. For the challenging patients who have developed many complications and are now nearing their last vascular access, we highlight some potentially novel approaches. PMID:28270919

  3. Realizing the promises of marine biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Luiten, Esther E M; Akkerman, Ida; Koulman, Albert; Kamermans, Pauline; Reith, Hans; Barbosa, Maria J; Sipkema, Detmer; Wijffels, René H

    2003-07-01

    High-quality research in the field of marine biotechnology is one of the key-factors for successful innovation in exploiting the vast diversity of marine life. However, fascinating scientific research with promising results and claims on promising potential applications (e.g. for pharmaceuticals, nutritional supplements, (feed-)products for aquaculture and bioremediation solutions) is not the only factor to realise the commercial applications of marine biotechnology. What else is needed to exploit the promising potential of marine biotechnology and to create new industrial possibilities? In the study project 'Ocean Farming-Sustainable exploitation of marine organisms', we explore the possibilities of marine organisms to fulfill needs, such as safe and healthy food, industrial (raw) materials and renewable energy in a sustainable way. One of the three design groups is envisioning the future of strong land-based 'marine' market chains. Marine biotechnology is one of the foci of attention in this design group. This article provides a model of future-oriented thinking in which a variety of experts actively participate.

  4. Promising Electric Aircraft Drive Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    An overview of electric aircraft propulsion technology performance thresholds for key power system components is presented. A weight comparison of electric drive systems with equivalent total delivered energy is made to help identify component performance requirements, and promising research and development opportunities.

  5. Washington Promise Scholarship Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Higher Education Coordinating Board, Olympia.

    The Washington Promise Scholarship program was established to encourage excellent academic performance and to reward low- and middle-income students who demonstrate meritorious achievement in high school by providing them a 2-year scholarship. An evaluation was conducted to study the program and its impact on college attendance and student…

  6. The Promise of Transformative Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yendol-Hoppey, Diane

    2010-01-01

    The promise, potential, and problems associated with school-university partnerships interested in better preparing teachers for the challenges they face teaching in today's schools rest in educators' ability to actualize transformative practices within partnership contexts. To date, most partnerships have focused on less complex forms of…

  7. Is Technology Fulfilling Its Promise?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2011-01-01

    Technology has promised trainers so much--from the ability to train distant learners to new ways of keeping young employees engaged. But has it delivered? In this article, several trainers consider whether their investment in training technology has been worth it.

  8. A licence to vape: Is it time to trial of a nicotine licensing scheme to allow Australian adults controlled access to electronic cigarettes devices and refill solutions containing nicotine?

    PubMed

    Gartner, Coral; Hall, Wayne

    2015-06-01

    Australia has some of the most restrictive laws concerning use of nicotine in e-cigarettes. The only current legal option for Australians to legally possess and use nicotine for vaping is with a medical prescription and domestic supply is limited to compounding pharmacies that prepare medicines for specific patients. An alternative regulatory option that could be implemented under current drugs and poisons regulations is a 'nicotine licensing' scheme utilising current provisions for 'dangerous poisons'. This commentary discusses how such a scheme could be used to trial access to nicotine solutions for vaping outside of a 'medicines framework' in Australia.

  9. The promise of cyborg intelligence.

    PubMed

    Brown, Michael F; Brown, Alexander A

    2017-03-01

    Yu et al. (2016) demonstrated that algorithms designed to find efficient routes in standard mazes can be integrated with the natural processes controlling rat navigation and spatial choices, and they pointed out the promise of such "cyborg intelligence" for biorobotic applications. Here, we briefly describe Yu et al.'s work, explore its relevance to the study of comparative cognition, and indicate how work involving cyborg intelligence would benefit from interdisciplinary collaboration between behavioral scientists and engineers.

  10. The promise of quantum simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, Richard P.; Blume-Kohout, Robin

    2015-07-21

    In this study, quantum simulations promise to be one of the primary applications of quantum computers, should one be constructed. This article briefly summarizes the history of quantum simulation in light of the recent result of Wang and co-workers, demonstrating calculation of the ground and excited states for a HeH+ molecule, and concludes with a discussion of why this and other recent progress in the field suggest that quantum simulations of quantum chemistry have a bright future.

  11. The promise of quantum simulation

    DOE PAGES

    Muller, Richard P.; Blume-Kohout, Robin

    2015-07-21

    In this study, quantum simulations promise to be one of the primary applications of quantum computers, should one be constructed. This article briefly summarizes the history of quantum simulation in light of the recent result of Wang and co-workers, demonstrating calculation of the ground and excited states for a HeH+ molecule, and concludes with a discussion of why this and other recent progress in the field suggest that quantum simulations of quantum chemistry have a bright future.

  12. The promise of the ISO

    SciTech Connect

    Santa, D.F. Jr.

    1996-03-01

    Both the electric power industry and the public policy debate about restructuring it have evolved significantly since FERC issued its open access NOPR. One major development is the degree to which the concept of an independent system operator (ISO) has taken hold in the industry. This concept is the central feature in several major utility initiatives across the United States. This article reviews the pros and cons of the ISO concept.

  13. Point of use household drinking water filtration: A practical, effective solution for providing sustained access to safe drinking water in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Sobsey, Mark D; Stauber, Christine E; Casanova, Lisa M; Brown, Joseph M; Elliott, Mark A

    2008-06-15

    The lack of safe water creates a tremendous burden of diarrheal disease and other debilitating, life-threatening illnesses for people in the developing world. Point-of-use (POU) water treatment technology has emerged as an approach that empowers people and communities without access to safe water to improve water quality by treating it in the home. Several POU technologies are available, but, except for boiling, none have achieved sustained, large-scale use. Sustained use is essential if household water treatment technology (HWT) is to provide continued protection, but it is difficult to achieve. The most effective, widely promoted and used POU HWTs are critically examined according to specified criteria for performance and sustainability. Ceramic and biosand household water filters are identified as most effective according to the evaluation criteria applied and as having the greatest potential to become widely used and sustainable for improving household water quality to reduce waterborne disease and death.

  14. Problems and promises of NODC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), the nation's warehouse for ocean data, often hears complaints from its users that requests for data from recent oceanographic cruises cannot be filled. The complaint highlights both sides of the data traffic problem that besets NODC: Researchers delay sending their data to the center, and NODC has had difficulties in processing some data, especially when changes in the computer systems are made or when data is submitted in incomplete form. Plans within NODC promise to minimize the data processing problems with eventual direct communication from desktop to data base.

  15. Web Accessibility and Accessibility Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Ravonne A.; Huprich, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Section 508 of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) mandates that programs and services be accessible to people with disabilities. While schools of library and information science (SLIS*) and university libraries should model accessible Web sites, this may not be the case. This article examines previous studies about the Web accessibility of…

  16. Do-it-yourself biology: challenges and promises for an open science and technology movement.

    PubMed

    Landrain, Thomas; Meyer, Morgan; Perez, Ariel Martin; Sussan, Remi

    2013-09-01

    The do-it-yourself biology (DIYbio) community is emerging as a movement that fosters open access to resources permitting modern molecular biology, and synthetic biology among others. It promises in particular to be a source of cheaper and simpler solutions for environmental monitoring, personal diagnostic and the use of biomaterials. The successful growth of a global community of DIYbio practitioners will depend largely on enabling safe access to state-of-the-art molecular biology tools and resources. In this paper we analyze the rise of DIYbio, its community, its material resources and its applications. We look at the current projects developed for the international genetically engineered machine competition in order to get a sense of what amateur biologists can potentially create in their community laboratories over the coming years. We also show why and how the DIYbio community, in the context of a global governance development, is putting in place a safety/ethical framework for guarantying the pursuit of its activity. And finally we argue that the global spread of DIY biology potentially reconfigures and opens up access to biological information and laboratory equipment and that, therefore, it can foster new practices and transversal collaborations between professional scientists and amateurs.

  17. The Fab Conformations in the Solution Structure of Human Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) Restrict Access to Its Fc Region

    PubMed Central

    Rayner, Lucy E.; Hui, Gar Kay; Gor, Jayesh; Heenan, Richard K.; Dalby, Paul A.; Perkins, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Human IgG4 antibody shows therapeutically useful properties compared with the IgG1, IgG2, and IgG3 subclasses. Thus IgG4 does not activate complement and shows conformational variability. These properties are attributable to its hinge region, which is the shortest of the four IgG subclasses. Using high throughput scattering methods, we studied the solution structure of wild-type IgG4(Ser222) and a hinge mutant IgG4(Pro222) in different buffers and temperatures where the proline substitution suppresses the formation of half-antibody. Analytical ultracentrifugation showed that both IgG4 forms were principally monomeric with sedimentation coefficients s20,w0 of 6.6–6.8 S. A monomer-dimer equilibrium was observed in heavy water buffer at low temperature. Scattering showed that the x-ray radius of gyration Rg was unchanged with concentration in 50–250 mm NaCl buffers, whereas the neutron Rg values showed a concentration-dependent increase as the temperature decreased in heavy water buffers. The distance distribution curves (P(r)) revealed two peaks, M1 and M2, that shifted below 2 mg/ml to indicate concentration-dependent IgG4 structures in addition to IgG4 dimer formation at high concentration in heavy water. Constrained x-ray and neutron scattering modeling revealed asymmetric solution structures for IgG4(Ser222) with extended hinge structures. The IgG4(Pro222) structure was similar. Both IgG4 structures showed that their Fab regions were positioned close enough to the Fc region to restrict C1q binding. Our new molecular models for IgG4 explain its inability to activate complement and clarify aspects of its stability and function for therapeutic applications. PMID:24876381

  18. Mangiferin: a promising anticancer bioactive.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Rajneet K; Kaur, Ranjot; Lohan, Shikha; Singh, Kamalinder K; Singh, Bhupinder

    2016-05-01

    Of late, several biologically active antioxidants from natural products have been investigated by the researchers in order to combat the root cause of carcinogenesis, in other words, oxidative stress. Mangiferin, a therapeutically active C-glucosylated xanthone, is extracted from pulp, peel, seed, bark and leaf of Mangifera indica. These polyphenols of mangiferin exhibit antioxidant properties and tend to decrease the oxygen-free radicals, thereby reducing the DNA damage. Indeed, its capability to modulate several key inflammatory pathways undoubtedly helps in stalling the progression of carcinogenesis. The current review article emphasizes an updated account on the patents published on the chemopreventive action of mangiferin, apoptosis induction made on various cancer cells, along with proposed antioxidative activities and patent mapping of other important therapeutic properties. Considering it as promising polyphenol, this paper would also summarize the diverse molecular targets of mangiferin.

  19. Resveratrol analogs: promising chemopreventive agents.

    PubMed

    Ogas, Talysa; Kondratyuk, Tamara P; Pezzuto, John M

    2013-07-01

    Although resveratrol can modulate multiple stages of carcinogenesis, by most common standards it is not a good drug candidate. Resveratrol lacks potency, high efficacy, and target specificity; it is rapidly metabolized and serum concentrations are low. Using resveratrol as a scaffold, we produced over 100 derivatives, some of which have target specificity in the nanomolar range. Aromatase inhibition was enhanced over 6000-fold by using 1,3-thiazole as the central ring of resveratrol. Optimizing the substitution pattern of the two phenyl rings and the central heterocyclic linker led to selective QR1 induction with a CD value of 87 nM. Several derivatives have been selected for evaluation of synergistic effects. Preliminary results with pairs of compounds are promising and further experiments, in a constant multidrug manner, will allow us to create polygonograms for larger combinations of derivatives. The objective is to develop a highly efficacious cocktail of derivatives based on the structure of resveratrol.

  20. Cultural Neuroscience: Progress and Promise

    PubMed Central

    Chiao, Joan Y.; Cheon, Bobby K.; Pornpattanangkul, Narun; Mrazek, Alissa J.; Blizinsky, Katherine D.

    2013-01-01

    The nature and origin of human diversity has been a source of intellectual curiosity since the beginning of human history. Contemporary advances in cultural and biological sciences provide unique opportunities for the emerging field of cultural neuroscience. Research in cultural neuroscience examines how cultural and genetic diversity shape the human mind, brain and behavior across multiple time scales: situation, ontogeny and phylogeny. Recent progress in cultural neuroscience provides novel theoretical frameworks for understanding the complex interaction of environmental, cultural and genetic factors in the production of adaptive human behavior. Here, we provide a brief history of cultural neuroscience, theoretical and methodological advances, as well as empirical evidence of the promise of and progress in the field. Implications of this research for population health disparities and public policy are discussed. PMID:23914126

  1. The neural circuitry of a broken promise.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Thomas; Fischbacher, Urs; Feierabend, Anja; Lutz, Kai; Fehr, Ernst

    2009-12-10

    Promises are one of the oldest human-specific psychological mechanisms fostering cooperation and trust. Here, we study the neural underpinnings of promise keeping and promise breaking. Subjects first make a promise decision (promise stage), then they anticipate whether the promise affects the interaction partner's decision (anticipation stage) and are subsequently free to keep or break the promise (decision stage). Findings revealed that the breaking of the promise is associated with increased activation in the DLPFC, ACC, and amygdala, suggesting that the dishonest act involves an emotional conflict due to the suppression of the honest response. Moreover, the breach of the promise can be predicted by a perfidious brain activity pattern (anterior insula, ACC, inferior frontal gyrus) during the promise and anticipation stage, indicating that brain measurements may reveal malevolent intentions before dishonest or deceitful acts are actually committed.

  2. Computer and cell phone access for individuals with mobility impairments: an overview and case studies.

    PubMed

    Burgstahler, Sheryl; Comden, Dan; Lee, Sang-Mook; Arnold, Anthony; Brown, Kayla

    2011-01-01

    Computers, telephones, and assistive technology hold promise for increasing the independence, productivity, and participation of individuals with disabilities in academic, employment, recreation, and other activities. However, to reach this goal, technology must be accessible to, available to, and usable by everyone. The authors of this article share computer and telephone access challenges faced by individuals with neurological and other impairments, assistive technology solutions, issues that impact product adoption and use, needs for new technologies, and recommendations for practitioners and researchers. They highlight the stories of three individuals with neurological/mobility impairments, the technology they have found useful to them, and their recommendations for future product development.

  3. Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  4. Editorial: Next Generation Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffini, Marco; Cincotti, Gabriella; Pizzinat, Anna; Vetter, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade we have seen an increasing number of operators deploying Fibre-to-the-home (FTTH) solutions in access networks, in order to provide home users with a much needed network access upgrade, to support higher peak rates, higher sustained rates and a better and more uniform broadband coverage of the territory.

  5. Hybrid haemodialysis vascular access salvage.

    PubMed

    Potisek, Maja; Ključevšek, Tomaž; Leskovar, Boštjan

    2017-03-01

    A well-functioning vascular access is essential for successful haemodialysis in patients with end-stage kidney failure. Sometimes, when we have exploited all conventional ways of vascular access salvage, we have to find a unique solution to preserve it.

  6. Access to small size distributions of nanoparticles by microwave-assisted synthesis. Formation of Ag nanoparticles in aqueous carboxymethylcellulose solutions in batch and continuous-flow reactors.

    PubMed

    Horikoshi, Satoshi; Abe, Hideki; Torigoe, Kanjiro; Abe, Masahiko; Serpone, Nick

    2010-08-01

    This article examines the effect(s) of the 2.45-GHz microwave (MW) radiation in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles in aqueous media by reduction of the diaminesilver(i) complex, [Ag(NH(3))(2)](+), with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) in both batch-type and continuous-flow reactor systems with a particular emphasis on the characteristics of the microwaves in this process and the size distributions. This microwave thermally-assisted synthesis is compared to a conventional heating (CH) method, both requiring a reaction temperature of 100 degrees C to produce the nanoparticles, in both cases leading to the formation of silver colloids with different size distributions. Reduction of the diaminesilver(i) precursor complex, [Ag(NH(3))(2)](+), by CMC depended on the solution temperature. Cooling the reactor during the heating process driven with 390-Watt microwaves (MW-390W/Cool protocol) yielded silver nanoparticles with sizes spanning the range 1-2 nm. By contrast, the size distribution of Ag nanoparticles with 170-Watt microwaves (no cooling; MW-170W protocol) was in the range 1.4-3.6 nm (average size approximately 3 nm). The overall results suggest the potential for a scale-up process in the microwave-assisted synthesis of nanoparticles. Based on the present data, a flow-through microwave reactor system is herein proposed for the continuous production of silver nanoparticles. The novel flow reactor system (flow rate, 600 mL min(-1)) coupled to 1200-Watt microwave radiation generated silver nanoparticles with a size distribution 0.7-2.8 nm (average size ca. 1.5 nm).

  7. Random access with adaptive packet aggregation in LTE/LTE-A.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kaijie; Nikaein, Navid

    While random access presents a promising solution for efficient uplink channel access, the preamble collision rate can significantly increase when massive number of devices simultaneously access the channel. To address this issue and improve the reliability of the random access, an adaptive packet aggregation method is proposed. With the proposed method, a device does not trigger a random access for every single packet. Instead, it starts a random access when the number of aggregated packets reaches a given threshold. This method reduces the packet collision rate at the expense of an extra latency, which is used to accumulate multiple packets into a single transmission unit. Therefore, the tradeoff between packet loss rate and channel access latency has to be carefully selected. We use semi-Markov model to derive the packet loss rate and channel access latency as functions of packet aggregation number. Hence, the optimal amount of aggregated packets can be found, which keeps the loss rate below the desired value while minimizing the access latency. We also apply for the idea of packet aggregation for power saving, where a device aggregates as many packets as possible until the latency constraint is reached. Simulations are carried out to evaluate our methods. We find that the packet loss rate and/or power consumption are significantly reduced with the proposed method.

  8. The Ambivalence of Promising Technology

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Issues of responsibility in the world of nanotechnology are becoming explicit with the emergence of a discourse on ‘responsible development’ of nanoscience and nanotechnologies. Much of this discourse centres on the ambivalences of nanotechnology and of promising technology in general. Actors must find means of dealing with these ambivalences. Actors’ actions and responses to ambivalence are shaped by their position and context, along with strategic games they are involved in, together with other actors. A number of interviews were conducted with industrial actors with the aim of uncovering their ethical stances towards responsible development of nanotechnology. The data shows that standard repertoires of justification of nanotechnological development were used. Thus, the industrial actors fell back on their position and associated responsibilities. Such responses reinforce a division of moral labour in which industrial actors and scientists can focus on the progress of science and technology, while other actors, such as NGOs, are expected to take care of broader considerations, such as ethical and social issues. PMID:20835398

  9. Demonstrate provider accessibility with desktop and online services.

    PubMed

    2001-10-01

    It's available on personal computers with a CD or through Internet access. Assess instantly the accessibility of your provider network or the most promising areas to establish a health service with new GIS tools.

  10. ICTs Promises and Pitfalls in Open and Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamanja, L. G.

    2007-01-01

    Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) have for long been celebrated as the solution to access in education. New innovations like the internet and mobile technologies provide a great opportunity for mass delivery of education information especially in Africa where governments and institutions are struggling to equip the people with much…

  11. Equal Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Patta, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Presents an interview with Stephen McCarthy, co-partner and president of Equal Access ADA Consulting Architects of San Diego, California, about designing schools to naturally integrate compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). (EV)

  12. AMLCD cockpit: promise and payoffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, Michael P.; Jackson, Timothy W.; Meyer, Frederick M.; Reising, John M.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    1999-08-01

    optical characterization of the AMLCDs used in this simulator and the cockpit design are described. Display formats under consideration for test in this cockpit are described together with some of the basic human factors engineering issues involved. Studies conducted in this cockpit will be part of an ongoing joint effort of the hardware-focused aerospace displays team and the pilot-focused human factors team in the Air Force Research Laboratory's Crew System Interface Division. The objective of these studies is to ascertain the payoffs of the large AMLCD promise in combat cockpits.

  13. Patient Accessible Electronic Health Records: Exploring Recommendations for Successful Implementation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Urowitz, Sara; Apatu, Emma; DeLenardo, Claudette; Eysenbach, Gunther; Harth, Tamara; Pai, Howard; Leonard, Kevin J

    2008-01-01

    Background Providing patients with access to their electronic health records offers great promise to improve patient health and satisfaction with their care, as well to improve professional and organizational approaches to health care. Although many benefits have been identified, there are many questions about best practices for the implementation of patient accessible Electronic Health Records (EHRs). Objectives To develop recommendations to assist health care organizations in providing patients with access to EHRs in a meaningful, responsible, and responsive manner. Methods A Patient Accessible Electronic Health Record (PAEHR) Workshop was held with nationally and internationally renowned experts to explore issues related to providing patient access to the EHR and managing institutional change. Results The PAEHR Workshop was attended by 45 participants who discussed recommendations for the implementation of patient accessible EHRs. Recommendations were discussed under four subject domains: (1) providing patient access to the EHR, (2) maintaining privacy and confidentiality related to the PAEHR, (3) patient education and navigation of the PAEHR, and (4) strategies for managing institutional change. The discussion focused on the need for national infrastructure, clear definitions for privacy, security and confidentiality, flexible, interoperable solutions, and patient and professional education. In addition, there was a strong call for research into all domains of patient accessible EHRs to ensure the adoption of evidence-based practices. Conclusions Patient access to personal health information is a fundamental issue for patient engagement and empowerment. Health care professionals and organizations should consider the potential benefits and risks of patient access when developing EHR strategies. Flexible, standardized, and interoperable solutions must be integrated with outcomes-based research to activate effectively patients as partners in their health care

  14. Expanding Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    There is no question that the United States lags behind most industrialized nations in consumer access to broadband Internet service. For many policy makers and activists, this shortfall marks the latest phase in the struggle to overcome the digital divide. To remedy this lack of broadband affordability and availability, one start-up firm--with…

  15. Easy Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettelman, Alan

    2009-01-01

    School and university restrooms, locker and shower rooms have specific ADA accessibility requirements that serve the needs of staff, students and campus visitors who are disabled as a result of injury, illness or age. Taking good care of them is good for the reputation of a sensitive community institution, and fosters positive public relations.…

  16. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2012-01-01

    As faculty members add online and multimedia elements to their courses, colleges and universities across the country are realizing that there is a lot of work to be done to ensure that disabled students (and employees) have equal access to course material and university websites. Unfortunately, far too few schools consider the task a top priority.…

  17. Product line management: its meaning and future promise.

    PubMed

    Salter, V

    1986-05-01

    The concept of product line management has recently drawn much attention in the health care field. The impetus has come from both marketing and accounting professionals as they have sought to find solutions to identified problems. Examined here are the roots of product line management, the reasons for the growth in the application of the concept in health care, and whether it promises to solve the problems faced by health care organizations in the current highly competitive environment.

  18. Accessibility of near-Earth asteroids, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulkower, Neal D.; Child, Jack B.

    1991-01-01

    Previous research which analyzed the accessibility of all known near-Earth asteroids is updated. Since then, many new near-Earth asteroids have been discovered, and 1928 DB, the most accessible asteroid at that time, has been recovered. Many of these recently discovered near-Earth asteroids have promising orbital characteristics. In addition to accessibility (as defined by minimum global delta v), ideal rendezvous opportunities are identified.

  19. Taming Healthcare Costs: Promise and Pitfalls for Women's Health

    PubMed Central

    Glynn, Amy; MacKenzie, Rose

    2016-01-01

    Abstract When it comes to healthcare, women are often the primary decision makers for their families. Therefore, focusing on women and their health needs can have a profound effect on health reform efforts to control costs and improve quality for all segments of the population. The promise and pitfalls of cost containment reform in Massachusetts can serve as an informative case study for policymakers at the local, state, and federal levels as they attempt to reduce costs while maintaining quality of care. Massachusetts cost containment law, Chapter 224, seeks to control the healthcare cost growth through innovative approaches to increase efficiency and transparency including the adoption of new delivery system models, investments in wellness and prevention programs, and implementation of standard quality and evaluation measures. In this paper, we outline four approaches to delivering on the promise of cost containment reform to maximize women's access to comprehensive, quality healthcare while avoiding the pitfalls of cost containment's adverse impact on women's health. PMID:26488183

  20. The promise of macromolecular crystallization in microfluidic chips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    van der Woerd, Mark; Ferree, Darren; Pusey, Marc

    2003-01-01

    Microfluidics, or lab-on-a-chip technology, is proving to be a powerful, rapid, and efficient approach to a wide variety of bioanalytical and microscale biopreparative needs. The low materials consumption, combined with the potential for packing a large number of experiments in a few cubic centimeters, makes it an attractive technique for both initial screening and subsequent optimization of macromolecular crystallization conditions. Screening operations, which require a macromolecule solution with a standard set of premixed solutions, are relatively straightforward and have been successfully demonstrated in a microfluidics platform. Optimization methods, in which crystallization solutions are independently formulated from a range of stock solutions, are considerably more complex and have yet to be demonstrated. To be competitive with either approach, a microfluidics system must offer ease of operation, be able to maintain a sealed environment over several weeks to months, and give ready access for the observation and harvesting of crystals as they are grown.

  1. Accessible solitons of fractional dimension

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Wei-Ping; Belić, Milivoj; Zhang, Yiqi

    2016-05-15

    We demonstrate that accessible solitons described by an extended Schrödinger equation with the Laplacian of fractional dimension can exist in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media. The soliton solutions of the model are constructed by two special functions, the associated Legendre polynomials and the Laguerre polynomials in the fraction-dimensional space. Our results show that these fractional accessible solitons form a soliton family which includes crescent solitons, and asymmetric single-layer and multi-layer necklace solitons. -- Highlights: •Analytic solutions of a fractional Schrödinger equation are obtained. •The solutions are produced by means of self-similar method applied to the fractional Schrödinger equation with parabolic potential. •The fractional accessible solitons form crescent, asymmetric single-layer and multilayer necklace profiles. •The model applies to the propagation of optical pulses in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media.

  2. Using TV white space spectrum to practise telemedicine: A promising technology to enhance broadband internet connectivity within healthcare facilities in rural regions of developing countries.

    PubMed

    Chavez, Afton; Littman-Quinn, Ryan; Ndlovu, Kagiso; Kovarik, Carrie L

    2016-06-01

    The following correspondence provides an overview of TV White Space (TVWS) technology, regulations, and potential applications to the health care sector. This report also introduces "Project Kgolagano," a Botswana-based initiative representing the first endeavour to utilize TVWS internet connection for practising telemedicine. TV "white space" refers to the previously unused, wasted spectrum within TV radiofrequency channels that can now be leveraged to obtain broadband internet access. TVWS represents a less costly, faster, and farther-reaching internet connection that is a promising option for connecting the previously unconnected populations of remote and underserved areas. The Botswana-University of Pennsylvania Partnership, Microsoft, Botswana Innovation Hub, Vista Life Sciences, and Global Broadband Solutions have partnered together to bring TVWS wireless broadband access to healthcare facilities in poorly connected regions of Botswana (Lobatse, Francistown, Maun, Gaborone) in order to improve healthcare delivery and facilitate telemedicine in dermatology, cervical cancer screening, and family medicine (HIV/AIDS, TB, general adult and pediatric medicine).

  3. Hemodialysis access - self care

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency - hemodialysis access; Chronic kidney failure - hemodialysis access; Chronic renal failure - hemodialysis access; dialysis - hemodialysis ...

  4. 32 CFR 806b.9 - Confidentiality promises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Confidentiality promises. 806b.9 Section 806b.9 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Obtaining Law Enforcement Records and Confidentiality Promises § 806b.9 Confidentiality...

  5. 32 CFR 806b.9 - Confidentiality promises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Confidentiality promises. 806b.9 Section 806b.9 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Obtaining Law Enforcement Records and Confidentiality Promises § 806b.9 Confidentiality...

  6. The partly folded back solution structure arrangement of the 30 SCR domains in human complement receptor type 1 (CR1) permits access to its C3b and C4b ligands.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Patricia B; Huang, Chen Y; Ihyembe, Demvihin; Hammond, Russell A; Marsh, Henry C; Perkins, Stephen J

    2008-01-04

    Human complement receptor type 1 (CR1, CD35) is a type I membrane-bound glycoprotein that belongs to the regulators of complement activity (RCA) family. The extra-cellular component of CR1 is comprised of 30 short complement regulator (SCR) domains, whereas complement receptor type 2 (CR2) has 15 SCR domains and factor H (FH) has 20 SCR domains. The domain arrangement of a soluble form of CR1 (sCR1) was studied by X-ray scattering and analytical ultracentrifugation. The radius of gyration R(G) of sCR1 of 13.4(+/-1.1) nm is not much greater than those for CR2 and FH, and its R(G)/R(0) anisotropy ratio is 3.76, compared to ratios of 3.67 for FH and 4.1 for CR2. Unlike CR2, but similar to FH, two cross-sectional R(G) ranges were identified that gave R(XS) values of 4.7(+/-0.2) nm and 1.2(+/-0.7) nm, respectively, showing that the SCR domains adopt a range of conformations including folded-back ones. The distance distribution function P(r) showed that the most commonly occurring distance in sCR1 is at 11.5 nm. Its maximum length of 55 nm is less than double those for CR2 or FH, even though sCR1 has twice the number of SCR domains compared to CR2 Sedimentation equilibrium experiments gave a mean molecular weight of 235 kDa for sCR1. This is consistent with the value of 245 kDa calculated from its composition including 14 N-linked oligosaccharide sites, and confirmed that sCR1 is a monomer in solution. Sedimentation velocity experiments gave a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8 S. From this, the frictional ratio (f/f(0)) of sCR1 was calculated to be 2.29, which is greater than those of 1.96 for CR2 and 1.77 for FH. The constrained scattering modelling of the sCR1 solution structure starting from homologous SCR domain structures generated 5000 trial conformationally randomised models, 43 of which gave good scattering fits to show that sCR1 has a partly folded-back structure. We conclude that the inter-SCR linkers show structural features in common with those in FH, but

  7. From Promising to High-Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClenney, Kay; Oriano, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Community colleges are dealing with, and often leading, a historical shift from a 100-year focus on access to a new emphasis on access "and" student success. The impetus for this work comes from many directions--the president of the United States and the secretary of education, at least 30 governors, other state policymakers, the…

  8. Expanding access to published research: open access and self-archiving.

    PubMed

    Mower, Allyson; Youngkin, Mary E

    2008-03-01

    Academic libraries traditionally provide access to the life science journal literature for their respective institutions by purchasing annual subscriptions to journals. However, with skyrocketing subscription prices and decreased or flattened library budgets, fewer journals are being purchased. This trend results in diminished access to the literature for members of that institution. Open access and self-archiving are possible solutions to this crisis.

  9. Accessing correlated electron motion on the attosecond timescale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feist, Johannes

    2012-02-01

    In the last decade, there have been tremendous advances in the production of coherent ultrashort light pulses as short as 80 attoseconds (1 as = 10-18 s). The availability of these pulses has led to the development of the field of attosecond physics, which aims to follow and control electron motion on its natural timescale (1 atomic unit of time is about 24 attoseconds). One of the major goals of attosecond physics is to access correlated electron dynamics. This requires a description of the target system that goes beyond the commonly used single-active-electron approximation. The large bandwidth of ultrashort pulses and many-photon absorption in strong infrared fields make such a description extremely challenging. I will discuss our work on the full numerical solution of the two-electron Schr"odinger equation for helium, which already displays rich correlation effects. I will focus on two applications: The first is attosecond streaking, in which temporal information about the photoionization process in an attosecond pulse is mapped into a momentum shift by a synchronized infrared pulse. This promises to give access to the Eisenbud-Wigner-Smith time delay of photoionization. I will discuss the additional effects that are induced by the infrared field, and how these have to be taken into account for attosecond streaking to fulfill its promise. I will then discuss the possibility of accessing two-electron wave packet dynamics in doubly excited states of helium by an attosecond pump-attosecond probe setup. Such experiments have been called the ``holy grail'' of attosecond physics and should come within reach in the near future. I will discuss our recent proposal of using two-photon absorption from a single pulse as a coherent reference wave, which can be used to increase the experimental signal by almost two orders of magnitude. This provides direct access to time-dependent observables (e.g., the distance between the two electrons) of the two-electron wave packet.

  10. 76 FR 55889 - Reopening Notice: Promise Neighborhoods Program-Implementation Grant Competition; Promise...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... Reopening Notice: Promise Neighborhoods Program--Implementation Grant Competition; Promise Neighborhoods Program--Planning Grant Competition AGENCY: Office of Innovation and Improvement, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Education (Department) reopens the competition for...

  11. Gene Therapy Shows Promise for Aggressive Lymphoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_163824.html Gene Therapy Shows Promise for Aggressive Lymphoma Over one-third of patients appeared disease- ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental gene therapy for aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma beat back more than a ...

  12. New Eczema Drug Promising in Early Trial

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163883.html New Eczema Drug Promising in Early Trial Nemolizumab significantly ... the appearance of moderate to severe eczema, a new, preliminary trial finds. Nemolizumab is a man-made, ...

  13. Tetrazole Derivatives as Promising Anticancer Agents.

    PubMed

    Popova, Elena A; Protas, Aleksandra V; Trifonov, Rostislav E

    2017-03-27

    Tetrazole cycle is a promising pharmacophore fragment frequently used in the development of novel drugs. This moiety is a stable, practically non-metabolized bioisosteric analog of carboxylic, cis-amide, and other functional groups. Over recent 10-15 years, various isomeric forms of tetrazole (NH-unsubstituted, 1H-1-substituted, and 2H-2-substituted tetrazoles) have been successfully used in the design of promising anticancer drugs. Coordination compounds of transition metals containing tetrazoles as ligands, semisynthetic tetrazolyl derivatives of natural compounds (biogenic acids, peptides, steroids, combretastatin, etc.), 5-oxo and 5-thiotetrazoles, and some other related compounds have been recognized as promising antineoplastic agents. This review presents a comprehensive analysis of modern approaches to synthesis of these tetrazole derivatives as well as their biological (anticancer) properties. The most promising structure types of tetrazoles to be used as anticancer agents have been picked out.

  14. Fecal Transplant Shows Early Promise Against Autism

    MedlinePlus

    ... 163263.html Fecal Transplant Shows Early Promise Against Autism Small study found giving healthy gut bacteria to ... study suggests a novel treatment for kids with autism: Give these young patients a fresh supply of ...

