Science.gov

Sample records for access solutions promise

  1. Promises and Limitations of RFI Canceling Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, J. R.

    2004-05-01

    Recent years have seen a kindling of interest in signal processing solutions to radio frequency interference (RFI) to astronomical observations. Over a dozen refereed papers and several dozen conference presentations on the subject are now in the astronomical and engineering literature. This work builds on several decades of signal processing development in the fields of acoustics and communications for which there are a number of standard texts. Radio astronomy has the unique requirement that interference must be suppressed below very low detection thresholds before the scientific results of observations can be considered reliable. These detection thresholds are several orders of magnitude lower than is typical of communications signal levels. Initial trials of coherent cancellation of TV and satellite signals and blanking of pulsed interference, such as radar and aircraft signals, are encouraging, but the signal processing power required for useful bandwidths is sobering. Simultaneous cancellation of many signals and compensation for multi-path propagation effects of distant transmitters add to the processing load and are challenges that remain to be tackled. Spectrum management is becoming increasingly complex with greater emphasis on spectrum sharing in the time and spacial domains. This requires a better understanding of long-distance propagation effects and the techniques and economics of signal separation to guide the protection of the scientific use of the radio spectrum. The traditional concept of frequency allocations will be only one aspect of spectrum management in the coming years. Active users of the spectrum will expect us to devote some of our engineering and managerial resources to spectrum sharing agreements, Hence, we need to continually build a firm technical footing upon which to base our negotiating positions. The NRAO is operated for the National Science Foundation (NSF) by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), under a cooperative agreement.

  2. A Promising Development: "Promise" Scholarships Targeting Individual Communities Reduce Barriers to College Access--and Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses Promise Scholarships in community colleges and sources of funding. The following community colleges and their scholarships are mentioned in this article: (1) Oregon Promise, Oregon; (2) Ventura College Promise, California; (3) Kalamazoo Promise, Michigan; (4) Pittsburgh Promise, Pennsylvania; (5) SEED Scholarship, Delaware;…

  3. An integrated solution for remote data access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapunenko, Vladimir; D'Urso, Domenico; dell'Agnello, Luca; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Duranti, Matteo

    2015-12-01

    Data management constitutes one of the major challenges that a geographically- distributed e-Infrastructure has to face, especially when remote data access is involved. We discuss an integrated solution which enables transparent and efficient access to on-line and near-line data through high latency networks. The solution is based on the joint use of the General Parallel File System (GPFS) and of the Tivoli Storage Manager (TSM). Both products, developed by IBM, are well known and extensively used in the HEP computing community. Owing to a new feature introduced in GPFS 3.5, so-called Active File Management (AFM), the definition of a single, geographically-distributed namespace, characterised by automated data flow management between different locations, becomes possible. As a practical example, we present the implementation of AFM-based remote data access between two data centres located in Bologna and Rome, demonstrating the validity of the solution for the use case of the AMS experiment, an astro-particle experiment supported by the INFN CNAF data centre with the large disk space requirements (more than 1.5 PB).

  4. Optical solutions for unbundled access network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacîş Vasile, Irina Bristena

    2015-02-01

    The unbundling technique requires finding solutions to guarantee the economic and technical performances imposed by the nature of the services that can be offered. One of the possible solutions is the optic one; choosing this solution is justified for the following reasons: it optimizes the use of the access network, which is the most expensive part of a network (about 50% of the total investment in telecommunications networks) while also being the least used (telephone traffic on the lines has a low cost); it increases the distance between the master station/central and the terminal of the subscriber; the development of the services offered to the subscribers is conditioned by the subscriber network. For broadband services there is a need for support for the introduction of high-speed transport. A proper identification of the factors that must be satisfied and a comprehensive financial evaluation of all resources involved, both the resources that are in the process of being bought as well as extensions are the main conditions that would lead to a correct choice. As there is no single optimal technology for all development scenarios, which can take into account all access systems, a successful implementation is always done by individual/particularized scenarios. The method used today for the selection of an optimal solution is based on statistics and analysis of the various, already implemented, solutions, and on the experience that was already gained; the main evaluation criterion and the most unbiased one is the ratio between the cost of the investment and the quality of service, while serving an as large as possible number of customers.

  5. Unrealized Promises: Unequal Access, Affordability, and Excellence at Community Colleges in Southern California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Wenzl, Mary; Marquez, Rigoberto

    2012-01-01

    California community colleges are, by design, the only entry point to four-year institutions for the majority of students in the state. Yet, many of these institutions perpetuate racial and class segregation, thus disrupting the California Master Plan for Higher Education's promise of access, equity, and excellence in higher education. This report…

  6. Promises, Promises.

    PubMed

    McLean, Haydn

    2016-03-01

    Presenting a pledge to another establishes expectation in the recipient for the commitment to be fulfilled, particularly when a promise is devoid of coercion. Defaulting on a commitment may damage relationships between people and may predispose the disenchanted recipient to distrust those who proffer succeeding commitments. God's advocates who have been disappointed by God's evident under-delivery may experience a crisis of faith, exemplified in attachment distress, when disappointment intimates God has over-promised his providence, which questions the nature and, ultimately, the relevance of God. PMID:26956758

  7. Internet access for everybody: The satellite solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittig, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    The use of the Internet has been grown tremendously within the last decade to more than one billion subscribers. The other five billion people on Earth cannot enjoy the possibilities offered by the Internet. The digital divide is everywhere: in the developing as well as in the developed part of the world. In the developing countries basic communication needs (voice, IP access) need to be provided to a large population not living in cities. In the developed part of the world people residing outside the large cities, on the nice country side, have still difficulties to get broadband access. The reason being, that the investment to install the network infrastructure to this minority part of the population is a major part of the total investment for the network. The benefit for the telecom operators is marginal to get these customers on board. In this paper an analysis of the Internet and satellite development is being presented and based on these historical data a prediction of a possible evolution of satellite communications and broadband access is performed. One result is that the capacity of the GEO ring at the Ka-band alone would allow to provide to each individual on Earth in 2050 (assumed to be 10 billion people) a monthly capacity of about 1 Gbyte for a charge of 1$ per month.

  8. Appliance Displays: Accessibility Challenges and Proposed Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Fusco, Giovanni; Tekin, Ender; Giudice, Nicholas A.; Coughlan, James M.

    2016-01-01

    People who are blind or visually impaired face difficulties using a growing array of everyday appliances because they are equipped with inaccessible electronic displays. We report developments on our “Display Reader” smartphone app, which uses computer vision to help a user acquire a usable image of a display and have the contents read aloud, to address this problem. Drawing on feedback from past and new studies with visually impaired volunteer participants, as well as from blind accessibility experts, we have improved and simplified our user interface and have also added the ability to read seven-segment digit displays. Our system works fully automatically and in real time, and we compare it with general-purpose assistive apps such as Be My Eyes, which recruit remote sighted assistants (RSAs) to answer questions about video captured by the user. Our discussions and preliminary experiment highlight the advantages and disadvantages of fully automatic approaches compared with RSAs, and suggest possible hybrid approaches to investigate in the future. PMID:26824081

  9. Trends in communicative access solutions for children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Myrden, Andrew; Schudlo, Larissa; Weyand, Sabine; Zeyl, Timothy; Chau, Tom

    2014-08-01

    Access solutions may facilitate communication in children with limited functional speech and motor control. This study reviews current trends in access solution development for children with cerebral palsy, with particular emphasis on the access technology that harnesses a control signal from the user (eg, movement or physiological change) and the output device (eg, augmentative and alternative communication system) whose behavior is modulated by the user's control signal. Access technologies have advanced from simple mechanical switches to machine vision (eg, eye-gaze trackers), inertial sensing, and emerging physiological interfaces that require minimal physical effort. Similarly, output devices have evolved from bulky, dedicated hardware with limited configurability, to platform-agnostic, highly personalized mobile applications. Emerging case studies encourage the consideration of access technology for all nonverbal children with cerebral palsy with at least nascent contingency awareness. However, establishing robust evidence of the effectiveness of the aforementioned advances will require more expansive studies. PMID:24820337

  10. Beyond the Yellow Bus: Promising Practices for Maximizing Access to Opportunity through Innovations in Student Transportation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Jeffrey M.; Makarewicz, Carrie; Miller, Ruth; Ehrman, Julia; McKoy, Deborah L.

    2014-01-01

    Access to safe, affordable, and convenient transportation shapes the 'geography of opportunity' for many children and youth. This study looks at how ?localities acrossthe country are implementing new and innovative alternative approaches to student transportation that expand regionaltransportation access for K-12 students, improve…

  11. Dynamic accessibility of inflow and outflow reconnective solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Tassi, E.; Titov, V. S.; Hornig, G.

    2005-11-15

    An analysis of the accessibility properties of exact stationary solutions of the resistive magnetohydrodynamics equations is presented. The issue is raised of whether such solutions, which describe a particular type of magnetic reconnection, can be obtained as the final state of a time-dependent evolution of the magnetic- and velocity-field disturbances superimposed onto background fields possessing a null point. Numerical experiments indicate that, whereas for the solutions of inflow type with super-Alfvenic background flow the imposed boundary conditions are sufficient to determine the accessed steady-state solution, in the case of outflow solutions with sub-Alfvenic background flow the final steady-state turns out to depend on the initial disturbance as well. It is found that the directions of the characteristic curves of the evolution equations and an implicit condition on the vorticity at the stagnation point are responsible for this behavior. Implications for the maximum current density attained in the final state are discussed. An argument to explain the appearance of damped oscillations in the evolution of the disturbance fields for the outflow case, as opposed to the flux pileup characterizing the inflow case, is also provided.

  12. The Effect of a Community College Promise Scholarship on Access and Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluhta, Elizabeth A.; Penny, G. Richard

    2013-01-01

    Based on a mixed methods case study design, the current study reports on a Promise Scholarship program offered by a community college and its affiliated foundation to graduating students at a nearby high school located in a low-income neighborhood of a large city and with a high proportion of African American and other students of color. Using a…

  13. Ethnicity and Adolescent Depression: Prevalence, Access to Services, and Promising Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagstaff, Amanda E.; Polo, Antonio J.

    2012-01-01

    Depression is more common among adolescents of ethnic minority backgrounds, who also are less likely to receive professional help. This article presents information about prevalence of depression and service use across ethnic groups, and then outlines several promising intervention programs that are designed for adolescents suffering from…

  14. Promising Solutions for Fully Reusable Two-Stages-to-Orbit Configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deneu, François; Malassigne, Michel; Le-Couls, Olivier

    2002-01-01

    Numerous studies have already identified that Fully Reusable Two-Stage-To-Orbit concepts (FRLV TSTO) could be one of the best solution for meeting economical and technical objectives of the RLV second generation. In this configuration, the first stage dubbed 'Booster' provides mainly the initial impulse prior to flying back close to the launch site. The second stage, dubbed 'Orbiter' goes into orbit, delivers the payload and the expendable orbital module prior to re-enter and land on the runway already used by the booster. In 2001, EADS LV has initiated, under CNES funding, system studies aiming at defining the most promising FRLV TSTO configurations in terms of technical and technological challenges and economical effectiveness. The first phase of this study was devoted to establish preliminary but consolidated assumptions and ground rules regarding ascent and re-entry aerodynamic database, mass budget including masses for the booster fly-back and propulsion characteristics. The second phase dealt with the systematic computation of the two stages main features (e.g. propellant and inert masses) for a given payload mass into LEO orbit, with respect to the major configuration parameter of a FRLV TSTO: the staging velocity (or Mach number). Various initial assumptions were considered such as the thrust-to-weight ratio, the booster and orbiter specific impulse as well as the ascent mode: parallel burn, with or without cross-feeding system, and serial burn. Starting from the conclusions issued from the performance assessment, the third phase was addressed to the search for outstanding configurations and associated propulsion systems. The study has been concluded with the pros and cons analyses of the most promising configurations and their preliminary consistent re-design. This paper intends to present :

  15. Toward cardiovascular MRI at 7 T: clinical needs, technical solutions and research promises

    PubMed Central

    Sodickson, Daniel K.; Krombach, Gabriele A.; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette

    2010-01-01

    Objective To consider potential clinical needs, technical solutions and research promises of ultrahigh-field strength cardiovascular MR (CMR). Methods A literature review is given, surveying advantages and disadvantages of CMR at ultrahigh fields (UHF). Key concepts, emerging technologies, practical considerations and applications of UHF CMR are provided. Examples of UHF CMR imaging strategies and their added value are demonstrated, including the numerous unsolved problems. A concluding section explores future directions in UHF CMR. Results UHF CMR can be regarded as one of the most challenging MRI applications. Image quality achievable at UHF is not always exclusively defined by signal-to-noise considerations. Some of the inherent advantages of UHF MRI are offset by practical challenges. But UHF CMR can boast advantages over its kindred lower field counterparts by trading the traits of high magnetic fields for increased temporal and/or spatial resolution. Conclusions CMR at ultrahigh-field strengths is a powerful motivator, since speed and signal may be invested to overcome the fundamental constraints that continue to hamper traditional CMR. If practical challenges can be overcome, UHF CMR will help to open the door to new approaches for basic science and clinical research. PMID:20676653

  16. Promising Rapid Access High-Capacity Mass Storage Technique For Diagnostic Information Utilizing Optical Disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colby, R. L.; Bartuska, A. J.; Herzog, D. G.

    1982-01-01

    The optical disc has become a new technique for mass digital data storage of X-ray images from examinations and films in todays hospitals. Up to 36,000 X-ray images can be stored on one side of a 12-inch disc by melting holes 0.015 mils in size in an ablative material such as tellerium with a laser beam. This unique characteristic makes the disc suitable for storage and retrieval of X-rays in a record and playback system in either a single disc or multiple disc "jukebox" configuration. Doctors, nurses, technicians and other hospital personnel can call up a particular X-ray in less than 0.6 of a second in an on-line single disc system and up to less than 6 seconds in an on-line "jukebox" system. The jukebox is configured to hold up to 100 discs, thus storing 3,600,000 X-rays in hospitals with a bed size of greater than 500. The estimated exposed films on file in those hospitals is 327,400,000 and the estimated annual X-ray exams are 44,300. Thus, a single disc system could be used for an all electronic X-ray scanning system for annual X-ray exams. The jukebox configuration, which has expansion capability for servicing multiple simultaneous user request, can be applied to large archival mass storage. These systems could store the existing exposed films in hospitals with bed size greater than 500 at record and playback data rates of 50 Mb/s with access times of less than 15 seconds.

  17. The Subject Access Problem--Opportunities for Solution: A Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Committee for the Coordination of National Bibliographic Control, Washington, DC.

    This report presents the recommendations of 35 workshops participants, drawn from a variety of backgrounds and information environments, which was organized to: (1) highlight the role of subject access with the emphasis on the needs of the information seeker; (2) compare techniques for subject access now being used in the library and the…

  18. 76 FR 72403 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Primus Solutions, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... AGENCY Access to Confidential Business Information by Primus Solutions, Inc. AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has authorized its contractor, Primus Solutions, Inc., (Primus) of Greenbelt, MD, to access information which has been submitted to EPA under all sections of...

  19. A Promising Solution to Enhance the Sensocompatibility of Biosensors in Continuous Glucose Monitoring Systems

    PubMed Central

    van den Bosch, Edith E.M.; de Bont, Nik H.M.; Qiu, Jun; Gelling, Onko-Jan

    2013-01-01

    Background Continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) measure glucose in real time, making it possible to improve glycemic control. A promising technique involves glucose sensors implanted in subcutaneous tissue measuring glucose concentration in interstitial fluid. A major drawback of this technique is sensor bioinstability, which can lead to unpredictable drift and reproducibility. The bioinstability is partly due to sensor design but is also affected by naturally occurring subcutaneous inflammations. Applying a nonbiofouling coating to the sensor membrane could be a means to enhancing sensocompatibility. Methods This study evaluates the suitability of a polyethylene-glycol-based coating on sensors in CGMs. Methods used include cross hatch, wet paper rub, paper double rub, bending, hydrophilicity, protein adsorption, bio-compatibility, hemocompatibility, and glucose/oxygen permeability testing. Results Results demonstrate that coating homogeneity, adhesion, integrity, and scratch resistance are good. The coating repels lysozyme and bovine serum albumin, and only a low level of fibrin and blood platelet adsorption to the coating was recorded when testing in whole human blood. Cytotoxicity, irritation, sensitization, and hemolysis were assessed, and levels suggested good biocompatibility of the coating in subcutaneous tissue. Finally, it was shown that the coating can be applied to cellulose acetate membranes of different porosity without changing their permeability for glucose and oxygen. Conclusions These results suggest that the mechanical properties of the coating are sufficient for the given application, that the coating is effective in preventing protein adsorption and blood clot formation on the sensor surface, and that the coating can be applied to membranes without hindering their glucose and oxygen transport. PMID:23567005

  20. Solution-processed carbon nanotube thin-film complementary static random access memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geier, Michael L.; McMorrow, Julian J.; Xu, Weichao; Zhu, Jian; Kim, Chris H.; Marks, Tobin J.; Hersam, Mark C.

    2015-11-01

    Over the past two decades, extensive research on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) has elucidated their many extraordinary properties, making them one of the most promising candidates for solution-processable, high-performance integrated circuits. In particular, advances in the enrichment of high-purity semiconducting SWCNTs have enabled recent circuit demonstrations including synchronous digital logic, flexible electronics and high-frequency applications. However, due to the stringent requirements of the transistors used in complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) logic as well as the absence of sufficiently stable and spatially homogeneous SWCNT thin-film transistors, the development of large-scale SWCNT CMOS integrated circuits has been limited in both complexity and functionality. Here, we demonstrate the stable and uniform electronic performance of complementary p-type and n-type SWCNT thin-film transistors by controlling adsorbed atmospheric dopants and incorporating robust encapsulation layers. Based on these complementary SWCNT thin-film transistors, we simulate, design and fabricate arrays of low-power static random access memory circuits, achieving large-scale integration for the first time based on solution-processed semiconductors.

  1. Solution-processed carbon nanotube thin-film complementary static random access memory.

    PubMed

    Geier, Michael L; McMorrow, Julian J; Xu, Weichao; Zhu, Jian; Kim, Chris H; Marks, Tobin J; Hersam, Mark C

    2015-11-01

    Over the past two decades, extensive research on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) has elucidated their many extraordinary properties, making them one of the most promising candidates for solution-processable, high-performance integrated circuits. In particular, advances in the enrichment of high-purity semiconducting SWCNTs have enabled recent circuit demonstrations including synchronous digital logic, flexible electronics and high-frequency applications. However, due to the stringent requirements of the transistors used in complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) logic as well as the absence of sufficiently stable and spatially homogeneous SWCNT thin-film transistors, the development of large-scale SWCNT CMOS integrated circuits has been limited in both complexity and functionality. Here, we demonstrate the stable and uniform electronic performance of complementary p-type and n-type SWCNT thin-film transistors by controlling adsorbed atmospheric dopants and incorporating robust encapsulation layers. Based on these complementary SWCNT thin-film transistors, we simulate, design and fabricate arrays of low-power static random access memory circuits, achieving large-scale integration for the first time based on solution-processed semiconductors. PMID:26344184

  2. Accessing Quality Online Health Information: What Is the Solution?

    PubMed

    Boyer, Célia

    2016-01-01

    The majority of the adult population in both Europe and North America have access to the internet. Over 70% state that they have used the internet to look for health information and the majority started their search at a search engine. Given that search engines list sites according to popularity and not quality, it is imperative that users have a means of discerning trustworthy and honest information from non-reliable health information. The HONcode, a set of eight quality guidelines, ensures access to standardized trustworthy health information which can be used as a tool to guide consumers. PMID:27332317

  3. Promising anticancer mono- and dinuclear ruthenium(III) dithiocarbamato complexes: systematic solution studies.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Eszter Márta; Nardon, Chiara; Giovagnini, Lorena; Marchiò, Luciano; Trevisan, Andrea; Fregona, Dolores

    2011-11-28

    During the last decade, our research group has prepared a number of metal dithiocarbamato derivatives of Pt, Pd and Au that were expected to resemble the main features of cisplatin together with higher activity, improved selectivity and bioavailability, and lower side-effects. Furthermore, we have already published the synthesis, characterization and in vitro cytotoxicity studies of novel ruthenium(III) dithiocarbamato complexes such as [RuL(3)] monomers (11) and α-[Ru(2)L(5)]Cl dimers (12) with five different dithiocarbamate ligands. As both the monomer and the dinuclear complexes have shown significant antitumor activity in different human tumor cell lines, we decided to widen the characterization studies and to analyse thoroughly their behavior in physiological-like medium by UV-visible and CD spectroscopy. In the present paper we report on the crystal structure of [Ru(DMDT)(3)], [Ru(PDT)(3)] and [Ru(ESDT)(3)] complexes and we determine the spin state of the paramagnetic Ru(III) by means of Evans' method. Then, we discuss in detail the UV-visible spectral data of the complexes in different medium. All the studied complexes are stable in dimethyl sulfoxide, and show low solubility in phosphate buffered saline solution, particularly the monomer species, even at low concentration, while increased solubility for both types of complexes have been found in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). Moreover, no changes on the coordination sphere of the metal, as well as no direct interaction between the BSA protein and the complex have been identified by UV-visible spectroscopy. However, some conformational changes on the BSA structure, induced by the ruthenium(III) complexes have been confirmed by CD spectroscopy, indicating a probable secondary electrostatic interaction between the metal complex and the peptide. In addition, no significant interaction has been demonstrated with the components of Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium, used for the in vitro assays

  4. Mobile Access to the Internet: A Mediator-Based Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alanko, Timo; Kojo, Markku; Liljeberg, Mika; Raatikainen, Kimmo

    1999-01-01

    Provides an overview of problems related to wireless mobility, specifically the use of cellular telephones to access remote information stores, such as the Internet, and computing services. Presents a new software architecture and discusses a new paradigm for designing mobile-distributed applications based on a mediator, a distributed intelligent…

  5. The JSTOR Solution: Accessing and Preserving the Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, Kevin M.; Lougee, Wendy P.

    1997-01-01

    Describes JSTOR (Journal Storage), a not-for-profit organization located in New York City, established to use digital technology to preserve and make accessible core journal literature. Highlights include publisher participation and license agreements; scanning and optical character recognition; missing information; systems design; project goals;…

  6. Beyond the Yellow Bus: Promising Practices for Maximizing Access to Opportunity through Innovations in Student Transportation. Policy Brief 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Cities & Schools, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Access to safe, affordable, and convenient transportation shapes the "geography of opportunity" for many children and youth. This study looks at how ?localities across the country are implementing new and innovative alternative approaches to student transportation that expand regional transportation access for K-12 students, improve…

  7. Technology solutions to support supervisory activities and also to provide information access to the society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paladini, D.; Mello, A. B.

    2016-07-01

    Inmetro's data about the conformity of certificated products, process and services are, usually, displayed at fragmented databases of difficult access for several reasons, for instance, the lack of computational solutions which allow this kind of access to its users. A discussion about some of the technological solutions to support supervisory activities by the appropriate regulatory bodies and also to provide information access to society in general is herein presented, along with a theoretical explanation of the pros and cons of such technologies to the conclusion that a mobile platform seems to be the best tool for the requirements of Inmetro.

  8. Toward Accessible Assessments: The Promises and Limitations of Test Item Adaptations for Students with Disabilities and English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawthon, Stephanie; Leppo, Rachel; Carr, Therese; Kopriva, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    When do item adaptations veer from their intent and, instead of increasing access, modify the construct being measured? This study analyzed early elementary student achievement data from a statewide field test containing both standard and adapted science items. Four student groups were included in this analysis: English language learners, students…

  9. The Promise and Challenge of Increasing Access to Higher Education: Notes from a Romanian/United States Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florea, Silvia; Horvat, Erin McNamara

    2009-01-01

    The internal processes of higher education have implications for the cohesion and shape of societies as well as for the quality of life of individuals. The comparison of the historical evolution of access to higher education in the American and European/Romanian contrasted countries reveals the presence of several norms successively constraining…

  10. A Promising Practicum Pilot--Exploring Associate Teachers' Access and Interactions with a Web-Based Learning Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrarca, Diana

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores how a small group of associate teachers (i.e., the classroom teachers who host, supervise, and mentor teacher candidates during practicum placements) accessed and interacted with the Associate Teacher Learning Tool (ATLT), a web-based learning tool created specifically for this new group of users. The ATLT is grounded in…

  11. A Needs Assessment of the Accessibility of Distance Education in the California Community College System. Part II: Costs and Promising Practices Associated with Making Distance Education Courses Accessible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farr, Beverly; Studier, Carol; Sipes, Laurel; Coombs, Norman

    2009-01-01

    As the number of online distance education (DE) courses mushrooms in the California community college system, the need to address the accessibility of these courses becomes more and more urgent. With this in mind, the California Community College System Office (CCCSO) retained MPR Associates, Inc. to complete a needs assessment to help determine…

  12. Accessing seismic data through geological interpretation: Challenges and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, R. W.; Clayton, S.; McCaffrey, B.

    2008-12-01

    Between them, the world's research programs, national institutions and corporations, especially oil and gas companies, have acquired substantial volumes of seismic reflection data. Although the vast majority are proprietary and confidential, significant data are released and available for research, including those in public data libraries. The challenge now is to maximise use of these data, by providing routes to seismic not simply on the basis of acquisition or processing attributes but via the geology they image. The Virtual Seismic Atlas (VSA: www.seismicatlas.org) meets this challenge by providing an independent, free-to-use community based internet resource that captures and shares the geological interpretation of seismic data globally. Images and associated documents are explicitly indexed by extensive metadata trees, using not only existing survey and geographical data but also the geology they portray. The solution uses a Documentum database interrogated through Endeca Guided Navigation, to search, discover and retrieve images. The VSA allows users to compare contrasting interpretations of clean data thereby exploring the ranges of uncertainty in the geometric interpretation of subsurface structure. The metadata structures can be used to link reports and published research together with other data types such as wells. And the VSA can link to existing data libraries. Searches can take different paths, revealing arrays of geological analogues, new datasets while providing entirely novel insights and genuine surprises. This can then drive new creative opportunities for research and training, and expose the contents of seismic data libraries to the world.

  13. Removal of Acid Orange 7 from aqueous solution using magnetic graphene/chitosan: a promising nano-adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Sheshmani, Shabnam; Ashori, Alireza; Hasanzadeh, Saeed

    2014-07-01

    Magnetic graphene/chitosan (MGCh) nanocomposite was fabricated through a facile chemical route and its application as a new adsorbent for Acid Orange 7 (AO7) removal was also investigated. After synthesis, the full characterization with various techniques (FTIR, XRD, VSM, and SEM) was achieved revealing many possible interactions/forces of dye-composite system. The results showed that, benefiting from the surface property of graphene oxide, the abundant amino and hydroxyl functional groups of chitosan, and from the magnetic property of Fe3O4, the adsorbent possesses quite a good and versatile adsorption capacity to the dye under investigation, and can be easily and rapidly extracted from water by magnetic attraction. The maximum absorption capacity was reached at initial pH 3 and 120min contact time. The batch adsorption experiments showed that the adsorption of the AO7 is considerably dependent on pH of milieu, amount of adsorbent, and contact time. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms were investigated to indicate that the kinetic and equilibrium adsorption were well-described by pseudo-first order kinetic and Langmuir isotherm model, respectively. The adsorption behavior suggested that the adsorbent surface was homogeneous in nature. The study suggests that the MGCh is a promising nano adsorbent for removal of anionic azo dyes from aqueous solution. PMID:24813679

  14. The Method behind the Madness: Acquiring Online Journals and a Solution to Provide Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skekel, Donna

    2005-01-01

    Libraries are seeking the best possible solution for integrating online journals into their collections. While exploring the different methods and technology available, many libraries still strive to fulfill the original "library mission" proposed by Charles Cutter in his "Rules for a Dictionary Catalog". Providing comprehensive access to…

  15. Accessibility

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/accessibility.html MedlinePlus Accessibility To use the sharing features on this page, ... Subscribe to RSS Follow us Disclaimers Copyright Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs ...

  16. The Technology Information Environment with Industry (TIE-In): A mechanism for accessing laboratory solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Ang, J.A.; Machin, G.D.; Marek, E.L.

    1994-12-31

    The Technology Information Environment with Industry (TIE-In) is a system that helps users obtain laboratory-developed technical solutions without requiring that they duplicate the technical resources (in people, hardware and software) at the national laboratories. TIE-In is based on providing users with controlled access to distributed laboratory resources that are packaged in intelligent user interfaces. These interfaces help users obtain technical solutions without requiring that the user have specialized technical and computer expertise. As a designated DOE Technology Deployment Center/User Facility, industry users can access a broad range of laboratory-developed technologies on a cost-recovery basis. TIE-In will also be used to share laboratory resources with partners in US industry that help the DOE meet future manufacturing needs for the stewardship of our nation`s nuclear weapons stockpile.

  17. Differences in bingeing behavior and cocaine reward following intermittent access to sucrose, glucose or fructose solutions

    PubMed Central

    Rorabaugh, Jacki M.; Stratford, Jennifer M.; Zahniser, Nancy R.

    2015-01-01

    Daily intermittent access to sugar solutions results in intense bouts of sugar intake (i.e. bingeing) in rats. Bingeing on sucrose, a disaccharide of glucose and fructose, has been associated with a “primed” mesolimbic dopamine (DA) pathway. Recent studies suggest glucose and fructose engage brain reward and energy sensing mechanisms in opposing ways and may drive sucrose intake through unique neuronal circuits. Here, we examined in male Sprague-Dawley rats whether or not (1) intermittent access to isocaloric solutions of sucrose, glucose or fructose results in distinctive sugar bingeing profiles and (2) previous sugar bingeing alters cocaine locomotor activation and/or reward, as determined by conditioned place preference (CPP). To encourage bingeing, rats were given 24-h access to water and 12 h-intermittent access to chow plus an intermittent bottle that contained water (control) or 8% solutions of sucrose, glucose or fructose for 9 days, followed by ad libitum chow diet and a 10 day cocaine (15 mg/kg; i.p.) CPP paradigm. By day 4 of the sugar bingeing diet, sugar bingeing in the fructose group surpassed the glucose group, with the sucrose group being intermediate. All three sugar groups had similar chow and water intake throughout the diet. In contrast, controls exhibited chow bingeing by day 5 without altering water intake. Similar magnitudes of cocaine CPP were observed in rats with a history of sucrose, fructose or chow (control) bingeing. Notably, the glucosebingeing rats did not demonstrate a significant cocaine CPP despite showing similar cocaine-induced locomotor activity as the other diet groups. Overall, these results show that fructose and glucose, the monosaccharide components of sucrose, produce divergent degrees of bingeing and cocaine reward. PMID:26079112

  18. Sustained Resistive Switching in a Single Cu:7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane Nanowire: A Promising Material for Resistive Random Access Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basori, Rabaya; Kumar, Manoranjan; Raychaudhuri, Arup K.

    2016-06-01

    We report a new type of sustained and reversible unipolar resistive switching in a nanowire device made from a single strand of Cu:7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (Cu:TCNQ) nanowire (diameter <100 nm) that shows high ON/OFF ratio (~103), low threshold voltage of switching (~3.5 V) and large cycling endurance (>103). This indicates a promising material for high density resistive random access memory (ReRAM) device integration. Switching is observed in Cu:TCNQ single nanowire devices with two different electrode configuration: symmetric (C-Pt/Cu:TCNQ/C-Pt) and asymmetric (Cu/Cu:TCNQ/C-Pt), where contacts connecting the nanowire play an important role. This report also developed a method of separating out the electrode and material contributions in switching using metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) device model along with a direct 4-probe resistivity measurement of the nanowire in the OFF as well as ON state. The device model was followed by a phenomenological model of current transport through the nanowire device which shows that lowering of potential barrier at the contacts likely occur due to formation of Cu filaments in the interface between nanowire and contact electrodes. We obtain quantitative agreement of numerically analyzed results with the experimental switching data.

  19. Sustained Resistive Switching in a Single Cu:7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane Nanowire: A Promising Material for Resistive Random Access Memory.

    PubMed

    Basori, Rabaya; Kumar, Manoranjan; Raychaudhuri, Arup K

    2016-01-01

    We report a new type of sustained and reversible unipolar resistive switching in a nanowire device made from a single strand of Cu:7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (Cu:TCNQ) nanowire (diameter <100 nm) that shows high ON/OFF ratio (~10(3)), low threshold voltage of switching (~3.5 V) and large cycling endurance (>10(3)). This indicates a promising material for high density resistive random access memory (ReRAM) device integration. Switching is observed in Cu:TCNQ single nanowire devices with two different electrode configuration: symmetric (C-Pt/Cu:TCNQ/C-Pt) and asymmetric (Cu/Cu:TCNQ/C-Pt), where contacts connecting the nanowire play an important role. This report also developed a method of separating out the electrode and material contributions in switching using metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) device model along with a direct 4-probe resistivity measurement of the nanowire in the OFF as well as ON state. The device model was followed by a phenomenological model of current transport through the nanowire device which shows that lowering of potential barrier at the contacts likely occur due to formation of Cu filaments in the interface between nanowire and contact electrodes. We obtain quantitative agreement of numerically analyzed results with the experimental switching data. PMID:27245099

  20. Sustained Resistive Switching in a Single Cu:7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane Nanowire: A Promising Material for Resistive Random Access Memory

    PubMed Central

    Basori, Rabaya; Kumar, Manoranjan; Raychaudhuri, Arup K.

    2016-01-01

    We report a new type of sustained and reversible unipolar resistive switching in a nanowire device made from a single strand of Cu:7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (Cu:TCNQ) nanowire (diameter <100 nm) that shows high ON/OFF ratio (~103), low threshold voltage of switching (~3.5 V) and large cycling endurance (>103). This indicates a promising material for high density resistive random access memory (ReRAM) device integration. Switching is observed in Cu:TCNQ single nanowire devices with two different electrode configuration: symmetric (C-Pt/Cu:TCNQ/C-Pt) and asymmetric (Cu/Cu:TCNQ/C-Pt), where contacts connecting the nanowire play an important role. This report also developed a method of separating out the electrode and material contributions in switching using metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) device model along with a direct 4-probe resistivity measurement of the nanowire in the OFF as well as ON state. The device model was followed by a phenomenological model of current transport through the nanowire device which shows that lowering of potential barrier at the contacts likely occur due to formation of Cu filaments in the interface between nanowire and contact electrodes. We obtain quantitative agreement of numerically analyzed results with the experimental switching data. PMID:27245099

  1. Solubility and crystallographic facet tailoring of (GaN)1-x(ZnO)x pseudobinary solid-solution nanostructures as promising photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Liu, Baodan; Yang, Wenjin; Cho, Yujin; Zhang, Xinglai; Dierre, Benjamin; Sekiguchi, Takashi; Wu, Aimin; Jiang, Xin

    2016-02-01

    (GaN)1-x(ZnO)x solid-solution nanostructures with superior crystallinity, large surface areas and visible light absorption have been regarded as promising photocatalysts for overall water splitting to produce H2. In this work, we report the preparation of (GaN)1-x(ZnO)x solid-solution nanorods with a high ZnO solubility up to 95% via a two-step synthetic route, which starts from a sol-gel reaction and follows with a nitridation process. Moreover, we clearly demonstrated that the crystallographic facets of (GaN)1-x(ZnO)x solid-solution nanorods can be finely tailored from non-polar {101&cmb.macr;0} to semipolar {101&cmb.macr;1} and then finally to mixed {101&cmb.macr;1} and polar {0001&cmb.macr;} by carefully controlling the growth temperature and nitridation time. Correspondingly, the ZnO content in the GaN lattice can be achieved in the range of ~25%-95%. Room-temperature cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements on the three types of (GaN)1-x(ZnO)x solid-solution nanorods indicate that the minimum band-gap of 2.46 eV of the solid-solution nanorods is achieved under a ZnO solubility of 25%. The efficiency and versatility of our strategy in the band-gap and facet engineering of (GaN)1-x(ZnO)x solid-solution nanorods will enhance their promising photocatalytic utilizations like an overall water splitting for H2 production under visible-light irradiation.(GaN)1-x(ZnO)x solid-solution nanostructures with superior crystallinity, large surface areas and visible light absorption have been regarded as promising photocatalysts for overall water splitting to produce H2. In this work, we report the preparation of (GaN)1-x(ZnO)x solid-solution nanorods with a high ZnO solubility up to 95% via a two-step synthetic route, which starts from a sol-gel reaction and follows with a nitridation process. Moreover, we clearly demonstrated that the crystallographic facets of (GaN)1-x(ZnO)x solid-solution nanorods can be finely tailored from non-polar {101&cmb.macr;0} to semipolar {101&cmb

  2. Increasing access to care for Brazos Valley, Texas: a rural community of solution.

    PubMed

    Garney, Whitney R; Drake, Kelly; Wendel, Monica L; McLeroy, Kenneth; Clark, Heather R; Ryder, Byron

    2013-01-01

    Compared with their urban counterparts, rural populations face substantial disparities in terms of health care and health outcomes, particularly with regard to access to health services. To address ongoing inequities, community perspectives are increasingly important in identifying health issues and developing local solutions that are effective and sustainable. This article has been developed by both academic and community representatives and presents a brief case study of the evolution of a regional community of solution (COS) servicing a 7-county region called the Brazos Valley, Texas. The regional COS gave rise to multiple, more localized COSs that implemented similar strategies designed to address access to care within rural communities. The regional COS, known as the Brazos Valley Health Partnership, was a result of a 2002 health status assessment that revealed that rural residents face poorer access to health services and their care is often fragmented. Their localized strategy, called a health resource center, was created as a "one-stop shop" where multiple health and social service providers could be housed to deliver services to rural residents. Initially piloted in Madison County, the resource center model was expanded into Burleson, Grimes, and Leon Counties because of community buy-in at each of these sites. The resource center concept allowed service providers, who previously were able to offer services only in more populous areas, to expand into the rural communities because of reduced overhead costs. The services provided at the health resource centers include transportation, information and referral, and case management along with others, depending on the location. To ensure successful ongoing operations and future planning of the resource centers, local oversight bodies known as health resource commissions were organized within each of the rural communities to represent local COSs. Through collaboration with local entities, these partnerships have

  3. sym-Trisubstituted 1,3,5-Triazine Derivatives as Promising Organic Corrosion Inhibitors for Steel in Acidic Solution.

    PubMed

    El-Faham, Ayman; Dahlous, Kholood A; Al Othman, Zeid A; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A; El-Mahdy, Gamal A

    2016-01-01

    Triazine derivatives, namely, 2,4,6-tris(quinolin-8-yloxy)-1,3,5-triazine (T3Q), N²,N⁴,N⁶-tris(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine (T3AMPy) and 2,2',2''-[(1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triyl)tris(azanediyl)] tris(ethan-1-ol) (T3EA) were synthesized and their inhibition of steel corrosion in hydrochloric acid solution was investigated using electrochemical techniques. The corrosion protection of the prepared compounds increased with increasing concentration and reached up to 98% at 250 ppm. The adsorption of T3Q, T3AMPy, and T3EA on the steel surface was in accordance with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The electrochemical results revealed that T3Q, T3AMPy and T3EA act as excellent organic inhibitors and can labeled as mixed type inhibitors. The efficiencies of the tested compounds were affected by the nature of the side chain present in the triazine ring, where T3EA gave the least inhibition while T3Q and T3AMPy gave higher and almost the same inhibition effects. The inhibition efficiencies obtained from the different electrochemical techniques were in good agreement. PMID:27043517

  4. Tau method for the numerical solution of a fuzzy fractional kinetic model and its application to the oil palm frond as a promising source of xylose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadian, A.; Salahshour, S.; Baleanu, D.; Amirkhani, H.; Yunus, R.

    2015-08-01

    The Oil Palm Frond (a lignocellulosic material) is a high-yielding energy crop that can be utilized as a promising source of xylose. It holds the potential as a feedstock for bioethanol production due to being free and inexpensive in terms of collection, storage and cropping practices. The aim of the paper is to calculate the concentration and yield of xylose from the acid hydrolysis of the Oil Palm Frond through a fuzzy fractional kinetic model. The approximate solution of the derived fuzzy fractional model is achieved by using a tau method based on the fuzzy operational matrix of the generalized Laguerre polynomials. The results validate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed solution method for solving this type of fuzzy kinetic model.

  5. Keeping Promises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Gregory A.

    2005-01-01

    Commitments are between people, not schedules. Project management as practiced today creates a "commitment-free zone," because it assumes that people will commit to centrally managed schedules without providing a mechanism to ensure their work can be done. So they give it their best, but something always seems to come up ..."I tried, but you know how it is." This form of project management does not provide a mechanism to ensure that what should be done, can in fact be done at the required moment. Too often, promises reliable promise. made in coordination meetings are conditional and unreliable. It has been my experience that at times trust can be low and hard to build in this environment. The absence of reliable promises explains why on well-run projects, people are often only completing 30-50 percent of the deliverables they d promised for the week. We all know what a promise is; we have plenty of experience making them and receiving them from others. So what s the problem? The sad fact is that the project environment-like many other work environments- is often so filled with systemic dishonesty, that we don t expect promises that are reliable. Project managers excel when they manage their projects as networks of commitments and help their people learn to elicit and make reliable promises.

  6. Evidence-based psychological treatments for mental disorders: Modifiable barriers to access and possible solutions

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Allison G.; Gumport, Nicole B.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of mental disorders is high and appears to be growing, yet the majority of individuals who meet diagnostic criteria for a mental disorder are not able to access an adequate treatment. While evidence-based psychological treatments (EBPTs) are effective single or adjunctive treatments for mental disorders, there is also evidence that access to these treatments is diminishing. We seek to highlight modifiable barriers to these problems at the patient, therapist, treatment, organization and government-levels of analysis. A range of solutions to each set of contributors is offered and domains for future research are highlighted. In particular, we focus on the need to continue to work toward innovation in treatment development while also solving the difficulties relating to the dissemination of EBPTs. Several relatively new concepts in the field will be discussed (implementation cliff, program drift, voltage drop and deployment treatment development) and we contrast America and England as examples of government-level processes that are in the process of major change with respect to EBPTs. We conclude that there is a need for people in our field to become more knowledgeable about, and get involved in, shaping public policy. PMID:25768982

  7. Is the promise of methadone Kenya’s solution to managing HIV and addiction? A mixed-method mathematical modelling and qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Tim; Guise, Andy; Ndimbii, James; Strathdee, Steffanie; Ngugi, Elizabeth; Platt, Lucy; Kurth, Ann; Cleland, Charles; Vickerman, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Promoted globally as an evidence-based intervention in the prevention of HIV and treatment of heroin addiction among people who inject drugs (PWID), opioid substitution treatment (OST) can help control emerging HIV epidemics among PWID. With implementation in December 2014, Kenya is the third Sub-Saharan African country to have introduced OST. We combine dynamic mathematical modelling with qualitative sociological research to examine the ‘promise of methadone’ to Kenya. Methods, setting and participants We model the HIV prevention impact of OST in Nairobi, Kenya, at different levels of intervention coverage. We draw on thematic analyses of 109 qualitative interviews with PWID, and 43 with stakeholders, to chart their narratives of expectation in relation to the promise of methadone. Results The modelled impact of OST shows relatively slight reductions in HIV incidence (5–10%) and prevalence (2–4%) over 5 years at coverage levels (around 10%) anticipated in the planned roll-out of OST. However, there is a higher impact with increased coverage, with 40% coverage producing a 20% reduction in HIV incidence, even when accounting for relatively high sexual transmissions. Qualitative findings emphasise a culture of ‘rationed expectation’ in relation to access to care and a ‘poverty of drug treatment opportunity’. In this context, the promise of methadone may be narrated as a symbol of hope—both for individuals and community—in relation to addiction recovery. Conclusions Methadone offers HIV prevention potential, but there is a need to better model the effects of sexual HIV transmission in mediating the impact of OST among PWID in settings characterised by a combination of generalised and concentrated epidemics. We find that individual and community narratives of methadone as hope for recovery coexist with policy narratives positioning methadone primarily in relation to HIV prevention. Our analyses show the value of mixed

  8. Accessible high performance computing solutions for near real-time image processing for time critical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielski, Conrad; Lemoine, Guido; Syryczynski, Jacek

    2009-09-01

    High Performance Computing (HPC) hardware solutions such as grid computing and General Processing on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPGPU) are now accessible to users with general computing needs. Grid computing infrastructures in the form of computing clusters or blades are becoming common place and GPGPU solutions that leverage the processing power of the video card are quickly being integrated into personal workstations. Our interest in these HPC technologies stems from the need to produce near real-time maps from a combination of pre- and post-event satellite imagery in support of post-disaster management. Faster processing provides a twofold gain in this situation: 1. critical information can be provided faster and 2. more elaborate automated processing can be performed prior to providing the critical information. In our particular case, we test the use of the PANTEX index which is based on analysis of image textural measures extracted using anisotropic, rotation-invariant GLCM statistics. The use of this index, applied in a moving window, has been shown to successfully identify built-up areas in remotely sensed imagery. Built-up index image masks are important input to the structuring of damage assessment interpretation because they help optimise the workload. The performance of computing the PANTEX workflow is compared on two different HPC hardware architectures: (1) a blade server with 4 blades, each having dual quad-core CPUs and (2) a CUDA enabled GPU workstation. The reference platform is a dual CPU-quad core workstation and the PANTEX workflow total computing time is measured. Furthermore, as part of a qualitative evaluation, the differences in setting up and configuring various hardware solutions and the related software coding effort is presented.

