Science.gov

Sample records for access standards related

  1. Accessibility Standards, Illustrated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Michael A.

    The book sets forth Illinois environmental accessibility standards for disabled persons based on observation and interview data. Photographs, drawings, and detailed floor plans are included in sections dealing with human data (including space requirements for maneuvering wheelchairs, color blindness, incontinence, and severe auditory or visual…

  2. Standards and Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Tom

    1993-01-01

    Argues that easy claims about the relationship between language mastery and academic or economic access (made by both conservative commentators on education and mainstream writing teachers) are false and obscure real social and political boundaries, such as racism, sexism, elitism, and homophobia, that really do prevent access. (SR)

  3. Standardized Definitions for Hemodialysis Vascular Access

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Timmy; Mokrzycki, Michele; Moist, Louise; Maya, Ivan; Vazquez, Miguel; Lok, Charmaine

    2014-01-01

    Vascular access dysfunction is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among end-stage renal disease patients 1,2. Vascular access dysfunction exists in all 3 types of available accesses: arteriovenous fistulas, arteriovenous grafts, and tunneled catheters. In order to improve clinical research and outcomes in hemodialysis access dysfunction, the development of a multidisciplinary network of collaborative investigators with various areas of expertise, and common standards for terminology and classification in all vascular access types is required. The North American Vascular Access Consortium (NAVAC) is a newly formed multidisciplinary and multicenter network of experts in the area of hemodialysis vascular access, who include nephrologists and interventional nephrologists from the United States and Canada with: (1) a primary clinical and research focus in hemodialysis vascular access dysfunction, (2) national and internationally recognized experts in vascular access, and (3) a history of productivity measured by peer-reviewed publications and funding among members of this consortium. The consortium’s mission is to improve the quality and efficiency in vascular access research, and impact the research in the area of hemodialysis vascular access by conducting observational studies and randomized controlled trials. The purpose of the consortium’s initial manuscript is to provide working and standard vascular access definitions relating to (1) epidemiology, (2) vascular access function, (3) vascular access patency, and (4) complications in vascular accesses relating to each of the vascular access types. PMID:21906166

  4. Teaching Accessibility Standards to Generation Y Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klitzing, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 mandated that facilities and programs are accessible, so people with disabilities can be included in all aspects of community life including recreation (Dattilo, 2002). Understanding accessibility standards is not an easy task. Educators are faced with the challenge of teaching technical content,…

  5. Accession Medical Standards Analysis and Research Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Chief, Accession Medical Standards Analysis & Research Activity Li Yuanzhang, PhD Senior Statistician Department of Epidemiology David N...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) AMSARA, Department of Epidemiology , Division of Preventive Medicine Walter Reed Army Institute of Research 503... Epidemiology of Injury form the Assessment of Recruit Strength and Motivation study ARMS) and Program

  6. 24 CFR 8.32 - Accessibility standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 3-8 of the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) shall be deemed to comply with the... technical and scoping requirements of the UFAS by the use of other methods are permitted where substantially... interested in obtaining a copy of the UFAS are directed to § 40.7 of this title. (b) For purposes of...

  7. 24 CFR 8.32 - Accessibility standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 3-8 of the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) shall be deemed to comply with the... technical and scoping requirements of the UFAS by the use of other methods are permitted where substantially... interested in obtaining a copy of the UFAS are directed to § 40.7 of this title. (b) For purposes of...

  8. 24 CFR 8.32 - Accessibility standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 3-8 of the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) shall be deemed to comply with the... technical and scoping requirements of the UFAS by the use of other methods are permitted where substantially... interested in obtaining a copy of the UFAS are directed to § 40.7 of this title. (b) For purposes of...

  9. 24 CFR 8.32 - Accessibility standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 3-8 of the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) shall be deemed to comply with the... technical and scoping requirements of the UFAS by the use of other methods are permitted where substantially... interested in obtaining a copy of the UFAS are directed to § 40.7 of this title. (b) For purposes of...

  10. 24 CFR 8.32 - Accessibility standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 3-8 of the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) shall be deemed to comply with the... technical and scoping requirements of the UFAS by the use of other methods are permitted where substantially... interested in obtaining a copy of the UFAS are directed to § 40.7 of this title. (b) For purposes of...

  11. 75 FR 35439 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards AGENCY... equipment to ensure that such equipment is accessible to, and usable by, individuals with disabilities to... accessibility needs of individuals with disabilities with respect to medical diagnostic equipment and...

  12. Energy access and living standards: some observations on recent trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Narasimha D.; Pachauri, Shonali

    2017-02-01

    A subset of Sustainable Development Goals pertains to improving people’s living standards at home. These include the provision of access to electricity, clean cooking energy, improved water and sanitation. We examine historical progress in energy access in relation to other living standards. We assess regional patterns in the pace of progress and relative priority accorded to these different services. Countries in sub-Saharan Africa would have to undergo unprecedented rates of improvement in energy access in order to achieve the goal of universal electrification by 2030. World over, access to clean cooking fuels and sanitation facilities consistently lag improved water and electricity access by a large margin. These two deprivations are more concentrated among poor countries, and poor people in middle income countries. They are also correlated to health risks faced disproportionately by women. However, some Asian countries have been able to achieve faster progress in electrification at lower income levels compared to industrialized countries’ earlier efforts. These examples offer hope that future efforts need not be constrained by historical rates of progress.

  13. 77 FR 39656 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... CFR Part 1195 [Docket No. ATBCB-2012-0003] RIN 3014-AA40 Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility... Proposed Rulemaking on Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards. DATES: The first meeting of... Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) on Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards. See 77 FR 14706...

  14. 49 CFR 37.7 - Standards for accessible vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for accessible vehicles. 37.7 Section 37... WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) General § 37.7 Standards for accessible vehicles. (a) For purposes of this part, a vehicle shall be considered to be readily accessible to and usable by individuals...

  15. 49 CFR 37.7 - Standards for accessible vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for accessible vehicles. 37.7 Section 37... WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) General § 37.7 Standards for accessible vehicles. (a) For purposes of this part, a vehicle shall be considered to be readily accessible to and usable by individuals...

  16. 49 CFR 37.7 - Standards for accessible vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for accessible vehicles. 37.7 Section 37... WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) General § 37.7 Standards for accessible vehicles. (a) For purposes of this part, a vehicle shall be considered to be readily accessible to and usable by individuals...

  17. 49 CFR 37.7 - Standards for accessible vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for accessible vehicles. 37.7 Section 37... WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) General § 37.7 Standards for accessible vehicles. (a) For purposes of this part, a vehicle shall be considered to be readily accessible to and usable by individuals...

  18. 77 FR 62479 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1195 RIN 3014-AA40 Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee AGENCY: Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board... and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board) established an advisory committee to...

  19. 77 FR 67595 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1195 RIN 3014-AA40 Medical Diagnostic Equipment.... ACTION: Notice of advisory committee meeting. SUMMARY: The Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility... Rulemaking (NPRM) on Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards. DATES: The Committee will meet...

  20. 49 CFR 37.9 - Standards for accessible transportation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) or ANSI A117.1(1980) (American National Standards Specification for... covering those elements or spaces are contained in UFAS or ANSI A117.1, as applicable. (c) (1)...

  1. 49 CFR 37.9 - Standards for accessible transportation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) or ANSI A117.1(1980) (American National Standards Specification for... covering those elements or spaces are contained in UFAS or ANSI A117.1, as applicable. (c) (1)...

  2. 49 CFR 37.9 - Standards for accessible transportation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) or ANSI A117.1(1980) (American National Standards Specification for... covering those elements or spaces are contained in UFAS or ANSI A117.1, as applicable. (c) (1)...

  3. 49 CFR 37.9 - Standards for accessible transportation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) or ANSI A117.1(1980) (American National Standards Specification for... covering those elements or spaces are contained in UFAS or ANSI A117.1, as applicable. (c) (1)...

  4. 49 CFR 37.9 - Standards for accessible transportation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) or ANSI A117.1(1980) (American National Standards Specification for... covering those elements or spaces are contained in UFAS or ANSI A117.1, as applicable. (c) (1)...

  5. 49 CFR 37.7 - Standards for accessible vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for accessible vehicles. 37.7 Section 37.7 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) General § 37.7 Standards for accessible vehicles. (a) For purposes of this...

  6. 77 FR 6915 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ...The Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board) is proposing accessibility standards for medical diagnostic equipment. The proposed standards contain minimum technical criteria to ensure that medical diagnostic equipment, including examination tables, examination chairs, weight scales, mammography equipment, and other imaging equipment used by health care......

  7. Addressing legal and political barriers to global pharmaceutical access: options for remedying the impact of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and the imposition of TRIPS-plus standards.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Kohler, Jillian Clare; Forman, Lisa; Lipkus, Nathaniel

    2008-07-01

    Despite myriad programs aimed at increasing access to essential medicines in the developing world, the global drug gap persists. This paper focuses on the major legal and political constraints preventing implementation of coordinated global policy solutions - particularly, the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and bilateral and regional free trade agreements. We argue that several policy and research routes should be taken to mitigate the restrictive impact of TRIPS and TRIPS-plus rules, including greater use of TRIPS flexibilities, advancement of human rights, and an ethical framework for essential medicines distribution, and a broader campaign that debates the legitimacy of TRIPS and TRIPS-plus standards themselves.

  8. Accessible Electronic and Information Technology: Standards, Procedures, and Guidance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Defines electronic and information technology (EIT), and the technical and functional performance criteria for EIT to comply with Section 508 accessibility standards. Includes EPA procedures for EIT approval, 508 complaints, and undue burden justification.

  9. 77 FR 53163 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1195 RIN 3014-AA40 Medical Diagnostic Equipment.... ACTION: Notice of advisory committee meeting. SUMMARY: The Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility...) on Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards. See 77 FR 6916 (February 9, 2012). The...

  10. 77 FR 14706 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1195 RIN 3014-AA40 Medical Diagnostic Equipment... the Federal Register, 77 FR 6916, on accessibility standards for medical diagnostic equipment and... equipment, in consultation with the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration. The Access...

  11. 48 CFR 315.7000 - Section 508 accessibility standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Technology 315.7000 Section 508 accessibility standards. EIT products and services, including EIT... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Section 508 accessibility... Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended. Consistent with paragraph 4.3.1 of the...

  12. 48 CFR 315.7000 - Section 508 accessibility standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Technology 315.7000 Section 508 accessibility standards. EIT products and services, including EIT... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Section 508 accessibility... Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended. Consistent with paragraph 4.3.1 of the...

  13. 48 CFR 315.7000 - Section 508 accessibility standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Technology 315.7000 Section 508 accessibility standards. EIT products and services, including EIT... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Section 508 accessibility... Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended. Consistent with paragraph 4.3.1 of the...

  14. 48 CFR 315.7000 - Section 508 accessibility standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Technology 315.7000 Section 508 accessibility standards. EIT products and services, including EIT... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Section 508 accessibility... Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended. Consistent with paragraph 4.3.1 of the...

  15. 48 CFR 315.7000 - Section 508 accessibility standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Technology 315.7000 Section 508 accessibility standards. EIT products and services, including EIT... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Section 508 accessibility... Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended. Consistent with paragraph 4.3.1 of the...

  16. 39 CFR 254.1 - Adoption of U.S. Access Board Standards as Postal Service Standards of Facility Accessibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Barriers Act (ABA) “Standards for Facility Accessibility,” the following sections of 36 CFR part 1191... Barriers Act, Scoping (which contains ABA Chapter 1, Application and Administration, and ABA Chapter...

  17. Providing public standardized data access function: Lessons learned from accessing USGS Landsat archive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, X.; Bai, Y.; Di, L.; Nebert, D.

    2009-01-01

    The geospatial community is experiencing a shift from having data locally to sharing them over the Web. However, not all the data accessing systems are built in compliance with open geospatial standards and thus are weak in terms of interoperability. The USGS Landsat data are now available through free electronic access though not yet through standard Web service interfaces. This paper intends to discuss the experience and lessons learned from integrating a public data access function to the USGS Landsat data archive into a geospatial workflow environment. Currently available systems and their problems, proposed solutions and application scenarios are discussed.

  18. 1997 Accession Medical Standards Analysis & Research Activity (AMSARA) Annual Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-01

    Attention - Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder Armed Forces Qualifying Test Academic Skills Defect Accession Medical Standards Analysis and...Academic Skills Defect: 1995 and 1996: Preliminary Results Attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder is not directly addressed in the DOD Directive for...Genetic Influences in Childhood-Onset Psychiatric Disorders: Autism and Attention - Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder . Am J Hum Genet

  19. Accessibility of geotechnical earthquake Engineering data and the need for data storage and dissemination standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tarr, Arthur C.

    1993-01-01

    Ease of data access and data standards are two issues critical to the success of GIS technology when applied to earthquake hazards research problems that require geotechnical engineering and related data. Efforts to reduce data accession costs and to streamline the data exchange process will result in short-term cost and time saving and will add long-term value to the data sets themselves. Such efforts might include centralized data centers, standardized data base designs and formats, cooperative efforts to fill data gaps, and standardized distribution methods and media.

  20. Document of standardization of enteral nutrition access in adults.

    PubMed

    Arribas, Lorena; Frías, Laura; Creus, Gloria; Parejo, Juana; Urzola, Carmen; Ashbaugh, Rosana; Pérez-Portabella, Cleofé; Cuerda, Cristina

    2014-07-01

    The group of standardization and protocols of the Spanish Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (SENPE) published in 2011 a consensus document SENPE/SEGHNP/ANECIPN/SECP on enteral access for paediatric nutritional support. Along the lines of this document, we have developed another document on adult patients to homogenize the clinical practice and improve the quality of care in enteral access in this age group. The working group included health professionals (nurses, dietitians and doctor) with extensive experience in enteral nutrition and access. We tried to find scientific evidence through a literature review and we used the criteria of the Agency for Health-care Research and Quality (AHRQ) to classify the evidence (Grade of Recommendation A, B or C). Later the document was reviewed by external experts to the group and requested the endorsement of the Scientific and Educational Committee (CCE) and the group of home artificial nutrition (NADYA) of the SENPE. The full text will be published as a monograph number in this journal.

  1. Impact of the A18.1 ASME Standard on Platform Lifts and Stairway Chairlifts on Accessibility and Usability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balmer, David C.

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes the effect of the ASME A18.1 Standard concerning accessibility and usability of Platform Lifts and their remaining technological challenges. While elevators are currently the most effective means of vertical transportation related to speed, capacity, rise and usability, their major drawbacks for accessibility are cost and…

  2. HPEC Related VITA Standards: An Update

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-30

    HPEC Related VITA Standards: An Update Randy Banton Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. High Performance Embedded Computing (HPEC) Conference September...AND ADDRESS(ES) Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10...unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 2© 2004 Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. HPEC Related VITA

  3. 32 CFR 154.6 - Standards for access to classified information or assignment to sensitive duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for access to classified information... Policies § 154.6 Standards for access to classified information or assignment to sensitive duties. (a..., or granted access to classified information unless an authority designated in Appendix E...

  4. Accessibility

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Federal laws, including Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act, mandate that people with disabilities have access to the same information that someone without a disability would have. 508 standards cover electronic and information technology (EIT) products.

  5. User Procedures Standardization for Network Access. NBS Technical Note 799.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, A. J.

    User access procedures to information systems have become of crucial importance with the advent of computer networks, which have opened new types of resources to a broad spectrum of users. This report surveys user access protocols of six representative systems: BASIC, GE MK II, INFONET, MEDLINE, NIC/ARPANET and SPIRES. Functional access…

  6. 78 FR 32612 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1195 RIN 3014-AA40 Medical Diagnostic Equipment.... ACTION: Notice of advisory committee meeting. SUMMARY: The Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility... previously published Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) on Medical Diagnostic Equipment...

  7. 78 FR 16448 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1195 RIN 3014-AA40 Medical Diagnostic Equipment.... ACTION: Notice of advisory committee meeting. SUMMARY: The Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility... previously published Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) on Medical Diagnostic Equipment...

  8. 78 FR 23872 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1195 RIN 3014-AA40 Medical Diagnostic Equipment.... ACTION: Notice of advisory committee meeting. SUMMARY: The Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility... previously published Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) on Medical Diagnostic Equipment...

  9. 78 FR 1166 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1195 RIN 3014-AA40 Medical Diagnostic Equipment.... ACTION: Notice of advisory committee meeting. SUMMARY: The Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility... previously published Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) on Medical Diagnostic Equipment...

  10. 78 FR 10582 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1195 RIN 3014-AA40 Medical Diagnostic Equipment.... ACTION: Notice of advisory committee meeting. SUMMARY: The Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility... previously published Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) on Medical Diagnostic Equipment...

  11. 77 FR 20743 - Protective Force Personnel Medical, Physical Readiness, Training, and Access Authorization Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... on the proposed rule to amend the standards for medical, physical performance, training, and access... proposed rule to revise the standards for medical, physical performance, training, and access...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 1046 RIN 1992-AA40 Protective Force Personnel Medical, Physical...

  12. The Common Core State Standards: Comparisons of Access and Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Nicholas H.

    2011-01-01

    Last year the United States unveiled the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in English and Mathematics for grades K-12. In particular, the authors included two possible sequences of 8-12 mathematics courses that would fulfill the standards. Most notably, the courses titled "3a" and "3b" in these two sequences have become…

  13. Relative Clauses, the Accessibility Hierarchy, and the Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarts, Flor; Schils, Erik

    1995-01-01

    Examined how well first-year English majors at the University of Nijmegen, Netherlands, performed on a relative clause test, with students retested after receiving instruction in relative clauses. Results found that 78% of the students scored better on the second test. The results are discussed in relation to accessibility hierarchy and the…

  14. Use of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Standards to Disseminate and Access Scientific Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piper, M.; Justice, B.; Borsholm, A.; Harris, A. T.

    2011-12-01

    With the proliferation of scientific data in the public domain, improved methods for facilitating the discovery and dissemination of the data are sorely needed. NASA recently confronted this challenging problem within the context of the NextGen 4-D Weather Cube, a virtual database of weather observations and forecasts that, among other applications, will principally serve the reinvented US air traffic management system. Acknowledging the current trends toward the use of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards, ITT VIS worked closely with NASA sponsors to implement the ebXML RegRep standard, which defines support for the registration, management and retrieval of georeferenced data and related metadata. Use of this standard within a web-enabled software infrastructure allows consumers to discover datasets and access them via methods called "services". The OGC WFS, WMS, and WCS services provide different delivery mechanisms for datasets stored in public repositories and give users on-demand access within their local computing environment. Examples of how NASA, working on the NextGen project, researched and developed ways of using these technologies to further enhance their research will be emphasized. Lessons learned here may provide guidance for other scientific projects with similar requirements for disseminating public datasets.

  15. Human rights responsibilities of pharmaceutical companies in relation to access to medicines.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo-Young; Hunt, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Although access to medicines is a vital feature of the right to the highest attainable standard of health ("right to health"), almost two billion people lack access to essential medicines, leading to immense avoidable suffering. While the human rights responsibility to provide access to medicines lies mainly with States, pharmaceutical companies also have human rights responsibilities in relation to access to medicines. This article provides an introduction to these responsibilities. It briefly outlines the new UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights and places the human rights responsibilities of pharmaceutical companies in this context. The authors draw from the work of the first UN Special Rapporteur on the right to the highest attainable standard of health, in particular the Human Rights Guidelines for Pharmaceutical Companies in Relation to Access to Medicines that he presented to the UN General Assembly in 2008, and his UN report on GlaxoSmithKline (GSK). While the Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights are general human rights standards applicable to all business entities, the Human Rights Guidelines for Pharmaceutical Companies consider the specific human rights responsibilities of one sector (pharmaceutical companies) in relation to one area of activity (access to medicines). The article signals the human rights responsibilities of all pharmaceutical companies, with particular attention to patent-holding pharmaceutical companies. Adopting a right-to-health "lens," the article discusses GSK and accountability. The authors argue that human rights should shape pharmaceutical companies' policies, and provide standards in relation to which pharmaceutical companies could, and should, be held accountable. They conclude that it is now crucial to devise independent, accessible, transparent, and effective mechanisms to monitor pharmaceutical companies and hold them publicly accountable for their human rights responsibilities.

  16. Accession Medical Standards Analysis and Research Activity (AMSARA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    macular degeneration , and glaucoma [1]. Currently, the progression of myopia cannot be prevented or slowed. Good quality vision is necessary for any...diagnosis of ADHD. The 2003 standards for ADHD indicate disqualification of applicants who demonstrate chronic history of academic skills deficit...Institutes of Health define asthma as a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways that causes airway hyperresponsiveness to various stimuli and reversible

  17. An Introduction to Web Accessibility, Web Standards, and Web Standards Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHale, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Librarians and libraries have long been committed to providing equitable access to information. In the past decade and a half, the growth of the Internet and the rapid increase in the number of online library resources and tools have added a new dimension to this core duty of the profession: ensuring accessibility of online resources to users with…

  18. 7 CFR 1755.500 - RUS standard for service installations at customers access locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false RUS standard for service installations at customers... customers access locations. (a) Sections 1755.501 through 1755.510 cover service installations at permanent or mobile home customer access locations. Sections 1755.501 through 1755.510 do not cover...

  19. 7 CFR 1755.500 - RUS standard for service installations at customers access locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false RUS standard for service installations at customers... customers access locations. (a) Sections 1755.501 through 1755.510 cover service installations at permanent or mobile home customer access locations. Sections 1755.501 through 1755.510 do not cover...

  20. 7 CFR 1755.500 - RUS standard for service installations at customers access locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false RUS standard for service installations at customers... customers access locations. (a) Sections 1755.501 through 1755.510 cover service installations at permanent or mobile home customer access locations. Sections 1755.501 through 1755.510 do not cover...

  1. 7 CFR 1755.500 - RUS standard for service installations at customers access locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false RUS standard for service installations at customers... customers access locations. (a) Sections 1755.501 through 1755.510 cover service installations at permanent or mobile home customer access locations. Sections 1755.501 through 1755.510 do not cover...

  2. 7 CFR 1755.500 - RUS standard for service installations at customers access locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false RUS standard for service installations at customers... customers access locations. (a) Sections 1755.501 through 1755.510 cover service installations at permanent or mobile home customer access locations. Sections 1755.501 through 1755.510 do not cover...