  15. Panspermia: A Promising Field of Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampelotto, P. H.

    2010-04-01

    In recent years, most of the major barriers against the acceptance of Panspermia have been demolished and this hypothesis emerges as a promising field of research. In this work, recent discoveries and the principal advances in Panspermia are discussed.

  16. AmeriCorps Promise Fellows Handbook: Delivering on America's Promise to Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corporation for National Service, Washington, DC.

    This handbook provides AmeriCorps Promise Fellows with important information about their participation in this special initiative of AmeriCorps and America's Promise--The Alliance for Youth. Section 1 is an overview of AmeriCorps, including its mission, the mission of America's Promise--The Alliance for Youth, and the role of AmeriCorps Promise…

  17. Positioning Your Library in an Open-Access Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatt, Anjana H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a summary of the project that the author completed at Florida Gulf Coast University (FGCU) library for providing online access to 80 open access E-journals and digital collections. Although FGCU uses SerialsSolutions products to establish online access, any one can provide access to these collections as they are free for all. Paper…

  18. Ballistic representation for kinematic access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfano, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    This work uses simple two-body orbital dynamics to initially determine the kinematic access for a ballistic vehicle. Primarily this analysis was developed to assess when a rocket body might conjunct with an orbiting satellite platform. A family of access opportunities can be represented as a volume for a specific rocket relative to its launch platform. Alternately, the opportunities can be represented as a geographical footprint relative to aircraft or satellite position that encompasses all possible launcher locations for a specific rocket. A thrusting rocket is treated as a ballistic vehicle that receives all its energy at launch and follows a coasting trajectory. To do so, the rocket's burnout energy is used to find its equivalent initial velocity for a given launcher's altitude. Three kinematic access solutions are then found that account for spherical Earth rotation. One solution finds the maximum range for an ascent-only trajectory while another solution accommodates a descending trajectory. In addition, the ascent engagement for the descending trajectory is used to depict a rapid access scenario. These preliminary solutions are formulated to address ground-, sea-, or air-launched vehicles.

  19. Proximity Displays for Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaniea, Kami

    2012-01-01

    Managing access to shared digital information, such as photographs and documents. is difficult for end users who are accumulating an increasingly large and diverse collection of data that they want to share with others. Current policy-management solutions require a user to proactively seek out and open a separate policy-management interface when…

  20. Design, challenge, and promise of stimuli-responsive nanoantibiotics.

    PubMed

    Edson, Julius A; Kwon, Young Jik

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, there have been calls for novel antimicrobials to combat the rise of drug-resistant bacteria. While some promising new discoveries have met this call, it is not nearly enough. The major problem is that although these new promising antimicrobials serve as a short-term solution, they lack the potential to provide a long-term solution. The conventional method of creating new antibiotics relies heavily on the discovery of an antimicrobial compound from another microbe. This paradigm of development is flawed due to the fact that microbes can easily transfer a resistant mechanism if faced with an environmental pressure. Furthermore, there has been some evidence to indicate that the environment of the microbe can provide a hint as to their virulence. Because of this, the use of materials with antimicrobial properties has been garnering interest. Nanoantibiotics, (nAbts), provide a new way to circumvent the current paradigm of antimicrobial discovery and presents a novel mechanism of attack not found in microbes yet; which may lead to a longer-term solution against drug-resistance formation. This allows for environment-specific activation and efficacy of the nAbts but may also open up and create new design methods for various applications. These nAbts provide promise, but there is still ample work to be done in their development. This review looks at possible ways of improving and optimizing nAbts by making them stimuli-responsive, then consider the challenges ahead, and industrial applications.Graphical abstractA graphic detailing how the current paradigm of antibiotic discovery can be circumvented by the use of nanoantibiotics.

  1. Design, challenge, and promise of stimuli-responsive nanoantibiotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edson, Julius A.; Kwon, Young Jik

    2016-10-01

    Over the past few years, there have been calls for novel antimicrobials to combat the rise of drug-resistant bacteria. While some promising new discoveries have met this call, it is not nearly enough. The major problem is that although these new promising antimicrobials serve as a short-term solution, they lack the potential to provide a long-term solution. The conventional method of creating new antibiotics relies heavily on the discovery of an antimicrobial compound from another microbe. This paradigm of development is flawed due to the fact that microbes can easily transfer a resistant mechanism if faced with an environmental pressure. Furthermore, there has been some evidence to indicate that the environment of the microbe can provide a hint as to their virulence. Because of this, the use of materials with antimicrobial properties has been garnering interest. Nanoantibiotics, (nAbts), provide a new way to circumvent the current paradigm of antimicrobial discovery and presents a novel mechanism of attack not found in microbes yet; which may lead to a longer-term solution against drug-resistance formation. This allows for environment-specific activation and efficacy of the nAbts but may also open up and create new design methods for various applications. These nAbts provide promise, but there is still ample work to be done in their development. This review looks at possible ways of improving and optimizing nAbts by making them stimuli-responsive, then consider the challenges ahead, and industrial applications.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  2. Quality Ratings and Improvement Systems in Early Childhood Education: Promising Approaches for Pennsylvania. A PACER Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Della; Englander, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Policymakers are recognizing that Pennsylvania has fallen behind in providing equitable access to high quality early childhood education. Governor Tom Wolf ran on a campaign promise of universal pre-k access and proposed an unprecedented budget increase for early childhood programs in 2016. In Philadelphia, Mayor Jim Kenney has made pre-k a…

  3. Do promises matter? An exploration of the role of promises in psychological contract breach.

    PubMed

    Montes, Samantha D; Zweig, David

    2009-09-01

    Promises are positioned centrally in the study of psychological contract breach and are argued to distinguish psychological contracts from related constructs, such as employee expectations. However, because the effects of promises and delivered inducements are confounded in most research, the role of promises in perceptions of, and reactions to, breach remains unclear. If promises are not an important determinant of employee perceptions, emotions, and behavioral intentions, this would suggest that the psychological contract breach construct might lack utility. To assess the unique role of promises, the authors manipulated promises and delivered inducements separately in hypothetical scenarios in Studies 1 (558 undergraduates) and 2 (441 employees), and they measured them separately (longitudinally) in Study 3 (383 employees). The authors' results indicate that breach perceptions do not represent a discrepancy between what employees believe they were promised and were given. In fact, breach perceptions can exist in the absence of promises. Further, promises play a negligible role in predicting feelings of violation and behavioral intentions. Contrary to the extant literature, the authors' findings suggest that promises may matter little; employees are concerned primarily with what the organization delivers.

  4. Improving collaboration between Primary Care Research Networks using Access Grid technology.

    PubMed

    Nagykaldi, Zsolt; Fox, Chester; Gallo, Steve; Stone, Joseph; Fontaine, Patricia; Peterson, Kevin; Arvanitis, Theodoros

    2008-01-01

    Access Grid (AG) is an Internet2-driven, high performance audio-visual conferencing technology used worldwide by academic and government organisations to enhance communication, human interaction and group collaboration. AG technology is particularly promising for improving academic multi-centre research collaborations. This manuscript describes how the AG technology was utilised by the electronic Primary Care Research Network (ePCRN) that is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Roadmap initiative to improve primary care research and collaboration among practice-based research networks (PBRNs) in the USA. It discusses the design, installation and use of AG implementations, potential future applications, barriers to adoption, and suggested solutions.

  5. A new laterally conductive bridge random access memory by fully CMOS logic compatible process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Min-Che; Chin, Yung-Wen; Lin, Yu-Cheng; Chih, Yu-Der; Tsai, Kan-Hsueh; Tsai, Ming-Jinn; King, Ya-Chin; Lin, Chrong Jung

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel laterally conductive bridge random access memory (L-CBRAM) module using a fully CMOS logic compatible process. A contact buffer layer between the poly-Si and contact plug enables the lateral Ti-based atomic layer to provide on/off resistance ratio via bipolar operations. The proposed device reached more than 100 pulse cycles with an on/off ratio over 10 and very stable data retention under high temperature operations. These results make this Ti-based L-CBRAM cell a promising solution for advanced embedded multi-time programmable (MTP) memory applications.

  6. Epigenetic Epidemiology: Promises for Public Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Bakulski, Kelly M.; Fallin, M. Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic changes underlie developmental and age related biology. Promising epidemiologic research implicates epigenetics in disease risk and progression, and suggests epigenetic status depends on environmental risks as well as genetic predisposition. Epigenetics may represent a mechanistic link between environmental exposures, or genetics, and many common diseases, or may simply provide a quantitative biomarker for exposure or disease for areas of epidemiology currently lacking such measures. This great promise is balanced by issues related to study design, measurement tools, statistical methods, and biological interpretation that must be given careful consideration in an epidemiologic setting. This article describes the promises and challenges for epigenetic epidemiology, and suggests directions to advance this emerging area of molecular epidemiology. PMID:24449392

  7. The Promise of Wave Power (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brekken, T.

    2010-12-01

    The solutions to today's energy challenges need to be explored through alternative, renewable and clean energy sources to enable diverse energy resource plans. An extremely abundant and promising source of energy exists in the world's oceans: it is estimated that if 0.2 % of the oceans' untapped energy could be harnessed, it could provide power sufficient for the entire world. Ocean energy exists in the forms of wave, tidal, marine currents, thermal (temperature gradient) and salinity. Among these forms, significant opportunities and benefits have been identified in the area of ocean wave energy extraction, i.e., harnessing the motion of the ocean waves, and converting that motion into electrical energy. Ocean wave energy refers to the kinetic and potential energy in the heaving motion of ocean waves. Wave energy is essentially concentrated solar energy (as is wind energy). The heating of the earth’s surface by the sun (with other complex processes) drives the wind, which in turn blows across the surface of the ocean to create waves. At each stage of conversion, the power density increases. Ocean wave power offers several attractive qualities, including high power density, low variability, and excellent forecastability. A typical large ocean wave propogates at around 12 m/s with very little attenuation across the ocean. If the waves can be detected several hundred kilometers off shore, there can be 10 hours or more of accurate forecast horizon. In fact, analysis has shown good forecast accuracy up to 48 hours in advance. Off the coast Oregon, the yearly average wave power is approximately 30 kW per meter of crestlength (i.e., unit length transverse to the direction of wave propagation and parallel to the shore.) This compares very favorably with power densities of solar and wind, which typically range in the several hundreds of Watts per square meter. Globally, the wave energy resource is stronger on the west coasts of large landmasses and increases in strength

  8. Realising the Promise of Cancer Predisposition Genes

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Nazneen

    2016-01-01

    Genes in which germline mutations confer high or moderate increased risks of cancer are called cancer predisposition genes (CPG). Over 100 CPGs have been identified providing important scientific insights in many areas, particularly mechanisms of cancer causation. Moreover, clinical utilisation of CPGs has had substantial impact in diagnosis, optimised management and prevention of cancer. The recent transformative advances in DNA sequencing bring the promise of many more CPG discoveries and greater, broader clinical applications. However, there is also considerable potential for incorrect inferences and inappropriate clinical applications. Realising the promise of cancer predisposition genes for science and medicine will thus require careful navigation. PMID:24429628

  9. Fe N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes as Promising Photosensitizers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yizhu; Persson, Petter; Sundström, Villy; Wärnmark, Kenneth

    2016-08-16

    The photophysics and photochemistry of transition metal complexes (TMCs) has long been a hot field of interdisciplinary research. Rich metal-based redox processes, together with a high variety in electronic configurations and excited-state dynamics, have rendered TMCs excellent candidates for interconversion between light, chemical, and electrical energies in intramolecular, supramolecular, and interfacial arrangements. In specific applications such as photocatalytic organic synthesis, photoelectrochemical cells, and light-driven supramolecular motors, light absorption by a TMC-based photosensitizer and subsequent excited-state energy or electron transfer constitute essential steps. In this context, TMCs based on rare and expensive metals, such as ruthenium and iridium, are frequently employed as photosensitizers, which is obviously not ideal for large-scale implementation. In the search for abundant and environmentally benign solutions, six-coordinate Fe(II) complexes (Fe(II)L6) have been widely considered as highly desirable alternatives. However, not much success has been achieved due to the extremely short-lived triplet metal-to-ligand charge transfer ((3)MLCT) excited state that is deactivated by low-lying metal-centered (MC) states on a 100 fs time scale. A fundamental strategy to design useful Fe-based photosensitizers is thus to destabilize the MC states relative to the (3)MLCT state by increasing the ligand field strength, with special focus on making eg σ* orbitals on the Fe center energetically less accessible. Previous efforts to directly transplant successful strategies from Ru(II)L6 complexes unfortunately met with limited success in this regard, despite their close chemical kinship. In this Account, we summarize recent promising results from our and other groups in utilizing strongly σ-donating N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands to make strong-field Fe(II)L6 complexes with significantly extended (3)MLCT lifetimes. Already some of the first

  10. Pursuing Promise Neighborhoods: With or without the Grant Program. A Center Policy & Practice Brief. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The federal "Promise Neighborhoods" program underscores the importance of all children and youth having "access to great schools and strong systems of family and community support that will prepare them to attain an excellent education and successfully transition to college and a career." From this perspective, this brief stresses the importance…

  11. The Impact of the Kalamazoo Promise on Student Attitudes, Goals, and Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miron, Gary; Jones, Jeffrey N.; Kelaher-Young, Allison J.

    2012-01-01

    Student goals and aspirations are an important determinant of success in secondary schools and promote access to post-secondary education. This paper reports on changes in student attitudes, goals, and aspirations that result from the implementation of a universal scholarship program. The Kalamazoo Promise is an innovative reform effort that…

  12. The Promise of Drawing as Visual Method in Middle Grades Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Penny A.

    2006-01-01

    Although drawing has been used as research tool for well over a century in the fields of psychology and anthropology, drawing remains overlooked and underutilized in educational research. This article examines the promise of visual methods, and of drawing in particular, in accessing middle schoolers' perceptions as a means of informing the middle…

  13. Ideological Repositioning: Race, Social Justice, and Promise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Samuel R.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I engage in discourse centrally located in the ideology of race in the United States of America juxtaposed to social justice with promise for tomorrow in higher education and beyond. I assert that social justice in kinesiology requires that once hired, retaining, securing tenured status, and promoting faculty of color means having…

  14. The promise of proteomics in animal science

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteomics hold significant promise as a method for advancing animal science research. The use of this technology in animal science is still in its infancy. The ability of proteomics to simultaneously identify and quantify potentially thousands of proteins is unparalleled. In this review, we will...

  15. Promising Practices in Instruction of Discovery Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Stefanie; Steffy, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Libraries are continually changing to meet the needs of users; this includes implementing discovery tools, also referred to as web-scale discovery tools, to make searching library resources easier. Because these tools are so new, it is difficult to establish definitive best practices for teaching these tools; however, promising practices are…

  16. Implementing Performance Assessment: Promises, Problems, and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Michael B., Ed.; Mitchell, Ruth, Ed.

    The chapters in this collection contribute to the debate about the value and usefulness of radically different kinds of assessments in the U.S. educational system by considering and expanding on the theoretical underpinnings of reports and speculation. The chapters are: (1) "Assessment Reform: Promises and Challenges" (Nidhi Khattri and…

  17. Promising Practices: Teaching the Disadvantaged Gifted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miley, James F., Comp.; And Others

    Intended for teachers, the document offers 10 articles on educating the disadvantaged gifted student. Included are the following titles: "Four Promising Practices for Teaching Gifted Disadvantaged Students" (which describes a workshop with problem solving and creative expressive activities) by E. Paul Torrance; "Cultural Diversity and the…

  18. Alcohol Research: Promise for the Decade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordis, Enoch

    Over the past 20 years, alcohol researchers have made intensive efforts to understand alcohol use and its outcomes. To date, researchers have made much progress toward understanding the causes and consequences of alcoholism and its related problems. This publication attempts to convey the great spirit and promise of alcohol research. Established…

  19. Behavioural activation: history, evidence and promise.

    PubMed

    Kanter, Jonathan W; Puspitasari, Ajeng J; Santos, Maria M; Nagy, Gabriela A

    2012-05-01

    Behavioural activation holds promise to reduce the global burden of depression as a treatment approach that is effective, easy to teach, scalable and acceptable to providers and patients across settings and cultures. This editorial reviews the history of behavioural activation, what it is, current evidence for its use and future directions.

  20. The Promise of Zoomable User Interfaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bederson, Benjamin B.

    2011-01-01

    Zoomable user interfaces (ZUIs) have received a significant amount of attention in the 18 years since they were introduced. They have enjoyed some success, and elements of ZUIs are widely used in computers today, although the grand vision of a zoomable desktop has not materialised. This paper describes the premise and promise of ZUIs along with…

  1. 76 FR 13152 - Promise Neighborhoods Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... education at the State and local levels and to help all children meet challenging State academic content and... community supports (both as defined in this notice), with great schools at the center; (3) Integrating...) Learning about the overall impact of the Promise Neighborhoods program and about the relationship...

  2. Promising Strategies for Improving Student Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfredson, Denise C.

    In response to growing public concern over declining educational quality and discipline problems in today's schools, this paper reviews research on the causes of school disruption and student misbehavior, identifies promising ameliorative strategies, and examines specific research-practitioner collaborations that have successfully reduced school…

  3. Collaboration: Perks, Problems, and Promising Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell-Whatley, Gloria; And Others

    1994-01-01

    General educator-special educator collaboration is discussed. Advantages include professional exchange of ideas and sharing of resources; barriers include a feeling by staff of lack of ownership and lack of power in decision making, and the perception that goals are incompatible; promising practices include clarifying goals and developing…

  4. Problems, challenges and promises: perspectives on precision medicine.

    PubMed

    Duffy, David J

    2016-05-01

    The 'precision medicine (systems medicine)' concept promises to achieve a shift to future healthcare systems with a more proactive and predictive approach to medicine, where the emphasis is on disease prevention rather than the treatment of symptoms. The individualization of treatment for each patient will be at the centre of this approach, with all of a patient's medical data being computationally integrated and accessible. Precision medicine is being rapidly embraced by biomedical researchers, pioneering clinicians and scientific funding programmes in both the European Union (EU) and USA. Precision medicine is a key component of both Horizon 2020 (the EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation) and the White House's Precision Medicine Initiative. Precision medicine promises to revolutionize patient care and treatment decisions. However, the participants in precision medicine are faced with a considerable central challenge. Greater volumes of data from a wider variety of sources are being generated and analysed than ever before; yet, this heterogeneous information must be integrated and incorporated into personalized predictive models, the output of which must be intelligible to non-computationally trained clinicians. Drawing primarily from the field of 'oncology', this article will introduce key concepts and challenges of precision medicine and some of the approaches currently being implemented to overcome these challenges. Finally, this article also covers the criticisms of precision medicine overpromising on its potential to transform patient care.

  5. The Promise of Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Marshall S.; Casserly, Catherine M.

    2006-01-01

    Open educational resources (OER) include full courses, course materials, modules, textbooks, streaming videos, tests, software, and any other tools, materials, or techniques used to either support access to knowledge, or have an impact on teaching, learning, and research. At the heart of the OER movement is the simple and powerful idea that the…

  6. A State Policymaker's STEM Playbook. Promising Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinth, Jennifer; Goetz, Tami

    2016-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) has captured the attention of state policymakers who are concerned about equitable access to high-quality educational experiences and preparing and inspiring students to pursue STEM careers. Yet in many states, STEM policymaking efforts have not achieved their intended return on investment…

  7. Realizing the Promises of Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Ellen D.

    2008-01-01

    This article considers the current status of mobile learning and discusses a number of trends that are driving toward enterprise mobility, a state of technological readiness where users have full access to resources regardless of physical location. Enterprise mobility is discussed as one of several key considerations at the core of a successful…

  8. User-access-frequency statistics based hotspot adjustment in all-optically interconnected metro-embedded datacenters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gang; Guo, Hongxiang; Zhang, Dongxu; Wu, Jian; Cao, Xiaoyuan; Yoshikane, Noboru; Tsuritani, Takehiro; Morita, Itsuro

    2016-12-01

    Traditional datacenters are typically deployed with highly clustered resources and built-in remote areas far away from users, requiring huge floor space and power consumption. The proposed metro-embedded datacenter architecture with distributed resources spreading across the metro area close to users could be a promising solution, which exhibits lower access latency and more flexibility for service orchestration. Based on metro-embedded datacenter, we propose the conception of "follow the user" with user access location aware dynamic hotspots adjustments. By enabling service hotspots adjustment according to user access frequency statistics, the quality of service can be significantly improved in terms of reduced latency. Finally, we experimentally demonstrate low-latency service provisioning based on the proposed principle.

  9. The Promise of Macromolecular Crystallization in Micro-fluidic Chips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanderWoerd, Mark; Ferree, Darren; Pusey, Marc

    2003-01-01

    Micro-fluidics, or lab on a chip technology, is proving to be a powerful, rapid, and efficient approach to a wide variety of bio-analytical and microscale bio-preparative needs. The low materials consumption, combined with the potential for packing a large number of experiments in a few cubic centimeters, makes it an attractive technique for both initial screening and subsequent optimization of macromolecular crystallization conditions. Screening operations, which require equilibrating macromolecule solution with a standard set of premixed solutions, are relatively straightforward and have been successfully demonstrated in a micro-fluidics platform. More complex optimization methods, where crystallization solutions are independently formulated from a range of stock solutions, are considerably more complex and have yet to be demonstrated. To be competitive with either approach, a micro-fluidics system must offer ease of operation, be able to maintain a sealed environment over several weeks to months, and give ready access for the observation of crystals as they are grown.

  10. Green survivability in Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) broadband access network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yejun; Guo, Lei; Gong, Bo; Ma, Rui; Gong, Xiaoxue; Zhang, Lincong; Yang, Jiangzi

    2012-03-01

    Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) broadband access network is a promising "last mile" access technology, because it integrates wireless and optical access technologies in terms of their respective merits, such as high capacity and stable transmission from optical access technology, and easy deployment and flexibility from wireless access technology. Since FiWi is expected to carry a large amount of traffic, numerous traffic flows may be interrupted by the failure of network components. Thus, survivability in FiWi is a key issue aiming at reliable and robust service. However, the redundant deployment of backup resource required for survivability usually causes huge energy consumption, which aggravates the global warming and accelerates the incoming of energy crisis. Thus, the energy-saving issue should be considered when it comes to survivability design. In this paper, we focus on the green survivability in FiWi, which is an innovative concept and remains untouched in the previous works to our best knowledge. We first review and discuss some challenging issues about survivability and energy-saving in FiWi, and then we propose some instructive solutions for its green survivability design. Therefore, our work in this paper will provide the technical references and research motivations for the energy-efficient and survivable FiWi development in the future.

  11. Evolving data access policy: The Canadian context

    PubMed Central

    Dyke, Stephanie O.M.; Saulnier, Katie M.; Pastinen, Tomi; Bourque, Guillaume; Joly, Yann

    2016-01-01

    In setting up a data access policy to share controlled access data from the McGill Epigenomics Mapping Centre (EMC), an International Human Epigenome Consortium (IHEC) partner project, we encountered ethical and legal challenges that are likely to be relevant to other researchers sharing data, especially from Canadian projects. We discuss our solutions to the following data-sharing challenges, based on comparative legal and policy analysis: (1) providing access to data to a growing number of researchers; (2) maintaining Canadian privacy standards while sharing controlled access data internationally; (3) freedom of information requests; and (4) providing more incentives for researchers to share pre-publication data. PMID:27990475

  12. Hemodialysis access procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... returned to your body. Usually the access is put in your arm but it can also go ... A surgeon will put the access in. There are 3 types of access. Fistula: The surgeon joins an artery and vein under the ...

  13. The History and Promise of Combined Cycle Engines for Access to Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Casie

    2010-01-01

    For the summer of 2010, I have been working in the Aerodynamics and Propulsion Branch at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center studying combined-cycle engines, a high speed propulsion concept. Combined cycle engines integrate multiple propulsion systems into a single engine capable of running in multiple modes. These different modes allow the engine to be extremely versatile and efficient in varied flight conditions. The two most common types of combined cycle engines are Rocket-Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) and Turbine Based Combined Cycle (TBCC). The RBCC essentially combines a rocket and ramjet engine, while the TBCC integrates a turbojet and ramjet1. These two engines are able to switch between different propulsion modes to achieve maximum performance. Extensive conceptual and ground test studies of RBCC engines have been undertaken; however, an RBCC engine has never, to my knowledge, been demonstrated in flight. RBCC engines are of particular interest because they could potentially power a reusable launch vehicle (RLV) into space. The TBCC has been flight tested and shown to be effective at reaching supersonic speeds, most notably in the SR-71 Blackbird2.

  14. Reform at FDA: faster access to promising drugs? Food and Drug Administration.

    PubMed

    Baker, R

    1995-06-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the government agency responsible for ensuring that drugs, vaccines, and medical devices are safe and effective, is under hot debate by Congress, the Clinton administration, and the AIDS community. The Clinton/Gore proposal favors excluding drug and biologic manufacturers from requirements for more environmental assessments and only indirectly addresses drug development. Oregon Democratic Congressman Ron Wyden introduced an FDA reform bill which calls for the FDA to use expert panels, independent testing organizations, and institutional review boards (IRB) to help speed new drugs and devices through the approval process. The bill calls for the use of the IRB for the approval (or denial) of applications for Phase I review of new drugs. Not surprisingly, the AIDS community has differing views on the reform at the FDA. The Treatment Action Group (TAG), whose members hold key positions in well-known AIDS groups, supports the status quo at FDA and is lobbying AIDS organizations across the country to sign on to its FDA Reform Principles. Other AIDS treatment activists, such as members of ACT UP, favor local IRB jurisdiction over Phase I research.

  15. Keeping the Promise: 2011 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Aid Society, 2011

    2011-01-01

    No child should be born into poverty, but as we know all too well, millions are. In New York City, nearly one out of every three children is poor. It is the city's highest rate of child poverty in three decades. Poverty is more complex than the lack of financial resources--the most vulnerable children often lack access to adequate food, shelter,…

  16. Securing America's access to space

    SciTech Connect

    Rendine, M.; Wood, L.

    1990-05-23

    We review pertinent aspects of the history of the space launch capabilities of the United States and survey its present status and near-term outlook. Steps which must be taken, pitfalls which much be avoided, and a core set of National options for re-acquiring in the near term the capability to access the space environment with large payloads are discussed. We devote considerable attention to the prospect of creating an interim heavy-lift space launch vehicle of at least 100,000 pound payload-orbiting capacity to serve National needs during the next dozen years, suggesting that such a capability can be demonstrated within 5 years for less than $1 B. Such capability will apparently be essential for meeting the first-phase goals of the President's Space Exploration Initiative. Some other high-leverage aspects of securing American access to space are also noted briefly, emphasizing unconventional technological approaches of presently high promise.

  17. United States Access Board

    MedlinePlus

    ... disabilities through leadership in accessible design and the development of accessibility guidelines and standards for the built environment, transportation, communication, medical diagnostic equipment, and information technology. ...

  18. Critical Access Hospitals (CAH)

    MedlinePlus

    ... use requirements for Critical Access Hospitals related to Electronic Health Records (EHRs)? Critical Access Hospital (CAH) are eligible for Electronic Health Record (EHR) incentive payments and can receive ...

  19. DNA vaccination against oncoantigens: A promise.

    PubMed

    Iezzi, Manuela; Quaglino, Elena; Amici, Augusto; Lollini, Pier-Luigi; Forni, Guido; Cavallo, Federica

    2012-05-01

    The emerging evidence that DNA vaccines elicit a protective immune response in rodents, dogs and cancer patients, coupled with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of an initial DNA vaccine to treat canine tumors is beginning to close the gap between the optimistic experimental data and their difficult application in a clinical setting. Here we review a series of conceptual and biotechnological advances that are working together to make DNA vaccines targeting molecules that play important roles during cancer progression (oncoantigens) a promise with near-term clinical impact.

  20. Secure quantum bit commitment against empty promises

    SciTech Connect

    He Guangping

    2006-08-15

    The existence of unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment (QBC) is excluded by the Mayers-Lo-Chau no-go theorem. Here we look for the second-best: a QBC protocol that can defeat certain quantum attacks. By breaking the knowledge symmetry between the participants with quantum algorithm, a QBC protocol is proposed and is proven to be secure against a major kind of coherent attacks - the dummy attack, in which the participant makes an empty promise instead of committing to a specific bit. Therefore it surpasses previous QBC protocols which are secure against individual attacks only.

  1. Energy options: the practical and the promising

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    A review of renewable energy sources (solar, wind, biomass, hydroelectric, geothermal, and ocean thermal gradients); advanced technologies for fuel cells, cogeneration, breeder reactors, and nuclear fusion; and synthetic fuels from coal gasification or liquefaction shale oil, and tar sands explores US options for supplanting fossil fuels and developing the electric power necessary for economic growth. The DOE projects that renewables will contribute only 3% of power generated by the year 2000, while the advanced technologies will only make a significant contribution in the 21st century. Coal and nuclear energy are the major energy sources for the interim until promising alternatives prove to be practical. 17 references.

  2. Some promising dimensions for behavioral community technology

    PubMed Central

    Fawcett, Stephen B.; Mathews, R. Mark; Fletcher, R. Kay

    1980-01-01

    In recent years, the search for effective and replicable approaches to planned change in communities has escalated. Applied behavior analysts have participated in these efforts to remedy existing community problems and to increase the capacities of community residents to meet their goals. Examples of behavioral technologies for community settings are described and their advantages are noted. Criteria for more contextually appropriate community technologies are suggested and strategies for developing behavioral methods according to these criteria are described. This paper outlines some promising dimensions for behavioral community technology and discusses several possible limitations to a behavioral approach to addressing societal problems. PMID:16795630

  3. Access to Attainment: An Access Agenda for 21st Century College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Abby; Valle, Katherine; Engle, Jennifer; Cooper, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    This report, "Access to Attainment: An Access Agenda for 21st Century College Students," examines the challenges facing 21st century students and presents strategies for addressing these challenges through policy-and practice-based solutions at the institutional, state and national levels. Recommendations include implementing a…

  4. Technology for People, Not Disabilities: Ensuring Access and Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Alan; Ferri, Beth A.

    2012-01-01

    The potential of technology to connect people and provide access to education, commerce, employment and entertainment has never been greater or more rapidly changing. Communication technologies and new media promise to "revolutionize our lives" by breaking down barriers and expanding access for disabled people. Yet, it is also true that technology…

  5. Someone promised mentors: will you deliver?

    PubMed

    Kennedy, M M

    2001-01-01

    What are recruiters promising? Many new hires say that they accepted a job because of a promised mentoring program--one that never materializes, and one that the manager doesn't know was part of the discussions. Where does that leave the manager who may not be aware of this expectation? Faced with anchoring mobile Gen Xers, organizations are exploring mentoring as an inexpensive way to improve retention. But mentoring is not a technique that can be applied like a warm blanket to solve the problems of orientation, training, skills development, and retention. There are two reasons why mentoring isn't foolproof--the mentor and the protégé. If you are considering a mentoring program, or becoming a mentor yourself, here are some points to ponder: (1) If you can't (or won't) do it, give convincing reasons up front; (2) establish the rules of engagement; (3) a mentoring relationship doesn't guarantee loyalty; (4) having a protégé has political risks; (5) you can't force anyone to take advice; and (6) expect a quid pro quo.

  6. The promise of microfluidic artificial lungs.

    PubMed

    Potkay, Joseph A

    2014-11-07

    Microfluidic or microchannel artificial lungs promise to enable a new class of truly portable, therapeutic artificial lungs through feature sizes and blood channel designs that closely mimic those found in their natural counterpart. These new artificial lungs could potentially: 1) have surface areas and priming volumes that are a fraction of current technologies thereby decreasing device size and reducing the foreign body response; 2) contain blood flow networks in which cells and platelets experience pressures, shear stresses, and branching angles that copy those in the human lung thereby improving biocompatibility; 3) operate efficiently with room air, eliminating the need for gas cylinders and complications associated with hyperoxemia; 4) exhibit biomimetic hydraulic resistances, enabling operation with natural pressures and eliminating the need for blood pumps; and, 5) provide increased gas exchange capacity enabling respiratory support for active patients. This manuscript reviews recent research efforts in microfluidic artificial lungs targeted at achieving the advantages above, investigates the ultimate performance and scaling limits of these devices using a proven mathematical model, and discusses the future challenges that must be overcome in order for microfluidic artificial lungs to be applied in the clinic. If all of these promising advantages are realized and the remaining challenges are met, microfluidic artificial lungs could revolutionize the field of pulmonary rehabilitation.

  7. High School Student Information Access and Engineering Design Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentzer, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Developing solutions to engineering design problems requires access to information. Research has shown that appropriately accessing and using information in the design process improves solution quality. This quasi-experimental study provides two groups of high school students with a design problem in a three hour design experience. One group has…

  8. A Theory of Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribot, Jesse C.; Peluso, Nancy Lee

    2003-01-01

    The term "access" is frequently used by property and natural resource analysts without adequate definition. In this paper we develop a concept of access and examine a broad set of factors that differentiate access from property. We define access as "the "ability" to derive benefits from things," broadening from property's classical definition as…

  9. Autism: Pathophysiology and Promising Herbal Remedies.

    PubMed

    Bahmani, Mahmoud; Sarrafchi, Amir; Shirzad, Hedayatollah; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a comprehensive growth abnormality in which social skills, language, communication, and behavioral skills are developed with delay and as diversionary. The reasons for autism are unclear, but various theories of genetics, immunity, biological, and psychosocial factors have been proffered. In fact, autism is a complex disorder with distinct causes that usually co-occur. Although no medicine has been recognized to treat this disorder, pharmacological treatments can be effective in reducing its signs, such as self-mutilation, aggression, repetitive and stereotyped behaviors, inattention, hyperactivity, and sleeping disorders. Recently, complementary and alternative approaches have been considered to treat autism. Ginkgo biloba is one of the most effective plants with an old history of applications in neuropsychological disorders which recently is used for autism. The present review discusses the recent findings, pathophysiology, and etiology of autism and thereafter addresses the promising results of herbal remedies.