  9. Presidential Promises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Explores the different strategies between George W. Bush and Al Gore for improving education. The pros and cons of school vouchers are highlighted along with issues of school safety, tax credits, teacher hiring increases, charter schools, and universal access to education. Republican and Democratic proposals on school safety conclude the article.…

  10. Three-Dimensional (3-D) Printing: A Cost-Effective Solution for Improving Global Accessibility to Prostheses.

    PubMed

    Silva, Kyle; Rand, Stephanie; Cancel, David; Chen, Yuxi; Kathirithamby, Rani; Stern, Michelle

    2015-12-01

    The lack of access to prostheses is a global problem, partially caused by the high cost associated with the current manufacturing process. Three-dimensional printing is gaining use in the medical field, and one such area is prosthetics. In addition to using cost-effective materials, this technology allows for rapid prototyping, making it an efficient solution for the development of affordable prostheses. If the rehabilitation medicine community embraces this novel technology, we can help alleviate the global disparity of access to prostheses. PMID:26709247

  11. A Simple Solution to Providing Remote Access to CD-ROM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnham, Carla T.; Brodie, Kent

    1990-01-01

    A pilot project at the Medical College of Wisconsin illustrates how even small computing organizations with limited financial and staff resources can provide remote access to CD-ROM (Compact Disc-Read-Only-Memory) databases, and that providing such convenient access to a vast array of useful information can greatly benefit faculty and students.…

  12. Restricting access to publications from funded research: ethical issues and solutions.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, S; Vani, N Isai

    2010-01-01

    India is becoming one of the hubs of clinical research. Commensurate with these advances, the government funding for biomedical research in thrust areas is also increasing. The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Department of Science and Technology (DST) are some of the government organizations which provide financial support for various research projects. The results of the funded research projects are published in various international journals. Most of these journals have an access to paid subscribers only. Hence it is unethical to use the research grants from government (people's money) and not allow the scientific community free access to the results of the study. To tackle such issues, these agencies should sign the Berlin declaration and create open access repositories. A public access policy should be formulated and listed in JULIET. The funding bodies in India should also join Pubmed Central (PMC) to form PMC India so that every investigator who has received grants would submit the full text of the paper published from his study and these can be made freely accessible to everyone. Universities and research institutions should also develop institutional open access repositories. The public access policy has definitive advantages and should be implemented. PMID:20622399

  13. Geoscience Information Network (USGIN) Solutions for Interoperable Open Data Access Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, M. L.; Richard, S. M.; Patten, K.

    2014-12-01

    The geosciences are leading development of free, interoperable open access to data. US Geoscience Information Network (USGIN) is a freely available data integration framework, jointly developed by the USGS and the Association of American State Geologists (AASG), in compliance with international standards and protocols to provide easy discovery, access, and interoperability for geoscience data. USGIN standards include the geologic exchange language 'GeoSciML' (v 3.2 which enables instant interoperability of geologic formation data) which is also the base standard used by the 117-nation OneGeology consortium. The USGIN deployment of NGDS serves as a continent-scale operational demonstration of the expanded OneGeology vision to provide access to all geoscience data worldwide. USGIN is developed to accommodate a variety of applications; for example, the International Renewable Energy Agency streams data live to the Global Atlas of Renewable Energy. Alternatively, users without robust data sharing systems can download and implement a free software packet, "GINstack" to easily deploy web services for exposing data online for discovery and access. The White House Open Data Access Initiative requires all federally funded research projects and federal agencies to make their data publicly accessible in an open source, interoperable format, with metadata. USGIN currently incorporates all aspects of the Initiative as it emphasizes interoperability. The system is successfully deployed as the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS), officially launched at the White House Energy Datapalooza in May, 2014. The USGIN Foundation has been established to ensure this technology continues to be accessible and available.

  14. An Accessible Two-Dimensional Solution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Experiment on Human Ubiquitin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rovnyak, David; Thompson, Laura E.

    2005-01-01

    Solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is an invaluable tool in structural and molecular biology research, but may be underutilized in undergraduate laboratories because instrumentation for performing structural studies of macromolecules in aqueous solutions is not yet widely available for use in undergraduate laboratories. We have…

  15. Solutions: An Overview of the Academy's Three-Part Access to Care Campaign. AAP Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Michael, Ed.

    This report provides an overview of the American Academy of Pediatrics' three-part access to health care campaign. To ensure that legislative action benefits children, the academy has developed a legislative proposal that serves as a benchmark for health reform initiatives. This special report provides an outline of the proposal and describes some…

  16. Promising More Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    When NASA needed a real-time, online database system capable of tracking documentation changes in its propulsion test facilities, engineers at Stennis Space Center joined with ECT International, of Brookfield, Wisconsin, to create a solution. Through NASA's Dual-Use Program, ECT developed Exdata, a software program that works within the company's existing Promise software. Exdata not only satisfied NASA s requirements, but also expanded ECT s commercial product line. Promise, ECT s primary product, is an intelligent software program with specialized functions for designing and documenting electrical control systems. An addon to AutoCAD software, Promis e generates control system schematics, panel layouts, bills of material, wire lists, and terminal plans. The drawing functions include symbol libraries, macros, and automatic line breaking. Primary Promise customers include manufacturing companies, utilities, and other organizations with complex processes to control.

  17. High Database Prices and Their Impact on Information Access: Is There a Solution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Michael L.

    1987-01-01

    Recent trends in the pricing of online database systems are described and their impact on searcher behavior and satisfaction is discussed. A design is proposed for a major research project that would use data gathered by the Information Market Indicators to assess the feasibility of a price-based solution. (CLB)

  18. Dynamic spectrum access in wireless ad hoc networks: issues and possible solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhensheng; Soni, Tarun

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we present a brief overview on the recent development of the dynamical spectrum access (DSA) techniques, focusing on the following areas: characteristics of the available bandwidth of the primary users, sensing technologies and sensing intervals to detect white spaces, spectrum allocation and management, reliability of the secondary user, tradeoff between spectrum/performance gain versus additional overhead used in implementing DSA, and cross layer optimization in spectrum sharing. Some of tradeoff studies are presented in terms of price of anarchy, which is defined as the price that a decentralized system should pay for not being coordinated. We will also discuss some of the open issues in deploying DSA.

  19. Public-domain-software solution to data-access problems for numerical modelers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenter, Harry; Signell, Richard

    1992-01-01

    Unidata's network Common Data Form, netCDF, provides users with an efficient set of software for scientific-data-storage, retrieval, and manipulation. The netCDF file format is machine-independent, direct-access, self-describing, and in the public domain, thereby alleviating many problems associated with accessing output from large hydrodynamic models. NetCDF has programming interfaces in both the Fortran and C computer language with an interface to C++ planned for release in the future. NetCDF also has an abstract data type that relieves users from understanding details of the binary file structure; data are written and retrieved by an intuitive, user-supplied name rather than by file position. Users are aided further by Unidata's inclusion of the Common Data Language, CDL, a printable text-equivalent of the contents of a netCDF file. Unidata provides numerous operators and utilities for processing netCDF files. In addition, a number of public-domain and proprietary netCDF utilities from other sources are available at this time or will be available later this year. The U.S. Geological Survey has produced and is producing a number of public-domain netCDF utilities.

  20. GOES: Challenges and Solutions Associated with Accessing, Processing, and Visualizing Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheeseman, S.; Christensen, P. R.; Prashad, L. C.; Dickenshied, S.; Edwards, C. S.; Noss, D.

    2011-12-01

    Roughly 80 images of our planet are captured every day from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite 13 (GOES-13), a geosynchronous weather satellite, which covers the Atlantic side of the western hemisphere. The GOES-13 multichannel imager measures radiant energy and reflected solar energy from the Earth's surface and atmosphere in five different wavelengths - four in the infrared (3.8-4.0μm, 10.2-11.2μm, 11.5-12.5μm at 4km resolution and 6.5-7.0μm at 8km resolution) and one visible band (0.55-0.75μm at 1km resolution). GOES-13 is one of three among the third generation of instruments which are operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Individual image files range from 800kB in the infrared to 12MB for daytime visible imagery and a year's set can add up to more than 170GB in the infrared alone -- half the visible archive. This high data volume is not easily accessible for most researchers to store and access for fast longitudinal analysis. Additionally, no comprehensive archive of full resolution GOES data currently exist for the public to access processed and georeferenced for rapid visualization and analysis. GOES data are not only valuable for researchers to study climate over time but would be useful for practitioners to better understand many global anomalies from hurricane patterns to urban heat islands. The Mars Space Flight Facility at Arizona State University has developed a processing and georeferencing algorithm and a data storage system for GOES-13 data. The automated system has been collecting and archiving GOES-13 infrared and visible imagery daily since 9/28/10 and has acquired over 140,000 images so far. The data will be accessible for researchers and the public to view and analyze through the NASA open source geographic information system (GIS) software package Java Mission Planning and Analysis for the Earth (J-Earth). Users have the ability to access our entire archive of GOES-13 imagery through J

  1. A SOA broker solution for standard discovery and access services: the GI-cat framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldrini, Enrico

    2010-05-01

    GI-cat ideal users are data providers or service providers within the geoscience community. The former have their data already available through an access service (e.g. an OGC Web Service) and would have it published through a standard catalog service, in a seamless way. The latter would develop a catalog broker and let users query and access different geospatial resources through one or more standard interfaces and Application Profiles (AP) (e.g. OGC CSW ISO AP, CSW ebRIM/EO AP, etc.). GI-cat actually implements a broker components (i.e. a middleware service) which carries out distribution and mediation functionalities among "well-adopted" catalog interfaces and data access protocols. GI-cat also publishes different discovery interfaces: the OGC CSW ISO and ebRIM Application Profiles (the latter coming with support for the EO and CIM extension packages) and two different OpenSearch interfaces developed in order to explore Web 2.0 possibilities. An extended interface is also available to exploit all available GI-cat features, such as interruptible incremental queries and queries feedback. Interoperability tests performed in the context of different projects have also pointed out the importance to enforce compatibility with existing and wide-spread tools of the open source community (e.g. GeoNetwork and Deegree catalogs), which was then achieved. Based on a service-oriented framework of modular components, GI-cat can effectively be customized and tailored to support different deployment scenarios. In addition to the distribution functionality an harvesting approach has been lately experimented, allowing the user to switch between a distributed and a local search giving thus more possibilities to support different deployment scenarios. A configurator tool is available in order to enable an effective high level configuration of the broker service. A specific geobrowser was also naturally developed, for demonstrating the advanced GI-cat functionalities. This client

  2. On the Evaluation of a Secure Solution to Access 802.11 Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, Fernando; Gaspary, Luciano; Barbosa, Jorge; Cavalheiro, Gerson; Pfitscher, Luciano; Ramos, José Dirceu G.

    Despite offering the possibility to develop and distribute a new set of applications to its users, the widespread and unrestricted use of mobile computing depends on the provisioning of a secure network environment. Regarding the communication established from mobile devices such as PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants), one of the most currently used standards is the IEEE 802.11b, which presents known security flaws. To overcome them, some alternative setups are commonly deployed, based on link, network, transport or application-layer. In this paper we evaluate the impact on data reception rate and energy consumption of IPSec-based PDAs access to 802.11b (WiFi) wireless LANs. As a result of this work we identify the overhead imposed by the security mechanisms and the capacity of the device to run CPU and network-intensive applications.

  3. Multiple user access and testing for PreNotiS: a fast mobile event reporting solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Michael; Kumar, Abhinav; Akopian, David; Agaian, Sos S.

    2011-06-01

    The PreNotiS (preventive notification system) was proposed to address the current lack in consumer prevention and disaster informatics systems. The underscore of this letter is to propose PreNotiS as a provision of trusted proxies of information sourcing to be integral to the disaster informatics framework. To promote loose coupling among subsystems, PreNotiS has evolved into a model-view-controller (MVC) architecture via object-oriented incremental prototyping. The MVC specifies how all subsystems and how they interact with each other. A testing framework is also proposed for the PreNotiS to verify multiple concurrent user access which might be observable during disasters. The framework relies on conceptually similar self-test modules to help with serviceability.

  4. An accessible two-dimensional solution nuclear magnetic resonance experiment on human ubiquitin*.

    PubMed

    Rovnyak, David; Thompson, Laura E

    2005-03-01

    Solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is an invaluable tool in structural and molecular biology research, but may be underutilized in undergraduate laboratories because instrumentation for performing structural studies of macromolecules in aqueous solutions is not yet widely available for use in undergraduate laboratories. We have implemented an experiment that is ideal for more commonly available 4.8-7.0 Tesla, double-channel NMR instruments that would not usually be used for biomolecular NMR work. We analyzed a commercially available, (15) N-enriched human ubiquitin sample with a two-dimensional correlation experiment using indirect (1) H evolution and direct (15) N detection, which produced spectra with high resolution on a spectrometer operating at 7.0 Tesla (300 MHz (1) H resonance frequency). The simplicity of the experiment makes it possible to be configured by undergraduate students with minimal supervision from the instructor. Students gain experience in acquiring multidimensional biomolecular NMR experiments, confirm that ubiquitin is stably folded, and observe the correspondence between specific signals and individual amino acids in ubiquitin. PMID:21638557

  5. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-05-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  6. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan; Jersey Inst Ansari, New; Jersey Inst, New

    2005-04-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  7. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-06-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  8. Access to a Cu(II)-O-Cu(II) motif: spectroscopic properties, solution structure, and reactivity.

    PubMed

    Haack, Peter; Kärgel, Anne; Greco, Claudio; Dokic, Jadranka; Braun, Beatrice; Pfaff, Florian F; Mebs, Stefan; Ray, Kallol; Limberg, Christian

    2013-10-30

    We report a complex with a rare Cu(II)-O-Cu(II) structural motif that is stable at room temperature, which allows its in-depth characterization by a variety of spectroscopic methods. Interest in such compounds is fueled by the recent discovery that a Cu(II)-O-Cu(II) species on the surface of Cu-ZSM-5 is capable of oxidizing methane to methanol, and this in turn ties into mechanistic discussions on the methane oxidation at the dicopper site within the particulate methane monooxygenase. For the synthesis of our Cu2O complex we have developed a novel, neutral ligand system, FurNeu, exhibiting two N-(N',N'-dimethylaminoethyl)(2-pyridylmethyl)amino binding pockets connected by a dibenzofuran spacer. The reaction of FurNeu with CuCl yielded [FurNeu](Cu2(μ-Cl))(CuCl2), 1, demonstrating the geometric potential of the ligand to stabilize Cu-X-Cu moieties. A Cu(I) precursor with weakly coordinating anions was chosen in the next step, namely [Cu(NCCH3)4]OTf, which led to the formation of [FurNeu](Cu(NCCH3))2(OTf)2, 3. Treatment of 3 with O2 or PhIO led to identical green solutions, whose UV-vis spectra were markedly different from the one displayed by [FurNeu](Cu)2(OTf)4, 4, prepared independently from FurNeu and Cu(OTf)2. Further investigations including PhIO consumption experiments, NMR and UV-vis spectroscopy, HR-ESI mass spectrometry, and protonation studies led to the identification of the green product as [FurNeu](Cu2(μ-O))(OTf)2, 5. DOSY NMR spectroscopy confirmed its monomeric character. Over longer periods of time 5 decomposes to give [Cu(picoloyl)2], formed through an oxidative N-dealkylation reaction followed by further oxidation of the ligand. Due to its slow decomposition reaction, all attempts to crystallize 5 failed. However, its structure in solution could be determined by EXAFS analysis in combination with DFT calculations, which revealed a Cu-O-Cu angle that amounts to 105.17°. Moreover, TDDFT calculations helped to rationalize the UV-vis absorptions of 5

  9. Access to a CuII–O–CuII Motif: Spectroscopic Properties, Solution Structure, and Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Haack, Peter; Kärgel, Anne; Greco, Claudio; Dokic, Jadranka; Braun, Beatrice; Pfaff, Florian F.; Mebs, Stefan; Ray, Kallol; Limberg, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We report a complex with a rare CuII–O–CuII structural motif that is stable at room temperature, which allows its in-depth characterization by a variety of spectroscopic methods. Interest in such compounds is fueled by the recent discovery that a CuII–O–CuII species on the surface of Cu-ZSM-5 is capable of oxidizing methane to methanol and this in turn ties into mechanistic discussions on the methane oxidation at the dicopper site within the particulate methane monooxygenase. For the synthesis of our Cu2O complex we have developed a novel, neutral ligand system, FurNeu, exhibiting two N-(N',N'-dimethylaminoethyl)(2-pyridylmethyl)amino binding pockets connected by a dibenzofuran spacer. The reaction of FurNeu with CuCl yielded [FurNeu](Cu2(μ-Cl))(CuCl2), 1, demonstrating the geometric potential of the ligand to stabilize Cu–X–Cu moieties. A CuI precursor with weakly coordinating anions was chosen in the next step, namely [Cu(NCCH3)4]OTf, which led to the formation of [FurNeu](Cu(NCCH3))2(OTf)2, 3. Treatment of 3 with O2 or PhIO led to identical green solutions, whose UV/Vis spectra were markedly different from the one displayed by [FurNeu](Cu)2(OTf)4, 4, prepared independently from FurNeu and Cu(OTf)2. Further investigations including PhIO consumption experiments, NMR and UV/Vis spectroscopy, HR-ESI mass spectrometry and protonation studies led to the identification of the green product as [FurNeu](Cu2(μ-O))(OTf)2, 5. DOSY NMR spectroscopy confirmed its monomeric character. Over longer periods of time 5 decomposes to give [Cu(picoloyl)2], formed through an oxidative N-dealkylation reaction followed by further oxidation of the ligand. Due to its slow decomposition reaction all attempts to crystallize 5 failed. However, its structure in solution could be determined by EXAFS analysis in combination with DFT calculations, which revealed a Cu–O–Cu angle that amounts to 105.17°. Moreover, TDDFT calculations helped to rationalize the UV/Vis absorptions

  10. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Building access control (BAC)--a catchall phrase to describe the systems that control access to facilities across campus--has traditionally been handled with remarkably low-tech solutions: (1) manual locks; (2) electronic locks; and (3) ID cards with magnetic strips. Recent improvements have included smart cards and keyless solutions that make use…

  11. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-03-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  12. Gd(3+) Spin Labels Report the Conformation and Solvent Accessibility of Solution and Vesicle-Bound Melittin.

    PubMed

    Manukovsky, Nurit; Frydman, Veronica; Goldfarb, Daniella

    2015-10-29

    Although Gd(3+)-based spin labels have been shown to be an alternative to nitroxides for double electron-electron resonance (DEER) distance measurements at high fields, their ability to provide solvent accessibility information, as nitroxides do, has not been explored. In addition, the effect of the label type on the measured distance distribution has not been sufficiently characterized. In this work, we extended the applicability of Gd(3+) spin labels to solvent accessibility measurements on a peptide in model membranes, namely, large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) using W-band (2)H Mims electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) and electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) techniques and Gd(3+)-ADO3A-labeled melittin. In addition, we carried out Gd(3+)-Gd(3+) DEER distance measurements to probe the peptide conformation in solution and when bound to LUVs. A comparison with earlier results reported for the same system with nitroxide labels shows that, although in both cases the peptide binds parallel to the membrane surface, the Gd(3+)-ADO3A label tends to protrude from the membrane into the solvent, whereas the nitroxide does the opposite. This can be explained on the basis of the hydrophilicity of the Gd(3+)-ADO3A labels in contrast with the hydrophobicity of nitroxides. The distance distributions obtained from different labels are accordingly different, with the Gd(3+)-ADO3A yielding consistently broader distributions. These discrepancies are most pronounced when the peptide termini are labeled, which implies that such labeling positions may be inadvisible. PMID:26001213

  13. IFLA General Conference, 1986. Pre-Conference Seminar on Automated Systems for Access to Multilingual and Multiscript Library materials: Problems and Solutions. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, The Hague (Netherlands).

    A seminar which considered problems and solutions regarding automated systems for access to multilingual and multiscript library materials was held as a pre-session before the IFLA general conference in 1986. Papers presented include: (1) "Romanized and Transliterated Databases of Asian Language Materials--History, Problems, and Prospects" (Suzine…

  14. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-02-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  15. New Approaches to Improving College Access, Persistence, and Success: Three Exemplary Postsecondary Opportunity Programs. A Report from the Wisconsin Center for the Advancement of Postsecondary Education (WISCAPE) and the MHEC Promising Practices Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaade, Elizabeth Stransky; Connery, J. Edward; McCready, Bo

    2010-01-01

    This is the second in an occasional series called "Promising Practices: What Works in the Midwest." The series was launched to showcase innovative initiatives and effective ways to address common challenges and unique opportunities in higher education. Promising practices enable educators and policymakers to compare and benchmark themselves to…

  16. Developing Mathematically Promising Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Linda Jensen, Ed.

    This book, written on the recommendation of the Task Force on Mathematically Promising Students, investigates issues involving the development of promising mathematics students. Recommendations are made concerning topics such as the definition of promising students; the identification of such students; appropriate curriculum, instruction, and…

  17. Cyberinfrastructure at IRIS: Challenges and Solutions Providing Integrated Data Access to EarthScope and Other Earth Science Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahern, T. K.; Barga, R.; Casey, R.; Kamb, L.; Parastatidis, S.; Stromme, S.; Weertman, B. T.

    2008-12-01

    While mature methods of accessing seismic data from the IRIS DMC have existed for decades, the demands for improved interdisciplinary data integration call for new approaches. Talented software teams at the IRIS DMC, UNAVCO and the ICDP in Germany, have been developing web services for all EarthScope data including data from USArray, PBO and SAFOD. These web services are based upon SOAP and WSDL. The EarthScope Data Portal was the first external system to access data holdings from the IRIS DMC using Web Services. EarthScope will also draw more heavily upon products to aid in cross-disciplinary data reuse. A Product Management System called SPADE allows archive of and access to heterogeneous data products, presented as XML documents, at the IRIS DMC. Searchable metadata are extracted from the XML and enable powerful searches for products from EarthScope and other data sources. IRIS is teaming with the External Research Group at Microsoft Research to leverage a powerful Scientific Workflow Engine (Trident) and interact with the web services developed at centers such as IRIS to enable access to data services as well as computational services. We believe that this approach will allow web- based control of workflows and the invocation of computational services that transform data. This capability will greatly improve access to data across scientific disciplines. This presentation will review some of the traditional access tools as well as many of the newer approaches that use web services, scientific workflow to improve interdisciplinary data access.

  18. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-01-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks

    Guest Editors Jun Zheng, University of Ottawa Nirwan Ansari, New Jersey Institute of Technology

    Submission Deadline: 1 June 2005

    Background

    With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the

  19. Balancing Patient Access to Fetoscopic Laser Photocoagulation for Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome With Maintaining Procedural Competence: Are Collaborative Services Part of the Solution?

    PubMed

    Edwards, Andrew G; Teoh, Mark; Hodges, Ryan J; Palma-Dias, Ricardo; Cole, Stephen A; Fung, Alison M; Walker, Susan P

    2016-06-01

    The benefits of fetoscopic laser photocoagulation (FLP) for treatment of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) have been recognized for over a decade, yet access to FLP remains limited in many settings. This means at a population level, the potential benefits of FLP for TTTS are far from being fully realized. In part, this is because there are many centers where the case volume is relatively low. This creates an inevitable tension; on one hand, wanting FLP to be readily accessible to all women who may need it, yet on the other, needing to ensure that a high degree of procedural competence is maintained. Some of the solutions to these apparently competing priorities may be found in novel training solutions to achieve, and maintain, procedural proficiency, and with the increased utilization of 'competence based' assessment and credentialing frameworks. We suggest an under-utilized approach is the development of collaborative surgical services, where pooling of personnel and resources can improve timely access to surgery, improve standardized assessment and management of TTTS, minimize the impact of the surgical learning curve, and facilitate audit, education, and research. When deciding which centers should offer laser for TTTS and how we decide, we propose some solutions from a collaborative model. PMID:27087260

  20. The Kalamazoo Promise Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartik, Timothy J.; Lachowska, Marta

    2014-01-01

    This study takes advantage of the unexpected announcement of the Kalamazoo Promise to study its effects on student achievement and behavior in high school. The Kalamazoo Promise provides college scholarships to graduates of Kalamazoo Public Schools (KPS), a midsized urban school district in Michigan that is racially and economically diverse.…

  1. A clearing house for diagnostic testing: the solution to ensure access to and use of patented genetic inventions?

    PubMed Central

    van Zimmeren, Esther; Verbeure, Birgit; Matthijs, Gert; Van Overwalle, Geertrui

    2006-01-01

    In genetic diagnostics, the emergence of a so-called "patent thicket" is imminent. Such an overlapping set of patent rights may have restrictive effects on further research and development of diagnostic tests, and the provision of clinical diagnostic services. Currently, two models that may facilitate access to and use of patented genetic inventions are attracting much debate in various national and international fora: patent pools and clearing houses. In this article, we explore the concept of clearing houses. Several types of clearing houses are identified. First, we describe and discuss two types that would provide access to information on the patented inventions: the information clearing house and the technology exchange clearing house. Second, three types of clearing houses are analysed that not only offer access to information but also provide an instrument to facilitate the use of the patented inventions: the open access clearing house, the standardized licences clearing house and the royalty collection clearing house. A royalty collection clearing house for genetic diagnostic testing would be the most comprehensive as it would serve several functions: identifying patents and patent claims essential to diagnostic testing, matching licensees with licensors, developing and supplying standardized licences, collecting royalties, monitoring whether users respect licensing conditions, and providing dispute resolution services such as mediation and arbitration. In this way, it might function as an effective model for users to facilitate access to and use of the patented inventions. However, it remains to be seen whether patent holders with a strong patent portfolio will be convinced by the advantages of the royalty collection clearing house and be willing to participate. PMID:16710543

  2. Progress and promise.

    PubMed

    Kamphaus, Randy W

    2012-12-01

    This editorial introduces the current issue of the journal School Psychology Quarterly (SPQ).There has been an impressive and promising progress of school psychology science has been reflected in every issue of SPQ, including the current one. PMID:23294232

  3. A win-win solution?: A critical analysis of tiered pricing to improve access to medicines in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tiered pricing - the concept of selling drugs and vaccines in developing countries at prices systematically lower than in industrialized countries - has received widespread support from industry, policymakers, civil society, and academics as a way to improve access to medicines for the poor. We carried out case studies based on a review of international drug price developments for antiretrovirals, artemisinin combination therapies, drug-resistant tuberculosis medicines, liposomal amphotericin B (for visceral leishmaniasis), and pneumococcal vaccines. Discussion We found several critical shortcomings to tiered pricing: it is inferior to competition for achieving the lowest sustainable prices; it often involves arbitrary divisions between markets and/or countries, which can lead to very high prices for middle-income markets; and it leaves a disproportionate amount of decision-making power in the hands of sellers vis-à-vis consumers. In many developing countries, resources are often stretched so tight that affordability can only be approached by selling medicines at or near the cost of production. Policies that "de-link" the financing of R&D from the price of medicines merit further attention, since they can reward innovation while exploiting robust competition in production to generate the lowest sustainable prices. However, in special cases - such as when market volumes are very small or multi-source production capacity is lacking - tiered pricing may offer the only practical option to meet short-term needs for access to a product. In such cases, steps should be taken to ensure affordability and availability in the longer-term. Summary To ensure access to medicines for populations in need, alternate strategies should be explored that harness the power of competition, avoid arbitrary market segmentation, and/or recognize government responsibilities. Competition should generally be the default option for achieving affordability, as it has proven superior

  4. ENVRI PLUS: European initiative towards technical and research cultural solutions for across-disciplines accessible Research Infrastructure products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmi, A.; Kutsch, W. L.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental Research Infrastructures are often built as bottom-up initiatives to provide products for specific target group, which often is very discipline specific. However, the societal or environmental challenges are typically not concentrated on specific disciplines, and require usage of data sets from many RIs. ENVRI PLUS is an initiative where the European environmental RIs work together to provide common technical background (in physical observation technologies and in data products and descriptions) to make the RI products more usable to user groups outside of the original RI target groups. ENVRI PLUS also includes many policy and dissemination concentrated actions to make the RI operations coherent and understandable to both scientists and other potential users. The actions include building common technological capital of the RIs (physical and data-oriented), creating common access procedures (especially for cross-diciplinary access), developing ethical guidelines and related policies, distributing know-how between RIs and building common communication and collaboration system for European environmental RIs. All ENVRI PLUS products are free to use, e.g. for use of new or existing environmental RIs worldwide.

  5. Book of Renovations. A Compilation of Drawings Depicting the Most Common Problems and Solutions to Renovating Existing Buildings and Facilities to Make Them Accessible to and Usable by People with Physical Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Bruce H., Ed.

    This booklet presents a compilation of ideas and illustrations intended to solve many accessibility problems of physically handicapped persons using older buildings and facilities which were built before legislation and regulations mandating accessibility for disabled persons were passed. The solutions pictured in the booklet are intended to meet…

  6. The Promise of a College Scholarship Transforms a District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Gary W.; Ash, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Promise programs are place-based scholarships, generally tied to a city or school district, offering near-universal access to all living in the "place." While Promise programs share some characteristics with other scholarship programs, they're unique because they seek to change communities and schools. Underlying such promise programs is…

  7. Volume and accessibility of entrained (solution) methane in deep geopressured reservoirs - tertiary formations of the Texas Gulf Coast. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, A.R.; Dodge, M.M.; Posey, J.S.; Morton, R.A.

    1980-10-01

    The objective of this project was to appraise the total volume of in-place methane dissolved in formation waters of deep sandstone reservoirs of the onshore Texas Gulf Coast within the stratigraphic section extending from the base of significant hydrocarbon production (8000 ft)* to the deepest significant sandstone occurrence. The area of investigation is about 50,000 mi/sup 2/. Factors that determine the total methane resource are reservoir bulk volume, porosity, and methane solubility; the latter is controlled by the temperature, pressure, and salinity of formation waters. Regional assessment of the volume and the distribution of potential sandstone reservoirs was made from a data base of 880 electrical well logs, from which a grid of 24 dip cross sections and 4 strike cross sections was constructed. Solution methane content in each of nine formations or divisions of formations was determined for each subdivision. The distribution of solution methane in the Gulf Coast was described on the basis of five reservoir models. Each model was characterized by depositional environment, reservoir continuity, porosity, permeability, and methane solubility.

  8. Gaia: Status and Promises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sozzetti, A.

    2015-10-01

    The power of micro-arcsecond (µas) astrometry is about to be unleashed. ESA's Gaia mission, now entering its second year of routine science operations, will soon fulfil its promise for revolutionary science in the countless aspects of Galactic astronomy and astrophysics. I will briefly review the Gaia mission status of operations, and the scenario for intermediate data releases. Iwill then illustrate the potential of µas astrometry for detection and improved characterization of planetary systems in the neighborhood of the Sun.

  9. Dense central office solution for point-to-point fibre access including a novel compact dual bi-directional fibre optical transceiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvidsson, Gunnar; Junique, Stéphane; Persson, Karl-Åke; Sundberg, Erland

    2006-07-01

    The centralized Point-to-Point fibre access approach with a dedicated single mode optical fibre link connecting each customer to a Central Office (CO) has advantages regarding future-proofness, security, and simple and low-cost optical links and transceivers. The potential bottleneck in handling the large number of optical fibres that need to be terminated in the CO, and combined with optoelectronic components, has been studied within the IST 6th Framework Programme integrated project MUSE. The key parts in the CO are the passive cabinet where customer fibres are accessible through fibre connectors in the Optical Distribution Frame (ODF), and the active cabinet with switching equipment and optical transceivers. For the passive cabinet we conclude, that the most efficient solution is that each connection from the active cabinet to a customer passes only one ODF, and that small form factor connectors are used. For the active cabinet we have demonstrated the feasibility of an SFF-size module containing two bi-directional transceiver units by building and successfully testing a prototype, increasing the customer port density by a factor of two compared to commercial transceivers. The power consumption, which impacts power supply, cooling and cost, has been analyzed, and we propose measures to significantly decrease the power consumption.

  10. Scaling up access to oral rehydration solution for diarrhea: Learning from historical experience in low– and high–performing countries

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Shelby E.; Morris, Saul S.; Gilbert, Sarah Skye; Mosites, Emily; Hackleman, Rob; Weum, Kristoffer L.M.; Pintye, Jillian; Manhart, Lisa E.; Hawes, Stephen E.

    2013-01-01

    Aim This paper aims to identify factors that systematically predict why some countries that have tried to scale up oral rehydration solution (ORS) have succeeded, and others have not. Methods We examined ORS coverage over time, across countries, and through case studies. We conducted expert interviews and literature and data searches to better understand the history of ORS scale–up efforts and why they failed or succeeded in nine countries. We used qualitative, pairwise (or three–country) comparisons of geographically or otherwise similar countries that had different outcomes in terms of ORS scale–up. An algorithm was developed which scored country performance across key supply, demand and financing activities to quantitatively assess the scale–up efforts in each country. Results The vast majority of countries have neither particularly low nor encouragingly high ORS use rates. We observed three clearly identifiable contrasts between countries that achieved and sustained high ORS coverage and those that did not. Key partners across sectors have critical roles to play to effectively address supply– and demand–side barriers. Efforts must synchronize demand generation, private provider outreach and public sector work. Many donor funds are either suspended or redirected in the event of political instability, exacerbating the health challenges faced by countries in these contexts. We found little information on the cost of scale–up efforts. Conclusions We identified a number of characteristics of successful ORS scale–up programs, including involvement of a broad range of key players, addressing supply and demand generation together, and working with both public and private sectors. Dedicated efforts are needed to launch and sustain success, including monitoring and evaluation plans to track program costs and impacts. These case studies were designed to inform programmatic decision–making; thus, rigorous academic methods to qualitatively and

  11. International Collaboration: Promises and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Widmer, R. Jay; Widmer, Jocelyn M.; Lerman, Amir

    2015-01-01

    We currently face a myriad of grand global challenges in fields such as poverty, the environment, education, science, and medicine. However, our current means of dealing with such challenges has fallen short, and ingenious solutions are required to overcome the inherent resistance to progress toward ameliorating such difficulties. Here, we highlight the promises and challenges of international collaboration in achieving success toward these trials. We note prior successes in fields such as education, medicine, science, and environmental issues made to date, yet at the same time we do note deficiencies and shortcomings in these efforts. Hence, the notion of international collaboration should be strengthened and encouraged by governments, non-profit organizations, and others moving forward using creative means to bring talented teams together to tackle these challenges across the globe. PMID:25973264

  12. Promising therapeutic targets in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Matthay, Katherine K; George, Rani E; Yu, Alice L

    2012-05-15

    Neuroblastoma, the most common extracranial solid tumor in children, is derived from neural crest cells. Nearly half of patients present with metastatic disease and have a 5-year event-free survival of <50%. New approaches with targeted therapy may improve efficacy without increased toxicity. In this review we evaluate 3 promising targeted therapies: (i) (131)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), a radiopharmaceutical that is taken up by human norepinephrine transporter (hNET), which is expressed in 90% of neuroblastomas; (ii) immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies targeting the GD2 ganglioside, which is expressed on 98% of neuroblastoma cells; and (iii) inhibitors of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), a tyrosine kinase that is mutated or amplified in ~10% of neuroblastomas and expressed on the surface of most neuroblastoma cells. Early-phase trials have confirmed the activity of (131)I-MIBG in relapsed neuroblastoma, with response rates of ~30%, but the technical aspects of administering large amounts of radioactivity in young children and limited access to this agent have hindered its incorporation into treatment of newly diagnosed patients. Anti-GD2 antibodies have also shown activity in relapsed disease, and a recent phase III randomized trial showed a significant improvement in event-free survival for patients receiving chimeric anti-GD2 (ch14.18) combined with cytokines and isotretinoin after myeloablative consolidation therapy. A recently approved small-molecule inhibitor of ALK has shown promising preclinical activity for neuroblastoma and is currently in phase I and II trials. This is the first agent directed to a specific mutation in neuroblastoma, and marks a new step toward personalized therapy for neuroblastoma. Further clinical development of targeted treatments offers new hope for children with neuroblastoma. PMID:22589483

  13. Promising therapeutic targets in neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Matthay, Katherine K.; George, Rani E.; Yu, Alice L.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroblastoma, the most common extra- cranial solid tumor in children, is derived from neural crest cells. Nearly half of patients present with metastatic disease, and have 5-year EFS of less than 50%. New approaches with targeted therapy may improve efficacy without increased toxicity. The current review will evaluate three promising targeted therapies, including 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), a radiopharmaceutical taken up by the human norepinephrine transporter expressed in 90% of neuroblastomas, immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies targeting the GD2 ganglioside, expressed on 98% of neuroblastoma cells, and inhibitors of ALK, a tyrosine kinase which is mutated or amplified in approximately 10% of neuroblastoma and expressed on the surface of most neuroblastoma cells. Early phase trials have confirmed the activity of 131I-MIBG in relapsed neuroblastoma, with response rates of about 30%, but the technical aspects of administration of large amounts of radioactivity in young children and the limited access have hindered incorporation into treatment of newly diagnosed patients. Anti-GD2 antibodies have also demonstrated activity in relapsed disease, and a recent phase III randomized trial showed a significant improvement in event-free survival for patients receiving chimeric anti-GD2 (ch14.18) combined with cytokines and isotretinoin after myeloablative consolidation therapy. A recently approved small molecule inhibitor of ALK has promising pre-clinical activity for neuroblastoma, and is currently in phase I and II trials. This is the first agent directed to a specific mutation in neuroblastoma, and marks a new step toward personalized therapy for neuroblastoma. Further clinical development of targeted treatments offers new hope for children with neuroblastoma. PMID:22589483

  14. [Promising technologies in surgery].

    PubMed

    Kotiv, B N; Maĭstrenko, N A

    2013-06-01

    In modern conditions of local wars and armed conflicts, the basic principle of medical care is to reduce injuries stages of medical evacuation, aimed at accelerating the provision of specialized surgical care. In this regard, significantly increases the need for the development and implementation of new high-tech methods that can improve quality of care, both on the battlefield and on the stages of specialized surgical care. A promising direction is the introduction into clinical practice: minimally invasive technologies, the concept of hybrid navigation surgery, operations with the use of laser technology and robotics, advanced and extremely extensive interventions to cancer patients; technology reduces blood loss, use of cell therapy, transplantation techniques, the development of the concept of organ transplantation, lost in combat trauma, the creation of artificial organs and tissues, the creation of personal protective equipment, integrated with a system of combat, etc. PMID:24000635

  15. Credible threats and promises.

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, John M; Houston, Alasdair I

    2002-01-01

    We consider various implications of information about the other player in two-player evolutionary games. A simple model of desertion shows that information about the partner's behaviour can be disadvantageous, and highlights the idea of credible threats. We then discuss the general issue of whether the partner can convince the focal player that it will behave in a specific way, i.e. whether the focal player can make credible threats or promises. We show that when desertion decisions depend on reserves, a player can manipulate its reserves so as to create a credible threat of desertion. We then extend previous work on the evolution of trust and commitment, discussing conditions under which it is advantageous to assume that a partner will behave in a certain way even though it is not in its best interest. PMID:12495517

  16. Intellectual Access to Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsin-Liang; Rasmussen, Edie M.

    1999-01-01

    The increased availability of digital images is accompanied by a need for solutions to the problems inherent in indexing them for retrieval. Problems in image description and access are discussed, with a perspective on traditional and new solutions. Recent developments in intellectual access to images are surveyed and contrasted with…

  17. Chronic restricted access to 10% sucrose solution in adolescent and young adult rats impairs spatial memory and alters sensitivity to outcome devaluation.

    PubMed

    Kendig, Michael D; Boakes, Robert A; Rooney, Kieron B; Corbit, Laura H

    2013-08-15

    Although increasing consumption of sugar drinks is recognized as a significant public health concern, little is known about (a) the cognitive effects resulting from sucrose consumption; and (b) whether the long-term effects of sucrose consumption are more pronounced for adolescents. This experiment directly compared performance on a task of spatial learning and memory (the Morris Water Maze) and sensitivity to outcome devaluation following 28 days of 2-h/day access to a 10% sucrose solution in adolescent and young-adult Wistar rats. Sucrose groups developed elevated fasting blood glucose levels after the diet intervention, despite drawing <15% of calories from sucrose and gaining no more weight than controls. In subsequent behavioral testing, sucrose groups were impaired on the Morris Water Maze, with some residual deficits in spatial memory observed more than 6 weeks after the end of sucrose exposure. Further, results from outcome devaluation testing indicated that in the older cohort of rats, those fed sucrose showed reduced sensitivity to devaluation of the outcome, suggestive of differences in instrumental learning following sucrose exposure. Data provide strong evidence that sucrose consumption can induce deficits in spatial cognition and reward-oriented behavior at levels that resemble patterns of sugar drink consumption in young people, and which can remain long after exposure. PMID:23954407

  18. Importance sampling : promises and limitations.

    SciTech Connect

    West, Nicholas J.; Swiler, Laura Painton

    2010-04-01

    Importance sampling is an unbiased sampling method used to sample random variables from different densities than originally defined. These importance sampling densities are constructed to pick 'important' values of input random variables to improve the estimation of a statistical response of interest, such as a mean or probability of failure. Conceptually, importance sampling is very attractive: for example one wants to generate more samples in a failure region when estimating failure probabilities. In practice, however, importance sampling can be challenging to implement efficiently, especially in a general framework that will allow solutions for many classes of problems. We are interested in the promises and limitations of importance sampling as applied to computationally expensive finite element simulations which are treated as 'black-box' codes. In this paper, we present a customized importance sampler that is meant to be used after an initial set of Latin Hypercube samples has been taken, to help refine a failure probability estimate. The importance sampling densities are constructed based on kernel density estimators. We examine importance sampling with respect to two main questions: is importance sampling efficient and accurate for situations where we can only afford small numbers of samples? And does importance sampling require the use of surrogate methods to generate a sufficient number of samples so that the importance sampling process does increase the accuracy of the failure probability estimate? We present various case studies to address these questions.