  3. Electroweak standard model with very special relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfaro, Jorge; González, Pablo; Ávila, Ricardo

    2015-05-01

    The very special relativity electroweak Standard Model (VSR EW SM) is a theory with SU (2 )L×U (1 )R symmetry, with the same number of leptons and gauge fields as in the usual Weinberg-Salam model. No new particles are introduced. The model is renormalizable and unitarity is preserved. However, photons obtain mass and the massive bosons obtain different masses for different polarizations. Besides, neutrino masses are generated. A VSR-invariant term will produce neutrino oscillations and new processes are allowed. In particular, we compute the rate of the decays μ →e +γ . All these processes, which are forbidden in the electroweak Standard Model, put stringent bounds on the parameters of our model and measure the violation of Lorentz invariance. We investigate the canonical quantization of this nonlocal model. Second quantization is carried out, and we obtain a well-defined particle content. Additionally, we do a counting of the degrees of freedom associated with the gauge bosons involved in this work, after spontaneous symmetry breaking has been realized. Violations of Lorentz invariance have been predicted by several theories of quantum gravity [J. Alfaro, H. Morales-Tecotl, and L. F. Urrutia, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2318 (2000); Phys. Rev. D 65, 103509 (2002)]. It is a remarkable possibility that the low-energy effects of Lorentz violation induced by quantum gravity could be contained in the nonlocal terms of the VSR EW SM.

  4. Long-term archiving and data access: modelling and standardization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoc, Claude; Levoir, Thierry; Nonon-Latapie, Michel

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports on the multiple difficulties inherent in the long-term archiving of digital data, and in particular on the different possible causes of definitive data loss. It defines the basic principles which must be respected when creating long-term archives. Such principles concern both the archival systems and the data. The archival systems should have two primary qualities: independence of architecture with respect to technological evolution, and generic-ness, i.e., the capability of ensuring identical service for heterogeneous data. These characteristics are implicit in the Reference Model for Archival Services, currently being designed within an ISO-CCSDS framework. A system prototype has been developed at the French Space Agency (CNES) in conformance with these principles, and its main characteristics will be discussed in this paper. Moreover, the data archived should be capable of abstract representation regardless of the technology used, and should, to the extent that it is possible, be organized, structured and described with the help of existing standards. The immediate advantage of standardization is illustrated by several concrete examples. Both the positive facets and the limitations of this approach are analyzed. The advantages of developing an object-oriented data model within this contxt are then examined.

  5. Legal issues related to vascular access devices and infusion therapy.

    PubMed

    Masoorli, Sue

    2005-01-01

    Infusion therapies are being delivered in many healthcare settings including hospitals, homecare settings, long-term care facilities, occupational health facilities, outpatient units, and physician offices. Nurses who infuse medications must be properly educated to recognize vascular access complications and initiate the proper interventions. This article discusses the high-risk areas of nursing malpractice related to infusion therapies.

  6. AMSARA: Accession Medical Standards Analysis and Research Activity. Report of 2007 Attrition and Morbidity Data for 2006 Accessions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-04

    applicants were asthma, atopic dermatitis or eczema , and myopia, and that patterns have generally remained consistent over time. The deployment and...D111.10 Atopic dermatitis/ Eczema History of atopic dermatitis or eczema D122.30 Hearing loss Hearing loss exceeding medical accession standards D141.50...12.9% and 11.7% of all disqualifying conditions . Similarly, atopic dermatitis and eczema was the second leading diagnosis resulting in applicant

  7. Recommendations for Accessibility Standards for Children's Environments: Task Five. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh. Center for Accessible Housing.

    The purpose of this project was to develop and present a set of recommendations for supplements to the existing Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) that would apply to environments used by children with physical disabilities. The work was subdivided into six phases: (1) review of selected codes, standards and guidelines; (2) review of…

  8. The National Instructional Materials Accessibility Standard (NIMAS): Current State Implementation. inForum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Eve; Burdette, Paula

    2007-01-01

    As part of the 2004 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), states are required to comply with the National Instructional Materials Accessibility Standard (NIMAS) beginning July 19, 2006. NIMAS is defined as "the standard established by the Secretary to be used in the preparation of electronic files suitable…

  9. Standards for Educational Public Relations and Communications Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappelow, Marsha A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes National School Public Relations Association standards for school public relations and communications professionals and program. Includes reactions and comments about new Association standards from seven superintendents and four school public-relations professionals. (PKP)

  10. The Missing Link: Evolving Accessibility To Formulary-Related Information

    PubMed Central

    Van Rossum, Alison; Holsopple, Megan; Karpinski, Julie; Dow, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Background Formulary management is a key component to ensuring the safe, effective, and fiscally responsible use of medications for health systems. One challenge in the formulary management process is making the most relevant formulary information easily accessible to practitioners involved in medication therapy decisions at the point of care. In September 2014, Froedtert and the Medical College of Wisconsin (F&MCW) implemented a commercial formulary management tool (CFMT) to improve accessibility to the recently aligned health-system formulary. The CFMT replaced an internally developed formulary management tool. Objectives The primary objective was to determine pharmacist end-user satisfaction with accessibility to system formulary and formulary-related information through a new CMFT compared with the historical formulary management tool (HFMT). The secondary objective was to measure the use of formulary-related information in the CFMT and HFMT. Methods The primary objective was measured through pharmacist end-user satisfaction surveys before and after integration of formulary-related information into the CFMT. The secondary objective was measured by comparing monthly usage reports for the CFMT with monthly usage reports for the HFMT. Results Survey respondents reported being satisfied (52.5%) or very satisfied (18.8%) more frequently with the CFMT compared with the HFMT (31.7% satisfied and 2.5% very satisfied). Between October 2014 and January 2015 the frequency of access to formulary-related information increased from 92 to 104 requests per day through the CFMT and decreased from 47 to 33 requests per day through the HFMT. Conclusions Initial data suggest incorporating system formulary-related information and related resources into a single platform increases pharmacist end-user satisfaction and overall use of formulary-related information. PMID:27904302

  11. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Standards and Semantics for Open Access to Research Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, Robert; Carbotte, Suzanne; Chandler, Cynthia; Smith, Shawn; Stocks, Karen

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, a growing number of funding agencies and professional societies have issued policies calling for open access to research data. The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program is working to ensure open access to the environmental sensor data routinely acquired by the U.S. academic research fleet. Currently 25 vessels deliver 7 terabytes of data to R2R each year, acquired from a suite of geophysical, oceanographic, meteorological, and navigational sensors on over 400 cruises worldwide. R2R is working to ensure these data are preserved in trusted repositories, discoverable via standard protocols, and adequately documented for reuse. R2R maintains a master catalog of cruises for the U.S. academic research fleet, currently holding essential documentation for over 3,800 expeditions including vessel and cruise identifiers, start/end dates and ports, project titles and funding awards, science parties, dataset inventories with instrument types and file formats, data quality assessments, and links to related content at other repositories. A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is published for 1) each cruise, 2) each original field sensor dataset, 3) each post-field data product such as quality-controlled shiptrack navigation produced by the R2R program, and 4) each document such as a cruise report submitted by the science party. Scientists are linked to personal identifiers, such as the Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID), where known. Using standard global identifiers such as DOIs and ORCIDs facilitates linking with journal publications and generation of citation metrics. Since its inception, the R2R program has worked in close collaboration with other data repositories in the development of shared semantics for oceanographic research. The R2R cruise catalog uses community-standard terms and definitions hosted by the NERC Vocabulary Server, and publishes ISO metadata records for each cruise that use community-standard profiles developed with the NOAA Data

  12. Reactions to the New Standards for School Public Relations Specialists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Theodore J.

    2002-01-01

    Reactions by 10 individuals associated with the "Journal of School Public Relations" to new National School Public Relations Association standards for school public relations and communications professionals and programs. Includes general reactions, impact of the standards, possible ambiguity, adding or eliminating standards, and…

  13. Prevention of access-related infection in dialysis.

    PubMed

    Barraclough, Katherine A; Hawley, Carmel M; Playford, E Geoffrey; Johnson, David W

    2009-12-01

    Access-related infections (ARIs), such as exit-site infections, tunnel infections, bacteremia, fungemia and peritonitis, are the Achilles' heel of dialysis, and contribute significantly to morbidity, mortality and excess healthcare costs in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patient populations. Despite international guidelines recommending the avoidance of catheters for hemodialysis access, hospital admissions for vascular ARIs have doubled in the last decade. Moreover, repeated use of antibiotics to treat ARIs has been associated with the selection of multiresistant organisms, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. ARIs result from direct inoculation of skin organisms during access cannulation/connection, migration of skin organisms along dialysis catheters into the bloodstream or peritoneal cavity, or contamination and colonization of catheter lumens with subsequent biofilm formation. This paper will review the epidemiology, pathogenesis and prevention of ARIs. It will focus specifically on randomized, controlled trial evidence in relation to the safety and efficacy of aseptic techniques, nasal eradication of S. aureus, oral antimicrobial prophylaxis, topical antimicrobial prophylaxis (including disinfectants, antibiotics and antibacterial honey), antimicrobial catheter lock solutions (including gentamicin, citrate and ethanol), antimicrobial-impregnated catheters, catheter design (straight vs coiled, single vs double cuff), peritoneal dialysis catheter connectology, catheter insertion technique, germicidal devices, vaccines and preinsertion antibiotic prophylaxis.

  14. 28 CFR Appendix A to Part 36 - Standards for Accessible Design

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for Accessible Design A Appendix A to Part 36 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Pt. 36, App. A Appendix A to Part...

  15. 78 FR 55174 - Medical, Physical Readiness, Training, and Access Authorization Standards for Protective Force...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ...The Department of Energy (DOE or Department) is amending its regulations governing the standards for medical, physical performance, training, and access authorizations for protective force (PF) personnel employed by contractors providing security services to the Department. Since the publication of the existing regulations in 1984, and particularly since 9/11, the DOE has totally transformed......

  16. 77 FR 13206 - Protective Force Personnel Medical, Physical Readiness, Training, and Access Authorization Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ...The Department of Energy (DOE or Department) proposes to revise the regulation governing the standards for medical, physical performance, training, and access authorizations for protective force (PF) personnel employed by contractors providing security services to the Department. The existing version of this regulation was promulgated in 1993 and substantial portions of the regulation date to......

  17. Improved Access to Scientific Data Through Technology, Standards, and Best Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narock, T. W.; Arko, R. A.; Chandler, C. L.; Rozell, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    The increasing volume, complexity, and heterogeneity of scientific data are posing challenges to public access to data. These challenges also affect the assessment of impact and accountability. Yet, we are beginning to see that a confluence of standards and best practices can lead to improved accessibility and increased sustainability. We present examples of how Linked Open Data, standards, and best practices are being used to automate the linking of heterogeneous datasets as well as link data to publication. Specifically, we highlight our work in making data from the oceanographic community, the National Science Foundation, and professional societies, including the AGU and the Earth Science Information Partnership, more connected and more easily accessible and usable. We highlight the benefits of emerging semantic technologies, which enable automated reasoning and we show examples from the oceanographic research community. We discuss how technologies, standards, and best practices are leading to improvements in finding, accessing, and using data and publications. Finally, we demonstrate how these techniques and standards are being used to promote sustainable and scalable data repositories.

  18. Balancing Open Access with Academic Standards: Implications for Community College Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbard, Anita; Mupinga, Davison M.

    2013-01-01

    Community colleges act as the gateway for students to higher education. Many of these colleges realize this mission through open-door policies where students lacking in basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills can enroll. But, this open-access policy often creates challenges when meeting academic standards. Based on data collected from…

  19. Age-Related Differences in Lexical Access Relate to Speech Recognition in Noise

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Rebecca; Warzybok, Anna; Kollmeier, Birger; Ruigendijk, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary size has been suggested as a useful measure of “verbal abilities” that correlates with speech recognition scores. Knowing more words is linked to better speech recognition. How vocabulary knowledge translates to general speech recognition mechanisms, how these mechanisms relate to offline speech recognition scores, and how they may be modulated by acoustical distortion or age, is less clear. Age-related differences in linguistic measures may predict age-related differences in speech recognition in noise performance. We hypothesized that speech recognition performance can be predicted by the efficiency of lexical access, which refers to the speed with which a given word can be searched and accessed relative to the size of the mental lexicon. We tested speech recognition in a clinical German sentence-in-noise test at two signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), in 22 younger (18–35 years) and 22 older (60–78 years) listeners with normal hearing. We also assessed receptive vocabulary, lexical access time, verbal working memory, and hearing thresholds as measures of individual differences. Age group, SNR level, vocabulary size, and lexical access time were significant predictors of individual speech recognition scores, but working memory and hearing threshold were not. Interestingly, longer accessing times were correlated with better speech recognition scores. Hierarchical regression models for each subset of age group and SNR showed very similar patterns: the combination of vocabulary size and lexical access time contributed most to speech recognition performance; only for the younger group at the better SNR (yielding about 85% correct speech recognition) did vocabulary size alone predict performance. Our data suggest that successful speech recognition in noise is mainly modulated by the efficiency of lexical access. This suggests that older adults’ poorer performance in the speech recognition task may have arisen from reduced efficiency in lexical access

  20. Age-Related Differences in Lexical Access Relate to Speech Recognition in Noise.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Rebecca; Warzybok, Anna; Kollmeier, Birger; Ruigendijk, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary size has been suggested as a useful measure of "verbal abilities" that correlates with speech recognition scores. Knowing more words is linked to better speech recognition. How vocabulary knowledge translates to general speech recognition mechanisms, how these mechanisms relate to offline speech recognition scores, and how they may be modulated by acoustical distortion or age, is less clear. Age-related differences in linguistic measures may predict age-related differences in speech recognition in noise performance. We hypothesized that speech recognition performance can be predicted by the efficiency of lexical access, which refers to the speed with which a given word can be searched and accessed relative to the size of the mental lexicon. We tested speech recognition in a clinical German sentence-in-noise test at two signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), in 22 younger (18-35 years) and 22 older (60-78 years) listeners with normal hearing. We also assessed receptive vocabulary, lexical access time, verbal working memory, and hearing thresholds as measures of individual differences. Age group, SNR level, vocabulary size, and lexical access time were significant predictors of individual speech recognition scores, but working memory and hearing threshold were not. Interestingly, longer accessing times were correlated with better speech recognition scores. Hierarchical regression models for each subset of age group and SNR showed very similar patterns: the combination of vocabulary size and lexical access time contributed most to speech recognition performance; only for the younger group at the better SNR (yielding about 85% correct speech recognition) did vocabulary size alone predict performance. Our data suggest that successful speech recognition in noise is mainly modulated by the efficiency of lexical access. This suggests that older adults' poorer performance in the speech recognition task may have arisen from reduced efficiency in lexical access; with an

  1. Defense Health Care: DOD Is Meeting Most Mental Health Care Access Standards, but It Needs a Standard for Follow-up Appointments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    DEFENSE HEALTH CARE DOD Is Meeting Most Mental Health Care Access Standards, but It Needs a Standard for Follow- up...Meeting Most Mental Health Care Access Standards, but It Needs a Standard for Follow-up Appointments What GAO Found The Department of Defense’s (DOD...National Guard and Reserve servicemembers (reservists) domestically and overseas through its TRICARE health care system. The type of care includes

  2. From the Margins to the Spotlight: Diverse Deaf and Hard of Hearing Student Populations and Standardized Assessment Accessibility.

    PubMed

    Cawthon, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Designing assessments and tests is one of the more challenging aspects of creating an accessible learning environment for students who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH), particularly for deaf students with a disability (DWD). Standardized assessments are a key mechanism by which the educational system in the United States measures student progress, teacher effectiveness, and the impact of school reform. The diversity of student characteristics within DHH and DWD populations is only now becoming visible in the research literature relating to standardized assessments and their use in large-scale accountability reforms. The purpose of this article is to explore the theoretical frameworks surrounding assessment policy and practice, current research related to standardized assessment and students who are DHH and DWD, and potential implications for practice within both the assessment and instruction contexts.

  3. Impact of the A18.1 ASME Standard on platform lifts and stairway chairlifts on accessibility and usability.

    PubMed

    Balmer, David C

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article summarizes the effect of the ASME A18.1 Standard concerning accessibility and usability of Platform Lifts and their remaining technological challenges. While elevators are currently the most effective means of vertical transportation related to speed, capacity, rise and usability, their major drawbacks for accessibility are cost and space. Platform lifts and stairway chairlifts remain the "devices of choice" for small elevation changes in existing buildings. ADAAG limits them to very specific circumstances in new construction. The ASME A18.1 Standard addresses the safety requirements of inclined stairway chairlifts (which are not ADA compliant) and inclined and vertical platform lifts (which are ADA Compliant). Chairlifts do not provide access for wheeled mobility devices. Restricting access by means of keys is eliminated, inclined platform lift designs that do not interfere with stairway traffic, promoting new ideas for the design of vertical lifts, increasing the allowable vertical travel of a lift and strengthening lift ramps to improve their safety. Despite design advances inherent in the A18.1, significant platform lift usability issues continue to exist. Increased sizes and weights of powered mobility devices indicate that the permitted lift platform area be modified and that permitted weight capacities be codified as minimums instead of maximums.

  4. Advocacy and Accessibility Standards in the New "Code of Professional Ethics for Rehabilitation Counselors"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldmann, Ashley K.; Blackwell, Terry L.

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses the changes in the Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification's 2010 "Code of Professional Ethics for Rehabilitation Counselors" as they relate to Section C: Advocacy and Accessibility. Ethical issues are identified and discussed in relation to advocacy skills and to advocacy with, and on behalf of, the client; to…

  5. Access and privacy rights using web security standards to increase patient empowerment.

    PubMed

    Falcão-Reis, Filipa; Costa-Pereira, Altamiro; Correia, Manuel E

    2008-01-01

    Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems are becoming more and more sophisticated and include nowadays numerous applications, which are not only accessed by medical professionals, but also by accounting and administrative personnel. This could represent a problem concerning basic rights such as privacy and confidentiality. The principles, guidelines and recommendations compiled by the OECD protection of privacy and trans-border flow of personal data are described and considered within health information system development. Granting access to an EHR should be dependent upon the owner of the record; the patient: he must be entitled to define who is allowed to access his EHRs, besides the access control scheme each health organization may have implemented. In this way, it's not only up to health professionals to decide who have access to what, but the patient himself. Implementing such a policy is walking towards patient empowerment which society should encourage and governments should promote. The paper then introduces a technical solution based on web security standards. This would give patients the ability to monitor and control which entities have access to their personal EHRs, thus empowering them with the knowledge of how much of his medical history is known and by whom. It is necessary to create standard data access protocols, mechanisms and policies to protect the privacy rights and furthermore, to enable patients, to automatically track the movement (flow) of their personal data and information in the context of health information systems. This solution must be functional and, above all, user-friendly and the interface should take in consideration some heuristics of usability in order to provide the user with the best tools. The current official standards on confidentiality and privacy in health care, currently being developed within the EU, are explained, in order to achieve a consensual idea of the guidelines that all member states should follow to transfer

  6. AMSARA: Accession Medical Standards Analysis and Research Activity. 2005 Annual Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-23

    of evidence-based medical accession standards to enable the DoD to enlist the highest quality applicants in a cost- effective manner, thereby...ensuring a healthy, fit, and effective force. The following recommendations are based on 10 years of research. 1. Various databases must be improved For... marijuana . Permanent medical disqualifications are for all other disqualifying conditions described in DoD Instruction 6130.4. 22 Active Duty

  7. Comparisons of ASTM standards cited in the NRC standard review plan, NUREG-0800 and related documents

    SciTech Connect

    Ankrum, A.R.; Bohlander, K.L.; Gilbert, E.R.; Pawlowski, R.A.; Spiesman, J.B.

    1995-10-01

    This report provides the results of comparisons of the cited and latest versions of ASTM standards cited in the NRC Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants (NUREG 0800) and related documents. The comparisons were performed by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories in support of the NRC`s Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program. Significant changes to the standards, from the cited version to the latest version, are described and discussed in a tabular format for each standard. Recommendations for updating each citation in the Standard Review Plan are presented. Technical considerations and suggested changes are included for related regulatory documents (i.e., Regulatory Guides and the Code of Federal Regulations) citing the standard. The results and recommendations presented in this document have not been subjected to NRC staff review.

  8. Leveraging Open Standard Interfaces in Accessing and Processing NASA Data Model Outputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falke, S. R.; Alameh, N. S.; Hoijarvi, K.; de La Beaujardiere, J.; Bambacus, M. J.

    2006-12-01

    An objective of NASA's Earth Science Division is to develop advanced information technologies for processing, archiving, accessing, visualizing, and communicating Earth Science data. To this end, NASA and other federal agencies have collaborated with the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) to research, develop, and test interoperability specifications within projects and testbeds benefiting the government, industry, and the public. This paper summarizes the results of a recent effort under the auspices of the OGC Web Services testbed phase 4 (OWS-4) to explore standardization approaches for accessing and processing the outputs of NASA models of physical phenomena. Within the OWS-4 context, experiments were designed to leverage the emerging OGC Web Processing Service (WPS) and Web Coverage Service (WCS) specifications to access, filter and manipulate the outputs of the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) and Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) forecast models. In OWS-4, the intent is to provide the users with more control over the subsets of data that they can extract from the model results as well as over the final portrayal of that data. To meet that goal, experiments have been designed to test the suitability of use of OGC's Web Processing Service (WPS) and Web Coverage Service (WCS) for filtering, processing and portraying the model results (including slices by height or by time), and to identify any enhancements to the specs to meet the desired objectives. This paper summarizes the findings of the experiments highlighting the value of the Web Processing Service in providing standard interfaces for accessing and manipulating model data within spatial and temporal frameworks. The paper also points out the key shortcomings of the WPS especially in terms in comparison with a SOAP/WSDL approach towards solving the same problem.

  9. Development of NASA Technical Standards Program Relative to Enhancing Engineering Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul S.; Vaughan, William W.

    2003-01-01

    The enhancement of engineering capabilities is an important aspect of any organization; especially those engaged in aerospace development activities. Technical Standards are one of the key elements of this endeavor. The NASA Technical Standards Program was formed in 1997 in response to the NASA Administrator s directive to develop an Agencywide Technical Standards Program. The Program s principal objective involved the converting Center-unique technical standards into Agency wide standards and the adoption/endorsement of non-Government technical standards in lieu of government standards. In the process of these actions, the potential for further enhancement of the Agency s engineering capabilities was noted relative to value of being able to access Agencywide the necessary full-text technical standards, standards update notifications, and integration of lessons learned with technical standards, all available to the user from one Website. This was accomplished and is now being enhanced based on feedbacks from the Agency's engineering staff and supporting contractors. This paper addresses the development experiences with the NASA Technical Standards Program and the enhancement of the Agency's engineering capabilities provided by the Program s products. Metrics are provided on significant aspects of the Program.