  10. Promising Candidates for Prevention of Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Gern, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in understanding environmental risk factors for allergic diseases in children has led to renewed efforts aimed at prevention. Factors that modify the probability of developing allergies include prenatal exposures, mode of delivery, diet, patterns of medication use, and exposure to pets and farm animals. Recent advances in microbial detection techniques demonstrate that exposure to diverse microbial communities in early life is associated with a reduction in allergic disease. In fact, microbes and their metabolic products may be essential for normal immune development. Identification of these risk factors has provided new targets for prevention of allergic diseases, and possibilities of altering microbial exposure and colonization to reduce the incidence of allergies is a promising approach. This review examines the rationale, feasibility and potential impact for the prevention of childhood allergic diseases, and explores possible strategies for enhancing exposure to beneficial microbes. PMID:26145984

  11. Glycodendritic structures: promising new antiviral drugs.

    PubMed

    Rojo, Javier; Delgado, Rafael

    2004-09-01

    DC-SIGN, a C-type lectin expressed by dendritic cells, is able to recognize high mannosylated glycoproteins at the surface of a broad range of pathogens including viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites. For at least some of these agents this interaction appears to be an important part of the infection process. Therefore, this lectin might be considered in the design of new antiviral drugs. In this manner, multivalent carbohydrate systems based on dendrimers and dendritic polymers are promising candidates as antiviral drugs. Boltorn hyperbranched dendritic polymers functionalized with mannose have been used to inhibit DC-SIGN-mediated infection in an Ebola-pseudotyped viral model. Their physiological solubility, lack of toxicity and especially their low price suggest the application of these glycodendritic polymers for possible formulation as microbicides.

  12. The promise and peril of healthcare forecasting.

    PubMed

    Wharam, J Frank; Weiner, Jonathan P

    2012-03-01

    Health plans and physician groups increasingly use sophisticated tools to predict individual patient outcomes. Such analytics will accelerate as US medicine enters the digital age. Promising applications of forecasting include better targeting of disease management as well as innovative patient care approaches such as personalized health insurance and clinical decision support systems. In addition, stakeholders will use predictions to advance their organizational agendas, and unintended consequences could arise. Forecasting-based interventions might have uncertain effectiveness, focus on cost savings rather than long-term health, or specifically exclude disadvantaged populations. Policy makers, health plans, and method developers should adopt strategies that address these concerns in order to maximize the benefit of healthcare forecasting on the long-term health of patients.

  13. Biomolecular simulations on petascale: promises and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Pratul K.; Alam, Sadaf R.

    2006-09-01

    Proteins work as highly efficient machines at the molecular level and are responsible for a variety of processes in all living cells. There is wide interest in understanding these machines for implications in biochemical/biotechnology industries as well as in health related fields. Over the last century, investigations of proteins based on a variety of experimental techniques have provided a wealth of information. More recently, theoretical and computational modeling using large scale simulations is providing novel insights into the functioning of these machines. The next generation supercomputers with petascale computing power, hold great promises as well as challenges for the biomolecular simulation scientists. We briefly discuss the progress being made in this area.

  14. The promise of Lean in health care.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, John S; Berry, Leonard L

    2013-01-01

    An urgent need in American health care is improving quality and efficiency while controlling costs. One promising management approach implemented by some leading health care institutions is Lean, a quality improvement philosophy and set of principles originated by the Toyota Motor Company. Health care cases reveal that Lean is as applicable in complex knowledge work as it is in assembly-line manufacturing. When well executed, Lean transforms how an organization works and creates an insatiable quest for improvement. In this article, we define Lean and present 6 principles that constitute the essential dynamic of Lean management: attitude of continuous improvement, value creation, unity of purpose, respect for front-line workers, visual tracking, and flexible regimentation. Health care case studies illustrate each principle. The goal of this article is to provide a template for health care leaders to use in considering the implementation of the Lean management system or in assessing the current state of implementation in their organizations.

  15. Earthquake prediction; new studies yield promising results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, R.

    1974-01-01

    On Agust 3, 1973, a small earthquake (magnitude 2.5) occurred near Blue Mountain Lake in the Adirondack region of northern New York State. This seemingly unimportant event was of great significance, however, because it was predicted. Seismologsits at the Lamont-Doherty geologcal Observatory of Columbia University accurately foretold the time, place, and magnitude of the event. Their prediction was based on certain pre-earthquake processes that are best explained by a hypothesis known as "dilatancy," a concept that has injected new life and direction into the science of earthquake prediction. Although much mroe reserach must be accomplished before we can expect to predict potentially damaging earthquakes with any degree of consistency, results such as this indicate that we are on a promising road. 

  16. The Promise of Preventive Cancer Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Lollini, Pier-Luigi; Cavallo, Federica; Nanni, Patrizia; Quaglino, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Years of unsuccessful attempts at fighting established tumors with vaccines have taught us all that they are only able to truly impact patient survival when used in a preventive setting, as would normally be the case for traditional vaccines against infectious diseases. While true primary cancer prevention is still but a long-term goal, secondary and tertiary prevention are already in the clinic and providing encouraging results. A combination of immunopreventive cancer strategies and recently approved checkpoint inhibitors is a further promise of forthcoming successful cancer disease control, but prevention will require a considerable reduction of currently reported toxicities. These considerations summed with the increased understanding of tumor antigens allow space for an optimistic view of the future. PMID:26343198

  17. Cobalt Derivatives as Promising Therapeutic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Heffern, Marie C.; Yamamoto, Natsuho; Holbrook, Robert J.; Eckermann, Amanda L.; Meade, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Inorganic complexes are versatile platforms for the development of potent and selective pharmaceutical agents. Cobalt possesses a diverse array of properties that can be manipulated to yield promising drug candidates. Investigations into the mechanism of cobalt therapeutic agents can provide valuable insight into the physicochemical properties that can be harnessed for drug development. This review presents examples of bioactive cobalt complexes with special attention to their mechanisms of action. Specifically, cobalt complexes that elicit biological effects through protein inhibition, modification of drug activity, and bioreductive activation are discussed. Insights gained from these examples reveal features of cobalt that can be rationally tuned to produce therapeutics with high specificity and improved efficacy for the biomolecule or pathway of interest. PMID:23270779

  18. The promise and paradox of cultural competence.

    PubMed

    Hester, Rebecca J

    2012-12-01

    Cultural competence has become a ubiquitous and unquestioned aspect of professional formation in medicine. It has been linked to efforts to eliminate race-based health disparities and to train more compassionate and sensitive providers. In this article, I question whether the field of cultural competence lives up to its promise. I argue that it does not because it fails to grapple with the ways that race and racism work in U.S. society today. Unless we change our theoretical apparatus for dealing with diversity to one that more critically engages with the complexities of race, I suggest that unequal treatment and entrenched health disparities will remain. If the field of cultural competence incorporates the lessons of critical race scholarship, however, it would not only need to transform its theoretical foundation, it would also need to change its name.

  19. A promising new thermoelectric material - Ruthenium silicide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vining, Cronin B.; Mccormack, Joseph A.; Zoltan, Andrew; Zoltan, Leslie D.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical efforts directed toward increasing thermoelectric figure of merit values by a factor of 2 or 3 have been encouraging in several respects. An accurate and detailed theoretical model developed for n-type silicon-germanium (SiGe) indicates that ZT values several times higher than currently available are expected under certain conditions. These new, high ZT materials are expected to be significantly different from SiGe, but not unreasonably so. Several promising candidate materials have been identified which may meet the conditions required by theory. One such candidate, ruthenium silicide, currently under development at JPL, has been estimated to have the potential to exhibit figure of merit values 4 times higher than conventional SiGe materials. Recent results are summarized.

  20. Nanomedicine delivers promising treatments for rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Leena Kumari; O’Mary, Hannah; Cui, Zhengrong

    2015-01-01

    An increased understanding in the pathophysiology of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, reveals that the diseased tissue and the increased presence of macrophages and other overexpressed molecules within the tissue can be exploited to enhance the delivery of nanomedicine. Nanomedicine can passively accumulate into chronic inflammatory tissues via the enhanced permeability and retention phenomenon, or be surface conjugated with a ligand to actively bind to receptors overexpressed by cells within chronic inflammatory tissues, leading to increased efficacy and reduced systemic side-effects. This review highlights the research conducted over the past decade on using nanomedicine for potential treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and summarizes some of the major findings and promising opportunities on using nanomedicine to treat this prevalent and chronic disease. PMID:26084368

  1. The Economic Promise of Delayed Aging.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Dana

    2015-12-18

    Biomedicine has made enormous progress in the last half century in treating common diseases. However, we are becoming victims of our own success. Causes of death strongly associated with biological aging, such as heart disease, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and stroke-cluster within individuals as they grow older. These conditions increase frailty and limit the benefits of continued, disease-specific improvements. Here, we show that a "delayed-aging" scenario, modeled on the biological benefits observed in the most promising animal models, could solve this problem of competing risks. The economic value of delayed aging is estimated to be $7.1 trillion over 50 years. Total government costs, including Social Security, rise substantially with delayed aging--mainly caused by longevity increases--but we show that these can be offset by modest policy changes. Expanded biomedical research to delay aging appears to be a highly efficient way to forestall disease and extend healthy life.

  2. Nanomedicine delivers promising treatments for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Leena Kumari; O'Mary, Hannah; Cui, Zhengrong

    2015-01-01

    An increased understanding in the pathophysiology of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, reveals that the diseased tissue and the increased presence of macrophages and other overexpressed molecules within the tissue can be exploited to enhance the delivery of nanomedicine. Nanomedicine can passively accumulate into chronic inflammatory tissues via the enhanced permeability and retention phenomenon, or be surface conjugated with a ligand to actively bind to receptors overexpressed by cells within chronic inflammatory tissues, leading to increased efficacy and reduced systemic side-effects. This review highlights the research conducted over the past decade on using nanomedicine for potential treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and summarizes some of the major findings and promising opportunities on using nanomedicine to treat this prevalent and chronic disease.

  3. Imaging Genetics and Development: Challenges and Promises

    PubMed Central

    Casey, BJ; Soliman, Fatima; Bath, Kevin G.; Glatt, Charles E.

    2011-01-01

    Excitement with the publication of the human genome has served as catalyst for scientists to uncover the functions of specific genes. The main avenues for understanding gene function have been in behavioral genetics on one end and on the other end, molecular mouse models. Attempts to bridge these approaches have used brain imaging to conveniently link anatomical abnormalities seen in knockout/transgenic mouse models and abnormal patterns of brain activity seen in humans. Although a convenient approach, this paper provides examples of challenges for imaging genetics, its application to developmental questions and promises for future directions. Attempts to link genes, brain and behavior using behavioral genetics, imaging genetics and mouse models of behavior are described. Each of these approaches alone, provide limited information on gene function in complex human behavior, but together, they are forming bridges between animal models and human psychiatric disorders. PMID:20496375

  4. Liver support systems: promise and reality.

    PubMed

    Wigg, Alan J; Padbury, Robert T

    2005-12-01

    Effective liver support is needed for a variety of indications. A large number of both biological (containing hepatocytes) and non-biological extracorporeal liver support systems have been described in the literature over the last 50 years. Despite this, there is a paucity of good quality randomized control data examining the effectiveness of these therapies in human liver failure. In this review article, we examine the available data, with particular emphasis on the current front runners, the MARS and HepatAssist systems. Other problems associated with the development of these liver support systems are also discussed. Although promising in animal studies, we conclude that the use of these technologies is not supported currently by a sufficient evidence base to recommend them for routine clinical use and that a lack of understanding about the critical functions required of a liver support system is retarding a more rational approach to the design of these systems.

  5. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors: promise or peril?

    PubMed Central

    Mengle-Gaw, Laurel J; Schwartz, Benjamin D

    2002-01-01

    The discovery of two isoforms of the cyclooxygenase enzyme, COX-1 and COX-2, and the development of COX-2-specific inhibitors as anti-inflammatories and analgesics have offered great promise that the therapeutic benefits of NSAIDs could be optimized through inhibition of COX-2, while minimizing their adverse side effect profile associated with inhibition of COX-1. While COX-2 specific inhibitors have proven to be efficacious in a variety of inflammatory conditions, exposure of large numbers of patients to these drugs in postmarketing studies have uncovered potential safety concerns that raise questions about the benefit/risk ratio of COX-2-specific NSAIDs compared to conventional NSAIDs. This article reviews the efficacy and safety profiles of COX-2-specific inhibitors, comparing them with conventional NSDAIDs. PMID:12467519

  6. Hybrid WDM/OCDMA for next generation access network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xu; Wada, Naoya; Miyazaki, T.; Cincotti, G.; Kitayama, Ken-ichi

    2007-11-01

    Hybrid wavelength division multiplexing/optical code division multiple access (WDM/OCDMA) passive optical network (PON), where asynchronous OCDMA traffic transmits over WDM network, can be one potential candidate for gigabit-symmetric fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) services. In a cost-effective WDM/OCDMA network, a large scale multi-port encoder/decoder can be employed in the central office, and a low cost encoder/decoder will be used in optical network unit (ONU). The WDM/OCDMA system could be one promising solution to the symmetric high capacity access network with high spectral efficiency, cost effective, good flexibility and enhanced security. Asynchronous WDM/OCDMA systems have been experimentally demonstrated using superstructured fiber Bragg gratings (SSFBG) and muti-port OCDMA en/decoders. The total throughput has reached above Tera-bit/s with spectral efficiency of about 0.41. The key enabling techniques include ultra-long SSFBG, multi-port E/D with high power contrast ratio, optical thresholding, differential phase shift keying modulation with balanced detection, forward error correction, and etc. Using multi-level modulation formats to carry multi-bit information with single pulse, the total capacity and spectral efficiency could be further enhanced.

  7. Educational Software Architecture and Systematic Impact: The Promise of Component Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roschelle, Jeremy; Kaput, James

    1996-01-01

    Examines the failure of current technology to meet education's flexible needs and points to a promising solution: component software architecture. Discusses the failure of stand-alone applications in their incompatibility, waste of funding, prevention of customization, and obstruction of integration. (AEF)

  8. Promising Practices in Young Adult Employment: Hands-On Multidisciplinary Career Exploration and Mentorships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    The National Fund for Workforce Solution's Young Adult Initiatives aim to test and implement new strategies for targeting America's young adults and share this information so that employers and workforce development can join forces in investing in the millions of young adults across the nation. This case study focuses on promising findings from…

  9. World Wide Access: Accessible Web Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Univ., Seattle.

    This brief paper considers the application of "universal design" principles to Web page design in order to increase accessibility for people with disabilities. Suggestions are based on the World Wide Web Consortium's accessibility initiative, which has proposed guidelines for all Web authors and federal government standards. Seven guidelines for…

  10. The Paperless Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    REI Systems, Inc. developed a software solution that uses the Internet to eliminate the paperwork typically required to document and manage complex business processes. The data management solution, called Electronic Handbooks (EHBs), is presently used for the entire SBIR program processes at NASA. The EHB-based system is ideal for programs and projects whose users are geographically distributed and are involved in complex management processes and procedures. EHBs provide flexible access control and increased communications while maintaining security for systems of all sizes. Through Internet Protocol- based access, user authentication and user-based access restrictions, role-based access control, and encryption/decryption, EHBs provide the level of security required for confidential data transfer. EHBs contain electronic forms and menus, which can be used in real time to execute the described processes. EHBs use standard word processors that generate ASCII HTML code to set up electronic forms that are viewed within a web browser. EHBs require no end-user software distribution, significantly reducing operating costs. Each interactive handbook simulates a hard-copy version containing chapters with descriptions of participants' roles in the online process.

  11. Access Nets: Modeling Access to Physical Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frohardt, Robert; Chang, Bor-Yuh Evan; Sankaranarayanan, Sriram

    Electronic, software-managed mechanisms using, for example, radio-frequency identification (RFID) cards, enable great flexibility in specifying access control policies to physical spaces. For example, access rights may vary based on time of day or could differ in normal versus emergency situations. With such fine-grained control, understanding and reasoning about what a policy permits becomes surprisingly difficult requiring knowledge of permission levels, spatial layout, and time. In this paper, we present a formal modeling framework, called AccessNets, suitable for describing a combination of access permissions, physical spaces, and temporal constraints. Furthermore, we provide evidence that model checking techniques are effective in reasoning about physical access control policies. We describe our results from a tool that uses reachability analysis to validate security policies.

  12. MEMS reliability: The challenge and the promise

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, W.M.; Tanner, D.M.; Miller, S.L.; Peterson, K.A.

    1998-05-01

    MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) that think, sense, act and communicate will open up a broad new array of cost effective solutions only if they prove to be sufficiently reliable. A valid reliability assessment of MEMS has three prerequisites: (1) statistical significance; (2) a technique for accelerating fundamental failure mechanisms, and (3) valid physical models to allow prediction of failures during actual use. These already exist for the microelectronics portion of such integrated systems. The challenge lies in the less well understood micromachine portions and its synergistic effects with microelectronics. This paper presents a methodology addressing these prerequisites and a description of the underlying physics of reliability for micromachines.

  13. Phytoremediation of contaminated soils: Progress and promise

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, S.D.; Berti, D.R.; Dupont, E.I.

    1993-12-31

    {open_quotes}Phytoremediation{close_quotes} refers to the use of green plants, including plant-associated microflora, to remediated contaminated sites. The talk addresses the remediation of solids only, although green-plant based systems are well established in waste-water treatment and air pollution control. Phytoremediation has potential significant economic, regulatory and aesthetic advantages over many engineering-based solutions. The technology can be targeted to both inorganic and organic contaminants. The focus of this talk will be on lead (Pb). A brief overview of activities in organic remediation will be included at the end of the talk.

  14. Research in computer access assessment and intervention.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Richard; Koester, Heidi Horstmann; Lopresti, Edmund

    2010-02-01

    Computer access technology (CAT) allows people who have trouble using a standard computer keyboard, mouse, or monitor to access a computer. CAT is critical for enhancing the educational and vocational opportunities of people with disabilities. Choosing the most appropriate CAT is a collaborative decision-making process involving the consumer, clinician(s), and third party payers. The challenges involved and potential technological solutions are discussed.

  15. Assessing the health information needs of unaffiliated health professionals and using training on openly available search tools and resources to provide solutions to their information access challenges and barriers.

    PubMed

    Matsoukas, Konstantina

    2014-01-01

    This article will describe a year-long (2010-11) joint project between Columbia University Medical Center's Health Sciences Library and the Institute for Family Health (IFH), a network of Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) serving disadvantaged populations in New York State. This National Institutes of Health-funded pilot project aimed to (a) determine the medical literature and training needs of IFH personnel, (b) develop generic licensing agreements with publishers that would enable a health sciences library to provide access to electronic resources for FQHC personnel, and (c) develop reference/education services for IFH personnel. How the reference and education aims were met will be described and discussed here as the lessons learned from this project may be useful to librarians considering doing instructional outreach to unaffiliated health professionals working at FQHCs nationwide.

  16. Natural Products as Promising Therapeutics for Treatment of Influenza Disease.

    PubMed

    Sencanski, Milan; Radosevic, Draginja; Perovic, Vladimir; Gemovic, Branislava; Stanojevic, Maja; Veljkovic, Nevena; Glisic, Sanja

    2015-01-01

    The influenza virus represents a permanent global health threat because it circulates not only within but also between numerous host populations, thereby frequently causing unexpected outbreaks in animals and humans with a generally unpredictable course of disease and epidemiology. Conventional influenza therapy is directed against the viral neuraminidase protein, which promotes virus release from infected cells, and the viral ion channel M2, which facilitates viral uncoating. However, these drugs, albeit effective, have a major drawback: their targets are of a highly variable sequence. As a consequence, the virus can readily acquire resistance by mutating the drug targets. Indeed, most seasonal A/H1N1 viruses and the 2009 H1N1 virus are resistant to M2 inhibitors, and a significant proportion of the seasonal A/H1N1 viruses are resistant to the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir. Development of new effective drugs for treatment of disease during the regular influenza seasons and the possible influenza pandemic represents an important goal. The results presented here point out natural products as a promising source of low toxic and widely accessible drug candidates for treatment of the influenza disease. Natural products combined with new therapeutic targets and drug repurposing techniques, which accelerate development of new drugs, serve as an important platform for development of new influenza therapeutics.

  17. The promise and peril of the pharmacological enhancer Modafinil.

    PubMed

    Tannenbaum, Julie

    2014-10-01

    The neuro-enhancement Modafinil promises to dramatically increase users' waking hours without much sacrifice to clarity of thought and without serious side effects (inducing addiction). For Modafinil to be advantageous, its usage must enable access to goods that themselves improve the quality of one's life. I draw attention to a variety of conditions that must be met for an experience, activity or object to improve the quality of one's life, such as positional, relational, and saturation conditions, as well as it's being good for its own sake. I discuss and describe the contexts in which widespread usage (legal or not) of Modafinil would undermine these conditions being met, and thus users would fail to significantly improve the quality of their lives and would in fact potentially make both themselves and nonusers worse off in important respects thus far overlooked by critics. In the right contexts, where free time is protected and prolonged, Modafinil does have a variety of potential benefits including, most interestingly, a distinctive form of agency possible only in free time. The potential disadvantages and advantages highlighted in this article are relevant not only to public institutions deciding whether to legalize Modafinil's use as an enhancement but also to individuals deciding whether to use it illegally, as well as to the questions of how and whether to alter key features of one's context (e.g. regulating work hours or extending social services) rather than, or in addition, to regulating the use of enhancement drugs such as Modafinil.

  18. Promise Neighborhoods: The Promise and Politics of Community Capacity Building as Urban School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsford, Sonya Douglass; Sampson, Carrie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this inquiry is to consider how the U.S. Department of Education's Promise Neighborhoods (PNs) program can improve persistently low-achieving urban schools by making their "neighborhoods whole again" through community capacity building for education reform. As the "first federal initiative to put education at the…

  19. Promising new strategies for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Yasunari

    2016-08-25

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common causes of cancer death worldwide. It usually arises based on a background of chronic liver diseases, defined as the hypercarcinogenic state. The current treatment options for HCC ranging from locoregional treatments to chemotherapies, including sorafenib, effectively regulate the limited sizes and numbers of the nodules. However, these treatments remain unsatisfactory because they have insufficient antitumor effects on the large and numerous nodules associated with HCC and because of a high recurrence rate in the surrounding inflamed liver. To develop novel and promising therapies with higher antitumor effects, recent progress in identifying molecular targets and developing immunological procedures for HCC are reviewed. The molecular targets discussed include the intracellular signaling pathways of protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin and RAS/RAF/mitogen-activated protein kinase, Wnt/β-catenin and glutamine synthetase, insulin-like growth factor, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, nuclear factor-κB and telomerase reverse transcriptase, and c-MET. Immunological studies have focused mainly on target identification, T cells, natural killer cells, dendritic cells, natural killer T cells, and vaccine development.

  20. Medical big data: promise and challenges.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choong Ho; Yoon, Hyung-Jin

    2017-03-01

    The concept of big data, commonly characterized by volume, variety, velocity, and veracity, goes far beyond the data type and includes the aspects of data analysis, such as hypothesis-generating, rather than hypothesis-testing. Big data focuses on temporal stability of the association, rather than on causal relationship and underlying probability distribution assumptions are frequently not required. Medical big data as material to be analyzed has various features that are not only distinct from big data of other disciplines, but also distinct from traditional clinical epidemiology. Big data technology has many areas of application in healthcare, such as predictive modeling and clinical decision support, disease or safety surveillance, public health, and research. Big data analytics frequently exploits analytic methods developed in data mining, including classification, clustering, and regression. Medical big data analyses are complicated by many technical issues, such as missing values, curse of dimensionality, and bias control, and share the inherent limitations of observation study, namely the inability to test causality resulting from residual confounding and reverse causation. Recently, propensity score analysis and instrumental variable analysis have been introduced to overcome these limitations, and they have accomplished a great deal. Many challenges, such as the absence of evidence of practical benefits of big data, methodological issues including legal and ethical issues, and clinical integration and utility issues, must be overcome to realize the promise of medical big data as the fuel of a continuous learning healthcare system that will improve patient outcome and reduce waste in areas including nephrology.

  1. Panspermia: A promising field of research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrique Rampelotto, Pabulo

    Although Panspermia -the hypothesis that life migrates naturally through space -has been raised many times along the human history, due to lack of any validation it remained merely speculative until few decades ago. It is only with the recent discoveries and advances from different fields of research that Panspermia has been given serious scientific consideration. The natural movement of material from planetary surface to planetary surface has been explored and the mechanisms are well established. A variety of studies demonstrate that microorganisms can survive under extreme conditions such as ultracentrifugation, hypervelocity, shock pressure, high temperature variations, vacuum and different ultraviolet and ionizing radiation intensities, which simulate the conditions experienced by microbes during the ejection from one planet, the journey through space as well as the impact in another planet. The discovery of potential habitable environments such as the satellites of Jupiter and Saturn expands the possibility of transfer of life within the Solar System. Consequently, studies of natural transfer of biological material occurring between satellites have been developed. Furthermore, the probability of interplanetary transfer of life out the Solar System has been explored. Therefore, in the last few decades, most of the major barriers against the acceptance of this hypothesis have been demolished and Panspermia reemerges as a promising field of research.

  2. Integrated health systems: promise and performance.

    PubMed

    Conrad, D A; Shortell, S M

    1996-01-01

    Today's ¿virtually¿ and vertically integrated health systems increasingly are much better positioned than the multihospital systems of the 1980s to respond to the healthcare challenges of the twenty-first century. The authors argue that the control of the health services ¿value chain¿ will devolve naturally to those market players who have the comparative advantage in coordinating the flows of information, human, and physical resources along the continuum of services required to improve and maintain the health of populations. Available evidence does not render a clear verdict on whether superior performance is generated by the virtual integration of strategic alliances and affiliations or the vertical integration represented by unified single ownership of all system components. While inertia, acute care-based ¿mental models,¿ weak incentives, and insufficiently developed information systems represent important barriers to the creation and sustainability of integrated systems, the authors argue that system evolution is occurring and offers promise of enhanced efficiency and patient benefit. However, the full potential of these systems will only be realized as they accept explicit accountability for meeting the health needs of their local communities. The transition from ¿covered lives¿ to accountability for the community population is crucial.

  3. Medical big data: promise and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Choong Ho; Yoon, Hyung-Jin

    2017-01-01

    The concept of big data, commonly characterized by volume, variety, velocity, and veracity, goes far beyond the data type and includes the aspects of data analysis, such as hypothesis-generating, rather than hypothesis-testing. Big data focuses on temporal stability of the association, rather than on causal relationship and underlying probability distribution assumptions are frequently not required. Medical big data as material to be analyzed has various features that are not only distinct from big data of other disciplines, but also distinct from traditional clinical epidemiology. Big data technology has many areas of application in healthcare, such as predictive modeling and clinical decision support, disease or safety surveillance, public health, and research. Big data analytics frequently exploits analytic methods developed in data mining, including classification, clustering, and regression. Medical big data analyses are complicated by many technical issues, such as missing values, curse of dimensionality, and bias control, and share the inherent limitations of observation study, namely the inability to test causality resulting from residual confounding and reverse causation. Recently, propensity score analysis and instrumental variable analysis have been introduced to overcome these limitations, and they have accomplished a great deal. Many challenges, such as the absence of evidence of practical benefits of big data, methodological issues including legal and ethical issues, and clinical integration and utility issues, must be overcome to realize the promise of medical big data as the fuel of a continuous learning healthcare system that will improve patient outcome and reduce waste in areas including nephrology. PMID:28392994

  4. Cancer chemoprevention by nuts: evidence and promises.

    PubMed

    Falasca, Marco; Casari, Ilaria

    2012-01-01

    Chemoprevention is the use of chemical compounds to interfere with the early precancerous stages of carcinogenesis and thereby reverse tumor formation. Many chemopreventive agents, either natural or synthetic, have been identified. Some of the most promising compounds are found in vegetables and fruits. There are numerous mechanisms of action by which these components can intervene in the prevention of cancer, although they have not been fully elucidated. It is worth to note that some foods contain different bioactive compounds. Therefore the possibility exists that combinations of compounds, naturally occurring in those foods, may have a cumulative or even synergistic effect. Nuts are very rich in different bioactive compounds whose anti-cancer properties have already been described. Epidemiologic studies have already suggested that nuts consumption may be potentially beneficial in the incidence of other diseases, such as coronary heart disease and diabetes. Although the results are not conclusive, recent studies show possible cancer protective effects of nuts. This review will focus on the laboratory and clinical evidence of nuts chemopreventive and therapeutic properties.

  5. Polymer integrated optics: promise versus practicality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldada, Louay A.

    2002-06-01

    The demand in optical networking for photonic components that meet performance criteria as well as economic requirements has opened the door for novel technologies capable of high-yield low-cost manufacturing while delivering high performance and enabling unique functions. The most promising new technologies are based on integrated optics. Integration permits the parallel production of complex multi-function photonic circuits on a planar substrate. Polymeric materials are particularly attractive in integrated optics because of their ability to be processed rapidly, cost-effectively, and with high yields; because they enable power-efficient dynamic componentry through thermo-optic and electro-optic actuation; and because they allow to form compact optical circuits by offering large refractive index contrasts (index difference values between waveguide core and cladding). We compare the properties of optical polymers with those of other material systems utilized in integrated optics. We present an up-to-date snapshot of the global effort in optical polymer material development. We describe the criteria that optical polymers need to meet in order to be viable for commercial deployment. We review the state of the art in polymeric integrated optical components including switches, attenuators, filters, polarization controllers, modulators, lasers, amplifiers, and detectors. We further emphasize the practicality aspect by conveying which technologies have been productized successfully, which ones are ready for commercial introduction, and which ones are still under development in research laboratories.

  6. Promising Gene Therapeutics for Salivary Gland Radiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Renjith Parameswaran; Sunavala-Dossabhoy, Gulshan

    2017-01-01

    More than 0.5 million new cases of head and neck cancer are diagnosed worldwide each year, and approximately 75% of them are treated with radiation alone or in combination with other cancer treatments. A majority of patients treated with radiotherapy develop significant oral off-target effects because of the unavoidable irradiation of normal tissues. Salivary glands that lie within treatment fields are often irreparably damaged and a decline in function manifests as dry mouth or xerostomia. Limited ability of the salivary glands to regenerate lost acinar cells makes radiation-induced loss of function a chronic problem that affects the quality of life of the patients well beyond the completion of radiotherapy. The restoration of saliva production after irradiation has been a daunting challenge, and this review provides an overview of promising gene therapeutics that either improve the gland’s ability to survive radiation insult, or alternately, restore fluid flow after radiation. The salient features and shortcomings of each approach are discussed. PMID:28286865

  7. Primary vascular access.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, C P

    2006-05-01

    Primary vascular access is usually achievable by a distal autogenous arterio-venous fistula (AVF). This article describes the approach to vascular access planning, the usual surgical options and the factors affecting patency.

  8. Silicene, a promising new 2D material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oughaddou, Hamid; Enriquez, Hanna; Tchalala, Mohammed Rachid; Yildirim, Handan; Mayne, Andrew J.; Bendounan, Azzedine; Dujardin, Gérald; Ait Ali, Mustapha; Kara, Abdelkader

    2015-02-01

    Silicene is emerging as a two-dimensional material with very attractive electronic properties for a wide range of applications; it is a particularly promising material for nano-electronics in silicon-based technology. Over the last decade, the existence and stability of silicene has been the subject of much debate. Theoretical studies were the first to predict a puckered honeycomb structure with electronic properties resembling those of graphene. Though these studies were for free-standing silicene, experimental fabrication of silicene has been achieved so far only through epitaxial growth on crystalline surfaces. Indeed, it was only in 2010 that researchers presented the first experimental evidence of the formation of silicene on Ag(1 1 0) and Ag(1 1 1), which has launched silicene in a similar way to graphene. This very active field has naturally led to the recent growth of silicene on Ir(1 1 1), ZrB2(0 0 0 1) and Au(1 1 0) substrates. However, the electronic properties of epitaxially grown silicene on metal surfaces are influenced by the strong silicene-metal interactions. This has prompted experimental studies of the growth of multi-layer silicene, though the nature of its "silicene" structure remains questionable. Of course, like graphene, synthesizing free-standing silicene represents the ultimate challenge. A first step towards this has been reported recently through chemical exfoliation from calcium disilicide (CaSi2). In this review, we discuss the experimental and theoretical studies of silicene performed to date. Special attention is given to different experimental studies of the electronic properties of silicene on metal substrates. New avenues for the growth of silicene on other substrates with different chemical characteristics are presented along with foreseeable applications such as nano-devices and novel batteries.

  9. Secukinumab: a promising therapeutic option in spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-Ficco, Hernan; Perez-Alamino, Rodolfo; Maldonado-Cocco, José A

    2016-09-01

    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is the second most common chronic inflammatory joint disease. Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is another less common but equally chronic and disabling spondyloarthritis (SpA). Therapeutic agents for the treatment of these diseases have been somewhat lacking as compared with those available for rheumatoid arthritis, which represents a significant challenge for both the treating physician and the pharmaceutical industry. A promising development for our understanding of the physiopathology of PsA and AS involves new targets to interrupt IL-17 and IL-12/IL-23 pathways. Up to 30-40 % of SpA patients have inadequate or poor response, or are intolerant to anti-TNF therapies. Therefore, there has been a clear unmet medical need in an important group of these patients. As a result, new therapeutic targets have emerged for the treatment of both axial and peripheral SpA. Interleukin 17 (IL-17) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that is increased in psoriatic lesions as well as in the synovial fluid of patients with PsA and in sites of enthesitis in SpA. IL-23 has been shown to play an important role in the polarization of CD4+ T-cells to become IL-17 producers. Based on these evidences, blockade of the cytokine IL-17 or its receptors was considered to have therapeutic implications for the treatment of psoriasis, as well as PsA and AS.This article presents a thorough review of an IL-17 A blocking agent, its mechanism of action, its clinical efficacy and its therapeutic safety.