  19. The promise of e-Health – a Canadian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Richard C

    2002-01-01

    Canadians value their health care system above any other social program. Canada's system of health care faces significant financial and population pressures, relating to cost, access, quality, accountability, and the integration of information and communication technologies (ICTs). The health-system also faces certain unique challenges that include care delivery within a highly decentralised system of financing and accountability, and care delivery to a significant portion of the population sparsely distributed across a landmass of 10 million square kilometres, in areas of extreme climatic conditions. All of these challenges are significant catalysts in the development of technologies that aim to significantly mitigate or eliminate these selfsame challenges. The system is undergoing widespread review, nationally, and within each province and territory, where the bulk of care provision is financed and managed. The challenges are being addressed by national, regional and provincial initiatives in the public, private and not-for-profit sectors. The promise of e-Health lies in the manner and degree to which it can mitigate or resolve these challenges to the health system and build on advancements in ICTs supporting the development of a health infostructure. Canada is actively developing and implementing technological solutions to deliver health information and health care services across the country. These solutions, while exciting and promising, also present new challenges, particularly in regard to acceptable standards, choice of technologies, overcoming traditional jurisdictional boundaries, up-front investment, and privacy and confidentially. Many organisations and governments are working to address these challenges. The Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI) will play an increasingly significant role in these initiatives, as the management of health information becomes a more crucial factor in the successful delivery of health care services in the new

  20. Nanotechnology: Its Promise and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Vicki Colvin

    2009-05-14

    Vicki Colvin of Rice University talks about how nanotechnology-enabled systems, with dimensions on the scale of a billionth of a meter, offer great promise for solving difficult social problems and creating enormous possibilities.

  1. Fulfilling the Promise: Do MOOCS Reach the Educationally Underserved?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Lorrie; Manturuk, Kim; Simpkins, Ian; Goldwasser, Molly; Whitfield, Keith E.

    2015-01-01

    When massive open online courses (MOOCs) began, they held the promise of bringing high-quality, college-level courses from leading academic institutions to people who otherwise would not have access to that type of content. In the ensuing years, it has become clear that the majority of MOOC students are not underserved in terms of educational…

  2. Dedicated Computers: A Promising Solution for Adult Academic Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weintraub, Herbert

    1982-01-01

    Dedicated computers are designed to perform a specific function (such as check-out computers in supermarkets). Because software for these computers is either built in or housed in separate plug-in program modules, programming knowledge is not necessary. The use of these computers to help individuals master basic academic subjects is discussed.…

  3. Is Technology Fulfilling Its Promise?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2011-01-01

    Technology has promised trainers so much--from the ability to train distant learners to new ways of keeping young employees engaged. But has it delivered? In this article, several trainers consider whether their investment in training technology has been worth it.

  4. The Promise of Transformative Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yendol-Hoppey, Diane

    2010-01-01

    The promise, potential, and problems associated with school-university partnerships interested in better preparing teachers for the challenges they face teaching in today's schools rest in educators' ability to actualize transformative practices within partnership contexts. To date, most partnerships have focused on less complex forms of…

  5. The Educational Promise of Logo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddux, Cleborne D.

    1984-01-01

    Discussion of Logo use to teach children computer programing covers the educational theory behind Logo, how it differs from other programing languages, its educational promise, its graphics capabilities, Logo research, and different versions available. It is argued that educational computing will succeed only if it provides new ways of teaching.…

  6. Promising Electric Aircraft Drive Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    An overview of electric aircraft propulsion technology performance thresholds for key power system components is presented. A weight comparison of electric drive systems with equivalent total delivered energy is made to help identify component performance requirements, and promising research and development opportunities.

  7. America: No Promise Without Agony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Robert McAfee

    We may discover signs of promise in the midst of agony if we make some shifts of perspective. (1) "Our fear of overt violence must be countered by our acknowledgement of covert violence." Covert violence is subtle and more destructive than physical violence because it is the "denial of personhood"--the insinuation by an act or by neglect that a…

  8. Educating Homeless Students: Promising Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronge, James H., Ed.; Reed-Victor, Evelyn, Ed.

    This book is for educators who serve homeless students or students temporarily sharing houses with other families. It describes many promising strategies for working with these students. The chapters are: (1) "Educating Homeless Children and Youth: An Introduction" (James H. Stronge); (2) "Meeting the Developmental and Educational Needs of…

  9. A licence to vape: Is it time to trial of a nicotine licensing scheme to allow Australian adults controlled access to electronic cigarettes devices and refill solutions containing nicotine?

    PubMed

    Gartner, Coral; Hall, Wayne

    2015-06-01

    Australia has some of the most restrictive laws concerning use of nicotine in e-cigarettes. The only current legal option for Australians to legally possess and use nicotine for vaping is with a medical prescription and domestic supply is limited to compounding pharmacies that prepare medicines for specific patients. An alternative regulatory option that could be implemented under current drugs and poisons regulations is a 'nicotine licensing' scheme utilising current provisions for 'dangerous poisons'. This commentary discusses how such a scheme could be used to trial access to nicotine solutions for vaping outside of a 'medicines framework' in Australia. PMID:25817484

  10. Can Technology Fulfill Its Promise?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ervin, Gerard L.

    1993-01-01

    It is suggested that, in terms of management, the right demands are being made on technology to provide distributed, cost-effective access to knowledge and instruction. Seven guiding principles for evaluating technology and three roles for educators vis-a-vis technology"--evaluator, implementor, and communicator--are enunciated. (CNP)

  11. The promise of quantum simulation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Muller, Richard P.; Blume-Kohout, Robin

    2015-07-21

    In this study, quantum simulations promise to be one of the primary applications of quantum computers, should one be constructed. This article briefly summarizes the history of quantum simulation in light of the recent result of Wang and co-workers, demonstrating calculation of the ground and excited states for a HeH+ molecule, and concludes with a discussion of why this and other recent progress in the field suggest that quantum simulations of quantum chemistry have a bright future.

  12. The promise of quantum simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, Richard P.; Blume-Kohout, Robin

    2015-07-21

    In this study, quantum simulations promise to be one of the primary applications of quantum computers, should one be constructed. This article briefly summarizes the history of quantum simulation in light of the recent result of Wang and co-workers, demonstrating calculation of the ground and excited states for a HeH+ molecule, and concludes with a discussion of why this and other recent progress in the field suggest that quantum simulations of quantum chemistry have a bright future.

  13. The Promise of Quantum Simulation.

    PubMed

    Muller, Richard P; Blume-Kohout, Robin

    2015-08-25

    Quantum simulations promise to be one of the primary applications of quantum computers, should one be constructed. This article briefly summarizes the history of quantum simulation in light of the recent result of Wang and co-workers, demonstrating calculation of the ground and excited states for a HeH(+) molecule, and concludes with a discussion of why this and other recent progress in the field suggest that quantum simulations of quantum chemistry have a bright future. PMID:26197037

  14. Revocable Anonymous Access to the Internet?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claessens, Joris; Diaz, Claudia; Goemans, Caroline; Preneel, Bart; Vandewalle, Joos; Dumortier, Jos

    2003-01-01

    Users of telecommunications networks are concerned about privacy, and desire anonymous access, while some organizations are concerned about how this anonymous access might be abused. Proposes a solution for revocable anonymous access to the Internet. Presents some legal background and motivation for such a solution. Indicates some difficulties and…

  15. Web Accessibility and Accessibility Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Ravonne A.; Huprich, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Section 508 of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) mandates that programs and services be accessible to people with disabilities. While schools of library and information science (SLIS*) and university libraries should model accessible Web sites, this may not be the case. This article examines previous studies about the Web accessibility of…

  16. Theranos phenomenon: promises and fallacies.

    PubMed

    Diamandis, Eleftherios P

    2015-06-01

    Recently, spectacular advances in diagnostic technologies, genomics, etc. offer unprecedented opportunities for widespread testing of asymptomatic individuals, in the hope that this testing will unravel early disease signs which could lead to preventative or more effective therapeutic measures. In particular, one commercial organization, Theranos, promises to revolutionize diagnostics by offering multi-analyte testing at low prices in commercial outlets, thus challenging the current paradigm of targeted and centralized diagnostic testing. In this paper, I analyze the Theranos technology and their promises, and contrast this information with the currently used technologies, to show that most of the company's claims are exaggerated. While it remains to be seen if this technology will revolutionize diagnostics, in this Opinion Paper, I also draw attention of associated issues, such as self-testing and self-interpretation of results, over-testing, over-diagnosis and over-treatment, along with their associated harms. As the public is bombarded daily with new and revolutionary health-related advances, it is time to balance the enthusiasm of the seemingly obvious huge gains, by also explaining the associated possible harms. PMID:26030792

  17. Monoclonal antibodies: the promise and the reality.

    PubMed

    Coons, T

    1995-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies, or "MoAbs," have revolutionized clinical approaches to diagnostic imaging and therapy of many diseases. The use of MoAbs for diagnosing and treating cancer has been especially promising. However, the full potential of these "magic bullets" has yet to be realized. This article examines the current and potential uses of MoAbs, describes problems with the technology and looks at potential solutions. Along with descriptions of how MoAbs are made and prepared for use in the clinic, the article provides examples of the ways in which MoAbs can be used to complement and expand the information obtained from standard diagnostic imaging modalities. Specific examples of the use of monoclonal antibodies for treating cancer and other diseases also are provided. PMID:7491408

  18. Do-it-yourself biology: challenges and promises for an open science and technology movement.

    PubMed

    Landrain, Thomas; Meyer, Morgan; Perez, Ariel Martin; Sussan, Remi

    2013-09-01

    The do-it-yourself biology (DIYbio) community is emerging as a movement that fosters open access to resources permitting modern molecular biology, and synthetic biology among others. It promises in particular to be a source of cheaper and simpler solutions for environmental monitoring, personal diagnostic and the use of biomaterials. The successful growth of a global community of DIYbio practitioners will depend largely on enabling safe access to state-of-the-art molecular biology tools and resources. In this paper we analyze the rise of DIYbio, its community, its material resources and its applications. We look at the current projects developed for the international genetically engineered machine competition in order to get a sense of what amateur biologists can potentially create in their community laboratories over the coming years. We also show why and how the DIYbio community, in the context of a global governance development, is putting in place a safety/ethical framework for guarantying the pursuit of its activity. And finally we argue that the global spread of DIY biology potentially reconfigures and opens up access to biological information and laboratory equipment and that, therefore, it can foster new practices and transversal collaborations between professional scientists and amateurs. PMID:24432149

  19. Promising candidates for allergy prevention.

    PubMed

    Gern, James E

    2015-07-01

    Recent advances in understanding environmental risk factors for allergic diseases in children have led to renewed efforts aimed at prevention. Factors that modify the probability of developing allergies include prenatal exposures, mode of delivery, diet, patterns of medication use, and exposure to pets and farm animals. Recent advances in microbial detection techniques demonstrate that exposure to diverse microbial communities in early life is associated with a reduction in allergic disease. In fact, microbes and their metabolic products might be essential for normal immune development. Identification of these risk factors has provided new targets for prevention of allergic diseases, and possibilities of altering microbial exposure and colonization to reduce the incidence of allergies is a promising approach. This review examines the rationale, feasibility, and potential effect for the prevention of childhood allergic diseases and explores possible strategies for enhancing exposure to beneficial microbes. PMID:26145984

  20. Cultural Neuroscience: Progress and Promise

    PubMed Central

    Chiao, Joan Y.; Cheon, Bobby K.; Pornpattanangkul, Narun; Mrazek, Alissa J.; Blizinsky, Katherine D.

    2013-01-01

    The nature and origin of human diversity has been a source of intellectual curiosity since the beginning of human history. Contemporary advances in cultural and biological sciences provide unique opportunities for the emerging field of cultural neuroscience. Research in cultural neuroscience examines how cultural and genetic diversity shape the human mind, brain and behavior across multiple time scales: situation, ontogeny and phylogeny. Recent progress in cultural neuroscience provides novel theoretical frameworks for understanding the complex interaction of environmental, cultural and genetic factors in the production of adaptive human behavior. Here, we provide a brief history of cultural neuroscience, theoretical and methodological advances, as well as empirical evidence of the promise of and progress in the field. Implications of this research for population health disparities and public policy are discussed. PMID:23914126

  1. Mangiferin: a promising anticancer bioactive.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Rajneet K; Kaur, Ranjot; Lohan, Shikha; Singh, Kamalinder K; Singh, Bhupinder

    2016-05-01

    Of late, several biologically active antioxidants from natural products have been investigated by the researchers in order to combat the root cause of carcinogenesis, in other words, oxidative stress. Mangiferin, a therapeutically active C-glucosylated xanthone, is extracted from pulp, peel, seed, bark and leaf of Mangifera indica. These polyphenols of mangiferin exhibit antioxidant properties and tend to decrease the oxygen-free radicals, thereby reducing the DNA damage. Indeed, its capability to modulate several key inflammatory pathways undoubtedly helps in stalling the progression of carcinogenesis. The current review article emphasizes an updated account on the patents published on the chemopreventive action of mangiferin, apoptosis induction made on various cancer cells, along with proposed antioxidative activities and patent mapping of other important therapeutic properties. Considering it as promising polyphenol, this paper would also summarize the diverse molecular targets of mangiferin. PMID:27088726

  2. MFTF-progress and promise

    SciTech Connect

    Thomassen, K.I.

    1980-10-03

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) has been in construction at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for 3 years, and most of the major subsystems are nearing completion. Recently, the scope of this project was expanded to meet new objectives, principally to reach plasma conditions corresponding to energy break-even. To fulfill this promise, the single-cell minimum-B mirror configuration will be replaced with a tandem mirror configuration (MFTF-B). The facility must accordingly be expanded to accomodate the new geometry. This paper briefly discusses the status of the major MFTF subsystems and describes how most of the technological objectives of MFTF will be demonstrated before we install the additional systems necessary to make the tandem. It also summarizes the major features of the expanded facility.

  3. The Fab Conformations in the Solution Structure of Human Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) Restrict Access to Its Fc Region

    PubMed Central

    Rayner, Lucy E.; Hui, Gar Kay; Gor, Jayesh; Heenan, Richard K.; Dalby, Paul A.; Perkins, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Human IgG4 antibody shows therapeutically useful properties compared with the IgG1, IgG2, and IgG3 subclasses. Thus IgG4 does not activate complement and shows conformational variability. These properties are attributable to its hinge region, which is the shortest of the four IgG subclasses. Using high throughput scattering methods, we studied the solution structure of wild-type IgG4(Ser222) and a hinge mutant IgG4(Pro222) in different buffers and temperatures where the proline substitution suppresses the formation of half-antibody. Analytical ultracentrifugation showed that both IgG4 forms were principally monomeric with sedimentation coefficients s20,w0 of 6.6–6.8 S. A monomer-dimer equilibrium was observed in heavy water buffer at low temperature. Scattering showed that the x-ray radius of gyration Rg was unchanged with concentration in 50–250 mm NaCl buffers, whereas the neutron Rg values showed a concentration-dependent increase as the temperature decreased in heavy water buffers. The distance distribution curves (P(r)) revealed two peaks, M1 and M2, that shifted below 2 mg/ml to indicate concentration-dependent IgG4 structures in addition to IgG4 dimer formation at high concentration in heavy water. Constrained x-ray and neutron scattering modeling revealed asymmetric solution structures for IgG4(Ser222) with extended hinge structures. The IgG4(Pro222) structure was similar. Both IgG4 structures showed that their Fab regions were positioned close enough to the Fc region to restrict C1q binding. Our new molecular models for IgG4 explain its inability to activate complement and clarify aspects of its stability and function for therapeutic applications. PMID:24876381

  4. Promising alternative settings for HPV vaccination of US adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Parth D.; Gilkey, Melissa B.; Pepper, Jessica K.; Gottlieb, Sami L.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination in alternative settings, defined here as being outside of traditional primary care, can help address the pressing public health problem of low human papillomavirus vaccine coverage among adolescents in the United States. Pharmacies are promising because they are highly accessible and have well established immunization practices. However, pharmacies currently face policy and reimbursement challenges. School-located mass vaccination programs are also promising because of their high reach and demonstrated success in providing other vaccines, but control by local policymakers and challenges in establishing community partnerships complicate widespread implementation. Health centers in schools are currently too few to greatly increase access to human papillomavirus vaccine. Specialty clinics have experience with vaccination, but the older age of their patient populations limits their reach. Future steps to making alternative settings a success include expanding their use of statewide vaccine registries and improving their coordination with primary care providers. PMID:24405401

  5. The neural circuitry of a broken promise.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Thomas; Fischbacher, Urs; Feierabend, Anja; Lutz, Kai; Fehr, Ernst

    2009-12-10

    Promises are one of the oldest human-specific psychological mechanisms fostering cooperation and trust. Here, we study the neural underpinnings of promise keeping and promise breaking. Subjects first make a promise decision (promise stage), then they anticipate whether the promise affects the interaction partner's decision (anticipation stage) and are subsequently free to keep or break the promise (decision stage). Findings revealed that the breaking of the promise is associated with increased activation in the DLPFC, ACC, and amygdala, suggesting that the dishonest act involves an emotional conflict due to the suppression of the honest response. Moreover, the breach of the promise can be predicted by a perfidious brain activity pattern (anterior insula, ACC, inferior frontal gyrus) during the promise and anticipation stage, indicating that brain measurements may reveal malevolent intentions before dishonest or deceitful acts are actually committed. PMID:20005830

  6. Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  7. Computer and cell phone access for individuals with mobility impairments: an overview and case studies.

    PubMed

    Burgstahler, Sheryl; Comden, Dan; Lee, Sang-Mook; Arnold, Anthony; Brown, Kayla

    2011-01-01

    Computers, telephones, and assistive technology hold promise for increasing the independence, productivity, and participation of individuals with disabilities in academic, employment, recreation, and other activities. However, to reach this goal, technology must be accessible to, available to, and usable by everyone. The authors of this article share computer and telephone access challenges faced by individuals with neurological and other impairments, assistive technology solutions, issues that impact product adoption and use, needs for new technologies, and recommendations for practitioners and researchers. They highlight the stories of three individuals with neurological/mobility impairments, the technology they have found useful to them, and their recommendations for future product development. PMID:21558625

  8. Promising ethanologens for xylose fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, M.; Franden, M.A.; Newman, M.

    1995-12-31

    An economical biomass-to-ethanol process depends on the efficient conversion of both its cellulose and hemicellulose components. On a dry weight basis, the typical feedstock contains approx 25-50% (w/w) glucose, 10-30% (w/w) xylose, 15-30% (w/w) lignin, and 1-5% (w/w) of other minor pentose and hexose sugars. Although many microorganisms can ferment the glucose component in cellulose to ethanol, conversion of pentose sugars in the hemicellulose fraction, particularly xylose, has been hindered by the lack of a suitable biocatalyst. Despite the development of recombinant strains with improved fermentation performance, increased ethanol yields and concentrations and shorter fermentation times are key targets that have yet to be achieved from lignocellulosic hydrolyzates. Our objective is to develop biocatalysts for the rapid and efficient conversion of xylose by engineering key metabolic pathways in selected organisms. To identify promising biocatalysts for these efforts, we have surveyed several industrial microorganisms according to several primary traits considered to be essential, as well as a number of secondary traits considered to be desirable, in a commercial biomass-to-ethanol process.

  9. The Ambivalence of Promising Technology.

    PubMed

    Shelley-Egan, Clare

    2010-08-01

    Issues of responsibility in the world of nanotechnology are becoming explicit with the emergence of a discourse on 'responsible development' of nanoscience and nanotechnologies. Much of this discourse centres on the ambivalences of nanotechnology and of promising technology in general. Actors must find means of dealing with these ambivalences. Actors' actions and responses to ambivalence are shaped by their position and context, along with strategic games they are involved in, together with other actors. A number of interviews were conducted with industrial actors with the aim of uncovering their ethical stances towards responsible development of nanotechnology. The data shows that standard repertoires of justification of nanotechnological development were used. Thus, the industrial actors fell back on their position and associated responsibilities. Such responses reinforce a division of moral labour in which industrial actors and scientists can focus on the progress of science and technology, while other actors, such as NGOs, are expected to take care of broader considerations, such as ethical and social issues. PMID:20835398

  10. Editorial: Next Generation Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffini, Marco; Cincotti, Gabriella; Pizzinat, Anna; Vetter, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade we have seen an increasing number of operators deploying Fibre-to-the-home (FTTH) solutions in access networks, in order to provide home users with a much needed network access upgrade, to support higher peak rates, higher sustained rates and a better and more uniform broadband coverage of the territory.

  11. Internet Accessibility in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haymond, Ruel

    1998-01-01

    Addresses the problems that prohibit expanded Internet access and possible solutions to these problems, particularly with respect to the country of Chile. The three main problems that block Internet usage in Latin America are high demand and poor infrastructure; high costs for Internet access; and high preliminary costs for computers, modems, and…

  12. Promising combination therapies with gemcitabine.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Blaine W; Ostruszka, Leo; Im, Michael M; Shewach, Donna S

    2004-04-01

    Because treatment regimens for breast cancer commonly include gemcitabine, we evaluated two promising combinations in preclinical studies: gemcitabine (Gemzar; Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN) with either ionizing radiation or docetaxel (Taxotere; Aventis Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Parsippany, NJ). In breast cancer cell lines that expressed either wild-type p53 (MCF-7) or mutant p53 (MCF-7/Adr), sensitivity to the cytotoxic effects of gemcitabine during a 24-hour incubation was similar (IC(50) values 80 and 60 nmol/L in MCF-7 and MCF-7/Adr, respectively). Both cell lines were well radiosensitized by gemcitabine at the corresponding IC(50), with radiation enhancement ratios of 1.6 to 1.7. Although the MCF-7 cells accumulated nearly twice as much gemcitabine triphosphate compared with the MCF-7/Adr cells, a similar reduction in 2'-deoxyadenosine 5'-triphosphate pools was observed. While the number of dying cells, as measured by sub-G1 DNA content or S-phase cells unable to replicate DNA, differed between the wild-type p53 or mutant p53-expressing cell lines, neither parameter correlated with radiosensitization. Docetaxel was a more potent cytotoxic agent than gemcitabine in MCF-7 cells (IC(50) = 1 nmol/L). Strong synergistic cytotoxicity was observed in cells treated with gemcitabine (24 hours) followed by docetaxel (24 hours) or the reverse sequence. However, simultaneous addition of the two drugs was antagonistic. To determine whether synergy with radiation or docetaxel was mediated by increased DNA damage, DNA double-strand breaks (double-strand breaks) were measured by immunostaining for phosphorylated H2AX. Ionizing radiation produced more double-strand breaks than gemcitabine alone, while no significant double-strand breaks formed with docetaxel alone. The addition of docetaxel or ionizing radiation to gemcitabine-treated cells did not increase H2AX foci formation. These results show that the combination of gemcitabine with ionizing radiation or docetaxel

  13. AMLCD cockpit: promise and payoffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, Michael P.; Jackson, Timothy W.; Meyer, Frederick M.; Reising, John M.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    1999-08-01

    optical characterization of the AMLCDs used in this simulator and the cockpit design are described. Display formats under consideration for test in this cockpit are described together with some of the basic human factors engineering issues involved. Studies conducted in this cockpit will be part of an ongoing joint effort of the hardware-focused aerospace displays team and the pilot-focused human factors team in the Air Force Research Laboratory's Crew System Interface Division. The objective of these studies is to ascertain the payoffs of the large AMLCD promise in combat cockpits.

  14. Experimental Drug for Rheumatoid Arthritis Shows Promise

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_158076.html Experimental Drug for Rheumatoid Arthritis Shows Promise Baricitinib helped patients who failed other ... HealthDay News) -- An experimental drug to treat rheumatoid arthritis showed promise in a new six-month trial. ...

  15. Experimental Genital Herpes Drug Shows Promise

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159462.html Experimental Genital Herpes Drug Shows Promise Drug lowered viral activity, recurrence ... News) -- An experimental immune-boosting treatment for genital herpes shows promise, researchers report. The drug, called GEN- ...

  16. Promises and Self-Focused Attention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Sidney

    Making a promise involves a self-conscious, self-commitment to undertake an obligation in the future and involves a personal sense of control. To study promises and self-focused attention, 72 women completed measures of self-focused attention and locus of control, a questionnaire, and were asked to promise to return postcards. As predicted,…

  17. Digital technology in respiratory diseases: Promises, (no) panacea and time for a new paradigm.

    PubMed

    Pinnock, Hilary; McKinstry, Brian

    2016-05-01

    In a world where digital technology has revolutionized the way we work, shop and manage our finances it is unsurprising that digital systems are suggested as potential solutions to delivering clinically and cost-effective care for an aging population with one or more long-term conditions. However, recent evidence suggesting that telehealth may not be quite the panacea that was promised, has led to discussions on the mechanisms and role of digital technology in respiratory care. Implementation in rural and remote settings offers significant benefits in terms of convenient access to care, but is contingent on technical and organizational infrastructure. Telemonitoring systems rely on algorithms to detect deterioration and trigger alerts; machine learning may enable telemonitoring of the future to develop personalized systems that are sensitive to clinical status whilst reducing false alerts. By providing access to information, offering convenient and flexible modes of communication and enabling the transfer of monitoring data to support professional assessment, telehealth can support self-management. At present, all too often, expensive 'off the shelf' systems are purchased and given to clinicians to use. It is time for the paradigm to shift. As clinicians we should identify the specific challenges we face in delivering care, and expect flexible systems that can be customized to individual patients' requirements and adapted to our diverse healthcare contexts. PMID:27440790

  18. Hemodialysis access - self care

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency - hemodialysis access; Chronic kidney failure - hemodialysis access; Chronic renal failure - hemodialysis access; dialysis - hemodialysis access

  19. Patient Accessible Electronic Health Records: Exploring Recommendations for Successful Implementation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Urowitz, Sara; Apatu, Emma; DeLenardo, Claudette; Eysenbach, Gunther; Harth, Tamara; Pai, Howard; Leonard, Kevin J

    2008-01-01

    Background Providing patients with access to their electronic health records offers great promise to improve patient health and satisfaction with their care, as well to improve professional and organizational approaches to health care. Although many benefits have been identified, there are many questions about best practices for the implementation of patient accessible Electronic Health Records (EHRs). Objectives To develop recommendations to assist health care organizations in providing patients with access to EHRs in a meaningful, responsible, and responsive manner. Methods A Patient Accessible Electronic Health Record (PAEHR) Workshop was held with nationally and internationally renowned experts to explore issues related to providing patient access to the EHR and managing institutional change. Results The PAEHR Workshop was attended by 45 participants who discussed recommendations for the implementation of patient accessible EHRs. Recommendations were discussed under four subject domains: (1) providing patient access to the EHR, (2) maintaining privacy and confidentiality related to the PAEHR, (3) patient education and navigation of the PAEHR, and (4) strategies for managing institutional change. The discussion focused on the need for national infrastructure, clear definitions for privacy, security and confidentiality, flexible, interoperable solutions, and patient and professional education. In addition, there was a strong call for research into all domains of patient accessible EHRs to ensure the adoption of evidence-based practices. Conclusions Patient access to personal health information is a fundamental issue for patient engagement and empowerment. Health care professionals and organizations should consider the potential benefits and risks of patient access when developing EHR strategies. Flexible, standardized, and interoperable solutions must be integrated with outcomes-based research to activate effectively patients as partners in their health care

  20. Hemodialysis access - self care

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency - hemodialysis access; Chronic kidney failure - hemodialysis access; Chronic renal failure - ...

  1. Expanding Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    There is no question that the United States lags behind most industrialized nations in consumer access to broadband Internet service. For many policy makers and activists, this shortfall marks the latest phase in the struggle to overcome the digital divide. To remedy this lack of broadband affordability and availability, one start-up firm--with…

  2. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2012-01-01

    As faculty members add online and multimedia elements to their courses, colleges and universities across the country are realizing that there is a lot of work to be done to ensure that disabled students (and employees) have equal access to course material and university websites. Unfortunately, far too few schools consider the task a top priority.…

  3. Easy Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettelman, Alan

    2009-01-01

    School and university restrooms, locker and shower rooms have specific ADA accessibility requirements that serve the needs of staff, students and campus visitors who are disabled as a result of injury, illness or age. Taking good care of them is good for the reputation of a sensitive community institution, and fosters positive public relations.…

  4. Accessibility of near-Earth asteroids, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulkower, Neal D.; Child, Jack B.

    1991-01-01

    Previous research which analyzed the accessibility of all known near-Earth asteroids is updated. Since then, many new near-Earth asteroids have been discovered, and 1928 DB, the most accessible asteroid at that time, has been recovered. Many of these recently discovered near-Earth asteroids have promising orbital characteristics. In addition to accessibility (as defined by minimum global delta v), ideal rendezvous opportunities are identified.

  5. The promise of macromolecular crystallization in microfluidic chips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    van der Woerd, Mark; Ferree, Darren; Pusey, Marc

    2003-01-01

    Microfluidics, or lab-on-a-chip technology, is proving to be a powerful, rapid, and efficient approach to a wide variety of bioanalytical and microscale biopreparative needs. The low materials consumption, combined with the potential for packing a large number of experiments in a few cubic centimeters, makes it an attractive technique for both initial screening and subsequent optimization of macromolecular crystallization conditions. Screening operations, which require a macromolecule solution with a standard set of premixed solutions, are relatively straightforward and have been successfully demonstrated in a microfluidics platform. Optimization methods, in which crystallization solutions are independently formulated from a range of stock solutions, are considerably more complex and have yet to be demonstrated. To be competitive with either approach, a microfluidics system must offer ease of operation, be able to maintain a sealed environment over several weeks to months, and give ready access for the observation and harvesting of crystals as they are grown.

  6. The Promising Syllabus Enacted: One Teacher's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Christine Courtade

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe a rationale and strategies for use of the Promising Syllabus (in Bain, 2004, What the best college teachers do). This syllabus reflects the learner-centered paradigm where students take charge of their own learning. The syllabus creates a series of promises between teacher and student, focusing on a…

  7. 32 CFR 806b.9 - Confidentiality promises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Confidentiality promises. 806b.9 Section 806b.9 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Obtaining Law Enforcement Records and Confidentiality Promises § 806b.9 Confidentiality...

  8. Accessible solitons of fractional dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Wei-Ping; Belić, Milivoj; Zhang, Yiqi

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate that accessible solitons described by an extended Schrödinger equation with the Laplacian of fractional dimension can exist in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media. The soliton solutions of the model are constructed by two special functions, the associated Legendre polynomials and the Laguerre polynomials in the fraction-dimensional space. Our results show that these fractional accessible solitons form a soliton family which includes crescent solitons, and asymmetric single-layer and multi-layer necklace solitons.

  9. Inferences from counterfactual threats and promises.

    PubMed

    Egan, Suzanne M; Byrne, Ruth M J

    2012-01-01

    We examine how people understand and reason from counterfactual threats, for example, "if you had hit your sister, I would have grounded you" and counterfactual promises, for example, "if you had tidied your room, I would have given you ice-cream." The first experiment shows that people consider counterfactual threats, but not counterfactual promises, to have the illocutionary force of an inducement. They also make the immediate inference that the action mentioned in the "if" part of the counterfactual threat and promise did not occur. The second experiment shows that people make more negative inferences (modus tollens and denial of the antecedent) than affirmative inferences (modus ponens and affirmation of the consequent) from counterfactual threats and promises, unlike indicative threats and promises. We discuss the implications of the results for theories of the mental representations and cognitive processes that underlie conditional inducements. PMID:22580411

  10. Hemodialysis access procedures

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic-dialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-dialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency-dialysis access; Chronic kidney failure-dialysis access; Chronic renal failure-dialysis access

  11. From Promising to High-Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClenney, Kay; Oriano, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Community colleges are dealing with, and often leading, a historical shift from a 100-year focus on access to a new emphasis on access "and" student success. The impetus for this work comes from many directions--the president of the United States and the secretary of education, at least 30 governors, other state policymakers, the philanthropic…

  12. Big data in nephrology: promises and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Nadkarni, Girish N; Coca, Steven G; Wyatt, Christina M

    2016-08-01

    Data from the electronic health records hold great promise for nephrology research. However, due to significant limitations, reporting guidelines have been formulated for analyses conducted using electronic health records data. PMID:27418085

  13. Portable Zika Test Shows Promise in Monkeys

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158704.html Portable Zika Test Shows Promise in Monkeys Easy-to-use ... News) -- A fast, inexpensive test that detects the Zika virus in monkeys might be useful for doctors ...

  14. New Dengue Virus Vaccine Shows Promise

    MedlinePlus

    ... she stressed that more research, on a larger scale, will be needed to confirm the vaccine's promise. ... of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington; Matthew Aliota, Ph.D., research scientist, department of pathobiological sciences, School ...

  15. Innovative Trials Produce Promising Breast Cancer Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159762.html Innovative Trials Produce Promising Breast Cancer Drugs Adaptive study design allows researchers to match ... provide a fighting chance for women with advanced breast cancer. The drugs, neratinib and veliparib, both appear effective ...

  16. Portable Zika Test Shows Promise in Monkeys

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158704.html Portable Zika Test Shows Promise in Monkeys Easy-to-use ... News) -- A fast, inexpensive test that detects the Zika virus in monkeys might be useful for doctors ...

  17. Malaria Vaccine Shows Promise in Small Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158765.html Malaria Vaccine Shows Promise in Small Study It protected more ... May 10, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental malaria vaccine protects a majority of adults against the mosquito- ...

  18. Malaria Vaccine Shows Promise in Small Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158765.html Malaria Vaccine Shows Promise in Small Study It protected more ... May 10, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental malaria vaccine protects a majority of adults against the mosquito- ...

  19. AmeriCorps Promise Fellows Handbook: Delivering on America's Promise to Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corporation for National Service, Washington, DC.

    This handbook provides AmeriCorps Promise Fellows with important information about their participation in this special initiative of AmeriCorps and America's Promise--The Alliance for Youth. Section 1 is an overview of AmeriCorps, including its mission, the mission of America's Promise--The Alliance for Youth, and the role of AmeriCorps Promise…

  20. Positioning Your Library in an Open-Access Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatt, Anjana H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a summary of the project that the author completed at Florida Gulf Coast University (FGCU) library for providing online access to 80 open access E-journals and digital collections. Although FGCU uses SerialsSolutions products to establish online access, any one can provide access to these collections as they are free for all. Paper…

  1. Ballistic representation for kinematic access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfano, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    This work uses simple two-body orbital dynamics to initially determine the kinematic access for a ballistic vehicle. Primarily this analysis was developed to assess when a rocket body might conjunct with an orbiting satellite platform. A family of access opportunities can be represented as a volume for a specific rocket relative to its launch platform. Alternately, the opportunities can be represented as a geographical footprint relative to aircraft or satellite position that encompasses all possible launcher locations for a specific rocket. A thrusting rocket is treated as a ballistic vehicle that receives all its energy at launch and follows a coasting trajectory. To do so, the rocket's burnout energy is used to find its equivalent initial velocity for a given launcher's altitude. Three kinematic access solutions are then found that account for spherical Earth rotation. One solution finds the maximum range for an ascent-only trajectory while another solution accommodates a descending trajectory. In addition, the ascent engagement for the descending trajectory is used to depict a rapid access scenario. These preliminary solutions are formulated to address ground-, sea-, or air-launched vehicles.

  2. Proximity Displays for Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaniea, Kami

    2012-01-01

    Managing access to shared digital information, such as photographs and documents. is difficult for end users who are accumulating an increasingly large and diverse collection of data that they want to share with others. Current policy-management solutions require a user to proactively seek out and open a separate policy-management interface when…

  3. A new laterally conductive bridge random access memory by fully CMOS logic compatible process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Min-Che; Chin, Yung-Wen; Lin, Yu-Cheng; Chih, Yu-Der; Tsai, Kan-Hsueh; Tsai, Ming-Jinn; King, Ya-Chin; Lin, Chrong Jung

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel laterally conductive bridge random access memory (L-CBRAM) module using a fully CMOS logic compatible process. A contact buffer layer between the poly-Si and contact plug enables the lateral Ti-based atomic layer to provide on/off resistance ratio via bipolar operations. The proposed device reached more than 100 pulse cycles with an on/off ratio over 10 and very stable data retention under high temperature operations. These results make this Ti-based L-CBRAM cell a promising solution for advanced embedded multi-time programmable (MTP) memory applications.

  4. Realising the Promise of Cancer Predisposition Genes

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Nazneen

    2016-01-01

    Genes in which germline mutations confer high or moderate increased risks of cancer are called cancer predisposition genes (CPG). Over 100 CPGs have been identified providing important scientific insights in many areas, particularly mechanisms of cancer causation. Moreover, clinical utilisation of CPGs has had substantial impact in diagnosis, optimised management and prevention of cancer. The recent transformative advances in DNA sequencing bring the promise of many more CPG discoveries and greater, broader clinical applications. However, there is also considerable potential for incorrect inferences and inappropriate clinical applications. Realising the promise of cancer predisposition genes for science and medicine will thus require careful navigation. PMID:24429628

  5. Stem cell research and economic promises.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    In the context of stem cell research, the promise of economic growth has become a common policy argument for adoption of permissive policies and increased government funding. However, declarations of economic and commercial benefit, which can be found in policy reports, the scientific literature, public funding policies, and the popular press, have arguably created a great deal of expectation. Can stem cell research deliver on the economic promise? And what are the implications of this economic ethos for the researchers who must work under its shadow? PMID:20579253

  6. The Promise of Wave Power (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brekken, T.

    2010-12-01

    The solutions to today's energy challenges need to be explored through alternative, renewable and clean energy sources to enable diverse energy resource plans. An extremely abundant and promising source of energy exists in the world's oceans: it is estimated that if 0.2 % of the oceans' untapped energy could be harnessed, it could provide power sufficient for the entire world. Ocean energy exists in the forms of wave, tidal, marine currents, thermal (temperature gradient) and salinity. Among these forms, significant opportunities and benefits have been identified in the area of ocean wave energy extraction, i.e., harnessing the motion of the ocean waves, and converting that motion into electrical energy. Ocean wave energy refers to the kinetic and potential energy in the heaving motion of ocean waves. Wave energy is essentially concentrated solar energy (as is wind energy). The heating of the earth’s surface by the sun (with other complex processes) drives the wind, which in turn blows across the surface of the ocean to create waves. At each stage of conversion, the power density increases. Ocean wave power offers several attractive qualities, including high power density, low variability, and excellent forecastability. A typical large ocean wave propogates at around 12 m/s with very little attenuation across the ocean. If the waves can be detected several hundred kilometers off shore, there can be 10 hours or more of accurate forecast horizon. In fact, analysis has shown good forecast accuracy up to 48 hours in advance. Off the coast Oregon, the yearly average wave power is approximately 30 kW per meter of crestlength (i.e., unit length transverse to the direction of wave propagation and parallel to the shore.) This compares very favorably with power densities of solar and wind, which typically range in the several hundreds of Watts per square meter. Globally, the wave energy resource is stronger on the west coasts of large landmasses and increases in strength

  7. Fe N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes as Promising Photosensitizers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yizhu; Persson, Petter; Sundström, Villy; Wärnmark, Kenneth

    2016-08-16

    The photophysics and photochemistry of transition metal complexes (TMCs) has long been a hot field of interdisciplinary research. Rich metal-based redox processes, together with a high variety in electronic configurations and excited-state dynamics, have rendered TMCs excellent candidates for interconversion between light, chemical, and electrical energies in intramolecular, supramolecular, and interfacial arrangements. In specific applications such as photocatalytic organic synthesis, photoelectrochemical cells, and light-driven supramolecular motors, light absorption by a TMC-based photosensitizer and subsequent excited-state energy or electron transfer constitute essential steps. In this context, TMCs based on rare and expensive metals, such as ruthenium and iridium, are frequently employed as photosensitizers, which is obviously not ideal for large-scale implementation. In the search for abundant and environmentally benign solutions, six-coordinate Fe(II) complexes (Fe(II)L6) have been widely considered as highly desirable alternatives. However, not much success has been achieved due to the extremely short-lived triplet metal-to-ligand charge transfer ((3)MLCT) excited state that is deactivated by low-lying metal-centered (MC) states on a 100 fs time scale. A fundamental strategy to design useful Fe-based photosensitizers is thus to destabilize the MC states relative to the (3)MLCT state by increasing the ligand field strength, with special focus on making eg σ* orbitals on the Fe center energetically less accessible. Previous efforts to directly transplant successful strategies from Ru(II)L6 complexes unfortunately met with limited success in this regard, despite their close chemical kinship. In this Account, we summarize recent promising results from our and other groups in utilizing strongly σ-donating N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands to make strong-field Fe(II)L6 complexes with significantly extended (3)MLCT lifetimes. Already some of the first

  8. The Promise of Drawing as Visual Method in Middle Grades Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Penny A.

    2006-01-01

    Although drawing has been used as research tool for well over a century in the fields of psychology and anthropology, drawing remains overlooked and underutilized in educational research. This article examines the promise of visual methods, and of drawing in particular, in accessing middle schoolers' perceptions as a means of informing the middle…

  9. Profiles of Selected Promising Professional Development Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Carol; Gerber, Peter; Handley, Claire; Kronley, Robert; Parry, Megan

    In 2000, the Finance Project received a planning grant to launch a new initiative on financing professional development in education. This report represents efforts to identify and develop a database on promising new approaches to professional development in education, profiling 16 initiatives recommended by knowledge experts and representing a…

  10. Alcohol Research: Promise for the Decade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordis, Enoch

    Over the past 20 years, alcohol researchers have made intensive efforts to understand alcohol use and its outcomes. To date, researchers have made much progress toward understanding the causes and consequences of alcoholism and its related problems. This publication attempts to convey the great spirit and promise of alcohol research. Established…

  11. Promising Practices in Instruction of Discovery Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Stefanie; Steffy, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Libraries are continually changing to meet the needs of users; this includes implementing discovery tools, also referred to as web-scale discovery tools, to make searching library resources easier. Because these tools are so new, it is difficult to establish definitive best practices for teaching these tools; however, promising practices are…

  12. Responses to Broken Promises: Does Personality Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Violet T.; Weingart, Laurie R.; Rousseau, Denise M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examined the effects of personality traits on individuals' reactions to broken promises. We studied the effects of Neuroticism and Agreeableness on emotive and cognitive responses to breach and investigated whether these effects varied across different types (economic vs. social) and severity (high vs. low) of breach. We collected data…

  13. Objectification Theory: Areas of Promise and Refinement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moradi, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    This article elaborates on three themes related to Szymanski, Moffitt, and Carr's major contribution aims. First, the article describes the promise of objectification theory as a grounding framework in research and practice, outlining how this theory integrates key aspects of several other important theoretical models. Second, this article…

  14. Fulfilling the Promise of Educational Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Sarah W.; McGhee, Marla W.; Meno, Lionel R.; Slater, Charles L.

    2007-01-01

    When No Child Left Behind (NCLB) was signed into law, the President and secretary of education promised sweeping reform of the American education system. In the five years since the law took effect, U.S. public schools have, indeed, seen remarkable change. However, not all of the changes have been well received. Policy makers, scholars, and…

  15. Implementing Performance Assessment: Promises, Problems, and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Michael B., Ed.; Mitchell, Ruth, Ed.

    The chapters in this collection contribute to the debate about the value and usefulness of radically different kinds of assessments in the U.S. educational system by considering and expanding on the theoretical underpinnings of reports and speculation. The chapters are: (1) "Assessment Reform: Promises and Challenges" (Nidhi Khattri and David…

  16. The Promise of Zoomable User Interfaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bederson, Benjamin B.

    2011-01-01

    Zoomable user interfaces (ZUIs) have received a significant amount of attention in the 18 years since they were introduced. They have enjoyed some success, and elements of ZUIs are widely used in computers today, although the grand vision of a zoomable desktop has not materialised. This paper describes the premise and promise of ZUIs along with…

  17. Promise in Action: Examples of Institutional Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuh, George D.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author illustrates how three campuses have, in their own way, attempted to bring coherence to the student experience and enrich that experience by more closely matching what was promised to what each student actually experiences while enrolled. Fulfilling students' expectations that were purposefully articulated in the mission…

  18. The promise of proteomics in animal science

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteomics hold significant promise as a method for advancing animal science research. The use of this technology in animal science is still in its infancy. The ability of proteomics to simultaneously identify and quantify potentially thousands of proteins is unparalleled. In this review, we will...