  10. Related Documents for Tate Access Floors Public Notice

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA is announcing its environmental remediation under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, as amended (RCRA), as complete Tate Access Floors Incorporated (Formerly: USG Interiors) in Red Lion PA , (EPA ID: ID PAD0008005087)

  11. High security chaotic multiple access scheme for visible light communication systems with advanced encryption standard interleaving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Junchao; Zhang, Lin; Li, Diyang; Liu, Xingcheng

    2016-06-01

    Chaotic sequences can be applied to realize multiple user access and improve the system security for a visible light communication (VLC) system. However, since the map patterns of chaotic sequences are usually well known, eavesdroppers can possibly derive the key parameters of chaotic sequences and subsequently retrieve the information. We design an advanced encryption standard (AES) interleaving aided multiple user access scheme to enhance the security of a chaotic code division multiple access-based visible light communication (C-CDMA-VLC) system. We propose to spread the information with chaotic sequences, and then the spread information is interleaved by an AES algorithm and transmitted over VLC channels. Since the computation complexity of performing inverse operations to deinterleave the information is high, the eavesdroppers in a high speed VLC system cannot retrieve the information in real time; thus, the system security will be enhanced. Moreover, we build a mathematical model for the AES-aided VLC system and derive the theoretical information leakage to analyze the system security. The simulations are performed over VLC channels, and the results demonstrate the effectiveness and high security of our presented AES interleaving aided chaotic CDMA-VLC system.

  12. Toward an interim standard for patient-centered knowledge-access.

    PubMed Central

    Tuttle, M. S.; Sherertz, D. D.; Fagan, L. M.; Carlson, R. W.; Cole, W. G.; Schipma, P. B.; Nelson, S. J.

    1993-01-01

    Most care-giver "knowledge" needs arise at the point of care and are "patient-centered." Many of these knowledge needs can be met using existing on-line knowledge sources, but the process is too time-consuming, currently, for even the computer-proficient. We are developing a set of public domain standards aimed at bringing potentially relevant knowledge to the point of care in a straight-forward and timely fashion. The standards will a) make use of selected items from a Computer-based Patient Record (CPR), e.g., a diagnosis and measure of severity, b) anticipate certain care-giver knowledge needs, e.g., "therapy," "protocols," "complications," and c) try to satisfy those needs from available knowledge sources, e.g., knowledge-bases, citation databases, practice guidelines, and on-line textbooks. The standards will use templates, i.e., fill-in-the-blank structures, to anticipate knowledge needs and UMLS Metathesaurus enhancements to represent the content of knowledge sources. Together, the standards will form the specification for a "Knowledge-Server" (KS) designed to be accessed from any CPR system. Plans are in place to test an interim version of this specification in the context of medical oncology. We are accumulating anecdotal evidence that a KS operating in conjunction with a CPR is much more compelling to users than either a CPR or a KS operating alone. PMID:8130537

  13. Comparison of accessions from the UK and US national pear germplasm collections with a standardized set of microsatellite markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A standardized set of 12 microsatellite markers, previously agreed upon following an ECP/GR workshop in 2006, was used to screen accessions from the UK National Pear Collection at Brogdale and from the US National Pear Germplasm Repository (NCGR), Corvallis. Eight standard varieties were chosen from...

  14. 78 FR 951 - Accessible Medical Device Labeling in a Standard Content and Format Public Workshop; Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Accessible Medical Device Labeling in a Standard Content and... content and format for medical device labeling and the use of a repository containing medical device... session. Standard content and format of full labeling and a shortened version of labeling will...

  15. ANALYSIS OF STANDARD MULTI-PORT VS. SINGLE SITE ACCESS FOR LAPAROSCOPIC SKILLS TRAINING

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Daniel R; Zeng, Wenjing; Frisella, Margaret M; Brunt, L. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Single site access (SSA) laparoscopy is more challenging to perform than multi-port(MP) laparoscopy. We examined MP versus SSA skills training on laparoscopic performance in surgically naive individuals. Methods Forty end-of-1st year medical students were randomized into two groups. Both were trained on 4 basic laparoscopic drills (peg, rope, bean drop, pattern cutting) using a standard MP setup (Group 1) or SSA approach (Group 2). Time to proficiency and number of repetitions (reps) were recorded. Each group then crossed over to the alternate approach where the sequence was repeated. Data are mean ± SD and statistical analysis was with two-tailed, unpaired t-test. Results Total times to proficiency for the SSA and MP approaches was not significantly different between groups (Group 1 M-P 234.0 ± 114.9 min vs Group 2 SSA 216.4 ± 106.5 min, p=0.67). The MP-trained group took less time to reach proficiency on the standard MP setup than the SSA group on the SSA approach (119.1 ± 69.7 min vs 178.0 ± 93.4 min, p=0.058) with significantly fewer repetitions (77.6 ± 42.6 vs. 118.8 ± 54.3, p=0.027). The SSA-trained group took significantly less time to reach proficiency on the MP setup than the standard MP-trained group (38.4 ± 29.4 min vs. 119.1 ± 69.7 min; p=0.0013) requiring only a mean of 26.9 total repetitions. When the standard MP group crossed over to the SSA setup, they took significantly less time to reach proficiency with the SSA approach than the SSA-trained group (114.8 ± 50.5 min vs. 178.0 ± 93.4 min, p=0.026) but with more total repetitions than with the M-P approach (86.2 ± 35.2 vs 77.6 ± 42.6, p= NS). Conclusions Laparoscopic single site access skills training results in longer times and more repetitions to achieve proficiency than multi-port training, but the skills acquired transfer well to the multi-port approach. PMID:20872019

  16. The asthma accession standard: a survival analysis of military recruits, 1995 to 1997.

    PubMed

    Clark, K L; Li, Y; Krauss, M R; Kelley, P W

    2000-11-01

    Asthma has a significant impact on U.S. military expenditures and readiness. Every year approximately 1,000 recruits are discharged for asthma during their first 6 months of service. This study was done to evaluate the practice of allowing some individuals with a history of asthma to enter military service (waiving). A survival analysis was performed to compare length of time until discharge and asthma-related failure for individuals waived for asthma (cases) and individuals not disqualified for asthma (controls). Cases were 587 recruit applicants initially disqualified who received waivers for asthma and accessed in the years 1995 to 1997. Controls were 1,761 matched enlisted recruits starting basic training in those years. No significant differences were found with respect to general attrition. The statistical differences for asthma-related hospitalization or discharge did not translate into practical differences. Waiving for asthma was not a significant occupational liability in terms of asthma-related hospitalization or early military attrition.

  17. A SOA broker solution for standard discovery and access services: the GI-cat framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldrini, Enrico

    2010-05-01

    GI-cat ideal users are data providers or service providers within the geoscience community. The former have their data already available through an access service (e.g. an OGC Web Service) and would have it published through a standard catalog service, in a seamless way. The latter would develop a catalog broker and let users query and access different geospatial resources through one or more standard interfaces and Application Profiles (AP) (e.g. OGC CSW ISO AP, CSW ebRIM/EO AP, etc.). GI-cat actually implements a broker components (i.e. a middleware service) which carries out distribution and mediation functionalities among "well-adopted" catalog interfaces and data access protocols. GI-cat also publishes different discovery interfaces: the OGC CSW ISO and ebRIM Application Profiles (the latter coming with support for the EO and CIM extension packages) and two different OpenSearch interfaces developed in order to explore Web 2.0 possibilities. An extended interface is also available to exploit all available GI-cat features, such as interruptible incremental queries and queries feedback. Interoperability tests performed in the context of different projects have also pointed out the importance to enforce compatibility with existing and wide-spread tools of the open source community (e.g. GeoNetwork and Deegree catalogs), which was then achieved. Based on a service-oriented framework of modular components, GI-cat can effectively be customized and tailored to support different deployment scenarios. In addition to the distribution functionality an harvesting approach has been lately experimented, allowing the user to switch between a distributed and a local search giving thus more possibilities to support different deployment scenarios. A configurator tool is available in order to enable an effective high level configuration of the broker service. A specific geobrowser was also naturally developed, for demonstrating the advanced GI-cat functionalities. This client

  18. Developing a Multicomponent Model of Nutritious Food Access and Related Implications for Community and Policy Practice.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Darcy A; Blake, Christine E; Liese, Angela D

    2013-01-01

    Access to nutritious foods is limited in disenfranchised communities in the United States. Policies are beginning to focus on improving nutritious food access in these contexts; yet, few theories are available to guide this work. We developed a conceptual model of nutritious food access based on the qualitative responses of food consumers in 2 different regions of the American South. Five domains (economic, service delivery, spatial-temporal, social, and personal) and related dimensions of nutritious food access were identified. The conceptual model provides practical guidance to researchers, policy makers, and practitioners working to improve nutritious food access in communities.

  19. Developing a Multicomponent Model of Nutritious Food Access and Related Implications for Community and Policy Practice

    PubMed Central

    FREEDMAN, DARCY A.; BLAKE, CHRISTINE E.; LIESE, ANGELA D.

    2014-01-01

    Access to nutritious foods is limited in disenfranchised communities in the United States. Policies are beginning to focus on improving nutritious food access in these contexts; yet, few theories are available to guide this work. We developed a conceptual model of nutritious food access based on the qualitative responses of food consumers in 2 different regions of the American South. Five domains (economic, service delivery, spatial–temporal, social, and personal) and related dimensions of nutritious food access were identified. The conceptual model provides practical guidance to researchers, policy makers, and practitioners working to improve nutritious food access in communities. PMID:24563605

  20. Capacitive ECG system with direct access to standard leads and body surface potential mapping.

    PubMed

    Oehler, Martin; Schilling, Meinhard; Esperer, Hans Dieter

    2009-12-01

    Capacitive electrodes provide the same access to the human electrocardiogram (ECG) as galvanic electrodes, but without the need of direct electrical skin contact and even through layers of clothing. Thus, potential artifacts as a result of poor electrode contact to the skin are avoided and preparation time is significantly reduced. Our system integrates such capacitive electrodes in a 15 sensor array, which is combined with a Tablet PC. This integrated lightweight ECG system (cECG) is easy to place on the chest wall and allows for simultaneous recordings of 14 ECG channels, even if the patient is slightly dressed, e.g., with a t-shirt. In this paper, we present preliminary results on the performance of the cECG regarding the capability of recording body surface potential maps (BSPMs) and obtaining reconstructed standard ECG leads including Einthoven, Goldberger and, with some limitations, Wilson leads. All signals were measured having the subject lie in a supine position and wear a cotton shirt. Signal quality and diagnostic ECG information of the extracted leads are compared with standard ECG measurements. The results show a very close correlation between both types of ECG measurements. It is concluded that the cECG lends itself to rapid screening in clinically unstable patients.

  1. Do Standards Matter? How the Quality of State Standards Relate to Evolution Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Randy

    2002-01-01

    Discusses biology instruction focusing on evolution-related policies and state guidelines. Reports on teacher preferences for teaching either creationism or evolution in science classes and compares these results between states based on grade level and how they treat evolution in their educational standards. (Contains 26 references.) (YDS)

  2. Tri-peptide reference structures for the calculation of relative solvent accessible surface area in protein amino acid residues.

    PubMed

    Topham, Christopher M; Smith, Jeremy C

    2015-02-01

    Relative amino acid residue solvent accessibility values allow the quantitative comparison of atomic solvent-accessible surface areas in different residue types and physical environments in proteins and in protein structural alignments. Geometry-optimised tri-peptide structures in extended solvent-exposed reference conformations have been obtained for 43 amino acid residue types at a high level of quantum chemical theory. Significant increases in side-chain solvent accessibility, offset by reductions in main-chain atom solvent exposure, were observed for standard residue types in partially geometry-optimised structures when compared to non-minimised models built from identical sets of proper dihedral angles abstracted from the literature. Optimisation of proper dihedral angles led most notably to marked increases of up to 54% in proline main-chain atom solvent accessibility compared to literature values. Similar effects were observed for fully-optimised tri-peptides in implicit solvent. The relief of internal strain energy was associated with systematic variation in N, C(α) and C(β) atom solvent accessibility across all standard residue types. The results underline the importance of optimisation of 'hard' degrees of freedom (bond lengths and valence bond angles) and improper dihedral angle values from force field or other context-independent reference values, and impact on the use of standardised fixed internal co-ordinate geometry in sampling approaches to the determination of absolute values of protein amino acid residue solvent accessibility. Quantum chemical methods provide a useful and accurate alternative to molecular mechanics methods to perform energy minimisation of peptides containing non-standard (chemically modified) amino acid residues frequently present in experimental protein structure data sets, for which force field parameters may not be available. Reference tri-peptide atomic co-ordinate sets including hydrogen atoms are made freely available.

  3. Report of the IAU Commission 4 Working Group on Standardizing Access to Ephemerides and File Format Specification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Standardizing Access To Ephemerides And File Format Specification 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...TO EPHEMERIDES AND FILE FORMAT SPECIFICATION J. L. HILTON1, C. ACTON2, J.-E. ARLOT2, S.A. BELL2, N. CAPITAINE2, A. FIENGA2, W.M. FOLKNER2, M...4 Working Group on Standardizing Access to Ephemerides rec- ommends the use of the Spacecraft and Planet Kernel (SPK) file format to provide a uniform

  4. Relative subtest scatter in the WAIS-IV standardization sample.

    PubMed

    Binder, Laurence M; Binder, Adrienne L

    2011-01-01

    The frequencies of differences between highest and lowest subtest scores as a function of highest subtest score (relative scatter), are reported for the standardization sample of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (WAIS-IV). Large differences between highest and lowest subtest scores were common. The degree of relative scatter was related to the height of the highest subtest score. For the 10 core WAIS-IV subtests, the correlation between the level of the highest subtest score and the amount of scatter was r = .62; for all 15 subtests the correlation was. 63. The level of the highest subtest score was more strongly related to scatter than was Full Scale IQ. Clinical implications for inferring cognitive impairment and estimating premorbid abilities are discussed. When considering the possibility of acquired cognitive impairment, we recommend caution in the interpretation of subtest score differences.

  5. Relating Standardized Visual Perception Measures to Simulator Visual System Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Sweet, Barbara T.

    2013-01-01

    Human vision is quantified through the use of standardized clinical vision measurements. These measurements typically include visual acuity (near and far), contrast sensitivity, color vision, stereopsis (a.k.a. stereo acuity), and visual field periphery. Simulator visual system performance is specified in terms such as brightness, contrast, color depth, color gamut, gamma, resolution, and field-of-view. How do these simulator performance characteristics relate to the perceptual experience of the pilot in the simulator? In this paper, visual acuity and contrast sensitivity will be related to simulator visual system resolution, contrast, and dynamic range; similarly, color vision will be related to color depth/color gamut. Finally, we will consider how some characteristics of human vision not typically included in current clinical assessments could be used to better inform simulator requirements (e.g., relating dynamic characteristics of human vision to update rate and other temporal display characteristics).

  6. Review of clinically accessible methods to determine lean body mass for normalization of standardized uptake values.

    PubMed

    Devriese, Joke; Beels, Laurence; Maes, Alex; Van De Wiele, Christophe; Gheysens, Olivier; Pottel, Hans

    2016-03-01

    With the routine use of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]-fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans, metabolic activity of tumors can be quantitatively assessed through calculation of SUVs. One possible normalization parameter for the standardized uptake value (SUV) is lean body mass (LBM), which is generally calculated through predictive equations based on height and body weight. (Semi-)direct measurements of LBM could provide more accurate results in cancer populations than predictive equations based on healthy populations. In this context, four methods to determine LBM are reviewed: bioelectrical impedance analysis, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. CT, and magnetic resonance imaging. These methods were selected based on clinical accessibility and are compared in terms of methodology, precision and accuracy. By assessing each method's specific advantages and limitations, a well-considered choice of method can hopefully lead to more accurate SUVLBM values, hence more accurate quantitative assessment of 18F-FDG PET images.

  7. Chapter 6: Children's Environmental Access in Relation to Motor Competence, Physical Activity, and Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather E.; Woods, Amelia Mays; Woods, Martha K.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine levels of physical activity engagement, motor competence, and physical fitness as related to child access to physical activity facilities in the home and school environments. The present investigation attempts to further efforts to examine the relationship between physical activity levels and access.…

  8. 76 FR 52659 - Access by EPA Contractors to Confidential Business Information (CBI) Related to the Greenhouse...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... AGENCY Access by EPA Contractors to Confidential Business Information (CBI) Related to the Greenhouse Gas... confidential business information. Contractor access to this information will begin on August 29, 2011. DATES... information claimed to be confidential business information (CBI) or other information whose disclosure...

  9. 28 CFR Appendix D to Part 36 - 1991 Standards for Accessible Design as Originally Published on July 26, 1991

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Originally Published on July 26, 1991 D Appendix D to Part 36 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Pt. 36, App. D Appendix D to Part 36—1991 Standards for Accessible Design as Originally Published on July 26,...

  10. 28 CFR Appendix D to Part 36 - 1991 Standards for Accessible Design as Originally Published on July 26, 1991

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Originally Published on July 26, 1991 D Appendix D to Part 36 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Pt. 36, App. D Appendix D to Part 36—1991 Standards for Accessible Design as Originally Published on July 26,...

  11. 78 FR 6825 - Accessible Medical Device Labeling in a Standard Content and Format Public Workshop; Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... Administration (FDA) is correcting a document that appeared in the Federal Register of January 7, 2013 (78 FR 951... Federal Register of January 7, 2013, in FR Doc. 951-953, on page 952, the following correction is made... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Accessible Medical Device Labeling in a Standard Content...

  12. Australian standards of care for cystic fibrosis-related diabetes.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Peter G; Wagenaar, Monica; Matson, Angela G; Craig, Maria E; Holmes-Walker, Deborah Jane; Katz, Tamarah; Hameed, Shihab

    2014-02-01

    Multiple guidelines have been published over the last few years for the diagnosis and management of cystic fibrosis (CF) and cystic fibrosis related diabetes (CFRD), although some of the recommendations are based on extrapolation from other forms of diabetes and/or expert opinions. This document seeks to combine the guidelines to provide an Australian approach to the management of CFRD and establish the guidelines within the Australian CF Standards of Care. It is intended that this document will provide assistance to doctors, nurses, dietitians, physiotherapists, diabetes educators and CF patients concerning the issues surrounding CFRD, and will be reviewed and updated in 2016.

  13. 7 CFR 1773.10 - Access to audit-related documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Audit Requirements § 1773.10 Access to audit-related documents. Pursuant to the terms of the audit agreement, the CPA must make...

  14. Higher arterial catheter-related infection rates in femoral than in dorsalis pedis access.

    PubMed

    Lorente, L; Jiménez, A; Jiménez, J J; Iribarren, J L; Martínez, J; Naranjo, C; Santacreu, R; Martín, M M; Mora, M L

    2010-04-01

    Although there are many studies on arterial catheter-related infection (ACRI) there is little information on the relative risks associated with different catheter access sites. In previous studies we have shown a higher incidence of ACRI in femoral than in radial access sites. This prospective observational study was designed to compare the incidence of ACRI in patients on an intensive care unit with femoral versus dorsalis pedis access sites. We compared 1085 femoral arterial catheters inserted for a cumulative 6497 days with 174 dorsalis pedis catheters inserted for a cumulative 1050 days. We detected 33 cases of ACRI in the femoral access group (11 with bacteraemia and 22 with line site infection; 5.08 infections per 1000 catheter-days) but none in the dorsalis pedis access group. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding age, sex, Acute Physiological Assessment and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II, diagnosis, previous arterial catheter insertion, use of mechanical ventilation, use of antimicrobials or catheter duration. Regression analysis showed a higher incidence of ACRI for femoral than for dorsalis pedis access sites (odds ratio: 7.6; 95% confidence interval: 1.37-infinite; P=0.01). These results suggest that dorsalis pedis arterial access should be used in preference to femoral arterial access in order to reduce the risk of ACRI.

  15. Standard general relativity from Chern-Simons gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izaurieta, F.; Minning, P.; Perez, A.; Rodriguez, E.; Salgado, P.

    2009-07-01

    Chern-Simons models for gravity are interesting because they provide a truly gauge-invariant action principle in the fiber-bundle sense. So far, their main drawback has largely been its perceived remoteness from standard General Relativity, based on the presence of higher powers of the curvature in the Lagrangian (except, remarkably, for three-dimensional spacetime). Here we report on a simple model that suggests a mechanism by which standard General Relativity in five-dimensional spacetime may indeed emerge at a special critical point in the space of couplings, where additional degrees of freedom and corresponding “anomalous” Gauss-Bonnet constraints drop out from the Chern-Simons action. To achieve this goal, both the Lie algebra g and the symmetric g-invariant tensor that define the Chern-Simons Lagrangian are constructed by means of the Lie algebra S-expansion method with a suitable finite Abelian semigroup S. The results are generalized to arbitrary odd dimensions, and the possible extension to the case of eleven-dimensional supergravity is briefly discussed.

  16. Caudal fluoroscopy to guide venous access for pacemaker device implantation: should this now be standard practice?

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Hitesh C; Hayward, Carl; Nanayakkara, Shane; Broughton, Archer; Mariani, Justin A

    2017-01-01

    We describe a technique that uses both posterior-anterior and caudal fluoroscopy to achieve venous access for pacemaker device implantation. A significant advantage of this technique is the ability to clearly demarcate both the anatomy of venous drainage and the lung border. We would encourage all centres to adopt this technique as a safe approach to venous access. PMID:28321268

  17. Legal Factors Related to Access to Campuses of Public Colleges and Universities: An Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytle, Michael A.

    Legal methods and related case law that can be used by public higher education administrators to deal with intrusions by outsiders onto the campus are examined. The following legal factors related to control of campus access are addressed: risk management, police power, general trespass, school related trespass/loitering statutes, First and…

  18. Achieving a Dream: Meeting Policy Goals Related to Improving Drug Access

    PubMed Central

    Zakus, David; Kohler, Jillian Clare; Zakriova, Venera; Yarmoshuk, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    International experts recognize that significant inequities exist in the accessibility of life-saving medicines among poor and vulnerable populations, especially in developing countries. This article highlights that drug access even for relatively cheap medicines is out of reach for the vast numbers of global poor. This badly affects people living with HIV/AIDS who face serious obstacles in accessing ARVs. The same concerns are attributed to neglected diseases. Despite international meetings, promises from the pharmaceutical industry and a lot of media attention little has changed in the past 20 years. The accessibility gap to life-saving drugs could be reduced by the UNITAID initiative to pool patents for the many different ARVs, but the reality is that UNITAID is still a promise. To surmount this global problem of inequity requires a rethinking of traditional models of drug access and health objectives that should not be compromised by commercial interests. PMID:20148088

  19. Catheter-related bacteremia from femoral and central internal jugular venous access.

    PubMed

    Lorente, L; Jiménez, A; García, C; Galván, R; Castedo, J; Martín, M M; Mora, M L

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this prospective observational study was to determine the influence of femoral and central internal jugular venous catheters on the incidence of catheter-related bacteremia (CRB). We included patients admitted to a 12-bed polyvalent medico-surgical intensive care unit over 4 years who received one or more femoral or central internal jugular venous catheters. We diagnosed 16 cases of CRB in 208 femoral catheters and 22 in 515 central internal jugular venous catheters. We found a higher incidence of CRB with femoral (9.52 per 1,000 catheter days) than with central internal jugular venous access (4.83 per 1,000 catheter days; risk ratio = 1.93; 95% confidence interval: 1.03-3.73; P = 0.04). Central internal jugular venous access could be considered a safer route of venous access than femoral access in minimizing the risk of central venous catheter-related bacteremia.