  10. Cancer and Inflammation: Promise for Biological Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Demaria, Sandra; Pikarsky, Eli; Karin, Michael; Coussens, Lisa M.; Chen, Yen-Ching; El-Omar, Emad M.; Trinchieri, Giorgio; Dubinett, Steven M.; Mao, Jenny T.; Szabo, Eva; Krieg, Arthur; Weiner, George J.; Fox, Bernard A.; Coukos, George; Wang, Ena; Abraham, Robert T.; Carbone, Michele; Lotze, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Cancers often arise as the end stage of inflammation in adults, but not in children. As such there is a complex interplay between host immune cells during neoplastic development, with both an ability to promote cancer as well as limit or eliminate it, most often complicit with the host. In humans, defining inflammation and the presence of inflammatory cells within or surrounding the tumor is a critical aspect of modern pathology. Groups defining staging for neoplasms are strongly encouraged to assess and incorporate measures of the presence of apoptosis, autophagy, and necrosis as well as the nature and quality of the immune infiltrate. Both environmental as well as genetic factors enhance the risk of cigarette smoking, H. pylori, hepatitis B/C, human papilloma virus, solar irradiation, asbestos, pancreatitis, or other causes of chronic inflammation. Identifying suitable genetic polymorphisms in cytokines, cytokine receptors, and Toll-like receptors among other immune response genes is also seen as high value as genomic sequencing becomes less expensive. Animal models which incorporate and assess not only the genetic anlagen but also the inflammatory cells and the presence of microbial pathogen [PAMPs] and damage associated molecular pattern molecules [DAMPs] are necessary. Identifying micro-RNAs involved in regulating the response to damage or injury are seen as highly promising. Although no therapeutic strategies to prevent or treat cancers based on insights into inflammatory pathways are currently approved for the common epithelial malignancies, there remains substantial interest in agents targeting COX2 or PPARγ, ethyl pyruvate, as well as steroids and several novel agents on the horizon. PMID:20386472

  11. Enantioselectivity of mass spectrometry: challenges and promises.

    PubMed

    Awad, Hanan; El-Aneed, Anas

    2013-01-01

    With the fast growing market of pure enantiomer drugs and bioactive molecules, new chiral-selective analytical tools have been instigated including the use of mass spectrometry (MS). Even though MS is one of the best analytical tools that has efficiently been used in several pharmaceutical and biological applications, traditionally MS is considered as a "chiral-blind" technique. This limitation is due to the MS inability to differentiate between two enantiomers of a chiral molecule based merely on their masses. Several approaches have been explored to assess the potential role of MS in chiral analysis. The first approach depends on the use of MS-hyphenated techniques utilizing fast and sensitive chiral separation tools such as liquid chromatography (LC), gas chromatography (GC), and capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled to MS detector. More recently, several alternative separation techniques have been evaluated such as supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and capillary electrochromatography (CEC); the latter being a hybrid technique that combines the efficiency of CE with the selectivity of LC. The second approach is based on using the MS instrument solely for the chiral recognition. This method depends on the behavioral differences between enantiomers towards a foreign molecule and the ability of MS to monitor such differences. These behavioral differences can be divided into three types: (i) differences in the enantiomeric affinity for association with the chiral selector, (ii) differences of the enantiomeric exchange rate with a foreign reagent, and (iii) differences in the complex MS dissociation behaviors of the enantiomers. Most recently, ion mobility spectrometry was introduced to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate chiral compounds. This article provides an overview of MS role in chiral analysis by discussing MS based methodologies and presenting the challenges and promises associated with each approach.

  12. [Accessible Rural Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Nick, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This issue of the quarterly newsletter "Rural Exchange" provides information and resources on accessible rural housing for the disabled. "Accessible Manufactured Housing Could Increase Rural Home Supply" (Nick Baker) suggests that incorporation of access features such as lever door handles and no-step entries into manufactured housing could help…

  13. Reflective Database Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lars E.

    2009-01-01

    "Reflective Database Access Control" (RDBAC) is a model in which a database privilege is expressed as a database query itself, rather than as a static privilege contained in an access control list. RDBAC aids the management of database access controls by improving the expressiveness of policies. However, such policies introduce new interactions…

  14. Open Access Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Open access publishing is a hot topic today. But open access publishing can have many different definitions, and pros and cons vary with the definitions. Open access publishing is especially attractive to companies and small colleges or universities that are likely to have many more readers than authors. A downside is that a membership fee sounds…

  15. Demystifying Remote Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Grant

    2009-01-01

    With money tight, more and more districts are considering remote access as a way to reduce expenses and budget information technology costs more effectively. Remote access allows staff members to work with a hosted software application from any school campus without being tied to a specific physical location. Each school can access critical…

  16. A metro-access integrated network with all-optical virtual private network function using DPSK/ASK modulation format

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yue; Leng, Lufeng; Su, Yikai

    2008-11-01

    All-optical virtual private network (VPN), which offers dedicated optical channels to connect users within a VPN group, is considered a promising approach to efficient internetworking with low latency and enhanced security implemented in the physical layer. On the other hand, time-division multiplexed (TDM) / wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) network architecture based on a feeder-ring with access-tree topology, is considered a pragmatic migration scenario from current TDM-PONs to future WDM-PONs and a potential convergence scheme for access and metropolitan networks, due to its efficiently shared hardware and bandwidth resources. All-optical VPN internetworking in such a metro-access integrated structure is expected to cover a wider service area and therefore is highly desirable. In this paper, we present a TDM/WDM metro-access integrated network supporting all-optical VPN internetworking among ONUs in different sub- PONs based on orthogonal differential-phase-shift keying (DPSK) / amplitude-shift keying (ASK) modulation format. In each ONU, no laser but a single Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) is needed for the upstream and VPN signal generation, which is cost-effective. Experiments and simulations are performed to verify its feasibility as a potential solution to the future access service.

  17. Quantitative real-time PCR as a sensitive protein-protein interaction quantification method and a partial solution for non-accessible autoactivator and false-negative molecule analysis in the yeast two-hybrid system.

    PubMed

    Maier, Richard H; Maier, Christina J; Hintner, Helmut; Bauer, Johann W; Onder, Kamil

    2012-12-01

    Many functional proteomic experiments make use of high-throughput technologies such as mass spectrometry combined with two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system. Currently there are even automated versions of the Y2H system available that can be used for proteome-wide research. The Y2H system has the capacity to deliver a profusion of Y2H positive colonies from a single library screen. However, subsequent analysis of these numerous primary candidates with complementary methods can be overwhelming. Therefore, a method to select the most promising candidates with strong interaction properties might be useful to reduce the number of candidates requiring further analysis. The method described here offers a new way of quantifying and rating the performance of positive Y2H candidates. The novelty lies in the detection and measurement of mRNA expression instead of proteins or conventional Y2H genetic reporters. This method correlates well with the direct genetic reporter readouts usually used in the Y2H system, and has greater sensitivity for detecting and quantifying protein-protein interactions (PPIs) than the conventional Y2H system, as demonstrated by detection of the Y2H false-negative PPI of RXR/PPARG. Approximately 20% of all proteins are not suitable for the Y2H system, the so-called autoactivators. A further advantage of this method is the possibility to evaluate molecules that usually cannot be analyzed in the Y2H system, exemplified by a VDR-LXXLL motif peptide interaction.

  18. Promises and Problems of Pebble Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretke, Katherine A.; Levison, H. F.

    2013-10-01

    Despite the large number of exoplanets indicating that giant planets are a common outcome of the star formation process, theoretical models still struggle to explain how ~10 Earth mass rocky/icy embryos can form within the lifetimes of gaseous circumstellar disks. In recent years, aerodynamic-aided accretion of ``pebbles,'' particles ranging from millimeters to decimeters in size, has been suggested as a potential solution to this long-standing problem. Local simulations, simulations which look at the detailed behavior of these pebbles in the vicinity of a planetary embryo, have shown that the potential planetary growth rates can be surprisingly fast. If one assumes that most of the mass in a protoplanetary disk resides in these pebble-sized particles, a Mars mass core could grow to 10 Earth masses in only a few thousand years. However, these local studies cannot investigate how this accretion process behaves in the more complicated, multi-planet environment. We have incorporated the local accretion physics into LIPAD, a Lagrangian code which can follow the collisional / accretional / dynamical evolution of a planetary system, to investigate the how this pebble accretion will manifest itself in the larger planet formation picture. We present how these more comprehensive models raise challenges to using pebble accretion to form observed planetary systems.

  19. Problems and Promises of Pebble Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretke, Katherine A.; Levison, H. F.

    2013-05-01

    Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): Despite the large number of exoplanets indicating that planets are a common outcome of the star formation process, theoretical models still struggle to explain how ~10 Earth mass rocky/icy embryos can form within the lifetimes of gaseous circumstellar disks. Recently, aerodynamic-aided accretion of ``pebbles,'' particles ranging from millimeters to decimeters in size, has been suggested as a potential solution to this long-standing problem. Local simulations, simulations which look at the detailed behavior of these pebbles in the vicinity of a planetary embryo, have shown that the potential planetary growth rates can be surprisingly fast. If one assumes that most of the mass in a protoplanetary disk resides in these pebble-sized particles, a Mars mass core could grow to 10 Earth masses in only a few thousand years. However, these local studies cannot investigate how this accretion process behaves in the more complicated, multi-planet environment. We have incorporated a prescription of this pebble accretion into LIPAD, a Lagrangian code which can follow the collisional/accretional/dynamical evolution of a planetary system, to investigate the how this pebble accretion will manifest itself in the larger planet formation picture. We discuss how these more comprehensive models present challenges for using pebble accretion to form observed planetary systems.

  20. Cocrystals of acyclovir with promising physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Anindita; Rohani, Sohrab

    2015-01-01

    Cocrystal forming ability of antiviral drug acyclovir (ACV) with different coformers was studied. Three cocrystals containing ACV with fumaric acid, malonic acid, and DL-tartaric acid were isolated. Methods of cocrystallization included grinding with dropwise solvent addition and solvent evaporation. The cocrystals were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetric analysis. The crystal structure of the cocrystal with fumaric acid as conformer was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Formation of supramolecular synthon was observed in the cocrystal. Stability with respect to relative humidity for the three cocrystals was evaluated. The aqueous solubility of the ACV-cocrystal materials was significantly improved with a maximum of malonic acid cocrystal, which was about six times more soluble at 35°C compared with that of parent ACV. The dissolution profile indicates that at any particular dissolution time, the concentration of cocrystals in the solution was higher than that of the parent ACV, and malonic acid cocrystals had a maximum release of about twice than the hydrated ACV.

  1. Access to emergency number services.

    PubMed

    Harkins, Judith E; Strauss, Karen Peltz

    2008-01-01

    Access to emergency services is mandated by Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The Department of Justice oversees the accessibility of public safety answering points (PSAPs), popularly called 9-1-1 centers. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has at least two roles in emergency number access: (1) as regulator of the ADA's Title IV on telecommunications access, and (2) as regulator of communications companies with regard to support of and interconnection with PSAPs. The rules of both agencies contributed significantly to the improvement during the 1990s of access to 9-1-1 for people who are deaf, hard of hearing, or speech disabled. However, as new technologies for text wireless communications and relay services have moved quickly to Internet protocol (IP)-based technologies over the past 5-8 years, the use of traditional wireline telephones and text telephones among deaf, hard of hearing, and speech-disabled people has declined. PSAPs cannot be contacted via the newer forms of telecommunications, such as e-mail, instant messaging, and IP-based forms of relay services, including video relay services. The gap between the technology supported by policy and the technologies currently being used by deaf and hard of hearing people has become a serious problem that is difficult to solve because of the separate jurisdictions of the two agencies, the need for coordination within the FCC, technological challenges, and funding issues. In this article, the key policy and technology challenges will be analyzed and recommendations made for short-and long-term solutions to this dilemma.

  2. Glycosaminoglycan derivatives: promising candidates for the design of functional biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Scharnweber, Dieter; Hübner, Linda; Rother, Sandra; Hempel, Ute; Anderegg, Ulf; Samsonov, Sergey A; Pisabarro, M Teresa; Hofbauer, Lorenz; Schnabelrauch, Matthias; Franz, Sandra; Simon, Jan; Hintze, Vera

    2015-09-01

    Numerous biological processes (tissue formation, remodelling and healing) are strongly influenced by the cellular microenvironment. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are important components of the native extracellular matrix (ECM) able to interact with biological mediator proteins. They can be chemically functionalized and thereby modified in their interaction profiles. Thus, they are promising candidates for functional biomaterials to control healing processes in particular in health-compromised patients. Biophysical studies show that the interaction profiles between mediator proteins and GAGs are strongly influenced by (i) sulphation degree, (ii) sulphation pattern, and (iii) composition and structure of the carbohydrate backbone. Hyaluronan derivatives demonstrate a higher binding strength in their interaction with biological mediators than chondroitin sulphate for a comparable sulphation degree. Furthermore sulphated GAG derivatives alter the interaction profile of mediator proteins with their cell receptors or solute native interaction partners. These results are in line with biological effects on cells relevant for wound healing processes. This is valid for solute GAGs as well as those incorporated in collagen-based artificial ECM (aECMs). Prominent effects are (i) anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory properties towards macrophages/dendritic cells, (ii) enhanced osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells, (iii) altered differentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, (iv) reduced osteoclast activity and (v) improved osseointegration of dental implants in minipigs. The findings of our consortium Transregio 67 contribute to an improved understanding of structure-function relationships of GAG derivatives in their interaction with mediator proteins and cells. This will enable the design of bioinspired, functional biomaterials to selectively control and promote bone and skin regeneration.

  3. [Absorbable coronary stents. New promising technology].

    PubMed

    Erbel, Raimund; Böse, Dirk; Haude, Michael; Kordish, Igor; Churzidze, Sofia; Malyar, Nasser; Konorza, Thomas; Sack, Stefan

    2007-06-01

    Coronary stent implantation started in Germany 20 years ago. In the beginning, the progress was very slow and accelerated 10 years later. Meanwhile, coronary stent implantation is a standard procedure in interventional cardiology. From the beginning of permanent stent implantation, research started to provide temporary stenting of coronary arteries, first with catheter-based systems, later with stent-alone technology. Stents were produced from polymers or metal. The first polymer stent implantation failed except the Igaki-Tamai stent in Japan. Newly developed absorbable polymer stents seem to be very promising, as intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography have demonstrated. Temporary metal stents were developed based on iron and magnesium. Currently, the iron stent is tested in peripheral arteries. The absorbable magnesium stent (Biotronik, Berlin, Germany) was tested in peripheral arteries below the knee and meanwhile in the multicenter international PROGRESS-AMS (Clinical Performance and Angiographic Results of Coronary Stenting with Absorbable Metal Stents) study. The first magnesium stent implantation was performed on July 30, 2004 after extended experimental testing in Essen. The magnesium stent behaved like a bare-metal stent with low recoil of 5-7%. The stent struts were absorbed when tested with IVUS. Stent struts were not visible by fluoroscopy or computed tomography (CT) as well as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). That means, that the magnesium stent is invisible and therefore CT and MRI can be used for imaging of interventions. Only using micro-CT the stent struts were visible. The absorption process could be demonstrated in a patient 18 days after implantation due to suspected acute coronary syndrome, which was excluded. IVUS showed a nice open lumen. Stent struts were no longer visible, but replaced by tissue indicating the previous stent location. Coronary angiography after 4 months showed an ischemia-driven target lesion

  4. Access to Education with Online Learning and Open Educational Resources: Can They Close the Gap?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geith, Christine; Vignare, Karen

    2008-01-01

    One of the key concepts in the right to education is access: access to the means to fully develop as human beings as well as access to the means to gain skills, knowledge and credentials. This is an important perspective through which to examine the solutions to access enabled by Open Educational Resources (OER) and online learning. The authors…

  5. Gene therapies development: slow progress and promising prospect

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Eve; Rémuzat, Cécile; Auquier, Pascal; Toumi, Mondher

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: In 1989, the concept of human gene therapies has emerged with the first approved human gene therapy trial of Rosenberg et al. Gene therapies are considered as promising therapies applicable to a broad range of diseases. Objective: The objective of this study was to review the descriptive data on gene therapy clinical trials conducted worldwide between 1989 and 2015, and to discuss potential success rates of these trials over time and anticipated market launch in the upcoming years. Methods: A publicly available database, ‘Gene Therapy Clinical Trials Worldwide’, was used to extract descriptive data on gene therapy clinical trials: (1) number of trials per year between 1989 and 2015; (2) countries; (3) diseases targeted by gene therapies; (4) vectors used for gene delivery; (5) trials status; (6) phases of development. Results: Between 1989 and 2015, 2,335 gene therapy clinical trials have been completed, were ongoing or approved (but not started) worldwide. The number of clinical trials did not increase steadily over time; it reached its highest peak in 2015 (163 trials). Almost 95% of the trials were in early phases of development and 72% were ongoing. The United States undertook 67% of gene therapy clinical trials. The majority of gene therapies clinical trials identified targeted cancer diseases. Conclusion: The first gene therapy was approved in the European Union in 2012, after two decades of dashed expectations. This approval boosted the investment in developing gene therapies. Regulators are creating a specific path for rapid access of those new therapies, providing hope for manufacturers, healthcare professionals, and patients. However, payers are increasingly scrutinizing the additional benefits of the new therapies. Major steps forward are expected in the field of gene therapies in the future. PMID:28265348

  6. Addressing men and gender diversity in education: a promising solution to the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

    PubMed

    Ghajarieh, Amir Biglar Beigi; Kow, Karen Yip Cheng

    2011-04-01

    To date, researchers investigating gender in relation to social issues underscore women and appear to sideline men. Focusing on women in studies concerning sociogender issues may exclude not only men from mainstream research, but also those who do not fit into the binary gender system, including gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) people. One area closely related to gender issues is the HIV epidemic. Mainstream discussions of men and other versions of masculinity and femininity including GLBT people in the gender-related studies of the HIV epidemic can decrease the vulnerability of individuals against HIV infections regardless of their biological sex.

  7. Lipid-based siRNA Delivery Systems: Challenges, Promises and Solutions Along the Long Journey.

    PubMed

    Sarisozen, Can; Salzano, Giuseppina; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    RNA interference (RNAi) is an evolutionary conserved highly specific gene-silencing mechanism initiated by small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules. Fast-paced preclinical and clinical studies helped the siRNA technology become an efficient tool for undruggable targets in different diseases including genetic diseases, viral diseases and cancer. Despite great feature of siRNAs that can down-regulate any protein in the cells, the full potential and the success of the preclinical studies could not be translated into largely successful clinical outcomes. It has become clear that the possibility of overcoming the pitfalls for in vivo siRNA therapy fully depends on delivery systems. In this review, we start with the challenges and barriers for in vivo siRNA delivery. Then we briefly discuss the recent developments in siRNA modification technology. We specifically focused on siRNA lipidation and delivery approaches with special emphasis on the lipid based hybrid systems. Here we summarize the journey of lipid-based micelle-like nanoparticle systems that combine longevity in blood, effective cellular uptake and endosomal escape for successful siRNA delivery and discuss the multifunctional stimuli-sensitive systems based on lipids as the next generation smart systems.

  8. A Promising Solution to Teacher Recruitment Woes. F.E.A. Research and Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storm, Jeanne

    2008-01-01

    One of the most pressing challenges in public education today is the recruitment and retention of high quality teachers for America's schools. Research shows teacher shortages exist nationwide but vary by geographic area, content area, demographics, and individual schools. In a recent study of the Future Educators Association[R] (FEA) initiative…

  9. Electromarking solution

    DOEpatents

    Bullock, Jonathan S.; Harper, William L.; Peck, Charles G.

    1976-06-22

    This invention is directed to an aqueous halogen-free electromarking solution which possesses the capacity for marking a broad spectrum of metals and alloys selected from different classes. The aqueous solution comprises basically the nitrate salt of an amphoteric metal, a chelating agent, and a corrosion-inhibiting agent.

  10. Stem cell therapy in spinal cord injury: Hollow promise or promising science?

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Aimee

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) remains one of the most physically, psychologically and socially debilitating conditions worldwide. While rehabilitation measures may help limit disability to some extent, there is no effective primary treatment yet available. The efficacy of stem cells as a primary therapeutic option in spinal cord injury is currently an area under much scrutiny and debate. Several laboratory and some primary clinical studies into the use of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells or embryonic stem cell-derived oligodentrocyte precursor cells have shown some promising results in terms of remyelination and regeneration of damaged spinal nerve tracts. More recently,laboratory and early clinical experiments into the use of Olfactory Ensheathing Cells, a type of glial cell derived from olfactory bulb and mucosa have provided some phenomenal preliminary evidence as to their neuroregenerative and neural bridging capacity. This report compares and evaluates some current research into selected forms of embryonic and mesenchymal stem cell therapy as well as olfactory ensheathing cell therapy in SCI, and also highlights some legal and ethical issues surrounding their use. While early results shows promise, more rigorous large scaleclinical trials are needed to shed light on the safety, efficacy and long term viability of stem cell and cellular transplant techniques in SCI. PMID:27217662

  11. Channel Access in Erlang

    SciTech Connect

    Nicklaus, Dennis J.

    2013-10-13

    We have developed an Erlang language implementation of the Channel Access protocol. Included are low-level functions for encoding and decoding Channel Access protocol network packets as well as higher level functions for monitoring or setting EPICS process variables. This provides access to EPICS process variables for the Fermilab Acnet control system via our Erlang-based front-end architecture without having to interface to C/C++ programs and libraries. Erlang is a functional programming language originally developed for real-time telecommunications applications. Its network programming features and list management functions make it particularly well-suited for the task of managing multiple Channel Access circuits and PV monitors.

  12. Web Accessibility and Guidelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Simon; Yesilada, Yeliz

    Access to, and movement around, complex online environments, of which the World Wide Web (Web) is the most popular example, has long been considered an important and major issue in the Web design and usability field. The commonly used slang phrase ‘surfing the Web’ implies rapid and free access, pointing to its importance among designers and users alike. It has also been long established that this potentially complex and difficult access is further complicated, and becomes neither rapid nor free, if the user is disabled. There are millions of people who have disabilities that affect their use of the Web. Web accessibility aims to help these people to perceive, understand, navigate, and interact with, as well as contribute to, the Web, and thereby the society in general. This accessibility is, in part, facilitated by the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) currently moving from version one to two. These guidelines are intended to encourage designers to make sure their sites conform to specifications, and in that conformance enable the assistive technologies of disabled users to better interact with the page content. In this way, it was hoped that accessibility could be supported. While this is in part true, guidelines do not solve all problems and the new WCAG version two guidelines are surrounded by controversy and intrigue. This chapter aims to establish the published literature related to Web accessibility and Web accessibility guidelines, and discuss limitations of the current guidelines and future directions.

  13. AccessAbility @ Cleveland Public Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mates, Barbara T.

    2003-01-01

    Describes several programs that were developed by staff at the Cleveland (Ohio) Public Library to be accessible to users with disabilities. Highlights include a Braille reading program; sensory garden; poetry club; book club based on talking books; wheelchair athletics; touching museum artifacts; and a mobile library for users who could not visit…

  14. Web accessibility and open source software.

    PubMed

    Obrenović, Zeljko

    2009-07-01

    A Web browser provides a uniform user interface to different types of information. Making this interface universally accessible and more interactive is a long-term goal still far from being achieved. Universally accessible browsers require novel interaction modalities and additional functionalities, for which existing browsers tend to provide only partial solutions. Although functionality for Web accessibility can be found as open source and free software components, their reuse and integration is complex because they were developed in diverse implementation environments, following standards and conventions incompatible with the Web. To address these problems, we have started several activities that aim at exploiting the potential of open-source software for Web accessibility. The first of these activities is the development of Adaptable Multi-Interface COmmunicator (AMICO):WEB, an infrastructure that facilitates efficient reuse and integration of open source software components into the Web environment. The main contribution of AMICO:WEB is in enabling the syntactic and semantic interoperability between Web extension mechanisms and a variety of integration mechanisms used by open source and free software components. Its design is based on our experiences in solving practical problems where we have used open source components to improve accessibility of rich media Web applications. The second of our activities involves improving education, where we have used our platform to teach students how to build advanced accessibility solutions from diverse open-source software. We are also partially involved in the recently started Eclipse projects called Accessibility Tools Framework (ACTF), the aim of which is development of extensible infrastructure, upon which developers can build a variety of utilities that help to evaluate and enhance the accessibility of applications and content for people with disabilities. In this article we briefly report on these activities.

  15. Providing public standardized data access function: Lessons learned from accessing USGS Landsat archive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, X.; Bai, Y.; Di, L.; Nebert, D.

    2009-01-01

    The geospatial community is experiencing a shift from having data locally to sharing them over the Web. However, not all the data accessing systems are built in compliance with open geospatial standards and thus are weak in terms of interoperability. The USGS Landsat data are now available through free electronic access though not yet through standard Web service interfaces. This paper intends to discuss the experience and lessons learned from integrating a public data access function to the USGS Landsat data archive into a geospatial workflow environment. Currently available systems and their problems, proposed solutions and application scenarios are discussed.

  16. Standards and Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Tom

    1993-01-01

    Argues that easy claims about the relationship between language mastery and academic or economic access (made by both conservative commentators on education and mainstream writing teachers) are false and obscure real social and political boundaries, such as racism, sexism, elitism, and homophobia, that really do prevent access. (SR)

  17. ACCESS Pointing Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brugarolas, Paul; Alexander, James; Trauger, John; Moody, Dwight; Egerman, Robert; Vallone, Phillip; Elias, Jason; Hejal, Reem; Camelo, Vanessa; Bronowicki, Allen; O'Connor, David; Partrick, Richard; Orzechowski, Pawel; Spitter, Connie; Lillie, Chuck

    2010-01-01

    ACCESS (Actively-Corrected Coronograph for Exoplanet System Studies) was one of four medium-class exoplanet concepts selected for the NASA Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study (ASMCS) program in 2008/2009. The ACCESS study evaluated four major coronograph concepts under a common space observatory. This paper describes the high precision pointing control system (PCS) baselined for this observatory.

  18. The Equal Access Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catron, J. Gregory

    1987-01-01

    Reviews past history of access of religious activities in public schools in relation to the establishment clause of the First Amendment and sets forth the prerequisites in the Equal Access Act of 1984 for creating a well-defined forum for student-initiated free speech including religious groups in public high schools. (MD)

  19. Access to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Felecia; De Oliver, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    This case study researches the degree to which the location and services offered by a multicampus university, geographically situated consistent with the commercial principles of a large mass-market enterprise, facilitate access for educationally underserved groups. First, the necessity of democratizing educational access to an underprivileged…

  20. MedlinePlus: Accessibility

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tools Español You Are Here: Home → MedlinePlus Accessibility URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/accessibility.html ... or (301) 594-5983 and provide the address (URL) of the page on which you need assistance, ...

  1. Design for Accessibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conn, David R.; McCallum, Barry

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the facets of building design which affect the accessibility of libraries for the physically disabled and presents some basic guidelines for designing accessible libraries. Types of disabilities, questions relating to site design, and specific architectural and physical features of libraries (entranceways, lighting, stairways, and…

  2. The use of deployable telehealth centers by military beneficiaries to access behavioral healthcare: an exploratory evaluation in American Samoa.

    PubMed

    Mishkind, Matthew C; Martin, Suzanne; Husky, George; Miyahira, Sarah D; Gahm, Gregory A

    2012-12-01

    Some U.S. Military Health System (MHS) beneficiaries face unique challenges accessing available behavioral healthcare because of the nature of their occupations, deployments to and permanent duty stations in isolated geographies, and discontinuity of services. The use of deployable telehealth centers such as modified shipping containers offers promise as an innovative solution to increase access to behavioral healthcare in remote and otherwise austere environments. The first telehealth modified 20-foot shipping container, known as a relocatable telehealth center (RTeC), was deployed to increase access to care for MHS beneficiaries on American Samoa. The goal of this study was to conduct an exploratory evaluation of patient satisfaction with and usability perceptions of this solution as a place to receive behavioral healthcare services. Twenty-eight beneficiaries participated in this evaluation. Results suggest that the RTeC is safe and private and ultimately an appropriate telebehavioral-originating site. These data provide insight into usability considerations and inform future research and deployable telehealth center development. Additionally, a brief discussion about potential cost offset is provided as cost efficiencies impact RTeC viability.

  3. Paratransgenesis: a promising new strategy for mosquito vector control.

    PubMed

    Wilke, André Barretto Bruno; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2015-06-24

    The three main mosquito genera, Anopheles, Aedes and Culex, transmit respectively malaria, dengue and lymphatic filariasis. Current mosquito control strategies have proved unsuccessful, and there still is a substantial number of morbidity and mortality from these diseases. Genetic control methods have now arisen as promising alternative strategies, based on two approaches: the replacement of a vector population by disease-refractory mosquitoes and the release of mosquitoes carrying a lethal gene to suppress target populations. However, substantial hurdles and limitations need to be overcome if these methods are to be used successfully, the most significant being that a transgenic mosquito strain is required for every target species, making genetically modified mosquito strategies inviable when there are multiple vector mosquitoes in the same area. Genetically modified bacteria capable of colonizing a wide range of mosquito species may be a solution to this problem and another option for the control of these diseases. In the paratransgenic approach, symbiotic bacteria are genetically modified and reintroduced in mosquitoes, where they express effector molecules. For this approach to be used in practice, however, requires a better understanding of mosquito microbiota and that symbiotic bacteria and effector molecules be identified. Paratransgenesis could prove very useful in mosquito species that are inherently difficult to transform or in sibling species complexes. In this approach, a genetic modified bacteria can act by: (a) causing pathogenic effects in the host; (b) interfering with the host's reproduction; (c) reducing the vector's competence; and (d) interfering with oogenesis and embryogenesis. It is a much more flexible and adaptable approach than the use of genetically modified mosquitoes because effector molecules and symbiotic bacteria can be replaced if they do not achieve the desired result. Paratransgenesis may therefore become an important integrated

  4. Solid Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Go-Eun; Kim, Il-Ho; Lim, Young Soo; Seo, Won-Seon; Choi, Byeong-Jun; Hwang, Chang-Won

    2014-06-01

    Since Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3 have the same crystal structure, they form a homogeneous solid solution. Therefore, the thermal conductivity of the solid solution can be reduced by phonon scattering. The thermoelectric figure of merit can be improved by controlling the carrier concentration through doping. In this study, Bi2Te2.85Se0.15:D m (D: dopants such as I, Cu, Ag, Ni, Zn) solid solutions were prepared by encapsulated melting and hot pressing. All specimens exhibited n-type conduction in the measured temperature range (323 K to 523 K), and their electrical conductivities decreased slightly with increasing temperature. The undoped solid solution showed a carrier concentration of 7.37 × 1019 cm-3, power factor of 2.1 mW m-1 K-1, and figure of merit of 0.56 at 323 K. The figure of merit ( ZT) was improved due to the increased power factor by I, Cu, and Ag dopings, and maximum ZT values were obtained as 0.76 at 323 K for Bi2Te2.85Se0.15:Cu0.01 and 0.90 at 423 K for Bi2Te2.85Se0.15:I0.005. However, the thermoelectric properties of Ni- and Zn-doped solid solutions were not enhanced.

  5. NASA Access Mechanism (NAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Judy

    1993-01-01

    A 1991 user survey indicated that NASA users want (1) access to diverse sources of information; (2) an intuitive approach to system use; (3) avoidance of system query languages; (4) access to peers and other informal sources of information; and (5) simplified and enhanced presentation of search results. Based on these requirements and the use of an intelligent gateway processor, the NASA Access Mechanism (NAM) is being developed to provide the users with the semblance of a one stop shopping environment for information management.

  6. Quantum internet using code division multiple access.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Liu, Yu-xi; Ozdemir, Sahin Kaya; Wu, Re-Bing; Gao, Feifei; Wang, Xiang-Bin; Yang, Lan; Nori, Franco

    2013-01-01

    A crucial open problem inS large-scale quantum networks is how to efficiently transmit quantum data among many pairs of users via a common data-transmission medium. We propose a solution by developing a quantum code division multiple access (q-CDMA) approach in which quantum information is chaotically encoded to spread its spectral content, and then decoded via chaos synchronization to separate different sender-receiver pairs. In comparison to other existing approaches, such as frequency division multiple access (FDMA), the proposed q-CDMA can greatly increase the information rates per channel used, especially for very noisy quantum channels.

  7. Quantum internet using code division multiple access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Liu, Yu-Xi; Özdemir, Şahin Kaya; Wu, Re-Bing; Gao, Feifei; Wang, Xiang-Bin; Yang, Lan; Nori, Franco

    2013-07-01

    A crucial open problem inS large-scale quantum networks is how to efficiently transmit quantum data among many pairs of users via a common data-transmission medium. We propose a solution by developing a quantum code division multiple access (q-CDMA) approach in which quantum information is chaotically encoded to spread its spectral content, and then decoded via chaos synchronization to separate different sender-receiver pairs. In comparison to other existing approaches, such as frequency division multiple access (FDMA), the proposed q-CDMA can greatly increase the information rates per channel used, especially for very noisy quantum channels.

  8. Quantum internet using code division multiple access

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Liu, Yu-xi; Özdemir, Şahin Kaya; Wu, Re-Bing; Gao, Feifei; Wang, Xiang-Bin; Yang, Lan; Nori, Franco

    2013-01-01

    A crucial open problem inS large-scale quantum networks is how to efficiently transmit quantum data among many pairs of users via a common data-transmission medium. We propose a solution by developing a quantum code division multiple access (q-CDMA) approach in which quantum information is chaotically encoded to spread its spectral content, and then decoded via chaos synchronization to separate different sender-receiver pairs. In comparison to other existing approaches, such as frequency division multiple access (FDMA), the proposed q-CDMA can greatly increase the information rates per channel used, especially for very noisy quantum channels. PMID:23860488

  9. Solution Kinetics Database on the Web

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 40 NDRL/NIST Solution Kinetics Database on the Web (Web, free access)   Data for free radical processes involving primary radicals from water, inorganic radicals and carbon-centered radicals in solution, and singlet oxygen and organic peroxyl radicals in various solvents.