  19. The Promises of Moral Foundations Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musschenga, Bert

    2013-01-01

    In this article I examine whether Moral Foundations Theory can fulfil the promises that Haidt claims for the theory: that it will help in developing new approaches to moral education and to the moral conflicts that divide our diverse society. I argue that, first, the model that Haidt suggests for understanding the plurality of moralities--a shared…

  20. Ideological Repositioning: Race, Social Justice, and Promise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Samuel R.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I engage in discourse centrally located in the ideology of race in the United States of America juxtaposed to social justice with promise for tomorrow in higher education and beyond. I assert that social justice in kinesiology requires that once hired, retaining, securing tenured status, and promoting faculty of color means having…

  1. Distance Learning: Promises, Problems, and Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Doug

    2002-01-01

    Examines some of the current research and thought on the promises, problems, and the future possibilities in modern distance learning, particularly types that are delivered via electronic means. Topics include history of distance learning; quality of instruction; cost effectiveness; misuse of technology; equipment problems; instructor attitudes…

  2. Promising Practices: Vocational Education Resource Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evaluation and Training Inst., Los Angeles, CA.

    Developed to assist community college administrators and faculty in enhancing vocational educational programs and services, this Vocational Education Resource Package profiles four vocational education programs at California community colleges that show promise in serving special population students. First, the Applied Mathematics for Electronics…

  3. Self-acquired patient images: the promises and the pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Damanpour, Shadi; Srivastava, Divya; Nijhawan, Rajiv I

    2016-03-01

    Self-acquired patient images, also known as selfies, are increasingly utilized in the practice of dermatology; however, research on their utility is somewhat limited. While the implementation of selfies has yet to be universally accepted, their role in triage appears to be especially useful. The potential for reducing office wait times, expediting referrals, and providing dermatologic services to patients with limited access to care is promising. In addition, as technology advances, the number of smartphone applications related to dermatology that are available to the general public has risen exponentially. With appropriate standardization, regulation, and confidentiality measures, these tools can be feasible adjuncts in clinical practice, dermatologic surgery, and teledermatology. Selfies likely will have a large role in dermatologic practice and delivery in the future. PMID:26963112

  4. Steps toward Creating Fully Accessible Reading Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurlow, Martha L.

    2010-01-01

    The National Accessible Reading Assessment Projects (NARAP) have been conducting research and engaging in other activities to pull together a full view of the issues and potential solutions for developing reading assessments that are fully accessible and produce valid results for students with disabilities. To introduce this topic, the assumptions…

  5. Nutrition Assistance Programs: Cause or Solution to Obesity.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Eileen; Guthrie, Joanne F

    2016-06-01

    Three nutrition assistance programs-Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), Special Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC), and National School Lunch Program (NSLP)-serve as the backbone of the nutrition safety net in the USA. These programs have been successful in achieving many of their initial goals of improving food purchases, food intake, and/or nutritional status of low-income, vulnerable Americans. The emphasis in these programs has now broadened to also include an obesity prevention focus. Recent changes in program components demonstrate the revised objectives of the program. SNAP, WIC, and NSLP increase economic access to an adequate diet but access alone is unlikely to be the total solution to obesity prevention. An ecological approach, incorporating the nutrition programs, appears to be a more promising strategy to leverage the impact of SNAP, WIC, and NSLP. PMID:27033876

  6. Photochemical etiology of promising ancestors of the RNA nucleobases.

    PubMed

    Brister, M M; Pollum, M; Crespo-Hernández, C E

    2016-07-27

    RNA is a product of chemical and biological evolution and the identification of its heterocyclic ancestors is essential for understanding the molecular origins of life. Among a diverse array of selection pressures thought to have shaped the composition of the nucleobases on prebiotic Earth, protection against intense ultraviolet radiation must have been essential. In this contribution, a detailed spectroscopic and photophysical investigation of barbituric acid and 2,4,6-triaminopyrimidine, two promising candidates for the prebiotic ancestors of RNA nucleobases, is presented in aqueous solution. It is shown that although these pyrimidine derivatives absorb ultraviolet radiation strongly, both compounds possess efficient electronic relaxation mechanisms for dissipating most of the absorbed ultraviolet energy to their aqueous environment as heat within hundreds of femtoseconds, thus safeguarding their chemical integrity. In fact, these two heterocyclic compounds rival the photostability observed in the canonical nucleobases in aqueous solution, thus supporting the recent proposal that both barbituric acid and 2,4,6-triaminopyrimidine are promising ancestors of the RNA nucleobases. PMID:26898746

  7. Problems, challenges and promises: perspectives on precision medicine.

    PubMed

    Duffy, David J

    2016-05-01

    The 'precision medicine (systems medicine)' concept promises to achieve a shift to future healthcare systems with a more proactive and predictive approach to medicine, where the emphasis is on disease prevention rather than the treatment of symptoms. The individualization of treatment for each patient will be at the centre of this approach, with all of a patient's medical data being computationally integrated and accessible. Precision medicine is being rapidly embraced by biomedical researchers, pioneering clinicians and scientific funding programmes in both the European Union (EU) and USA. Precision medicine is a key component of both Horizon 2020 (the EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation) and the White House's Precision Medicine Initiative. Precision medicine promises to revolutionize patient care and treatment decisions. However, the participants in precision medicine are faced with a considerable central challenge. Greater volumes of data from a wider variety of sources are being generated and analysed than ever before; yet, this heterogeneous information must be integrated and incorporated into personalized predictive models, the output of which must be intelligible to non-computationally trained clinicians. Drawing primarily from the field of 'oncology', this article will introduce key concepts and challenges of precision medicine and some of the approaches currently being implemented to overcome these challenges. Finally, this article also covers the criticisms of precision medicine overpromising on its potential to transform patient care. PMID:26249224

  8. Realizing the Promises of Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Ellen D.

    2008-01-01

    This article considers the current status of mobile learning and discusses a number of trends that are driving toward enterprise mobility, a state of technological readiness where users have full access to resources regardless of physical location. Enterprise mobility is discussed as one of several key considerations at the core of a successful…

  9. The Promise of Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Marshall S.; Casserly, Catherine M.

    2006-01-01

    Open educational resources (OER) include full courses, course materials, modules, textbooks, streaming videos, tests, software, and any other tools, materials, or techniques used to either support access to knowledge, or have an impact on teaching, learning, and research. At the heart of the OER movement is the simple and powerful idea that the…

  10. The Promise of Macromolecular Crystallization in Micro-fluidic Chips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanderWoerd, Mark; Ferree, Darren; Pusey, Marc

    2003-01-01

    Micro-fluidics, or lab on a chip technology, is proving to be a powerful, rapid, and efficient approach to a wide variety of bio-analytical and microscale bio-preparative needs. The low materials consumption, combined with the potential for packing a large number of experiments in a few cubic centimeters, makes it an attractive technique for both initial screening and subsequent optimization of macromolecular crystallization conditions. Screening operations, which require equilibrating macromolecule solution with a standard set of premixed solutions, are relatively straightforward and have been successfully demonstrated in a micro-fluidics platform. More complex optimization methods, where crystallization solutions are independently formulated from a range of stock solutions, are considerably more complex and have yet to be demonstrated. To be competitive with either approach, a micro-fluidics system must offer ease of operation, be able to maintain a sealed environment over several weeks to months, and give ready access for the observation of crystals as they are grown.

  11. Promising treatments in development for food allergies.

    PubMed

    Rancé, Fabienne

    2004-11-01

    Up to 6% of young children and 2% of adults suffer from food allergy. Among them many have IgE-mediated food allergy, a condition with potentially fatal allergic reactions. The only proven treatment is avoidance of the offending food, which can be identified using standardised allergic tests. However, several studies have addressed possible definite treatment options for food allergy. Immunotherapy, administered orally or by systemic injections, shows promising preliminary results, but these therapeutics are based on studies with insufficient scientific support, or are associated with a high risk of severe side effects. At present, no studies can support pharmacotherapy. However, promising results were recently published with anti-IgE antibodies in a human trial, and various approaches in a mouse model of food allergy (chinese herbal medicine, specific modulation of the T-cell response). Rapidly evolving findings might provide hope for a cure for food allergy in the near future. PMID:15571483

  12. Melanoma Vaccines: Mixed Past, Promising Future

    PubMed Central

    Ozao-Choy, Junko; Lee, Delphine J.; Faries, Mark B.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Cancer vaccines were one of the earliest forms of immunotherapy to be investigated. Past attempts to vaccinate against cancer, including melanoma, have mixed results, revealing the complexity of what was thought to be a simple concept. However, several recent successes and the combination of improved knowledge of tumor immunology and the advent of new immunomodulators make vaccination a promising strategy for the future. PMID:25245965

  13. Remote access astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beare, Richard; Bowdley, David; Newsam, Andrew; Roche, Paul

    2003-05-01

    There is still nothing to beat the excitement and fulfilment that you can get from observing celestial bodies on a clear dark night, in a remote location away from the seemingly ever increasing light pollution from cities. However, it is also the specific requirements for good observing that can sometimes prevent teachers from offering this opportunity to their students. Compromises for a town-based school or college might be to view only bright objects such as planets, or stars of magnitude 4 or brighter because of light pollution, but you would still require a knowledgeable teacher or astronomer and equipment to take outside with the students. Remote access astronomy using robotic telescopes can partly provide a solution to these problems and also opens up the doors to exciting projects that may otherwise be inaccessible to schools and colleges.

  14. The History and Promise of Combined Cycle Engines for Access to Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Casie

    2010-01-01

    For the summer of 2010, I have been working in the Aerodynamics and Propulsion Branch at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center studying combined-cycle engines, a high speed propulsion concept. Combined cycle engines integrate multiple propulsion systems into a single engine capable of running in multiple modes. These different modes allow the engine to be extremely versatile and efficient in varied flight conditions. The two most common types of combined cycle engines are Rocket-Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) and Turbine Based Combined Cycle (TBCC). The RBCC essentially combines a rocket and ramjet engine, while the TBCC integrates a turbojet and ramjet1. These two engines are able to switch between different propulsion modes to achieve maximum performance. Extensive conceptual and ground test studies of RBCC engines have been undertaken; however, an RBCC engine has never, to my knowledge, been demonstrated in flight. RBCC engines are of particular interest because they could potentially power a reusable launch vehicle (RLV) into space. The TBCC has been flight tested and shown to be effective at reaching supersonic speeds, most notably in the SR-71 Blackbird2.

  15. Gaining Access to General Education: The Promise of Universal Design for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Terese C.; Graf, Victoria L.; Rose, Ernest

    2007-01-01

    On November 29, 1975 then President Ford signed the "Education of All Handicapped Children Act" (EAHCA) into law, mandating for the first time that children and youth with disabilities be afforded the right to a free and appropriate public education, individualized programming, parental participation in the decision making process,…

  16. Interactive Videodisc Learning Systems: The Promise of New Access to Counseling Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright, Larry K.; Smaby, Marlowe H.

    This paper describes the technology involved in interactive videodisc learning systems and their potential role in counseling services. Following a brief introduction to interactive videodisc technology, the components of the interactive videodisc learning system are described and illustrated. The strengths of the videodisc (randomly-addressable…

  17. Green survivability in Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) broadband access network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yejun; Guo, Lei; Gong, Bo; Ma, Rui; Gong, Xiaoxue; Zhang, Lincong; Yang, Jiangzi

    2012-03-01

    Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) broadband access network is a promising "last mile" access technology, because it integrates wireless and optical access technologies in terms of their respective merits, such as high capacity and stable transmission from optical access technology, and easy deployment and flexibility from wireless access technology. Since FiWi is expected to carry a large amount of traffic, numerous traffic flows may be interrupted by the failure of network components. Thus, survivability in FiWi is a key issue aiming at reliable and robust service. However, the redundant deployment of backup resource required for survivability usually causes huge energy consumption, which aggravates the global warming and accelerates the incoming of energy crisis. Thus, the energy-saving issue should be considered when it comes to survivability design. In this paper, we focus on the green survivability in FiWi, which is an innovative concept and remains untouched in the previous works to our best knowledge. We first review and discuss some challenging issues about survivability and energy-saving in FiWi, and then we propose some instructive solutions for its green survivability design. Therefore, our work in this paper will provide the technical references and research motivations for the energy-efficient and survivable FiWi development in the future.

  18. Keeping the Promise: 2011 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Aid Society, 2011

    2011-01-01

    No child should be born into poverty, but as we know all too well, millions are. In New York City, nearly one out of every three children is poor. It is the city's highest rate of child poverty in three decades. Poverty is more complex than the lack of financial resources--the most vulnerable children often lack access to adequate food, shelter,…

  19. Securing America's access to space

    SciTech Connect

    Rendine, M.; Wood, L.

    1990-05-23

    We review pertinent aspects of the history of the space launch capabilities of the United States and survey its present status and near-term outlook. Steps which must be taken, pitfalls which much be avoided, and a core set of National options for re-acquiring in the near term the capability to access the space environment with large payloads are discussed. We devote considerable attention to the prospect of creating an interim heavy-lift space launch vehicle of at least 100,000 pound payload-orbiting capacity to serve National needs during the next dozen years, suggesting that such a capability can be demonstrated within 5 years for less than $1 B. Such capability will apparently be essential for meeting the first-phase goals of the President's Space Exploration Initiative. Some other high-leverage aspects of securing American access to space are also noted briefly, emphasizing unconventional technological approaches of presently high promise.

  20. United States Access Board

    MedlinePlus

    ... disabilities through leadership in accessible design and the development of accessibility guidelines and standards for the built environment, transportation, communication, medical diagnostic equipment, and information technology. ...

  1. 76 FR 55889 - Reopening Notice: Promise Neighborhoods Program-Implementation Grant Competition; Promise...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ..., flooding, property damage, and loss of electrical power that occurred as a result of Hurricane Irene on the... review 84.215N: Promise Neighborhoods Program-- 7/6/2011 76 FR 39615 9/06/2011 9/13/2011 11/03/2011 11/10/2011 Implementation. 84.215P: Promise Neighborhoods Program-- 7/06/2011 76 FR 39630 9/06/2011...

  2. Branding: a promise with a solid base.

    PubMed

    Emswiller, T; Marosits, M

    1998-01-01

    Over the past several decades, branding as a process of differentiating one company, product, or service from another has been central to the business efforts of a wide range of commercial enterprises. In more recent years, branding has become part of the lexicon of health care, where its function is accepted and its potential benefits desired. Much of the emphasis regarding brand building, however, is in the area of marketing. Although communications and their inherent promises remain an essential component in brand development for health care providers and managed care companies, the ultimate value of branding lies in its integration into an organization's operational structure and strategies. PMID:10185774

  3. Some promising dimensions for behavioral community technology

    PubMed Central

    Fawcett, Stephen B.; Mathews, R. Mark; Fletcher, R. Kay

    1980-01-01

    In recent years, the search for effective and replicable approaches to planned change in communities has escalated. Applied behavior analysts have participated in these efforts to remedy existing community problems and to increase the capacities of community residents to meet their goals. Examples of behavioral technologies for community settings are described and their advantages are noted. Criteria for more contextually appropriate community technologies are suggested and strategies for developing behavioral methods according to these criteria are described. This paper outlines some promising dimensions for behavioral community technology and discusses several possible limitations to a behavioral approach to addressing societal problems. PMID:16795630

  4. Fast Access Data Acquisition System

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Vladimir Katsman

    1998-03-17

    Our goal in this program is to develop Fast Access Data Acquisition System (FADAS) by combining the flexibility of Multilink's GaAs and InP electronics and electro-optics with an extremely high data rate for the efficient handling and transfer of collider experimental data. This novel solution is based on Multilink's and Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) unique components and technologies for extremely fast data transfer, storage, and processing.

  5. Nanotechnology: Promises and challenges for tomorrow

    SciTech Connect

    ROMIG JR.,ALTON D.; MICHAEL,JOSEPH R.; MICHALSKE,TERRY A.

    2000-02-29

    Nanotechnology is based on the ability to create and utilize materials, devices and systems through control of the matter at the nanometer scale. If successful, nanotechnology is expected to lead to broad new technological developments. The efficiency of energy conversion can be increased through the use of nanostructured materials with enhanced magnetic, light emission or wear resistant properties. Energy generation using nanostructured photovoltaics or nanocluster driven photocatalysis could fundamentally change the economic viability of renewable energy sources. In addition, the ability to imitate molecular processes found in living organisms may be key to developing highly sensitive and discriminating chemical and biological sensors. Such sensors could greatly expand the range of medical home testing as well as provide new technologies to counter the spread of chemical and biological weapons. Even the production of chemicals and materials could be revolutionized through the development of molecular reactors that can promote low energy chemical pathways for materials synthesis. Although nanotechnologies hold great promise, significant scientific challenges must be addressed before they can convert that promise into a reality. A key challenge in nanoscience is to understand how nano-scale tailoring of materials can lead to novel and enhanced functions. The authors' laboratory, for example, is currently making broad contributions in this area by synthesizing and exploring nanomaterials ranging from layered structures for electronics/photonics to novel nanocrystalline catalysts. They are even adapting functions from biological molecules to synthesize new forms of nanostructured materials.

  6. Salt caverns show promise for nonhazardous oil field waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1996-11-18

    Salt caverns show promise for the disposal of non-hazardous oil field wastes, and there are no apparent regulatory barriers to this application. Solution-mined salt caverns have been used for many years for storing hydrocarbon products. Argonne National laboratory has reviewed the legality, technical suitability, and feasibility of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration and production wastes in salt caverns. An analysis of regulations indicates that there are no outright regulatory prohibitions on cavern disposal of oil field wastes at either the federal level or in the 11 oil-producing states that were studied (Kansas, Louisiana, Michigan, Mississippi, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, and Texas). The paper discusses the two types of salt deposits in the US, regulatory concerns, wastes, cavern design, disposal operations, closure and remediation, and results of the feasibility study.

  7. Intranasal glucagon: a promising approach for treatment of severe hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Pontiroli, Antonio E

    2015-01-01

    Prevention of diabetic complications is mainly obtained through optimal control of blood glucose levels. With hypoglycemic drugs like beta-cell stimulating drugs and especially insulin, the limit to treatment is represented by hypoglycemia, a life-threatening occurrence that is dangerous itself and can induce fear of other episodes. Glucagon, injected subcutaneously (SC) or intramuscularly (IM), is the treatment of choice for severe hypoglycemia outside of the hospital setting. However, due to practical aspects such as preparation of solutions for administration and injection by untrained persons, there are obstacles to its routine use. This review focuses on the current status of alternative routes of administration of peptide hormones, and in particular the intranasal (IN) route of glucagon, as a promising approach for the treatment of severe hypoglycemia. PMID:25385946

  8. Technology for People, Not Disabilities: Ensuring Access and Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Alan; Ferri, Beth A.

    2012-01-01

    The potential of technology to connect people and provide access to education, commerce, employment and entertainment has never been greater or more rapidly changing. Communication technologies and new media promise to "revolutionize our lives" by breaking down barriers and expanding access for disabled people. Yet, it is also true that technology…

  9. Access to Attainment: An Access Agenda for 21st Century College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Abby; Valle, Katherine; Engle, Jennifer; Cooper, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    This report, "Access to Attainment: An Access Agenda for 21st Century College Students," examines the challenges facing 21st century students and presents strategies for addressing these challenges through policy-and practice-based solutions at the institutional, state and national levels. Recommendations include implementing a…

  10. A Theory of Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribot, Jesse C.; Peluso, Nancy Lee

    2003-01-01

    The term "access" is frequently used by property and natural resource analysts without adequate definition. In this paper we develop a concept of access and examine a broad set of factors that differentiate access from property. We define access as "the "ability" to derive benefits from things," broadening from property's classical definition as…

  11. High School Student Information Access and Engineering Design Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentzer, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Developing solutions to engineering design problems requires access to information. Research has shown that appropriately accessing and using information in the design process improves solution quality. This quasi-experimental study provides two groups of high school students with a design problem in a three hour design experience. One group has…

  12. Autism: Pathophysiology and Promising Herbal Remedies.

    PubMed

    Bahmani, Mahmoud; Sarrafchi, Amir; Shirzad, Hedayatollah; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a comprehensive growth abnormality in which social skills, language, communication, and behavioral skills are developed with delay and as diversionary. The reasons for autism are unclear, but various theories of genetics, immunity, biological, and psychosocial factors have been proffered. In fact, autism is a complex disorder with distinct causes that usually co-occur. Although no medicine has been recognized to treat this disorder, pharmacological treatments can be effective in reducing its signs, such as self-mutilation, aggression, repetitive and stereotyped behaviors, inattention, hyperactivity, and sleeping disorders. Recently, complementary and alternative approaches have been considered to treat autism. Ginkgo biloba is one of the most effective plants with an old history of applications in neuropsychological disorders which recently is used for autism. The present review discusses the recent findings, pathophysiology, and etiology of autism and thereafter addresses the promising results of herbal remedies. PMID:26561063

  13. The Challenge and Promise of Glycomics

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Richard D.; Pierce, J. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Glycomics is a broad and emerging scientific discipline focused on defining the structures and functional roles of glycans in biological systems. The staggering complexity of the glycome, minimally defined as the repertoire of glycans expressed in a cell or organism, has resulted in many challenges that must be overcome; these are being addressed by new advances in mass spectrometry, as well as expansion of genetic and cell biology studies. Conversely, identifying the specific glycan recognition determinants of glycan-binding proteins by employing the new technology of glycan microarrays is providing insights into how glycans function in recognition and signaling within an organism and with microbes and pathogens. The promises of a more complete knowledge of glycomes are immense in that glycan modifications of intracellular and extracellular proteins have critical functions in almost all biological pathways. PMID:24439204

  14. Diabetic macular edema: New promising therapies

    PubMed Central

    Shamsi, Hanan N Al; Masaud, Jluwi S; Ghazi, Nicola G

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of diabetic macular edema is rapidly evolving. The era of laser therapy is being quickly replaced by an era of pharmacotherapy. Several pharmacotherapies have been recently developed for the treatment of retinal vascular diseases such as diabetic macular edema. Several intravitreal injections or sustained delivery devices have undergone phase 3 testing while others are currently being evaluated. The results of clinical trials have shown the superiority of some of these agents to laser therapy. However, with the availability of several of these newer agents, it may be difficult to individualize treatment options especially those patients respond differently to various therapies. As such, more effort is still needed in order to determine the best treatment regimen for a given patient. In this article, we briefly summarize the major new therapeutic additions for the treatment of diabetic macular edema and allude to some future promising therapies. PMID:24379924

  15. A promising new thermoelectric material - Ruthenium silicide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vining, Cronin B.; Mccormack, Joseph A.; Zoltan, Andrew; Zoltan, Leslie D.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical efforts directed toward increasing thermoelectric figure of merit values by a factor of 2 or 3 have been encouraging in several respects. An accurate and detailed theoretical model developed for n-type silicon-germanium (SiGe) indicates that ZT values several times higher than currently available are expected under certain conditions. These new, high ZT materials are expected to be significantly different from SiGe, but not unreasonably so. Several promising candidate materials have been identified which may meet the conditions required by theory. One such candidate, ruthenium silicide, currently under development at JPL, has been estimated to have the potential to exhibit figure of merit values 4 times higher than conventional SiGe materials. Recent results are summarized.

  16. Promising treatments of tomorrow for multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Daniel M.; Calabresi, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    The therapeutic options for multiple sclerosis are rapidly expanding. What was once seen as a disease with little hope for treatment is now a target of rapid drug development. Current therapies have demonstrated efficacy in limiting the impact of the disease, but none is fully effective in all patients. However, promising new treatments are on the horizon. In this review we will discuss potential novel immunomodulating drugs that are in advanced stages of investigation; these drugs include monoclonal antibodies, chimeric molecules, and oral therapies. The use of hematopoietic stem cells will also be discussed and, in addition, we will look farther ahead at possible novel targets for the development of new immunomodulatory or neuroprotective pharmaceuticals. PMID:20182576

  17. Prenatal pharmacogenomics: a promising area for research.

    PubMed

    Dorfman, E H; Cheng, E Y; Hebert, M F; Thummel, K E; Burke, W

    2016-08-01

    Clinical applications of prenatal genetic screening currently focus on detection of aneuploidy and other genetic diseases in the developing fetus. Growing evidence suggests that the fetal genome may also be informative about fetal exposures through contributions to placental transport as well as placental and fetal metabolism. Possible clinical applications of prenatal pharmacogenomic screening include prospective optimization of medication selection and dosage, as well as retrospective assessment of whether a fetus was previously exposed to significant risk. Newly available noninvasive methods of prenatal genetic screening mean that relevant fetal genotypes could be made available to obstetricians for use in management of a current pregnancy. This promising area for research merits more attention than it has thus far received.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 10 May 2016; doi:10.1038/tpj.2016.33. PMID:27168097

  18. The Promise of Preventive Cancer Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Lollini, Pier-Luigi; Cavallo, Federica; Nanni, Patrizia; Quaglino, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Years of unsuccessful attempts at fighting established tumors with vaccines have taught us all that they are only able to truly impact patient survival when used in a preventive setting, as would normally be the case for traditional vaccines against infectious diseases. While true primary cancer prevention is still but a long-term goal, secondary and tertiary prevention are already in the clinic and providing encouraging results. A combination of immunopreventive cancer strategies and recently approved checkpoint inhibitors is a further promise of forthcoming successful cancer disease control, but prevention will require a considerable reduction of currently reported toxicities. These considerations summed with the increased understanding of tumor antigens allow space for an optimistic view of the future. PMID:26343198

  19. Promising Candidates for Prevention of Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Gern, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in understanding environmental risk factors for allergic diseases in children has led to renewed efforts aimed at prevention. Factors that modify the probability of developing allergies include prenatal exposures, mode of delivery, diet, patterns of medication use, and exposure to pets and farm animals. Recent advances in microbial detection techniques demonstrate that exposure to diverse microbial communities in early life is associated with a reduction in allergic disease. In fact, microbes and their metabolic products may be essential for normal immune development. Identification of these risk factors has provided new targets for prevention of allergic diseases, and possibilities of altering microbial exposure and colonization to reduce the incidence of allergies is a promising approach. This review examines the rationale, feasibility and potential impact for the prevention of childhood allergic diseases, and explores possible strategies for enhancing exposure to beneficial microbes. PMID:26145984

  20. The promise of Lean in health care.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, John S; Berry, Leonard L

    2013-01-01

    An urgent need in American health care is improving quality and efficiency while controlling costs. One promising management approach implemented by some leading health care institutions is Lean, a quality improvement philosophy and set of principles originated by the Toyota Motor Company. Health care cases reveal that Lean is as applicable in complex knowledge work as it is in assembly-line manufacturing. When well executed, Lean transforms how an organization works and creates an insatiable quest for improvement. In this article, we define Lean and present 6 principles that constitute the essential dynamic of Lean management: attitude of continuous improvement, value creation, unity of purpose, respect for front-line workers, visual tracking, and flexible regimentation. Health care case studies illustrate each principle. The goal of this article is to provide a template for health care leaders to use in considering the implementation of the Lean management system or in assessing the current state of implementation in their organizations. PMID:23274021

  1. Indoles - A promising scaffold for drug development.

    PubMed

    Sravanthi, T V; Manju, S L

    2016-08-25

    Generally, heterocycles occupy a prominent place in chemistry due to their wide range of applications in the fields of drug design, photochemistry, agrochemicals, dyes and so on. Among them, indole scaffolds have been found in most of the important synthetic drug molecules and paved a faithful way to develop effective targets. Privileged structures bind to multiple receptors with high affinity, thus aiding the development of novel biologically active compounds. Among the indole class of compounds, 2-arylindoles appear to be a most promising lead for drug development. The derivatives of 2-arylindoles exhibits antibacterial, anticancer, anti-oxidants, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, antiviral, antiproliferative, antituberculosis activity, etc. This article would provide a clear knowledge on the wide-ranging biological activities of 2-arylindoles over the past two decades, which would be beneficial for the designing of more potent drug targets in order to compete with the existing drugs. PMID:27237590

  2. Nanomedicine delivers promising treatments for rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Leena Kumari; O’Mary, Hannah; Cui, Zhengrong

    2015-01-01

    An increased understanding in the pathophysiology of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, reveals that the diseased tissue and the increased presence of macrophages and other overexpressed molecules within the tissue can be exploited to enhance the delivery of nanomedicine. Nanomedicine can passively accumulate into chronic inflammatory tissues via the enhanced permeability and retention phenomenon, or be surface conjugated with a ligand to actively bind to receptors overexpressed by cells within chronic inflammatory tissues, leading to increased efficacy and reduced systemic side-effects. This review highlights the research conducted over the past decade on using nanomedicine for potential treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and summarizes some of the major findings and promising opportunities on using nanomedicine to treat this prevalent and chronic disease. PMID:26084368

  3. Glycodendritic structures: promising new antiviral drugs.

    PubMed

    Rojo, Javier; Delgado, Rafael

    2004-09-01

    DC-SIGN, a C-type lectin expressed by dendritic cells, is able to recognize high mannosylated glycoproteins at the surface of a broad range of pathogens including viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites. For at least some of these agents this interaction appears to be an important part of the infection process. Therefore, this lectin might be considered in the design of new antiviral drugs. In this manner, multivalent carbohydrate systems based on dendrimers and dendritic polymers are promising candidates as antiviral drugs. Boltorn hyperbranched dendritic polymers functionalized with mannose have been used to inhibit DC-SIGN-mediated infection in an Ebola-pseudotyped viral model. Their physiological solubility, lack of toxicity and especially their low price suggest the application of these glycodendritic polymers for possible formulation as microbicides. PMID:15308605

  4. Oscillatoria anguistissima: a promising Cu2+ biosorbent.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, P; Gupta, R; Saxena, R K

    1997-09-01

    Oscillatoria anguistissima rapidly adsorbs Cu2+ from aqueous solution. The adsorption of Cu2+ followed Freundlich Isotherm, and the amount of Cu2+ removed from solution increased with increasing Cu2+ concentration. The adsorption is pH dependent, and maximum Cu2+ removal occurs at pH 5. Of the various pretreatments, HCl treatment of the biomass increased the capacity for Cu2+ removal. Presence of Mg2+ and Ca2+ resulted in decline in the Cu2+ adsorption capacity of Oscillatoria cells. This species could also effectively remove Cu2+ from mine water containing 68.4 microg/ml of Cu2+ at pH 3.45. PMID:9236296

  5. Controlled Access under Review: Improving the Governance of Genomic Data Access.

    PubMed

    Shabani, Mahsa; Dyke, Stephanie O M; Joly, Yann; Borry, Pascal

    2015-12-01

    In parallel with massive genomic data production, data sharing practices have rapidly expanded over the last decade. To ensure authorized access to data, access review by data access committees (DACs) has been utilized as one potential solution. Here we discuss core elements to be integrated into the fabric of access review by both established and emerging DACs in order to foster fair, efficient, and responsible access to datasets. We particularly highlight the fact that the access review process could be adversely influenced by the potential conflicts of interest of data producers, particularly when they are directly involved in DACs management. Therefore, in structuring DACs and access procedures, possible data withholding by data producers should receive thorough attention. PMID:26720729

  6. Controlled Access under Review: Improving the Governance of Genomic Data Access

    PubMed Central

    Shabani, Mahsa; Dyke, Stephanie O. M.; Joly, Yann; Borry, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    In parallel with massive genomic data production, data sharing practices have rapidly expanded over the last decade. To ensure authorized access to data, access review by data access committees (DACs) has been utilized as one potential solution. Here we discuss core elements to be integrated into the fabric of access review by both established and emerging DACs in order to foster fair, efficient, and responsible access to datasets. We particularly highlight the fact that the access review process could be adversely influenced by the potential conflicts of interest of data producers, particularly when they are directly involved in DACs management. Therefore, in structuring DACs and access procedures, possible data withholding by data producers should receive thorough attention. PMID:26720729

  7. Uterine stem cells--promise and possibilities.

    PubMed

    Pal, Lubna

    2015-11-01

    A fraction of cells residing in the uterine endometrium exhibit functional pluripotent potential, allowing them to be classified as adult stem cells. While the physiological relevance of this cell population is mostly conjectural at this juncture, uterine endometrial stem cells (UESC's) may underline pathogenesis of certain common gynecological disorders, such as endometriosis and adenomyosis. The ease of access and harvesting of UESC's and the diverse differentiation potential of this cell population has identified the uterine endometrium as a valuable source of autologous stem cells that can be harnessed through judicious application of principals of regenerative medicine. This mini review offers a glimpse into the journey, and an introduction to the spectrum of disorders that UESC's have the potential of impacting. PMID:26297687

  8. Educational Software Architecture and Systematic Impact: The Promise of Component Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roschelle, Jeremy; Kaput, James

    1996-01-01

    Examines the failure of current technology to meet education's flexible needs and points to a promising solution: component software architecture. Discusses the failure of stand-alone applications in their incompatibility, waste of funding, prevention of customization, and obstruction of integration. (AEF)

  9. Promising Practices in Young Adult Employment: Hands-On Multidisciplinary Career Exploration and Mentorships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    The National Fund for Workforce Solution's Young Adult Initiatives aim to test and implement new strategies for targeting America's young adults and share this information so that employers and workforce development can join forces in investing in the millions of young adults across the nation. This case study focuses on promising findings from…

  10. World Wide Access: Accessible Web Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Univ., Seattle.

    This brief paper considers the application of "universal design" principles to Web page design in order to increase accessibility for people with disabilities. Suggestions are based on the World Wide Web Consortium's accessibility initiative, which has proposed guidelines for all Web authors and federal government standards. Seven guidelines for…

  11. MEMS reliability: The challenge and the promise

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, W.M.; Tanner, D.M.; Miller, S.L.; Peterson, K.A.

    1998-05-01

    MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) that think, sense, act and communicate will open up a broad new array of cost effective solutions only if they prove to be sufficiently reliable. A valid reliability assessment of MEMS has three prerequisites: (1) statistical significance; (2) a technique for accelerating fundamental failure mechanisms, and (3) valid physical models to allow prediction of failures during actual use. These already exist for the microelectronics portion of such integrated systems. The challenge lies in the less well understood micromachine portions and its synergistic effects with microelectronics. This paper presents a methodology addressing these prerequisites and a description of the underlying physics of reliability for micromachines.

  12. Bringing Promise to Washington, DC. The DC Promise Neighborhood Initiative. Program on Neighborhoods and Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comey, Jennifer; Scott, Molly M.; Popkin, Susan J.; Falkenburger, Elsa

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education's Promise Neighborhood Initiative (DCPNI) is one of the Obama administration's major antipoverty initiatives and a core strategy of the White House's Neighborhood Revitalization Initiative. It is intended to improve educational outcomes by creating a continuum of school readiness, academic services, and family and…

  13. Promise Neighborhoods: The Promise and Politics of Community Capacity Building as Urban School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsford, Sonya Douglass; Sampson, Carrie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this inquiry is to consider how the U.S. Department of Education's Promise Neighborhoods (PNs) program can improve persistently low-achieving urban schools by making their "neighborhoods whole again" through community capacity building for education reform. As the "first federal initiative to put education at the…

  14. Fulfilling The Pittsburgh Promise[R]: Early Progress of Pittsburgh's Postsecondary Scholarship Program. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gabriella C.; Bozick, Robert; Tharp-Taylor, Shannah; Phillips, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    This report presents a detailed assessment of the extent to which "The Pittsburgh Promise"--a postsecondary education scholarship intended to remedy the area's population decline, foster high school completion and college readiness among Pittsburgh district students, and prepare a capable and energetic workforce for the city--has met its goals to…

  15. The Renewed Promise of Medical Informatics.

    PubMed

    van Bemmel, J H; McCray, A T

    2016-01-01

    The promise of the field of Medical Informatics has been great and its impact has been significant. In 1999, the Yearbook editors of the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) - also the authors of the present paper - sought to assess this impact by selecting a number of seminal papers in the field, and asking experts to comment on these articles. In particular, it was requested whether and how the expectations, represented by these papers, had been fulfilled since their publication several decades earlier. Each expert was also invited to comment on what might be expected in the future. In the present paper, these areas are briefly reviewed again. Where did these early papers have an impact and where were they not as successful as originally expected? It should be noted that the extraordinary developments in computer technology observed in the last two decades could not have been foreseen by these early researchers. In closing, some of the possibilities and limitations of research in medical informatics are outlined in the context of a framework that considers six levels of computer applications in medicine and health care. For each level, some predictions are made for the future, concluded with thoughts on fruitful areas for ongoing research in the field. PMID:27199195

  16. Cannabidiol: a promising drug for neurodegenerative disorders?

    PubMed

    Iuvone, Teresa; Esposito, Giuseppe; De Filippis, Daniele; Scuderi, Caterina; Steardo, Luca

    2009-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases represent, nowadays, one of the main causes of death in the industrialized country. They are characterized by a loss of neurons in particular regions of the nervous system. It is believed that this nerve cell loss underlies the subsequent decline in cognitive and motor function that patients experience in these diseases. A range of mutant genes and environmental toxins have been implicated in the cause of neurodegenerative disorders but the mechanism remains largely unknown. At present, inflammation, a common denominator among the diverse list of neurodegenerative diseases, has been implicated as a critical mechanism that is responsible for the progressive nature of neurodegeneration. Since, at present, there are few therapies for the wide range of neurodegenerative diseases, scientists are still in search of new therapeutic approaches to the problem. An early contribution of neuroprotective and antiinflammatory strategies for these disorders seems particularly desirable because isolated treatments cannot be effective. In this contest, marijuana derivatives have attracted special interest, although these compounds have always raised several practical and ethical problems for their potential abuse. Nevertheless, among Cannabis compounds, cannabidiol (CBD), which lacks any unwanted psychotropic effect, may represent a very promising agent with the highest prospect for therapeutic use. PMID:19228180

  17. Uterine transplantation: a promising surrogate to surrogacy?

    PubMed

    Grynberg, Michael; Ayoubi, Jean-Marc; Bulletti, Carlo; Frydman, Rene; Fanchin, Renato

    2011-03-01

    Infertility due to the inability of the uterus to carry a pregnancy ranks among the most unresolved issues in reproductive medicine. It affects millions of women worldwide who have congenital or acquired uterine affections, often requiring hysterectomy, and potentially represents a considerable fraction of the general infertile population. Patients suffering from severe uterine infertility are currently compelled to go through gestational surrogacy or adoption; both approaches, unfortunately, deprive them of the maternal experience of pregnancy and birth. Uterine transplantation represents an outstanding, yet complex, perspective to alleviating definitive uterine infertility. In the past decades, a number of scientific experiments conducted both in animals and women, focusing on uterine transplantation, have led to promising results. Collectively, these findings undoubtedly constitute a sound basis to clinically apply uterine transplantation in the near future. This paper is, however, an overview not only of the extent and limitations of accumulated scientific knowledge on uterine transplantation, but also its ethical implications, in an effort to define the actual place of such an approach among the therapeutic arsenal for alleviating infertility. PMID:21401629

  18. Enediyne compounds - new promises in anticancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Gredicak, Matija; Jerić, Ivanka

    2007-06-01

    Scientists of all kinds have long been intrigued by the nature, action and potential of natural toxins that possess exceptional antibacterial and anticancer activities. These compounds, named enediynes, are among the most effective chemotherapeutic agents known. Often compared with intelligent weapons, due to the unique structure and sophisticated mechanism by which they destroy double-helical DNA, enediyne antibiotics are nowadays the most promising leaders in the anticancer therapy. Apart from their diversity, enediyne compounds share some structural and functional similarities. One fragment of a structure is responsible for the recognition and transport, another part acts as molecular trigger while the third, reactive enediyne unit, undergoes Bergman cycloaromatization and causes DNA breakage. Members of the enediyne family are already in clinical use to treat various cancers, but more general use is limited by their complex structure, which makes them formidable targets for synthetic chemists. There are three main approaches in the design of new enediyne-related compounds: improvement of enediyne >warheads<, increasing the selectivity and control of chemical or photo-induced activation. This paper gives an overview of naturally occurring enediynes, their mode of action and efforts undertaken to design artificial enediyne-related DNA cleaving agents. PMID:17507311

  19. Assessing the health information needs of unaffiliated health professionals and using training on openly available search tools and resources to provide solutions to their information access challenges and barriers.

    PubMed

    Matsoukas, Konstantina

    2014-01-01

    This article will describe a year-long (2010-11) joint project between Columbia University Medical Center's Health Sciences Library and the Institute for Family Health (IFH), a network of Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) serving disadvantaged populations in New York State. This National Institutes of Health-funded pilot project aimed to (a) determine the medical literature and training needs of IFH personnel, (b) develop generic licensing agreements with publishers that would enable a health sciences library to provide access to electronic resources for FQHC personnel, and (c) develop reference/education services for IFH personnel. How the reference and education aims were met will be described and discussed here as the lessons learned from this project may be useful to librarians considering doing instructional outreach to unaffiliated health professionals working at FQHCs nationwide. PMID:25316074

  20. The Paperless Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    REI Systems, Inc. developed a software solution that uses the Internet to eliminate the paperwork typically required to document and manage complex business processes. The data management solution, called Electronic Handbooks (EHBs), is presently used for the entire SBIR program processes at NASA. The EHB-based system is ideal for programs and projects whose users are geographically distributed and are involved in complex management processes and procedures. EHBs provide flexible access control and increased communications while maintaining security for systems of all sizes. Through Internet Protocol- based access, user authentication and user-based access restrictions, role-based access control, and encryption/decryption, EHBs provide the level of security required for confidential data transfer. EHBs contain electronic forms and menus, which can be used in real time to execute the described processes. EHBs use standard word processors that generate ASCII HTML code to set up electronic forms that are viewed within a web browser. EHBs require no end-user software distribution, significantly reducing operating costs. Each interactive handbook simulates a hard-copy version containing chapters with descriptions of participants' roles in the online process.

  1. The unfulfilled promise of the antidepressant medications.

    PubMed

    Davey, Christopher G; Chanen, Andrew M

    2016-05-16

    Australia has one of the highest rates of antidepressant use in the world; it has more than doubled since 2000, despite evidence showing that the effectiveness of these medications is lower than previously thought. An increasing placebo response rate is a key reason for falling effectiveness, with the gap between response to medications and placebo narrowing. Psychotherapies are effective treatments, but recent evidence from high-quality studies suggests that their effectiveness is also modest. Combined treatment with medication and psychotherapy provides greater effectiveness than either alone. The number of patients receiving psychotherapy had been declining, although this trend is probably reversing with the Medicare Better Access to Mental Health Care initiative. Antidepressant medications still have an important role in the treatment of moderate to severe depression; they should be provided as part of an overall treatment plan that includes psychotherapy and lifestyle strategies to improve diet and increase exercise. When medications are prescribed, they should be used in a way that maximises their chance of effectiveness. PMID:27169968

  2. Hemodialysis access procedures

    MedlinePlus

    National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse. Vascular Access for Hemodialysis . Updated July 23, 2014. Available at: kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/vascularaccess/index.aspx. Accessed: February 9, 2015. ...