  20. Melinda – A custom search engine that provides access to locally-developed content using the HL7 Infobutton standard

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Yik-Ki J.; Staes, Catherine J.

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare organizations use care pathways to standardize care, but once developed, adoption rates often remain low. One challenge for usage concerns clinicians’ difficulty in accessing guidance when it is most needed. Although the HL7 ‘Infobutton Standard’ allows clinicians easier access to external references, access to locally-developed resources often requires clinicians to deviate from their normal electronic health record (EHR) workflow to use another application. To address this gap between internal and external resources, we reviewed the literature and existing practices at the University of Utah Health Care. We identify the requirements to meet the needs of a healthcare enterprise and clinicians, describe the design and development of a prototype to aggregate both internal and external resources from within or outside the EHR, and evaluated strengths and limitations of the prototype. The system is functional but not implemented in a live EHR environment. We suggest next steps and enhancements. PMID:28269964

  1. Geographic Disparities in Access to Agencies Providing Income-Related Social Services.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Scott R; Monuteaux, Michael C; Fleegler, Eric W

    2015-10-01

    Geographic location is an important factor in understanding disparities in access to health-care and social services. The objective of this cross-sectional study is to evaluate disparities in the geographic distribution of income-related social service agencies relative to populations in need within Boston. Agency locations were obtained from a comprehensive database of social services in Boston. Geographic information systems mapped the spatial relationship of the agencies to the population using point density estimation and was compared to census population data. A multivariate logistic regression was conducted to evaluate factors associated with categories of income-related agency density. Median agency density within census block groups ranged from 0 to 8 agencies per square mile per 100 population below the federal poverty level (FPL). Thirty percent (n = 31,810) of persons living below the FPL have no access to income-related social services within 0.5 miles, and 77 % of persons living below FPL (n = 83,022) have access to 2 or fewer agencies. 27.0 % of Blacks, 30.1 % of Hispanics, and 41.0 % of non-Hispanic Whites with incomes below FPL have zero access. In conclusion, some neighborhoods in Boston with a high concentration of low-income populations have limited access to income-related social service agencies.

  2. Hearing Aid–Related Standards and Test Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ravn, Gert; Preves, David

    2015-01-01

    Many documents describe standardized methods and standard equipment requirements in the field of audiology and hearing aids. These standards will ensure a uniform level and a high quality of both the methods and equipment used in audiological work. The standards create the basis for measuring performance in a reproducible manner and independent from how and when and by whom parameters have been measured. This article explains, and focuses on, relevant acoustic and electromagnetic compatibility parameters and describes several test systems available. PMID:27516709

  3. The Scalable Coherent Interface and related standards projects

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavson, D.B.

    1991-09-01

    The Scalable Coherent Interface (SCI) project (IEEE P1596) found a way to avoid the limits that are inherent in bus technology. SCI provides bus-like services by transmitting packets on a collection of point-to-point unidirectional links. The SCI protocols support cache coherence in a distributed-shared-memory multiprocessor model, message passing, I/O, and local-area-network-like communication over fiber optic or wire links. VLSI circuits that operate parallel links at 1000 MByte/s and serial links at 1000 Mbit/s will be available early in 1992. Several ongoing SCI-related projects are applying the SCI technology to new areas or extending it to more difficult problems. P1596.1 defines the architecture of a bridge between SCI and VME; P1596.2 compatibly extends the cache coherence mechanism for efficient operation with kiloprocessor systems; P1596.3 defines new low-voltage (about 0.25 V) differential signals suitable for low power interfaces for CMOS or GaAs VLSI implementations of SCI; P1596.4 defines a high performance memory chip interface using these signals; P1596.5 defines data transfer formats for efficient interprocessor communication in heterogeneous multiprocessor systems. This paper reports the current status of SCI, related standards, and new projects. 16 refs.

  4. Physiological and morphological adaptations in relation to water use efficiency in Mediterranean accessions of Solanum lycopersicum.

    PubMed

    Galmés, Jeroni; Conesa, Miquel Àngel; Ochogavía, Joan Manuel; Perdomo, Juan Alejandro; Francis, David M; Ribas-Carbó, Miquel; Savé, Robert; Flexas, Jaume; Medrano, Hipólito; Cifre, Josep

    2011-02-01

    The physiological traits underlying the apparent drought resistance of 'Tomàtiga de Ramellet' (TR) cultivars, a population of Mediterranean tomato cultivars with delayed fruit deterioration (DFD) phenotype and typically grown under non-irrigation conditions, are evaluated. Eight different tomato accessions were selected and included six TR accessions, one Mediterranean non-TR accession (NTR(M)) and a processing cultivar (NTR(O)). Among the TR accessions two leaf morphology types, normal divided leaves and potato-leaf, were selected. Plants were field grown under well-watered (WW) and water-stressed (WS) treatments, with 30 and 10% of soil water capacity, respectively. Accessions were clustered according to the leaf type and TR phenotype under WW and WS, respectively. Correlation among parameters under the different water treatments suggested that potential improvements in the intrinsic water-use efficiency (A(N)/g(s)) are possible without negative impacts on yield. Under WS TR accessions displayed higher A(N)/g(s), which was not due to differences in Rubisco-related parameters, but correlated with the ratio between the leaf mesophyll and stomatal conductances (g(m)/g(s)). The results confirm the existence of differential traits in the response to drought stress in Mediterranean accessions of tomato, and demonstrate that increases in the g(m)/g(s) ratio would allow improvements in A(N)/g(s) in horticultural crops.

  5. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 37 - Modifications to Standards for Accessible Transportation Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... also be found via a hyperlink on the Internet at the following address: http://www.access-board.gov/ada... Department has modified the language of the ADAAG as it applies to entities subject to 49 CFR part 37. These entities must comply with the modified language in this Appendix rather than the language of Appendices...

  6. New extended standard model, dark matters and relativity theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jae-Kwang

    2016-03-01

    Three-dimensional quantized space model is newly introduced as the extended standard model. Four three-dimensional quantized spaces with total 12 dimensions are used to explain the universes including ours. Electric (EC), lepton (LC) and color (CC) charges are defined to be the charges of the x1x2x3, x4x5x6 and x7x8x9 warped spaces, respectively. Then, the lepton is the xi(EC) - xj(LC) correlated state which makes 3x3 = 9 leptons and the quark is the xi(EC) - xj(LC) - xk(CC) correlated state which makes 3x3x3 = 27 quarks. The new three bastons with the xi(EC) state are proposed as the dark matters seen in the x1x2x3 space, too. The matter universe question, three generations of the leptons and quarks, dark matter and dark energy, hadronization, the big bang, quantum entanglement, quantum mechanics and general relativity are briefly discussed in terms of this new model. The details can be found in the article titled as ``journey into the universe; three-dimensional quantized spaces, elementary particles and quantum mechanics at https://www.researchgate.net/profile/J_Hwang2''.

  7. Spectral relative standard deviation: a practical benchmark in metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Helen M; Ekman, Drew R; Collette, Timothy W; Viant, Mark R

    2009-03-01

    Metabolomics datasets, by definition, comprise of measurements of large numbers of metabolites. Both technical (analytical) and biological factors will induce variation within these measurements that is not consistent across all metabolites. Consequently, criteria are required to assess the reproducibility of metabolomics datasets that are derived from all the detected metabolites. Here we calculate spectrum-wide relative standard deviations (RSDs; also termed coefficient of variation, CV) for ten metabolomics datasets, spanning a variety of sample types from mammals, fish, invertebrates and a cell line, and display them succinctly as boxplots. We demonstrate multiple applications of spectral RSDs for characterising technical as well as inter-individual biological variation: for optimising metabolite extractions, comparing analytical techniques, investigating matrix effects, and comparing biofluids and tissue extracts from single and multiple species for optimising experimental design. Technical variation within metabolomics datasets, recorded using one- and two-dimensional NMR and mass spectrometry, ranges from 1.6 to 20.6% (reported as the median spectral RSD). Inter-individual biological variation is typically larger, ranging from as low as 7.2% for tissue extracts from laboratory-housed rats to 58.4% for fish plasma. In addition, for some of the datasets we confirm that the spectral RSD values are largely invariant across different spectral processing methods, such as baseline correction, normalisation and binning resolution. In conclusion, we propose spectral RSDs and their median values contained herein as practical benchmarks for metabolomics studies.

  8. Comparisons of ANS, ASME, AWS, and NFPA standards cited in the NRC standard review plan, NUREG-0800, and related documents

    SciTech Connect

    Ankrum, A.R.; Bohlander, K.L.; Gilbert, E.R.; Spiesman, J.B.

    1995-11-01

    This report provides the results of comparisons of the cited and latest versions of ANS, ASME, AWS and NFPA standards cited in the NRC Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants (NUREG 0800) and related documents. The comparisons were performed by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories in support of the NRC`s Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program. Significant changes to the standards, from the cited version to the latest version, are described and discussed in a tabular format for each standard. Recommendations for updating each citation in the Standard Review Plan are presented. Technical considerations and suggested changes are included for related regulatory documents (i.e., Regulatory Guides and the Code of Federal Regulations) citing the standard. The results and recommendations presented in this document have not been subjected to NRC staff review.

  9. Information Interface Related Standards, Guidelines, and Recommended Practices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    Collision Detection Access Method and Physical Layer Specifications and Link Layer Protocol (IEEE 802.2 & 802.3) *MR...STD.. 1553B - Aircraft Internal...Addendum I to ISO 7809-1984 DIS 8208 - Data communication -- X.25 packet level protocol for data terminal equipment 204 ----... DIS 8348 - Information

  10. COordination of Standards in MetabOlomicS (COSMOS): facilitating integrated metabolomics data access.

    PubMed

    Salek, Reza M; Neumann, Steffen; Schober, Daniel; Hummel, Jan; Billiau, Kenny; Kopka, Joachim; Correa, Elon; Reijmers, Theo; Rosato, Antonio; Tenori, Leonardo; Turano, Paola; Marin, Silvia; Deborde, Catherine; Jacob, Daniel; Rolin, Dominique; Dartigues, Benjamin; Conesa, Pablo; Haug, Kenneth; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; O'Hagan, Steve; Hao, Jie; van Vliet, Michael; Sysi-Aho, Marko; Ludwig, Christian; Bouwman, Jildau; Cascante, Marta; Ebbels, Timothy; Griffin, Julian L; Moing, Annick; Nikolski, Macha; Oresic, Matej; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Viant, Mark R; Goodacre, Royston; Günther, Ulrich L; Hankemeier, Thomas; Luchinat, Claudio; Walther, Dirk; Steinbeck, Christoph

    Metabolomics has become a crucial phenotyping technique in a range of research fields including medicine, the life sciences, biotechnology and the environmental sciences. This necessitates the transfer of experimental information between research groups, as well as potentially to publishers and funders. After the initial efforts of the metabolomics standards initiative, minimum reporting standards were proposed which included the concepts for metabolomics databases. Built by the community, standards and infrastructure for metabolomics are still needed to allow storage, exchange, comparison and re-utilization of metabolomics data. The Framework Programme 7 EU Initiative 'coordination of standards in metabolomics' (COSMOS) is developing a robust data infrastructure and exchange standards for metabolomics data and metadata. This is to support workflows for a broad range of metabolomics applications within the European metabolomics community and the wider metabolomics and biomedical communities' participation. Here we announce our concepts and efforts asking for re-engagement of the metabolomics community, academics and industry, journal publishers, software and hardware vendors, as well as those interested in standardisation worldwide (addressing missing metabolomics ontologies, complex-metadata capturing and XML based open source data exchange format), to join and work towards updating and implementing metabolomics standards.

  11. 77 FR 22312 - Access by EPA Contractors to Confidential Business Information Related to the Greenhouse Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... AGENCY Access by EPA Contractors to Confidential Business Information Related to the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA's Office of... to EPA under the Greenhouse Gas Reporting ] Program that may be designated or claimed as...

  12. Internet Information-Seeking and Its Relation to Support for Access to Government Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuillier, David; Piotrowski, Suzanne J.

    2009-01-01

    Public access to government records is essential for democratic self-governance, and attitudes toward that right can facilitate or hinder public policy regarding transparency. As more people use the internet for gathering information about their governments and communities, it is unknown whether such online information-seeking is related to…

  13. "On the Sidelines": Access to Autism-Related Services in the West Bank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dababnah, Sarah; Bulson, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    We examined access to autism-related services among Palestinians (N = 24) raising children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the West Bank. Using qualitative methods, we identified five primary interview themes. Poor screening, diagnostic, and psychoeducational practices were prevalent, as parents reported service providers minimized parental…

  14. Local Competency Standards vs. State Standards and Their Relation to District Socioeconomic Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckman, Bruce W.; Nadler, Frederick F.

    The concern that minimum competency testing programs allow minimum performance levels to be accepted as the maximum was investigated, using reading and mathematics achievement test data in one state. State and local school district standards were defined as the number of students falling below each standard, thus needing remediation. Test results…

  15. Literacy Disparities in Patient Access and Health-Related Use of Internet and Mobile Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Stacy Cooper; O’Conor, Rachel; Bojarski, Elizabeth A.; Mullen, Rebecca; Patzer, Rachel E.; Vicencio, Daniel; Jacobson, Kara L.; Parker, Ruth M.; Wolf, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Age and race-related disparities in technology use have been well documented, but less is known about how health literacy influences technology access and use. Objective To assess the association between patients’ literacy skills and mobile phone ownership, use of text messaging, internet access, and use of the internet for health-related purposes. Methods A secondary analysis utilizing data from 1,077 primary care patients enrolled in two, multi-site studies from 2011–2013. Patients were administered an in-person, structured interview. Results Patients with adequate health literacy were more likely to own a mobile phone or smartphone in comparison to patients with low or marginal literacy (mobile phone ownership: 96.8% vs. 95.2% vs. 90.1%, respectively, p<.001; smartphone ownership: 70.6% vs. 62.5% vs. 40.1%, p<.001) and to report text messaging (78.6% vs. 75.2% vs. 53.1%, p<.001). They were also more likely to have access to the internet from their home (92.1% vs. 74.7% vs. 44.9%, p<.001) and to report using the internet for email (93.0% vs. 75.7% vs. 38.5%, p<.001), browsing the web (93.9% vs. 80.2% vs. 44.5%, p<.001), accessing health information (86.3% vs. 75.5% vs. 40.8%, p<.001), and communicating with providers (54.2% vs. 29.8% vs. 13.0%, p<.001). Relationships remained significant in multivariable analyses controlling for relevant covariates. Conclusions Results reveal that literacy-related disparities in technology access and use are widespread, with lower literate patients being less likely to own smartphones or to access and use the internet, particularly for health reasons. Future interventions should consider these disparities and ensure that health promotion activities do not further exacerbate disparities. PMID:25363660

  16. NASA's Global Change Master Directory: Discover and Access Earth Science Data Sets, Related Data Services, and Climate Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aleman, Alicia; Olsen, Lola; Ritz, Scott; Morahan, Michael; Cepero, Laurel; Stevens, Tyler

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Global Change Master Directory provides the scientific community with the ability to discover, access, and use Earth science data, data-related services, and climate diagnostics worldwide. The GCMD offers descriptions of Earth science data sets using the Directory Interchange Format (DIF) metadata standard; Earth science related data services are described using the Service Entry Resource Format (SERF); and climate visualizations are described using the Climate Diagnostic (CD) standard. The DIF, SERF and CD standards each capture data attributes used to determine whether a data set, service, or climate visualization is relevant to a user's needs. Metadata fields include: title, summary, science keywords, service keywords, data center, data set citation, personnel, instrument, platform, quality, related URL, temporal and spatial coverage, data resolution and distribution information. In addition, nine valuable sets of controlled vocabularies have been developed to assist users in normalizing the search for data descriptions. An update to the GCMD's search functionality is planned to further capitalize on the controlled vocabularies during database queries. By implementing a dynamic keyword "tree", users will have the ability to search for data sets by combining keywords in new ways. This will allow users to conduct more relevant and efficient database searches to support the free exchange and re-use of Earth science data. http://gcmd.nasa.gov/

  17. International Policies on Sharing Genomic Research Results with Relatives: Approaches to Balancing Privacy with Access.

    PubMed

    Branum, Rebecca; Wolf, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    Returning genetic research results to relatives raises complex issues. In order to inform the U.S. debate, this paper analyzes international law and policies governing the sharing of genetic research results with relatives and identifies key themes and lessons. The laws and policies from other countries demonstrate a range of approaches to balancing individual privacy and autonomy with family access for health benefit, offering important lessons for further development of approaches in the United States.

  18. Career-Related Learning Standards and Extended Application Standard: Guide for Schools to Build Relevant and Rigorous Collections of Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Department of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to assist teachers and administrators in the implementation of relevant and rigorous collections of evidence for the Certificate of Advanced Mastery (CAM) Career-Related Learning Standards (CRLS) and Extended Application Standard (EA). This guide also provides necessary information to help schools meet the 2006-07…

  19. 24 CFR 1000.554 - Which agencies have right of access to the recipient's records relating to activities carried out...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Which agencies have right of access... agencies have right of access to the recipient's records relating to activities carried out under NAHASDA..., shall have the right of access to any pertinent books, documents, papers, or other records of...

  20. AMERICAN STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR MAKING BUILDINGS AND FACILITIES ACCESSIBLE TO, AND USABLE BY, THE PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Easter Seal Society for Crippled Children and Adults, Chicago, IL.

    THIS STANDARD IS INTENDED TO PROVIDE MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS TO BE USED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF ALL BUILDINGS AND FACILITIES AND FOR ADOPTION AND ENFORCEMENT BY ADMINISTRATIVE AUTHORITIES IN ORDER TO ALLOW INDIVIDUALS WITH PERMANENT PHYSICAL DISABILITIES TO PURSUE THEIR INTERESTS AND ASPIRATIONS, DEVELOP THEIR TALENTS, AND EXERCISE THEIR SKILLS.…

  1. Long-term daily access to alcohol alters dopamine-related synthesis and signaling proteins in the rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Kashem, Mohammed Abul; Ahmed, Selina; Sarker, Ranjana; Ahmed, Eakhlas U; Hargreaves, Garth A; McGregor, Iain S

    2012-12-01

    Chronic alcohol exposure can adversely affect neuronal morphology, synaptic architecture and associated neuroplasticity. However, the effects of moderate levels of long-term alcohol intake on the brain are a matter of debate. The current study used 2-DE (two-dimensional gel electrophoresis) proteomics to examine proteomic changes in the striatum of male Wistar rats after 8 months of continuous access to a standard off-the-shelf beer in their home cages. Alcohol intake under group-housed conditions during this time was around 3-4 g/kg/day, a level below that known to induce physical dependence in rats. After 8 months of access rats were euthanased and 2-DE proteomic analysis of the striatum was conducted. A total of 28 striatal proteins were significantly altered in the beer drinking rats relative to controls. Strikingly, many of these were dopamine (DA)-related proteins, including tyrosine hydroxylase (an enzyme of DA biosynthesis), pyridoxal phosphate phosphatase (a co-enzyme in DA biosynthesis), DA and cAMP regulating phosphoprotein (a regulator of DA receptors and transporters), protein phosphatase 1 (a signaling protein) and nitric oxide synthase (which modulates DA uptake). Selected protein expression changes were verified using Western blotting. We conclude that long-term moderate alcohol consumption is associated with substantial alterations in the rat striatal proteome, particularly with regard to dopaminergic signaling pathways. This provides potentially important evidence of major neuroadaptations in dopamine systems with daily alcohol consumption at relatively modest levels.

  2. Standardizing Interfaces for External Access to Data and Processing for the NASA Ozone Product Evaluation and Test Element (PEATE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt A.; Fleig, Albert J.

    2008-01-01

    satellite data to the ultimate archive of specific operational data products. The ACPS allows more open access with standard protocols including HTTP, SOAPIXML, RSS and various REST incarnations. External entities can be granted access to various modules within the system, including an extended data archive, metadata searching, production planning and processing. Data access is provided with very fine grained access control. It is possible to easily designate certain datasets as being available to the public, or restricted to groups of researchers, or limited strictly to the originator. This can be used, for example, to release one's best validated data to the public, but restrict the "new version" of data processed with a new, unproven algorithm until it is ready. Similarly, the system can provide access to algorithms, both as modifiable source code (where possible) and fully integrated executable Algorithm Plugin Packages (APPs). This enables researchers to download publically released versions of the processing algorithms and easily reproduce the processing remotely, while interacting with the ACPS. The algorithms can be modified allowing better experimentation and rapid improvement. The modified algorithms can be easily integrated back into the production system for large scale bulk processing to evaluate improvements. The system includes complete provenance tracking of algorithms, data and the entire processing environment. The origin of any data or algorithms is recorded and the entire history of the processing chains are stored such that a researcher can understand the entire data flow. Provenance is captured in a form suitable for the system to guarantee scientific reproducability of any data product it distributes even in cases where the physical data products themselves have been deleted due to space constraints. We are currently working on Semantic Web ontologies for representing the various provenance information. A new web site focusing on consolidating

  3. Age-related differences in lexical access, spreading activation, and simple pronunciation.

    PubMed

    Balota, D A; Duchek, J M

    1988-03-01

    An experiment was conducted to address age-related differences in lexical access, spreading activation, and pronunciation. Both young and older adults participated in a delayed pronunciation task to trace the time course of lexical access and a semantic priming task to trace the time course of spreading activation. In the delayed pronunciation task, subjects were presented a word and then, after varying delays, were presented a cue to pronounce the word aloud. Older adults benefited considerably more from the preexposure to the word than did the younger adults, suggesting an age-related difference in lexical access time. In the semantic priming pronunciation task, semantic relatedness (related vs. neutral), strength of the relationship (high vs. low), and prime-target stimulus onset asynchrony (200 ms, 350 ms, 500 ms, 650 ms, and 800 ms) were factorially crossed with age to investigate age-related differences in the buildup of semantic activation across time. The results from this task indicated that the activation pattern of the older adults closely mimicked that of the younger adults. Finally, the results of both tasks indicated that older adults were slower at both their onset to pronounce and their actual production durations (i.e., from onset to offset) in the pronunciation task. The results were interpreted as suggesting that input and output processes are slowed with age, but that the basic retrieval mechanism of spreading activation is spared by age.