  10. Assessing Integrated Writing Tasks for Academic Purposes: Promises and Perils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Alister

    2013-01-01

    The five studies presented in this special issue offer unique evidence, analyses, and theoretical rationales for assessment tasks that involve writing in reference to information from source material with substantial content. I review the five studies in respect to five "promises" and five "perils," concluding that, collectively, the promises were…

  11. The Effects of the Kalamazoo Promise on College Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Rodney J.; DesJardins, Stephen; Ranchhod, Vimal

    2010-01-01

    On November 10, 2005, then Superintendent of the Kalamazoo Public School System, Janice Brown announced--to the surprise of Kalamazoo's residents--the beginning of the Kalamazoo Promise. Fully funded by a set of anonymous donors, the Kalamazoo Promise is an urban revitalization program that offers up to four years of free tuition to any public…

  12. The Struggle between Conflicting Beliefs: On the Promise of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boman, Ylva

    2006-01-01

    Education is thought to provide a certain outcome--a "promise". I argue that a promise that education will counteract cultural and social disintegration involves a risk of engendering narrow social and cultural incorporation. On what reasonable basis could education contribute to civic life, when contemporary Western society is represented by a…

  13. Kalamazoo Promise: Can a Universal College Scholarship Reform Urban Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miron, Gary; Jones, Jeffrey N.; Kelaher-Young, Allison J.

    2011-01-01

    The Kalamazoo Promise provides a scholarship for full tuition for any high school graduate from the district who's been accepted to attend a Michigan postsecondary institution. The Promise has changed the attitudes of the students, their parents, and the community and has combined with other efforts to promote successful reform and systemic change…

  14. Delaware Pushes to Meet Race to Top Promises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on how Delaware pushes to meet Race to the Top promises. The Delcastle Technical High School teachers are on the front lines of the push to deliver on promises that last year won Delaware, 10 other states, and the District of Columbia shares of the Race to the Top pie, the $4 billion competition that is driving much of the…

  15. NASA's UAS NAS Access Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Charles W.

    2011-01-01

    The vision of the Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project is "A global transportation system which allows routine access for all classes of UAS." The goal of the UAS Integration in the NAS Project is to "contribute capabilities that reduce technical barriers related to the safety and operational challenges associated with enabling routine UAS access to the NAS." This goal will be accomplished through a two-phased approach based on development of system-level integration of key concepts, technologies and/or procedures, and demonstrations of integrated capabilities in an operationally relevant environment. Phase 1 will take place the first two years of the Project and Phase 2 will take place the following three years. The Phase 1 and 2 technical objectives are: Phase 1: Developing a gap analysis between current state of the art and the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) UAS Concept of Operations . Validating the key technical areas identified by this Project . Conducting initial modeling, simulation, and flight testing activities . Completing Sub-project Phase 1 deliverables (spectrum requirements, comparative analysis of certification methodologies, etc.) and continue Phase 2 preparation (infrastructure, tools, etc.) Phase 2: Providing regulators with a methodology for developing airworthiness requirements for UAS, and data to support development of certifications standards and regulatory guidance . Providing systems-level, integrated testing of concepts and/or capabilities that address barriers to routine access to the NAS. Through simulation and flight testing, address issues including separation assurance, communications requirements, and human systems integration in operationally relevant environments. The UAS in the NAS Project will demonstrate solutions in specific technology areas, which will address operational/safety issues related to UAS access to the NAS. Since the resource allocation for

  16. HRP Data Accessibility 2009

    NASA Video Gallery

    Dr. Clarence Sams spoke at the 2009 Human Research Program's Investigators Workshop on the current status of Data Accessibility. In this presentation he discusses the content of the Human Life Scie...

  17. Accessibility and assistive products

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Porrero, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Accessibility and assistive products and technologies are needed to ensure the rights of persons with disabilities and older persons. Many developments have been implemented in laws, standards, markets and from the consumers perspective, at international, European and national levels. The real issue is that not all the potential users benefit from the use of assistive products or accessible measures. Discussion Innovative methods are needed to allow all potential users to have real advantage of assistive technologies and accessible and design for all facilities. Best practices will be presented and existing gaps and recommendations will be discussed. Cost-benefits aspects will also be presented. Conclusion In order to get advantages from opportunities of globalization, hard work and responsibilities of all stakeholders are needed, so that assistive products and accessibility reach a whole range of situations and environments and contribute to ensure quality of life in a society for all.

  18. Access denied; invalid password.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2006-11-01

    Progress addressing access to oral health is difficult to evaluate because it is unclear what access means. Ozar's proposal that access should be defined by dentists as true dental need is criticized. It is proposed that four different types of treatment are currently identifiable in dentistry: 1) traditional oral health care, 2) oral care that has minimal or no health component, 3) episodic care, and 4) oral health outcomes not resulting from dentist interventions such as fluoridation. Each of these models has a different definition of care and of access. The profession is becoming segmented--including growing disparities among dentists in earning potential--to the point where a single model may no longer be able to cover all needs for oral health.

  19. EPA Accessibility Statement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is committed to making its websites and other electronic and information technology (EIT) accessible to the widest possible audience, including people with disabilities, in accordance with Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act.

  20. Equal Access to All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schettler, Joel

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the Section 508 amendment to the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 that directs the use of technology. Describes guidelines for online training accessibility with which vendors hoping for government business must fully comply. (JOW)

  1. Problems of Accessibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Servedio, William; McLeod, William

    1980-01-01

    Increased participation in recreational programing by persons with handicapping conditions is a right that calls for significant changes in accessibility of facilities. Both interior and exterior building modifications must be made. (CJ)

  2. First Accessible Boat Launch

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a story about how the Northwest Indiana urban waters partnership location supported the process to create and open the first handicap accessible canoe and kayak launch in the state of Indiana.

  3. Mobile multiple access study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Multiple access techniques (FDMA, CDMA, TDMA) for the mobile user and attempts to identify the current best technique are discussed. Traffic loading is considered as well as voice and data modulation and spacecraft and system design. Emphasis is placed on developing mobile terminal cost estimates for the selected design. In addition, design examples are presented for the alternative techniques of multiple access in order to compare with the selected technique.

  4. Vascular Access in Children

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamurthy, Ganesh Keller, Marc S.

    2011-02-15

    Establishment of stable vascular access is one of the essential and most challenging procedures in a pediatric hospital. Many clinical specialties provide vascular service in a pediatric hospital. At the top of the 'expert procedural pyramid' is the pediatric interventional radiologist, who is best suited and trained to deliver this service. Growing awareness regarding the safety and high success rate of vascular access using image guidance has led to increased demand from clinicians to provide around-the-clock vascular access service by pediatric interventional radiologists. Hence, the success of a vascular access program, with the pediatric interventional radiologist as the key provider, is challenging, and a coordinated multidisciplinary team effort is essential for success. However, there are few dedicated pediatric interventional radiologists across the globe, and also only a couple of training programs exist for pediatric interventions. This article gives an overview of the technical aspects of pediatric vascular access and provides useful tips for obtaining vascular access in children safely and successfully using image guidance.

  5. NOAA Enterprise Archive Access Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rank, R. H.; McCormick, S.; Cremidis, C.

    2010-12-01

    A challenge for any consumer of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) environmental data archives is that the disparate nature of these archives makes it difficult for consumers to access data in a unified manner. If it were possible for consumers to have seamless access to these archives, they would be able to better utilize the data and thus maximize the return on investment for NOAA’s archival program. When unified data access is coupled with sophisticated data querying and discovery techniques, it will be possible to provide consumers with access to richer data sets and services that extend the use of key NOAA data. Theoretically, there are two ways that unified archive access may be achieved. The first approach is to develop a single archive or archiving standard that would replace the current NOAA archives. However, the development of such an archive would pose significant technical and administrative challenges. The second approach is to develop a middleware application that would provide seamless access to all existing archives, in effect allowing each archive to exist “as is” but providing a translation service for the consumer. This approach is deemed more feasible from an administrative and technical standpoint; however, it still presents unique technical challenges due to the disparate architectures that exist across NOAA archives. NOAA has begun developing the NEAAT. The purpose of NEAAT is to provide a middleware and a simple standardized API between NOAA archives and data consumers. It is important to note that NEAAT serves two main purposes: 1) To provide a single application programming interface (API) that enables designated consumers to write their own custom applications capable of searching and acquiring data seamlessly from multiple NOAA archives. 2) To allow archive managers to expose their data to consumers in conjunction with other NOAA resources without modifying their archiving systems or way of presenting data

  6. -Saturated Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliyan, Faysal Fayez; Alfantazi, Akram

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents an electrochemical study on the corrosion behavior of API-X100 steel, heat-treated to have microstructures similar to those of the heat-affected zones (HAZs) of pipeline welding, in bicarbonate-CO2 saturated solutions. The corrosion reactions, onto the surface and through the passive films, are simulated by cyclic voltammetry. The interrelation between bicarbonate concentration and CO2 hydration is analyzed during the filming process at the open-circuit potentials. In dilute bicarbonate solutions, H2CO3 drives more dominantly the cathodic reduction and the passive films form slowly. In the concentrated solutions, bicarbonate catalyzes both the anodic and cathodic reactions, only initially, after which it drives a fast-forming thick passivation that inhibits the underlying dissolution and impedes the cathodic reduction. The significance of the substrate is as critical as that of passivation in controlling the course of the corrosion reactions in the dilute solutions. For fast-cooled (heat treatment) HAZs, its metallurgical significance becomes more comparable to that of slower-cooled HAZs as the bicarbonate concentration is higher.

  7. Sound Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkman, Neal

    2007-01-01

    Poor classroom acoustics are impairing students' hearing and their ability to learn. However, technology has come up with a solution: tools that focus voices in a way that minimizes intrusive ambient noise and gets to the intended receiver--not merely amplifying the sound, but also clarifying and directing it. One provider of classroom audio…

  8. Polymer solutions

    DOEpatents

    Krawczyk, Gerhard Erich; Miller, Kevin Michael

    2011-07-26

    There is provided a method of making a polymer solution comprising polymerizing one or more monomer in a solvent, wherein said monomer comprises one or more ethylenically unsaturated monomer that is a multi-functional Michael donor, and wherein said solvent comprises 40% or more by weight, based on the weight of said solvent, one or more multi-functional Michael donor.

  9. Making Online Learning Accessible for Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashey, Andrew I.; Stahl, Skip

    2014-01-01

    The growing presence of K-12 online education programs is a trend that promises to increase flexibility, improve efficiency, and foster engagement in learning. Students with disabilities can benefit from dynamic online educational environments, but only to the extent that they can access and participate in the learning process. As students with…

  10. Using Multimedia to Introduce Your Promising Practice. Supported Education: A Promising Practice. Evidence-Based Practices KIT (Knowledge Informing Transformation)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unger, Karen V.

    2011-01-01

    Supported Education is a promising practice that helps people with mental illnesses who are interested in education and training return to school. Current research shows that Supported Education has demonstrated results. While more research is needed, Supported Education services show promise of becoming an evidence-based practice. Education…

  11. Semantically Enriched Data Access Policies in eHealth.

    PubMed

    Drozdowicz, Michał; Ganzha, Maria; Paprzycki, Marcin

    2016-11-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) requires novel solutions to facilitate autonomous, though controlled, resource access. Access policies have to facilitate interactions between heterogeneous entities (devices and humans). Here, we focus our attention on access control in eHealth. We propose an approach based on enriching policies, based on well-known and widely-used eXtensible Access Control Markup Language, with semantics. In the paper we describe an implementation of a Policy Information Point integrated with the HL7 Security and Privacy Ontology.

  12. The challenges in making electronic health records accessible to patients

    PubMed Central

    Beard, Leslie; Schein, Rebecca; Morra, Dante; Wilson, Kumanan

    2011-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that there is a tension between growing consumer demands for access to information and a healthcare system that may not be prepared to meet these demands. Designing an effective solution for this problem will require a thorough understanding of the barriers that now stand in the way of giving patients electronic access to their health data. This paper reviews the following challenges related to the sharing of electronic health records: cost and security concerns, problems in assigning responsibilities and rights among the various players, liability issues and tensions between flexible access to data and flexible access to physicians. PMID:22120207

  13. The Public Liberal Arts Sector and America's Promise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellman, Bill

    2010-01-01

    The history of post-secondary education in America since World War II has been in many ways a success story, with greater student access a signature feature of the many changes witnessed on campuses large and small. Much work remains to be done in the area of access and affordability, especially in the financial aid system and in standardized…

  14. Osmotic Virial Coefficients as Access to the Protein Partitioning in Aqueous Two-Phase Systems.

    PubMed

    Kress, Christian; Brandenbusch, Christoph

    2015-11-01

    A promising alternative to state of the art chromatographic separations of therapeutic proteins is the extraction of the target protein using an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS). The use of an additional salt working as a displacement agent can influence the protein partitioning behavior in ATPS and thus enable a selective purification of the target protein. The selection of a suitable ATPS for protein extraction requires information concerning the protein-protein interactions (second osmotic virial coefficient B22 ) as well as the interactions between protein and solute (displacement agent and phase-forming components) (cross virial coefficient B23 ). In this work, the partitioning behavior and the precipitation affinity of immunoglobulin G (IgG) is considered within a polyethylene glycol (PEG)-phosphate ATPS. The influence on IgG partitioning upon addition of NaCl and (NH4)2 SO4 was investigated. In order to access the IgG precipitation affinity and the IgG partitioning behavior, the B22 and B23 values were determined for several combinations of solute [PEG, phosphate buffer, NaCl, and (NH4)2 SO4 ] and IgG based on static light scattering measurements. A qualitative estimation of the IgG precipitation affinity and the suitability of a solute as potential displacement agent within the PEG-phosphate ATPS on the basis of the measured B22 and B23 values is presented.

  15. Metagenomics: an inexhaustible access to nature's diversity.

    PubMed

    Langer, Martin; Gabor, Esther M; Liebeton, Klaus; Meurer, Guido; Niehaus, Frank; Schulze, Renate; Eck, Jürgen; Lorenz, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    The chemical industry has an enormous need for innovation. To save resources, energy and time, currently more and more established chemical processes are being switched to biotechnological routes. This requires white biotechnology to discover and develop novel enzymes, biocatalysts and applications. Due to a limitation in the cultivability of microbes living in certain habitats, technologies have to be established which give access to the enormous resource of uncultivated microbial diversity. Metagenomics promises to provide new and diverse enzymes and biocatalysts as well as bioactive molecules and has the potential to make industrial biotechnology an economic, sustainable success.

  16. Purely antiferromagnetic magnetoelectric random access memory.

    PubMed

    Kosub, Tobias; Kopte, Martin; Hühne, Ruben; Appel, Patrick; Shields, Brendan; Maletinsky, Patrick; Hübner, René; Liedke, Maciej Oskar; Fassbender, Jürgen; Schmidt, Oliver G; Makarov, Denys

    2017-01-03

    Magnetic random access memory schemes employing magnetoelectric coupling to write binary information promise outstanding energy efficiency. We propose and demonstrate a purely antiferromagnetic magnetoelectric random access memory (AF-MERAM) that offers a remarkable 50-fold reduction of the writing threshold compared with ferromagnet-based counterparts, is robust against magnetic disturbances and exhibits no ferromagnetic hysteresis losses. Using the magnetoelectric antiferromagnet Cr2O3, we demonstrate reliable isothermal switching via gate voltage pulses and all-electric readout at room temperature. As no ferromagnetic component is present in the system, the writing magnetic field does not need to be pulsed for readout, allowing permanent magnets to be used. Based on our prototypes, we construct a comprehensive model of the magnetoelectric selection mechanisms in thin films of magnetoelectric antiferromagnets, revealing misfit induced ferrimagnetism as an important factor. Beyond memory applications, the AF-MERAM concept introduces a general all-electric interface for antiferromagnets and should find wide applicability in antiferromagnetic spintronics.

  17. Purely antiferromagnetic magnetoelectric random access memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosub, Tobias; Kopte, Martin; Hühne, Ruben; Appel, Patrick; Shields, Brendan; Maletinsky, Patrick; Hübner, René; Liedke, Maciej Oskar; Fassbender, Jürgen; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Makarov, Denys

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic random access memory schemes employing magnetoelectric coupling to write binary information promise outstanding energy efficiency. We propose and demonstrate a purely antiferromagnetic magnetoelectric random access memory (AF-MERAM) that offers a remarkable 50-fold reduction of the writing threshold compared with ferromagnet-based counterparts, is robust against magnetic disturbances and exhibits no ferromagnetic hysteresis losses. Using the magnetoelectric antiferromagnet Cr2O3, we demonstrate reliable isothermal switching via gate voltage pulses and all-electric readout at room temperature. As no ferromagnetic component is present in the system, the writing magnetic field does not need to be pulsed for readout, allowing permanent magnets to be used. Based on our prototypes, we construct a comprehensive model of the magnetoelectric selection mechanisms in thin films of magnetoelectric antiferromagnets, revealing misfit induced ferrimagnetism as an important factor. Beyond memory applications, the AF-MERAM concept introduces a general all-electric interface for antiferromagnets and should find wide applicability in antiferromagnetic spintronics.

  18. Web access to tidal models for TIMED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Forbes, J.; Miyahara, S.; Hagan, M.

    As part of the interdisciplinary investigation "Tides, Planetary Waves, and Eddy Forcing of the Mean MLT Circulation", we provide web-based access to global monthly mean tidal fields from two models: the Kyushu University General Circulation Model, and the NCAR/HAO Global Scale Wave Model. Interactive solutions (Hough functions) to Laplace's Tidal Equation and various animations are also available. Herein, we briefly describe the models and illustrate the various tabular and plot options available. This web site also illustrates web data sharing protocols relevant to wider applications: (1) Balance of public access vs. rights of the investigators - Data sharing agreements, appropriate uses and attribution of the data; (2) Levels of accessibility - Agreement, simple form, application and request for password; (3) Methods of data distribution - Data tables, data files, archived data files, plots; (4) Database management - data dictionary, data recovery, resource lock, security.

  19. Distributed Access View Integrated Database (DAVID) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Barry E.

    1991-01-01

    The Distributed Access View Integrated Database (DAVID) System, which was adopted by the Astrophysics Division for their Astrophysics Data System, is a solution to the system heterogeneity problem. The heterogeneous components of the Astrophysics problem is outlined. The Library and Library Consortium levels of the DAVID approach are described. The 'books' and 'kits' level is discussed. The Universal Object Typer Management System level is described. The relation of the DAVID project with the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program is explained.

  20. Genital Herpes Vaccine Shows Promise in Animal Trials

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163137.html Genital Herpes Vaccine Shows Promise in Animal Trials Two-pronged approach ... THURSDAY, Jan. 19, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A new vaccine for genital herpes could be nearing human clinical ...

  1. Promising Practices and Programs: Current Efforts and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    The final chapter of the issue provides a synthesis of the first eight chapters, offers conclusions and recommendations, and considers future directions regarding practices and programs with promise for high impact at community colleges around the country.

  2. Nasal Swab Shows Promise in Confirming Lung Cancers

    MedlinePlus

    ... 163805.html Nasal Swab Shows Promise in Confirming Lung Cancers Simple technique is based on cancer DNA ... 27, 2017 MONDAY, Feb. 27, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Lung cancer remains by far the leading cancer killer ...

  3. Immersion lithography bevel solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedeschi, Len; Tamada, Osamu; Sanada, Masakazu; Yasuda, Shuichi; Asai, Masaya

    2008-03-01

    The introduction of Immersion lithography, combined with the desire to maximize the number of potential yielding devices per wafer, has brought wafer edge engineering to the forefront for advanced semiconductor manufactures. Bevel cleanliness, the position accuracy of the lithography films, and quality of the EBR cut has become more critical. In this paper, the effectiveness of wafer track based solutions to enable state-of-art bevel schemes is explored. This includes an integrated bevel cleaner and new bevel rinse nozzles. The bevel rinse nozzles are used in the coating process to ensure a precise, clean film edge on or near the bevel. The bevel cleaner is used immediately before the wafer is loaded into the scanner after the coating process. The bevel cleaner shows promise in driving down defectivity levels, specifically printing particles, while not damaging films on the bevel.

  4. [Promises and limits of genomics and its applications].

    PubMed

    Gros, François

    2015-01-01

    This text traces the extraordinary advances made in genomics for 40 years: recombinant DNA, transgenesis or genetic sequencing. In recent years, the model "all genetics" was questioned and post-genomics emerged in the molecular landscape. The promises of medical advances are many and the ethical issues that accompany them are challenges. Advances in synthetic biology are a relevant illustration of these promises and challenges.

  5. ISDC Data Access Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, D.; Borkowski, J.; Contessi, T.; Lock, T.; Rohlfs, R.; Walter, R.

    The ISDC Data Access Layer (DAL) is an ANSI C and \\fortran 90 compatible library under development in support of the ESA INTEGRAL mission data analysis software. DALs primary purpose is to isolate the analysis software from the specifics of the data formats while at the same time providing new data abstraction and access capabilities. DAL supports the creation and manipulation of hierarchical data sets which may span multiple files and, in theory, multiple computer systems. A number of Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) are supported by DAL that allow software to view and access data at different levels of complexity. DAL also allows data sets to reside on disk, in conventional memory or in shared memory in a way that is transparent to the user/application.

  6. Vascular access for hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Vanholder, R; Ringoir, S

    1994-04-01

    Indwelling central venous catheters were consecutively used as access for acute and chronic hemodialysis, emergency treatment of pulmonary fluid overload, intoxication and electrolyte disturbances, plasmapheresis, and semiacute continuous dialysis strategies, such as continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration (CAVH). Modification in catheter structure also made it possible to use this access for long-term treatment (e.g., surgically insertable catheters [Hickman], soft large-bore catheters for blind insertion). We discuss the remaining open questions in this field: Which is the insertion site of preference (i.e., subclavian, femoral, or deep jugular)? Should we prefer stiff or soft catheters? Should soft catheters be positioned surgically or is blind insertion by nonsurgeons as adequate? Is it necessary to couple catheter insertion to adjuvant techniques, such as echographic guidance, to reduce complications? Is the currently used polymer structure of the catheters acceptable? Should catheter dialysis be used with single or double vascular access?

  7. Restaurant wheelchair accessibility.

    PubMed

    McClain, L; Beringer, D; Kuhnert, H; Priest, J; Wilkes, E; Wilkinson, S; Wyrick, L

    1993-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the compliance of restaurants to the wheelchair accessibility standards set forth in the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards. The standards that were operationalized in this study are also found in Title III of the Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990. The data were collected at 120 sites in three midwestern states. For one who uses a wheelchair, parking the car is often an obstacle to eating out. Only 53% of the restaurants surveyed provide handicapped parking. Entering the building may also be a problem. Of the restaurants that required a ramp, only 66% provided them. Inside the restaurant, the key problems were accessible rest-rooms and the height of tables. The study provided comparisons between restaurants in rural and urban settings, as well as comparisons between conventional restaurants and fast food restaurants. No notable differences emerged for these comparisons.

  8. How to Perform Transcaval Access and Closure for Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Lederman, Robert J.; Babaliaros, Vasilis C.; Greenbaum, Adam B.

    2016-01-01

    Transcaval, or caval-aortic, access is a promising approach for fully percutaneous trans-catheter aortic valve implantation in patients without good conventional access options. This tutorial review provides step-by-step guidance to planning and executing the procedure, along with approaches to remedy complications. PMID:26356244

  9. Central venous access.

    PubMed

    Ganeshan, Arul; Warakaulle, Dinuke R; Uberoi, Raman

    2007-01-01

    Central venous access plays an important role in the management of an ever-increasing population of patients ranging from those that are critically ill to patients with difficult clinical access. Interventional radiologists are key in delivering this service and should be familiar with the wide range of techniques and catheters now available to them. A comprehensive description of these catheters with regard to indications, technical aspects of catheterization, success rates, and associated early and late complications, as well as a review of various published guidelines on central venous catheter insertion are given in this article.

  10. Accessibility | Smokefree 60+

    Cancer.gov

    60plus.smokefree.gov is committed to making its websites accessible to all individuals—disabled or not—who are seeking information. To provide this information, the Smokefree 60+ website has been designed to comply with Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act (as amended). Section 508 requires that all individuals with disabilities (whether they are federal government employees or members of the general public) have access to and use of information and data comparable to that provided to individuals without disabilities, unless an undue burden would be imposed.

  11. Disability access. Open season.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Brian

    2003-04-24

    A disability access audit carried out at a trust operating over 50 sites revealed that a 2.3m Pounds programme of work was needed. The audit took four months, with the team spending a day at each of the premises. The audit has been followed by a staff training programme in disability awareness. The trust's information systems now show if a patient did not attend an appointment because of difficulties with physical access. All letters to patients are produced in a minimum 12-point type.

  12. On the privacy problems involved in allowing access to computers via the public telephone system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giess, S. C.

    1988-04-01

    Privacy problems involved in allowing access to computers over the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) are discussed. The relevant aspects of current land-line PSTN and cellular radio operations are described and the weaknesses of the access controls of current computer systems are discussed. Possible solutions that would allow access under a limited set of conditions are described.

  13. Clean Energy Solutions Center (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Reategui, S.

    2012-07-01

    The Clean Energy Ministerial launched the Clean Energy Solutions Center in April, 2011 for major economy countries, led by Australia and U.S. with other CEM partners. Partnership with UN-Energy is extending scope to support all developing countries: 1. Enhance resources on policies relating to energy access, small to medium enterprises (SMEs), and financing programs; 2. Offer expert policy assistance to all countries; 3. Expand peer to peer learning, training, and deployment and policy data for developing countries.

  14. User-Centered Indexing for Adaptive Information Access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, James R.; Mathe, Nathalie

    1996-01-01

    We are focusing on information access tasks characterized by large volume of hypermedia connected technical documents, a need for rapid and effective access to familiar information, and long-term interaction with evolving information. The problem for technical users is to build and maintain a personalized task-oriented model of the information to quickly access relevant information. We propose a solution which provides user-centered adaptive information retrieval and navigation. This solution supports users in customizing information access over time. It is complementary to information discovery methods which provide access to new information, since it lets users customize future access to previously found information. It relies on a technique, called Adaptive Relevance Network, which creates and maintains a complex indexing structure to represent personal user's information access maps organized by concepts. This technique is integrated within the Adaptive HyperMan system, which helps NASA Space Shuttle flight controllers organize and access large amount of information. It allows users to select and mark any part of a document as interesting, and to index that part with user-defined concepts. Users can then do subsequent retrieval of marked portions of documents. This functionality allows users to define and access personal collections of information, which are dynamically computed. The system also supports collaborative review by letting users share group access maps. The adaptive relevance network provides long-term adaptation based both on usage and on explicit user input. The indexing structure is dynamic and evolves over time. Leading and generalization support flexible retrieval of information under similar concepts. The network is geared towards more recent information access, and automatically manages its size in order to maintain rapid access when scaling up to large hypermedia space. We present results of simulated learning experiments.

  15. Managing Information Resources for Accessibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Services Administration, Washington, DC. Clearinghouse on Computer Accommodation.

    This handbook presents guidance for federal managers and other personnel who are unfamiliar with the policy and practice of information accessibility to accommodate users with disabilities and to provide for their effective access to information resources. It addresses federal requirements for accessibility, adopting accessibility as a sound…

  16. Digital Scholarship and Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losoff, Barbara; Pence, Harry E.

    2010-01-01

    Open access publications provide scholars with unrestricted access to the "conversation" that is the basis for the advancement of knowledge. The large number of open access journals, archives, and depositories already in existence demonstrates the technical and economic viability of providing unrestricted access to the literature that is the…

  17. Personalized medicine and access to health care: potential for inequitable access?

    PubMed

    McClellan, Kelly A; Avard, Denise; Simard, Jacques; Knoppers, Bartha M

    2013-02-01

    Personalized medicine promises that an individual's genetic information will be increasingly used to prioritize access to health care. Use of genetic information to inform medical decision making, however, raises questions as to whether such use could be inequitable. Using breast cancer genetic risk prediction models as an example, on the surface clinical use of genetic information is consistent with the tools provided by evidence-based medicine, representing a means to equitably distribute limited health-care resources. However, at present, given limitations inherent to the tools themselves, and the mechanisms surrounding their implementation, it becomes clear that reliance on an individual's genetic information as part of medical decision making could serve as a vehicle through which disparities are perpetuated under public and private health-care delivery models. The potential for inequities arising from using genetic information to determine access to health care has been rarely discussed. Yet, it raises legal and ethical questions distinct from those raised surrounding genetic discrimination in employment or access to private insurance. Given the increasing role personalized medicine is forecast to play in the provision of health care, addressing a broader view of what constitutes genetic discrimination, one that occurs along a continuum and includes inequitable access, will be needed during the implementation of new applications based on individual genetic profiles. Only by anticipating and addressing the potential for inequitable access to health care occurring from using genetic information will we move closer to realizing the goal of personalized medicine: to improve the health of individuals.

  18. Serving up Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    When low-income students returned to Chicago public schools this fall, many had better access to technology, thanks to a public-private partnership. Chicago families with children enrolled in the National School Lunch Program are eligible for subsidized computers and Internet connections through an agreement between the city and telecom giant…

  19. ACCESS Project: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, Heiko

    2015-04-01

    The ACCESS project addressed the development, testing, and demonstration of the proposed advanced technologies and the associated emission and fuel economy improvement at an engine dynamometer and on a full-scale vehicle. Improve fuel economy by 25% with minimum performance penalties Achieve SULEV level emissions with gasoline Demonstrate multi-mode combustion engine management system

  20. ACCENT ON ACCESS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHATELAIN, LEON, JR.; AND OTHERS

    EMPHASIS IS GIVEN ON ACCESSIBILITY TO PUBLIC BUILDINGS BY THE HANDICAPPED. ATTENTION IS DIRECTED TO THIS SUBJECT INASMUCH AS ARCHITECTS GENERALLY HAVE OVERLOOKED THE PROBLEM. HENCE, PUBLIC BUILDINGS ARE NOT TRULY AVAILABLE TO THE TOTAL PUBLIC. IN RECENT YEARS, HOWEVER, LEGISLATION HAS BECOME INCREASINGLY MORE COMMON TO CORRECT THE SITUATION. THE…

  1. Partners: Promoting Accessible Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Janet; Gravink, Jill

    1995-01-01

    The Promoting Accessible Recreation through Networking, Education, Resources and Services (PARTNERS) Project, a partnership between Northeast Passage, the University of New Hampshire, and Granite State Independent Living Foundation, helps create barrier-free recreation for individuals with physical disabilities. The paper describes PARTNERS and…

  2. College Access Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    College Access Marketing (CAM) is a relatively new phenomenon that seeks to positively influence the college-going rate. This report defines CAM, describes CAM examples, and discusses how CAM seeks to counter barriers to college. It explores four main elements of CAM: information, marketing, advocacy, and social mobilization. Further, it…

  3. Unique Access to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goble, Don

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the many learning opportunities that broadcast technology students at Ladue Horton Watkins High School in St. Louis, Missouri, experience because of their unique access to technology and methods of learning. Through scaffolding, stepladder techniques, and trial by fire, students learn to produce multiple television programs,…

  4. Improved Access to Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Sandra; Simkins, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Describes efforts by principal of the Willow Elementary School in the Charter Oak Unified School District (California) to provide students with technology-enhanced access to information and learning resources to improve reading and mathematics skills. Includes list of the Web addresses for the skills software used at the school. (PKP)

  5. Internet 2 Access Grid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simco, Greg

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of the Internet 2 Initiative, which is based on collaboration among universities, businesses, and government, focuses on the Access Grid, a Computational Grid that includes interactive multimedia within high-speed networks to provide resources to enable remote collaboration among the research community. (Author/LRW)

  6. Accessible Theatre Arts Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Curriculum Development.

    Intended to help administrators and theatre teachers provide a theatre arts program accessible to disabled actors, technicians, and audiences, the guide focuses on ways to alleviate limitations in the theatre. The following topics are addressed (sample subtopics in parentheses): awareness (use of improvisations and simulations); acclimatization…

  7. Access to Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Donald S.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how modern library systems can protect collections while not impeding disabled persons' access to facilities. Describes the problem with swinging gates and offers some security alternatives, such as high-tech gateless security, video detection, and voice alarms, that do not impede disabled persons' movements. (RJM)

  8. CAS. Controlled Access Security

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, B.; Pomeroy, G.

    1989-12-01

    The Security Alarm System is a data acquisition and control system which collects data from intrusion sensors and displays the information in a real-time environment for operators. The Access Control System monitors and controls the movement of personnel with the use of card readers and biometrics hand readers.

  9. Accessing Electronic Theses: Progress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Roy

    2000-01-01

    Describes various ways by which universities provide access to their electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs), discussing UMI (University Microfilms International), XML (eXtensible Markup Language), and other formats. Discusses key leaders--national and international--in the ETD effort. Outlines the two main methods for locating ETDs. Presents a…

  10. APS and Open Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-03-01

    The movement toward Open Access continues to gain momentum. A brief review of APS efforts in this area will be presented by APS Editor in Chief, Gene Sprouse. Editors from Physical Review A, B, E, Focus, Letters, and X, Reviews of Modern Physics, and Physics will address your questions about publishing in this evolving environment.

  11. Accessibility Standards, Illustrated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Michael A.

    The book sets forth Illinois environmental accessibility standards for disabled persons based on observation and interview data. Photographs, drawings, and detailed floor plans are included in sections dealing with human data (including space requirements for maneuvering wheelchairs, color blindness, incontinence, and severe auditory or visual…

  12. Computer Accessibility Technology Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This technology information packet includes information about the technical aspects of access to technology, legal obligations concerning technology and individuals with disabilities, and a list of resources for further information and assistance. A question and answer section addresses: barriers to educational technology for students with…

  13. Internet Business Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Cogent Software, Inc. was formed in January 1995 by David Atkinson and Irene Woerner, both former employees of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Several other Cogent employees also worked at JPL. Atkinson headed JPL's Information Systems Technology section and Woerner lead the Advanced User Interfaces Group. Cogent's mission is to help companies organize and manage their online content by developing advanced software for the next generation of online directories and information catalogs. The company offers a complete range of Internet solutions, including Internet access, Web site design, local and wide-area networks, and custom software for online commerce applications. Cogent also offers DesignSphere Online, an electronic community for the communications arts industry. Customers range from small offices to manufacturers with thousands of employees, including Chemi-Con, one of the largest manufacturers of capacitors in the world.