  3. RDoC: Translating promise into progress.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Christopher J; Hajcak, Greg

    2016-03-01

    As highlighted by articles in the current special issue, the RDoC initiative holds promise for advancing understanding of mental health problems. However, the initiative is at its early stages and it remains unclear what level of progress can be achieved and how quickly. In this closing article, we identify major challenges facing RDoC and propose concrete approaches to addressing these challenges, including (a) clearer specification of clinical problems for study, with use of symptom dimensions from integrative dimensional models of psychopathology as provisional, modifiable referents; (b) encouragement of research on a distinct set of traits corresponding to process constructs from the RDoC matrix-those represented across animal, child temperament, and adult personality literatures-to serve as interfaces between matrix constructs and clinical problems; (c) an emphasis in the near term on use of proximal units of analysis in RDoC studies-in particular, on physiological, behavioral, and self-report measures of matrix constructs (examined as states or traits, or both); (d) inclusion of a clear ontogenetic-developmental component in RDoC research projects; (e) routine analysis of the psychometric properties of nonreport (e.g., physiological, task-behavioral) variables, including systematic evaluation of their reliability and convergent-discriminant validity; (f) modification of existing grant review criteria to prioritize replication and synergy in RDoC investigative work; and (g) creation of a cumulative data network system (RDoC-DataWeb) to encourage and facilitate coordination of research efforts across RDoC research groups. PMID:26877135

  4. Silicene, a promising new 2D material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oughaddou, Hamid; Enriquez, Hanna; Tchalala, Mohammed Rachid; Yildirim, Handan; Mayne, Andrew J.; Bendounan, Azzedine; Dujardin, Gérald; Ait Ali, Mustapha; Kara, Abdelkader

    2015-02-01

    Silicene is emerging as a two-dimensional material with very attractive electronic properties for a wide range of applications; it is a particularly promising material for nano-electronics in silicon-based technology. Over the last decade, the existence and stability of silicene has been the subject of much debate. Theoretical studies were the first to predict a puckered honeycomb structure with electronic properties resembling those of graphene. Though these studies were for free-standing silicene, experimental fabrication of silicene has been achieved so far only through epitaxial growth on crystalline surfaces. Indeed, it was only in 2010 that researchers presented the first experimental evidence of the formation of silicene on Ag(1 1 0) and Ag(1 1 1), which has launched silicene in a similar way to graphene. This very active field has naturally led to the recent growth of silicene on Ir(1 1 1), ZrB2(0 0 0 1) and Au(1 1 0) substrates. However, the electronic properties of epitaxially grown silicene on metal surfaces are influenced by the strong silicene-metal interactions. This has prompted experimental studies of the growth of multi-layer silicene, though the nature of its "silicene" structure remains questionable. Of course, like graphene, synthesizing free-standing silicene represents the ultimate challenge. A first step towards this has been reported recently through chemical exfoliation from calcium disilicide (CaSi2). In this review, we discuss the experimental and theoretical studies of silicene performed to date. Special attention is given to different experimental studies of the electronic properties of silicene on metal substrates. New avenues for the growth of silicene on other substrates with different chemical characteristics are presented along with foreseeable applications such as nano-devices and novel batteries.

  5. Bacteriophages show promise as antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Alisky, J; Iczkowski, K; Rapoport, A; Troitsky, N

    1998-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has prompted interest in alternatives to conventional drugs. One possible option is to use bacteriophages (phage) as antimicrobial agents. We have conducted a literature review of all Medline citations from 1966-1996 that dealt with the therapeutic use of phage. There were 27 papers from Poland, the Soviet Union, Britain and the U.S.A. The Polish and Soviets administered phage orally, topically or systemically to treat a wide variety of antibiotic-resistant pathogens in both adults and children. Infections included suppurative wound infections, gastroenteritis, sepsis, osteomyelitis, dermatitis, empyemas and pneumonia; pathogens included Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Klebsiella, Escherichia, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Shigella and Salmonella spp. Overall, the Polish and Soviets reported success rates of 80-95% for phage therapy, with rare, reversible gastrointestinal or allergic side effects. However, efficacy of phage was determined almost exclusively by qualitative clinical assessment of patients, and details of dosages and clinical criteria were very sketchy. There were also six British reports describing controlled trials of phage in animal models (mice, guinea pigs and livestock), measuring survival rates and other objective criteria. All of the British studies raised phage against specific pathogens then used to create experimental infections. Demonstrable efficacy against Escherichia, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus spp. was noted in these model systems. Two U.S. papers dealt with improving the bioavailability of phage. Phage is sequestered in the spleen and removed from circulation. This can be overcome by serial passage of phage through mice to isolate mutants that resist sequestration. In conclusion, bacteriophages may show promise for treating antibiotic resistant pathogens. To facilitate further progress, directions for future research are discussed and a directory of authors from the reviewed

  6. Alcoholism research: delivering on the promise.

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, F K

    1988-01-01

    Prospects for research advances in alcoholism are very promising, because of the explosion in the neurosciences and advances in epidemiology and typology of the disorder. For example, the field is now ready for molecular genetics studies of the early onset form of alcoholism that is transmitted from father to son with high penetrance. Leading neuroscientists are being recruited into alcoholism research. Paradoxically, this time of new hope coincides with challenges to the scientific enterprise, such as the animal rights movement and impatience with the scientific process in the face of the public health emergencies represented by acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and drug abuse. The emergence of genetically based subtypes of alcoholism suggests that at least two discrete illness processes are involved. Mounting evidence from spinal fluid studies has rekindled interest in a key role for serotonin in the early onset form of alcoholism. One hypothesis now being explored is that genetically low brain serotonin function may be part of the predisposition to this form of alcoholism. It is known that acute alcohol intake transiently increases brain serotonin turnover. Thus, drinking might be viewed as an attempt to correct a deficit, only to produce further serotonin depletion as the drug's effect wears off, setting up a vicious cycle of repeated attempts to self-medicate. Impulsive, violent, and suicidal behavior as well as alcohol abuse are associated with the low brain serotonin activity. Persons with these problems suffer from circadian rhythm and glucose metabolism disturbances that may also be mediated by serotonin. New pharmacological probes are now available to tease out the mechanisms of altered serotonin function.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2847208

  7. Cancer and Inflammation: Promise for Biological Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Demaria, Sandra; Pikarsky, Eli; Karin, Michael; Coussens, Lisa M.; Chen, Yen-Ching; El-Omar, Emad M.; Trinchieri, Giorgio; Dubinett, Steven M.; Mao, Jenny T.; Szabo, Eva; Krieg, Arthur; Weiner, George J.; Fox, Bernard A.; Coukos, George; Wang, Ena; Abraham, Robert T.; Carbone, Michele; Lotze, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Cancers often arise as the end stage of inflammation in adults, but not in children. As such there is a complex interplay between host immune cells during neoplastic development, with both an ability to promote cancer as well as limit or eliminate it, most often complicit with the host. In humans, defining inflammation and the presence of inflammatory cells within or surrounding the tumor is a critical aspect of modern pathology. Groups defining staging for neoplasms are strongly encouraged to assess and incorporate measures of the presence of apoptosis, autophagy, and necrosis as well as the nature and quality of the immune infiltrate. Both environmental as well as genetic factors enhance the risk of cigarette smoking, H. pylori, hepatitis B/C, human papilloma virus, solar irradiation, asbestos, pancreatitis, or other causes of chronic inflammation. Identifying suitable genetic polymorphisms in cytokines, cytokine receptors, and Toll-like receptors among other immune response genes is also seen as high value as genomic sequencing becomes less expensive. Animal models which incorporate and assess not only the genetic anlagen but also the inflammatory cells and the presence of microbial pathogen [PAMPs] and damage associated molecular pattern molecules [DAMPs] are necessary. Identifying micro-RNAs involved in regulating the response to damage or injury are seen as highly promising. Although no therapeutic strategies to prevent or treat cancers based on insights into inflammatory pathways are currently approved for the common epithelial malignancies, there remains substantial interest in agents targeting COX2 or PPARγ, ethyl pyruvate, as well as steroids and several novel agents on the horizon. PMID:20386472

  8. Secukinumab: a promising therapeutic option in spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-Ficco, Hernan; Perez-Alamino, Rodolfo; Maldonado-Cocco, José A

    2016-09-01

    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is the second most common chronic inflammatory joint disease. Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is another less common but equally chronic and disabling spondyloarthritis (SpA). Therapeutic agents for the treatment of these diseases have been somewhat lacking as compared with those available for rheumatoid arthritis, which represents a significant challenge for both the treating physician and the pharmaceutical industry. A promising development for our understanding of the physiopathology of PsA and AS involves new targets to interrupt IL-17 and IL-12/IL-23 pathways. Up to 30-40 % of SpA patients have inadequate or poor response, or are intolerant to anti-TNF therapies. Therefore, there has been a clear unmet medical need in an important group of these patients. As a result, new therapeutic targets have emerged for the treatment of both axial and peripheral SpA. Interleukin 17 (IL-17) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that is increased in psoriatic lesions as well as in the synovial fluid of patients with PsA and in sites of enthesitis in SpA. IL-23 has been shown to play an important role in the polarization of CD4+ T-cells to become IL-17 producers. Based on these evidences, blockade of the cytokine IL-17 or its receptors was considered to have therapeutic implications for the treatment of psoriasis, as well as PsA and AS.This article presents a thorough review of an IL-17 A blocking agent, its mechanism of action, its clinical efficacy and its therapeutic safety. PMID:27437696

  9. Resveratrol as promising natural radioprotector. A review.

    PubMed

    Dobrzyńska, Małgorzata M

    2013-01-01

    Public feelings concerning radiation are still controversy. The main sources of trouble seems to be the failure nuclear power plant and danger of terroristic attack, which may cause temporally enhanced level of radiation leading to harmful health effects. Since radiation induced cellular damage is attributed primarily to harmful effect of free radicals, molecules with direct free radical scavenging properties are particularly promising as radiation modifiers/protectors, i.e. agents which present prior to or shortly after radiation exposure alter to response of tissues to radiation. Unfortunately, some of known radioprotectors are toxic at doses required for radioprotection. Resveratrol (RSV), an natural polyphenol is produced in several plants in response to injury, stress, bacteria or fungi infection, UV-irradiation and exposure to ozone. It is present in human diet i.e. in fruits and in wine. RSV is known for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiviral, cardioprotective, neuroprotective and antiageing action and it has been shown to have chemopreventive effects with respect to several human disease such as cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and gastric ulcers. Depending on the dose, RSV may act as antioxidant or as pro-oxidant. RSV improves sperm count and motility in rodents and prevent DNA damage caused by cryptopreservation of human sperm. Moreover, RSV acting with other agents, inhibits the toxic action of them. There are evidences that RSV is able to modulate the behavior of cells in response to radiation induced damage. Minimalization of radiation induced damage to somatic and germ cells by RSV might be useful in cancer therapy to prevent the damage to normal cells as well as in case of radiological accidents. PMID:24693709

  10. Nonsingular promises from Born-Infeld gravity.

    PubMed

    Fiorini, Franco

    2013-07-26

    Born-Infeld determinantal gravity formulated in Weitzenböck spacetime is discussed in the context of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmologies. It is shown how the standard model big bang singularity is absent in certain spatially flat FRW spacetimes, where the high energy regime is characterized by a de Sitter inflationary stage of geometrical character, i.e., without the presence of the inflaton field. This taming of the initial singularity is also achieved for some spatially curved FRW manifolds where the singularity is replaced by a de Sitter stage or a big bounce of the scale factor depending on certain combinations of free parameters appearing in the action. Unlike other Born-Infeld-like theories in vogue, the one here presented is also capable of deforming vacuum general relativistic solutions. PMID:23931349

  11. Nonsingular Promises from Born-Infeld Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorini, Franco

    2013-07-01

    Born-Infeld determinantal gravity formulated in Weitzenböck spacetime is discussed in the context of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmologies. It is shown how the standard model big bang singularity is absent in certain spatially flat FRW spacetimes, where the high energy regime is characterized by a de Sitter inflationary stage of geometrical character, i.e., without the presence of the inflaton field. This taming of the initial singularity is also achieved for some spatially curved FRW manifolds where the singularity is replaced by a de Sitter stage or a big bounce of the scale factor depending on certain combinations of free parameters appearing in the action. Unlike other Born-Infeld-like theories in vogue, the one here presented is also capable of deforming vacuum general relativistic solutions.

  12. TTEthernet, a Promising Candidate for Ariane 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clavier, Remi; Sautereau, Pierre; Dufour, Jean-Francois

    2014-08-01

    This paper aims at presenting innovative communication architecture from a launcher-oriented view, in the frame of the next generation launcher Ariane 6 preparation. The TTEthernet technology has been retained as the most relevant solution to support launcher avionic constraints of the Ariane 6 launcher. It has been designed to answer to safety-critical and real time control system which requires fault tolerant communication service and enables unifying real-time and non-real time communication into a single communication architecture with traffic isolation mechanisms. TTEthernet has been studied in Europe on two main preparatory programs, the first one called FLPP (Flight Launcher Preparatory Program) and a second one in frame on a French R&T project: The main conclusions are presented in the document.

  13. [Accessible Rural Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Nick, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This issue of the quarterly newsletter "Rural Exchange" provides information and resources on accessible rural housing for the disabled. "Accessible Manufactured Housing Could Increase Rural Home Supply" (Nick Baker) suggests that incorporation of access features such as lever door handles and no-step entries into manufactured housing could help…

  14. Open Access Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Open access publishing is a hot topic today. But open access publishing can have many different definitions, and pros and cons vary with the definitions. Open access publishing is especially attractive to companies and small colleges or universities that are likely to have many more readers than authors. A downside is that a membership fee sounds…

  15. Demystifying Remote Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Grant

    2009-01-01

    With money tight, more and more districts are considering remote access as a way to reduce expenses and budget information technology costs more effectively. Remote access allows staff members to work with a hosted software application from any school campus without being tied to a specific physical location. Each school can access critical…

  16. Open Access and beyond.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Shawn; Schmidt, Christian; Das, Chhaya; Tucker, Philip W

    2006-01-01

    Uncensored exchange of scientific results hastens progress. Open Access does not stop at the removal of price and permission barriers; still, censorship and reading disabilities, to name a few, hamper access to information. Here, we invite the scientific community and the public to discuss new methods to distribute, store and manage literature in order to achieve unfettered access to literature. PMID:16956402

  17. Reflective Database Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lars E.

    2009-01-01

    "Reflective Database Access Control" (RDBAC) is a model in which a database privilege is expressed as a database query itself, rather than as a static privilege contained in an access control list. RDBAC aids the management of database access controls by improving the expressiveness of policies. However, such policies introduce new interactions…

  18. Assessment method of accessibility conditions: how to make public buildings accessible?

    PubMed

    Andrade, Isabela Fernandes; Ely, e Vera Helena Moro Bins

    2012-01-01

    The enforcement of accessibility today has faced several difficulties, such as intervention in historic buildings that now house public services and cultural activities, such as town halls, museums and theaters and should allow access, on equal terms to all people. The paper presents the application of a method for evaluating the spatial accessibility conditions and their results. For this, we sought to support the theoretical foundation about the main issue involved and legislation. From the method used--guided walks--it was possible to identify the main barriers to accessibility in historic buildings. From the identified barriers, possible solutions are presented according to the four components of accessibility: spatial orientation, displacement, use and communication. It is hoped also that the knowledge gained in this research contributes to an improvement of accessibility legislation in relation to the listed items. PMID:22317296

  19. Stem Cell Therapy Shows Promise Against Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158122.html Stem Cell Therapy Shows Promise Against Heart Failure A second ... 4, 2016 MONDAY, April 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Stem cell therapy shows promise for people battling heart failure, ...

  20. A metro-access integrated network with all-optical virtual private network function using DPSK/ASK modulation format

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yue; Leng, Lufeng; Su, Yikai

    2008-11-01

    All-optical virtual private network (VPN), which offers dedicated optical channels to connect users within a VPN group, is considered a promising approach to efficient internetworking with low latency and enhanced security implemented in the physical layer. On the other hand, time-division multiplexed (TDM) / wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) network architecture based on a feeder-ring with access-tree topology, is considered a pragmatic migration scenario from current TDM-PONs to future WDM-PONs and a potential convergence scheme for access and metropolitan networks, due to its efficiently shared hardware and bandwidth resources. All-optical VPN internetworking in such a metro-access integrated structure is expected to cover a wider service area and therefore is highly desirable. In this paper, we present a TDM/WDM metro-access integrated network supporting all-optical VPN internetworking among ONUs in different sub- PONs based on orthogonal differential-phase-shift keying (DPSK) / amplitude-shift keying (ASK) modulation format. In each ONU, no laser but a single Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) is needed for the upstream and VPN signal generation, which is cost-effective. Experiments and simulations are performed to verify its feasibility as a potential solution to the future access service.

  1. Quantitative real-time PCR as a sensitive protein-protein interaction quantification method and a partial solution for non-accessible autoactivator and false-negative molecule analysis in the yeast two-hybrid system.

    PubMed

    Maier, Richard H; Maier, Christina J; Hintner, Helmut; Bauer, Johann W; Onder, Kamil

    2012-12-01

    Many functional proteomic experiments make use of high-throughput technologies such as mass spectrometry combined with two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system. Currently there are even automated versions of the Y2H system available that can be used for proteome-wide research. The Y2H system has the capacity to deliver a profusion of Y2H positive colonies from a single library screen. However, subsequent analysis of these numerous primary candidates with complementary methods can be overwhelming. Therefore, a method to select the most promising candidates with strong interaction properties might be useful to reduce the number of candidates requiring further analysis. The method described here offers a new way of quantifying and rating the performance of positive Y2H candidates. The novelty lies in the detection and measurement of mRNA expression instead of proteins or conventional Y2H genetic reporters. This method correlates well with the direct genetic reporter readouts usually used in the Y2H system, and has greater sensitivity for detecting and quantifying protein-protein interactions (PPIs) than the conventional Y2H system, as demonstrated by detection of the Y2H false-negative PPI of RXR/PPARG. Approximately 20% of all proteins are not suitable for the Y2H system, the so-called autoactivators. A further advantage of this method is the possibility to evaluate molecules that usually cannot be analyzed in the Y2H system, exemplified by a VDR-LXXLL motif peptide interaction. PMID:22982175

  2. Livestock and the promise of genomics.

    PubMed

    Ludu, Jagjit S; Plastow, Graham S

    2013-10-01

    The emergence of the middle class in countries such as Brazil, Russia, India, and China is resulting in increasing global demand for animal-based food products. This increase represents a unique opportunity for Canadian livestock producers to export their products to new markets and expand Canada's reputation as a global provider of safe and highest quality food items. This article has two major themes. First, current Canadian contributions to livestock genomics in the cattle and swine industries are outlined. Second, important future opportunities are discussed, including the high throughput collection of phenotypic data, development of environmentally friendly livestock, emergence of decision support software, and the use of Web 2.0. Through the use of genomic technologies, livestock producers can not only ensure that the nutritional demands of Canada are secured, but also play a pivotal role in ensuring the rest of the world is fed as well. Furthermore, investment through initiatives led by Genome Canada has ensured that Canada is favorably positioned to contribute cutting-edge solutions to meet this global challenge. Ultimately, genomic-based innovations will enable producers to increase efficiency, lower production costs, decrease the use of prophylactics, and limit the expenditure of resources. PMID:24237336

  3. [Absorbable coronary stents. New promising technology].

    PubMed

    Erbel, Raimund; Böse, Dirk; Haude, Michael; Kordish, Igor; Churzidze, Sofia; Malyar, Nasser; Konorza, Thomas; Sack, Stefan

    2007-06-01

    Coronary stent implantation started in Germany 20 years ago. In the beginning, the progress was very slow and accelerated 10 years later. Meanwhile, coronary stent implantation is a standard procedure in interventional cardiology. From the beginning of permanent stent implantation, research started to provide temporary stenting of coronary arteries, first with catheter-based systems, later with stent-alone technology. Stents were produced from polymers or metal. The first polymer stent implantation failed except the Igaki-Tamai stent in Japan. Newly developed absorbable polymer stents seem to be very promising, as intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography have demonstrated. Temporary metal stents were developed based on iron and magnesium. Currently, the iron stent is tested in peripheral arteries. The absorbable magnesium stent (Biotronik, Berlin, Germany) was tested in peripheral arteries below the knee and meanwhile in the multicenter international PROGRESS-AMS (Clinical Performance and Angiographic Results of Coronary Stenting with Absorbable Metal Stents) study. The first magnesium stent implantation was performed on July 30, 2004 after extended experimental testing in Essen. The magnesium stent behaved like a bare-metal stent with low recoil of 5-7%. The stent struts were absorbed when tested with IVUS. Stent struts were not visible by fluoroscopy or computed tomography (CT) as well as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). That means, that the magnesium stent is invisible and therefore CT and MRI can be used for imaging of interventions. Only using micro-CT the stent struts were visible. The absorption process could be demonstrated in a patient 18 days after implantation due to suspected acute coronary syndrome, which was excluded. IVUS showed a nice open lumen. Stent struts were no longer visible, but replaced by tissue indicating the previous stent location. Coronary angiography after 4 months showed an ischemia-driven target lesion

  4. Using TV white space spectrum to practise telemedicine: A promising technology to enhance broadband internet connectivity within healthcare facilities in rural regions of developing countries.

    PubMed

    Chavez, Afton; Littman-Quinn, Ryan; Ndlovu, Kagiso; Kovarik, Carrie L

    2016-06-01

    The following correspondence provides an overview of TV White Space (TVWS) technology, regulations, and potential applications to the health care sector. This report also introduces "Project Kgolagano," a Botswana-based initiative representing the first endeavour to utilize TVWS internet connection for practising telemedicine. TV "white space" refers to the previously unused, wasted spectrum within TV radiofrequency channels that can now be leveraged to obtain broadband internet access. TVWS represents a less costly, faster, and farther-reaching internet connection that is a promising option for connecting the previously unconnected populations of remote and underserved areas. The Botswana-University of Pennsylvania Partnership, Microsoft, Botswana Innovation Hub, Vista Life Sciences, and Global Broadband Solutions have partnered together to bring TVWS wireless broadband access to healthcare facilities in poorly connected regions of Botswana (Lobatse, Francistown, Maun, Gaborone) in order to improve healthcare delivery and facilitate telemedicine in dermatology, cervical cancer screening, and family medicine (HIV/AIDS, TB, general adult and pediatric medicine). PMID:26199278

  5. Access to Education with Online Learning and Open Educational Resources: Can They Close the Gap?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geith, Christine; Vignare, Karen

    2008-01-01

    One of the key concepts in the right to education is access: access to the means to fully develop as human beings as well as access to the means to gain skills, knowledge and credentials. This is an important perspective through which to examine the solutions to access enabled by Open Educational Resources (OER) and online learning. The authors…

  6. Lipid-based siRNA Delivery Systems: Challenges, Promises and Solutions Along the Long Journey.

    PubMed

    Sarisozen, Can; Salzano, Giuseppina; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is an evolutionary conserved highly specific gene-silencing mechanism initiated by small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules. Fast-paced preclinical and clinical studies helped the siRNA technology become an efficient tool for undruggable targets in different diseases including genetic diseases, viral diseases and cancer. Despite great feature of siRNAs that can down-regulate any protein in the cells, the full potential and the success of the preclinical studies could not be translated into largely successful clinical outcomes. It has become clear that the possibility of overcoming the pitfalls for in vivo siRNA therapy fully depends on delivery systems. In this review, we start with the challenges and barriers for in vivo siRNA delivery. Then we briefly discuss the recent developments in siRNA modification technology. We specifically focused on siRNA lipidation and delivery approaches with special emphasis on the lipid based hybrid systems. Here we summarize the journey of lipid-based micelle-like nanoparticle systems that combine longevity in blood, effective cellular uptake and endosomal escape for successful siRNA delivery and discuss the multifunctional stimuli-sensitive systems based on lipids as the next generation smart systems. PMID:27033509

  7. A Promising Solution to Teacher Recruitment Woes. F.E.A. Research and Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storm, Jeanne

    2008-01-01

    One of the most pressing challenges in public education today is the recruitment and retention of high quality teachers for America's schools. Research shows teacher shortages exist nationwide but vary by geographic area, content area, demographics, and individual schools. In a recent study of the Future Educators Association[R] (FEA) initiative…

  8. Recent trends in radioprotection dosimetry: Promising solutions for personal neutron dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tommasino, L.

    1987-03-01

    Conventional detectors used in radiation protection dosimetry (for a given amount of energy deposited in their macroscopic volumes) are more sensitive to sparse radiations (electrons, X or gamma) than to fast neutrons or high-LET particles, i.e. those particles characterized by high biological effectiveness. By contrast, detectors needed in radiation protection monitoring should have a registration sensitivity which follows the opposite trend. With conventional detectors, in order to register the high-LET component in mixed fields, it is necessary to count individual energy-depositing tracks thus requiring elaborate electronics or complex automatic systems. In this paper new detecting methods will be described, which are very sensitive to fast neutrons and are completely insensitive to gamma radiations. These new detectors are based on the same properties of highly ionizing particles which determine their high biological effectiveness, namely the high deposition of energy at microscopic and submicroscopic distances from the particle trajectory in solid materials. Another important characteristic, common to these new detecting methods, is the exploitation of the high-energy deposition in the vicinity of the track to initiate avalanche-type of processes, which can be easily detected. These new registration techniques are respectively the electrochemically etched damage track detectors and the bubble damage polymer detectors. The simplicity, low cost and small size of these new detecting systems, together with their high sensitivity and their ability to discriminate against large fluxes of sparsely ionizing radiations make it possible to tackle some of the most difficult problems yet to be solved in radioprotection monitoring, such as personnel neutron dosimetry.

  9. Stem cell therapy in spinal cord injury: Hollow promise or promising science?

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Aimee

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) remains one of the most physically, psychologically and socially debilitating conditions worldwide. While rehabilitation measures may help limit disability to some extent, there is no effective primary treatment yet available. The efficacy of stem cells as a primary therapeutic option in spinal cord injury is currently an area under much scrutiny and debate. Several laboratory and some primary clinical studies into the use of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells or embryonic stem cell-derived oligodentrocyte precursor cells have shown some promising results in terms of remyelination and regeneration of damaged spinal nerve tracts. More recently,laboratory and early clinical experiments into the use of Olfactory Ensheathing Cells, a type of glial cell derived from olfactory bulb and mucosa have provided some phenomenal preliminary evidence as to their neuroregenerative and neural bridging capacity. This report compares and evaluates some current research into selected forms of embryonic and mesenchymal stem cell therapy as well as olfactory ensheathing cell therapy in SCI, and also highlights some legal and ethical issues surrounding their use. While early results shows promise, more rigorous large scaleclinical trials are needed to shed light on the safety, efficacy and long term viability of stem cell and cellular transplant techniques in SCI.

  10. Stem cell therapy in spinal cord injury: Hollow promise or promising science?

    PubMed

    Goel, Aimee

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) remains one of the most physically, psychologically and socially debilitating conditions worldwide. While rehabilitation measures may help limit disability to some extent, there is no effective primary treatment yet available. The efficacy of stem cells as a primary therapeutic option in spinal cord injury is currently an area under much scrutiny and debate. Several laboratory and some primary clinical studies into the use of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells or embryonic stem cell-derived oligodentrocyte precursor cells have shown some promising results in terms of remyelination and regeneration of damaged spinal nerve tracts. More recently,laboratory and early clinical experiments into the use of Olfactory Ensheathing Cells, a type of glial cell derived from olfactory bulb and mucosa have provided some phenomenal preliminary evidence as to their neuroregenerative and neural bridging capacity. This report compares and evaluates some current research into selected forms of embryonic and mesenchymal stem cell therapy as well as olfactory ensheathing cell therapy in SCI, and also highlights some legal and ethical issues surrounding their use. While early results shows promise, more rigorous large scaleclinical trials are needed to shed light on the safety, efficacy and long term viability of stem cell and cellular transplant techniques in SCI. PMID:27217662

  11. The limited access paradigm: description of one method.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, J D; Hyytiä, P; Nurmi, M

    1992-01-01

    Restricting access to alcohol to a short period daily causes rats, in effect, to drink on command. They usually begin drinking alcohol immediately when it is first made available each day and consume a rather constant amount during each access period. The procedure thus has a variety of useful applications. The specific method reported here in detail provides continual access to food and water, but access to unflavored 10% ethanol solution only 1 h/d, all in the home cage, and produces mean alcohol intakes from 0.5-1.0 g/kg in the access hour. PMID:1418671

  12. Demystifying Open Access

    SciTech Connect

    Mele, Salvatore

    2007-05-14

    The tenets of Open Access are to grant anyone, anywhere and anytime free access to the results of scientific research. HEP spearheaded the Open Access dissemination of scientific results with the mass mailing of preprints in the pre-WWW era and with the launch of the arXiv preprint system at the dawn of the '90s. The HEP community is now ready for a further push to Open Access while retaining all the advantages of the peer-review system and, at the same time, bring the spiralling cost of journal subscriptions under control. I will present a possible plan for the conversion to Open Access of HEP peer-reviewed journals, through a consortium of HEP funding agencies, laboratories and libraries: SCOAP3 (Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics). SCOAP3 will engage with scientific publishers towards building a sustainable model for Open Access publishing, which is as transparent as possible for HEP authors. The current system in which journals income comes from subscription fees is replaced with a scheme where SCOAP3 compensates publishers for the costs incurred to organise the peer-review service and give Open Access to the final version of articles. SCOAP3 will be funded by all countries active in HEP under a 'fair share' scenario, according to their production of HEP articles. In this talk I will present a short overview of the history of Open Access in HEP, the details of the SCOAP3 model and the outlook for its implementation.

  13. Demystifying Open Access

    SciTech Connect

    Mele, Salvatore

    2007-05-14

    The tenets of Open Access are to grant anyone, anywhere and anytime free access to the results of scientific research. HEP spearheaded the Open Access dissemination of scientific results with the mass mailing of preprints in the pre-WWW era and with the launch of the arXiv preprint system at the dawn of the '90s. The HEP community is now ready for a further push to Open Access while retaining all the advantages of the peer-review system and, at the same time, bring the spiralling cost of journal subscriptions under control. I will present a possible plan for the conversion to Open Access of HEP peer-reviewed journals, through a consortium of HEP funding agencies, laboratories and libraries: SCOAP3 (Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics). SCOAP3 will engage with scientific publishers towards building a sustainable model for Open Access publishing, which is as transparent as possible for HEP authors. The current system in which journals income comes from subscription fees is replaced with a scheme where SCOAP3 compensates publishers for the costs incurred to organise the peer-review service and give Open Access to the final version of articles. SCOAP3 will be funded by all countries active in HEP under a "fair share" scenario, according to their production of HEP articles. In this talk I will present a short overview of the history of Open Access in HEP, the details of the SCOAP3 model and the outlook for its implementation.

  14. Access Interface Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Fager, Susan; Beukelman, David R.; Fried-Oken, Melanie; Jakobs, Tom; Baker, John

    2013-01-01

    Individuals who rely on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices to support their communication often have physical movement challenges that require alternative methods of access. Technology that supports access, particularly for those with the most severe movement deficits, have expanded substantially over the years. The purposes of this article are to review the state of the science of access technologies that interface with augmentative and alternative communication devices and to propose a future research and development agenda that will enhance access options for people with limited movement capability due to developmental and acquired conditions. PMID:22590797

  15. Electromarking solution

    DOEpatents

    Bullock, Jonathan S.; Harper, William L.; Peck, Charles G.

    1976-06-22

    This invention is directed to an aqueous halogen-free electromarking solution which possesses the capacity for marking a broad spectrum of metals and alloys selected from different classes. The aqueous solution comprises basically the nitrate salt of an amphoteric metal, a chelating agent, and a corrosion-inhibiting agent.

  16. Evaluation of N,N-dialkylamides as promising process extractants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, P. N.; Prabhu, D. R.; Kanekar, A. S.; Manchanda, V. K.

    2010-03-01

    Studies carried out at BARC, India on the development of new extractants for reprocessing of spent fuel suggested that while straight chain N,N-dihexyloctanamide (DHOA) is promising alternative to TBP for the reprocessing of irradiated uranium based fuels, branched chain N,N-di(2-ethylhexyl)isobutyramide (D2EHIBA) is suitable for the selective recovery of 233U from irradiated Th. In advanced fuel cycle scenarios, the coprocessing of U/Pu stream appears attractive particularly with respect to development of proliferation resistant technologies. DHOA extracted Pu(IV) more efficiently than TBP, both at trace-level concentration as well as under uranium/plutonium loading conditions. Uranium extraction behavior of DHOA was however, similar to that of TBP during the extraction cycle. Stripping behavior of U and Pu (without any reductant) was better for DHOA than that of TBP. It was observed during batch studies that whereas 99% Pu is stripped in four stages in case of DHOA, only 89% Pu is stripped in case of TBP under identical experimental conditions. DHOA offered better fission product decontamination than that of TBP. GANEX (Group ActiNide EXtraction) and ARTIST (Amide-based Radio-resources Treatment with Interim Storage of Transuranics) processes proposed for actinide partitioning use branched chain amides for the selective extraction of uranium from spent fuel feed solutions. The branched-alkyl monoamide (BAMA) proposed to be used in ARTIST process is N,N-di-(2-ethylhexyl)butyramide (D2EHBA). In this context, the extraction behavior of U(VI) and Pu(IV) were compared using D2EHIBA, TBP, and D2EHBA under similar concentration of nitric acid (0.5 — 6M) and of uranium (0-50g/L). These studies suggested that D2EHIBA is a promising extractant for selective extraction of uranium over plutonium in process streams. Similarly, D2EHIBA offered distinctly better decontamination of 233U over Th and fission products under THOREX feed conditions. The possibility of simultaneous

  17. An Azaacene Derivative as Promising Electron-Transport Layer for Inverted Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Gu, Pei-Yang; Wang, Ning; Wu, Anyang; Wang, Zilong; Tian, Miaomiao; Fu, Zhisheng; Sun, Xiao Wei; Zhang, Qichun

    2016-08-01

    It is highly desirable to develop novel n-type organic small molecules as an efficient electron-transport layer (ETL) for the replacement of PCBM to obtain high-performance metal-oxide-free, solution-processed inverted perovskite solar cells (PSCs) because this type of solar cells with a low-temperature and solution-based process would make their fabrication more feasible and practical. In this research, the new azaacene QCAPZ has been synthesized and employed as non-fullerene ETL material for inverted PSCs through a solution-based process without the need for additional dopants or additives. The as-fabricated inverted PSCs show a power conversion efficiency up to 10.26 %. Our results clearly suggest that larger azaacenes could be promising electron-transport materials to achieve high-performance solution-processed inverted PSCs. PMID:27378599

  18. Accessing the Microform Publication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schindler, Stan

    1985-01-01

    Characterizes types of indexing programs used by Research Publications, Inc. and describes provision of access to four major projects: "The Official Washington Post Index" (provides access to newspaper and microfilm edition); "The Eighteenth Century"; "The Declassified Documents Reference System" (ongoing fiche project abstracted and indexed…

  19. ACCESS Pointing Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brugarolas, Paul; Alexander, James; Trauger, John; Moody, Dwight; Egerman, Robert; Vallone, Phillip; Elias, Jason; Hejal, Reem; Camelo, Vanessa; Bronowicki, Allen; O'Connor, David; Partrick, Richard; Orzechowski, Pawel; Spitter, Connie; Lillie, Chuck

    2010-01-01

    ACCESS (Actively-Corrected Coronograph for Exoplanet System Studies) was one of four medium-class exoplanet concepts selected for the NASA Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study (ASMCS) program in 2008/2009. The ACCESS study evaluated four major coronograph concepts under a common space observatory. This paper describes the high precision pointing control system (PCS) baselined for this observatory.

  20. Access to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Felecia; De Oliver, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    This case study researches the degree to which the location and services offered by a multicampus university, geographically situated consistent with the commercial principles of a large mass-market enterprise, facilitate access for educationally underserved groups. First, the necessity of democratizing educational access to an underprivileged…

  1. The Universal Access System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Neil G.

    This final report discusses the outcomes of a project that created a Universal Access System (UAS), a system that gives students with disabilities access to the same computers as their classmates. The project developed a new approach in which the needs of the individual with disabilities are handled separately from the computers and other devices…

  2. MedlinePlus: Accessibility

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tools Español You Are Here: Home → MedlinePlus Accessibility URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/accessibility.html ... or (301) 594-5983 and provide the address (URL) of the page on which you need assistance, ...

  3. Access and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Lemuel W.

    2004-01-01

    Community colleges are well positioned to provide underserved student populations with access to computer technology. This chapter explores the issues of access and technology from multiple perspectives in the community college, and explains how community colleges can develop a foundation for their technology plan.

  4. Improving School Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Few things are more important for school safety and security than controlling access to buildings and grounds. It is relatively easy to incorporate effective access control measures in new school designs but more difficult in existing schools, where most building and site features cannot be readily altered or reconfigured. The National…

  5. Providing public standardized data access function: Lessons learned from accessing USGS Landsat archive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, X.; Bai, Y.; Di, L.; Nebert, D.

    2009-01-01

    The geospatial community is experiencing a shift from having data locally to sharing them over the Web. However, not all the data accessing systems are built in compliance with open geospatial standards and thus are weak in terms of interoperability. The USGS Landsat data are now available through free electronic access though not yet through standard Web service interfaces. This paper intends to discuss the experience and lessons learned from integrating a public data access function to the USGS Landsat data archive into a geospatial workflow environment. Currently available systems and their problems, proposed solutions and application scenarios are discussed.

  6. Experimental Therapy Shows Promise for Type 1 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Relief Health Capsules Experimental Therapy Shows Promise for Type 1 Diabetes Complementary Approaches for Depression Featured Website: Prescription Drug Abuse Past Issues Most Viewed June 2016 Print RSS ...

  7. Optical OFDM transmission for long-haul, metro/access, and data center applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Anand

    2013-12-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is a modulation technique which is now used in most new and emerging broadband wired and wireless communication systems because it is an effective solution to inter-symbol interference caused by a dispersive channel. Very recently a number of researchers have shown that OFDM is also a promising technology for optical communications. This paper gives a overview of OFDM for long-haul, metro/access and data center highlighting the aspects that are likely to be important in optical applications. To achieve good performance in optical systems OFDM must be adapted in various ways. The constraints imposed by optical channel are discussed and the new forms of optical OFDM which have been developed are outlined. The main drawbacks of OFDM are its high peak to average power ratio and its sensitivity to phase noise and frequency offset. The impairments that these cause are described and their implications for optical systems discussed.

  8. Paratransgenesis: a promising new strategy for mosquito vector control.

    PubMed

    Wilke, André Barretto Bruno; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2015-01-01

    The three main mosquito genera, Anopheles, Aedes and Culex, transmit respectively malaria, dengue and lymphatic filariasis. Current mosquito control strategies have proved unsuccessful, and there still is a substantial number of morbidity and mortality from these diseases. Genetic control methods have now arisen as promising alternative strategies, based on two approaches: the replacement of a vector population by disease-refractory mosquitoes and the release of mosquitoes carrying a lethal gene to suppress target populations. However, substantial hurdles and limitations need to be overcome if these methods are to be used successfully, the most significant being that a transgenic mosquito strain is required for every target species, making genetically modified mosquito strategies inviable when there are multiple vector mosquitoes in the same area. Genetically modified bacteria capable of colonizing a wide range of mosquito species may be a solution to this problem and another option for the control of these diseases. In the paratransgenic approach, symbiotic bacteria are genetically modified and reintroduced in mosquitoes, where they express effector molecules. For this approach to be used in practice, however, requires a better understanding of mosquito microbiota and that symbiotic bacteria and effector molecules be identified. Paratransgenesis could prove very useful in mosquito species that are inherently difficult to transform or in sibling species complexes. In this approach, a genetic modified bacteria can act by: (a) causing pathogenic effects in the host; (b) interfering with the host's reproduction; (c) reducing the vector's competence; and (d) interfering with oogenesis and embryogenesis. It is a much more flexible and adaptable approach than the use of genetically modified mosquitoes because effector molecules and symbiotic bacteria can be replaced if they do not achieve the desired result. Paratransgenesis may therefore become an important integrated

  9. Multiple Access Trade Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motamedi, Masoud

    1990-01-01

    The Personal Access Satellite System (PASS) strawman design uses a hybrid Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)/Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) implementation. TDMA is used for the forward direction (from Suppliers to Users), and FDMA for the return direction (from Users to Suppliers). An alternative architecture is proposed that will require minimal real time coordination and yet provide a fast access method by using random access Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). The CDMA system issues are addressed such as connecting suppliers and users, both of whom may be located anywhere in the CONUS, when the user terminals are constrained in size and weight; and providing efficient traffic routing under highly variable traffic requirements. It is assumed that bandwidth efficiency is not of paramount importance. CDMA or Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (SSMA) communication is a method in which a group of carriers operate at the same nominal center frequency but are separable from each other by the low cross correlation of the spreading codes used. Interference and multipath rejection capability, ease of selective addressing and message screening, low density power spectra for signal hiding and security, and high resolution ranging are among the benefits of spread spectrum communications.

  10. Delaware Pushes to Meet Race to Top Promises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on how Delaware pushes to meet Race to the Top promises. The Delcastle Technical High School teachers are on the front lines of the push to deliver on promises that last year won Delaware, 10 other states, and the District of Columbia shares of the Race to the Top pie, the $4 billion competition that is driving much of the…

  11. Mathematical Profiles and Problem Solving Abilities of Mathematically Promising Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budak, Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Mathematically promising students are defined as those who have the potential to become the leaders and problem solvers of the future. The purpose of this research is to reveal what problem solving abilities mathematically promising students show in solving non-routine problems and type of profiles they present in the classroom and during problem…

  12. The Struggle between Conflicting Beliefs: On the Promise of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boman, Ylva

    2006-01-01

    Education is thought to provide a certain outcome--a "promise". I argue that a promise that education will counteract cultural and social disintegration involves a risk of engendering narrow social and cultural incorporation. On what reasonable basis could education contribute to civic life, when contemporary Western society is represented by a…

  13. Quantum internet using code division multiple access.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Liu, Yu-xi; Ozdemir, Sahin Kaya; Wu, Re-Bing; Gao, Feifei; Wang, Xiang-Bin; Yang, Lan; Nori, Franco

    2013-01-01

    A crucial open problem inS large-scale quantum networks is how to efficiently transmit quantum data among many pairs of users via a common data-transmission medium. We propose a solution by developing a quantum code division multiple access (q-CDMA) approach in which quantum information is chaotically encoded to spread its spectral content, and then decoded via chaos synchronization to separate different sender-receiver pairs. In comparison to other existing approaches, such as frequency division multiple access (FDMA), the proposed q-CDMA can greatly increase the information rates per channel used, especially for very noisy quantum channels. PMID:23860488

  14. Quantum internet using code division multiple access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Liu, Yu-Xi; Özdemir, Şahin Kaya; Wu, Re-Bing; Gao, Feifei; Wang, Xiang-Bin; Yang, Lan; Nori, Franco

    2013-07-01

    A crucial open problem inS large-scale quantum networks is how to efficiently transmit quantum data among many pairs of users via a common data-transmission medium. We propose a solution by developing a quantum code division multiple access (q-CDMA) approach in which quantum information is chaotically encoded to spread its spectral content, and then decoded via chaos synchronization to separate different sender-receiver pairs. In comparison to other existing approaches, such as frequency division multiple access (FDMA), the proposed q-CDMA can greatly increase the information rates per channel used, especially for very noisy quantum channels.

  15. NASA's UAS NAS Access Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Charles W.

    2011-01-01

    The vision of the Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project is "A global transportation system which allows routine access for all classes of UAS." The goal of the UAS Integration in the NAS Project is to "contribute capabilities that reduce technical barriers related to the safety and operational challenges associated with enabling routine UAS access to the NAS." This goal will be accomplished through a two-phased approach based on development of system-level integration of key concepts, technologies and/or procedures, and demonstrations of integrated capabilities in an operationally relevant environment. Phase 1 will take place the first two years of the Project and Phase 2 will take place the following three years. The Phase 1 and 2 technical objectives are: Phase 1: Developing a gap analysis between current state of the art and the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) UAS Concept of Operations . Validating the key technical areas identified by this Project . Conducting initial modeling, simulation, and flight testing activities . Completing Sub-project Phase 1 deliverables (spectrum requirements, comparative analysis of certification methodologies, etc.) and continue Phase 2 preparation (infrastructure, tools, etc.) Phase 2: Providing regulators with a methodology for developing airworthiness requirements for UAS, and data to support development of certifications standards and regulatory guidance . Providing systems-level, integrated testing of concepts and/or capabilities that address barriers to routine access to the NAS. Through simulation and flight testing, address issues including separation assurance, communications requirements, and human systems integration in operationally relevant environments. The UAS in the NAS Project will demonstrate solutions in specific technology areas, which will address operational/safety issues related to UAS access to the NAS. Since the resource allocation for

  16. HRP Data Accessibility 2009

    NASA Video Gallery

    Dr. Clarence Sams spoke at the 2009 Human Research Program's Investigators Workshop on the current status of Data Accessibility. In this presentation he discusses the content of the Human Life Scie...