  4. The Rhetoric of Arrogance: The Public Relations Response of the Standard Oil Trust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Josh

    2001-01-01

    Illustrates one of the earliest American public relations debacles (ending in the dissolution of the Standard Oil Trust in 1911). Presents background on Standard Oil and offers an overview Ida Tarbell's influential "History of the Standard Oil company." Argues that Standard failed to respond to these accounts adequately, reinforcing…

  5. An Analysis of the Vulnerability of Global Drinking Water Access to Climate-related Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, M.; Banerjee, O.; Christenson, E.; Holcomb, D.; Hamrick, L.; Bartram, J.

    2014-12-01

    Global drinking water access targets are formulated around "sustainable access." Global climate change (GCC) and associated hazards threaten the sustainability of drinking water supply. Extensive literature exists on the impacts of GCC on precipitation and water resources. However, the literature lacks a credible analysis of the vulnerability of global drinking water access. This research reports on an analysis of the current vulnerability of drinking water access due to three climate-related hazardous events: cyclone, drought and flood. An ArcGIS database was built incorporating the following: population density, hazardous event frequency, drinking water technologies in use and adaptive capacity. Two global grids were incorporated first: (1) LandScanTM global population distribution; and (2) frequency of cyclone, drought and flood from ~1980-2000 from Columbia University Center for Hazards Risk Research (CHRR). Population density was used to characterize cells as urban or rural and country-level urban/rural drinking water technologies in use were added based on the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme data. Expert assessment of the resilience of each technology to each hazardous event based on WHO/DFID Vision 2030 were quantified and added to the database. Finally, country-level adaptive capacity was drawn from the "readiness" parameter of the Global Adaptation Index (GaIn). ArcGIS Model Builder and Python were used to automate the addition of datasets. This presentation will report on the results of this analysis, the first credible attempt to assess the vulnerability of global drinking water access to climate-related hazardous events. This analysis has yielded country-level scores and maps displaying the ranking of exposure score (for flood, drought, cyclone, and all three in aggregate) and the corresponding country-level vulnerability scores and rankings incorporating the impact of drinking water technologies and adaptive capacity (Figure 1).

  6. International Policies on Sharing Genomic Research Results with Relatives: Approaches to Balancing Privacy with Access

    PubMed Central

    Branum, Rebecca; Wolf, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Returning genetic research results to raises complex issues. In order to inform the U.S. debate, this paper analyzes international law and policies governing the sharing of genetic research results with relatives and identifies key themes and lessons. The laws and policies from other countries demonstrate a range of approaches to balancing individual privacy and autonomy with family access for health benefit, offering important lessons for further development of approaches in the United States. PMID:26479568

  7. Village poultry consumption and marketing in relation to gender, religious festivals and market access.

    PubMed

    Aklilu, H A; Almekinders, C J M; Udo, H M J; Van der Zijpp, A J

    2007-04-01

    This study aimed to examine village poultry consumption and marketing in Ethiopia in relation to gender, socio-cultural events and market access. The main objects of the research were producers, poultry markets, producer-sellers, and intermediary sellers in three locations representing different levels of market access in Tigray. About 3000 farm records were collected over a period of 12 months from 131 producers to obtain quantitative data on sales and consumption. Ninety-three semi-structured interviews with 58 producer-sellers and 35 intermediaries and 12 group discussions with these market actors were conducted to explore organization, price dynamics and socio-cultural aspects of poultry marketing. In total, 928 producer-sellers and 225 intermediaries were monitored monthly to examine participation by gender in poultry marketing. Better market access was associated with a shorter market chain and higher prices for the producers. Female-headed households had smaller poultry sales and consumption per household but sale and consumption per family member were 25% and 66% higher, respectively, than in male-headed households. While women dominated in the producer-sellers group, intermediaries were mainly men. Religious festivals periodically shifted local demand and prices of poultry. To improve the benefit of poultry keeping, poverty-stricken households may profit from better market access through better market information, infrastructure, market group formation and careful planning to match the dynamics in demand.

  8. Frontier: High Performance Database Access Using Standard Web Components in a Scalable Multi-Tier Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Kosyakov, S.; Kowalkowski, J.; Litvintsev, D.; Lueking, L.; Paterno, M.; White, S.P.; Autio, Lauri; Blumenfeld, B.; Maksimovic, P.; Mathis, M.; /Johns Hopkins U.

    2004-09-01

    A high performance system has been assembled using standard web components to deliver database information to a large number of broadly distributed clients. The CDF Experiment at Fermilab is establishing processing centers around the world imposing a high demand on their database repository. For delivering read-only data, such as calibrations, trigger information, and run conditions data, we have abstracted the interface that clients use to retrieve data objects. A middle tier is deployed that translates client requests into database specific queries and returns the data to the client as XML datagrams. The database connection management, request translation, and data encoding are accomplished in servlets running under Tomcat. Squid Proxy caching layers are deployed near the Tomcat servers, as well as close to the clients, to significantly reduce the load on the database and provide a scalable deployment model. Details the system's construction and use are presented, including its architecture, design, interfaces, administration, performance measurements, and deployment plan.

  9. Accessing Suicide-Related Information on the Internet: A Retrospective Observational Study of Search Behavior

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Internet’s potential impact on suicide is of major public health interest as easy online access to pro-suicide information or specific suicide methods may increase suicide risk among vulnerable Internet users. Little is known, however, about users’ actual searching and browsing behaviors of online suicide-related information. Objective To investigate what webpages people actually clicked on after searching with suicide-related queries on a search engine and to examine what queries people used to get access to pro-suicide websites. Methods A retrospective observational study was done. We used a web search dataset released by America Online (AOL). The dataset was randomly sampled from all AOL subscribers’ web queries between March and May 2006 and generated by 657,000 service subscribers. Results We found 5526 search queries (0.026%, 5526/21,000,000) that included the keyword "suicide". The 5526 search queries included 1586 different search terms and were generated by 1625 unique subscribers (0.25%, 1625/657,000). Of these queries, 61.38% (3392/5526) were followed by users clicking on a search result. Of these 3392 queries, 1344 (39.62%) webpages were clicked on by 930 unique users but only 1314 of those webpages were accessible during the study period. Each clicked-through webpage was classified into 11 categories. The categories of the most visited webpages were: entertainment (30.13%; 396/1314), scientific information (18.31%; 240/1314), and community resources (14.53%; 191/1314). Among the 1314 accessed webpages, we could identify only two pro-suicide websites. We found that the search terms used to access these sites included “commiting suicide with a gas oven”, “hairless goat”, “pictures of murder by strangulation”, and “photo of a severe burn”. A limitation of our study is that the database may be dated and confined to mainly English webpages. Conclusions Searching or browsing suicide-related or pro-suicide webpages was

  10. 75 FR 62514 - Notice of Availability of Report on Data Access and Privacy Issues Related to Smart Grid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... of Availability of Report on Data Access and Privacy Issues Related to Smart Grid Technologies AGENCY... Access and Privacy Issues Related to Smart Grid Technologies.'' In this report, DOE discusses existing... accommodate the deployment of Smart Grid technologies. DOE also provides a comprehensive summary of...

  11. The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium Web Portal, a unified point of access for knockout mice and related phenotyping data

    PubMed Central

    Koscielny, Gautier; Yaikhom, Gagarine; Iyer, Vivek; Meehan, Terrence F.; Morgan, Hugh; Atienza-Herrero, Julian; Blake, Andrew; Chen, Chao-Kung; Easty, Richard; Di Fenza, Armida; Fiegel, Tanja; Grifiths, Mark; Horne, Alan; Karp, Natasha A.; Kurbatova, Natalja; Mason, Jeremy C.; Matthews, Peter; Oakley, Darren J.; Qazi, Asfand; Regnart, Jack; Retha, Ahmad; Santos, Luis A.; Sneddon, Duncan J.; Warren, Jonathan; Westerberg, Henrik; Wilson, Robert J.; Melvin, David G.; Smedley, Damian; Brown, Steve D. M.; Flicek, Paul; Skarnes, William C.; Mallon, Ann-Marie; Parkinson, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC) web portal (http://www.mousephenotype.org) provides the biomedical community with a unified point of access to mutant mice and rich collection of related emerging and existing mouse phenotype data. IMPC mouse clinics worldwide follow rigorous highly structured and standardized protocols for the experimentation, collection and dissemination of data. Dedicated ‘data wranglers’ work with each phenotyping center to collate data and perform quality control of data. An automated statistical analysis pipeline has been developed to identify knockout strains with a significant change in the phenotype parameters. Annotation with biomedical ontologies allows biologists and clinicians to easily find mouse strains with phenotypic traits relevant to their research. Data integration with other resources will provide insights into mammalian gene function and human disease. As phenotype data become available for every gene in the mouse, the IMPC web portal will become an invaluable tool for researchers studying the genetic contributions of genes to human diseases. PMID:24194600

  12. The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium Web Portal, a unified point of access for knockout mice and related phenotyping data.

    PubMed

    Koscielny, Gautier; Yaikhom, Gagarine; Iyer, Vivek; Meehan, Terrence F; Morgan, Hugh; Atienza-Herrero, Julian; Blake, Andrew; Chen, Chao-Kung; Easty, Richard; Di Fenza, Armida; Fiegel, Tanja; Grifiths, Mark; Horne, Alan; Karp, Natasha A; Kurbatova, Natalja; Mason, Jeremy C; Matthews, Peter; Oakley, Darren J; Qazi, Asfand; Regnart, Jack; Retha, Ahmad; Santos, Luis A; Sneddon, Duncan J; Warren, Jonathan; Westerberg, Henrik; Wilson, Robert J; Melvin, David G; Smedley, Damian; Brown, Steve D M; Flicek, Paul; Skarnes, William C; Mallon, Ann-Marie; Parkinson, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC) web portal (http://www.mousephenotype.org) provides the biomedical community with a unified point of access to mutant mice and rich collection of related emerging and existing mouse phenotype data. IMPC mouse clinics worldwide follow rigorous highly structured and standardized protocols for the experimentation, collection and dissemination of data. Dedicated 'data wranglers' work with each phenotyping center to collate data and perform quality control of data. An automated statistical analysis pipeline has been developed to identify knockout strains with a significant change in the phenotype parameters. Annotation with biomedical ontologies allows biologists and clinicians to easily find mouse strains with phenotypic traits relevant to their research. Data integration with other resources will provide insights into mammalian gene function and human disease. As phenotype data become available for every gene in the mouse, the IMPC web portal will become an invaluable tool for researchers studying the genetic contributions of genes to human diseases.

  13. The BridgeDb framework: standardized access to gene, protein and metabolite identifier mapping services

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many complementary solutions are available for the identifier mapping problem. This creates an opportunity for bioinformatics tool developers. Tools can be made to flexibly support multiple mapping services or mapping services could be combined to get broader coverage. This approach requires an interface layer between tools and mapping services. Results Here we present BridgeDb, a software framework for gene, protein and metabolite identifier mapping. This framework provides a standardized interface layer through which bioinformatics tools can be connected to different identifier mapping services. This approach makes it easier for tool developers to support identifier mapping. Mapping services can be combined or merged to support multi-omics experiments or to integrate custom microarray annotations. BridgeDb provides its own ready-to-go mapping services, both in webservice and local database forms. However, the framework is intended for customization and adaptation to any identifier mapping service. BridgeDb has already been integrated into several bioinformatics applications. Conclusion By uncoupling bioinformatics tools from mapping services, BridgeDb improves capability and flexibility of those tools. All described software is open source and available at http://www.bridgedb.org. PMID:20047655

  14. Stability of agronomic and yield related traits of Jatropha curcas accessions raised from cuttings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mat, Nurul Hidayah Che; Yaakob, Zahira; Ratnam, Wickneswari

    2016-11-01

    Monitoring stability of agronomic and yield related traits is important for prediction of crop yields. This study was a latter study for the evaluation of 295 J. curcas individuals representing 21 accessions from eight countries at Biodiesel Research Station of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Pilah planted in December 2012. In this study, 183 J. curcas individuals were selected randomly from the population and their growth performance evaluated from December 2013 to December 2014. All the individual plants were raised from cuttings. The yield related data were recorded periodically and performance of each accession was analyzed using Statistical Analysis System (SAS) 9.4. Five traits which were number of fruits per plant (NFPP), number of fruits per inflorescence (NFPI), hundred seed weight (g) (HSW), number of seeds per plant (NSPP) and yield per plant (g) (YPP) showed significant differences among the accessions after two years of planting. Maximum values for each trait were 208 cm for plant height (PH), 31 for number of branches per plant (BPP), 115 for number of inflorescence per plant (NIPP), 582 for NFPP, 7 for NFPI, 307 for number of flowers per inflorescence (NFI), 17 for number of female flowers per inflorescence (NFFPI), 91.6 g for HSW, 1647.1 for NSPP and 927.6 g for YPP. Most of the plants which had performed well in the first year were among the best performers in the second year.

  15. Final Update of the IAU Commission 4 Working Group on Standardizing Access to Ephemerides and File Format Specification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, James L.

    2015-08-01

    The IAU Commission 4 Working Group on Standardizing Access to Ephemerides recommends the use of the Spacecraft and Planet Kernel (SPK) format to provide a uniform format for the position ephemerides of planets and other natural solar system bodies, and the use of the Planetary Constants Kernel (PCK) for the orientation of these bodies. These formats are used by the SPICE system, developed by the Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The working group's final report is currently undergoing final preparations for publication. A long version of this report will be available at the IAU Commission 4 - Ephemerides (or its successor) web site. This long version will contain a full description of that portion of the SPK and PCK formats required to duplicate these file types for this application.

  16. 42 CFR 431.610 - Relations with standard-setting and survey agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Relations with standard-setting and survey agencies. 431.610 Section 431.610 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... ADMINISTRATION Relations With Other Agencies § 431.610 Relations with standard-setting and survey agencies....

  17. 42 CFR 431.610 - Relations with standard-setting and survey agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Relations with standard-setting and survey agencies. 431.610 Section 431.610 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... ADMINISTRATION Relations With Other Agencies § 431.610 Relations with standard-setting and survey agencies....

  18. CCSDS - An approach to the definition of common standards for understanding space-related data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drexler, Manfred; Sawyer, Don; Smith, Gene

    1990-01-01

    International cooperation for space data projects requires common data processing goals and unique data exchange mechanisms. The absence of standards has led to project unique interface definitions and special software on diverse systems. To address this problem, CCSDS Panel 2 is creating a set of standards to support self description of data using standard structures. The proposed standard data interchange mechanism - the Standard Formatted Data Unit (SFDU) - reduces information loss in data transfers, increases automated information exchange, and extends the lifetime of data. Data interchange structures, languages, and services are being developed with necessary control functions to provide these benefits. A set of recommendations for agency review has been issued this year to be the basis for future data exchange and to enhance access to older mission data sets. Space agencies and other space data handling facilities are being encouraged to implement the SFDU concept for ongoing and planned projects.

  19. Detection of Anomalous Insiders in Collaborative Environments via Relational Analysis of Access Logs.

    PubMed

    Chen, You; Malin, Bradley

    2011-01-01

    Collaborative information systems (CIS) are deployed within a diverse array of environments, ranging from the Internet to intelligence agencies to healthcare. It is increasingly the case that such systems are applied to manage sensitive information, making them targets for malicious insiders. While sophisticated security mechanisms have been developed to detect insider threats in various file systems, they are neither designed to model nor to monitor collaborative environments in which users function in dynamic teams with complex behavior. In this paper, we introduce a community-based anomaly detection system (CADS), an unsupervised learning framework to detect insider threats based on information recorded in the access logs of collaborative environments. CADS is based on the observation that typical users tend to form community structures, such that users with low a nity to such communities are indicative of anomalous and potentially illicit behavior. The model consists of two primary components: relational pattern extraction and anomaly detection. For relational pattern extraction, CADS infers community structures from CIS access logs, and subsequently derives communities, which serve as the CADS pattern core. CADS then uses a formal statistical model to measure the deviation of users from the inferred communities to predict which users are anomalies. To empirically evaluate the threat detection model, we perform an analysis with six months of access logs from a real electronic health record system in a large medical center, as well as a publicly-available dataset for replication purposes. The results illustrate that CADS can distinguish simulated anomalous users in the context of real user behavior with a high degree of certainty and with significant performance gains in comparison to several competing anomaly detection models.

  20. Detection of Anomalous Insiders in Collaborative Environments via Relational Analysis of Access Logs

    PubMed Central

    Chen, You; Malin, Bradley

    2014-01-01

    Collaborative information systems (CIS) are deployed within a diverse array of environments, ranging from the Internet to intelligence agencies to healthcare. It is increasingly the case that such systems are applied to manage sensitive information, making them targets for malicious insiders. While sophisticated security mechanisms have been developed to detect insider threats in various file systems, they are neither designed to model nor to monitor collaborative environments in which users function in dynamic teams with complex behavior. In this paper, we introduce a community-based anomaly detection system (CADS), an unsupervised learning framework to detect insider threats based on information recorded in the access logs of collaborative environments. CADS is based on the observation that typical users tend to form community structures, such that users with low a nity to such communities are indicative of anomalous and potentially illicit behavior. The model consists of two primary components: relational pattern extraction and anomaly detection. For relational pattern extraction, CADS infers community structures from CIS access logs, and subsequently derives communities, which serve as the CADS pattern core. CADS then uses a formal statistical model to measure the deviation of users from the inferred communities to predict which users are anomalies. To empirically evaluate the threat detection model, we perform an analysis with six months of access logs from a real electronic health record system in a large medical center, as well as a publicly-available dataset for replication purposes. The results illustrate that CADS can distinguish simulated anomalous users in the context of real user behavior with a high degree of certainty and with significant performance gains in comparison to several competing anomaly detection models. PMID:25485309

  1. Accessing the public MIMIC-II intensive care relational database for clinical research

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II (MIMIC-II) database is a free, public resource for intensive care research. The database was officially released in 2006, and has attracted a growing number of researchers in academia and industry. We present the two major software tools that facilitate accessing the relational database: the web-based QueryBuilder and a downloadable virtual machine (VM) image. Results QueryBuilder and the MIMIC-II VM have been developed successfully and are freely available to MIMIC-II users. Simple example SQL queries and the resulting data are presented. Clinical studies pertaining to acute kidney injury and prediction of fluid requirements in the intensive care unit are shown as typical examples of research performed with MIMIC-II. In addition, MIMIC-II has also provided data for annual PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenges, including the 2012 Challenge “Predicting mortality of ICU Patients”. Conclusions QueryBuilder is a web-based tool that provides easy access to MIMIC-II. For more computationally intensive queries, one can locally install a complete copy of MIMIC-II in a VM. Both publicly available tools provide the MIMIC-II research community with convenient querying interfaces and complement the value of the MIMIC-II relational database. PMID:23302652

  2. Values, inter-attitudinal structure, and attitude change: value accessibility can increase a related attitude's resistance to change.

    PubMed

    Blankenship, Kevin L; Wegener, Duane T; Murray, Renee A

    2015-12-01

    Accessibility is one of the most basic structural properties of an attitude and an important factor to consider in attitude strength. Despite its importance, relatively little work has examined the role of attitude accessibility in an inter-attitudinal context, particularly as it relates to the strength of related attitudes in the network. The present research examines accessibility as a property of one attitude (toward an abstract goal or end-state, that is, a value) that might influence the strength of a different but related attitude (toward a social policy conceptually related to the value). In Study 1, a highly accessible evaluative component of a value increased resistance to change of attitudes and behavioral intentions toward a social policy related to that value. Similarly, a manipulation of value accessibility (Studies 2 and 3) led to increased resistance of attitudes and behavioral intentions toward a social policy related to that value. Implications for the role of accessibility in inter-attitudinal strength are discussed.

  3. A scoping review on the experiences and preferences in accessing diabetes-related healthcare information and services by British Bangladeshis.

    PubMed

    Alam, Rahul; Speed, Shaun; Beaver, Kinta

    2012-03-01

    Diabetes is a chronic condition requiring lifelong self-management. Patients are encouraged to access appropriate services to facilitate optimum management of diabetes. Although equitable access to healthcare in the United Kingdom is a legal right, not all groups and individuals in the community experience equity. Despite various equality laws and numerous efforts to minimise health inequalities related to access, particular community groups are more likely to experience inequitable access than others. The Bangladeshi community are one such community who experience some of the worst diabetes-related health outcomes in the United Kingdom. Little is known about their experiences and preferences in accessing diabetes healthcare information and services. Consequently, we undertook a scoping review of the literature by following the York Scoping Reviews Framework to identify the experiences and preferences of Bangladeshi patients and carers when gaining access to diabetes-related healthcare information and services. We identified eight articles and reported our results in relation to four domains of access: health service availability, health service utilisation, health service outcomes and the notion of equity. The review identified that language and literacy issues were the most common barriers hindering access to information and services. Patient knowledge regarding diabetes and its management was generally low, and friends and family were frequently being used as information sources and as informal interpreters. Additionally, there were feelings of isolation from mainstream information and services possibly resulting in the high prevalence of depression in the Bangladeshi community with women more affected than men. Social networks combined with religious and cultural beliefs as well as wider societal duties played a crucial role in accessing information and services for this population, and the identification of these issues merit further research and are possible

  4. Repeatability of Standardized and Normalized Relative CBV in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Prah, M.A.; Stufflebeam, S.M.; Paulson, E.S.; Kalpathy-Cramer, J.; Gerstner, E.R.; Batchelor, T.T.; Barboriak, D.P.; Rosen, B.R.; Schmainda, K.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE For more widespread clinical use advanced imaging methods such as relative cerebral blood volume must be both accurate and repeatable. The aim of this study was to determine the repeatability of relative CBV measurements in newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme by using several of the most commonly published estimation techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS The relative CBV estimates were calculated from dynamic susceptibility contrast MR imaging in double-baseline examinations for 33 patients with treatment-naïve and pathologically proved glioblastoma multiforme (men=20; mean age=55 years). Normalized and standardized relative CBV were calculated by using 6 common postprocessing methods. The repeatability of both normalized and standardized relative CBV, in both tumor and contralateral brain, was examined for each method with metrics of repeatability, including the repeatability coefficient and within-subject coefficient of variation. The minimum sample size required to detect a parameter change of 10% or 20% was also determined for both normalized relative CBV and standardized relative CBV for each estimation method. RESULTS When ordered by the repeatability coefficient, methods using postprocessing leakage correction and ΔR2*(t) techniques offered superior repeatability. Across processing techniques, the standardized relative CBV repeatability in normal-appearing brain was comparable with that in tumor (P = .31), yet inferior in tumor for normalized relative CBV (P = .03). On the basis of the within-subject coefficient of variation, tumor standardized relative CBV estimates were less variable (13%–20%) than normalized relative CBV estimates (24%– 67%). The minimum number of participants needed to detect a change of 10% or 20% is 118–643 or 30 –161 for normalized relative CBV and 109 –215 or 28 –54 for standardized relative CBV. CONCLUSIONS The ΔR2* estimation methods that incorporate leakage correction offer the best

  5. The Time Series Data Server (TSDS) for Standards-Compliant, Convenient, and Efficient Access to Time Series Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindholm, D. M.; Weigel, R. S.; Wilson, A.; Ware Dewolfe, A.