  14. Combining novel technologies with improved logistics to reduce hemodialysis vascular access dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Roy-Chaudhury, P; Lee, T; Duncan, H; El-Khatib, M

    2009-01-01

    Hemodialysis (HD) vascular access dysfunction is currently a huge clinical problem for which there are no effective therapies. There are, however, a number of promising technologies that are currently at the experimental or clinical trial stage. We believe that the application of these novel technologies in combination with better clinical protocols for vascular access care could significantly reduce the current problems associated with HD vascular access.

  15. Physical Activity and Food Environments: Solutions to the Obesity Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Sallis, James F; Glanz, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Context: Environmental, policy, and societal changes are important contributors to the rapid rise in obesity over the past few decades, and there has been substantial progress toward identifying environmental and policy factors related to eating and physical activity that can point toward solutions. This article is a status report on research on physical activity and food environments, and it suggests how these findings can be used to improve diet and physical activity and to control or reduce obesity. Methods: This article summarizes and synthesizes recent reviews and provides examples of representative studies. It also describes ongoing innovative interventions and policy change efforts that were identified through conference presentations, media coverage, and websites. Findings: Numerous cross-sectional studies have consistently demonstrated that some attributes of built and food environments are associated with physical activity, healthful eating, and obesity. Residents of walkable neighborhoods who have good access to recreation facilities are more likely to be physically active and less likely to be overweight or obese. Residents of communities with ready access to healthy foods also tend to have more healthful diets. Disparities in environments and policies that disadvantage low-income communities and racial minorities have been documented as well. Evidence from multilevel studies, prospective research, and quasi-experimental evaluations of environmental changes are just beginning to emerge. Conclusions: Environment, policy, and multilevel strategies for improving diet, physical activity, and obesity control are recommended based on a rapidly growing body of research and the collective wisdom of leading expert organizations. A public health imperative to identify and implement solutions to the obesity epidemic warrants the use of the most promising strategies while continuing to build the evidence base. PMID:19298418

  16. Fixed Access Network Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornaglia, Bruno; Young, Gavin; Marchetta, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Fixed broadband network deployments are moving inexorably to the use of Next Generation Access (NGA) technologies and architectures. These NGA deployments involve building fiber infrastructure increasingly closer to the customer in order to increase the proportion of fiber on the customer's access connection (Fibre-To-The-Home/Building/Door/Cabinet… i.e. FTTx). This increases the speed of services that can be sold and will be increasingly required to meet the demands of new generations of video services as we evolve from HDTV to "Ultra-HD TV" with 4k and 8k lines of video resolution. However, building fiber access networks is a costly endeavor. It requires significant capital in order to cover any significant geographic coverage. Hence many companies are forming partnerships and joint-ventures in order to share the NGA network construction costs. One form of such a partnership involves two companies agreeing to each build to cover a certain geographic area and then "cross-selling" NGA products to each other in order to access customers within their partner's footprint (NGA coverage area). This is tantamount to a bi-lateral wholesale partnership. The concept of Fixed Access Network Sharing (FANS) is to address the possibility of sharing infrastructure with a high degree of flexibility for all network operators involved. By providing greater configuration control over the NGA network infrastructure, the service provider has a greater ability to define the network and hence to define their product capabilities at the active layer. This gives the service provider partners greater product development autonomy plus the ability to differentiate from each other at the active network layer.

  17. The politics of universal access: the Massachusetts Health Security Act of 1988.

    PubMed

    Goldberger, S A

    1990-01-01

    This article analyzes the passage of an unprecedented state law, promising every resident access to affordable health insurance. The Massachusetts Health Security Act of 1988 was the product of a set of political and financial pressures that had been developing for nearly a decade. Hospital, insurance, and business interests were unable to reach a new accommodation on hospital payment. This logjam created the opportunity for a policy breakthrough, but did not inherently lend itself to progressive reform. It was consumer activism that forced the traditional powers in health policy to address the interests of the uninsured. By imposing a more public-interest agenda on the process, consumers were able to change the configuration of the stalemate, but could not resolve it. The particular terms of the stalemate, however, made possible a new, more aggressive role for state government in health policy. Unable to satisfy their competing interests within a policy framework that had universal access as a goal, traditionally powerful interest groups found themselves increasingly dependent on the state to broker a new agreement. While the many concessions made to these groups are likely to prove to be the bill's undoing, the unraveling of the agreement will not end the story. The same pressures which led to passage of the Massachusetts law and which are now causing other states to act will continue to exert their effect until a more durable solution is found.

  18. Formaldehyde: catalytic oxidation as a promising soft way of elimination.

    PubMed

    Quiroz Torres, Jhon; Royer, Sébastien; Bellat, Jean-Pierre; Giraudon, Jean-Marc; Lamonier, Jean-François

    2013-04-01

    Compared to other molecules such as benzene, toluene, xylene, and chlorinated compounds, the catalytic oxidation of formaldehyde has been studied rarely. However, standards for the emission level of this pollutant will become more restrictive because of its extreme toxicity even at very low concentrations in air. As a consequence, the development of a highly efficient process for its selective elimination is needed. Complete catalytic oxidation of formaldehyde into CO2 and H2 O using noble-metal-based catalysts is a promising method to convert this pollutant at room temperature, making this process energetically attractive from an industrial point of view. However, the development of a less expensive active phase is required for a large-scale industrial development. Nanomaterials based on oxides of manganese are described as the most promising catalysts. The objective of this Minireview is to present promising recent studies on the removal of formaldehyde through heterogeneous catalysis to stimulate future research in this topic.

  19. Early market access of cancer drugs in the EU.

    PubMed

    Martinalbo, J; Bowen, D; Camarero, J; Chapelin, M; Démolis, P; Foggi, P; Jonsson, B; Llinares, J; Moreau, A; O'Connor, D; Oliveira, J; Vamvakas, S; Pignatti, F

    2016-01-01

    Patient access to new cancer drugs in the EU involves centralised licensing decisions by regulators as well as reimbursement recommendations in the context of national healthcare systems. Differences in assessment criteria and evidence requirements may result in divergent decisions at central and national levels, ultimately compromising effective access to patients. Early access decisions are particularly challenging due to the limited clinical evidence available to conclude on the benefit-risk and relative (cost-) effectiveness of new high-priced cancer drugs. We describe mechanisms to accelerate approval of promising anticancer drugs that fulfil an unmet medical need, review the experience from the European Medicines Agency, compare timelines and outcomes of reimbursement decisions in major EU markets, and discuss shortcomings of the current system, ongoing initiatives, and future steps to facilitate effective early access.

  20. Promise-based management: the essence of execution.

    PubMed

    Sull, Donald N; Spinosa, Charles

    2007-04-01

    Critical initiatives stall for a variety of reasons--employee disengagement, a lack of coordination between functions, complex organizational structures that obscure accountability, and so on. To overcome such obstacles, managers must fundamentally rethink how work gets done. Most of the challenges stem from broken or poorly crafted commitments. That's because every company is, at its heart, a dynamic network of promises made between employees and colleagues, customers, outsourcing partners, or other stakeholders. Executives can overcome many problems in the short-term and foster productive, reliable workforces for the long-term by practicing what the authors call "promise-based management," which involves cultivating and coordinating commitments in a systematic way. Good promises share five qualities: They are public, active, voluntary, explicit, and mission based. To develop and execute an effective promise, the "provider" and the "customer" in the deal should go through three phases of conversation. The first, achieving a meeting of minds, entails exploring the fundamental questions of coordinated effort: What do you mean? Do you understand what I mean? What should I do? What will you do? Who else should we talk to? In the next phase, making it happen, the provider executes on the promise. In the final phase, closing the loop, the customer publicly declares that the provider has either delivered the goods or failed to do so. Leaders must weave and manage their webs of promises with great care-encouraging iterative conversation and making sure commitments are fulfilled reliably. If they do, they can enhance coordination and cooperation among colleagues, build the organizational agility required to seize new business opportunities, and tap employees' entrepreneurial energies.

  1. Issues in Educating Young Gifted Children: Promising Practices. Leadership Accessing Monograph: Education of Gifted and Talented Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnes, Merle

    This monograph addresses issues and problems related to identification of and programming for gifted/talented children of preschool, kindergarten, and primary age. Barriers to early identification and programming are identified. A rationale for early identification and programming is presented, followed by administrative options including…

  2. Building on the Promise: State Initiatives to Expand Access to Early Head Start for Young Children and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Rachel; DiLauro, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Babies need good health, strong families, and positive early learning experiences to promote their healthy intellectual, social, and emotional development. However, as the poverty rate for children under age 3 continues to increase, a rising number of young children are going without these supports. The federal Early Head Start program (EHS) was…

  3. Promising applications of graphene and graphene-based nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Bich Ha; Hieu Nguyen, Van

    2016-06-01

    The present article is a review of research works on promising applications of graphene and graphene-based nanostructures. It contains five main scientific subjects. The first one is the research on graphene-based transparent and flexible conductive films for displays and electrodes: efficient method ensuring uniform and controllable deposition of reduced graphene oxide thin films over large areas, large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchble transparent electrodes, utilization of graphene-based transparent conducting films and graphene oxide-based ones in many photonic and optoelectronic devices and equipments such as the window electrodes of inorganic, organic and dye-sensitized solar cells, organic light-emitting diodes, light-emitting electrochemical cells, touch screens, flexible smart windows, graphene-based saturated absorbers in laser cavities for ultrafast generations, graphene-based flexible, transparent heaters in automobile defogging/deicing systems, heatable smart windows, graphene electrodes for high-performance organic field-effect transistors, flexible and transparent acoustic actuators and nanogenerators etc. The second scientific subject is the research on conductive inks for printed electronics to revolutionize the electronic industry by producing cost-effective electronic circuits and sensors in very large quantities: preparing high mobility printable semiconductors, low sintering temperature conducting inks, graphene-based ink by liquid phase exfoliation of graphite in organic solutions, and developing inkjet printing technique for mass production of high-quality graphene patterns with high resolution and for fabricating a variety of good-performance electronic devices, including transparent conductors, embedded resistors, thin-film transistors and micro supercapacitors. The third scientific subject is the research on graphene-based separation membranes: molecular dynamics simulation study on the mechanisms of the transport of

  4. Internet access to ionosondes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, I. A.; Kitrosser, D. F.; Kecic, Z.; Reinisch, B. W.

    1999-01-01

    Connecting ionosondes to the Internet gives easy access to real-time information on ionospheric conditions. Some of the ionosonde sites provide just the ionogram displays, others give in addition the scaled ionospheric characteristics directly usable for frequency management and HF channel assessment. Some sounders also store days or months of station data, which makes it possible remotely to evaluate the time history of geophysical events. The Internet link is also a convenient means for remote system maintenance and control. The paper addresses various aspects of the Internet ionosonde scenario, including data base support, WWW publishing, user interface, security, and data format. A list of Internet accessible ionosonde stations is provided with a brief description.

  5. [Complex vascular access].

    PubMed

    Mangiarotti, G; Cesano, G; Thea, A; Hamido, D; Pacitti, A; Segoloni, G P

    1998-03-01

    Availability of a proper vascular access is a basic condition for a proper extracorporeal replacement in end-stage chronic renal failure. However, biological factors, management and other problems, may variously condition their middle-long term survival. Therefore, personal experience of over 25 years has been critically reviewed in order to obtain useful information. In particular "hard" situations necessitating complex procedures have been examined but, if possible, preserving the peripherical vascular features.

  6. History of vascular access.

    PubMed

    Dudrick, Stanley J

    2006-01-01

    Milestones in the history of the development of vascular access and the subsequent advances in practical clinical applications of the knowledge, techniques, technology, and experience to the beneficial management of a variety of patients are described. The original achievements are presented and briefly discussed primarily, but not exclusively, in relationship to the successful development of parenteral nutrition (PN). Beginning with the discovery of the circulation of blood, landmark events, resulting from astute observations, experimentation, and ingenious technological advances, are summarized or outlined chronologically over the past 4 centuries, with emphasis on the many recent accomplishments of basic and clinical scientists during the past 6 decades. Brief descriptions of several seminal contributions to safe and effective IV access, management, and therapy acknowledge and recognize the historical highlights that have allowed a complex and potentially hazardous therapeutic modality to evolve into a commonly applied useful adjunct to our current inpatient and outpatient armamentarium. A comprehensive list of references documents the highlights of the development of vascular access for the student of history.

  7. I need to know! Timely accessing of perioperative user manuals.

    PubMed

    Landreneau, Raphael

    2010-12-01

    Ready access to equipment or product information is essential for the safe operation of the many items that a perioperative nurse is asked to use, troubleshoot, or maintain. One institution's solution for making manufacturer information available in the practice setting was to create a facility intranet site dedicated to OR equipment manuals. This site provides information access to perioperative nurses and support staff members and, ultimately, helps improve patient care.

  8. Life's Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Simon Conway

    2004-11-01

    Life's Solution builds a persuasive case for the predictability of evolutionary outcomes. The case rests on a remarkable compilation of examples of convergent evolution, in which two or more lineages have independently evolved similar structures and functions. The examples range from the aerodynamics of hovering moths and hummingbirds to the use of silk by spiders and some insects to capture prey. Going against the grain of Darwinian orthodoxy, this book is a must read for anyone grappling with the meaning of evolution and our place in the Universe. Simon Conway Morris is the Ad Hominen Professor in the Earth Science Department at the University of Cambridge and a Fellow of St. John's College and the Royal Society. His research focuses on the study of constraints on evolution, and the historical processes that lead to the emergence of complexity, especially with respect to the construction of the major animal body parts in the Cambrian explosion. Previous books include The Crucible of Creation (Getty Center for Education in the Arts, 1999) and co-author of Solnhofen (Cambridge, 1990). Hb ISBN (2003) 0-521-82704-3

  9. Life's Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Simon Conway

    2003-09-01

    Life's Solution builds a persuasive case for the predictability of evolutionary outcomes. The case rests on a remarkable compilation of examples of convergent evolution, in which two or more lineages have independently evolved similar structures and functions. The examples range from the aerodynamics of hovering moths and hummingbirds to the use of silk by spiders and some insects to capture prey. Going against the grain of Darwinian orthodoxy, this book is a must read for anyone grappling with the meaning of evolution and our place in the Universe. Simon Conway Morris is the Ad Hominen Professor in the Earth Science Department at the University of Cambridge and a Fellow of St. John's College and the Royal Society. His research focuses on the study of constraints on evolution, and the historical processes that lead to the emergence of complexity, especially with respect to the construction of the major animal body parts in the Cambrian explosion. Previous books include The Crucible of Creation (Getty Center for Education in the Arts, 1999) and co-author of Solnhofen (Cambridge, 1990). Hb ISBN (2003) 0-521-82704-3

  10. Alloy solution hardening with solute pairs

    DOEpatents

    Mitchell, John W.

    1976-08-24

    Solution hardened alloys are formed by using at least two solutes which form associated solute pairs in the solvent metal lattice. Copper containing equal atomic percentages of aluminum and palladium is an example.

  11. Dendritic silica particles with center-radial pore channels: promising platforms for catalysis and biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Du, Xin; Qiao, Shi Zhang

    2015-01-27

    Dendritic silica micro-/nanoparticles with center-radial pore structures, a kind of newly created porous material, have attracted considerable attention owing to their unique open three-dimensional dendritic superstructures with large pore channels and highly accessible internal surface areas compared with conventional mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs). They are very promising platforms for a variety of applications in catalysis and nanomedicine. In this review, their unique structural characteristics and properties are first analyzed, then novel and interesting synthesis methods associated with the possible formation mechanisms are summarized to provide material scientists some inspiration for the preparation of this kind of dendritic particles. Subsequently, a few examples of interesting applications are presented, mainly in catalysis, biomedicine, and other important fields such as for sacrificial templates and functional coatings. The review is concluded with an outlook on the prospects and challenges in terms of their controlled synthesis and potential applications.

  12. Parent Trigger Laws and the Promise of Parental Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, William C.; Rowland, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Parent trigger laws have gained momentum nationally under the premise that they will increase local authority by amplifying parental voice in the decision to turn around "failing" schools. Using Hirschman's exit, voice, and loyalty framework we create two conceptual models of voice and evaluate the promise of voice in California, home of…

  13. The Pittsburgh Promise: A Community's Commitment to Its Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghubril, Saleem

    2013-01-01

    The nonprofit community-based organization Pittsburgh Promise aims to help revitalize Pittsburgh and its public school system by offering college scholarships to any Pittsburgh Public School graduate who meets the academic requirements. Executive director Saleem Ghubril spoke with "Voices in Urban Education" guest editor Jacob Mishook…

  14. Reducing Aggressive Male Behavior in Elementary School: Promising Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Barbara; Gibson, Jamel; Morrison-Danner, Dietrich

    2014-01-01

    Student aggression and violent behavior, especially among males, is pervasive and problematic in the classroom. When incorporated in the lesson design, promising practices (music, movement, and visual stimulation) are evidence-based strategies that may reduce male aggression in the classroom.

  15. The Math Promise: Celebrating at Home and School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legnard, Danielle; Austin, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The Math Promise is a contract that family members make with one another. They commit to spending mathematical time together; getting to know each other's mathematical thinking and understanding; and finding time to play math games, solve problems, and notice mathematics in their daily lives. Whether parents and children are cooking in the…

  16. Promising Practices in Drug Treatment: Findings from Southeast Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libretto, Salvatore; Nemes, Susanna; Namur, Jenny; Garrett, Gerald; Hess, Lauren; Kaplan, Linda

    2005-01-01

    In a study to evaluate the drug treatment and aftercare efforts sponsored by the State Department's International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Bureau, residential Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment programs in three countries in Southeast Asia--Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand--were examined to identify promising practices and to…

  17. Promising Practices in Drug Treatment: An Overview of Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Gerald; Nemes, Susanna; Hoffman, Jeffrey; Libretto, Salvatore; Skinstadt, Anne Helene; Hess, Lauren

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a research project sponsored and funded by the State Department's Bureau of International Narcotics and Affairs (INL) on substance abuse and treatment in ten countries. The purpose of the study was to identify promising practices in drug treatment in Europe, Latin America, and Southeast Asia. The steps taken to complete this…

  18. Promising Practices in Drug Treatment: Findings from Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemes, Susanna; Libretto, Salvatore; Garrett, Gerald; Johansson, Anna Carin; Hess, Lauren

    2005-01-01

    In a study to evaluate the drug treatment and aftercare efforts sponsored by the State Department's International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Bureau, residential Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment programs in three Latin American countries--Brazil, Peru and Argentina--were examined to identify promising practices and to assess lessons…

  19. Promises to Practice: Learning a PROactive Approach to Ethical Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambery, Mary Elizabeth; Steinbrunner, Ruth K.

    2007-01-01

    Learning to be PROactive, as the title of this article suggests, means Pooling one's knowledge, Reflecting respect, and Opening oneself to action. It recognizes early childhood educators' promises to their field of practice, based on widely held beliefs and principles. Educators can apply professional ethics to everyday problem solving and their…

  20. The Promise of Global Networks. 1999 Annual Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Information Studies, Queenstown, MD.

    This collection of commissioned papers provides a variety of perspectives on the impact of global information networks. The following articles are included: "The Promise of Global Networks: An Introduction" (Jorge Reina Schement); "Architecture and Expectations: Networks of the World--Unite!" (Marjory S. Blumenthal); "The…

  1. Utility, Limitations, and Promise of Proteomics in Animal Science

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteomics experiments have the ability to simultaneously identify and quantify thousands of proteins in one experiment. The use of this technology in veterinary/animal science is still in its infancy, yet it holds significant promise as a method for advancing veterinary/animal science research. E...

  2. The Utility, Limitations, and Promise of Proteomics in Animal Science

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteomics experiments have the ability to simultaneously identify and quantify potentially thousands of proteins in one experiment. The use of this technology in animal science is still in its infancy, yet it holds significant promise as a method for advancing animal science research. Examples of...

  3. Every Child Every Promise Workforce Readiness. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    America's Promise Alliance (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    The third "Every Child, Every Promise" research brief focuses on the large percentage of the children and youth who will enter the workforce over the next two decades are lacking enough of the "soft" or applied skills--such as teamwork, decision-making, and communication--that will help them become effective employees and managers. The report…

  4. Promising New Teacher Support Strategies and Their Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dianda, Marcella R.; Quartz, Karen Hunter

    1995-01-01

    Describes several promising new teacher support strategies implemented by California universities and their district partners as part of the California New Teacher Project, noting resources expended to implement each strategy. The strategies are framed according to their programmatic and economic dimensions. Strategies that make the most sense…

  5. The Challenge and Promise of a Catholic University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesburgh, Theodore M., Ed.

    This book offers 30 papers on the continuing discussion of the nature of a Catholic university. The papers are: "Introduction: The Challenge and Promise of a Catholic University" (Theodore M. Hesburgh); "Reflections on the Mission of a Catholic University" (Harold W. Attridge); "The Difference of a Catholic…

  6. Capturing the Promise of Science in Medical Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ralston, Henry J., III; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reports the findings of the Working Group on Capturing the Promise of Medical Research, which addressed questions concerning the direction of biomedical research, academia-industry relations, and the integration of scientific developments in medical education and practice. A dominant theme emerged: the central importance of an environment of…

  7. Promising Practices: A Teacher Resource (Grades K-3).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provenzano, Johanna Z., Ed.

    A collection of promising instructional practices for teachers of limited-English-speaking primary grade students is organized as a series of lessons on planning, classroom management, teaching procedures, and evaluation in a variety of content areas. Examples of basic learning activities intended to serve as a framework for teacher…

  8. Keeping the Promise: Going the Distance on Transfer Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorette, Rob; Byrd, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Our new report, "Keeping the Promise: Going the Distance on Transfer Reform," has found significant improvements in the creation of a seamless transfer pathway between California Community Colleges and the California State Universities (CSU) since the passage of historic transfer reform legislation, SB1440, six years ago. This report…

  9. Every Child, Every Promise: Turning Failure into Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    America's Promise Alliance (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Every Child, Every Promise: Turning Failure into Action" is the first national research that comprehensively measures the presence of the essential resources that correlate with success in both youth and adulthood. The report indicates that there is much work to do as a nation. It also shows how failure can be turned into action to improve the…

  10. Improving High School Success: Searching for Evidence of Promise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzeo, Christopher; Fleischman, Steve; Heppen, Jessica; Jahangir, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    Improving the nation's high schools--particularly those that are low-performing--involves challenges that are far easier to catalog than to surmount. In this chapter, the authors identify a handful of promising approaches that can help to achieve the goal that all students will graduate from high school well-prepared for further learning,…

  11. Promising Practices in Drug Treatment: Findings from Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemes, Susanna; Libretto, Salvatore; Skinstad, Anne Helene; Garrett, Gerald; Hoffman, Jeffrey A.

    2005-01-01

    In a study to evaluate the drug treatment and aftercare efforts sponsored by the State Department's International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Bureau, residential Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment programs in four European countries-Poland, Spain, Slovenia, and Italy-were examined to identify promising practices and to assess lessons…

  12. Race to Top Promises Come Home to Roost

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Grant recipients risk losing millions of dollars in Race to the Top money if they fail to live up to their promises, federal education officials make clear. By threatening to revoke Hawaii's $75 million Race to the Top award for failing to make "adequate progress" on key milestones of its education reform plan, U.S. Secretary of…

  13. Fulfilling the Promise of School Choice. Education Outlook. No. 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Frederick M.

    2008-01-01

    Nearly two decades have passed since the Wisconsin legislature enacted the landmark Milwaukee Parental Choice Program. Advocates had hoped and promised that this experiment in school choice would lead the way in transforming American schools. But it is clear by now that voucher programs and charter school laws have failed to live up to their…

  14. Passport to College: Promise Scholarship Program Status Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Passport to College Promise Scholarship program was created by the 2007 Washington State Legislature (House Bill 1131) to help former foster youth prepare for and succeed in college. This status report addresses four areas: (1) proposed scholarship and student support approaches; (2) estimates of the number of students who will receive…

  15. Competency Education Offers Promise and Peril for Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritterband, Vicki; Heller, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Lindsay Unified School District (California) exemplifies the promise of competency education (or performance-based education, as it is called locally). Since beginning its transition to the model in 2009, discipline problems have sharply dropped, the school climate has dramatically improved (as measured by the California Healthy Kids Survey), and…

  16. Delivering on the Promise: Positive Practices for Immigrant Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition of Advocates for Students, Boston, MA.

    This report highlights selected schools and their collaborative efforts in pulling educators, families, and communities together to support a particular school's success and the well-being of its immigrant students. The report documents promising practices, but also places these efforts in broader contexts, both practical and theoretical. These…

  17. A Bold and Promising Model with a Few Loose Ends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Roland S.

    2012-01-01

    Without a doubt the authors' proposal of viewing gifted education in systemic terms is a promising one. In fact, it is most refreshing to read something eclectic like this with an aim to synthesize a field of research and practice which for too long has lacked consensus in both practice and theory. The author agrees with them that a mechanistic…

  18. Contextualized Teaching & Learning: A Promising Approach for Basic Skills Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Elaine DeLott; Hope, Laura; Karandjeff, Kelley

    2009-01-01

    Contextualized teaching and learning (CTL), or the concept of relating subject matter content to meaningful situations that are relevant to students' lives, offers one promising approach to helping students learn more effectively. This brief offers instructors, college leaders, policy makers and funders a high-level summary of the CTL…

  19. Keeping the Promise? The Debate over Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    "Keeping the Promise?" examines one of the most complex reforms in education: charter schools. This wide-ranging and thought-provoking collection of essays examines the charter school movement's founding visions, on-the-ground realities, and untapped potential-within the context of an unswerving commitment to democratic, equitable public…

  20. Realities, Visions, and Promises of a Multicultural Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mary Elizabeth; Lee, Boyung; Turpin, Katherine; Casas, Ralph; Bridgers, Lynn; Miles, Veronice

    2004-01-01

    Religious education has changed considerably over the 100 years of the Religious Education Association (REA); urgency has increased for human communities to honor diversity. The focus of this article is realities, visions, and promises of cultural diversity. The article includes an overview of REA's recent history, exemplifying its efforts and…

  1. Promising Teacher Practices: Students' Views about Their Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeed, Azra; Easterbrook, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Internationally, conceptual and procedural understanding, understanding the Nature of Science, and scientific literacy are considered worthy goals of school science education in modern times. The empirical study presented here reports on promising teacher practices that in the students' views afford learning opportunities and support their science…

  2. Evaluating the Promise of the "FUSION" Tier 2 Math Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cary, Mari Strand; Doabler, Christian; Clarke, Benjamin; Fien, Hank; Baker, Scott K.; Jungjohann, Kathy J.

    2013-01-01

    The low level of mathematics performance of U.S. students in relation to national standards and in international comparisons has concerned educators and policy makers for many years. The authors' primary goals were to design a feasible and usable intervention and gather data on the promise of the intervention to foster students' conceptual…

  3. Meet the Promise of Content Standards: Investing in Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killion, Joellen; Hirsh, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    New standards alone will not prepare all students for college and careers. The success of the Common Core State Standards depends on educators' capacity to make the instructional shifts the standards require. Meeting the promise of content standards cannot be achieved merely by agreeing on and publishing the new standards. Effective teaching of…

  4. PROMISING PRACTICES FOR SMALL SCHOOLS IMPROVEMENT. ANNUAL PROGRESS REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STUTZ, ROWAN C.

    MEETING THE UNIQUE PROBLEMS OF PROVIDING QUALITY EDUCATION IN SMALL SCHOOLS CALLS FOR SPECIAL PROGRAMS. THE WESTERN STATES SMALL SCHOOLS PROJECT HAS COMPILED 9 PROMISING PROGRAM PRACTICES WHICH CAPITALIZE UPON THE POTENTIAL STRENGTHS INHERENT IN SMALLNESS--INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION IN HIGH SCHOOL LANGUAGE ARTS, INDIVIDUALIZED ENGLISH IN A SMALL…

  5. The Kalamazoo Promise and Perceived Changes in School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miron, Gary; Jones, Jeffrey N.; Kelaher-Young, Allison J.

    2011-01-01

    The Kalamazoo Promise was announced in the fall of 2005, offering free college tuition at any public state college or university for graduates of the district who have gained acceptance to a postsecondary institution. This program was funded through the generous support of anonymous donors, and a federally-funded evaluation is underway to examine…

  6. After Access: Underrepresented Students' Postmatriculation Perceptions of College Access Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Means, Darris R.; Pyne, Kimberly B.

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the perceived impact of college-going capital gained during participation in a college access program. In three, semistructured interviews spanning the first-year college experience, 10 first-year college students who participated in a college access program articulate the value of access programming and also raise…

  7. Promising Strategies To Reduce Gun Violence. OJJDP Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquent Prevention (Dept. of Justice), Washington, DC.

    In recent years, communities across the country have struggled to develop effective solutions to the problem of gun violence. Many have approached the United States Department of Justice for help in identifying solutions. This publication was developed in response to these requests. It is designed to provide state and local elected officials,…

  8. Joint Access Control Based on Access Ratio and Resource Utilization for High-Speed Railway Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yuzhe; Ai, Bo

    2015-05-01

    The fast development of high-speed rails makes people's life more and more convenient. However, provisioning of quality of service of multimedia applications for users on the high-speed train is a critical task for wireless communications. Therefore, new solutions are desirable to be found to address this kind of problem. Current researches mainly focus on providing seamless broadband wireless access for high-speed mobile terminals. In this paper, an algorithm to calculate the optimal resource reservation fraction of handovers is proposed. A joint access control scheme for high-speed railway communication handover scenario is proposed. Metrics of access ratio and resource utilization ratio are considered jointly in the analysis and the performance evaluation. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm and the scheme improve quality of service compared with other conventional schemes.

  9. Accessibility for all: a case study of the access living headquarters.

    PubMed

    Catlin, John H

    2008-01-01

    Access Living of Metropolitan Chicago is a nonresidential Center for Independent Living for people with all types of disabilities. This article describes the process of creating an accessible environment for their new headquarters. A charrette involving members of the Chicago disability community, as well as experts on accessibility and Universal Design, was conducted to investigate how architecture and technology could be integrated into the design that would help improve the function of the building. Design solutions for the building entrance, bathrooms, lighting, work stations, and elevators are described in this article. By understanding what the client needed and by doing careful research to find the right products, conventional products were used almost 100% of the time. With the exception of the TTYs in the elevator, there were no customized products. This meant that there was no need to pay more for the Universal Design when it came to building products.

  10. [NOTES and single port access: surgical or marketing revolution?].

    PubMed

    Allemann, P; Schäfer, M; Demartines, N

    2010-06-23

    Promising new technologies are emerging in digestive surgery: Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) and Single Port Access Surgery. They both aim to limit the surgical morbidity by decreasing the number of parietal accesses. The feasibility in human is obviously demonstrated, but numerous issues remain concerning the safety of these techniques. Furthermore, the expected advantages are not clearly demonstrated until now in the literature. In the future, it will be advisable to standardize techniques, in order to allow large clinical studies and to limit the potential complications of these approaches.

  11. Optical access: networks and components (overview)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mynbaev, Djafar K.

    2004-09-01

    The exponential gtowth of traffic delivered to an individual customer both for business and personal needs puts tremendous pressure on the telecommunications networks. Because the development of the long-haul and metro networks has advanced rapidly and their capacity much eceeds demand, tremendous pressure now falls in the local networks to provide customers with access to the global telecom infrastructure. Building a broadband access network enabling fast delivery of high-volume traffic is the current task of network operators. A brief review of broadband access networks brings us to the conclusion that only wired optical networks can serve as an immediate and future solution to the "last-mile" problem. After discussin goptical access network classification, we focus mainly on passive optical networks (PON) because PON is a major technology today. From the network standpoint, we discuss the principle of PON operation, architectures, topologies, protocols and standards, design issues, and network management and services. We also discuss the main problems with PON and the use of WDM technology. From the hardware standpoint, we consider both active and passive components. We analyze the structure and elements of these components, including their technical characteristics.

  12. A voice password system for access security

    SciTech Connect

    Birnbaum, M.; Cohen, L.A.; Welsh, F.X.

    1986-09-01

    A voice password system for access security using speaker verification technology has been designed for use over dial-up telephone lines. The voice password system (VPS) can provide secure access to telephone networks, computers, rooms, and buildings. It also has application in office automation systems, electric funds transfer, and ''smart cards'' (interactive computers embedded in credit-card-sized packages). As increasing attention is focused on access security in the public, private, and government sectors, the voice password system can provide a timely solution to the security dilemma. The VPS uses modes of communication available to almost everyone (the human voice and the telephone). A user calls the VPS, enters his or her identification number (ID) by touch-tone telephone, and then speaks a password. This is usually a phrase or a sentence of about seven syllables. On initial calls, the VPS creates a model of the user's voice, called a reference template, and labels it with the caller's unique user ID. To gain access later, the user calls the system, enters the proper user ID, and speaks the password phrase. The VPS compares the user's stored reference template with the spoken password and produces a distance score.

  13. Metal oxide resistive random access memory based synaptic devices for brain-inspired computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Bin; Kang, Jinfeng; Zhou, Zheng; Chen, Zhe; Huang, Peng; Liu, Lifeng; Liu, Xiaoyan

    2016-04-01

    The traditional Boolean computing paradigm based on the von Neumann architecture is facing great challenges for future information technology applications such as big data, the Internet of Things (IoT), and wearable devices, due to the limited processing capability issues such as binary data storage and computing, non-parallel data processing, and the buses requirement between memory units and logic units. The brain-inspired neuromorphic computing paradigm is believed to be one of the promising solutions for realizing more complex functions with a lower cost. To perform such brain-inspired computing with a low cost and low power consumption, novel devices for use as electronic synapses are needed. Metal oxide resistive random access memory (ReRAM) devices have emerged as the leading candidate for electronic synapses. This paper comprehensively addresses the recent work on the design and optimization of metal oxide ReRAM-based synaptic devices. A performance enhancement methodology and optimized operation scheme to achieve analog resistive switching and low-energy training behavior are provided. A three-dimensional vertical synapse network architecture is proposed for high-density integration and low-cost fabrication. The impacts of the ReRAM synaptic device features on the performances of neuromorphic systems are also discussed on the basis of a constructed neuromorphic visual system with a pattern recognition function. Possible solutions to achieve the high recognition accuracy and efficiency of neuromorphic systems are presented.