  17. Critical Access Hospitals (CAH)

    MedlinePlus

    ... CAH Conditions of Participation . What are the location requirements for CAH status? Critical Access Hospitals must be ... clinic that does not meet the CAH distance requirements? As of January 1, 2008, all CAHs, including ...

  18. Computer memory access technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zottarelli, L. J.

    1967-01-01

    Computer memory access commutator and steering gate configuration produces bipolar current pulses while still employing only the diodes and magnetic cores of the classic commutator, thereby appreciably reducing the complexity of the memory assembly.

  19. Adapting Web Browsers for Accessibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Paul; Birkmire, Mike

    This paper examines ways to make World Wide Web browsers accessible for individuals with disabilities, and through them, gain access to the information on the Web. It discusses which browsers can be made more accessible and evaluates different types of input. Mouse access, keyboard access, and voice input are reviewed. Processing aids, such as…

  20. Mobile multiple access study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Multiple access techniques (FDMA, CDMA, TDMA) for the mobile user and attempts to identify the current best technique are discussed. Traffic loading is considered as well as voice and data modulation and spacecraft and system design. Emphasis is placed on developing mobile terminal cost estimates for the selected design. In addition, design examples are presented for the alternative techniques of multiple access in order to compare with the selected technique.

  1. Vascular Access in Children

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamurthy, Ganesh Keller, Marc S.

    2011-02-15

    Establishment of stable vascular access is one of the essential and most challenging procedures in a pediatric hospital. Many clinical specialties provide vascular service in a pediatric hospital. At the top of the 'expert procedural pyramid' is the pediatric interventional radiologist, who is best suited and trained to deliver this service. Growing awareness regarding the safety and high success rate of vascular access using image guidance has led to increased demand from clinicians to provide around-the-clock vascular access service by pediatric interventional radiologists. Hence, the success of a vascular access program, with the pediatric interventional radiologist as the key provider, is challenging, and a coordinated multidisciplinary team effort is essential for success. However, there are few dedicated pediatric interventional radiologists across the globe, and also only a couple of training programs exist for pediatric interventions. This article gives an overview of the technical aspects of pediatric vascular access and provides useful tips for obtaining vascular access in children safely and successfully using image guidance.

  2. Access to health care

    PubMed Central

    Fortin, Martin; Maltais, Danielle; Hudon, Catherine; Lapointe, Lise; Ntetu, Antoine Lutumba

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore access to health care for patients presenting with multiple chronic conditions and to identify barriers and factors conducive to access. DESIGN Qualitative study with focus groups. SETTING Family practice unit in Chicoutimi (Saguenay), Que. PARTICIPANTS Twenty-five male and female adult patients with at least four chronic conditions but no cognitive disorders or decompensating conditions. METHODS For this pilot study, only three focus group discussions were held. MAIN FINDINGS The main barriers to accessing follow-up appointments included long waits on the telephone, automated telephone-answering systems, and needing to attend at specific times to obtain appointments. The main barriers to specialized care were long waiting times and the need to get prescriptions and referrals from family physicians. Factors reported conducive to access included systematic callbacks and the personal involvement of family physicians. Good communication between family physicians and specialists was also perceived to be an important factor in access. CONCLUSION Systematic callbacks, family physicians’ personal efforts to obtain follow-up visits, and better physician-specialist communication were all suggested as ways to improve access to care for patients with multiple chronic conditions. PMID:16926944

  3. Making Online Learning Accessible for Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashey, Andrew I.; Stahl, Skip

    2014-01-01

    The growing presence of K-12 online education programs is a trend that promises to increase flexibility, improve efficiency, and foster engagement in learning. Students with disabilities can benefit from dynamic online educational environments, but only to the extent that they can access and participate in the learning process. As students with…

  4. Cable Television, Public Access, and the Speech Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedano, Michael V.

    The nation's communication system of the 1980s--being developed now--will be dominated by a cable television (CTV) and public access to mass communication channels, promising a tremendous enlargement of the country's communication potential, will be a reality. At present, however, the Federal Communication Commission's operational definition of…

  5. Solution Kinetics Database on the Web

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 40 NDRL/NIST Solution Kinetics Database on the Web (Web, free access)   Data for free radical processes involving primary radicals from water, inorganic radicals and carbon-centered radicals in solution, and singlet oxygen and organic peroxyl radicals in various solvents.

  6. NOAA Enterprise Archive Access Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rank, R. H.; McCormick, S.; Cremidis, C.

    2010-12-01

    A challenge for any consumer of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) environmental data archives is that the disparate nature of these archives makes it difficult for consumers to access data in a unified manner. If it were possible for consumers to have seamless access to these archives, they would be able to better utilize the data and thus maximize the return on investment for NOAA’s archival program. When unified data access is coupled with sophisticated data querying and discovery techniques, it will be possible to provide consumers with access to richer data sets and services that extend the use of key NOAA data. Theoretically, there are two ways that unified archive access may be achieved. The first approach is to develop a single archive or archiving standard that would replace the current NOAA archives. However, the development of such an archive would pose significant technical and administrative challenges. The second approach is to develop a middleware application that would provide seamless access to all existing archives, in effect allowing each archive to exist “as is” but providing a translation service for the consumer. This approach is deemed more feasible from an administrative and technical standpoint; however, it still presents unique technical challenges due to the disparate architectures that exist across NOAA archives. NOAA has begun developing the NEAAT. The purpose of NEAAT is to provide a middleware and a simple standardized API between NOAA archives and data consumers. It is important to note that NEAAT serves two main purposes: 1) To provide a single application programming interface (API) that enables designated consumers to write their own custom applications capable of searching and acquiring data seamlessly from multiple NOAA archives. 2) To allow archive managers to expose their data to consumers in conjunction with other NOAA resources without modifying their archiving systems or way of presenting data

  7. Nosocomial infections in dialysis access.

    PubMed

    Schweiger, Alexander; Trevino, Sergio; Marschall, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Nosocomial infections in patients requiring renal replacement therapy have a high impact on morbidity and mortality. The most dangerous complication is bloodstream infection (BSI) associated with the vascular access, with a low BSI risk in arteriovenous fistulas or grafts and a comparatively high risk in central venous catheters. The single most important measure for preventing BSI is therefore the reduction of catheter use by means of early fistula formation. As this is not always feasible, prevention should focus on educational efforts, hand hygiene, surveillance of dialysis-associated events, and specific measures at and after the insertion of catheters. Core measures at the time of insertion include choosing the optimal site of insertion, the use of maximum sterile barrier precautions, adequate skin antisepsis, and the choice of catheter type; after insertion, access care needs to ensure hub disinfection and regular dressing changes. The application of antimicrobial locks is reserved for special situations. Evidence suggests that bundling a selection of the aforementioned measures can significantly reduce infection rates. The diagnosis of central line-associated BSI (CLABSI) is based on clinical signs and microbiological findings in blood cultures ideally drawn both peripherally and from the catheter. The prompt installation of empiric antibiotic treatment covering the most commonly encountered organisms is key regarding CLABSI treatment. Catheter removal is recommended in complicated cases or if cultures yield Staphylococcus aureus, enterococci, Pseudomonas or fungi. In other cases, guide wire exchange or catheter salvage strategies with antibiotic lock solutions may be acceptable alternatives. PMID:25676304

  8. The challenges in making electronic health records accessible to patients

    PubMed Central

    Beard, Leslie; Schein, Rebecca; Morra, Dante; Wilson, Kumanan

    2011-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that there is a tension between growing consumer demands for access to information and a healthcare system that may not be prepared to meet these demands. Designing an effective solution for this problem will require a thorough understanding of the barriers that now stand in the way of giving patients electronic access to their health data. This paper reviews the following challenges related to the sharing of electronic health records: cost and security concerns, problems in assigning responsibilities and rights among the various players, liability issues and tensions between flexible access to data and flexible access to physicians. PMID:22120207

  9. The Public Liberal Arts Sector and America's Promise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellman, Bill

    2010-01-01

    The history of post-secondary education in America since World War II has been in many ways a success story, with greater student access a signature feature of the many changes witnessed on campuses large and small. Much work remains to be done in the area of access and affordability, especially in the financial aid system and in standardized…

  10. Polymer solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Krawczyk, Gerhard Erich; Miller, Kevin Michael

    2011-07-26

    There is provided a method of making a polymer solution comprising polymerizing one or more monomer in a solvent, wherein said monomer comprises one or more ethylenically unsaturated monomer that is a multi-functional Michael donor, and wherein said solvent comprises 40% or more by weight, based on the weight of said solvent, one or more multi-functional Michael donor.

  11. Sound Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkman, Neal

    2007-01-01

    Poor classroom acoustics are impairing students' hearing and their ability to learn. However, technology has come up with a solution: tools that focus voices in a way that minimizes intrusive ambient noise and gets to the intended receiver--not merely amplifying the sound, but also clarifying and directing it. One provider of classroom audio…

  12. Web access to tidal models for TIMED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Forbes, J.; Miyahara, S.; Hagan, M.

    As part of the interdisciplinary investigation "Tides, Planetary Waves, and Eddy Forcing of the Mean MLT Circulation", we provide web-based access to global monthly mean tidal fields from two models: the Kyushu University General Circulation Model, and the NCAR/HAO Global Scale Wave Model. Interactive solutions (Hough functions) to Laplace's Tidal Equation and various animations are also available. Herein, we briefly describe the models and illustrate the various tabular and plot options available. This web site also illustrates web data sharing protocols relevant to wider applications: (1) Balance of public access vs. rights of the investigators - Data sharing agreements, appropriate uses and attribution of the data; (2) Levels of accessibility - Agreement, simple form, application and request for password; (3) Methods of data distribution - Data tables, data files, archived data files, plots; (4) Database management - data dictionary, data recovery, resource lock, security.

  13. Open access publishing -- panacea or Trojan horse?

    PubMed

    Graczyński, Marek R; Moses, Lynn

    2004-01-01

    There has been a great deal of press material and discussion in recent years regarding open access for online professional publishing. The issue has divided publishers, authors and readers, leaving almost no one neutral. This new concept can potentially affect the majority of publishing businesses, creating new leaders and destroying old ones. It may also, if accepted, radically change the ways we use to store, deliver, and retrieve information. The article presents critical view on the current situation in scientific publishing business indicating constantly rising subscription costs as one of the triggers for a change. The authors analyze the 'open access publishing' idea, pointing out the myths and slogans used by its supporters. The criticism has been expressed on a high costs of publishing shifted on to researchers. The authors propose their solution based on lower submission fees and micro-payments for article access, which might be acceptable to all interested: authors, readers and publishers. PMID:14704638

  14. Advanced access appointments

    PubMed Central

    Hudec, John C.; MacDougall, Steven; Rankin, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To examine the effects of advanced access (same-day physician appointments) on patient and provider satisfaction and to determine its association with other variables such as physician income and patient emergency department use. DESIGN Patient satisfaction survey and semistructured interviews with physicians and support staff; analysis of physician medical insurance billings and patient emergency department visits. SETTING Cape Breton, NS. PARTICIPANTS Patients, physicians, and support staff of 3 comparable family physician practices that had not implemented advanced access and an established advanced access practice. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Self-reported provider and patient satisfaction, physician office income, and patients’ emergency department use. RESULTS The key benefits of implementation of advanced access were an increase in provider and patient satisfaction levels, same or greater physician office income, and fewer less urgent (triage level 4) and nonurgent (triage level 5) emergency department visits by patients. CONCLUSION Currently within the Central Cape Breton Region, 33% of patients wait 4 or more days for urgent appointments. Findings from this study can be used to enhance primary care physician practice redesign. This research supports many benefits of transitioning to an advanced access model of patient booking. PMID:20944024

  15. New Drug Shows Promise for Rare Blood Cancers

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159626.html New Drug Shows Promise for Rare Blood Cancers Organ ... exist for people with advanced mastocytosis. So the new findings are "a real advance," said Hromas, who ...

  16. Study Hints At HPV Vaccine's Cancer Prevention Promise

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_159696.html Study Hints at HPV Vaccine's Cancer Prevention Promise Fewer vaccinated young women ... July 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine appears to prevent abnormalities that can lead ...

  17. Protein Replacement Therapy Shows Promise in Treating Rare Skin Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1999 Spotlight on Research 2014 February 2014 (historical) Protein Replacement Therapy Shows Promise in Treating Rare Skin Disorder Replacing a protein that is crucial to ensuring that the skin’s ...

  18. Study Hints At HPV Vaccine's Cancer Prevention Promise

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159696.html Study Hints at HPV Vaccine's Cancer Prevention Promise Fewer vaccinated young women had ... 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine appears to prevent abnormalities that can lead to ...

  19. Gene Therapy Shows Early Promise Against Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158046.html Gene Therapy Shows Early Promise Against Heart Failure Inserting new ... who suffer from heart failure: A trial using gene therapy appears to have boosted patients' cardiac function. "This ...

  20. Salivary Gland Biopsy Shows Promise to Helping to Diagnose Parkinson's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parkinson's HelpLine Learn More Science News Salivary Gland Biopsy Shows Promise to Helping to Diagnose Parkinson’s - Mar ... team performed a procedure called a needle core biopsy of the submandibular glands in 15 people who ...

  1. New Drug Shows Promise for Rare Blood Cancers

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159626.html New Drug Shows Promise for Rare Blood Cancers Organ ... exist for people with advanced mastocytosis. So the new findings are "a real advance," said Hromas, who ...

  2. Pharmaceutical Citizenship: Antidepressant Marketing and the Promise of Demarginalization in India.

    PubMed

    Ecks, Stefan

    2005-12-01

    Among practitioners of biomedicine, to speak of people as 'marginalized' often amounts to saying that they do not have access to medical substances. Thus conceived, the best way to remove marginality seems to be to give medicines to those deprived of them. The peculiar relationship between marginality and pharmaceuticals is especially poignant in the case of antidepressant drugs, as these drugs appear to bring the patient 'back into society', but not any society, but middle-class consumer society. What is now special about antidepressants is that there is nothing special about them: antidepressants are like consumer items among thousands of other consumer items. This paper explores the relations between medicines and marginality with reference to the marketing of antidepressant drugs in Kolkata (Calcutta), India. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork in the Kolkata metropolitan area from July 1999 to December 2000 and in August/September 2003, this paper examines how people with depression are constituted as 'marginal' in the sense of 'being deprived of medication', and how the biomedical promise of an effective pharmacological treatment becomes a promise of 'pharmaceutical citizenship'. In view of Bengali notions of mental health as a state of detachment, the paper asks if pharmacological demarginalization holds the same promise in the Indian context that it holds in the West. PMID:26873669

  3. Distributed Access View Integrated Database (DAVID) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Barry E.

    1991-01-01

    The Distributed Access View Integrated Database (DAVID) System, which was adopted by the Astrophysics Division for their Astrophysics Data System, is a solution to the system heterogeneity problem. The heterogeneous components of the Astrophysics problem is outlined. The Library and Library Consortium levels of the DAVID approach are described. The 'books' and 'kits' level is discussed. The Universal Object Typer Management System level is described. The relation of the DAVID project with the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program is explained.

  4. ISDC Data Access Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, D.; Borkowski, J.; Contessi, T.; Lock, T.; Rohlfs, R.; Walter, R.

    The ISDC Data Access Layer (DAL) is an ANSI C and \\fortran 90 compatible library under development in support of the ESA INTEGRAL mission data analysis software. DALs primary purpose is to isolate the analysis software from the specifics of the data formats while at the same time providing new data abstraction and access capabilities. DAL supports the creation and manipulation of hierarchical data sets which may span multiple files and, in theory, multiple computer systems. A number of Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) are supported by DAL that allow software to view and access data at different levels of complexity. DAL also allows data sets to reside on disk, in conventional memory or in shared memory in a way that is transparent to the user/application.

  5. Compatible solutes

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Colin

    2010-01-01

    Recently we reported a role for compatible solute uptake in mediating bile tolerance and increased gastrointestinal persistence in the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes.1 Herein, we review the evolution in our understanding of how these low molecular weight molecules contribute to growth and survival of the pathogen both inside and outside the body, and how this stress survival mechanism may ultimately be used to target and kill the pathogen. PMID:21326913

  6. Access to space studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James A.

    1993-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is currently considering possible directions in Earth-to-orbit vehicle development under a study called 'Access to Space.' This agency-wide study is considering commercial launch vehicles, human transportation, space station logistics, and other space transportation requirements over the next 40 years. Three options are being considered for human transportation: continued use of the Space Shuttle; development of a small personnel carrier (personnel logistics system (PLS)); or development of an advanced vehicle such as a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO). Several studies related to the overall Access to Space study are reported in this document.

  7. Accessibility | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    Smokefree.gov is committed to providing access to all individuals—disabled or not—who are seeking information on its Web sites. To provide this information, the smokefree.gov Web site has been designed to comply with Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act (as amended). Section 508 requires that all individuals with disabilities (whether they are federal government employees or members of the general public) have access to and use of information and data comparable to that provided to individuals without disabilities, unless an undue burden would be imposed.

  8. How to Perform Transcaval Access and Closure for Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Lederman, Robert J.; Babaliaros, Vasilis C.; Greenbaum, Adam B.

    2016-01-01

    Transcaval, or caval-aortic, access is a promising approach for fully percutaneous trans-catheter aortic valve implantation in patients without good conventional access options. This tutorial review provides step-by-step guidance to planning and executing the procedure, along with approaches to remedy complications. PMID:26356244

  9. How to perform transcaval access and closure for transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Lederman, Robert J; Babaliaros, Vasilis C; Greenbaum, Adam B

    2015-12-01

    Transcaval, or caval-aortic, access is a promising approach for fully percutaneous transcatheter aortic valve implantation in patients without good conventional access options. This tutorial review provides step-by-step guidance to planning and executing the procedure, along with approaches to remedy complications. PMID:26356244

  10. Immersion lithography bevel solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedeschi, Len; Tamada, Osamu; Sanada, Masakazu; Yasuda, Shuichi; Asai, Masaya

    2008-03-01

    The introduction of Immersion lithography, combined with the desire to maximize the number of potential yielding devices per wafer, has brought wafer edge engineering to the forefront for advanced semiconductor manufactures. Bevel cleanliness, the position accuracy of the lithography films, and quality of the EBR cut has become more critical. In this paper, the effectiveness of wafer track based solutions to enable state-of-art bevel schemes is explored. This includes an integrated bevel cleaner and new bevel rinse nozzles. The bevel rinse nozzles are used in the coating process to ensure a precise, clean film edge on or near the bevel. The bevel cleaner is used immediately before the wafer is loaded into the scanner after the coating process. The bevel cleaner shows promise in driving down defectivity levels, specifically printing particles, while not damaging films on the bevel.

  11. Migrants' access to healthcare.

    PubMed

    Norredam, Marie

    2011-10-01

    There are strong pragmatic and moral reasons for receiving societies to address access to healthcare for migrants. Receiving societies have a pragmatic interest in sustaining migrants' health to facilitate integration; they also have a moral obligation to ensure migrants' access to healthcare according to international human rights principles. The intention of this thesis is to increase the understanding of migrants' access to healthcare by exploring two study aims: 1) Are there differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants? (substudy I and II); and 2) Why are there possible differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants? (substudy III and IV). The thesis builds on different methodological approaches using both register-based retrospective cohort design, cross-sectional design and survey methods. Two different measures of access were used to explore differences: 1) cancer stage at diagnosis as a clinical outcome and 2) emergency room (ER) contacts as a utilisation measure. Both informal and formal barriers to access were studied to explore why possible differences existed including: 1) motivation for using ER; and 2) asylum seekers' healthcare entitlements. Different definitions of migration and ethnicity were investigated including: country of birth and residence status. Substudy I showed a tendency towards more advanced stage at diagnosis or unknown stage among most subgroups of migrant women with a history of cancer compared to non-migrant women. Sub-study II found that some migrants (those born in Somalia, Turkey and Ex-Yugoslavia) use ER services more frequently than do non-migrants whereas others have the same or lower utilisation levels. As a consequence, substudy III was undertaken, which documented that more migrant within all subgroups had considered contacting a primary caregiver before visiting the ER compared to non-migrants, but that migrants experienced communication problems herein

  12. Digital Scholarship and Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losoff, Barbara; Pence, Harry E.

    2010-01-01

    Open access publications provide scholars with unrestricted access to the "conversation" that is the basis for the advancement of knowledge. The large number of open access journals, archives, and depositories already in existence demonstrates the technical and economic viability of providing unrestricted access to the literature that is the…

  13. Unique Access to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goble, Don

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the many learning opportunities that broadcast technology students at Ladue Horton Watkins High School in St. Louis, Missouri, experience because of their unique access to technology and methods of learning. Through scaffolding, stepladder techniques, and trial by fire, students learn to produce multiple television programs,…

  14. Internet 2 Access Grid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simco, Greg

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of the Internet 2 Initiative, which is based on collaboration among universities, businesses, and government, focuses on the Access Grid, a Computational Grid that includes interactive multimedia within high-speed networks to provide resources to enable remote collaboration among the research community. (Author/LRW)

  15. A matter of access

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zheng; Chen, Kaifu; Li, Wei; Tyler, Jessica K

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism whereby transcriptional activators facilitate transcription activation has been debated. Our recent genome-wide profiling of gene expression during aging, where nucleosomes are depleted, indicates that the function of seemingly all transcriptional activators is to trigger nucleosome disassembly from promoters to allow the general transcription machinery access to the DNA. PMID:25764221

  16. Serving up Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    When low-income students returned to Chicago public schools this fall, many had better access to technology, thanks to a public-private partnership. Chicago families with children enrolled in the National School Lunch Program are eligible for subsidized computers and Internet connections through an agreement between the city and telecom giant…

  17. ACCESS PENNSYLVANIA Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Library, Harrisburg.

    This curriculum guide was prepared as a tool for teaching students the purpose and function of the ACCESS PENNSYLVANIA database in the total concept of information literacy. The database on compact laser disc contains information about the holdings of hundreds of school, public, academic, and special use libraries. The database can be searched at…

  18. Accessibility Standards, Illustrated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Michael A.

    The book sets forth Illinois environmental accessibility standards for disabled persons based on observation and interview data. Photographs, drawings, and detailed floor plans are included in sections dealing with human data (including space requirements for maneuvering wheelchairs, color blindness, incontinence, and severe auditory or visual…

  19. College Access Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    College Access Marketing (CAM) is a relatively new phenomenon that seeks to positively influence the college-going rate. This report defines CAM, describes CAM examples, and discusses how CAM seeks to counter barriers to college. It explores four main elements of CAM: information, marketing, advocacy, and social mobilization. Further, it…

  20. Partners: Promoting Accessible Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Janet; Gravink, Jill

    1995-01-01

    The Promoting Accessible Recreation through Networking, Education, Resources and Services (PARTNERS) Project, a partnership between Northeast Passage, the University of New Hampshire, and Granite State Independent Living Foundation, helps create barrier-free recreation for individuals with physical disabilities. The paper describes PARTNERS and…

  1. Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Housing and Urban Development, Washington, DC.

    The document presents uniform standards for facility accessibility by physically handicapped persons for Federal and federally funded facilities. The standards are to be applied during the design, construction, and alteration of buildings and facilities to the extent required by the Architectural Barriers Act of 1968, as amended. Technical…

  2. Improved Access to Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Sandra; Simkins, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Describes efforts by principal of the Willow Elementary School in the Charter Oak Unified School District (California) to provide students with technology-enhanced access to information and learning resources to improve reading and mathematics skills. Includes list of the Web addresses for the skills software used at the school. (PKP)

  3. CAS. Controlled Access Security

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, B.; Pomeroy, G.

    1989-12-01

    The Security Alarm System is a data acquisition and control system which collects data from intrusion sensors and displays the information in a real-time environment for operators. The Access Control System monitors and controls the movement of personnel with the use of card readers and biometrics hand readers.

  4. ACCESS Project: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, Heiko

    2015-04-01

    The ACCESS project addressed the development, testing, and demonstration of the proposed advanced technologies and the associated emission and fuel economy improvement at an engine dynamometer and on a full-scale vehicle. Improve fuel economy by 25% with minimum performance penalties Achieve SULEV level emissions with gasoline Demonstrate multi-mode combustion engine management system

  5. Strategies for Improving Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hore, Terry; Barwood, Bryan

    1989-01-01

    The development of the varied strategies that have been introduced in order to improve access for disadvantaged groups at Monash University is discussed. The Junior University Programme, the Monash Orientation Scheme for Aborigines, the Mature Age Special Admission Scheme, Special Entry Scheme, and the Schools Link Programme are described. (MLW)

  6. Access to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunken, Anna; Delly, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Changes to education in Australia have seen new government legislations increasing educational pathways so students can more easily enter university, the aim being to increase participation. Now, many domestic students utilise various pathways to access university. Some have undertaken basic Further Education Diplomas, received subject credits,…

  7. User-Centered Indexing for Adaptive Information Access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, James R.; Mathe, Nathalie

    1996-01-01

    We are focusing on information access tasks characterized by large volume of hypermedia connected technical documents, a need for rapid and effective access to familiar information, and long-term interaction with evolving information. The problem for technical users is to build and maintain a personalized task-oriented model of the information to quickly access relevant information. We propose a solution which provides user-centered adaptive information retrieval and navigation. This solution supports users in customizing information access over time. It is complementary to information discovery methods which provide access to new information, since it lets users customize future access to previously found information. It relies on a technique, called Adaptive Relevance Network, which creates and maintains a complex indexing structure to represent personal user's information access maps organized by concepts. This technique is integrated within the Adaptive HyperMan system, which helps NASA Space Shuttle flight controllers organize and access large amount of information. It allows users to select and mark any part of a document as interesting, and to index that part with user-defined concepts. Users can then do subsequent retrieval of marked portions of documents. This functionality allows users to define and access personal collections of information, which are dynamically computed. The system also supports collaborative review by letting users share group access maps. The adaptive relevance network provides long-term adaptation based both on usage and on explicit user input. The indexing structure is dynamic and evolves over time. Leading and generalization support flexible retrieval of information under similar concepts. The network is geared towards more recent information access, and automatically manages its size in order to maintain rapid access when scaling up to large hypermedia space. We present results of simulated learning experiments.

  8. Fixed Access Network Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornaglia, Bruno; Young, Gavin; Marchetta, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Fixed broadband network deployments are moving inexorably to the use of Next Generation Access (NGA) technologies and architectures. These NGA deployments involve building fiber infrastructure increasingly closer to the customer in order to increase the proportion of fiber on the customer's access connection (Fibre-To-The-Home/Building/Door/Cabinet… i.e. FTTx). This increases the speed of services that can be sold and will be increasingly required to meet the demands of new generations of video services as we evolve from HDTV to "Ultra-HD TV" with 4k and 8k lines of video resolution. However, building fiber access networks is a costly endeavor. It requires significant capital in order to cover any significant geographic coverage. Hence many companies are forming partnerships and joint-ventures in order to share the NGA network construction costs. One form of such a partnership involves two companies agreeing to each build to cover a certain geographic area and then "cross-selling" NGA products to each other in order to access customers within their partner's footprint (NGA coverage area). This is tantamount to a bi-lateral wholesale partnership. The concept of Fixed Access Network Sharing (FANS) is to address the possibility of sharing infrastructure with a high degree of flexibility for all network operators involved. By providing greater configuration control over the NGA network infrastructure, the service provider has a greater ability to define the network and hence to define their product capabilities at the active layer. This gives the service provider partners greater product development autonomy plus the ability to differentiate from each other at the active network layer.

  9. Clean Energy Solutions Center (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Reategui, S.

    2012-07-01

    The Clean Energy Ministerial launched the Clean Energy Solutions Center in April, 2011 for major economy countries, led by Australia and U.S. with other CEM partners. Partnership with UN-Energy is extending scope to support all developing countries: 1. Enhance resources on policies relating to energy access, small to medium enterprises (SMEs), and financing programs; 2. Offer expert policy assistance to all countries; 3. Expand peer to peer learning, training, and deployment and policy data for developing countries.

  10. Analysis and solutions of security issues in Ethernet PON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Yu; Jiang, Tao; Xiao, Dingzhong

    2005-02-01

    Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON), which combines the low cost Ethernet equipment and economic fiber infrastructure, is being considered as a promising solution for Fiber-To-The-Home (FTTH). However, since EPON is an optical shared medium network, some unique features make it more vulnerable to security attacks. In this paper, the key security threats of EPON are firstly analyzed. And then, considering some specific properties which might be utilized for security, such as the safety of transmissions in upstream direction, some novel methods are presented to solve security problems. Firstly, based on some modification about registration, the mechanism of access control is achieved. Secondly, we implement an AES-128 symmetrical encryption and decryption in the EPON system. The AES-128 algorithm can process data blocks of 128 bits, but the length of Ethernet frame is variable. How to deal with the last block, which is not up to 128 bits, is discussed in detail. Finally, key update is accomplished through a vendor specific OAM frame in order to enhance the level of security. The proposed mechanism will remain in conformance with P2MP specification defined by 802.3ah TF, and can supply a complete security solution for EPON.

  11. Detecting Inappropriate Access to Electronic Health Records Using Collaborative Filtering.

    PubMed

    Menon, Aditya Krishna; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Kim, Jihoon; Vaidya, Jaideep; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

    2014-04-01

    Many healthcare facilities enforce security on their electronic health records (EHRs) through a corrective mechanism: some staff nominally have almost unrestricted access to the records, but there is a strict ex post facto audit process for inappropriate accesses, i.e., accesses that violate the facility's security and privacy policies. This process is inefficient, as each suspicious access has to be reviewed by a security expert, and is purely retrospective, as it occurs after damage may have been incurred. This motivates automated approaches based on machine learning using historical data. Previous attempts at such a system have successfully applied supervised learning models to this end, such as SVMs and logistic regression. While providing benefits over manual auditing, these approaches ignore the identity of the users and patients involved in a record access. Therefore, they cannot exploit the fact that a patient whose record was previously involved in a violation has an increased risk of being involved in a future violation. Motivated by this, in this paper, we propose a collaborative filtering inspired approach to predicting inappropriate accesses. Our solution integrates both explicit and latent features for staff and patients, the latter acting as a personalized "finger-print" based on historical access patterns. The proposed method, when applied to real EHR access data from two tertiary hospitals and a file-access dataset from Amazon, shows not only significantly improved performance compared to existing methods, but also provides insights as to what indicates an inappropriate access. PMID:24683293

  12. Internet Business Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Cogent Software, Inc. was formed in January 1995 by David Atkinson and Irene Woerner, both former employees of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Several other Cogent employees also worked at JPL. Atkinson headed JPL's Information Systems Technology section and Woerner lead the Advanced User Interfaces Group. Cogent's mission is to help companies organize and manage their online content by developing advanced software for the next generation of online directories and information catalogs. The company offers a complete range of Internet solutions, including Internet access, Web site design, local and wide-area networks, and custom software for online commerce applications. Cogent also offers DesignSphere Online, an electronic community for the communications arts industry. Customers range from small offices to manufacturers with thousands of employees, including Chemi-Con, one of the largest manufacturers of capacitors in the world.

  13. Physical Activity and Food Environments: Solutions to the Obesity Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Sallis, James F; Glanz, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Context: Environmental, policy, and societal changes are important contributors to the rapid rise in obesity over the past few decades, and there has been substantial progress toward identifying environmental and policy factors related to eating and physical activity that can point toward solutions. This article is a status report on research on physical activity and food environments, and it suggests how these findings can be used to improve diet and physical activity and to control or reduce obesity. Methods: This article summarizes and synthesizes recent reviews and provides examples of representative studies. It also describes ongoing innovative interventions and policy change efforts that were identified through conference presentations, media coverage, and websites. Findings: Numerous cross-sectional studies have consistently demonstrated that some attributes of built and food environments are associated with physical activity, healthful eating, and obesity. Residents of walkable neighborhoods who have good access to recreation facilities are more likely to be physically active and less likely to be overweight or obese. Residents of communities with ready access to healthy foods also tend to have more healthful diets. Disparities in environments and policies that disadvantage low-income communities and racial minorities have been documented as well. Evidence from multilevel studies, prospective research, and quasi-experimental evaluations of environmental changes are just beginning to emerge. Conclusions: Environment, policy, and multilevel strategies for improving diet, physical activity, and obesity control are recommended based on a rapidly growing body of research and the collective wisdom of leading expert organizations. A public health imperative to identify and implement solutions to the obesity epidemic warrants the use of the most promising strategies while continuing to build the evidence base. PMID:19298418

  14. Promise-based management: the essence of execution.

    PubMed

    Sull, Donald N; Spinosa, Charles

    2007-04-01

    Critical initiatives stall for a variety of reasons--employee disengagement, a lack of coordination between functions, complex organizational structures that obscure accountability, and so on. To overcome such obstacles, managers must fundamentally rethink how work gets done. Most of the challenges stem from broken or poorly crafted commitments. That's because every company is, at its heart, a dynamic network of promises made between employees and colleagues, customers, outsourcing partners, or other stakeholders. Executives can overcome many problems in the short-term and foster productive, reliable workforces for the long-term by practicing what the authors call "promise-based management," which involves cultivating and coordinating commitments in a systematic way. Good promises share five qualities: They are public, active, voluntary, explicit, and mission based. To develop and execute an effective promise, the "provider" and the "customer" in the deal should go through three phases of conversation. The first, achieving a meeting of minds, entails exploring the fundamental questions of coordinated effort: What do you mean? Do you understand what I mean? What should I do? What will you do? Who else should we talk to? In the next phase, making it happen, the provider executes on the promise. In the final phase, closing the loop, the customer publicly declares that the provider has either delivered the goods or failed to do so. Leaders must weave and manage their webs of promises with great care-encouraging iterative conversation and making sure commitments are fulfilled reliably. If they do, they can enhance coordination and cooperation among colleagues, build the organizational agility required to seize new business opportunities, and tap employees' entrepreneurial energies. PMID:17432155

  15. Empty Promises: The Myth of College Access in America. A Report of the Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ficklen, Ellen, Ed.; Stone, Jeneva E., Ed.

    Because of record high financial barriers, nearly one-half of all college-qualified low- and moderate-income high school graduates, more than 400,000 students, will be unable to attend a four-year college in 2002, and 170,000 of these students will not be able to attend college at all. Over a decade, 4.4 million qualified students will not attend…

  16. Polybenzimidazole as a promising support for metal catalysis: morphology and molecular accessibility in the dry and swollen state

    PubMed

    D'Archivio; Galantini; Biffis; Jerabek; Corain

    2000-03-01

    Polybenzimidazole (PBI) in beaded form (250-500 microm) has been characterized in the dry state by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), BET, and nitrogen porosimetry. In the swollen state, it has been characterized by inverse steric exclusion chromatography (ISEC) in tetrahydrofuran, toluene, and water, by ESR of TEMPONE (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-oxo-1-oxypiperidine), and pulse field gradient spin echo (PGSE) NMR spectroscopy, toluene, in tetrahydrofuran, ethanol and water. The dry-state results are in good agreement with the ISEC results obtained in tetrahydrofuran, toluene, and water with regard to the 40-80 nm macroporosity. The swelling-dependent surface area and pore volume detected by ISEC in toluene and water reveal the amphiphilic nature of PBI. PMID:10826601

  17. Promises and challenges of nanomaterials for lithium-based rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yongming; Liu, Nian; Cui, Yi

    2016-07-01

    Tremendous progress has been made in the development of lithium-based rechargeable batteries in recent decades. Discoveries of new electrode materials as well as new storage mechanisms have substantially improved battery performance. In particular, nanomaterials design has emerged as a promising solution to tackle many fundamental problems in conventional battery materials. Here we discuss in detail several key issues in batteries, such as electrode volume change, solid–electrolyte interphase formation, electron and ion transport, and electrode atom/molecule movement, and then analyse the advantages presented by nanomaterials design. In addition, we discuss the challenges caused by using nanomaterials in batteries, including undesired parasitic reactions with electrolytes, low volumetric and areal energy density, and high costs from complex multi-step processing, and their possible solutions.

  18. Xeroradiography: Stagnated after a Promising Beginning? A Historical Review

    PubMed Central

    Udoye, Christopher I.; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

    2010-01-01

    Various methods have been introduced for obtaining radiographs. Xeroradiography which is a method of imaging uses the xeroradiographic copying process to record images produced by diagnostic x-rays. It differs from halide film technique in that it involves neither wet chemical processing nor the use of dark room. Literature on this subject is scarce. After an initial promising beginning, this imaging method, once thought to hold the key to endodontic imaging, got stagnated. A revisit of this promising endodontic imaging system would therefore be appropriate. The purpose of this study was to review xeroradiographic technique as a roentgenographic imaging system. PMID:20046488

  19. Spatiotemporal accessible solitons in fractional dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Wei-Ping; Belić, Milivoj R.; Malomed, Boris A.; Zhang, Yiqi; Huang, Tingwen

    2016-07-01

    We report solutions for solitons of the "accessible" type in globally nonlocal nonlinear media of fractional dimension (FD), viz., for self-trapped modes in the space of effective dimension 2 solutions are categorized by a combination of radial, orbital, and azimuthal quantum numbers (n ,l ,m ) . They feature coaxial sets of vortical and necklace-shaped rings of different orders, and can be exactly written in terms of special functions that include Gegenbauer polynomials, associated Laguerre polynomials, and associated Legendre functions. The validity of these solutions is verified by direct simulations. The model can be realized in various physical settings emulated by FD spaces; in particular, it applies to excitons trapped in quantum wells.

  20. Spatiotemporal accessible solitons in fractional dimensions.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Wei-Ping; Belić, Milivoj R; Malomed, Boris A; Zhang, Yiqi; Huang, Tingwen

    2016-07-01

    We report solutions for solitons of the "accessible" type in globally nonlocal nonlinear media of fractional dimension (FD), viz., for self-trapped modes in the space of effective dimension 2solutions are categorized by a combination of radial, orbital, and azimuthal quantum numbers (n,l,m). They feature coaxial sets of vortical and necklace-shaped rings of different orders, and can be exactly written in terms of special functions that include Gegenbauer polynomials, associated Laguerre polynomials, and associated Legendre functions. The validity of these solutions is verified by direct simulations. The model can be realized in various physical settings emulated by FD spaces; in particular, it applies to excitons trapped in quantum wells. PMID:27575132

  1. Promising applications of graphene and graphene-based nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Bich Ha; Hieu Nguyen, Van

    2016-06-01

    The present article is a review of research works on promising applications of graphene and graphene-based nanostructures. It contains five main scientific subjects. The first one is the research on graphene-based transparent and flexible conductive films for displays and electrodes: efficient method ensuring uniform and controllable deposition of reduced graphene oxide thin films over large areas, large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchble transparent electrodes, utilization of graphene-based transparent conducting films and graphene oxide-based ones in many photonic and optoelectronic devices and equipments such as the window electrodes of inorganic, organic and dye-sensitized solar cells, organic light-emitting diodes, light-emitting electrochemical cells, touch screens, flexible smart windows, graphene-based saturated absorbers in laser cavities for ultrafast generations, graphene-based flexible, transparent heaters in automobile defogging/deicing systems, heatable smart windows, graphene electrodes for high-performance organic field-effect transistors, flexible and transparent acoustic actuators and nanogenerators etc. The second scientific subject is the research on conductive inks for printed electronics to revolutionize the electronic industry by producing cost-effective electronic circuits and sensors in very large quantities: preparing high mobility printable semiconductors, low sintering temperature conducting inks, graphene-based ink by liquid phase exfoliation of graphite in organic solutions, and developing inkjet printing technique for mass production of high-quality graphene patterns with high resolution and for fabricating a variety of good-performance electronic devices, including transparent conductors, embedded resistors, thin-film transistors and micro supercapacitors. The third scientific subject is the research on graphene-based separation membranes: molecular dynamics simulation study on the mechanisms of the transport of

  2. Early market access of cancer drugs in the EU.

    PubMed

    Martinalbo, J; Bowen, D; Camarero, J; Chapelin, M; Démolis, P; Foggi, P; Jonsson, B; Llinares, J; Moreau, A; O'Connor, D; Oliveira, J; Vamvakas, S; Pignatti, F

    2016-01-01

    Patient access to new cancer drugs in the EU involves centralised licensing decisions by regulators as well as reimbursement recommendations in the context of national healthcare systems. Differences in assessment criteria and evidence requirements may result in divergent decisions at central and national levels, ultimately compromising effective access to patients. Early access decisions are particularly challenging due to the limited clinical evidence available to conclude on the benefit-risk and relative (cost-) effectiveness of new high-priced cancer drugs. We describe mechanisms to accelerate approval of promising anticancer drugs that fulfil an unmet medical need, review the experience from the European Medicines Agency, compare timelines and outcomes of reimbursement decisions in major EU markets, and discuss shortcomings of the current system, ongoing initiatives, and future steps to facilitate effective early access. PMID:26487583

  3. Promising applications of graphene and graphene-based nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Bich Ha; Hieu Nguyen, Van

    2016-06-01

    The present article is a review of research works on promising applications of graphene and graphene-based nanostructures. It contains five main scientific subjects. The first one is the research on graphene-based transparent and flexible conductive films for displays and electrodes: efficient method ensuring uniform and controllable deposition of reduced graphene oxide thin films over large areas, large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchble transparent electrodes, utilization of graphene-based transparent conducting films and graphene oxide-based ones in many photonic and optoelectronic devices and equipments such as the window electrodes of inorganic, organic and dye-sensitized solar cells, organic light-emitting diodes, light-emitting electrochemical cells, touch screens, flexible smart windows, graphene-based saturated absorbers in laser cavities for ultrafast generations, graphene-based flexible, transparent heaters in automobile defogging/deicing systems, heatable smart windows, graphene electrodes for high-performance organic field-effect transistors, flexible and transparent acoustic actuators and nanogenerators etc. The second scientific subject is the research on conductive inks for printed electronics to revolutionize the electronic industry by producing cost-effective electronic circuits and sensors in very large quantities: preparing high mobility printable semiconductors, low sintering temperature conducting inks, graphene-based ink by liquid phase exfoliation of graphite in organic solutions, and developing inkjet printing technique for mass production of high-quality graphene patterns with high resolution and for fabricating a variety of good-performance electronic devices, including transparent conductors, embedded resistors, thin-film transistors and micro supercapacitors. The third scientific subject is the research on graphene-based separation membranes: molecular dynamics simulation study on the mechanisms of the transport of

  4. Solution Leaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Tiejun; Zhu, Deqing; Pan, Jian; He, Zhen

    2014-06-01

    Recovery of alumina from magnetic separation tailings of red mud has been investigated by Na2CO3 solution leaching. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that most of the alumina is present as 12CaO·7Al2O3 and CaO·Al2O3 in the magnetic separation tailings. The shrinking core model was employed to describe the leaching kinetics. The results show that the calculated activation energy of 8.31 kJ/mol is characteristic for an internal diffusion-controlled process. The kinetic equation can be used to describe the leaching process. The effects of Na2CO3 concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, and particle size on recovery of Al2O3 were examined.

  5. Accessing Space Weather Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, D.; Weiss, M.; Immer, E. A.; Patrone, D.; Potter, M.; Barnes, R. J.; Colclough, C.; Holder, R.

    2009-12-01

    To meet the needs of our technology based society, space weather forecasting needs to be advanced and this will entail collaboration amongst research, military and commercial communities to find new ways to understand, characterize, and forecast. In this presentation VITMO, the Virtual Ionosphere-Thermosphere-Mesosphere Observatory will be used as a prototype for a generalized system as a means to bring together a set of tools to access data, models and online collaboration tools to enable rapid progress. VITMO, available at http://vitmo.jhuapl.edu/, currently provides a data access portal for researchers and scientists to enable finding data products as well as access to tools and models. To further the needs of space weather forecasters, the existing VITMO data holdings need to be expanded to provide additional datasets as well as integrating relevant models and model output. VITMO can easily be adapted for the Space Weather domain in its entirety. In this presentation, we will demonstrate how VITMO and the VITMO architecture can be utilized as a prototype in support of integration of Space Weather forecasting tools, models and data.