    2009-12-01

    Data analysis in the physical sciences is often plagued by the difficulty in acquiring the desired data. A great deal of work has been done in the area of metadata and data discovery, however, many such discoveries simply provide links that lead directly to a data file. Often these files are impractically large, containing more time samples or variables than desired, and are slow to access. Once these files are downloaded, format issues further complicate using the data. Some data servers have begun to address these problems by improving data virtualization and ease of use. However, these services often don't scale to large datasets. Also, the generic nature of the data models used by these servers, while providing greater flexibility, may complicate setting up such a service for data providers and limit sufficient semantics that would otherwise simplify use for clients, machine or human. The Time Series Data Server (TSDS) aims to address these problems within the limited, yet common, domain of time series data. With the simplifying assumption that all data products served are a function of time, the server can optimize for data access based on time subsets, a common use case. The server also supports requests for specific variables, which can be of type scalar, structure, or sequence. It also supports data types with higher level semantics, such as "spectrum." The TSDS is implemented using Java Servlet technology and can be dropped into any servlet container and customized for a data provider's needs. The interface is based on OPeNDAP (http://opendap.org) and conforms to the Data Acces Protocol (DAP) 2.0, a NASA standard (ESDS-RFC-004), which defines a simple HTTP request and response paradigm. Thus a TSDS server instance is a compliant OPeNDAP server that can be accessed by any OPeNDAP client or directly via RESTful web service requests. The TSDS reads the data that it serves into a common data model via the NetCDF Markup Language (NcML, http

  6. 'It cuts both ways': a relational approach to access and accommodation for autism.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Joyce

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on a qualitative study of 45 autobiographical texts by authors with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), this paper examines and attempts to aggregate recommendations for challenging barriers to socio-spatial inclusion. The autobiographies were selected by means of purposive sampling and subjected to a sequential process of detailed annotation, manual coding for emergent themes, and ongoing critical discourse analysis until data-saturation occurred. Resulting findings reveal that the extraordinarily heightened senses typically associated with ASDs mean that those on the spectrum often struggle to process environmental stimuli in a way that makes sense. Negotiating the sensory geographies of daily life requires considerable work, and while the access afforded by such cognitive and emotional labour may be rewarding, ASD authors reveal that their efforts are rarely understood - or assisted - by non-autistic others. Many proposed accommodations could, however, be made with relative ease, and ASD texts provide good reasons and recommendations for toning down 'toxic' stimuli - such as fluorescent lights - and for redesigning or reorganizing the shared sensory 'furniture' of social space. The paper thus suggests that by attending closely to voices from the spectrum, the non-autistic majority might ensure responsibilities to open access are taken seriously, and do indeed 'cut both ways'.

  7. CORAL Server and CORAL Server Proxy: Scalable Access to Relational Databases from CORAL Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Valassi, A.; Bartoldus, R.; Kalkhof, A.; Salnikov, A.; Wache, M.; /Mainz U., Inst. Phys.

    2012-04-19

    The CORAL software is widely used at CERN by the LHC experiments to access the data they store on relational databases, such as Oracle. Two new components have recently been added to implement a model involving a middle tier 'CORAL server' deployed close to the database and a tree of 'CORAL server proxies', providing data caching and multiplexing, deployed close to the client. A first implementation of the two new components, released in the summer 2009, is now deployed in the ATLAS online system to read the data needed by the High Level Trigger, allowing the configuration of a farm of several thousand processes. This paper reviews the architecture of the software, its development status and its usage in ATLAS.

  8. Event-related potential evidence of accessing gender stereotypes to aid source monitoring.

    PubMed

    Leynes, P Andrew; Crawford, Jarret T; Radebaugh, Anne M; Taranto, Elizabeth

    2013-01-23

    Source memory for the speaker's voice (male or female) was investigated when semantic knowledge (gender stereotypes) could and could not inform the episodic source judgment while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Source accuracy was greater and response times were faster when stereotypes could predict the speaker's voice at test. Recollection supported source judgments in both conditions as indicated by significant parietal "old/new" ERP effects (500-800ms). Prototypical late ERP effects (the right frontal "old/new" effect and the late posterior negativity, LPN) were evident when source judgment was based solely on episodic memory. However, these two late ERP effects were diminished and a novel, frontal-negative ERP with left-central topography was observed when stereotypes aided source judgments. This pattern of ERP activity likely reflects activation of left frontal or left temporal lobes when semantic knowledge, in the form of a gender stereotype, is accessed to inform the episodic source judgment.

  9. 77 FR 29235 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Part 153 RIN 0938-AR07 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards... ] entitled, ``Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors... section 553(b) of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA) (5 U.S.C. 553(b)). However, we can waive...

  10. 30 CFR 816.200 - Interpretative rules related to general performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.200 Interpretative rules related to general performance standards...)—Topsoil Removal. (1) Results of physical and chemical analyses of overburden and topsoil to demonstrate... physical and chemical analyses, field site trials, or greenhouse tests of the topsoil and...

  11. 76 FR 14777 - Supplemental Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Federal Labor Relations Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... Supplemental Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Federal Labor Relations Authority AGENCY... Authority (FLRA), with the concurrence of the Office of Government Ethics (OGE), is adopting as final, without change, the interim FLRA rule that supplements the executive-branch-wide Standards of...

  12. 30 CFR 817.200 - Interpretative rules related to general performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... performance standards. 817.200 Section 817.200 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.200 Interpretative rules related to general performance... by the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement. (a)-(b) (c) Interpretation of §...

  13. 77 FR 42493 - Proposed Consent Decree Relating to the New Source Performance Standards for Municipal Solid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ... AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree Relating to the New Source Performance Standards for Municipal Solid Waste... performance standards (``NSPS'') for municipal solid waste landfills (``MSW Landfills''). The Act requires EPA... (``NSPS'') for municipal solid waste landfills (``MSW Landfills''), 40 CFR part 60, subpart WWW (40 CFR...

  14. Access to Money and Relation to Women's Use of Family Planning Methods Among Young Married Women in Rural India.

    PubMed

    Reed, Elizabeth; Donta, Balaiah; Dasgupta, Anindita; Ghule, Mohan; Battala, Madhusudana; Nair, Saritha; Silverman, Jay; Jadhav, Arun; Palaye, Prajakta; Saggurti, Niranjan; Raj, Anita

    2016-06-01

    Objectives The social positioning (i.e. social status and autonomy) of women in the household facilitates women's access to and decision-making power related to family planning (FP). Women's access to spending money, which may be an indicator of greater social positioning in the household, may also be greater among women who engage in income generating activities for their families, regardless of women's status in the household. However, in both scenarios, access to money may independently afford greater opportunity to obtain family planning services among women. This study seeks to assess whether access to money is associated with FP outcomes independently of women's social positioning in their households. Methods Using survey data from married couples in rural Maharashtra, India (n = 855), crude and adjusted regression was used to assess women's access to their own spending money in relation to past 3 month use of condoms and other forms of contraceptives (pills, injectables, intrauterine device). Results Access to money (59 %) was associated with condom and other contraceptive use (AORs ranged 1.5-1.8). These findings remained significant after adjusting for women's FP decision-making power in the household and mobility to seek FP services. Conclusion While preliminary, findings suggest that access to money may increase women's ability to obtain FP methods, even in contexts where social norms to support women's power in FP decision-making may not be readily adopted.

  15. Accession Medical Standards Analysis and Research Activity (AMSARA) 2014, Annual Report, and four Supplemental Applicants and Accessions Tables for: Army, Air Force, Marine, and Navy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-02

    within the first year of service, among 2013 accessions, were psychiatric conditions, pneumonia, influenza, and infections of the skin and...for each service. Among Army enlistees, the next most common condition categories were pneumonia and influenza (8%), infections of the skin and...4%). Among Marine Corps, infections of the skin and subcutaneous tissue (10%), pneumonia and influenza (10%), and fracture (5%) were the next most

  16. Animacy-Based Accessibility and Competition in Relative Clause Production in Hindi and Malayalam.

    PubMed

    Perera, C K; Srivastava, A K

    2016-08-01

    Two studies investigated interaction of animacy-based accessibility and competition processes with language specific constraints in shaping production preferences. Relative clause elicitation tasks (Gennari et al. in Cogn Psychol 65:141-176, 2012) were performed by two groups with 40 participants in each. Significantly more passives were produced with animate question/focus and assigned subject function to them in Malayalam, while the difference was insignificant in Hindi with animacy not equating with grammatical function assignment. Both languages produced active objects with OSV order significantly more with animate question/focus. This indicates animacy effect on word order. Animacy also influenced the expression of the agent phase in both languages as a tendency was found to omit the agent by-phase or to delay its appearance, when the two animate nouns entering into the structure are highly similar. The results point to language specific constraints in relative clause production and variability in the role of animacy-based retrieval order across languages.

  17. United States Access Board

    MedlinePlus

    ... disabilities through leadership in accessible design and the development of accessibility guidelines and standards for the built environment, transportation, communication, medical diagnostic equipment, and information technology. ...

  18. Accession Medical Standards Analysis and Research Activity (AMSARA) 2015, Annual Report, and four Supplemental Applicants and Accessions Tables for: Army, Air Force, Marine, and Navy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-11

    for hospitalization within the first year of service among 2014 accessions were psychiatric conditions, pneumonia and influenza, and infections of the...appendicitis (6%) and nonspecific symptoms (5%). Among Marine Corps, infections of the skin and subcutaneous tissue (14%), pneumonia and influenza (10%), and...Pneumonia and influenza 11.0 7.2 3.6 2.7 14.5 10.0 5.7 1.6 Infections of skin and subcutaneous tissue 6.7 4.6 5.1 4.7 11.6 13.9 5.6 2.8 Fracture

  19. Where Are the Women? A Report into Issues Related to Women's Access to Workplace Literacy Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton, Marion

    A study investigated provision of workplace literacy courses available for women in female-dominated industries and women's access to and participation in those courses. A literature review revealed very little research on the required increased literacy skills in Australia and no previous studies on women's access to workplace literacy courses in…

  20. Differences in Hispanic Access and Success Rates for Health-Related Studies in Texas Health-Related Institutions: A Multiyear, Statewide Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Shelley M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine Hispanic student access and success in health-related degrees by examining enrollment and graduation rates over a period of 13 years. Archival data were obtained from the THECB consisting of the number of Hispanic students enrolled and number of degrees awarded in the health-related degrees at…

  1. Challenges for Relative Effectiveness Assessment and Early Access of Cancer Immunotherapies in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Pavlovic, Mira

    2016-01-01

    Clinical endpoints relevant for relative effectiveness assessment (REA) reflect how patients feel, function, or survive. Outcome data requested by health technology assessment (HTA) bodies in Europe to support reimbursement of an anticancer drug are based on final endpoints coming from completed comparative phase 3 trials; overall survival improvement is the preferred criterion for the demonstration of the patient benefit in this field. Recent arrival of new treatments that target identified functional genetic mutations (“targeted therapies”) or PD-1/PD-L1,2 axis (“immunotherapies”) and their combinations have profoundly changed treatment strategies in cancers as they considerably improve patient survival, but also raise new challenges in REA and decision-making process in Europe as compared to the REA of “classical” chemotherapies. In addition, recent regulatory initiatives to support accelerated clinical development and approval of innovative cancer immunotherapies based on non-final endpoints, such as priority medicines through the European Medicines Agency, represent an additional challenge for HTA bodies and decision makers. In order to support adequate data generation for REA of anticancer drugs and especially for drugs candidates for accelerated assessment and early access to market, a close and open dialog of all stakeholders involved in development of such drugs is crucial. PMID:27896268

  2. Challenges for Relative Effectiveness Assessment and Early Access of Cancer Immunotherapies in Europe.

    PubMed

    Pavlovic, Mira

    2016-01-01

    Clinical endpoints relevant for relative effectiveness assessment (REA) reflect how patients feel, function, or survive. Outcome data requested by health technology assessment (HTA) bodies in Europe to support reimbursement of an anticancer drug are based on final endpoints coming from completed comparative phase 3 trials; overall survival improvement is the preferred criterion for the demonstration of the patient benefit in this field. Recent arrival of new treatments that target identified functional genetic mutations ("targeted therapies") or PD-1/PD-L1,2 axis ("immunotherapies") and their combinations have profoundly changed treatment strategies in cancers as they considerably improve patient survival, but also raise new challenges in REA and decision-making process in Europe as compared to the REA of "classical" chemotherapies. In addition, recent regulatory initiatives to support accelerated clinical development and approval of innovative cancer immunotherapies based on non-final endpoints, such as priority medicines through the European Medicines Agency, represent an additional challenge for HTA bodies and decision makers. In order to support adequate data generation for REA of anticancer drugs and especially for drugs candidates for accelerated assessment and early access to market, a close and open dialog of all stakeholders involved in development of such drugs is crucial.

  3. Inventory of Safety-related Codes and Standards for Energy Storage Systems with some Experiences related to Approval and Acceptance

    SciTech Connect

    Conover, David R.

    2014-09-11

    The purpose of this document is to identify laws, rules, model codes, codes, standards, regulations, specifications (CSR) related to safety that could apply to stationary energy storage systems (ESS) and experiences to date securing approval of ESS in relation to CSR. This information is intended to assist in securing approval of ESS under current CSR and to identification of new CRS or revisions to existing CRS and necessary supporting research and documentation that can foster the deployment of safe ESS.

  4. On the Linear Relation between the Mean and the Standard Deviation of a Response Time Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Brown, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that the spread of a response time (RT) distribution increases with the mean, the precise nature of this relation remains relatively unexplored. The authors show that in several descriptive RT distributions, the standard deviation increases linearly with the mean. Results from a wide range of tasks from different…

  5. Standards-Based External Exams and Students' Science-Related Career Expectations: An International Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Seong Won

    2016-01-01

    Students' science-related career expectations are important for predicting their future science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM)-related educational and occupational attainments. This study examines the degree to which standards-based external examinations are associated with a student's propensity for pursuing science-related…

  6. 76 FR 46297 - HIT Standards Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... access only. Name of Committees: HIT Standards Committee's Workgroups: Clinical Operations, Vocabulary... issues related to their specific subject matter, e.g., clinical operations vocabulary standards,...

  7. In search of tetraploid wheat accessions reduced in celiac disease-related gluten epitopes.

    PubMed

    van den Broeck, Hetty; Hongbing, Chen; Lacaze, Xavier; Dusautoir, Jean-Claude; Gilissen, Ludovicus; Smulders, Marinus; van der Meer, Ingrid

    2010-11-01

    Tetraploid wheat (durum wheat) is mainly used for the preparation of pasta. As a result of breeding, thousands of tetraploid wheat varieties exist, but also tetraploid landraces are still maintained and used for local food preparations. Gluten proteins present in wheat can induce celiac disease, a T-cell mediated auto-immune disorder, in genetically predisposed individuals after ingestion. Compared to hexaploid wheat, tetraploid wheat might be reduced in T-cell stimulatory epitopes that cause celiac disease because of the absence of the D-genome. We tested gluten protein extracts from 103 tetraploid wheat accessions (obtained from the Dutch CGN genebank and from the French INRA collection) including landraces, old, modern, and domesticated accessions of various tetraploid species and subspecies from many geographic origins. Those accessions were typed for their level of T-cell stimulatory epitopes by immunoblotting with monoclonal antibodies against the α-gliadin epitopes Glia-α9 and Glia-α20. In the first selection, we found 8 CGN and 6 INRA accessions with reduced epitope staining. Fourteen of the 57 CGN accessions turned out to be mixed with hexaploid wheat, and 5 out of the 8 selected CGN accessions were mixtures of two or more different gluten protein chemotypes. Based on single seed analysis, lines from two CGN accessions and one INRA accession were obtained with significantly reduced levels of Glia-α9 and Glia-α20 epitopes. These lines will be further tested for industrial quality and may contribute to the development of safer foods for celiac patients.

  8. Gender-Related Barriers and Delays in Accessing Tuberculosis Diagnostic and Treatment Services: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies

    PubMed Central

    Akande, Tokunbo; Shankar, Anita V.; McIntire, Katherine N.; Gounder, Celine R.; Gupta, Amita; Yang, Wei-Teng

    2014-01-01

    Background. Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant global public health problem with known gender-related (male versus female) disparities. We reviewed the qualitative evidence (written/spoken narrative) for gender-related differences limiting TB service access from symptom onset to treatment initiation. Methods. Following a systematic process, we searched 12 electronic databases, included qualitative studies that assessed gender differences in accessing TB diagnostic and treatment services, abstracted data, and assessed study validity. Using a modified “inductive coding” system, we synthesized emergent themes within defined barriers and delays limiting access at the individual and provider/system levels and examined gender-related differences. Results. Among 13,448 studies, 28 studies were included. All were conducted in developing countries and assessed individual-level barriers; 11 (39%) assessed provider/system-level barriers, 18 (64%) surveyed persons with suspected or diagnosed TB, and 7 (25%) exclusively surveyed randomly sampled community members or health care workers. Each barrier affected both genders but had gender-variable nature and impact reflecting sociodemographic themes. Women experienced financial and physical dependence, lower general literacy, and household stigma, whereas men faced work-related financial and physical barriers and community-based stigma. Conclusions. In developing countries, barriers limiting access to TB care have context-specific gender-related differences that can inform integrated interventions to optimize TB services. PMID:24900921

  9. The mystery of the occluded port that allowed blood withdrawal: is it safe to use standard needles to access ports? A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, Rita; Costa, Fabio; Vitiello, Michelangelo; Brescia, Fabrizio; Proscia, Paola; Falco, Clementina; Carassiti, Massimiliano

    2014-04-01

    A frequent complication of totally implantable central venous access devices (TIVADs) is withdrawal occlusion. We describe a case of rare dysfunction of TIVADs: blood withdrawal was possible, whereas infusion was not. A further investigation demonstrated that during infusion, a silicone core, probably produced by hypodermic needle puncture, occluded the reservoir outlet hole. The silicone septum puncture by standard needles instead of non-coring ones may reduce the device effectiveness and expose patients to serious complications.

  10. Does the Noun Phrase Accessibility Hierarchy Predict the Difficulty Order in the Acquisition of Japanese Relative Clauses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozeki, Hiromi; Shirai, Yasuhiro

    2007-01-01

    Although Keenan and Comrie's (1977) noun phrase accessibility hierarchy (NPAH) has been shown to predict the difficulty order of relative clauses (RCs) in SLA, most studies of the NPAH have been on European languages. This paper tests the prediction for Japanese. Study 1 analyzes RCs in an oral interview corpus from 90 learners of Japanese at four…

  11. Technical Review of Law Enforcement Standards and Guides Relative to Incident Management

    SciTech Connect

    Stenner, Robert D.; Salter, R.; Stanton, J. R.; Fisher, D.

    2009-03-24

    In an effort to locate potential law enforcement-related standards that support incident management, a team from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contacted representatives from the National Institute of Standards-Office of Law Enforcement Standards (NIST-OLES), National Institute of Justice (NIJ), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Secret Service, ASTM International committees that have a law enforcement focus, and a variety of individuals from local and regional law enforcement organizations. Discussions were held with various state and local law enforcement organizations. The NIJ has published several specific equipment-related law enforcement standards that were included in the review, but it appears that law enforcement program and process-type standards are developed principally by organizations that operate at the state and local level. Input is provided from state regulations and codes and from external non-government organizations (NGOs) that provide national standards. The standards that are adopted from external organizations or developed independently by state authorities are available for use by local law enforcement agencies on a voluntary basis. The extent to which they are used depends on the respective jurisdictions involved. In some instances, use of state and local disseminated standards is mandatory, but in most cases, use is voluntary. Usually, the extent to which these standards are used appears to depend on whether or not jurisdictions receive certification from a “governing” entity due to their use and compliance with the standards. In some cases, these certification-based standards are used in principal but without certification or other compliance monitoring. In general, these standards appear to be routinely used for qualification, selection for employment, and training. In these standards, the term “Peace Officer” is frequently used to refer to law enforcement personnel. This technical review of national law

  12. Office for Civil Rights Fiscal Year 2000 Annual Report to Congress. Guaranteeing Equal Access to High-Standards Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.

    The mission of the Office for Civil Rights is to ensure equal access to a high-quality education for all students through the vigorous enforcement of civil rights. This report outlines the legal responsibilities and goals of the organization and shows how these were met in the year 2000. There are explanations of how the agency provides…

  13. PROPOSED STANDARD TO GREATLY EXPAND PUBLIC ACCESS AND EXPLORATION OF TOXICITY DATA: EVALUATION OF STRUCTURE DATA FILE FORMAT

    EPA Science Inventory



    PROPOSED ST ANDARD TO GREA TL Y EXP AND PUBLIC ACCESS AND EXPLORATION OF TOXICITY DATA: EVALUATION OF STRUCTURE DATA FILE FORMAT

    The ability to assess the potential toxicity of environmental, pharmaceutical, or industrial chemicals based on chemical structure in...

  14. CytoAccess, a relational laboratory information management system for a clinical cytogenetics laboratory.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Bixia; Li, Peining; Hemingway, Susan S; Qumsiyeh, Mazin

    2006-01-01

    We developed a CytoAccess laboratory management system based on the widely used Microsoft Access software to facilitate data processing, result reporting, and quality management for a full-service cytogenetics laboratory. The CytoAccess system consists of four functional modules. The data entry module is for logging in patient information. The result entry module is used to generate chromosome, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) reports. The administrative module enables periodic monitoring of quality control and quality improvement (QA/QI) parameters and produces billing forms. The maintenance module allows users to update clinical demographics, report templates, code tables, and to refresh data links. We have integrated into this system over 15,000 chromosome and FISH results from prenatal, postnatal, and cancer cases for the past six years. This system is cost-effective, user-friendly, flexible in updating, and potentially adaptable for data mining.

  15. Performance Issues Related to Web Service Usage for Remote Data Access

    SciTech Connect

    Pais, V. F.; Stancalie, V.; Mihailescu, F. A.; Totolici, M. C.

    2008-04-07

    Web services are starting to be widely used in applications for remotely accessing data. This is of special interest for research based on small and medium scale fusion devices, since scientists participating remotely to experiments are accessing large amounts of data over the Internet. Recent tests were conducted to see how the new network traffic, generated by the use of web services, can be integrated in the existing infrastructure and what would be the impact over existing applications, especially those used in a remote participation scenario.