  14. Advanced multiple access concepts in mobile satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ananasso, Fulvio

    1990-01-01

    Some multiple access strategies for Mobile Satellite Systems (MSS) are discussed. These strategies were investigated in the context of three separate studies conducted for the International Maritime Satellite Organization (INMARSAT) and the European Space Agency (ESA). Satellite-Switched Frequency Division Multiple Access (SS-FDMA), Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), and Frequency-Addressable Beam architectures are addressed, discussing both system and technology aspects and outlining advantages and drawbacks of either solution with associated relevant hardware issues. An attempt is made to compare the considered option from the standpoint of user terminal/space segment complexity, synchronization requirements, spectral efficiency, and interference rejection.

  15. Advanced Cosmic-Ray Composition Experiment for Space Station (ACCESS): ACCESS Accommodation Study Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas L. (Editor); Wefel, John P. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    In 1994 NASA Administrator selected the first high-energy particle physics experiment for the Space Station, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), to place a magnetic spectrometer in Earth orbit and search for cosmic antimatter. A natural consequence of this decision was that NASA would begin to explore cost-effective ways through which the design and implementation of AMS might benefit other promising payload experiments. The first such experiment to come forward was Advanced Cosmic-Ray Composition Experiment for Space Station (ACCESS) in 1996. It was proposed as a new mission concept in space physics to attach a cosmic-ray experiment of weight, volume, and geometry similar to the AMS on the International Space Station (ISS), and replace the latter as its successor when the AMS is returned to Earth. This was to be an extension of NASA's suborbital balloon program, with balloon payloads serving as the precursor flights and heritage for ACCESS. The balloon programs have always been a cost-effective NASA resource since the particle physics instrumentation for balloon and space applications are directly related. The next step was to expand the process, pooling together expertise from various NASA centers and universities while opening up definition of the ACCESS science goals to the international community through the standard practice of peer review. This process is still ongoing, and the accommodation study presented here will discuss the baseline definition of ACCESS as we understand it today.

  16. Achieving a Dream: Meeting Policy Goals Related to Improving Drug Access

    PubMed Central

    Zakus, David; Kohler, Jillian Clare; Zakriova, Venera; Yarmoshuk, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    International experts recognize that significant inequities exist in the accessibility of life-saving medicines among poor and vulnerable populations, especially in developing countries. This article highlights that drug access even for relatively cheap medicines is out of reach for the vast numbers of global poor. This badly affects people living with HIV/AIDS who face serious obstacles in accessing ARVs. The same concerns are attributed to neglected diseases. Despite international meetings, promises from the pharmaceutical industry and a lot of media attention little has changed in the past 20 years. The accessibility gap to life-saving drugs could be reduced by the UNITAID initiative to pool patents for the many different ARVs, but the reality is that UNITAID is still a promise. To surmount this global problem of inequity requires a rethinking of traditional models of drug access and health objectives that should not be compromised by commercial interests. PMID:20148088

  17. Solution-processed graphene/MnO2 nanostructured textiles for high-performance electrochemical capacitors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guihua; Hu, Liangbing; Vosgueritchian, Michael; Wang, Huiliang; Xie, Xing; McDonough, James R; Cui, Xu; Cui, Yi; Bao, Zhenan

    2011-07-13

    Large scale energy storage system with low cost, high power, and long cycle life is crucial for addressing the energy problem when connected with renewable energy production. To realize grid-scale applications of the energy storage devices, there remain several key issues including the development of low-cost, high-performance materials that are environmentally friendly and compatible with low-temperature and large-scale processing. In this report, we demonstrate that solution-exfoliated graphene nanosheets (∼5 nm thickness) can be conformably coated from solution on three-dimensional, porous textiles support structures for high loading of active electrode materials and to facilitate the access of electrolytes to those materials. With further controlled electrodeposition of pseudocapacitive MnO(2) nanomaterials, the hybrid graphene/MnO(2)-based textile yields high-capacitance performance with specific capacitance up to 315 F/g achieved. Moreover, we have successfully fabricated asymmetric electrochemical capacitors with graphene/MnO(2)-textile as the positive electrode and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs)-textile as the negative electrode in an aqueous Na(2)SO(4) electrolyte solution. These devices exhibit promising characteristics with a maximum power density of 110 kW/kg, an energy density of 12.5 Wh/kg, and excellent cycling performance of ∼95% capacitance retention over 5000 cycles. Such low-cost, high-performance energy textiles based on solution-processed graphene/MnO(2) hierarchical nanostructures offer great promise in large-scale energy storage device applications.

  18. Access Control of Web- and Java-Based Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tso, Kam S.; Pajevski, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Cybersecurity has become a great concern as threats of service interruption, unauthorized access, stealing and altering of information, and spreading of viruses have become more prevalent and serious. Application layer access control of applications is a critical component in the overall security solution that also includes encryption, firewalls, virtual private networks, antivirus, and intrusion detection. An access control solution, based on an open-source access manager augmented with custom software components, was developed to provide protection to both Web-based and Javabased client and server applications. The DISA Security Service (DISA-SS) provides common access control capabilities for AMMOS software applications through a set of application programming interfaces (APIs) and network- accessible security services for authentication, single sign-on, authorization checking, and authorization policy management. The OpenAM access management technology designed for Web applications can be extended to meet the needs of Java thick clients and stand alone servers that are commonly used in the JPL AMMOS environment. The DISA-SS reusable components have greatly reduced the effort for each AMMOS subsystem to develop its own access control strategy. The novelty of this work is that it leverages an open-source access management product that was designed for Webbased applications to provide access control for Java thick clients and Java standalone servers. Thick clients and standalone servers are still commonly used in businesses and government, especially for applications that require rich graphical user interfaces and high-performance visualization that cannot be met by thin clients running on Web browsers

  19. Computer Technology Integration and Student Learning: Barriers and Promise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keengwe, Jared; Onchwari, Grace; Wachira, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Political and institutional support has enabled many institutions of learning to spend millions of dollars to acquire educational computing tools (Ficklen and Muscara, "Am Educ" 25(3):22-29, 2001) that have not been effectively integrated into the curriculum. While access to educational technology tools has remarkably improved in most schools,…

  20. Early Commitment Financial Aid Programs: Promises, Practices, and Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Cheryl D.

    2005-01-01

    Student financial assistance has long been a means to promote access to postsecondary education and attainment of college degrees. Numerous types of financial aid programs have proliferated over the years, including a relatively new concept that specifically targets high-risk, low-income students, focusing not just on getting them to go to college…

  1. Natural gas litigation survey: The future promises greater stability

    SciTech Connect

    Pain, L.

    1992-12-31

    The 1980`s witnessed a drastic restructuring of the interstate natural gas pipeline industry and considerable high-stakes natural gas contract litigation brought about by wide changes in field gas market values. This article reviews economic and regulatory developments in the natural gas industry and the resulting gas litigation trends: take-or-pay litigation; open access transportation; contract price.

  2. Preschool Education: Delivering on the Promise for Latino Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltran, Erika

    2011-01-01

    This publication highlights opportunities to improve the educational outcomes of Hispanic children at an early age, a time that is critical to setting up the academic success of children. Specifically, this paper examines barriers to quality and access that limit the participation of Latino children and families in preschool and offers…

  3. Empty Promise: Black American Veterans and the New GI Bill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottley, Alford H.

    2014-01-01

    The 2008 GI Bill offers college funds for veterans. Yet Black male vets are not taking advantage of these benefits. This chapter examines personal and societal problems that hinder access to higher education for Black vets, and suggests some ways adult educators can advocate for these young men.

  4. Distributed Learning: How New Technologies Promise a Richer Educational Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dede, Chris

    1997-01-01

    Distance learning by distributed computing, or creation of a virtual learning community, can both solve logistical problems in higher education and create new instructional and learning opportunities. Knowledge webs (the Internet and World Wide Web) extend access to knowledge; shared synthetic environments provide sensory immersion; distributed…

  5. 78 FR 72851 - Proposed Priority-Promise Zones

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... access documents of the Department published in the Federal Register, by using the article search feature at: www.federalregister.gov . Specifically, through the advanced search feature at this site, you can limit your search to documents published by the Department. Dated: November 26, 2013. Arne...

  6. A Broken Promise: Examining the Merit-Aid Policy and Implementation Gap in the Michigan Promise Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daun-Barnet, Nathan; Hermsen, Albert; Vedder, Lori; Mabry, Beth

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, Michigan changed their traditional merit award to a credit contingent program based upon successful completion of 60 college credits. The Michigan Promise Scholarship was crafted by state policymakers without input from the financial aid community. This case study suggests that the change in policy resulted in two unintended consequences:…

  7. EPICS: Channel Access security design

    SciTech Connect

    Kraimer, M.; Hill, J.

    1994-05-01

    This document presents the design for implementing the requirements specified in: EPICS -- Channel Access Security -- functional requirements, Ned. D. Arnold, 03/09/92. Use of the access security system is described along with a summary of the functional requirements. The programmer`s interface is given. Security protocol is described and finally aids for reading the access security code are provided.

  8. Open Access Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentor, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Educational institutions are increasingly adopting "closed" learning environments that hide learning materials in password-protected areas. While this may be a logical solution to a range of problems, much is lost in this mode of course delivery. Although there are logical reasons for moving toward closed environments, we may be erring…

  9. Frequency-Domain Equalization for Broadband Single-Carrier Multiple Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Fumiyuki; Tomeba, Hiromichi; Takeda, Kazuki

    Single-carrier (SC) multiple access is a promising uplink multiple access technique because of its low peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) property and high frequency diversity gain that is achievable through simple one-tap frequency-domain equalization (FDE) in a strong frequency-selective channel. The multiple access capability can be obtained by combining either frequency division multiple access (FDMA) or code division multiple access (CDMA) with SC transmission. In this article, we review the recent research on the SC multiple access techniques with one-tap FDE. After introducing the principle of joint FDE/antenna diversity combining, we review various SC multiple access techniques with one-tap FDE, i.e., SC-FDMA, SC-CDMA, block spread CDMA, and delay-time/CDMA.

  10. New drugs for the treatment of tuberculosis: needs, challenges, promise, and prospects for the future.

    PubMed

    Lienhardt, Christian; Raviglione, Mario; Spigelman, Mel; Hafner, Richard; Jaramillo, Ernesto; Hoelscher, Michael; Zumla, Alimuddin; Gheuens, Jan

    2012-05-15

    For the first time in 40 years, a portfolio of promising new compounds for the treatment of tuberculosis is on the horizon. The introduction of new drugs in combination treatment for all forms of tuberculosis raises several issues related to patients' access to novel treatments, programmatic feasibility, cost effectiveness, and implications for monitoring and surveillance, particularly with regard to the development of drug resistance. Particular attention should be given to the identification of optimal drug combination(s) for the treatment of all forms of tuberculosis, particularly in high-risk and vulnerable groups, such as human immunodeficiency virus-coinfected persons and children, and to the rational use of new drugs. Addressing these issues adequately requires the establishment of clear guidelines to assist countries in the development of policies for the proper use of tuberculosis drugs in a way that guarantees access to best treatments for all those in need and avoids inappropriate use of new drugs. After a description of these various challenges, we present activities that will be carried out by the World Health Organization in collaboration with key stakeholders for the development of policy guidelines for optimal treatment of tuberculosis.

  11. A cost model for broadband access networks: FTTx versus WiMAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, João Paulo Ribeiro

    2007-09-01

    Local communities and governments are taking various steps to fight the so-called "digital divide" between well served urban communities and undeserved areas. In order to make broadband access available to these under served areas, several technical solutions are available with the capacity to provide high speed Internet access, video, telephony services, etc. This paper presents a cost-model and a tool for the evaluation of broadband access technologies (xDSL, HFC, FTTx, WiMAX, PLC and satellite), and compares two technologies: FTTx and WiMAX. Our tool compares these different access technologies in different scenarios, and examining the capital expense and deployment of building access networks with the same requisite performance using each technology. The cost model is limited to the access part of the network. The results obtained by our evaluation tool give the possibility to compare several BB access technologies, and support the decision about which is the better technological solution for a given scenario

  12. A Usability and Accessibility Design and Evaluation Framework for ICT Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subasi, Özge; Leitner, Michael; Tscheligi, Manfred

    This paper introduces a step by step framework for practitioners for combining accessibility and usability engineering processes. Following the discussions towards the needs of more user centeredness in the design of accessible solutions, there is a need for such a practical framework. In general, accessibility has been considered as a topic dealing with "hard facts". But lately terms like semantic and procedural accessibility have been introduced. In the following pages we propose a first sketch of a framework, which shows how to merge both usability and accessibility evaluation methods in the same process in order to guarantee a unified solution for both hard and soft facts of accessibility. We argue that by enhancing the user centered design process as the ISO DIS 9241-210 (revised DIN ISO 13407) describes it, accessibility and usability issues may be covered in one process.

  13. Natural Flavonoids as Promising Analgesic Candidates: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiao; Wang, Xiaoyu; Gui, Xuan; Chen, Lu; Huang, Baokang

    2016-11-01

    Due to the chemical structural diversity and various analgesic mechanisms, an increasing number of studies indicated that some flavonoids from medicinal plants could be promising candidates for new natural analgesic drugs, which attract high interests of advanced users and academic researchers. The aim of this systematic review is to report flavonoids and its derivatives as new analgesic candidates based on the pharmacological evidences. Sixty-four papers were found concerning the potential analgesic activity of 46 flavonoids. In this case, the evidence for analgesic activity of flavonoids and total flavonoids was investigated. Meanwhile, the corresponding analgesic mechanism of flavonoids was discussed by generalizing and analyzing the current publications. Based on this review, the conclusion can be drawn that some flavonoids are promising candidates for painful conditions and deserve particular attention in further research and development.

  14. The promise and reality of pharmacogenetics in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Zandi, Peter P; Judy, Jennifer T

    2010-03-01

    Existing psychotropic medications for the treatment of mental illnesses, including antidepressants, mood stabilizers, and antipsychotics, are clinically suboptimal. They are effective in only a subset of patients or produce partial responses, and they are often associated with debilitating side effects that discourage adherence. There is growing enthusiasm in the promise of pharmacogenetics to personalize the use of these treatments to maximize their efficacy and tolerability; however, there is still a long way to go before this promise becomes a reality. This article reviews the progress that has been made in research toward understanding how genetic factors influence psychotropic drug responses and the challenges that lie ahead in translating the research findings into clinical practices that yield tangible benefits for patients with mental illnesses.

  15. Latino Immigrants, Acculturation, and Health: Promising New Directions in Research.

    PubMed

    Abraído-Lanza, Ana F; Echeverría, Sandra E; Flórez, Karen R

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of novel topics emerging in recent years in research on Latino immigrants, acculturation, and health. In the past ten years, the number of studies assessing new ways to conceptualize and understand how acculturation-related processes may influence health has grown. These new frameworks draw from integrative approaches testing new ground to acknowledge the fundamental role of context and policy. We classify the emerging body of evidence according to themes that we identify as promising directions--intrapersonal, interpersonal, social environmental, community, political, and global contexts, cross-cutting themes in life course and developmental approaches, and segmented assimilation--and discuss the challenges and opportunities each theme presents. This body of work, which considers acculturation in context, points to the emergence of a new wave of research that holds great promise in driving forward the study of Latino immigrants, acculturation, and health. We provide suggestions to further advance the ideologic and methodologic rigor of this new wave.

  16. Stem cells: a promising source for vascular regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Rammal, Hassan; Harmouch, Chaza; Lataillade, Jean-Jacques; Laurent-Maquin, Dominique; Labrude, Pierre; Menu, Patrick; Kerdjoudj, Halima

    2014-12-15

    The rising and diversity of many human vascular diseases pose urgent needs for the development of novel therapeutics. Stem cell therapy represents a challenge in the medicine of the twenty-first century, an area where tissue engineering and regenerative medicine gather to provide promising treatments for a wide variety of diseases. Indeed, with their extensive regeneration potential and functional multilineage differentiation capacity, stem cells are now highlighted as promising cell sources for regenerative medicine. Their multilineage differentiation involves environmental factors such as biochemical, extracellular matrix coating, oxygen tension, and mechanical forces. In this review, we will focus on human stem cell sources and their applications in vascular regeneration. We will also discuss the different strategies used for their differentiation into both mature and functional smooth muscle and endothelial cells.

  17. 97. VIEW OF MILL SOLUTION PUMP No. 2 FROM SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    97. VIEW OF MILL SOLUTION PUMP No. 2 FROM SOUTHEAST. SUMPS ARE UNDER FLOOR, BEYOND. STAIR LEADS TO AGITATOR/GOLD TANK ACCESS PLATFORM. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  18. An economic analysis on optical Ethernet in the access network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung Hwi; Nam, Dohyun; Yoo, Gunil; Kim, WoonHa

    2004-04-01

    Nowadays, Broadband service subscribers have increased exponentially and have almost saturated in Korea. Several types of solutions for broadband service applied to the field. Among several types of broadband services, most of subscribers provided xDSL service like ADSL or VDSL. Usually, they who live in an apartment provided Internet service by Ntopia network as FTTC structure that is a dormant network in economical view at KT. Under competitive telecom environment for new services like video, we faced with needing to expand or rebuild portions of our access networks, are looking for ways to provide any service that competitors might offer presently or in the near future. In order to look for new business model like FTTH service, we consider deploying optical access network. In spite of numerous benefits of PON until now, we cannot believe that PON is the best solution in Korea. Because we already deployed optical access network of ring type feeder cable and have densely population of subscribers that mainly distributed inside 6km from central office. So we try to utilize an existing Ntopia network for FTTH service under optical access environment. Despite of such situations, we try to deploy PON solution in the field as FTTC or FTTH architecture. Therefore we analyze PON structure in comparison with AON structure in order to look for optimized structure in Korea. At first, we describe the existing optical access networks and network architecture briefly. Secondly we investigate the cost of building optical access networks by modeling cost functions on AON and PON structure which based on Ethernet protocol, and analyze two different network architectures according to different deployment scenarios: Urban, small town, rural. Finally we suggest the economic and best solution with PON structure to optimize to optical access environment of KT.

  19. Utility, limitations, and promise of proteomics in animal science.

    PubMed

    Lippolis, John D; Reinhardt, Timothy A

    2010-12-15

    Proteomics experiments have the ability to simultaneously identify and quantify thousands of proteins in one experiment. The use of this technology in veterinary/animal science is still in its infancy, yet it holds significant promise as a method for advancing veterinary/animal science research. Examples of current experimental designs and capabilities of proteomic technology and basic principles of mass spectrometry are discussed. In addition, challenges and limitations of proteomics are presented, stressing those that are unique to veterinary/animal sciences.

  20. Experimental Lung Cancer Drug Shows Early Promise | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Frank Blanchard, Staff Writer A first-of-its-kind drug is showing early promise in attacking certain lung cancers that are hard to treat because they build up resistance to conventional chemotherapy. The drug, CO-1686, performed well in a preclinical study involving xenograft and transgenic mice, as reported in the journal Cancer Discovery. It is now being evaluated for safety and efficacy in Phase I and II clinical trials.

  1. Amaryllidaceae Isocarbostyril Alkaloids and Their Derivatives as Promising Antitumor Agents

    PubMed Central

    Ingrassia, Laurent; Lefranc, Florence; Mathieu, Véronique; Darro, Francis; Kiss, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This review covers the isolation, total synthesis, biologic activity, and more particularly the in vitro and in vivo antitumor activities of naturally occurring isocarbostyril alkaloids from the Amaryllidaceae family. Starting from these natural products, new derivatives have been synthesized to explore structure-activity relationships within the chemical class and to obtain potential candidates for preclinical development. This approach appears to be capable of providing novel promising anticancer agents. PMID:18607503

  2. Discovery AND Therapeutic Promise OF Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiyun; Kim, Juhyun; Dalton, James T.

    2007-01-01

    Androgens are essential for male development and the maintenance of male secondary characteristics, such as bone mass, muscle mass, body composition, and spermatogenesis. The main disadvantages of steroidal androgens are their undesirable physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. The recent discovery of nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) provides a promising alternative for testosterone replacement therapies with advantages including oral bioavailability, flexibility of structural modification, androgen receptor specificity, tissue selectivity, and the lack of steroid-related side effects. PMID:15994457

  3. Citizen Science in the Classroom: Perils and Promise of the New Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loughran, T.; Dirksen, R.

    2010-12-01

    Classroom citizen science projects invite students to generate, curate, post, query, and analyze data, publishing and discussing results in potentially large collaborative contexts. The new web offers a rich palette of such projects for any STEM educator to select from or create. This easy access to citizen science in the classroom is full of both promise and peril for science education. By offering examples of classroom citizen science projects in particle physics, earth and environmental sciences, each supported by a common mashup of technologies available to ordinary users, we will illustrate something of the promise of these projects for science education, and point to some of the challenges and failure modes--the peril--raised by easy access and particularly easy publication of data. How one sensibly responds to this promise and peril depends on how one views the goals of science (or more broadly, STEM) education: either as the equipping of individual students with STEM knowledge and skills so as to empower them for future options, or as the issuing of effective invitations into STEM communities. Building on the claim that these are complementary perspectives, both of value, we will provide an example of a classroom citizen science project analyzed from both perspectives. The BOSCO classroom-to-classroom water source mapping project provides students both in Northern Uganda and in South Dakota a collaborative platform for analyzing and responding to local water quality concerns. Students gather water quality data, use Google Forms embedded in a project wiki to enter data in a spreadsheet, which then automatically (through Mapalist, a free web service) gets posted to a Google Map, itself embedded in the project wiki. Using these technologies, data is thus collected and posted for analysis in a collaborative environment: the stage is set for classroom citizen science. In the context of this project we will address the question of how teachers can take advantage

  4. Reply to "transforming oncology care": advancing value, accessing innovation.

    PubMed

    Paradis, Rebecca

    2015-09-01

    Alternative payment models in oncology are already successfully standardizing care, curbing costs, and improving the patient experience. Yet, it is unclear whether decision makers are adequately considering patient access to innovation when creating these models, which could have severe consequences for a robust innovation ecosystem and the lives of afflicted patients. The suggested chart includes recommendations on: Allowing for the adoption of new, promising therapies; Promoting the measurement of patient-centered outcomes; and Providing support for personalized medicine.

  5. Sonoluminescence Spectroscopy as a Promising New Analytical Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurchenko, O. I.; Kalinenko, O. S.; Baklanov, A. N.; Belov, E. A.; Baklanova, L. V.

    2016-03-01

    The sonoluminescence intensity of Cs, Ru, K, Na, Li, Sr, In, Ga, Ca, Th, Cr, Pb, Mn, Ag, and Mg salts in aqueous solutions of various concentrations was investigated as a function of ultrasound frequency and intensity. Techniques for the determination of these elements in solutions of table salt and their own salts were developed. It was shown that the proposed analytical technique gave results at high concentrations with better metrological characteristics than atomic-absorption spectroscopy because the samples were not diluted.

  6. Macroscopic characterisations of Web accessibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Rui; Carriço, Luis

    2010-12-01

    The Web Science framework poses fundamental questions on the analysis of the Web, by focusing on how microscopic properties (e.g. at the level of a Web page or Web site) emerge into macroscopic properties and phenomena. One research topic on the analysis of the Web is Web accessibility evaluation, which centres on understanding how accessible a Web page is for people with disabilities. However, when framing Web accessibility evaluation on Web Science, we have found that existing research stays at the microscopic level. This article presents an experimental study on framing Web accessibility evaluation into Web Science's goals. This study resulted in novel accessibility properties of the Web not found at microscopic levels, as well as of Web accessibility evaluation processes themselves. We observed at large scale some of the empirical knowledge on how accessibility is perceived by designers and developers, such as the disparity of interpretations of accessibility evaluation tools warnings. We also found a direct relation between accessibility quality and Web page complexity. We provide a set of guidelines for designing Web pages, education on Web accessibility, as well as on the computational limits of large-scale Web accessibility evaluations.

  7. Jejunal access loop cholangiogram and intervention using image guided access.

    PubMed

    Amitha Vikrama, K S; Keshava, S N; Surendrababu, N R S; Moses, V; Joseph, P; Vyas, F; Sitaram, V

    2010-02-01

    Jejunal access loop is fashioned in patients who undergo Roux en Y hepaticojejunostomy and biliary intervention is anticipated on follow up. Post-operative study of the biliary tree through the access loop is usually done under fluoroscopic guidance. We present a series of 20 access loop cholangiograms performed in our institution between August 2004 and November 2008. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the procedure and to highlight the role of CT guidance in procuring access. Access loop was accessed using CT (n = 13), ultrasound (n = 3) or fluoroscopic guidance (n = 4). Fluoroscopy was used for performing cholangiograms and interventions. Twelve studies had balloon plasty of the stricture at anastomotic site or high up in the hepatic ducts. Seven studies showed normal cholangiogram. Plasty was unsuccessful in one study. Technical success in accessing the jejunal access loop was 100%; in cannulation of anastomotic site and balloon plasty it was 95%. One case required two attempts. Procedure-related complications were not seen. All patients who underwent balloon plasty of the stricture were doing well for variable lengths of time. Access loop cholangiogram and interventions are safe and effective. CT guidance in locating/procuring the access loop is a good technique.

  8. Single port access holographic particle image velocimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, S.D.; Richards, G.A.; Cha, D.J.

    1995-07-01

    An optical system, which requires only a single optical window mounted on a test volume, is proposed for holographic particle image velocimetry (HPIV). The optical system is a derivative of the double-exposure, double-reference-beam, off-axis HPIV system, but the innovative idea behind the system is to use back scattered light from the particles as the object wave. A 45{degree} beam splitter inserted in front of the window serves to admit the illuminating beam and extract the back scattered light. This concept can be of great engineering interest because optical access is often limited to one window in practical devices. The preliminary results of the technique appear quite promising, with current studies aimed at defining the optical resolution capabilities.

  9. Novel and Efficient Synthesis of the Promising Drug Candidate Discodermolide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    preparation of the chiral allylic alcohol starting material 12. In the new two-step preparation of 12 (Scheme 6), we avoid the need to prepare a...CH3 OH 12 H2 5% Pd/CaCO3 Pb, quinoline cyclohexane Rather, a chiral propynylzinc reagent is prepared under neutral conditions. Then, a subsequent...that chiral syn, anti stereotriad building blocks may be efficiently accessed from inexpensive starting materials by elaborating a chiral allylic

  10. The Promise and Potential Perils of Big Data for Advancing Symptom Management Research in Populations at Risk for Health Disparities.

    PubMed

    Bakken, Suzanne; Reame, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Symptom management research is a core area of nursing science and one of the priorities for the National Institute of Nursing Research, which specifically focuses on understanding the biological and behavioral aspects of symptoms such as pain and fatigue, with the goal of developing new knowledge and new strategies for improving patient health and quality of life. The types and volume of data related to the symptom experience, symptom management strategies, and outcomes are increasingly accessible for research. Traditional data streams are now complemented by consumer-generated (i.e., quantified self) and "omic" data streams. Thus, the data available for symptom science can be considered big data. The purposes of this chapter are to (a) briefly summarize the current drivers for the use of big data in research; (b) describe the promise of big data and associated data science methods for advancing symptom management research; (c) explicate the potential perils of big data and data science from the perspective of the ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, and justice; and (d) illustrate strategies for balancing the promise and the perils of big data through a case study of a community at high risk for health disparities. Big data and associated data science methods offer the promise of multidimensional data sources and new methods to address significant research gaps in symptom management. If nurse scientists wish to apply big data and data science methods to advance symptom management research and promote health equity, they must carefully consider both the promise and perils.

  11. Access in crisis.

    PubMed

    1996-09-01

    Recent advances in HIV drug access and affordability have collided with a health care delivery system unequipped to handle the flow equitably and inexpensively. The AIDS Drug Assistance Program (ADAP) concludes that $169 million more in Federal spending is needed in 1997 to maintain an essential core of HIV/AIDS treatments, and presidential and congressional funding proposals are falling far short. ADAP funding also differs from state to state, but it is often inadequate and many programs cannot supply drugs. Several program aspects to be considered to ensure a strong ADAP are discussed and include the need to assure there is enough state funding, the need for programs to achieve better pricing for drugs, a formalized decision process on who decides what drugs ADAP covers, standardized eligibility criteria, and community members and advocates ensuring that ADAP information is adequately distributed to those who can use it.

  12. Vascular access today

    PubMed Central

    Pantelias, Konstantinos; Grapsa, Eirini

    2012-01-01

    The number of patients with chronic kidney disease requiring renal replacement therapy has increased worldwide. The most common replacement therapy is hemodialysis (HD). Vascular access (VA) has a key role for successful treatment. Despite the advances that have taken place in the field of the HD procedure, few things have changed with regards to VA in recent years. Arteriovenous fistula (AVF), polytetrafluoroethylene graft and the cuffed double lumen silicone catheter are the most common used for VA. In the long term, a number of complications may present and more than one VA is needed during the HD life. The most common complications for all of VA types are thrombosis, bleeding and infection, the most common cause of morbidity in these patients. It has been estimated that VA dysfunction is responsible for 20% of all hospitalizations. The annual cost of placing and looking after dialysis VA in the United States exceeds 1 billion dollars per year. A good functional access is also vital in order to deliver adequate HD therapy. It seems that the native AVF that Brescia and Cimino described in 1966 still remains the first choice for VA. The native forearm AVFs have the longest survival and require the fewest interventions. For this reason, the forearm AVF is the first choice, followed by the upper-arm AVF, the arteriovenous graft and the cuffed central venous catheter is the final choice. In conclusion, VA remains the most important issue for patients on HD and despite the technical improvements, a number of problems and complications have to be resolved. PMID:24175244

  13. Chemists, Access, Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Jon L.

    2000-06-01

    New JCE Internet Feature at JCE Online Biographical Snapshots of Famous Chemists is a new JCE Internet feature on JCE Online. Edited by Barbara Burke, this feature provides biographical information on leading chemists, especially women and minority chemists, fostering the attitude that the practitioners of chemistry are as human as those who endeavor to learn about it. Currently, the column features biographical "snapshots" of 30 chemists. Each snapshot includes keywords and bibliography and several contain links to additional online information about the chemist. More biographical snapshots will appear in future installments. In addition, a database listing over 140 women and minority chemists is being compiled and will be made available online with the snapshots in the near future. The database includes the years of birth and death, gender and ethnicity, major and minor discipline, keywords to facilitate searching, and references to additional biographical information. We welcome your input into what we think is a very worthwhile resource. If you would like to provide additional biographical snapshots, see additional chemists added to the database, or know of additional references for those that are already in the database, please contact JCE Online or the feature editor. Your feedback is welcome and appreciated. You can find Biographical Snapshots of Famous Chemists starting from the JCE Online home page-- click the Features item under JCE Internet and then the Chemist Bios item. Access JCE Online without Name and Password We have recently been swamped by libraries requesting IP-number access to JCE Online. With the great benefit IP-number authentication gives to librarians (no user names and passwords to administer) and to their patrons (no need to remember and enter valid names and passwords) this is not surprising. If you would like access to JCE Online without the need to remember and enter a user name and password, you should tell your librarian about our

  14. Development of an integrated staircase lift for home access

    PubMed Central

    Mattie, Johanne L.; Borisoff, Jaimie F.; Leland, Danny; Miller, William C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Stairways into buildings present a significant environmental barrier for those with mobility impairments, including older adults. A number of home access solutions that allow users to safely enter and exit the home exist, however these all have some limitations. The purpose of this work was to develop a novel, inclusive home access solution that integrates a staircase and a lift into one device. Method The development of an integrated staircase lift followed a structured protocol with stakeholders providing feedback at various stages in the design process, consistent with rehabilitation engineering design methods. Results A novel home access device was developed. The integrated staircase-lift has the following features: inclusivity, by a universal design that provides an option for either use of stairs or a lift; constant availability, with a lift platform always ready for use on either level; and potential aesthetic advantages when integrating the device into an existing home. The potential also exists for emergency descent during a power outage, and self-powered versions. Conclusions By engaging stakeholders in a user centred design process, insight on the limitations of existing home access solutions and specific feedback on our design guided development of a novel home access device. PMID:26793318

  15. Private Graphs - Access Rights on Graphs for Seamless Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorner, W.; Hau, F.; Pagany, R.

    2016-06-01

    After the success of GNSS (Global Navigational Satellite Systems) and navigation services for public streets, indoor seems to be the next big development in navigational services, relying on RTLS - Real Time Locating Services (e.g. WIFI) and allowing seamless navigation. In contrast to navigation and routing services on public streets, seamless navigation will cause an additional challenge: how to make routing data accessible to defined users or restrict access rights for defined areas or only to parts of the graph to a defined user group? The paper will present case studies and data from literature, where seamless and especially indoor navigation solutions are presented (hospitals, industrial complexes, building sites), but the problem of restricted access rights was only touched from a real world, but not a technical perspective. The analysis of case studies will show, that the objective of navigation and the different target groups for navigation solutions will demand well defined access rights and require solutions, how to make only parts of a graph to a user or application available to solve a navigational task. The paper will therefore introduce the concept of private graphs, which is defined as a graph for navigational purposes covering the street, road or floor network of an area behind a public street and suggest different approaches how to make graph data for navigational purposes available considering access rights and data protection, privacy and security issues as well.

  16. Public Access and Open Access: Is There a Difference? | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Robin Meckley, Contributing Writer, and Tracie Frederick, Guest Writer Open access and public access—are they different concepts or are they the same? What do they mean for the researchers at NCI at Frederick? “Open-access (OA) literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. What makes it possible is the Internet and the consent of the author or copyright-holder,” according to an open access website maintained by Peter Suber, director, Harvard Open Access Project.