  6. Working Concept of Accessibility

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Bastian J.; Rouphail, Nagui M.; Hughes, Ronald G.

    2010-01-01

    This research presents an analysis framework and associated performance measures for quantifying the accessibility of pedestrian crossings at modern roundabouts for pedestrians who are blind. The measures, developed under two ongoing national research projects, NCHRP Project 3-78A and a bioengineering research grant from the National Institutes of Health–National Eye Institute, attempt to isolate the components of the crossing task for a blind pedestrian into computable and replicable quantities that allow the comparison of accessibility across individuals or sites. The framework differentiates between crossing opportunities in the form of yields and crossable gaps and the utilization of these opportunities by the pedestrian. It further accounts for the amount of delay and risk involved in the crossing. The analysis framework and measures are demonstrated for two single-lane roundabouts in North Carolina evaluated under the aforementioned research projects. The application shows that the accessibility of a pedestrian crossing to a blind pedestrian is characterized by a combination of different measures and further depends on crossing geometry, traffic volume, driver behavior, and the travel skills and risk-taking behavior of the individual. With successful demonstration at roundabout crosswalks, the analysis framework is hypothesized to have broader application to unsignalized pedestrian crossings, including midblock locations. PMID:20664802

  7. Remote access thyroid surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Parisha; Mohamed, Hossam Eldin; Kadi, Abida; Walvekar, Rohan R.

    2015-01-01

    Robot assisted thyroid surgery has been the latest advance in the evolution of thyroid surgery after endoscopy assisted procedures. The advantage of a superior field vision and technical advancements of robotic technology have permitted novel remote access (trans-axillary and retro-auricular) surgical approaches. Interestingly, several remote access surgical ports using robot surgical system and endoscopic technique have been customized to avoid the social stigma of a visible scar. Current literature has displayed their various advantages in terms of post-operative outcomes; however, the associated financial burden and also additional training and expertise necessary hinder its widespread adoption into endocrine surgery practices. These approaches offer excellent cosmesis, with a shorter learning curve and reduce discomfort to surgeons operating ergonomically through a robotic console. This review aims to provide details of various remote access techniques that are being offered for thyroid resection. Though these have been reported to be safe and feasible approaches for thyroid surgery, further evaluation for their efficacy still remains. PMID:26425450

  8. Digital imaging access library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Jay F.; Hansen, Mark; Francoise, James J.; Leckie, Robert G.; Smith, Donald V.

    1994-05-01

    The ability to access a vast array of radiological and pathologic diagnoses through computer searches of local medical facility databases is a by-product of the continued development of filmless imaging systems. The Department of Defense (DoD) Medical Diagnostic Imaging Support initiative is expanding through the addition of on-line systems at several DoD health care facilities. Madigan Army Medical Center, as the initial site, will soon be 90% filmless, with over one million images archived. Multiple other DoD medical centers are under installation. The eventual goal is an interconnected network of PACS systems of DoD medical centers and their supported medical facilities throughout the United States. To access this potential pool of medical information requires a centralized database capable of acting as a diagnostic index system. The establishment of a multi-center film library index begins with an initial analysis of issues regarding data storage and access, indexing, cross-coding with pathological files, communication formats, cost sharing, and patient confidentiality. In initiating these first steps to developing this telecommunications library these issues and their implications are discussed. The final implementation of this system will facilitate markedly improved research and teaching capabilities in both radiological and pathological fields.

  9. The Economic Promise of Investing in High-Quality Preschool: Using Early Education to Improve Economic Growth and the Fiscal Sustainability of States and the Nation. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Committee for Economic Development, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Preschool programs have long prepared children for early educational success, but investing in high-quality early education also offers promising ways to strengthen the future economic and fiscal position of states and the nation. The Committee for Economic Development (CED) believes that broadening access to preschool programs for all children is…

  10. Dopamine and the cognitive downside of a promised bonus

    PubMed Central

    Aarts, Esther; Wallace, Deanna L.; Dang, Linh C.; Jagust, William; Cools, Roshan; D'Esposito, Mark

    2014-01-01

    It is often assumed that the promise of a monetary bonus improves cognitive control. We show that in fact appetitive motivation can also impair cognitive control, depending on baseline levels of dopamine synthesis capacity in the striatum. These data demonstrate not only that appetitive motivation can have paradoxical detrimental effects for cognitive control, but also provide a mechanistic account of these effects. PMID:24525265

  11. Investigating the Promise of Learner Corpora: Methodological Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendar, Nick; Chapelle, Carol A.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers working with learner corpora promise quantitative results that would be of greater practical value in areas such as CALL than those from small-scale and qualitative studies. However, learner corpus research has not yet had an impact on practices in teaching and assessment. Significant methodological issues need to be examined if…

  12. Competency Education Offers Promise and Peril for Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritterband, Vicki; Heller, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Lindsay Unified School District (California) exemplifies the promise of competency education (or performance-based education, as it is called locally). Since beginning its transition to the model in 2009, discipline problems have sharply dropped, the school climate has dramatically improved (as measured by the California Healthy Kids Survey), and…

  13. Promises to Practice: Learning a PROactive Approach to Ethical Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambery, Mary Elizabeth; Steinbrunner, Ruth K.

    2007-01-01

    Learning to be PROactive, as the title of this article suggests, means Pooling one's knowledge, Reflecting respect, and Opening oneself to action. It recognizes early childhood educators' promises to their field of practice, based on widely held beliefs and principles. Educators can apply professional ethics to everyday problem solving and their…

  14. Fulfilling the Promise of School Choice. Education Outlook. No. 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Frederick M.

    2008-01-01

    Nearly two decades have passed since the Wisconsin legislature enacted the landmark Milwaukee Parental Choice Program. Advocates had hoped and promised that this experiment in school choice would lead the way in transforming American schools. But it is clear by now that voucher programs and charter school laws have failed to live up to their…

  15. Evaluating the Promise of the "FUSION" Tier 2 Math Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cary, Mari Strand; Doabler, Christian; Clarke, Benjamin; Fien, Hank; Baker, Scott K.; Jungjohann, Kathy J.

    2013-01-01

    The low level of mathematics performance of U.S. students in relation to national standards and in international comparisons has concerned educators and policy makers for many years. The authors' primary goals were to design a feasible and usable intervention and gather data on the promise of the intervention to foster students' conceptual…

  16. The Promised Land: Moses, Nearing, Skinner, Le Guin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrelly, James P.

    1981-01-01

    Perceives utopia as the quest for the promised land. Proposes such quests derive from Moses delivering his people from captivity to a new place on earth. Cites true fictional accounts enjoining the need to strive for perfection and search for a site to build a perfect society (Editor/DMM)

  17. The Promise of Global Networks. 1999 Annual Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Information Studies, Queenstown, MD.

    This collection of commissioned papers provides a variety of perspectives on the impact of global information networks. The following articles are included: "The Promise of Global Networks: An Introduction" (Jorge Reina Schement); "Architecture and Expectations: Networks of the World--Unite!" (Marjory S. Blumenthal); "The Regulation of Global…

  18. Promising Practices: A Teacher Resource (Grades K-3).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provenzano, Johanna Z., Ed.

    A collection of promising instructional practices for teachers of limited-English-speaking primary grade students is organized as a series of lessons on planning, classroom management, teaching procedures, and evaluation in a variety of content areas. Examples of basic learning activities intended to serve as a framework for teacher…

  19. A Bold and Promising Model with a Few Loose Ends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Roland S.

    2012-01-01

    Without a doubt the authors' proposal of viewing gifted education in systemic terms is a promising one. In fact, it is most refreshing to read something eclectic like this with an aim to synthesize a field of research and practice which for too long has lacked consensus in both practice and theory. The author agrees with them that a mechanistic…

  20. The Math Promise: Celebrating at Home and School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legnard, Danielle; Austin, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The Math Promise is a contract that family members make with one another. They commit to spending mathematical time together; getting to know each other's mathematical thinking and understanding; and finding time to play math games, solve problems, and notice mathematics in their daily lives. Whether parents and children are cooking in the…

  1. Parent Trigger Laws and the Promise of Parental Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, William C.; Rowland, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Parent trigger laws have gained momentum nationally under the premise that they will increase local authority by amplifying parental voice in the decision to turn around "failing" schools. Using Hirschman's exit, voice, and loyalty framework we create two conceptual models of voice and evaluate the promise of voice in California,…

  2. Contextualized Teaching & Learning: A Promising Approach for Basic Skills Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Elaine DeLott; Hope, Laura; Karandjeff, Kelley

    2009-01-01

    Contextualized teaching and learning (CTL), or the concept of relating subject matter content to meaningful situations that are relevant to students' lives, offers one promising approach to helping students learn more effectively. This brief offers instructors, college leaders, policy makers and funders a high-level summary of the CTL…

  3. Promises of Money Meant to Heighten Student Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ash, Katie

    2008-01-01

    Does motivating students to study harder with the promise of cash sound like innovation--or bribery? That's a question educators and researchers have been debating, amid concerns that money-for-achievement programs actually decrease students' intrinsic motivation to learn and send mixed messages about studying. But the idea is catching on, with…

  4. Race to Top Promises Come Home to Roost

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Grant recipients risk losing millions of dollars in Race to the Top money if they fail to live up to their promises, federal education officials make clear. By threatening to revoke Hawaii's $75 million Race to the Top award for failing to make "adequate progress" on key milestones of its education reform plan, U.S. Secretary of Education Arne…

  5. Gender Equity Expert Panel: Exemplary & Promising Gender Equity Programs, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    The U.S. Department of Education developed the Gender Equity Expert Panel to identify promising and exemplary programs that promote gender equity in and through education. This panel of experts reviewed self-nominated programs to determine whether they met four criteria: evidence of success/effectiveness in promoting gender equity; quality of the…

  6. Every Child Every Promise Workforce Readiness. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    America's Promise Alliance (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    The third "Every Child, Every Promise" research brief focuses on the large percentage of the children and youth who will enter the workforce over the next two decades are lacking enough of the "soft" or applied skills--such as teamwork, decision-making, and communication--that will help them become effective employees and managers. The report…

  7. Promising Teacher Practices: Students' Views about Their Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeed, Azra; Easterbrook, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Internationally, conceptual and procedural understanding, understanding the Nature of Science, and scientific literacy are considered worthy goals of school science education in modern times. The empirical study presented here reports on promising teacher practices that in the students' views afford learning opportunities and support their science…

  8. Utility, Limitations, and Promise of Proteomics in Animal Science

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteomics experiments have the ability to simultaneously identify and quantify thousands of proteins in one experiment. The use of this technology in veterinary/animal science is still in its infancy, yet it holds significant promise as a method for advancing veterinary/animal science research. E...

  9. The Kalamazoo Promise and Perceived Changes in School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miron, Gary; Jones, Jeffrey N.; Kelaher-Young, Allison J.

    2011-01-01

    The Kalamazoo Promise was announced in the fall of 2005, offering free college tuition at any public state college or university for graduates of the district who have gained acceptance to a postsecondary institution. This program was funded through the generous support of anonymous donors, and a federally-funded evaluation is underway to examine…

  10. Promising Practices in Drug Treatment: Findings from Southeast Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libretto, Salvatore; Nemes, Susanna; Namur, Jenny; Garrett, Gerald; Hess, Lauren; Kaplan, Linda

    2005-01-01

    In a study to evaluate the drug treatment and aftercare efforts sponsored by the State Department's International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Bureau, residential Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment programs in three countries in Southeast Asia--Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand--were examined to identify promising practices and to…

  11. Promising Practices in Drug Treatment: An Overview of Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Gerald; Nemes, Susanna; Hoffman, Jeffrey; Libretto, Salvatore; Skinstadt, Anne Helene; Hess, Lauren

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a research project sponsored and funded by the State Department's Bureau of International Narcotics and Affairs (INL) on substance abuse and treatment in ten countries. The purpose of the study was to identify promising practices in drug treatment in Europe, Latin America, and Southeast Asia. The steps taken to complete this…

  12. Promising Practices in Drug Treatment: Findings from Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemes, Susanna; Libretto, Salvatore; Skinstad, Anne Helene; Garrett, Gerald; Hoffman, Jeffrey A.

    2005-01-01

    In a study to evaluate the drug treatment and aftercare efforts sponsored by the State Department's International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Bureau, residential Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment programs in four European countries-Poland, Spain, Slovenia, and Italy-were examined to identify promising practices and to assess lessons…

  13. Promising Practices in Drug Treatment: Findings from Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemes, Susanna; Libretto, Salvatore; Garrett, Gerald; Johansson, Anna Carin; Hess, Lauren

    2005-01-01

    In a study to evaluate the drug treatment and aftercare efforts sponsored by the State Department's International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Bureau, residential Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment programs in three Latin American countries--Brazil, Peru and Argentina--were examined to identify promising practices and to assess lessons…

  14. The Utility, Limitations, and Promise of Proteomics in Animal Science

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteomics experiments have the ability to simultaneously identify and quantify potentially thousands of proteins in one experiment. The use of this technology in animal science is still in its infancy, yet it holds significant promise as a method for advancing animal science research. Examples of...

  15. Promising New Teacher Support Strategies and Their Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dianda, Marcella R.; Quartz, Karen Hunter

    1995-01-01

    Describes several promising new teacher support strategies implemented by California universities and their district partners as part of the California New Teacher Project, noting resources expended to implement each strategy. The strategies are framed according to their programmatic and economic dimensions. Strategies that make the most sense…

  16. Advancing Knowledge-Building Discourse through Judgments of Promising Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Bodong; Scardamalia, Marlene; Bereiter, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating promisingness of ideas is an important but underdeveloped aspect of knowledge building. The goal of this research was to examine the extent to which Grade 3 students could make promisingness judgments to facilitate knowledge-building discourse. A Promising Ideas Tool was added to Knowledge Forum software to better support…

  17. Improving High School Success: Searching for Evidence of Promise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzeo, Christopher; Fleischman, Steve; Heppen, Jessica; Jahangir, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    Improving the nation's high schools--particularly those that are low-performing--involves challenges that are far easier to catalog than to surmount. In this chapter, the authors identify a handful of promising approaches that can help to achieve the goal that all students will graduate from high school well-prepared for further learning,…

  18. Meet the Promise of Content Standards: Investing in Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killion, Joellen; Hirsh, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    New standards alone will not prepare all students for college and careers. The success of the Common Core State Standards depends on educators' capacity to make the instructional shifts the standards require. Meeting the promise of content standards cannot be achieved merely by agreeing on and publishing the new standards. Effective teaching of…

  19. Diversity's Promise for Higher Education: Making It Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Daryl G.

    2009-01-01

    Daryl G. Smith's career has been devoted to studying and fostering diversity in higher education. She has witnessed and encouraged the evolution of diversity from an issue addressed sporadically on college campuses to an imperative if institutions want to succeed. In "Diversity's Promise for Higher Education", she analyzes how diversity is…

  20. The Promise of the College and Career Transitions Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempner, Ken; Warford, Laurance

    2009-01-01

    Although there is no single program or idea that will fix the entire American educational system, findings from the national demonstration project College and Career Transitions Initiative (CCTI) demonstrate considerable promise of the role pathways can play in helping students find their way through education to work and on to their careers.…

  1. Journey to Freedom: Reflecting on Our Responsibilities, Renewing Our Promises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Cheryl Crazy

    2012-01-01

    Over the past four decades, tribal colleges and universities (TCUs) have emerged as a cutting-edge approach to post-secondary education in the United States and across the world. They have emerged as exceptional institutions--and their leaders still have promises to keep and new goals to achieve. As people look to the future of the tribal…

  2. Selected OSEP-Funded Projects...Collecting/Disseminating "Promising Practices".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Directors of Special Education, Alexandria, VA.

    Information is presented on selected projects funded by the U.S. Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP), including projects which present promising practices or effective strategies and/or were intended for national information dissemination. The categories of projects are as follows: services/programs for the deaf/blind, early intervention,…

  3. Realities, Visions, and Promises of a Multicultural Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mary Elizabeth; Lee, Boyung; Turpin, Katherine; Casas, Ralph; Bridgers, Lynn; Miles, Veronice

    2004-01-01

    Religious education has changed considerably over the 100 years of the Religious Education Association (REA); urgency has increased for human communities to honor diversity. The focus of this article is realities, visions, and promises of cultural diversity. The article includes an overview of REA's recent history, exemplifying its efforts and…

  4. Reducing Aggressive Male Behavior in Elementary School: Promising Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Barbara; Gibson, Jamel; Morrison-Danner, Dietrich

    2014-01-01

    Student aggression and violent behavior, especially among males, is pervasive and problematic in the classroom. When incorporated in the lesson design, promising practices (music, movement, and visual stimulation) are evidence-based strategies that may reduce male aggression in the classroom.

  5. Dendritic silica particles with center-radial pore channels: promising platforms for catalysis and biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Du, Xin; Qiao, Shi Zhang

    2015-01-27

    Dendritic silica micro-/nanoparticles with center-radial pore structures, a kind of newly created porous material, have attracted considerable attention owing to their unique open three-dimensional dendritic superstructures with large pore channels and highly accessible internal surface areas compared with conventional mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs). They are very promising platforms for a variety of applications in catalysis and nanomedicine. In this review, their unique structural characteristics and properties are first analyzed, then novel and interesting synthesis methods associated with the possible formation mechanisms are summarized to provide material scientists some inspiration for the preparation of this kind of dendritic particles. Subsequently, a few examples of interesting applications are presented, mainly in catalysis, biomedicine, and other important fields such as for sacrificial templates and functional coatings. The review is concluded with an outlook on the prospects and challenges in terms of their controlled synthesis and potential applications. PMID:25367307

  6. After Access: Underrepresented Students' Postmatriculation Perceptions of College Access Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Means, Darris R.; Pyne, Kimberly B.

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the perceived impact of college-going capital gained during participation in a college access program. In three, semistructured interviews spanning the first-year college experience, 10 first-year college students who participated in a college access program articulate the value of access programming and also raise…

  7. Promising Strategies To Reduce Gun Violence. OJJDP Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquent Prevention (Dept. of Justice), Washington, DC.

    In recent years, communities across the country have struggled to develop effective solutions to the problem of gun violence. Many have approached the United States Department of Justice for help in identifying solutions. This publication was developed in response to these requests. It is designed to provide state and local elected officials,…

  8. Joint Access Control Based on Access Ratio and Resource Utilization for High-Speed Railway Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yuzhe; Ai, Bo

    2015-05-01

    The fast development of high-speed rails makes people's life more and more convenient. However, provisioning of quality of service of multimedia applications for users on the high-speed train is a critical task for wireless communications. Therefore, new solutions are desirable to be found to address this kind of problem. Current researches mainly focus on providing seamless broadband wireless access for high-speed mobile terminals. In this paper, an algorithm to calculate the optimal resource reservation fraction of handovers is proposed. A joint access control scheme for high-speed railway communication handover scenario is proposed. Metrics of access ratio and resource utilization ratio are considered jointly in the analysis and the performance evaluation. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm and the scheme improve quality of service compared with other conventional schemes.

  9. Life's Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Simon Conway

    2003-09-01

    Life's Solution builds a persuasive case for the predictability of evolutionary outcomes. The case rests on a remarkable compilation of examples of convergent evolution, in which two or more lineages have independently evolved similar structures and functions. The examples range from the aerodynamics of hovering moths and hummingbirds to the use of silk by spiders and some insects to capture prey. Going against the grain of Darwinian orthodoxy, this book is a must read for anyone grappling with the meaning of evolution and our place in the Universe. Simon Conway Morris is the Ad Hominen Professor in the Earth Science Department at the University of Cambridge and a Fellow of St. John's College and the Royal Society. His research focuses on the study of constraints on evolution, and the historical processes that lead to the emergence of complexity, especially with respect to the construction of the major animal body parts in the Cambrian explosion. Previous books include The Crucible of Creation (Getty Center for Education in the Arts, 1999) and co-author of Solnhofen (Cambridge, 1990). Hb ISBN (2003) 0-521-82704-3

  10. Life's Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Simon Conway

    2004-11-01

    Life's Solution builds a persuasive case for the predictability of evolutionary outcomes. The case rests on a remarkable compilation of examples of convergent evolution, in which two or more lineages have independently evolved similar structures and functions. The examples range from the aerodynamics of hovering moths and hummingbirds to the use of silk by spiders and some insects to capture prey. Going against the grain of Darwinian orthodoxy, this book is a must read for anyone grappling with the meaning of evolution and our place in the Universe. Simon Conway Morris is the Ad Hominen Professor in the Earth Science Department at the University of Cambridge and a Fellow of St. John's College and the Royal Society. His research focuses on the study of constraints on evolution, and the historical processes that lead to the emergence of complexity, especially with respect to the construction of the major animal body parts in the Cambrian explosion. Previous books include The Crucible of Creation (Getty Center for Education in the Arts, 1999) and co-author of Solnhofen (Cambridge, 1990). Hb ISBN (2003) 0-521-82704-3

  11. A voice password system for access security

    SciTech Connect

    Birnbaum, M.; Cohen, L.A.; Welsh, F.X.

    1986-09-01

    A voice password system for access security using speaker verification technology has been designed for use over dial-up telephone lines. The voice password system (VPS) can provide secure access to telephone networks, computers, rooms, and buildings. It also has application in office automation systems, electric funds transfer, and ''smart cards'' (interactive computers embedded in credit-card-sized packages). As increasing attention is focused on access security in the public, private, and government sectors, the voice password system can provide a timely solution to the security dilemma. The VPS uses modes of communication available to almost everyone (the human voice and the telephone). A user calls the VPS, enters his or her identification number (ID) by touch-tone telephone, and then speaks a password. This is usually a phrase or a sentence of about seven syllables. On initial calls, the VPS creates a model of the user's voice, called a reference template, and labels it with the caller's unique user ID. To gain access later, the user calls the system, enters the proper user ID, and speaks the password phrase. The VPS compares the user's stored reference template with the spoken password and produces a distance score.

  12. Optical access: networks and components (overview)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mynbaev, Djafar K.

    2004-09-01

    The exponential gtowth of traffic delivered to an individual customer both for business and personal needs puts tremendous pressure on the telecommunications networks. Because the development of the long-haul and metro networks has advanced rapidly and their capacity much eceeds demand, tremendous pressure now falls in the local networks to provide customers with access to the global telecom infrastructure. Building a broadband access network enabling fast delivery of high-volume traffic is the current task of network operators. A brief review of broadband access networks brings us to the conclusion that only wired optical networks can serve as an immediate and future solution to the "last-mile" problem. After discussin goptical access network classification, we focus mainly on passive optical networks (PON) because PON is a major technology today. From the network standpoint, we discuss the principle of PON operation, architectures, topologies, protocols and standards, design issues, and network management and services. We also discuss the main problems with PON and the use of WDM technology. From the hardware standpoint, we consider both active and passive components. We analyze the structure and elements of these components, including their technical characteristics.

  13. Metal oxide resistive random access memory based synaptic devices for brain-inspired computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Bin; Kang, Jinfeng; Zhou, Zheng; Chen, Zhe; Huang, Peng; Liu, Lifeng; Liu, Xiaoyan

    2016-04-01

    The traditional Boolean computing paradigm based on the von Neumann architecture is facing great challenges for future information technology applications such as big data, the Internet of Things (IoT), and wearable devices, due to the limited processing capability issues such as binary data storage and computing, non-parallel data processing, and the buses requirement between memory units and logic units. The brain-inspired neuromorphic computing paradigm is believed to be one of the promising solutions for realizing more complex functions with a lower cost. To perform such brain-inspired computing with a low cost and low power consumption, novel devices for use as electronic synapses are needed. Metal oxide resistive random access memory (ReRAM) devices have emerged as the leading candidate for electronic synapses. This paper comprehensively addresses the recent work on the design and optimization of metal oxide ReRAM-based synaptic devices. A performance enhancement methodology and optimized operation scheme to achieve analog resistive switching and low-energy training behavior are provided. A three-dimensional vertical synapse network architecture is proposed for high-density integration and low-cost fabrication. The impacts of the ReRAM synaptic device features on the performances of neuromorphic systems are also discussed on the basis of a constructed neuromorphic visual system with a pattern recognition function. Possible solutions to achieve the high recognition accuracy and efficiency of neuromorphic systems are presented.

  14. Alloy solution hardening with solute pairs

    DOEpatents

    Mitchell, John W.

    1976-08-24

    Solution hardened alloys are formed by using at least two solutes which form associated solute pairs in the solvent metal lattice. Copper containing equal atomic percentages of aluminum and palladium is an example.

  15. Advanced Cosmic-Ray Composition Experiment for Space Station (ACCESS): ACCESS Accommodation Study Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas L. (Editor); Wefel, John P. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    In 1994 NASA Administrator selected the first high-energy particle physics experiment for the Space Station, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), to place a magnetic spectrometer in Earth orbit and search for cosmic antimatter. A natural consequence of this decision was that NASA would begin to explore cost-effective ways through which the design and implementation of AMS might benefit other promising payload experiments. The first such experiment to come forward was Advanced Cosmic-Ray Composition Experiment for Space Station (ACCESS) in 1996. It was proposed as a new mission concept in space physics to attach a cosmic-ray experiment of weight, volume, and geometry similar to the AMS on the International Space Station (ISS), and replace the latter as its successor when the AMS is returned to Earth. This was to be an extension of NASA's suborbital balloon program, with balloon payloads serving as the precursor flights and heritage for ACCESS. The balloon programs have always been a cost-effective NASA resource since the particle physics instrumentation for balloon and space applications are directly related. The next step was to expand the process, pooling together expertise from various NASA centers and universities while opening up definition of the ACCESS science goals to the international community through the standard practice of peer review. This process is still ongoing, and the accommodation study presented here will discuss the baseline definition of ACCESS as we understand it today.

  16. Achieving a Dream: Meeting Policy Goals Related to Improving Drug Access

    PubMed Central

    Zakus, David; Kohler, Jillian Clare; Zakriova, Venera; Yarmoshuk, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    International experts recognize that significant inequities exist in the accessibility of life-saving medicines among poor and vulnerable populations, especially in developing countries. This article highlights that drug access even for relatively cheap medicines is out of reach for the vast numbers of global poor. This badly affects people living with HIV/AIDS who face serious obstacles in accessing ARVs. The same concerns are attributed to neglected diseases. Despite international meetings, promises from the pharmaceutical industry and a lot of media attention little has changed in the past 20 years. The accessibility gap to life-saving drugs could be reduced by the UNITAID initiative to pool patents for the many different ARVs, but the reality is that UNITAID is still a promise. To surmount this global problem of inequity requires a rethinking of traditional models of drug access and health objectives that should not be compromised by commercial interests. PMID:20148088

  17. Chemists, Access, Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Jon L.

    2000-06-01

    New JCE Internet Feature at JCE Online Biographical Snapshots of Famous Chemists is a new JCE Internet feature on JCE Online. Edited by Barbara Burke, this feature provides biographical information on leading chemists, especially women and minority chemists, fostering the attitude that the practitioners of chemistry are as human as those who endeavor to learn about it. Currently, the column features biographical "snapshots" of 30 chemists. Each snapshot includes keywords and bibliography and several contain links to additional online information about the chemist. More biographical snapshots will appear in future installments. In addition, a database listing over 140 women and minority chemists is being compiled and will be made available online with the snapshots in the near future. The database includes the years of birth and death, gender and ethnicity, major and minor discipline, keywords to facilitate searching, and references to additional biographical information. We welcome your input into what we think is a very worthwhile resource. If you would like to provide additional biographical snapshots, see additional chemists added to the database, or know of additional references for those that are already in the database, please contact JCE Online or the feature editor. Your feedback is welcome and appreciated. You can find Biographical Snapshots of Famous Chemists starting from the JCE Online home page-- click the Features item under JCE Internet and then the Chemist Bios item. Access JCE Online without Name and Password We have recently been swamped by libraries requesting IP-number access to JCE Online. With the great benefit IP-number authentication gives to librarians (no user names and passwords to administer) and to their patrons (no need to remember and enter valid names and passwords) this is not surprising. If you would like access to JCE Online without the need to remember and enter a user name and password, you should tell your librarian about our

  18. Advanced multiple access concepts in mobile satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ananasso, Fulvio

    1990-01-01

    Some multiple access strategies for Mobile Satellite Systems (MSS) are discussed. These strategies were investigated in the context of three separate studies conducted for the International Maritime Satellite Organization (INMARSAT) and the European Space Agency (ESA). Satellite-Switched Frequency Division Multiple Access (SS-FDMA), Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), and Frequency-Addressable Beam architectures are addressed, discussing both system and technology aspects and outlining advantages and drawbacks of either solution with associated relevant hardware issues. An attempt is made to compare the considered option from the standpoint of user terminal/space segment complexity, synchronization requirements, spectral efficiency, and interference rejection.

  19. A Broken Promise: Examining the Merit-Aid Policy and Implementation Gap in the Michigan Promise Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daun-Barnet, Nathan; Hermsen, Albert; Vedder, Lori; Mabry, Beth

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, Michigan changed their traditional merit award to a credit contingent program based upon successful completion of 60 college credits. The Michigan Promise Scholarship was crafted by state policymakers without input from the financial aid community. This case study suggests that the change in policy resulted in two unintended consequences:…

  20. Promising Practices in Mathematics & Science Education: A Collection of Promising Educational Programs & Practices from the Laboratory Network Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.

    This volume of 66 promising practices in mathematics and science education developed by the 10 regional educational laboratories funded by the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Educational Research and Improvement. The laboratories' collection of programs emerged from a broad-based search, nomination, and review process reaching educators…

  1. Open Access Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentor, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Educational institutions are increasingly adopting "closed" learning environments that hide learning materials in password-protected areas. While this may be a logical solution to a range of problems, much is lost in this mode of course delivery. Although there are logical reasons for moving toward closed environments, we may be erring…

  2. Recommendations for data accessibility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The EcoTrends project has generated hundreds of standardized, documented datasets from many sites and scientific fields. During the process of generating data comparable between many sites and across several organizational networks, novel solutions to technical, organizational, and communication ch...

  3. Computer Technology Integration and Student Learning: Barriers and Promise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keengwe, Jared; Onchwari, Grace; Wachira, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Political and institutional support has enabled many institutions of learning to spend millions of dollars to acquire educational computing tools (Ficklen and Muscara, "Am Educ" 25(3):22-29, 2001) that have not been effectively integrated into the curriculum. While access to educational technology tools has remarkably improved in most schools,…

  4. Empty Promise: Black American Veterans and the New GI Bill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottley, Alford H.

    2014-01-01

    The 2008 GI Bill offers college funds for veterans. Yet Black male vets are not taking advantage of these benefits. This chapter examines personal and societal problems that hinder access to higher education for Black vets, and suggests some ways adult educators can advocate for these young men.

  5. Early Commitment Financial Aid Programs: Promises, Practices, and Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Cheryl D.

    2005-01-01

    Student financial assistance has long been a means to promote access to postsecondary education and attainment of college degrees. Numerous types of financial aid programs have proliferated over the years, including a relatively new concept that specifically targets high-risk, low-income students, focusing not just on getting them to go to college…

  6. Preschool Education: Delivering on the Promise for Latino Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltran, Erika

    2011-01-01

    This publication highlights opportunities to improve the educational outcomes of Hispanic children at an early age, a time that is critical to setting up the academic success of children. Specifically, this paper examines barriers to quality and access that limit the participation of Latino children and families in preschool and offers…

  7. Delivery, Not Promises: The State Perspective on Library Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockefeller, John D., IV

    1979-01-01

    Advocates development of libraries through statewide approach, using as an example the West Virginia library system where a conference on libraries was sponsored to increase citizen awareness and involvement. Workshops, outreach programs, open access, and library sharing are tools mentioned to make the library more useful to the individual. (SW)

  8. Access Control of Web- and Java-Based Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tso, Kam S.; Pajevski, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Cybersecurity has become a great concern as threats of service interruption, unauthorized access, stealing and altering of information, and spreading of viruses have become more prevalent and serious. Application layer access control of applications is a critical component in the overall security solution that also includes encryption, firewalls, virtual private networks, antivirus, and intrusion detection. An access control solution, based on an open-source access manager augmented with custom software components, was developed to provide protection to both Web-based and Javabased client and server applications. The DISA Security Service (DISA-SS) provides common access control capabilities for AMMOS software applications through a set of application programming interfaces (APIs) and network- accessible security services for authentication, single sign-on, authorization checking, and authorization policy management. The OpenAM access management technology designed for Web applications can be extended to meet the needs of Java thick clients and stand alone servers that are commonly used in the JPL AMMOS environment. The DISA-SS reusable components have greatly reduced the effort for each AMMOS subsystem to develop its own access control strategy. The novelty of this work is that it leverages an open-source access management product that was designed for Webbased applications to provide access control for Java thick clients and Java standalone servers. Thick clients and standalone servers are still commonly used in businesses and government, especially for applications that require rich graphical user interfaces and high-performance visualization that cannot be met by thin clients running on Web browsers

  9. Simulation in vascular access surgery training.

    PubMed

    Widmer, Lukas Werner; Schmidli, Jürg; Widmer, Matthias Kurt; Wyss, Thomas Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly growing technical developments and working time constraints call for changes in trainee formation. In reality, trainees spend fewer hours in the hospital and face more difficulties in acquiring the required qualifications in order to work independently as a specialist. Simulation-based training is a potential solution. It offers the possibility to learn basic technical skills, repeatedly perform key steps in procedures and simulate challenging scenarios in team training. Patients are not at risk and learning curves can be shortened. Advanced learners are able to train rare complications. Senior faculty member's presence is key to assess and debrief effective simulation training. In the field of vascular access surgery, simulation models are available for open as well as endovascular procedures. In this narrative review, we describe the theory of simulation, present simulation models in vascular (access) surgery, discuss the possible benefits for patient safety and the difficulties of implementing simulation in training. PMID:25751566

  10. The "Free from Housing Accessibility Problems" App.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Oskar; Slaug, Björn; Haak, Maria; Mårtensson, Knut; Schmidt, Steven M; Oswald, Frank; Rimland, Joseph M; Tomsone, Signe; Svensson, Torbjörn; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    The present study concerns the development of a computerized tool targeting housing accessibility issues. A user-centered approach involving professionals from the housing sector and senior citizens from four European countries resulted in a fully functional prototype of a mobile application (app) including an apartment database. The app raises awareness on housing accessibility and has the potential to support decision making and strengthen all citizens regardless of functional capacity to be more active in their endeavors for a satisfying housing solution. Further refinements and additional features are needed to enhance the potential benefits; they include addressing potential challenges facing senior citizens, developing interactive features that allow users to provide input and adapting to different national contexts to make the app applicable for the European market. PMID:27534351

  11. Stem cells: a promising source for vascular regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Rammal, Hassan; Harmouch, Chaza; Lataillade, Jean-Jacques; Laurent-Maquin, Dominique; Labrude, Pierre; Menu, Patrick; Kerdjoudj, Halima

    2014-12-15

    The rising and diversity of many human vascular diseases pose urgent needs for the development of novel therapeutics. Stem cell therapy represents a challenge in the medicine of the twenty-first century, an area where tissue engineering and regenerative medicine gather to provide promising treatments for a wide variety of diseases. Indeed, with their extensive regeneration potential and functional multilineage differentiation capacity, stem cells are now highlighted as promising cell sources for regenerative medicine. Their multilineage differentiation involves environmental factors such as biochemical, extracellular matrix coating, oxygen tension, and mechanical forces. In this review, we will focus on human stem cell sources and their applications in vascular regeneration. We will also discuss the different strategies used for their differentiation into both mature and functional smooth muscle and endothelial cells. PMID:25167472

  12. Access to legal abortion.

    PubMed

    1993-10-01

    Countries are grouped by the nature and extent of access to legal abortion. The categories include abortion on demand, for social reasons, for health reasons, for rape or incest or to save a mother's life, and only to save a mother's life. Abortion on demand is available for about 40% of the world's population and may have restrictions, such as parental consent or approval of state committees or physicians. There are 22 countries in Europe, 12 in the former Soviet Union, four in Asia, four in the Americas, one in the Middle East (Turkey), and one in Africa (Tunisia) which provide access to early abortion on demand. Abortion for social and economic reasons is available to 21% of the world's population in five countries in Asia, three in Europe (Great Britain, Finland, and Hungary), and one in Africa (Zambia). Abortion for health reasons is available to 16% of the world's population located in 21 countries in Africa, eight in the Americas, seven in Asia, five in Europe, and four in the Middle East. Laws governing about 5% of the world's population permit abortion only in the case of rape, incest, or when a mother's life is in danger (Brazil, Mexico, and Sudan). 18% of the world's population is covered by laws which permit an abortion only when a mother's life is in danger; this includes 19 countries in Africa, 11 in the Americas, nine in Asia, seven in the Middle East, and one in Europe (Ireland). PMID:12287145

  13. Accessible magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, L; Arakawa, M; Hale, J; Rothschild, P; Carlson, J; Hake, K; Kramer, D; Lu, W; Van Heteren, J

    1989-10-01

    The cost of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is driven by magnetic field strength. Misperceptions as to the impact of field strength on performance have led to systems that are more expensive than they need to be. Careful analysis of all the factors that affect diagnostic quality lead to the conclusion that field strength per se is not a strong determinant of system performance. Freed from the constraints imposed by high-field operation, it is possible to exploit a varied set of opportunities afforded by low-field operation. In addition to lower costs and easier siting, we can take advantage of shortened T1 times, higher contrast, reduced sensitivity to motion, and reduced radiofrequency power deposition. These conceptual advantages can be made to coalesce onto practical imaging systems. We describe a low-cost MRI system that utilizes a permanent magnet of open design. Careful optimization of receiving antennas and acquisition sequences permit performance levels consistent with those needed for an effective diagnostic unit. Ancillary advantages include easy access to the patient, reduced claustrophobia, quiet and comfortable operation, and absence of a missile effect. The system can be sited in 350 sq ft and consumes a modest amount of electricity. MRI equipment of this kind can widen the population base than can access this powerful and beneficial diagnostic modality. PMID:2640910

  14. Inorganic Nanoparticles for Therapeutic Delivery: Trials, Tribulations and Promise

    PubMed Central

    Tonga, Gulen Yesilbag; Moyano, Daniel F.; Kim, Chang Soo; Rotello, Vincent M.

    2014-01-01

    Inorganic nanomaterials have a wide array of physical and structural properties that make them attractive candidates for imaging and therapeutic delivery. Nanoparticle platforms have been intensely studied for these applications, and examples are starting to enter the clinic. This review looks at why inorganic particles provide promising platforms for biomedicine, and what issues need to be addressed for them to reach their potential. PMID:24955019

  15. Imaging genomics in cancer research: limitations and promises.

    PubMed

    Bai, Harrison X; Lee, Ashley M; Yang, Li; Zhang, Paul; Davatzikos, Christos; Maris, John M; Diskin, Sharon J

    2016-05-01

    Recently, radiogenomics or imaging genomics has emerged as a novel high-throughput method of associating imaging features with genomic data. Radiogenomics has the potential to provide comprehensive intratumour, intertumour and peritumour information non-invasively. This review article summarizes the current state of radiogenomic research in tumour characterization, discusses some of its limitations and promises and projects its future directions. Semi-radiogenomic studies that relate specific gene expressions to imaging features will also be briefly reviewed. PMID:26864054

  16. Experimental Lung Cancer Drug Shows Early Promise | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Frank Blanchard, Staff Writer A first-of-its-kind drug is showing early promise in attacking certain lung cancers that are hard to treat because they build up resistance to conventional chemotherapy. The drug, CO-1686, performed well in a preclinical study involving xenograft and transgenic mice, as reported in the journal Cancer Discovery. It is now being evaluated for safety and efficacy in Phase I and II clinical trials.

  17. Amaryllidaceae Isocarbostyril Alkaloids and Their Derivatives as Promising Antitumor Agents

    PubMed Central

    Ingrassia, Laurent; Lefranc, Florence; Mathieu, Véronique; Darro, Francis; Kiss, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This review covers the isolation, total synthesis, biologic activity, and more particularly the in vitro and in vivo antitumor activities of naturally occurring isocarbostyril alkaloids from the Amaryllidaceae family. Starting from these natural products, new derivatives have been synthesized to explore structure-activity relationships within the chemical class and to obtain potential candidates for preclinical development. This approach appears to be capable of providing novel promising anticancer agents. PMID:18607503

  18. Experimental Lung Cancer Drug Shows Early Promise | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Frank Blanchard, Staff Writer A first-of-its-kind drug is showing early promise in attacking certain lung cancers that are hard to treat because they build up resistance to conventional chemotherapy. The drug, CO-1686, performed well in a preclinical study involving xenograft and transgenic mice, as reported in the journal Cancer Discovery. It is now being evaluated for safety and efficacy in Phase I and II clinical trials.

  19. Citizen Science in the Classroom: Perils and Promise of the New Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loughran, T.; Dirksen, R.

    2010-12-01

    Classroom citizen science projects invite students to generate, curate, post, query, and analyze data, publishing and discussing results in potentially large collaborative contexts. The new web offers a rich palette of such projects for any STEM educator to select from or create. This easy access to citizen science in the classroom is full of both promise and peril for science education. By offering examples of classroom citizen science projects in particle physics, earth and environmental sciences, each supported by a common mashup of technologies available to ordinary users, we will illustrate something of the promise of these projects for science education, and point to some of the challenges and failure modes--the peril--raised by easy access and particularly easy publication of data. How one sensibly responds to this promise and peril depends on how one views the goals of science (or more broadly, STEM) education: either as the equipping of individual students with STEM knowledge and skills so as to empower them for future options, or as the issuing of effective invitations into STEM communities. Building on the claim that these are complementary perspectives, both of value, we will provide an example of a classroom citizen science project analyzed from both perspectives. The BOSCO classroom-to-classroom water source mapping project provides students both in Northern Uganda and in South Dakota a collaborative platform for analyzing and responding to local water quality concerns. Students gather water quality data, use Google Forms embedded in a project wiki to enter data in a spreadsheet, which then automatically (through Mapalist, a free web service) gets posted to a Google Map, itself embedded in the project wiki. Using these technologies, data is thus collected and posted for analysis in a collaborative environment: the stage is set for classroom citizen science. In the context of this project we will address the question of how teachers can take advantage

  20. Reply to "transforming oncology care": advancing value, accessing innovation.

    PubMed

    Paradis, Rebecca

    2015-09-01

    Alternative payment models in oncology are already successfully standardizing care, curbing costs, and improving the patient experience. Yet, it is unclear whether decision makers are adequately considering patient access to innovation when creating these models, which could have severe consequences for a robust innovation ecosystem and the lives of afflicted patients. The suggested chart includes recommendations on: Allowing for the adoption of new, promising therapies; Promoting the measurement of patient-centered outcomes; and Providing support for personalized medicine. PMID:26618436

  1. A cost model for broadband access networks: FTTx versus WiMAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, João Paulo Ribeiro

    2007-09-01

    Local communities and governments are taking various steps to fight the so-called "digital divide" between well served urban communities and undeserved areas. In order to make broadband access available to these under served areas, several technical solutions are available with the capacity to provide high speed Internet access, video, telephony services, etc. This paper presents a cost-model and a tool for the evaluation of broadband access technologies (xDSL, HFC, FTTx, WiMAX, PLC and satellite), and compares two technologies: FTTx and WiMAX. Our tool compares these different access technologies in different scenarios, and examining the capital expense and deployment of building access networks with the same requisite performance using each technology. The cost model is limited to the access part of the network. The results obtained by our evaluation tool give the possibility to compare several BB access technologies, and support the decision about which is the better technological solution for a given scenario

  2. Universal patient acceptance: ethics pipe dream or key to improved access in dentistry?

    PubMed

    Patthoff, D E; Corsino, B V

    2001-01-01

    The authors discuss ways that dentistry engages silently and sometimes unknowingly in practice patterns that adversely affect public access to dental care. The concept of acceptance is explained and contrasted with treatment and with access to care. The concept of Universal Patient Acceptance (UPA) is introduced, with a focus on how it underlies and precedes access, creating a pathway so that truer universal access to dental care can be realized. The authors argue that a commitment to Universal Patient Acceptance shows promise as an important starting point in the dental profession's concern to address society's unmet oral health needs. PMID:11887369

  3. Sonoluminescence Spectroscopy as a Promising New Analytical Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurchenko, O. I.; Kalinenko, O. S.; Baklanov, A. N.; Belov, E. A.; Baklanova, L. V.