  16. 76 FR 41929 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... July 15, 2011 Part III Department of Health and Human Services 45 CFR Part 153 Patient Protection and... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Part 153 RIN 0938-AR07 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors and Risk Adjustment AGENCY: Department of Health and...

  17. 78 FR 57445 - Charging Standard Administrative Fees for Nonprogram-Related Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... current costs for this service. New Information: We are establishing a new standard, single-tier fee of... we charge to recover the full cost of providing information and related services we provide to the... fees ensure consistency and that we recover the full cost of supplying information when a request...

  18. 77 FR 33133 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Data Collection To Support Standards Related to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... To Support Standards Related to Essential Health Benefits; Recognition of Entities for the... Health and Human Services to define essential health benefits. This proposed rule outlines the data on applicable plans to be collected from certain issuers to support the definition of essential health...

  19. Evidence of Shifting Standards in Judgments of Male and Female Parents' Job-Related Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuegen, Kathleen; Endicott, Nicole F.

    2010-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis, derived from the shifting standards model of stereotyping, that parenthood would polarize judgments of men's and women's job-related ability. One hundred thirty-five attorneys evaluated the resume of a recent law school graduate. The resume depicted the graduate as male or female and as either single or married with two…

  20. Measuring relative performance of an EDS detector using a NiO standard.

    SciTech Connect

    Sugar, Joshua Daniel; Kotula, Paul Gabriel

    2013-09-01

    A method for measuring the relative performance of energy dispersive spectrometers (EDS) on a TEM is discussed. A NiO thin-film standard fabricated at Sandia CA is used. A performance parameter,, is measured and compared to values on several TEM systems.

  1. 12 CFR 335.121 - Listing standards related to audit committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Listing standards related to audit committees. 335.121 Section 335.121 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND... audit committees. The provisions of the applicable SEC regulation under section 10(A)(m) of the...

  2. Mining Roles and Access Control for Relational Data under Privacy and Accuracy Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pervaiz, Zahid

    2013-01-01

    Access control mechanisms protect sensitive information from unauthorized users. However, when sensitive information is shared and a Privacy Protection Mechanism (PPM) is not in place, an authorized insider can still compromise the privacy of a person leading to identity disclosure. A PPM can use suppression and generalization to anonymize and…

  3. In-house access to PACS images and related data through World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Mascarini, C; Ratib, O; Trayser, G; Ligier, Y; Appel, R D

    1996-06-01

    The development of a hospital wide PACS is in progress at the University Hospital of Geneva and several archive modules are operational since 1992. This PACS is intended for wide distribution of images to clinical wards. As the PACS project and the number of archived images grow rapidly in the hospital, it was necessary to provide an easy, more widely accessible and convenient access to the PACS database for the clinicians in the different wards and clinical units of the hospital. An innovative solution has been developed using tools such as Netscape navigator and NCSA World Wide Web server as an alternative to conventional database query and retrieval software. These tools present the advantages of providing a user interface which is the same, independent of the platform being used (e.g. Mac, Windows, UNIX), and an easy integration of different types of documents (e.g. text, images). A strict access control has been added to this interface. It allows user identification and access rights checking, as defined by the in-house hospital information system, before allowing the navigation through patient data records.

  4. In-house access to PACS images and related data through World Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascarini, Christian; Ratib, Osman M.; Trayser, Gerhard; Ligier, Yves; Appel, R. D.

    1996-05-01

    The development of a hospital wide PACS is in progress at the University Hospital of Geneva and several archive modules are operational since 1992. This PACS is intended for wide distribution of images to clinical wards. As the PACS project and the number of archived images grow rapidly in the hospital, it was necessary to provide an easy, more widely accessible and convenient access to the PACS database for the clinicians in the different wards and clinical units of the hospital. An innovative solution has been developed using tools such as Netscape navigator and NCSA World Wide Web server as an alternative to conventional database query and retrieval software. These tools present the advantages of providing an user interface which is the same independently of the platform being used (Mac, Windows, UNIX, ...), and an easy integration of different types of documents (text, images, ...). A strict access control has been added to this interface. It allows user identification and access rights checking, as defined by the in-house hospital information system, before allowing the navigation through patient data records.

  5. 76 FR 39385 - Payment Policy Change for Access to NOAA Environmental Data, Information, and Related Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Payment Policy Change for Access to NOAA Environmental Data... Service (NESDIS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Policy Change. SUMMARY: NOAA's National Data Centers will not accept checks (nor money...

  6. 45 CFR 155.120 - Non-interference with Federal law and non-discrimination standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-discrimination standards. 155.120 Section 155.120 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS EXCHANGE ESTABLISHMENT STANDARDS AND OTHER RELATED STANDARDS UNDER..., disability, age, sex, gender identity or sexual orientation....

  7. 45 CFR 155.120 - Non-interference with Federal law and non-discrimination standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-discrimination standards. 155.120 Section 155.120 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS EXCHANGE ESTABLISHMENT STANDARDS AND OTHER RELATED STANDARDS UNDER..., disability, age, sex, gender identity or sexual orientation....

  8. [Alleles at storage protein loci in Triticum spelta L. accessions and their occurrence in related wheats].

    PubMed

    Kozub, N A; Boguslavskiĭ, R L; Sozinov, I A; Tverdokhleb, E V; Ksinias, I N; Blium, Ia B; Sozinov, A A

    2014-01-01

    Variation at eight storage protein loci was analyzed in the collection of T. spelta accessions from the National Centre of Plant Genetic Resources of Ukraine, most of which are European spelts. The analysis allowed identification of seven alleles at the Gli-B1 locus, five alleles at the Gli-A1 and Glu-B1 loci, three alleles at the Gli-A3 locus, two at the Gli-D1, Gli-B5, Glu-A1, and Glu-D1 loci. The majority of alleles are encountered among common wheat cultivars, only five alleles were specific for spelts. The high frequency of the alleles Gli-B1hs* and h encoding the 45-type gamma-gliadin in European spelts and durum wheat cultivars, as well as the occurrence of these alleles in T. dicoccum, in particular, in accessions from Switzerland and Germany, supports von Büren's hypothesis that European spelt resulted from hybridization between a tetraploid wheat with the 45-type y-gliadin and a hexaploid wheat. Analysis of genetic distances based on the genotypes at eight storage protein loci permitted differentiation of the Asian spelt accession from European spelts.

  9. Heart rate responses to standardized trauma-related pictures in acute posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, Anke; Suendermann, Oliver; Boellinghaus, Inga; Vossbeck-Elsebusch, Anna; Gamer, Matthias; Briddon, Emma; Martin, Melanie Walwyn; Glucksman, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Physiological responses to trauma reminders are one of the core symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Nevertheless, screening measures for PTSD largely rely on symptom self-reports. It has been suggested that psychophysiological assessments may be useful in identifying trauma survivors with PTSD (Orr and Roth, 2000). This study investigated whether heart rate (HR) responses to standardized trauma-related pictures distinguish between trauma survivors with and without acute PTSD. Survivors of motor vehicle accidents or physical assaults (N = 162) watched standardized trauma-related, generally threatening and neutral pictures at 1 month post-trauma while their ECG was recorded. At 1 and 6 months, structured clinical interviews assessed PTSD diagnoses. Participants completed self-report measures of PTSD severity and depression, peritraumatic responses, coping behaviors and appraisals. Trauma survivors with acute PTSD showed greater HR responses to trauma-related pictures than those without PTSD, as indicated by a less pronounced mean deceleration, greater peak responses, and a greater proportion showing HR acceleration of greater than 1 beat per minute. There were no group differences in HR responses to generally threatening or neutral pictures. HR responses to trauma-related pictures contributed to the prediction of PTSD diagnosis over and above what could be predicted from self-reports of PTSD and depression. HR responses to trauma-related pictures were related to fear and data-driven processing during the trauma, safety behaviors, suppression of trauma memories, and overgeneralized appraisals of danger. The results suggest that HR responses to standardized trauma-related pictures may help identify a subgroup of patients with acute PTSD who show generalized fear responses to trauma reminders. The early generalization of triggers of reexperiencing symptoms observed in this study is consistent with associative learning and cognitive models of PTSD. PMID

  10. The Effect of Predialysis Fistula Attempt on Risk of All-Cause and Access-Related Death.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Robert R; Oliver, Matthew J; Devoe, Daniel; Poinen, Krishnan; Kabani, Rameez; Kamar, Fareed; Mysore, Priyanka; Lewin, Adriane M; Hiremath, Swapnil; MacRae, Jennifer; James, Matthew T; Miller, Lisa; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Moist, Louise M; Garg, Amit X; Chowdhury, Tanvir T; Ravani, Pietro

    2017-02-01

    Whether the lower risk of mortality associated with arteriovenous fistula use in hemodialysis patients is due to the avoidance of catheters or if healthier patients are simply more likely to have fistulas placed is unknown. To provide clarification, we determined the proportion of access-related deaths in a retrospective cohort study of patients aged ≥18 years who initiated hemodialysis between 2004 and 2012 at five Canadian dialysis programs. A total of 3168 patients initiated dialysis at the participating centers; 2300 met our inclusion criteria. Two investigators independently adjudicated cause of death using explicit criteria and determined whether a death was access-related. We observed significantly lower mortality in individuals who underwent a predialysis fistula attempt than in those without a predialysis fistula attempt in patients aged <65 years (hazard ratio [HR], 0.49; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.29 to 0.82) and in the first 2 years of follow-up in those aged ≥65 years (HR0-24 months, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.84; HR24+ months, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.25 to 2.67). Sudden deaths that occurred out of hospital accounted for most of the deaths, followed by deaths due to cardiovascular disease and infectious complications. We found only 2.3% of deaths to be access-related. In conclusion, predialysis fistula attempt may associate with a lower risk of mortality. However, the excess mortality observed in patients treated with catheters does not appear to be due to direct, access-related complications but is likely the result of residual confounding, unmeasured comorbidity, or treatment selection bias.

  11. Charts expressing the time, velocity, and altitude relations for an airplane diving in a standard atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, H A

    1937-01-01

    In this report charts are given showing the relation between time, velocities, and altitude for airplanes having various terminal velocities diving in a standard atmosphere. The range of starting altitudes is from 8,000 to 32,000 feet, and the terminal velocities vary from 150 to 550 miles per hour. A comparison is made between an experimental case and the results obtained from the charts. Examples pointing out the use of the charts are included.

  12. Microwave monolithic integrated circuit-related metrology at the National Institute of Standards and Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeve, Gerome; Marks, Roger; Blackburn, David

    1990-12-01

    How the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) interacts with the GaAs community and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency microwave monolithic integrated circuit (MMIC) initiative is described. The organization of a joint industry and government laboratory consortium for MMIC-related metrology research is described along with some of the initial technical developments at NIST done in support of the consortium.

  13. Educational Standards, Testing, and Access. Proceedings of the ETS Invitational Conference (45th, New York, New York, October 29, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ.

    An introduction by Gregory R. Anrig summarizes these proceedings. Benjamin Payton keynoted the conference by describing a major task of American education as providing individuals with mobility, equity, and opportunities for a better economic life. M. Susana Navarro spoke about the effects that new state standards for quality in education have had…

  14. 48 CFR 311.7001 - Section 508 accessibility standards for HHS Web site content and communications materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... standards for HHS Web site content and communications materials. 311.7001 Section 311.7001 Federal... that is specifically intended for publication on, or delivery via, an HHS-owned or -funded Web site. (b... publication on, or delivery via, an HHS-owned or -funded Web site, the Project Officer shall consult with...

  15. 48 CFR 311.7001 - Section 508 accessibility standards for HHS Web site content and communications materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... standards for HHS Web site content and communications materials. 311.7001 Section 311.7001 Federal... that is specifically intended for publication on, or delivery via, an HHS-owned or -funded Web site. (b... publication on, or delivery via, an HHS-owned or -funded Web site, the Project Officer shall consult with...

  16. 48 CFR 311.7001 - Section 508 accessibility standards for HHS Web site content and communications materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... standards for HHS Web site content and communications materials. 311.7001 Section 311.7001 Federal... that is specifically intended for publication on, or delivery via, an HHS-owned or -funded Web site. (b... publication on, or delivery via, an HHS-owned or -funded Web site, the Project Officer shall consult with...

  17. 48 CFR 311.7001 - Section 508 accessibility standards for HHS Web site content and communications materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... standards for HHS Web site content and communications materials. 311.7001 Section 311.7001 Federal... that is specifically intended for publication on, or delivery via, an HHS-owned or -funded Web site. (b... publication on, or delivery via, an HHS-owned or -funded Web site, the Project Officer shall consult with...

  18. 48 CFR 311.7001 - Section 508 accessibility standards for HHS Web site content and communications materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... standards for HHS Web site content and communications materials. 311.7001 Section 311.7001 Federal... that is specifically intended for publication on, or delivery via, an HHS-owned or -funded Web site. (b... publication on, or delivery via, an HHS-owned or -funded Web site, the Project Officer shall consult with...

  19. The Role of Inhibition in Age-related Off-Topic Verbosity: Not Access but Deletion and Restraint Functions

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Shufei; Peng, Huamao

    2016-01-01

    The speech of older adults is commonly described as verbose and off-topic, which is thought to influence their social communication. This study investigated the role of inhibition in age-related off-topic verbosity (OTV). Inhibition consists of three functions: access, deletion, and restraint. The access function is responsible for preventing irrelevant information from accessing the attention center (pre-mechanism of inhibition); The deletion function is responsible for deleting previously relevant but currently irrelevant information from working memory, and the restraint function is responsible for restraining strong but inappropriate responses (post-mechanisms of inhibition). A referential communication task was used to determine whether OTV was influenced by the pre-mechanism of inhibition. A self-involved event interview task was used to investigate the effect of the post-mechanisms of inhibition on OTV. Results showed that the OTV of the elderly participants was associated with an age-related decline in the post-mechanisms of inhibition, while the OTV exhibited by young adults was most likely due to deficits in the pre-mechanism function of inhibition. This research contributed to fill gaps in the existing knowledge about the potential relationship between specific functions of inhibition and age-related OTV. PMID:27199793

  20. NASA hydrogen maser accuracy and stability in relation to world standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, H. E.; Percival, D. B.

    1973-01-01

    Frequency comparisons were made among five NASA hydrogen masers in 1969 and again in 1972 to a precision of one part in 10 to the 13th power. Frequency comparisons were also made between these masers and the cesium-beam ensembles of several international standards laboratories. The hydrogen maser frequency stabilities as related to IAT were comparable to the frequency stabilities of individual time scales with respect to IAT. The relative frequency variations among the NASA masers, measured after the three-year interval, were 2 + or - 2 parts in 10 to the 13th power. Thus time scales based on hydrogen masers would have excellent long-term stability and uniformity.

  1. An exploration of terminology related to sexuality and gender: arguments for standardizing the language.

    PubMed

    Eliason, Michele J

    2014-01-01

    There is currently no consensus on the best ways to define and operationalize research concepts related to sexuality and gender. This article explores some of the ways that sex/gender and sexuality terms have been used in health-related research and in keyword searches in the health sciences. Reasons for the diversity of terms and measurement approaches are explored and arguments for and against standardizing the language are presented. The article ends with recommendations for beginning a productive dialogue among health researchers to create some consistency in the terminology used to assess sexuality and gender.

  2. Concept for an International Standard related to Space Weather Effects on Space Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Tomky, Alyssa

    There is great interest in developing an international standard related to space weather in order to specify the tools and parameters needed for space systems operations. In particular, a standard is important for satellite operators who may not be familiar with space weather. In addition, there are others who participate in space systems operations that would also benefit from such a document. For example, the developers of software systems that provide LEO satellite orbit determination, radio communication availability for scintillation events (GEO-to-ground L and UHF bands), GPS uncertainties, and the radiation environment from ground-to-space for commercial space tourism. These groups require recent historical data, current epoch specification, and forecast of space weather events into their automated or manual systems. Other examples are national government agencies that rely on space weather data provided by their organizations such as those represented in the International Space Environment Service (ISES) group of 14 national agencies. Designers, manufacturers, and launchers of space systems require real-time, operational space weather parameters that can be measured, monitored, or built into automated systems. Thus, a broad scope for the document will provide a useful international standard product to a variety of engineering and science domains. The structure of the document should contain a well-defined scope, consensus space weather terms and definitions, and internationally accepted descriptions of the main elements of space weather, its sources, and its effects upon space systems. Appendices will be useful for describing expanded material such as guidelines on how to use the standard, how to obtain specific space weather parameters, and short but detailed descriptions such as when best to use some parameters and not others; appendices provide a path for easily updating the standard since the domain of space weather is rapidly changing with new advances

  3. Geographic approaches to quantifying the risk environment: drug-related law enforcement and access to syringe exchange programmes.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Hannah L F; Bossak, Brian; Tempalski, Barbara; Des Jarlais, Don C; Friedman, Samuel R

    2009-05-01

    The concept of the "risk environment"--defined as the "space ... [where] factors exogenous to the individual interact to increase the chances of HIV transmission"--draws together the disciplines of public health and geography. Researchers have increasingly turned to geographic methods to quantify dimensions of the risk environment that are both structural and spatial (e.g., local poverty rates). The scientific power of the intersection between public health and geography, however, has yet to be fully mined. In particular, research on the risk environment has rarely applied geographic methods to create neighbourhood-based measures of syringe exchange programmes (SEPs) or of drug-related law enforcement activities, despite the fact that these interventions are widely conceptualized as structural and spatial in nature and are two of the most well-established dimensions of the risk environment. To strengthen research on the risk environment, this paper presents a way of using geographic methods to create neighbourhood-based measures of (1) access to SEP sites and (2) exposure to drug-related arrests, and then applies these methods to one setting (New York City [NYC]). NYC-based results identified substantial cross-neighbourhood variation in SEP site access and in exposure to drug-related arrest rates (even within the subset of neighbourhoods nominally experiencing the same drug-related police strategy). These geographic measures--grounded as they are in conceptualizations of SEPs and drug-related law enforcement strategies--can help develop new arenas of inquiry regarding the impact of these two dimensions of the risk environment on injectors' health, including exploring whether and how neighbourhood-level access to SEP sites and exposure to drug-related arrests shape a range of outcomes among local injectors.

  4. Can innovative health financing policies increase access to MDG-related services? Evidence from Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Sekabaraga, Claude; Diop, Francois; Soucat, Agnes

    2011-11-01

    Ensuring financial access to health services is a critical challenge for poor countries if they are to reach the health Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). This article examines the case of Rwanda, a country which has championed innovative health care financing policies. Between 2000 and 2007, Rwanda has improved financial access for the poor, increased utilization of health services and reduced out-of-pocket payments for health care. Poor groups' utilization has increased for all health services, sometimes dramatically. Use of assisted deliveries, for example, increased from 12.1% to 42.7% among the poorest quintile; payments at the point of delivery have also been reduced; and catastrophic expenditures have declined. Part of these achievements is likely linked to innovative health financing policies, particularly the expansion of micro-insurance ('mutuelles') and performance-based financing. The paper concludes that the Rwanda experience provides a useful example of effective implementation of policies that reduce the financial barrier to health services, hereby contributing to the health MDGs. Today's main challenge is to build the sustainability of this system. Finally, the paper proposes a simple set of rigorous metrics to assess the impact of health financing policies and calls for implementing rigorous impact evaluation of health care financing policies in low-income countries.

  5. Income Related Inequality of Health Care Access in Japan: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Misuzu; Hata, Akira

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to analyze the association between income level and health care access in Japan. Data from a total of 222,259 subjects (age range, 0–74 years) who submitted National Health Insurance claims in Chiba City from April 2012 to March 2014 and who declared income for the tax period from January 1 to December 31, 2012 were integrated and analyzed. The generalized estimating equation, in which household was defined as a cluster, was used to evaluate the association between equivalent income and utilization and duration of hospitalization and outpatient care services. A significant positive linear association was observed between income level and outpatient visit rates among all age groups of both sexes; however, a significantly higher rate and longer period of hospitalization, and longer outpatient care, were observed among certain lower income subgroups. To control for decreased income due to hospitalization, subjects hospitalized during the previous year were excluded, and the data was then reanalyzed. Significant inverse associations remained in the hospitalization rate among 40–59-year-old men and 60–69-year-old women, and in duration of hospitalization among 40–59 and 60–69-year-olds of both sexes and 70–74-year-old women. These results suggest that low-income individuals in Japan have poorer access to outpatient care and more serious health conditions than their higher income counterparts. PMID:26978270

  6. Physical origin of the frequency shifts in cesium beam frequency standards: Related environmental sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Audoin, Claude; Dimarcq, N.; Giordano, V.; Viennet, J.

    1990-01-01

    When observed in a cesium beam frequency standard, the hyperfine transition frequency of the atoms differs slightly from the invariant transition frequency of the unperturbed atoms at rest. The various physical and technical origins of the frequency offsets are stated. They relate to fundamental physical effects, to the method of probing the atomic resonance and to the frequency control of the slaved oscillator. The variation of the frequency offsets under a change of the value of the internal operating characteristics is considered. The sensitivity to a change of the magnetic induction, the microwave power, and the temperature is given. A comparison is made of the sensitivity of cesium beam frequency standards of the commercially available type, making use of magnetic state selection, and of devices under study, in which the state preparation and detection is accomplished optically. The pathways between the external stimuli and the physical origin of the frequency offsets are specified.

  7. Access to Emissions Distributions and Related Ancillary Data through the ECCAD database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darras, Sabine; Enriquez, Edgar; Granier, Claire; Liousse, Catherine; Boulanger, Damien; Fontaine, Alain

    2016-04-01

    The ECCAD database (Emissions of atmospheric Compounds and Compilation of Ancillary Data) provides a user-friendly access to global and regional surface emissions for a large set of chemical compounds and ancillary data (land use, active fires, burned areas, population,etc). The emissions inventories are time series gridded data at spatial resolution from 1x1 to 0.1x0.1 degrees. ECCAD is the emissions database of the GEIA (Global Emissions InitiAtive) project and a sub-project of the French Atmospheric Data Center AERIS (http://www.aeris-data.fr). ECCAD has currently more than 2200 users originating from more than 80 countries. The project benefits from this large international community of users to expand the number of emission datasets made available. ECCAD provides detailed metadata for each of the datasets and various tools for data visualization, for computing global and regional totals and for interactive spatial and temporal analysis. The data can be downloaded as interoperable NetCDF CF-compliant files, i.e. the data are compatible with many other client interfaces. The presentation will provide information on the datasets available within ECCAD, as well as examples of the analysis work that can be done online through the website: http://eccad.aeris-data.fr.