  17. The Electronic FERPA: Access in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConahay, Mark; Hanson, Karen; West, Ann; Woodbeck, Dean

    2009-01-01

    On every college and university campus, common themes weave throughout identity and access management (IAM) and its relationship to Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA). Institutions approach IAM differently as there is not a one-size-fits-all solution. Nevertheless, all face common elements. Over the past few years, a number of…

  18. The "Magic" of Wireless Access in the Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balas, Janet L.

    2006-01-01

    It seems that the demand for public access computers grows exponentially every time a library network is expanded, making it impossible to ever have enough computers available for patrons. One solution that many libraries are implementing to ease the demand for public computer use is to offer wireless technology that allows patrons to bring in…

  19. The Advantages of ISDN for High-Speed Remote Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvin, Mark; Hauf, Al

    1997-01-01

    Explains why ISDN (integrated services digital network) is the most practical solution for high-speed remote access, including reliability, cost, flexibility, scaleability, standards, and manageability. Other data transmission options are discussed, including asymmetric digital subscriber lines (ADSL), high-speed digital subscriber lines (HDSL),…

  20. Equity Access Plans: A Regulatory and Educational State Response Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLisle, James

    1984-01-01

    Introduces the basic notion of equity access plans as property-based solutions to the cash flow needs of elderly homeowners and then proposes a normative response model that states can adopt to help manage the risk exposures. The recommended model incorporates regulatory, information dissemination, and educational elements. (BH)

  1. Economic Inequality and Higher Education: Access, Persistence, and Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickert-Conlin, Stacy, Ed.; Rubenstein, Ross, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The vast disparities in college attendance and graduation rates between students from different class backgrounds is a growing social concern. "Economic Inequality and Higher Education" investigates the connection between income inequality and unequal access to higher education, and proposes solutions that the state and federal governments and…

  2. Drug eluting balloons for resistant arteriovenous dialysis access stenosis.

    PubMed

    Karnabatidis, Dimitrios; Kitrou, Panagiotis

    2017-03-06

    Vascular access maintenance is vital for hemodialysis patients. Conventional balloon angioplasty is the gold standard of treatment in endovascular therapy according to published guidelines, accompanied by bare metal stents as a bail-out method. Several devices have been used so far with a view to improve patency outcomes, but only covered stents have been proposed as a valid alternative and only for venous juxta-anastomotic stenosis of arteriovenous grafts. Paclitaxel-coated balloons (PCBs) have been extensively investigated in the last few years in pilot studies with small numbers of patients in dialysis access. Results from these studies have been promising so far; however, a larger number of subjects is needed to prove outcomes. Aim of this analysis is to discuss current available studies and explore some critical aspects of PCB use in dialysis access treatment.

  3. Access Control of Web and Java Based Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tso, Kam S.; Pajevski, Michael J.; Johnson, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Cyber security has gained national and international attention as a result of near continuous headlines from financial institutions, retail stores, government offices and universities reporting compromised systems and stolen data. Concerns continue to rise as threats of service interruption, and spreading of viruses become ever more prevalent and serious. Controlling access to application layer resources is a critical component in a layered security solution that includes encryption, firewalls, virtual private networks, antivirus, and intrusion detection. In this paper we discuss the development of an application-level access control solution, based on an open-source access manager augmented with custom software components, to provide protection to both Web-based and Java-based client and server applications.

  4. Post-conditioning: Promising answers and more questions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Volatile anesthetic agents have been used for decades in the peri-operative setting. Data from the past 15 years have shown that pre-injury administration of volatile anesthetic can decrease the impact of ischemia-reperfusion injury on the heart, brain, and kidney. Recent data demonstrated that volatile agents administered shortly after injury can decrease the ischemia-reperfusion injury. Several questions need to be answered to optimize this therapeutic target, but this is a promising era of secondary injury mitigation. PMID:23176148

  5. Cyclodextrin nanoassemblies: a promising tool for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Véronique; Gervaise, Cédric; Djedaïni-Pilard, Florence; Furlan, Aurélien; Sarazin, Catherine

    2015-09-01

    Among the biodegradable and nontoxic compounds that can form nanoparticles for drug delivery, amphiphilic cyclodextrins are very promising. Apart from ionic cyclodextrins, which have been extensively studied and reviewed because of their application in gene delivery, our purpose is to provide a clear description of the supramolecular assemblies of nonionic amphiphilic cyclodextrins, which can form nanoassemblies for controlled drug release. Moreover, we focus on the relationship between their structure and physicochemical characteristics, which is crucial for self assembly and drug delivery. We also highlight the importance of the nanoparticle technology preparation for the stability and application of this nanodevice.

  6. Porous liquids: A promising class of media for gas separation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jinshui; Chai, Song -Hai; Qiao, Zhen -An; Mahurin, Shannon M.; Chen, Jihua; Fang, Youxing; Wan, Shun; Nelson, Kimberly; Zhang, Pengfei; Dai, Sheng

    2014-11-17

    In porous liquids with empty cavities we successfully has been successfully fabricated by surface engineering of hollow structures with suitable corona and canopy species. By taking advantage of the liquid-like polymeric matrices as a separation medium and the empty cavities as gas transport pathway, this unique porous liquid can function as a promising candidate for gas separation. A facile synthetic strategy can be further extended to other types of nanostructure-based porous liquid fabrication, opening up new opportunities for preparation of porous liquids with attractive properties for specific tasks.

  7. Challenges and promises for translating computational tools into clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Woo-Young; Busemeyer, Jerome R

    2016-10-01

    Computational modeling and associated methods have greatly advanced our understanding of cognition and neurobiology underlying complex behaviors and psychiatric conditions. Yet, no computational methods have been successfully translated into clinical settings. This review discusses three major methodological and practical challenges (A. precise characterization of latent neurocognitive processes, B. developing optimal assays, C. developing large-scale longitudinal studies and generating predictions from multi-modal data) and potential promises and tools that have been developed in various fields including mathematical psychology, computational neuroscience, computer science, and statistics. We conclude by highlighting a strong need to communicate and collaborate across multiple disciplines.

  8. Selection of promising sites for magma energy experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    The Long Valley and Coso Hot Springs areas of California have been identified as the most promising sites for conducting a magma energy extraction experiment. These two locations were selected from among the potential sites on the basis of several factors that are critical to the success of the proposed long-term energy extraction experiment. These factors include the likelihood of the existence of shallow magma targets as well as several other drilling, energy extraction and programmatic considerations. As the magma energy extraction program continues, these sites will be analyzed in detail so that one can be selected as the site for the planned magma experiment.

  9. Back to the future: bacteriophages as promising therapeutic tools.

    PubMed

    Domingo-Calap, P; Georgel, P; Bahram, S

    2016-03-01

    Bacteriophages (phages), natural predators of bacteria, are becoming increasingly attractive in medical and pharmaceutical applications. After their discovery almost a century ago, they have been particularly instrumental in the comprehension of basic molecular biology and genetics processes. The more recent emergence of multi-drug-resistant bacteria requires novel therapeutic strategies, and phages are being (re)considered as promising potential antibacterial tools. Furthermore, phages are also used for other purposes, e.g. vaccine production, gene/drug carriers, bacterial detection and typing. These new alternative approaches using phages are of major interest and have allowed unexpected developments, from the decipherment of fundamental biological processes to potential clinical applications.

  10. The promise of air cargo: System aspects and vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, A. H., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The current operation of the air cargo system is reviewed. An assessment of the future of air cargo is provided by: (1) analyzing statistics and trends, (2) by noting system problems and inefficiencies, (3) by analyzing characteristics of 'air eligible' commodities, and (4) by showing the promise of new technology for future cargo aircraft with significant improvements in costs and efficiency. The following topics are discussed: (1) air cargo demand forecasts; (2) economics of air cargo transport; (3) the integrated air cargo system; (4) evolution of airfreighter design; and (5) the span distributed load concept.

  11. Promising intervention strategies to reduce parents' use of physical punishment.

    PubMed

    Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Lee, Shawna J; Durrant, Joan E

    2017-02-02

    The strong and ever-growing evidence base demonstrating that physical punishment places children at risk for a range of negative outcomes, coupled with global recognition of children's inherent rights to protection and dignity, has led to the emergence of programs specifically designed to prevent physical punishment by parents. This paper describes promising programs and strategies designed for each of three levels of intervention - indicated, selective, and universal - and summarizes the existing evidence base of each. Areas for further program development and evaluation are identified.

  12. The status and promise of compliant substrate technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, April S.; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2000-10-01

    Compliant substrates offer significant promise as a new approach for strain management in semiconductors. The primary application is to produce device-quality highly mismatched materials on dissimilar substrates. Various implementations and processes for achieving substrate compliancy have been proposed and demonstrated. These include the use of twist-, glass-, and metal-bonds, and the use of engineered templates realized with laterally oxidized Al-containing alloys. A recent focus in our work has been on the growth of GaN on a novel and easily removable substrate — lithium gallate — for regrowth on a bonded GaN template.

  13. Investigation of new superhard carbon allotropes with promising electronic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kvashnina, Yulia A.; Kvashnin, Alexander G.; Sorokin, Pavel B.

    2013-11-14

    During the systematic search for a new superhard carbon allotrope, we predicted three structures with promising physical properties. Our electronic structure calculations show that these materials have a semiconducting band gap and a high carrier mobility comparable with diamond. The simulated x-ray diffraction patterns of the proposed materials are in a good agreement with the experimental X-ray spectra. Evaluated phase transition pressures from graphite to the new proposed carbon phases are smaller than 25 GPa and close to the experimental values.

  14. NREL Designs Promising New Oxides for Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    High-efficiency, thin-film solar cells require electrical contacts with high electrical conductivity, and the top contact must also have high optical transparency. This need is currently met by transparent conducting oxides (TCOs), which conduct electricity but are 90% transparent to visible light. Scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have derived three key design principles for selecting promising materials for TCO contacts. NREL's application of these design principles has resulted in a 10,000-fold improvement in conductivity for one TCO material.

  15. E-health technologies show promise in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Blaya, Joaquin A; Fraser, Hamish S F; Holt, Brian

    2010-02-01

    Is there any evidence that e-health-using information technology to manage patient care-can have a positive impact in developing countries? Our systematic review of evaluations of e-health implementations in developing countries found that systems that improve communication between institutions, assist in ordering and managing medications, and help monitor and detect patients who might abandon care show promise. Evaluations of personal digital assistants and mobile devices convincingly demonstrate that such devices can be very effective in improving data collection time and quality. Donors and funders should require and sponsor outside evaluations to ensure that future e-health investments are well-targeted.

  16. Slit/Robo pathway: a promising therapeutic target for cancer.

    PubMed

    Gara, Rishi K; Kumari, Sonam; Ganju, Aditya; Yallapu, Murali M; Jaggi, Meena; Chauhan, Subhash C

    2015-01-01

    Axon guidance molecules, slit glycoprotein (Slit) and Roundabout receptor (Robo), have implications in the regulation of physiological processes. Recent studies indicate that Slit and Robo also have important roles in tumorigenesis, cancer progression and metastasis. The Slit/Robo pathway can be considered a master regulator for multiple oncogenic signaling pathways. Herein, we provide a comprehensive review on the role of these molecules and their associated signaling pathways in cancer progression and metastasis. Overall, the current available data suggest that the Slit/Robo pathway could be a promising target for development of anticancer drugs.

  17. Promises and challenges of anticancer drugs that target the epigenome.

    PubMed

    Verbrugge, Inge; Johnstone, Ricky W; Bots, Michael

    2011-10-01

    The occurrence of epigenetic aberrations in cancer and their role in promoting tumorigenesis has led to the development of various small molecule inhibitors that target epigenetic enzymes. In preclinical settings, many epigenetic inhibitors demonstrate promising activity against a variety of both hematological and solid tumors. The therapeutic efficacy of those inhibitors that have entered the clinic however, is restricted predominantly to hematological malignancies. Here we outline the observed epigenetic aberrations in various types of cancer and the clinical responses to epigenetic drugs. We furthermore discuss strategies to improve the responsiveness of both hematological and solid malignancies to epigenetic drugs.

  18. The polypill: a potential global solution to cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Caroline; Cheng-Lai, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Despite groundbreaking advances in health care, cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death and disability worldwide, making it one of the most pressing global health issues to face the modern world. In 2002, Wald and Law proposed the concept of the polypill as a potential solution to this global health epidemic. The polypill represents a powerhouse pill that would consist of a combination of several key medications commonly prescribed for CVD prevention, such as a statin, diuretic, beta blocker, or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, in one pill. It was suggested that it could be a novel, tactical measure in the approach to CVD prevention in that it greatly simplifies the healthcare delivery system. Not only does it increase medication compliance for those currently receiving health care, but it also has the potential to access those in underserved healthcare sectors of the world, primarily low- and middle-income countries, which have been identified as areas of highest CVD risk. A major drawback of the polypill is that there are limited data demonstrating its safety and efficacy in the prevention of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Thus far, research shows that the polypill has promise but needs to be approached with a few considerations, such as desired target patient population and formulation. This article will examine the published and ongoing studies associated with the polypill, outline the advantages and disadvantages of using the polypill as a global CVD prevention strategy, and discuss the design and availability of the polypill in the United States.

  19. In situ microscopy of the self-assembly of branched nanocrystals in solution

    PubMed Central

    Sutter, Eli; Sutter, Peter; Tkachenko, Alexei V.; Krahne, Roman; de Graaf, Joost; Arciniegas, Milena; Manna, Liberato

    2016-01-01

    Solution-phase self-assembly of nanocrystals into mesoscale structures is a promising strategy for constructing functional materials from nanoscale components. Liquid environments are key to self-assembly since they allow suspended nanocrystals to diffuse and interact freely, but they also complicate experiments. Real-time observations with single-particle resolution could have transformative impact on our understanding of nanocrystal self-assembly. Here we use real-time in situ imaging by liquid-cell electron microscopy to elucidate the nucleation and growth mechanism and properties of linear chains of octapod-shaped nanocrystals in their native solution environment. Statistical mechanics modelling based on these observations and using the measured chain-length distribution clarifies the relative importance of dipolar and entropic forces in the assembly process and gives direct access to the interparticle interaction. Our results suggest that monomer-resolved in situ imaging combined with modelling can provide unprecedented quantitative insight into the microscopic processes and interactions that govern nanocrystal self-assembly in solution. PMID:27040366

  20. In situ microscopy of the self-assembly of branched nanocrystals in solution

    DOE PAGES

    Sutter, Eli; Tkachenko, Alexei V.; Sutter, Peter; ...

    2016-04-04

    Here, solution-phase self-assembly of nanocrystals into mesoscale structures is a promising strategy for constructing functional materials from nanoscale components. Liquid environments are key to self-assembly since they allow suspended nanocrystals to diffuse and interact freely, but they also complicate experiments. Real-time observations with single-particle resolution could have transformative impact on our understanding of nanocrystal self-assembly. Here we use real-time in situ imaging by liquid-cell electron microscopy to elucidate the nucleation and growth mechanism and properties of linear chains of octapod-shaped nanocrystals in their native solution environment. Statistical mechanics modelling based on these observations and using the measured chain-length distribution clarifiesmore » the relative importance of dipolar and entropic forces in the assembly process and gives direct access to the interparticle interaction. Our results suggest that monomer-resolved in situ imaging combined with modelling can provide unprecedented quantitative insight into the microscopic processes and interactions that govern nanocrystal self-assembly in solution.« less

  1. 36 CFR 9.32 - Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Non-Federal Oil and Gas Rights § 9.32 Access. (a) No access on, across or through lands or waters... access is by foot, pack animal, or designated road. Persons using designated roads for access to such...

  2. Remote Data Access with IDL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloy, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A tool based on IDL (Interactive Data Language) and DAP (Data Access Protocol) has been developed for user-friendly remote data access. A difficulty for many NASA researchers using IDL is that often the data to analyze are located remotely and are too large to transfer for local analysis. Researchers have developed a protocol for accessing remote data, DAP, which is used for both SOHO and STEREO data sets. Server-side side analysis via IDL routine is available through DAP.

  3. Purely antiferromagnetic magnetoelectric random access memory

    PubMed Central

    Kosub, Tobias; Kopte, Martin; Hühne, Ruben; Appel, Patrick; Shields, Brendan; Maletinsky, Patrick; Hübner, René; Liedke, Maciej Oskar; Fassbender, Jürgen; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Makarov, Denys

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic random access memory schemes employing magnetoelectric coupling to write binary information promise outstanding energy efficiency. We propose and demonstrate a purely antiferromagnetic magnetoelectric random access memory (AF-MERAM) that offers a remarkable 50-fold reduction of the writing threshold compared with ferromagnet-based counterparts, is robust against magnetic disturbances and exhibits no ferromagnetic hysteresis losses. Using the magnetoelectric antiferromagnet Cr2O3, we demonstrate reliable isothermal switching via gate voltage pulses and all-electric readout at room temperature. As no ferromagnetic component is present in the system, the writing magnetic field does not need to be pulsed for readout, allowing permanent magnets to be used. Based on our prototypes, we construct a comprehensive model of the magnetoelectric selection mechanisms in thin films of magnetoelectric antiferromagnets, revealing misfit induced ferrimagnetism as an important factor. Beyond memory applications, the AF-MERAM concept introduces a general all-electric interface for antiferromagnets and should find wide applicability in antiferromagnetic spintronics. PMID:28045029

  4. Molecular Farming in Artemisia annua, a Promising Approach to Improve Anti-malarial Drug Production

    PubMed Central

    Pulice, Giuseppe; Pelaz, Soraya; Matías-Hernández, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a parasite infection affecting millions of people worldwide. Even though progress has been made in prevention and treatment of the disease; an estimated 214 million cases of malaria occurred in 2015, resulting in 438,000 estimated deaths; most of them occurring in Africa among children under the age of five. This article aims to review the epidemiology, future risk factors and current treatments of malaria, with particular focus on the promising potential of molecular farming that uses metabolic engineering in plants as an effective anti-malarial solution. Malaria represents an example of how a health problem may, on one hand, influence the proper development of a country, due to its burden of the disease. On the other hand, it constitutes an opportunity for lucrative business of diverse stakeholders. In contrast, plant biofarming is proposed here as a sustainable, promising, alternative for the production, not only of natural herbal repellents for malaria prevention but also for the production of sustainable anti-malarial drugs, like artemisinin (AN), used for primary parasite infection treatments. AN, a sesquiterpene lactone, is a natural anti-malarial compound that can be found in Artemisia annua. However, the low concentration of AN in the plant makes this molecule relatively expensive and difficult to produce in order to meet the current worldwide demand of Artemisinin Combination Therapies (ACTs), especially for economically disadvantaged people in developing countries. The biosynthetic pathway of AN, a process that takes place only in glandular secretory trichomes of A. annua, is relatively well elucidated. Significant efforts have been made using plant genetic engineering to increase production of this compound. These include diverse genetic manipulation approaches, such as studies on diverse transcription factors which have been shown to regulate the AN genetic pathway and other biological processes. Results look promising; however, further

  5. Improving Estimation of Distribution Algorithm on Multimodal Problems by Detecting Promising Areas.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peng; Tang, Ke; Lu, Xiaofen

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a novel multiple sub-models maintenance technique, named maintaining and processing sub-models (MAPS), is proposed. MAPS aims to enhance the ability of estimation of distribution algorithms (EDAs) on multimodal problems. The advantages of MAPS over the existing multiple sub-models based EDAs stem from the explicit detection of the promising areas, which can save many function evaluations for exploration and thus accelerate the optimization speed. MAPS can be combined with any EDA that adopts a single Gaussian model. The performance of MAPS has been assessed through empirical studies where MAPS is integrated with three different types of EDAs. The experimental results show that MAPS can lead to much faster convergence speed and obtain more stable solutions than the compared algorithms on 12 benchmark problems.

  6. Sn-doped CdTe as promising intermediate-band photovoltaic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Mauricio A.; Menéndez-Proupin, Eduardo; Orellana, Walter; Peña, Juan L.

    2017-01-01

    The formation energies, charge transition levels and quasiparticle defect states of several tin-related impurities are investigated within the DFT  +  GW formalism. The optical spectrum obtained from the solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation shows that the absorption strongly increases in the sub-bandgap region after doping, suggesting a two-step photoexcitation process that facilitates transitions from photons with insufficient energy to cause direct transitions from the valence to the conduction band via an intermediate-band. We propose Sn-doped CdTe as a promising candidate for the development of high-efficiency solar cells, which could potentially overcome the Shockley-Queisser limit.

  7. Titanate nanotubes as a promising absorbent for high effective radioactive uranium ions uptake.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mingze; Weil, Guodong; Li, Shuang; Niu, Xiaowei; Chen, Haifeng; Zhang, He; Chubik, M; Gromov, A; Han, Wei

    2012-08-01

    In this study, titanate nanotubes with a layered structure were investigated for the uptake of radioactive uranium ions for the first time. The nanotubes have been successfully prepared with a reaction of Ti metal nanopowders and NaOH mixed solution by a novel and effective ultrasonic-assisted hydrothermal method. As the absorbent of radioactive ions, they have the ability to selectively adsorb radioactive U ions from water via ion exchange process and subsequently immobilize these ions in the nanotube sorbents without the need of further treatment after absorption. Sorption induces considerable deformation of the layer structures, resulting in the structures changing from the nanotubes to sheets and having the ability of permanent entrapment of the radioactive cations in these as-grown sheets. Our results have proved that titanate nanotubes can be used as a promising absorbent for the removal of nuclear leaking water at the first time.

  8. Shared direct memory access on the Explorer 2-LX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musgrave, Jeffrey L.

    1990-01-01

    Advances in Expert System technology and Artificial Intelligence have provided a framework for applying automated Intelligence to the solution of problems which were generally perceived as intractable using more classical approaches. As a result, hybrid architectures and parallel processing capability have become more common in computing environments. The Texas Instruments Explorer II-LX is an example of a machine which combines a symbolic processing environment, and a computationally oriented environment in a single chassis for integrated problem solutions. This user's manual is an attempt to make these capabilities more accessible to a wider range of engineers and programmers with problems well suited to solution in such an environment.

  9. Atomic memory access hardware implementations

    DOEpatents

    Ahn, Jung Ho; Erez, Mattan; Dally, William J

    2015-02-17

    Atomic memory access requests are handled using a variety of systems and methods. According to one example method, a data-processing circuit having an address-request generator that issues requests to a common memory implements a method of processing the requests using a memory-access intervention circuit coupled between the generator and the common memory. The method identifies a current atomic-memory access request from a plurality of memory access requests. A data set is stored that corresponds to the current atomic-memory access request in a data storage circuit within the intervention circuit. It is determined whether the current atomic-memory access request corresponds to at least one previously-stored atomic-memory access request. In response to determining correspondence, the current request is implemented by retrieving data from the common memory. The data is modified in response to the current request and at least one other access request in the memory-access intervention circuit.

  10. Vehicle barrier with access delay

    DOEpatents

    Swahlan, David J; Wilke, Jason

    2013-09-03

    An access delay vehicle barrier for stopping unauthorized entry into secure areas by a vehicle ramming attack includes access delay features for preventing and/or delaying an adversary from defeating or compromising the barrier. A horizontally deployed barrier member can include an exterior steel casing, an interior steel reinforcing member and access delay members disposed within the casing and between the casing and the interior reinforcing member. Access delay members can include wooden structural lumber, concrete and/or polymeric members that in combination with the exterior casing and interior reinforcing member act cooperatively to impair an adversarial attach by thermal, mechanical and/or explosive tools.

  11. Performance metrics for advanced access.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Diwakar; Potthoff, Sandra; Blowers, Donald; Corlett, John

    2006-01-01

    Advanced access is an outpatient scheduling technique that aims to provide sameday appointment access. It is designed to reduce the time patients must wait for a scheduled appointment and to improve continuity of care by matching daily appointment supply and demand. Factors that make it difficult to sustain initial success in achieving supply-demand balance include different practice styles of doctors, differences in panel compositions and patient preferences, and time-varying demand patterns. This article proposes several performance measures that can help clinic directors monitor and evaluate their advanced access implementation. We also discuss strategies for sustaining advanced access in the long run.

  12. Phage display as a promising approach for vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Aghebati-Maleki, Leili; Bakhshinejad, Babak; Baradaran, Behzad; Motallebnezhad, Morteza; Aghebati-Maleki, Ali; Nickho, Hamid; Yousefi, Mehdi; Majidi, Jafar

    2016-09-29

    Bacteriophages are specific antagonists to bacterial hosts. These viral entities have attracted growing interest as optimal vaccine delivery vehicles. Phages are well-matched for vaccine design due to being highly stable under harsh environmental conditions, simple and inexpensive large scale production, and potent adjuvant capacities. Phage vaccines have efficient immunostimulatory effects and present a high safety profile because these viruses have made a constant relationship with the mammalian body during a long-standing evolutionary period. The birth of phage display technology has been a turning point in the development of phage-based vaccines. Phage display vaccines are made by expressing multiple copies of an antigen on the surface of immunogenic phage particles, thereby eliciting a powerful and effective immune response. Also, the ability to produce combinatorial peptide libraries with a highly diverse pool of randomized ligands has transformed phage display into a straightforward, versatile and high throughput screening methodology for the identification of potential vaccine candidates against different diseases in particular microbial infections. These libraries can be conveniently screened through an affinity selection-based strategy called biopanning against a wide variety of targets for the selection of mimotopes with high antigenicity and immunogenicity. Also, they can be panned against the antiserum of convalescent individuals to recognize novel peptidomimetics of pathogen-related epitopes. Phage display has represented enormous promise for finding new strategies of vaccine discovery and production and current breakthroughs promise a brilliant future for the development of different phage-based vaccine platforms.

  13. Emerging cancer vaccines: the promise of genetic vectors.

    PubMed

    Aurisicchio, Luigi; Ciliberto, Gennaro

    2011-09-22

    Therapeutic vaccination against cancer is an important approach which, when combined with other therapies, can improve long-term control of cancer. In fact, the induction of adaptive immune responses against Tumor Associated Antigens (TAAs) as well as innate immunity are important factors for tumor stabilization/eradication. A variety of immunization technologies have been explored in last decades and are currently under active evaluation, such as cell-based, protein, peptide and heat-shock protein-based cancer vaccines. Genetic vaccines are emerging as promising methodologies to elicit immune responses against a wide variety of antigens, including TAAs. Amongst these, Adenovirus (Ad)-based vectors show excellent immunogenicity profile and have achieved immunological proof of concept in humans. In vivo electroporation of plasmid DNA (DNA-EP) is also a desirable vaccine technology for cancer vaccines, as it is repeatable several times, a parameter required for the long-term maintenance of anti-tumor immunity. Recent findings show that combinations of different modalities of immunization (heterologous prime/boost) are able to induce superior immune reactions as compared to single-modality vaccines. In this review, we will discuss the challenges and requirements of emerging cancer vaccines, particularly focusing on the genetic cancer vaccines currently under active development and the promise shown by Ad and DNA-EP heterologous prime-boost.

  14. Emerging Cancer Vaccines: The Promise of Genetic Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Aurisicchio, Luigi; Ciliberto, Gennaro

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic vaccination against cancer is an important approach which, when combined with other therapies, can improve long-term control of cancer. In fact, the induction of adaptive immune responses against Tumor Associated Antigens (TAAs) as well as innate immunity are important factors for tumor stabilization/eradication. A variety of immunization technologies have been explored in last decades and are currently under active evaluation, such as cell-based, protein, peptide and heat-shock protein-based cancer vaccines. Genetic vaccines are emerging as promising methodologies to elicit immune responses against a wide variety of antigens, including TAAs. Amongst these, Adenovirus (Ad)-based vectors show excellent immunogenicity profile and have achieved immunological proof of concept in humans. In vivo electroporation of plasmid DNA (DNA-EP) is also a desirable vaccine technology for cancer vaccines, as it is repeatable several times, a parameter required for the long-term maintenance of anti-tumor immunity. Recent findings show that combinations of different modalities of immunization (heterologous prime/boost) are able to induce superior immune reactions as compared to single-modality vaccines. In this review, we will discuss the challenges and requirements of emerging cancer vaccines, particularly focusing on the genetic cancer vaccines currently under active development and the promise shown by Ad and DNA-EP heterologous prime-boost. PMID:24212974

  15. Clinical life: expectation and the double edge of medical promise.

    PubMed

    Shim, Janet K; Russ, Ann J; Kaufman, Sharon R

    2007-04-01

    This article introduces the concept of clinical life to capture a form of life produced in the pursuit and wake of medically achieved longevity. Relying on the retrospective accounts of 28 individuals over age 70 who have undergone cardiac bypass surgery, angioplasty or a stent procedure, as well as interviews with their families and with clinicians, we examine three features of clinical life. First, patients do not distinguish between clinical possibility and clinical promise, and thus assume that life can and will be improved by medical intervention in late life. Rather than anticipating a range of potential treatment outcomes, patients therefore expect the best-case scenario: that medical procedures will reverse aging, disease and the march of time. Second, patients then assess the value of their post-procedure lives in accordance with that expectation. Norms regarding what life 'should be like' at particular ages are continually recalibrated to the horizon of what is clinically possible. And third, the price of living longer entails a double-edged relationship with the clinic--it generates opportunities for bodily restoration and increased self-worth but also creates ambivalence about the value of life. This latter feature of clinical life is rarely publicly acknowledged in an environment that emphasizes medical promise.

  16. Public health's promise for the future: 1989 Presidential address

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, I.S. )

    1990-08-01

    Public health's promise for the future is inextricably related to efforts which maximize human potential and which realize the world's interdependence. Public health challenges are not only constant and complex but frequently surrounded by political activities. In this environment, the public health enterprise has been enhanced by the Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences' report on The Future of Public Health and the assessment framework it provides. Risk reduction through preventive and health promotion activities is the primary focus of public health, but facilitation is often dependent upon society's understanding and willingness-to-pay for such services. The effectiveness of public health is related to an ability to coordinate public and private efforts at national, state, and local levels. Also in this environment, public health is empowered through its multidisciplinary approach. However, epidemiology provides a unifying framework for the collective public health effort. Based on the use of epidemiology, public health is empowered to make the argument for a national health program and to support the concept of health as a determinant of life options. Public health's promise for the future can be fulfilled by continuing to increase its scientific base for decision-making, by self-examination and correction, by advocating and promoting self-examination and correction, by advocating and promoting social justice and by promoting firm partnerships with the public.

  17. Latino Immigrants, Acculturation, and Health: Promising New Directions in Research

    PubMed Central

    Abraído-Lanza, Ana F.; Echeverría, Sandra E.; Flórez, Karen R.

    2017-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of novel topics emerging in recent years in research on Latino immigrants, acculturation, and health. In the past ten years, the number of studies assessing new ways to conceptualize and understand how acculturation-related processes may influence health has grown. These new frameworks draw from integrative approaches testing new ground to acknowledge the fundamental role of context and policy. We classify the emerging body of evidence according to themes that we identify as promising directions—intrapersonal, interpersonal, social environmental, community, political, and global contexts, cross-cutting themes in life course and developmental approaches, and segmented assimilation—and discuss the challenges and opportunities each theme presents. This body of work, which considers acculturation in context, points to the emergence of a new wave of research that holds great promise in driving forward the study of Latino immigrants, acculturation, and health. We provide suggestions to further advance the ideologic and methodologic rigor of this new wave. PMID:26735431

  18. Furfural--a promising platform for lignocellulosic biofuels.

    PubMed

    Lange, Jean-Paul; van der Heide, Evert; van Buijtenen, Jeroen; Price, Richard

    2012-01-09

    Furfural offers a promising, rich platform for lignocellulosic biofuels. These include methylfuran and methyltetrahydrofuran, valerate esters, ethylfurfuryl and ethyltetrahydrofurfuryl ethers as well as various C(10)-C(15) coupling products. The various production routes are critically reviewed, and the needs for improvements are identified. Their relative industrial potential is analysed by defining an investment index and CO(2) emissions as well as determining the fuel properties for the resulting products. Finally, the most promising candidate, 2-methylfuran, was subjected to a road trial of 90,000 km in a gasoline blend. Importantly, the potential of the furfural platform relies heavily on the cost-competitive production of furfural from lignocellulosic feedstock. Conventional standalone and emerging coproduct processes-for example, as a coproduct of cellulosic ethanol, levulinic acid or hydroxymethyl furfural-are expensive and energetically demanding. Challenges and areas that need improvement are highlighted. In addition to providing a critical review of the literature, this paper also presents new results and analysis in this area.

  19. Promises and Pitfalls of Anchoring Vignettes in Health Survey Research

    PubMed Central

    Verdes-Tennant, Emese; McEniry, Mary; Ispány, Márton

    2016-01-01

    Data harmonization is a topic of growing importance to demographers, who increasingly conduct domestic or international comparative research. Many self-reported survey items cannot be directly compared across demographic groups or countries because these groups differ in how they use subjective response categories. Anchoring vignettes, already appearing in numerous surveys worldwide, promise to overcome this problem. However, many anchoring vignettes have not been formally evaluated for adherence to the key measurement assumptions of vignette equivalence and response consistency. This article tests these assumptions in some of the most widely fielded anchoring vignettes in the world: the health vignettes in the World Health Organization (WHO) Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE) and World Health Survey (WHS) (representing 10 countries; n = 52,388), as well as similar vignettes in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) (n = 4,528). Findings are encouraging regarding adherence to response consistency, but reveal substantial violations of vignette equivalence both cross-nationally and across socioeconomic groups. That is, members of different sociocultural groups appear to interpret vignettes as depicting fundamentally different levels of health. The evaluated anchoring vignettes do not fulfill their promise of providing interpersonally comparable measures of health. Recommendations for improving future implementations of vignettes are discussed. PMID:26335547

  20. Delivering on the promise of transit timing variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agol, Eric; Deck, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Transiting timing variations (TTVs) have held the promise of enabling the measurement of planet masses and radii in multi-transiting planet systems found with the Kepler spacecraft. However, when a single TTV frequency is detected, a degeneracy commonly exists between the eccentricities and masses of the planets (Lithwick, Xie & Wu 2012), making the masses and eccentricities indeterminate. In some cases this degeneracy has been broken with n-body integrations, but this enshrouds the answer in complex numerics. It may also be broken statistically, but this still does not provide measurements for individual planets.We show how this degeneracy may be broken with a measurement of TTV at the synodic frequency, which has an amplitude that depends strongly on the planet-star mass ratios and on the planets' semi-major axis ratio, yet weakly on their eccentricities. This "chopping" signal is generally modest in amplitude, but when it is detected it can provide the primary constraint upon planet masses, such as in Kepler 11d&e and KOI-872c. We show by example how harmonic analysis of TTVs combined with analytic formulae can break the eccentricity-mass degeneracy without the need for dynamical integrations, thus delivering on the promise of TTVs, while at the same time clarifying the origin of the planetary mass constraints resulting from TTV analysis.