    2016-03-01

    The sonoluminescence intensity of Cs, Ru, K, Na, Li, Sr, In, Ga, Ca, Th, Cr, Pb, Mn, Ag, and Mg salts in aqueous solutions of various concentrations was investigated as a function of ultrasound frequency and intensity. Techniques for the determination of these elements in solutions of table salt and their own salts were developed. It was shown that the proposed analytical technique gave results at high concentrations with better metrological characteristics than atomic-absorption spectroscopy because the samples were not diluted.

  4. Single port access holographic particle image velocimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, S.D.; Richards, G.A.; Cha, D.J.

    1995-07-01

    An optical system, which requires only a single optical window mounted on a test volume, is proposed for holographic particle image velocimetry (HPIV). The optical system is a derivative of the double-exposure, double-reference-beam, off-axis HPIV system, but the innovative idea behind the system is to use back scattered light from the particles as the object wave. A 45{degree} beam splitter inserted in front of the window serves to admit the illuminating beam and extract the back scattered light. This concept can be of great engineering interest because optical access is often limited to one window in practical devices. The preliminary results of the technique appear quite promising, with current studies aimed at defining the optical resolution capabilities.

  5. Feasibility of public access to defibrillation.

    PubMed

    Caffrey, Sherry

    2002-06-01

    Immediate defibrillation is the single most effective therapy to reverse ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest today. The once physician-only skill of defibrillation has entered mainstream society and is saving the lives of many sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) victims in a variety of settings. The automated external defibrillator (AED) and the concept of public access defibrillation (PAD) are a result of collaborative efforts between the American Heart Association (AHA) and medical manufacturers. Today, airports, airlines, casinos, cruise ships, and other public venues have modernized their first aid kits to include an AED. The success of these programs has ignited a trend in public safety and subsequently marketed the worth of AEDs in the home. Although optimal placement of AEDs remains uncertain, PAD is showing great promise in reducing the death rate from SCA. The lay public, both trained and untrained, is emerging as the next level of emergency care responders able to use a defibrillator. PMID:12386497

  6. The Brazilian national health system: an unfulfilled promise?

    PubMed

    Ocké-Reis, Carlos Octávio; Marmor, Theodore R

    2010-01-01

    In 1988, Brazil became one of the first countries in Latin America to frame access to health care as a constitutional right. However, it would be misleading to call Brazil's Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde, or SUS) a public health system that provides universal access and comprehensive care. This paper reveals a strong contradiction between the re-distribution model set out in the Brazilian Constitution and the inadequate level of public spending on health care. The law states that health care is a basic social right, allocated by need rather than means. Meanwhile, in 2003, Brazil spent US$ 597 per capita on health, or 7.6 per cent of its gross domestic product (GDP), while the average country from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) spent US$ 3145, or 10.8 per cent, and Argentina spent US$ 1067, or 8.9 per cent of its GDP. PMID:20066670

  7. 97. VIEW OF MILL SOLUTION PUMP No. 2 FROM SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    97. VIEW OF MILL SOLUTION PUMP No. 2 FROM SOUTHEAST. SUMPS ARE UNDER FLOOR, BEYOND. STAIR LEADS TO AGITATOR/GOLD TANK ACCESS PLATFORM. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  8. The Promise and Potential Perils of Big Data for Advancing Symptom Management Research in Populations at Risk for Health Disparities.

    PubMed

    Bakken, Suzanne; Reame, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Symptom management research is a core area of nursing science and one of the priorities for the National Institute of Nursing Research, which specifically focuses on understanding the biological and behavioral aspects of symptoms such as pain and fatigue, with the goal of developing new knowledge and new strategies for improving patient health and quality of life. The types and volume of data related to the symptom experience, symptom management strategies, and outcomes are increasingly accessible for research. Traditional data streams are now complemented by consumer-generated (i.e., quantified self) and "omic" data streams. Thus, the data available for symptom science can be considered big data. The purposes of this chapter are to (a) briefly summarize the current drivers for the use of big data in research; (b) describe the promise of big data and associated data science methods for advancing symptom management research; (c) explicate the potential perils of big data and data science from the perspective of the ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, and justice; and (d) illustrate strategies for balancing the promise and the perils of big data through a case study of a community at high risk for health disparities. Big data and associated data science methods offer the promise of multidimensional data sources and new methods to address significant research gaps in symptom management. If nurse scientists wish to apply big data and data science methods to advance symptom management research and promote health equity, they must carefully consider both the promise and perils. PMID:26673385

  9. No Special Equipment Required: The Accessibility Features Built into the Windows and Macintosh Operating Systems make Computers Accessible for Students with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball,Walter H.; Cohen,Libby G.; Dimmick,Deb; Mills,Rick

    2003-01-01

    The proliferation of computers and other electronic learning devices has made knowledge and communication accessible to people with a wide range of abilities. Both Windows and Macintosh computers have accessibility options to help with many different special needs. This documents discusses solutions for: (1) visual impairments; (2) hearing…

  10. Assistive Technology Solutions for IEP Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Sherry L.; Grant, Debbie

    This guide was developed with the recognition of the growing need for school districts to provide access to the general education curriculum for students with special needs and to align assistive technology (AT) with performance requirements of the curriculum. The AT solutions presented represent changes in materials and instructional strategies…

  11. Choosing a CD-ROM Network Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doering, David

    1996-01-01

    Discusses issues to consider in selecting a CD-ROM network solution, including throughput (speed of data delivery), security, access, servers, key features, training, jukebox support, documentation, and licenses. Reviews software products offered by Novell, Around Technology, Micro Design, Smart Storage, Microtest, Meridian, CD-Connection,…

  12. Public Access and Open Access: Is There a Difference? | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Robin Meckley, Contributing Writer, and Tracie Frederick, Guest Writer Open access and public access—are they different concepts or are they the same? What do they mean for the researchers at NCI at Frederick? “Open-access (OA) literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. What makes it possible is the Internet and the consent of the author or copyright-holder,” according to an open access website maintained by Peter Suber, director, Harvard Open Access Project.

  13. Development of an integrated staircase lift for home access

    PubMed Central

    Mattie, Johanne L.; Borisoff, Jaimie F.; Leland, Danny; Miller, William C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Stairways into buildings present a significant environmental barrier for those with mobility impairments, including older adults. A number of home access solutions that allow users to safely enter and exit the home exist, however these all have some limitations. The purpose of this work was to develop a novel, inclusive home access solution that integrates a staircase and a lift into one device. Method The development of an integrated staircase lift followed a structured protocol with stakeholders providing feedback at various stages in the design process, consistent with rehabilitation engineering design methods. Results A novel home access device was developed. The integrated staircase-lift has the following features: inclusivity, by a universal design that provides an option for either use of stairs or a lift; constant availability, with a lift platform always ready for use on either level; and potential aesthetic advantages when integrating the device into an existing home. The potential also exists for emergency descent during a power outage, and self-powered versions. Conclusions By engaging stakeholders in a user centred design process, insight on the limitations of existing home access solutions and specific feedback on our design guided development of a novel home access device. PMID:26793318

  14. Private Graphs - Access Rights on Graphs for Seamless Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorner, W.; Hau, F.; Pagany, R.

    2016-06-01

    After the success of GNSS (Global Navigational Satellite Systems) and navigation services for public streets, indoor seems to be the next big development in navigational services, relying on RTLS - Real Time Locating Services (e.g. WIFI) and allowing seamless navigation. In contrast to navigation and routing services on public streets, seamless navigation will cause an additional challenge: how to make routing data accessible to defined users or restrict access rights for defined areas or only to parts of the graph to a defined user group? The paper will present case studies and data from literature, where seamless and especially indoor navigation solutions are presented (hospitals, industrial complexes, building sites), but the problem of restricted access rights was only touched from a real world, but not a technical perspective. The analysis of case studies will show, that the objective of navigation and the different target groups for navigation solutions will demand well defined access rights and require solutions, how to make only parts of a graph to a user or application available to solve a navigational task. The paper will therefore introduce the concept of private graphs, which is defined as a graph for navigational purposes covering the street, road or floor network of an area behind a public street and suggest different approaches how to make graph data for navigational purposes available considering access rights and data protection, privacy and security issues as well.

  15. Investigation of new superhard carbon allotropes with promising electronic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kvashnina, Yulia A.; Kvashnin, Alexander G.; Sorokin, Pavel B.

    2013-11-14

    During the systematic search for a new superhard carbon allotrope, we predicted three structures with promising physical properties. Our electronic structure calculations show that these materials have a semiconducting band gap and a high carrier mobility comparable with diamond. The simulated x-ray diffraction patterns of the proposed materials are in a good agreement with the experimental X-ray spectra. Evaluated phase transition pressures from graphite to the new proposed carbon phases are smaller than 25 GPa and close to the experimental values.

  16. The microeconomics of personalized medicine: today's challenge and tomorrow's promise.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jerel C; Furstenthal, Laura; Desai, Amar A; Norris, Troy; Sutaria, Saumya; Fleming, Edd; Ma, Philip

    2009-04-01

    'Personalized medicine' promises to increase the quality of clinical care and, in some cases, decrease health-care costs. Despite this, only a handful of diagnostic tests have made it to market, with mixed success. Historically, the challenges in this field were scientific. However, as discussed in this article, with the maturation of the '-omics' sciences, it now seems that the major barriers are increasingly related to economics. Overcoming the poor microeconomic alignment of incentives among key stakeholders is therefore crucial to catalysing the further development and adoption of personalized medicine, and we propose several actions that could help achieve this goal. PMID:19300459

  17. Selection of promising sites for magma energy experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    The Long Valley and Coso Hot Springs areas of California have been identified as the most promising sites for conducting a magma energy extraction experiment. These two locations were selected from among the potential sites on the basis of several factors that are critical to the success of the proposed long-term energy extraction experiment. These factors include the likelihood of the existence of shallow magma targets as well as several other drilling, energy extraction and programmatic considerations. As the magma energy extraction program continues, these sites will be analyzed in detail so that one can be selected as the site for the planned magma experiment.

  18. The problems and promise of vaccine markets in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Batson, Amie

    2005-01-01

    As in the market in North America, major barriers to private investment in the development and production of vaccines exist for markets in developing countries. These include the risks of uncertain funding and demand and the difficulties created by historically low pricing. A number of promising and innovative approaches nonetheless are being explored to increase the incentives and reduce the risks of investing in vaccines for developing countries. These innovations are fueled by the growing recognition of powerful stakeholders that vaccines are a critical technology for ensuring global health. PMID:15886160

  19. NREL Designs Promising New Oxides for Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    High-efficiency, thin-film solar cells require electrical contacts with high electrical conductivity, and the top contact must also have high optical transparency. This need is currently met by transparent conducting oxides (TCOs), which conduct electricity but are 90% transparent to visible light. Scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have derived three key design principles for selecting promising materials for TCO contacts. NREL's application of these design principles has resulted in a 10,000-fold improvement in conductivity for one TCO material.

  20. Porous liquids: A promising class of media for gas separation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Jinshui; Chai, Song -Hai; Qiao, Zhen -An; Mahurin, Shannon M.; Chen, Jihua; Fang, Youxing; Wan, Shun; Nelson, Kimberly; Zhang, Pengfei; Dai, Sheng

    2014-11-17

    In porous liquids with empty cavities we successfully has been successfully fabricated by surface engineering of hollow structures with suitable corona and canopy species. By taking advantage of the liquid-like polymeric matrices as a separation medium and the empty cavities as gas transport pathway, this unique porous liquid can function as a promising candidate for gas separation. A facile synthetic strategy can be further extended to other types of nanostructure-based porous liquid fabrication, opening up new opportunities for preparation of porous liquids with attractive properties for specific tasks.

  1. Cyclodextrin nanoassemblies: a promising tool for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Véronique; Gervaise, Cédric; Djedaïni-Pilard, Florence; Furlan, Aurélien; Sarazin, Catherine

    2015-09-01

    Among the biodegradable and nontoxic compounds that can form nanoparticles for drug delivery, amphiphilic cyclodextrins are very promising. Apart from ionic cyclodextrins, which have been extensively studied and reviewed because of their application in gene delivery, our purpose is to provide a clear description of the supramolecular assemblies of nonionic amphiphilic cyclodextrins, which can form nanoassemblies for controlled drug release. Moreover, we focus on the relationship between their structure and physicochemical characteristics, which is crucial for self assembly and drug delivery. We also highlight the importance of the nanoparticle technology preparation for the stability and application of this nanodevice. PMID:26037681

  2. Humanized mice for immune system investigation: progress, promise and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, Leonard D.; Brehm, Michael A.; Garcia, J. Victor; Greiner, Dale L.

    2013-01-01

    Preface Significant advances in our understanding of the in vivo functions of human cells, tissues and immune systems have resulted from the development of mouse strains that are based on severely immunodeficient mice expressing mutations in the interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor common γ-chain locus. These mouse strains support the engraftment of a functional human immune system and permit detailed analysis of human immune biology, development and functions. In this Review, we discuss recent advances in the development of humanized mice, the lessons learned, the remaining challenges and the promise of using humanized mice for the in vivo study of human immunology. PMID:23059428

  3. IPSCs, a Promising Tool to Restore Muscle Atrophy.

    PubMed

    Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Emanuele, Enzo; Gallardo, María Esther; Lucia, Alejandro

    2016-02-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a promising tool for regenerative medicine in chronic conditions associated with muscle atrophy since iPSCs are easier to obtain, pose less ethical limitations and can better capture human genetic diversity compared with human embryonic stem cells. We highlight the potentiality of iPSCs for treating muscle-affecting conditions for which no effective cure is yet available, notably aging sarcopenia and inherited neurometabolic conditions. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 259-260, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26224204

  4. Microparticles in sickle cell anaemia: promise and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Hebbel, Robert P; Key, Nigel S

    2016-07-01

    Blood from patients with sickle cell disease contains microparticles (MP) derived from multiple cell sources, including red cells, platelets, monocytes and endothelial cells. MPs are of great interest because of their disease associations, their status as promising biomarkers, and the intercellular communications they mediate. To illustrate the likelihood of their relevance in sickle cell disease, we discuss the nature of MP, their profiling in sickle disease, some caveats relevant to their detection, their roles in supporting coagulation and the disparate influences they may exert upon the pathobiology of sickle cell disease. PMID:27136195

  5. N-Cinnamoylated Aminoquinolines as Promising Antileishmanial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Vale-Costa, S.; Costa-Gouveia, J.; Pérez, B.; Silva, T.; Teixeira, C.; Gomes, P.

    2013-01-01

    A series of cinnamic acid conjugates of primaquine and chloroquine were evaluated for their in vitro antileishmanial activities. Although primaquine derivatives had modest activity, chloroquine conjugates exhibited potent activity against both promastigotes (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 2.6 to 21.8 μM) and intramacrophagic amastigotes (IC50 = 1.2 to 9.3 μM) of Leishmania infantum. Both the high activity of these chloroquine analogues and their mild-to-low toxicity toward host cells make them promising leads for the discovery of new antileishmanial agents. PMID:23917315

  6. The promise of air cargo: System aspects and vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, A. H., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The current operation of the air cargo system is reviewed. An assessment of the future of air cargo is provided by: (1) analyzing statistics and trends, (2) by noting system problems and inefficiencies, (3) by analyzing characteristics of 'air eligible' commodities, and (4) by showing the promise of new technology for future cargo aircraft with significant improvements in costs and efficiency. The following topics are discussed: (1) air cargo demand forecasts; (2) economics of air cargo transport; (3) the integrated air cargo system; (4) evolution of airfreighter design; and (5) the span distributed load concept.

  7. Towards real Interoperable, real Trusted Network Access Control: Experiences from Implementation and Application of Trusted Network Connect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Helden, Josef; Bente, Ingo

    Network Access Control (NAC) is the most promising approach to provide protection against sophisticated attacks that first compromise endpoints to subsequently continue their evil work in networks accessible via the compromised endpoint. Trusted Network Connect (TNC) is a NAC approach featuring interoperability and unforgeability due to its openness, broad vendor support and integration of Trusted Computing functions.

  8. CameraCast: flexible access to remote video sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Jiantao; Ganev, Ivan; Schwan, Karsten; Widener, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    New applications like remote surveillance and online environmental or traffic monitoring are making it increasingly important to provide flexible and protected access to remote video sensor devices. Current systems use application-level codes like web-based solutions to provide such access. This requires adherence to user-level APIs provided by such services, access to remote video information through given application-specific service and server topologies, and that the data being captured and distributed is manipulated by third party service codes. CameraCast is a simple, easily used system-level solution to remote video access. It provides a logical device API so that an application can identically operate on local vs. remote video sensor devices, using its own service and server topologies. In addition, the application can take advantage of API enhancements to protect remote video information, using a capability-based model for differential data protection that offers fine grain control over the information made available to specific codes or machines, thereby limiting their ability to violate privacy or security constraints. Experimental evaluations of CameraCast show that the performance of accessing remote video information approximates that of accesses to local devices, given sufficient networking resources. High performance is also attained when protection restrictions are enforced, due to an efficient kernel-level realization of differential data protection.

  9. Economic Inequality and Higher Education: Access, Persistence, and Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickert-Conlin, Stacy, Ed.; Rubenstein, Ross, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The vast disparities in college attendance and graduation rates between students from different class backgrounds is a growing social concern. "Economic Inequality and Higher Education" investigates the connection between income inequality and unequal access to higher education, and proposes solutions that the state and federal governments and…

  10. Arts and the Handicapped. An Issue of Access. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Facilities Labs., Inc., New York, NY.

    A handicapped person's choice of accessible arts activities is very limited. This report focuses on the people and places now developing facility, planning, and program solutions that enable the handicapped to participate in the arts to their fullest potential. The 131 stories about outstanding facilities and programs, current legislation, and…

  11. The Electronic FERPA: Access in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConahay, Mark; Hanson, Karen; West, Ann; Woodbeck, Dean

    2009-01-01

    On every college and university campus, common themes weave throughout identity and access management (IAM) and its relationship to Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA). Institutions approach IAM differently as there is not a one-size-fits-all solution. Nevertheless, all face common elements. Over the past few years, a number of…

  12. The "Magic" of Wireless Access in the Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balas, Janet L.

    2006-01-01

    It seems that the demand for public access computers grows exponentially every time a library network is expanded, making it impossible to ever have enough computers available for patrons. One solution that many libraries are implementing to ease the demand for public computer use is to offer wireless technology that allows patrons to bring in…

  13. Increasing information accessibility for patients in obstetrics-gynecology domain.

    PubMed

    Crişan-Vida, Mihaela; Stoicu-Tivadar, Lăcrămioara

    2014-01-01

    It is important for the patient to have access to personal medical information in order to manage information for increased quality of medical care and life. The paper presents a module added to an Obstetrics-Gynaecology Department information system (OGD IS) supporting patient empowerment. The patient is accessing the system easily using laptops or mobile devices. The application accessed by the patient is web-based, implemented in Visual Studio. NET, using ASP.NET pages and C# language, and the application is published in the Windows Azure cloud. The solution is user friendly using familiar devices and is ubiquitous using the cloud solution. A module for translating medical terms in colloquial ones is integrated in the system. For certain situations the patient will get information related to life style influencing health status as how and what to eat or what type of exercise it is recommended. PMID:25160224

  14. Access Control of Web and Java Based Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tso, Kam S.; Pajevski, Michael J.; Johnson, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Cyber security has gained national and international attention as a result of near continuous headlines from financial institutions, retail stores, government offices and universities reporting compromised systems and stolen data. Concerns continue to rise as threats of service interruption, and spreading of viruses become ever more prevalent and serious. Controlling access to application layer resources is a critical component in a layered security solution that includes encryption, firewalls, virtual private networks, antivirus, and intrusion detection. In this paper we discuss the development of an application-level access control solution, based on an open-source access manager augmented with custom software components, to provide protection to both Web-based and Java-based client and server applications.

  15. Remote Data Access with IDL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloy, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A tool based on IDL (Interactive Data Language) and DAP (Data Access Protocol) has been developed for user-friendly remote data access. A difficulty for many NASA researchers using IDL is that often the data to analyze are located remotely and are too large to transfer for local analysis. Researchers have developed a protocol for accessing remote data, DAP, which is used for both SOHO and STEREO data sets. Server-side side analysis via IDL routine is available through DAP.

  16. Molecular Farming in Artemisia annua, a Promising Approach to Improve Anti-malarial Drug Production

    PubMed Central

    Pulice, Giuseppe; Pelaz, Soraya; Matías-Hernández, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a parasite infection affecting millions of people worldwide. Even though progress has been made in prevention and treatment of the disease; an estimated 214 million cases of malaria occurred in 2015, resulting in 438,000 estimated deaths; most of them occurring in Africa among children under the age of five. This article aims to review the epidemiology, future risk factors and current treatments of malaria, with particular focus on the promising potential of molecular farming that uses metabolic engineering in plants as an effective anti-malarial solution. Malaria represents an example of how a health problem may, on one hand, influence the proper development of a country, due to its burden of the disease. On the other hand, it constitutes an opportunity for lucrative business of diverse stakeholders. In contrast, plant biofarming is proposed here as a sustainable, promising, alternative for the production, not only of natural herbal repellents for malaria prevention but also for the production of sustainable anti-malarial drugs, like artemisinin (AN), used for primary parasite infection treatments. AN, a sesquiterpene lactone, is a natural anti-malarial compound that can be found in Artemisia annua. However, the low concentration of AN in the plant makes this molecule relatively expensive and difficult to produce in order to meet the current worldwide demand of Artemisinin Combination Therapies (ACTs), especially for economically disadvantaged people in developing countries. The biosynthetic pathway of AN, a process that takes place only in glandular secretory trichomes of A. annua, is relatively well elucidated. Significant efforts have been made using plant genetic engineering to increase production of this compound. These include diverse genetic manipulation approaches, such as studies on diverse transcription factors which have been shown to regulate the AN genetic pathway and other biological processes. Results look promising; however, further

  17. 28 CFR 17.44 - Access eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Access to Classified Information § 17.44 Access eligibility. (a) Determinations of eligibility for access to classified information are separate from suitability determinations with respect...

  18. 28 CFR 17.44 - Access eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Access to Classified Information § 17.44 Access eligibility. (a) Determinations of eligibility for access to classified information are separate from suitability determinations with respect...

  19. Rose garden promises of intelligent tutoring systems: Blossom or thorn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shute, Valerie J.

    1991-01-01

    Intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) have been in existence for over a decade. However, few controlled evaluation studies have been conducted comparing the effectiveness of these systems to more traditional instruction methods. Two main promises of ITSs are examined: (1) Engender more effective and efficient learning in relation to traditional formats; and (2) Reduce the range of learning outcome measures where a majority of individuals are elevated to high performance levels. Bloom (1984) has referred to these as the two sigma problem; to achieve two standard deviation improvements with tutoring over traditional instruction methods. Four ITSs are discussed in relation to the two promises. These tutors have undergone systematic, controlled evaluations: (1) The LISP tutor (Anderson Farrell and Sauers, 1984); (2) Smithtown (Shute and Glaser, in press); (3) Sherlock (Lesgold, Lajoie, Bunzo and Eggan, 1990); and (4) The Pascal ITS (Bonar, Cunningham, Beatty and Well, 1988). Results show that these four tutors do accelerate learning with no degradation in final outcome. Suggestions for improvements to the design and evaluation of ITSs are discussed.

  20. Latino Immigrants, Acculturation, and Health: Promising New Directions in Research.

    PubMed

    Abraído-Lanza, Ana F; Echeverría, Sandra E; Flórez, Karen R

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of novel topics emerging in recent years in research on Latino immigrants, acculturation, and health. In the past ten years, the number of studies assessing new ways to conceptualize and understand how acculturation-related processes may influence health has grown. These new frameworks draw from integrative approaches testing new ground to acknowledge the fundamental role of context and policy. We classify the emerging body of evidence according to themes that we identify as promising directions--intrapersonal, interpersonal, social environmental, community, political, and global contexts, cross-cutting themes in life course and developmental approaches, and segmented assimilation--and discuss the challenges and opportunities each theme presents. This body of work, which considers acculturation in context, points to the emergence of a new wave of research that holds great promise in driving forward the study of Latino immigrants, acculturation, and health. We provide suggestions to further advance the ideologic and methodologic rigor of this new wave. PMID:26735431

  1. Emerging Cancer Vaccines: The Promise of Genetic Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Aurisicchio, Luigi; Ciliberto, Gennaro

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic vaccination against cancer is an important approach which, when combined with other therapies, can improve long-term control of cancer. In fact, the induction of adaptive immune responses against Tumor Associated Antigens (TAAs) as well as innate immunity are important factors for tumor stabilization/eradication. A variety of immunization technologies have been explored in last decades and are currently under active evaluation, such as cell-based, protein, peptide and heat-shock protein-based cancer vaccines. Genetic vaccines are emerging as promising methodologies to elicit immune responses against a wide variety of antigens, including TAAs. Amongst these, Adenovirus (Ad)-based vectors show excellent immunogenicity profile and have achieved immunological proof of concept in humans. In vivo electroporation of plasmid DNA (DNA-EP) is also a desirable vaccine technology for cancer vaccines, as it is repeatable several times, a parameter required for the long-term maintenance of anti-tumor immunity. Recent findings show that combinations of different modalities of immunization (heterologous prime/boost) are able to induce superior immune reactions as compared to single-modality vaccines. In this review, we will discuss the challenges and requirements of emerging cancer vaccines, particularly focusing on the genetic cancer vaccines currently under active development and the promise shown by Ad and DNA-EP heterologous prime-boost. PMID:24212974

  2. Furfural--a promising platform for lignocellulosic biofuels.

    PubMed

    Lange, Jean-Paul; van der Heide, Evert; van Buijtenen, Jeroen; Price, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Furfural offers a promising, rich platform for lignocellulosic biofuels. These include methylfuran and methyltetrahydrofuran, valerate esters, ethylfurfuryl and ethyltetrahydrofurfuryl ethers as well as various C(10)-C(15) coupling products. The various production routes are critically reviewed, and the needs for improvements are identified. Their relative industrial potential is analysed by defining an investment index and CO(2) emissions as well as determining the fuel properties for the resulting products. Finally, the most promising candidate, 2-methylfuran, was subjected to a road trial of 90,000 km in a gasoline blend. Importantly, the potential of the furfural platform relies heavily on the cost-competitive production of furfural from lignocellulosic feedstock. Conventional standalone and emerging coproduct processes-for example, as a coproduct of cellulosic ethanol, levulinic acid or hydroxymethyl furfural-are expensive and energetically demanding. Challenges and areas that need improvement are highlighted. In addition to providing a critical review of the literature, this paper also presents new results and analysis in this area. PMID:22213717

  3. Stem cell therapy: the great promise in lung disease.

    PubMed

    Siniscalco, Dario; Sullo, Nikol; Maione, Sabatino; Rossi, Francesco; D'Agostino, Bruno

    2008-06-01

    Lung injuries are leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Pulmonary diseases such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by loss of lung elasticity, small airway tethers, and luminal obstruction with inflammatory mucoid secretions, or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis characterized by excessive matrix deposition and destruction of the normal lung architecture, have essentially symptomatic treatments and their management is costly to the health care system.Regeneration of tissue by stem cells from endogenous, exogenous, and even genetically modified cells is a promising novel therapy. The use of adult stem cells to help with lung regeneration and repair could be a newer technology in clinical and regenerative medicine. In fact, different studies have shown that bone marrow progenitor cells contribute to repair and remodeling of lung in animal models of progressive pulmonary hypertension.Therefore, lung stem cell biology may provide novel approaches to therapy and could represent a great promise for the future of molecular medicine. In fact, several diseases can be slowed or even blocked by stem cell transplantation. PMID:19124369

  4. Implicit processes in health psychology: Diversity and promise.

    PubMed

    Sheeran, Paschal; Bosch, Jos A; Crombez, Geert; Hall, Peter A; Harris, Jennifer L; Papies, Esther K; Wiers, Reinout W

    2016-08-01

    Implicit processes refer to cognitive, affective, and motivational processes that influence health decisions and behavior without the person intending that influence. This special issue aims to increase appreciation of the diverse and promising research on implicit processes in health psychology, and to promote discussion about how this research improves understanding of health behavior change and can be harnessed to meet public health mandates. The articles included in the special issue showcase this diversity and promise, and present not only new findings, but also new theories, new measures, and state-of-the- art summaries of progress. The research demonstrates the added value of considering implicit processes for understanding health behaviors, their interactions with explicit processes and neural mechanisms, as well as the benefits of targeting implicit processes in health behavior interventions. At the same time, however, the papers in this special issue also point to potential boundary conditions, the importance of good measures and appropriate tests of implicit processes, and the challenges involved in assessing implicit processes' causal role in determining health behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27505195

  5. 7 T renal MRI: challenges and promises.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Anneloes; Hoogduin, Johannes M; Blankestijn, Peter J; Li, Xiufeng; Luijten, Peter R; Metzger, Gregory J; Raaijmakers, Alexander J E; Umutlu, Lale; Visser, Fredy; Leiner, Tim

    2016-06-01

    The progression to 7 Tesla (7 T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) yields promises of substantial increase in signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio. This increase can be traded off to increase image spatial resolution or to decrease acquisition time. However, renal 7 T MRI remains challenging due to inhomogeneity of the radiofrequency field and due to specific absorption rate (SAR) constraints. A number of studies has been published in the field of renal 7 T imaging. While the focus initially was on anatomic imaging and renal MR angiography, later studies have explored renal functional imaging. Although anatomic imaging remains somewhat limited by inhomogeneous excitation and SAR constraints, functional imaging results are promising. The increased SNR at 7 T has been particularly advantageous for blood oxygen level-dependent and arterial spin labelling MRI, as well as sodium MR imaging, thanks to changes in field-strength-dependent magnetic properties. Here, we provide an overview of the currently available literature on renal 7 T MRI. In addition, we provide a brief overview of challenges and opportunities in renal 7 T MR imaging. PMID:27008461

  6. Challenges and promises in the fabrication of bit patterned media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moneck, Matthew T.; Zhu, Jian-Gang

    2010-09-01

    Bit patterned media (BPM) is one of the promising technologies for ultra-high density storage in future hard disk drives. However, there are many challenges in fabricating BPM. In particular, applications with area density much greater than 1 Tbit/in2 require magnetic bits to be at sub-10 nm dimensions. Etching at these scales is difficult to achieve with conventional ion milling techniques. Instead, reactive ion etching (RIE) techniques must be developed to meet the challenge. In this work, research is presented on the development of a methanol based RIE scheme for fabricating BPM at ultra-high area densities. The paper will discuss the ability of methanol RIE to etch magnetic and nonmagnetic films in both the parallel plate and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) RIE configurations, as well as the advantages of both configurations over Ar ion milling, including enhanced selectivity, minimal redeposition, and less etch induced damage or erosion. We demonstrate the ability to etch sub-20 nm features in commercially available CoCrPt based perpendicular recording media and NiFe with selectivity greater than 10:1 relative to mask materials, such as Ta, TaNx, Ti, and SiNx. These results, the promises of such a technique, and the feasibility of sub-10 nm scale etching are discussed in detail.

  7. Cancer immunotherapy: accomplishments to date and future promise.

    PubMed

    Helmy, Karim Y; Patel, Shyam A; Nahas, George R; Rameshwar, Pranela

    2013-10-01

    Cancer remains a devastating disease as existing therapies are too often ineffective and toxicities remain unacceptably high. Immunotherapies for cancer offer the promise of the specificity and memory of the immune system against malignant cells to achieve durable cure with minimal toxicity. Beginning with the success of bone marrow transplantation for blood-borne cancers, and the more recent development of monoclonal antibody therapeutics for a variety of tumors, immunotherapies are already among the most successful class of treatments for cancer. Greater understanding of immunoregulatory mechanisms and improved techniques for immune cell manipulation and engineering have led to new immunomodulatory approaches and cell-based therapies for cancer that have generated great excitement within the biomedical community. As these technologies continue to improve, and as new approaches for harnessing the power and specificity of the immune system are developed, immunotherapies will play an increasingly important role in the treatment of cancer. Here, we review the history of immunotherapies for cancer and discuss existing and emerging immunotherapy technologies that hope to translate the promise of immunotherapy into clinical reality. PMID:24116914

  8. Hydrogel-Based Nanocomposites and Mesenchymal Stem Cells: A Promising Synergistic Strategy for Neurodegenerative Disorders Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Albani, Diego; Gloria, Antonio; Giordano, Carmen; Rodilossi, Serena; Russo, Teresa; D'Amora, Ugo; Tunesi, Marta; Cigada, Alberto; Ambrosio, Luigi; Forloni, Gianluigi

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogel-based materials are widely employed in the biomedical field. With regard to central nervous system (CNS) neurodegenerative disorders, the design of injectable nanocomposite hydrogels for in situ drug or cell release represents an interesting and minimally invasive solution that might play a key role in the development of successful treatments. In particular, biocompatible and biodegradable hydrogels can be designed as specific injectable tools and loaded with nanoparticles (NPs), to improve and to tailor their viscoelastic properties upon injection and release profile. An intriguing application is hydrogel loading with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that are a very promising therapeutic tool for neurodegenerative or traumatic disorders of the CNS. This multidisciplinary review will focus on the basic concepts to design acellular and cell-loaded materials with specific and tunable rheological and functional properties. The use of hydrogel-based nanocomposites and mesenchymal stem cells as a synergistic strategy for nervous tissue applications will be then discussed. PMID:24459423

  9. Oxidized amylose with high carboxyl content: A promising solubilizer and carrier of linalool for antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Ye, Youxin; Zhang, Wenwen; Li, Songling; Chen, Jing; Wang, Shiting; Li, Defu; Mu, Changdao

    2016-12-10

    The oxidized amyloses with different carboxyl content were prepared to include linalool for antimicrobial activity in aqueous environment. The results show that linalool can be effectively reserved from volatilization through encapsulation into amylose and oxidized amyloses. The inclusion ability of oxidized amyloses towards linalool is decreasing with the increase of oxidation level due to the depolymerization of amylose. However, the solubilization effect of oxidized amyloses to linalool is enhanced efficiently owning to the high water solubility of oxidized amyloses. It is interesting that the inclusion complexes have good antimicrobial activity in aqueous environment. Linalool solubilized by oxidized amyloses presents better antimicrobial performance than that solubilized by amylose, mainly resulting from that amylose-linalool inclusion complex would aggregate and retrograde fast in aqueous solution, which is disadvantageous for the release of linalool. The study suggests that oxidized amylose is a promising solubilizer and carrier of linalool for antimicrobial activity in aqueous environment. PMID:27577891

  10. Vehicle barrier with access delay

    DOEpatents

    Swahlan, David J; Wilke, Jason

    2013-09-03

    An access delay vehicle barrier for stopping unauthorized entry into secure areas by a vehicle ramming attack includes access delay features for preventing and/or delaying an adversary from defeating or compromising the barrier. A horizontally deployed barrier member can include an exterior steel casing, an interior steel reinforcing member and access delay members disposed within the casing and between the casing and the interior reinforcing member. Access delay members can include wooden structural lumber, concrete and/or polymeric members that in combination with the exterior casing and interior reinforcing member act cooperatively to impair an adversarial attach by thermal, mechanical and/or explosive tools.

  11. Atomic memory access hardware implementations

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Jung Ho; Erez, Mattan; Dally, William J

    2015-02-17

    Atomic memory access requests are handled using a variety of systems and methods. According to one example method, a data-processing circuit having an address-request generator that issues requests to a common memory implements a method of processing the requests using a memory-access intervention circuit coupled between the generator and the common memory. The method identifies a current atomic-memory access request from a plurality of memory access requests. A data set is stored that corresponds to the current atomic-memory access request in a data storage circuit within the intervention circuit. It is determined whether the current atomic-memory access request corresponds to at least one previously-stored atomic-memory access request. In response to determining correspondence, the current request is implemented by retrieving data from the common memory. The data is modified in response to the current request and at least one other access request in the memory-access intervention circuit.

  12. In situ microscopy of the self-assembly of branched nanocrystals in solution

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sutter, Eli; Tkachenko, Alexei V.; Sutter, Peter; Roman Krahne; Arciniegas, Milena; Manna, Liberato; de Graaf, Joost

    2016-04-04

    Here, solution-phase self-assembly of nanocrystals into mesoscale structures is a promising strategy for constructing functional materials from nanoscale components. Liquid environments are key to self-assembly since they allow suspended nanocrystals to diffuse and interact freely, but they also complicate experiments. Real-time observations with single-particle resolution could have transformative impact on our understanding of nanocrystal self-assembly. Here we use real-time in situ imaging by liquid-cell electron microscopy to elucidate the nucleation and growth mechanism and properties of linear chains of octapod-shaped nanocrystals in their native solution environment. Statistical mechanics modelling based on these observations and using the measured chain-length distribution clarifiesmore » the relative importance of dipolar and entropic forces in the assembly process and gives direct access to the interparticle interaction. Our results suggest that monomer-resolved in situ imaging combined with modelling can provide unprecedented quantitative insight into the microscopic processes and interactions that govern nanocrystal self-assembly in solution.« less

  13. In situ microscopy of the self-assembly of branched nanocrystals in solution.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Eli; Sutter, Peter; Tkachenko, Alexei V; Krahne, Roman; de Graaf, Joost; Arciniegas, Milena; Manna, Liberato

    2016-01-01

    Solution-phase self-assembly of nanocrystals into mesoscale structures is a promising strategy for constructing functional materials from nanoscale components. Liquid environments are key to self-assembly since they allow suspended nanocrystals to diffuse and interact freely, but they also complicate experiments. Real-time observations with single-particle resolution could have transformative impact on our understanding of nanocrystal self-assembly. Here we use real-time in situ imaging by liquid-cell electron microscopy to elucidate the nucleation and growth mechanism and properties of linear chains of octapod-shaped nanocrystals in their native solution environment. Statistical mechanics modelling based on these observations and using the measured chain-length distribution clarifies the relative importance of dipolar and entropic forces in the assembly process and gives direct access to the interparticle interaction. Our results suggest that monomer-resolved in situ imaging combined with modelling can provide unprecedented quantitative insight into the microscopic processes and interactions that govern nanocrystal self-assembly in solution. PMID:27040366

  14. In situ microscopy of the self-assembly of branched nanocrystals in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutter, Eli; Sutter, Peter; Tkachenko, Alexei V.; Krahne, Roman; de Graaf, Joost; Arciniegas, Milena; Manna, Liberato

    2016-04-01

    Solution-phase self-assembly of nanocrystals into mesoscale structures is a promising strategy for constructing functional materials from nanoscale components. Liquid environments are key to self-assembly since they allow suspended nanocrystals to diffuse and interact freely, but they also complicate experiments. Real-time observations with single-particle resolution could have transformative impact on our understanding of nanocrystal self-assembly. Here we use real-time in situ imaging by liquid-cell electron microscopy to elucidate the nucleation and growth mechanism and properties of linear chains of octapod-shaped nanocrystals in their native solution environment. Statistical mechanics modelling based on these observations and using the measured chain-length distribution clarifies the relative importance of dipolar and entropic forces in the assembly process and gives direct access to the interparticle interaction. Our results suggest that monomer-resolved in situ imaging combined with modelling can provide unprecedented quantitative insight into the microscopic processes and interactions that govern nanocrystal self-assembly in solution.

  15. In situ microscopy of the self-assembly of branched nanocrystals in solution

    PubMed Central

    Sutter, Eli; Sutter, Peter; Tkachenko, Alexei V.; Krahne, Roman; de Graaf, Joost; Arciniegas, Milena; Manna, Liberato

    2016-01-01

    Solution-phase self-assembly of nanocrystals into mesoscale structures is a promising strategy for constructing functional materials from nanoscale components. Liquid environments are key to self-assembly since they allow suspended nanocrystals to diffuse and interact freely, but they also complicate experiments. Real-time observations with single-particle resolution could have transformative impact on our understanding of nanocrystal self-assembly. Here we use real-time in situ imaging by liquid-cell electron microscopy to elucidate the nucleation and growth mechanism and properties of linear chains of octapod-shaped nanocrystals in their native solution environment. Statistical mechanics modelling based on these observations and using the measured chain-length distribution clarifies the relative importance of dipolar and entropic forces in the assembly process and gives direct access to the interparticle interaction. Our results suggest that monomer-resolved in situ imaging combined with modelling can provide unprecedented quantitative insight into the microscopic processes and interactions that govern nanocrystal self-assembly in solution. PMID:27040366

  16. Topical tranexamic acid as a promising treatment for melasma

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Bahareh; Naeini, Farahnaz Fatemi

    2014-01-01

    Background: In recent times, tranexamic acid (TA) is claimed to have whitening effects especially for ultraviolet-induced hyperpigmentation including melasma. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical solution of TA and compare it with combined solution of hydroquinone and dexamethasone as the gold standard treatment of melasma in Iranian women. Materials and Methods: This was a double-blind split-face trial of 12 weeks which was conducted in Isfahan, Iran. Fifty Iranian melasma patients applied topical solution of 3% TA on one side of the face, and topical solution of 3% hydroquinone + 0.01% dexamethasone on the other side two times a day. The Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI) and the side effects were evaluated at baseline and every 4 weeks before and after photographs to be compared by a dermatologist were taken. The patient satisfaction was documented at week 12. Results: A repeated measurement analysis was used to evaluate the changes in the MASI score before and after treatments. A significant decreasing trend was observed in the MASI score of both groups with no significant difference between them during the study (P < 0.05). No differences were seen in patients’ and investigator's satisfaction of melasma improvement between two groups (P < 0.05). However, the side effects of hydroquinone + dexamethasone were significantly prominent compared with TA (P = 0.01). Conclusion: This study's results introduce the topical TA as an effective and safe medication for the treatment of melasma. PMID:25422661

  17. Cartilage Transplants Hold Promise for Challenging Bone Defects

    PubMed Central

    Nishitani, Kohei; Schwarz, Edward M.

    2015-01-01

    The challenges of healing have led investigators to question existing paradigms in the hopes of uncovering overlooked solutions. Such is the case in a recent study showing that introduction of a cartilage construct into a mouse tibial defect induces remarkable healing owing to the transformation of donor chondrocytes into new bone. PMID:24418762

  18. The Social Promise of the Time to Know Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Yigal; Manny-Ikan, Edith

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the effects of the Time To Know program, a comprehensive technology-rich learning environment, on low socio-economic status (SES) students' learning achievements in Mathematics, Hebrew, and English as a Foreign Language (EFL)in Israel. The study is based on the assumption that one of the possible solutions for bridging the…

  19. Games for Learning: Vast Wasteland or a Digital Promise?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Michael H.; Vaala, Sarah E.

    2013-01-01

    Research about emerging best practices in the learning sciences points to the potential of deploying digital games as one possible solution to the twin challenges of weak student engagement and the need for more robust achievement in literacy, science, technology, and math. This chapter reviews key cross-cutting themes in this special volume,…

  20. Alternatives to standard blood transfusion: availability and promise.

    PubMed

    Prowse, C V

    1999-12-01

    Largely due to concerns over safety, a wide variety of alternatives to the conventional blood bank products of red cells, platelet concentrates, plasma and fractionated plasma products are under development. This review attempts to survey the alternative therapies that are being developed, whether they provide viable solutions and what impact they might have on transfusion practice. PMID:10583882