  8. Critical Access Hospitals (CAH)

    MedlinePlus

    ... use requirements for Critical Access Hospitals related to Electronic Health Records (EHRs)? Critical Access Hospital (CAH) are eligible for Electronic Health Record (EHR) incentive payments and can receive ...

  9. Regulating the Access to Awareness: Brain Activity Related to Probe-related and Spontaneous Reversals in Binocular Rivalry.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Brian A; Mathewson, Kyle E; Tapia, Evelina; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele; Beck, Diane M

    2017-02-14

    Research on the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) has implicated an assortment of brain regions, ERP components, and network properties associated with visual awareness. Recently, the P3b ERP component has emerged as a leading NCC candidate. However, typical P3b paradigms depend on the detection of some stimulus change, making it difficult to separate brain processes elicited by the stimulus itself from those associated with updates or changes in visual awareness. Here we used binocular rivalry to ask whether the P3b is associated with changes in awareness even in the absence of changes in the object of awareness. We recorded ERPs during a probe-mediated binocular rivalry paradigm in which brief probes were presented over the image in either the suppressed or dominant eye to determine whether the elicited P3b activity is probe or reversal related. We found that the timing of P3b (but not its amplitude) was closely related to the timing of the report of a perceptual change rather than to the onset of the probe. This is consistent with the proposal that P3b indexes updates in conscious awareness, rather than being related to stimulus processing per se. Conversely, the probe-related P1 amplitude (but not its latency) was associated with reversal latency, suggesting that the degree to which the probe is processed increases the likelihood of a fast perceptual reversal. Finally, the response-locked P3b amplitude (but not its latency) was associated with the duration of an intermediate stage between reversals in which parts of both percepts coexist (piecemeal period). Together, the data suggest that the P3b reflects an update in consciousness and that the intensity of that process (as indexed by P3b amplitude) predicts how immediate that update is.

  10. Themes of holism, empowerment, access, and legitimacy define complementary, alternative, and integrative medicine in relation to conventional biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Bruce; Marchand, Lucille; Scheder, Jo; Plane, Mary Beth; Maberry, Rob; Appelbaum, Diane; Rakel, David; Rabago, David

    2003-12-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has been defined largely in relation to conventional biomedicine. CAM therapies that are used instead of conventional medicine are termed "alternative." CAM therapies used alongside conventional medicine are said to be "complementary." "Integrative medicine" results from the thoughtful incorporation of concepts, values, and practices from alternative, complementary, and conventional medicines. The evolving process of integration between CAM and conventional medicine evokes new conceptual frameworks, as well as new terminology. Interview-based qualitative research at the University of Wisconsin-Madison seeks to probe and develop this theoretical structure. Interviews with users and practitioners of CAM therapies have revealed four primary themes: holism, empowerment, access, and legitimacy (HEAL). These themes characterize CAM and contrast it with conventional medicine. CAM is said to be more holistic and empowering yet less legitimate than conventional medicine. CAM is more intuitive; conventional is more deductive. While CAM is perhaps more psychologically accessible to many patients in that it better reflects commonly held values, it is often less financially and institutionally accessible, at least for those with conventional health insurance and limited income. Substantive barriers--including economic, organizational and scientific differences, as well as an apparent widespread lack of understanding--continue to thwart attempts at integration. More and better evidence is needed if CAM therapies are to be accepted by mainstream medicine. State-of-the-art research methods developed by conventional science will be needed to test CAM therapies. Conventional medicine, however, has much to learn from CAM. By incorporating a more holistic, empowering and accessible therapeutic approach, conventional medicine could build on its present legitimacy, and thereby enhance its power to "HEAL."

  11. Discourse accessibility constraints in children’s processing of object relative clauses

    PubMed Central

    Haendler, Yair; Kliegl, Reinhold; Adani, Flavia

    2015-01-01

    Children’s poor performance on object relative clauses has been explained in terms of intervention locality. This approach predicts that object relatives with a full DP head and an embedded pronominal subject are easier than object relatives in which both the head noun and the embedded subject are full DPs. This prediction is shared by other accounts formulated to explain processing mechanisms. We conducted a visual-world study designed to test the off-line comprehension and on-line processing of object relatives in German-speaking 5-year-olds. Children were tested on three types of object relatives, all having a full DP head noun and differing with respect to the type of nominal phrase that appeared in the embedded subject position: another full DP, a 1st- or a 3rd-person pronoun. Grammatical skills and memory capacity were also assessed in order to see whether and how they affect children’s performance. Most accurately processed were object relatives with 1st-person pronoun, independently of children’s language and memory skills. Performance on object relatives with two full DPs was overall more accurate than on object relatives with 3rd-person pronoun. In the former condition, children with stronger grammatical skills accurately processed the structure and their memory abilities determined how fast they were; in the latter condition, children only processed accurately the structure if they were strong both in their grammatical skills and in their memory capacity. The results are discussed in the light of accounts that predict different pronoun effects like the ones we find, which depend on the referential properties of the pronouns. We then discuss which role language and memory abilities might have in processing object relatives with various embedded nominal phrases. PMID:26157410

  12. Middle school assessment and the nature of science as related to the National Science Education Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskridge, Rosemary Horn

    1998-10-01

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of this descriptive study was to provide information by identifying many of the good science teaching behaviors and assessment practices of middle school teachers in Oklahoma City as related to assessment behaviors expressed in the National Science Education Standard B, Part 1. Participants were thirty Oklahoma City middle school teachers who responded to a two-part interview. The demographic survey and research questionnaire responses were classified into fifty-four basic themes from which a data base was compiled to demonstrate science teaching behaviors that could be identified as the nature of science and as assessment practices for evaluating the nature of science in the National Science Education Standards. Findings and conclusions. Teachers have continued to teach science in the way that they experienced science or were trained. Few of these teachers have used the true concept of portfolios, rubric assessment, and performance assessment much less lab activities. Yet, through participation in a traditional competition such as science fair, the majority of teachers provided students (usually at their own expense) with some laboratory experiences and techniques. The research also indicated that teachers who had science endorsement reported using fewer of those process skills associated with teaching the nature of science (also called the process skills). It also indicated that teachers who have entered the field of teaching from private industry demonstrated great background in knowledge yet demonstrated little participation in inquiry oriented activities. The research also indicated that those teachers who had been exposed to the National Science Education Standards did describe assessment practices from the standards.

  13. 76 FR 50117 - Commission Rules and Forms Related to the FASB's Accounting Standards Codification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... FASB's Accounting Standards Codification AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Final rule... to the FASB Accounting Standards Codification\\TM\\ (``FASB Codification'').\\1\\ The technical... Accounting Standards Codification'' is a registered trademark of the Financial Accounting Foundation....

  14. Associations between Motivational Orientations and Chronically Accessible Outcomes in Leisure-Time Physical Activity: Are Appearance-Related Outcomes Controlling in Nature?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLachlan, Sarah; Hagger, Martin S.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to explore relations between chronically accessible outcomes in physical activity and scaled measures of motivational orientations from a self-determination perspective. Methods from construct and attitude accessibility research and the Levesque and Pelletier (2003) study were used to identify participants' chronically accessible…

  15. Appendix: Final Update of the IAU Division A Commission 4 Working Group on Standardizing Access to Ephemerides and File Format Specification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, James L.; Acton, Charles; Arlot, Jean-Eudes; Bell, Steven A.; Capitaine, Nicole; Fienga, Agnès; Folkner, William M.; Gastineau, Mickaël; Pavlov, Dmitry; Pitjeva, Elena V.; Skripnichenko, Vladimir I.; Wallace, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The IAU Commission 4 Working Group on Standardizing Access to Ephemerides recommends the use of the Spacecraft and Planet Kernel (SPK) format to provide a uniform format for the position ephemerides of planets and other natural solar system bodies, and the use of the Planetary Constants Kernel (PCK) for the orientation of these bodies. These formats are used by the SPICE system, developed by the Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The working group's final report is currently undergoing final preparations for publication. A long version of this report will be available at the IAU Commission 4: Ephemerides (or its successor) web site. This long version will contain a full description of that portion of the SPK and PCK formats required to duplicate these file types for this application.

  16. Respecting Relations: Memory Access and Antecedent Retrieval in Incremental Sentence Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kush, Dave W.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation uses the processing of anaphoric relations to probe how linguistic information is encoded in and retrieved from memory during real-time sentence comprehension. More specifically, the dissertation attempts to resolve a tension between the demands of a linguistic processor implemented in a general-purpose cognitive architecture and…

  17. Men Accessing Higher Education: Theorizing Continuity and Change in Relation to Masculine Subjectivities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Penny Jane

    2009-01-01

    I explore the question of men's participation in higher education (HE) in relation to shifting, discursive and intersecting masculine subjectivities by drawing on qualitative interviews with men participating in HE. The paper contributes to a sociological understanding of the impact of masculine subjectivities on higher educational participation…

  18. Controversial Biological Issues: An Exploratory Tool for Accessing Teacher Thinking in Relation to Classroom Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rooy, Wilhelmina S.

    The research reported here focuses on the beliefs, values and attitudes of one experienced biology teacher (Teacher A) in relation to the teaching of controversial biological issues. Of specific interest is the thinking behind what this teacher conceptualizes are the possibilities and problems for the teaching of controversial issues as part of…

  19. A new method to compute standard-weight equations that reduces length-related bias

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerow, K.G.; Anderson-Sprecher, R. C.; Hubert, W.A.

    2005-01-01

    We propose a new method for developing standard-weight (Ws) equations for use in the computation of relative weight (Wr) because the regression line-percentile (RLP) method often leads to length-related biases in Ws equations. We studied the structural properties of W s equations developed by the RLP method through simulations, identified reasons for biases, and compared Ws equations computed by the RLP method and the new method. The new method is similar to the RLP method but is based on means of measured weights rather than on means of weights predicted from regression models. The new method also models curvilinear W s relationships not accounted for by the RLP method. For some length-classes in some species, the relative weights computed from Ws equations developed by the new method were more than 20 Wr units different from those using Ws equations developed by the RLP method. We recommend assessment of published Ws equations developed by the RLP method for length-related bias and use of the new method for computing new Ws equations when bias is identified. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  20. The relationship between relative solvent accessible surface area (rASA) and irregular structures in protean segments (ProSs)

    PubMed Central

    Shaji, Divya

    2016-01-01

    Intrinsically Disordered Proteins (IDPs) lack a stable, three-dimensional structure under physiological conditions, yet they exhibit numerous biological activities. Protean segments (ProSs) are the functional regions of intrinsically disordered proteins that undergo disorder-to-order transitions upon binding to their partners. Example ProSs collected from the intrinsically disordered proteins with extensive annotations and literature (IDEAL) database. The interface of protean segments (ProSs) is classified into core, rim, and support, and analyzed their secondary structure elements (SSEs) based on the relative accessible surface area (rASA). The amino acid compositions and the relative solvent accessible surface areas (rASAs) of ProS secondary structural elements (SSEs) at the interface, core and rim were compared to those of heterodimers. The average number of contacts of alpha helices and irregular residues was calculated for each ProS and heterodimer. Furthermore, the ProSs were classified into high and low efficient based on their average number of contacts at the interface. The results indicate that the irregular structures of ProSs and heterodimers are significantly different. The rASA of irregular structures in the monomeric state (rASAm) is large, leads to the formation of larger ΔrASA and many contacts in ProSs. PMID:28250616

  1. Cost Effectiveness of Free Access to Smoking Cessation Treatment in France Considering the Economic Burden of Smoking-Related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cadier, Benjamin; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; Thomas, Daniel; Chevreul, Karine

    2016-01-01

    Context In France more than 70,000 deaths from diseases related to smoking are recorded each year, and since 2005 prevalence of tobacco has increased. Providing free access to smoking cessation treatment would reduce this burden. The aim of our study was to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) of providing free access to cessation treatment taking into account the cost offsets associated with the reduction of the three main diseases related to smoking: lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). To measure the financial impact of such a measure we also conducted a probabilistic budget impact analysis. Methods and Findings We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis using a Markov state-transition model that compared free access to cessation treatment to the existing coverage of €50 provided by the French statutory health insurance, taking into account the cost offsets among current French smokers aged 15–75 years. Our results were expressed by the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio in 2009 Euros per life year gained (LYG) at the lifetime horizon. We estimated a base case scenario and carried out a Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis to account for uncertainty. Assuming a participation rate of 7.3%, the ICER value for free access to cessation treatment was €3,868 per LYG in the base case. The variation of parameters provided a range of ICER values from -€736 to €15,715 per LYG. In 99% of cases, the ICER for full coverage was lower than €11,187 per LYG. The probabilistic budget impact analysis showed that the potential cost saving for lung cancer, COPD and CVD ranges from €15 million to €215 million at the five-year horizon for an initial cessation treatment cost of €125 million to €421 million. Conclusion The results suggest that providing medical support to smokers in their attempts to quit is very cost-effective and may even result in cost savings. PMID:26909802

  2. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-01-01

    economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or are now underway this hot area. The purpose of this feature issue is to expose the networking community to the latest research breakthroughs and progresses in the area of optical access networks.

    Scope of Contributions

    This feature issue aims to present a collection of papers that focus on the state-of-the-art research in various networking aspects of optical access networks. Original papers are solicited from all researchers involved in area of optical access networks. Topics of interest include but not limited to:
    • Optical access network architectures and protocols
    • Passive optical networks (BPON, EPON, GPON, etc.)
    • Active optical networks
    • Multiple access control
    • Multiservices and QoS provisioning
    • Network survivability
    • Field trials and standards
    • Performance modeling and analysis

    Manuscript Submission

    To submit to this special issue, follow the normal procedure for submission to JON, indicating ``Optical Access Networks feature' in the ``Comments' field of the online submission form. For all other questions relating to this feature issue, please send an e-mail to jon@osa.org, subject line ``Optical Access Networks' Additional information can be found on the JON website: http://www.osa-jon.org/submission/. Submission Deadline: 1 June 2005

  3. Relation between the national handbook of recommended methods for water data acquisition and ASTM standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glysson, G. Douglas; Skinner, John V.

    1991-01-01

    In the late 1950's, intense demands for water and growing concerns about declines in the quality of water generated the need for more water-resources data. About thirty Federal agencies, hundreds of State, county and local agencies, and many private organizations had been collecting water data. However, because of differences in procedures and equipment, many of the data bases were incompatible. In 1964, as a step toward establishing more uniformity, the Bureau of the Budget (now the Office of Management and Budget, OMB) issued 'Circular A-67' which presented guidelines for collecting water data and also served as a catalyst for creating the Office of Water Data Coordination (OWDC) within the U.S. Geological Survey. This paper discusses past, present, and future aspects of the relation between methods in the National Handbook and standards published by ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) Committee D-19 on Water's Subcommittee D-19.07 on Sediment, Geomorphology, and Open Channel Flow. The discussion also covers historical aspects of standards - development work jointly conducted by OWDC and ASTM.

  4. Access to Japanese aerospace-related scientific and technical information: The NASA Aerospace Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoetker, Glenn P.; Lahr, Thomas F.

    1993-01-01

    With Japan's growing R&D strength in aerospace-related fields, it is increasingly important for U.S. researchers to be aware of Japanese advances. However, several factors make it difficult to do so. After reviewing the diffusion of aerospace STI in Japan, four factors which make it difficult for U.S. researchers to gather this information are discussed: language, the human network, information scatter, and document acquisition. NASA activities to alleviate these difficulties are described, beginning with a general overview of the NASA STI Program. The effects of the new National Level Agreement between NASA and NASDA are discussed.

  5. Standardized assessment of substance-related, other psychiatric, and comorbid disorders among probationers.

    PubMed

    Lurigio, Arthur J; Cho, Young Ik; Swartz, James A; Johnson, Timothy P; Graf, Ingrid; Pickup, Lillian

    2003-12-01

    This study examined the prevalence of alcohol- and substance-related disorders in a random sample of 627 adult probationers in Illinois. The investigation also explored the prevalence of major psychiatric disorders and their co-occurrences with alcohol and substance use disorders. To detect the presence of psychiatric disorders, researchers employed standardized assessment tools based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria. Overall, results showed that probationers had significantly higher rates of psychiatric disorders, substance use disorders, and co-occurring disorders compared with persons in the general population. In light of these findings, probation administrators are urged to invest more resources in treating drug use, mental illness, and codisorders, the latter of which is associated with a higher risk of violent behaviors.

  6. Gauge-independent scales related to the standard model vacuum instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa, J. R.; Garny, M.; Konstandin, T.; Riotto, A.

    2017-03-01

    The measured (central) values of the Higgs and top quark masses indicate that the standard model (SM) effective potential develops an instability at high field values. The scale of this instability, determined as the Higgs field value at which the potential drops below the electroweak minimum, is about 1 011 GeV . However, such a scale is unphysical as it is not gauge invariant and suffers from a gauge-fixing uncertainty of up to 2 orders of magnitude. Subjecting our system, the SM, to several probes of the instability (adding higher order operators to the potential, letting the vacuum decay through critical bubbles, heating up the system to very high temperature, and inflating it) and asking in each case physical questions, we are able to provide several gauge-invariant scales related with the Higgs potential instability.

  7. Selected School Laws and Standards. A Summary Containing Specific School Laws Relating to Area Schools, Standards for Area Community Colleges and Area Vocational Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Public Instruction, Des Moines. Area Schools and Career Education Branch.

    This document provides a selected summary of school laws relating to area schools and standards for area community colleges and vocational schools in Iowa. Area schools are authorized to offer the first two years of college work, pre-professional education, vocational and technical training, inservice training and retraining of workers, programs…

  8. Accessibility to and utilisation of schistosomiasis-related health services in a rural area of state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Reis, Dener Carlos dos; Kloos, Helmut; King, Charles; Quites, Humberto Ferreira Oliveira; Matoso, Leonardo Ferreira; Coelho, Kellen Rosa; Gazzinelli, Andrea

    2010-07-01

    The objective of the present paper was to compare accessibility and utilisation of schistosomiasis diagnostic and treatment services in a small village and the surrounding rural area in northern part of the state of Minas Gerais Brazil. The study included 1,228 individuals: 935 central village residents and 293 rural residents of São Pedro do Jequitinhonha. Schistosoma mansoni infection rates were significantly higher in the central village than in the rural area during a survey in 2007 (44.3% and 23.5%, respectively) and during the 2002 schistosomiasis case-finding campaign (33.1% and 26.5%, respectively) (p < 0.001). However, during the 2002-2006 period, only 23.7% of the villagers and 27% of the rural residents obtained tests on their own from health centres, hospitals and private clinics in various nearby towns. In 2007, 63% of the villagers and 70.5% of the rural residents reported never having received treatment for schistosomiasis. This paper reveals considerable variation in the accessibility and utilisation of schistosomiasis-related health services between the central village and the rural area. A combination of low utilisation rates between 2002-2006 and persistently high S. mansoni infection rates suggest that the schistosomiasis control program must be more rapidly incorporated into the primary health services.

  9. N400 Event-Related Potential and Standardized Measures of Reading in Late Elementary School Children: Correlated or Independent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coch, Donna; Benoit, Clarisse

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether and how standardized behavioral measures of reading and electrophysiological measures of reading were related in 72 typically developing, late elementary school children. Behavioral measures included standardized tests of spelling, phonological processing, vocabulary, comprehension, naming speed, and memory.…

  10. 75 FR 44790 - Second Draft Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... AGENCY Second Draft Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for... Ambient Air Quality Standards--Second External Review Draft. The EPA is extending the comment period for... chapter 4 of the second draft Policy Assessment. The original comment period was to end on August 16,...

  11. Event-related brain potentials during the standard autonomic-based concealed information test.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Izumi; Nittono, Hiroshi; Hirota, Akihisa; Ogawa, Tokihiro; Takasawa, Noriyoshi

    2009-10-01

    The concealed information test (CIT) has been used to detect information that examinees possess by means of their autonomic responses. However, the central activities related to these autonomic responses remain unclear. In this study, we simultaneously recorded 128-ch event-related potentials (ERPs) and various autonomic responses (heart rate, respiratory rate, respiratory amplitude, cutaneous blood flow, and skin conductance response) to a critical item (i.e., the item that participants memorized) and to non-critical items (i.e., items other than the critical item) using the standard protocol of the autonomic-based CIT. A topographic analysis of variance and a temporal-spatial principal component analysis revealed that the critical item elicited a larger negative potential (N2b, 205-298 ms) at central regions and a larger positive potential (positive slow wave, 502-744 ms) at parieto-occipital regions, compared to the non-critical items. Correlation analysis across 21 participants showed a significant correlation between N2b increase and heart rate deceleration in response to critical items compared to non-critical items, but there were no autonomic correlates of the positive slow wave. The results suggest that at least two brain processes are involved in the autonomic-based CIT: The first is an attentional-orienting process that facilitates the processing of critical items, to which heart rate deceleration was linked, and the second is an additional process after the identification of critical items.

  12. Strengthening Learners' Perspectives in Professional Standards to Restore Relationality as Central to Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kriewaldt, Jeana A.

    2015-01-01

    Australian teacher standards have effects on what is thought about teachers' work. Just as teacher standards give expression to some characteristics of quality teaching, so too do students' views if solicited and made public, yet the archive of teaching standards pays little attention to learners' perspectives. This paper uses a theoretical…

  13. Expanding patient access to quality medication-related information: the potential of medication hotlines to improve patient adherence in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Amy R; Marcus, Steven C

    2015-05-01

    Medication nonadherence is a widespread problem that compromises treatment outcomes, particularly in schizophrenia. Weersink et al. (Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol, 2015) describe telephone calls to a national medicines information line, with a focus on queries related to antipsychotic medications. Their analysis of callers' questions and concerns offers a valuable window into patient and caregiver perspectives. Given that many callers reported that they had not shared these concerns with a health care provider, this study also highlights the capacity of medication hotlines to address unmet needs. Establishing and maintaining long-term treatment regimens is a complex task, and truly patient-centered care requires a variety of creative and accessible support resources. Medication lines have the potential to serve as a resource and to provide proactive and timely adherence support.

  14. Effects of standard humic materials on relative bioavailability of NDL-PCBs in juvenile swine.

    PubMed

    Delannoy, Matthieu; Schwarz, Jessica; Fournier, Agnès; Rychen, Guido; Feidt, Cyril

    2014-01-01

    Young children with their hand-to-mouth activity may be exposed to contaminated soils. However few studies assessing exposure of organic compounds sequestrated in soil were realized. The present study explores the impact of different organic matters on retention of NDL-PCBs during digestive processes using commercial humic substances in a close digestive model of children: the piglet. Six artificial soils were used. One standard soil, devoid of organic matter, and five amended versions of this standard soil with either fulvic acid, humic acid, Sphagnum peat, activated carbon or a mix of Sphagnum peat and activated carbon (95∶5) (SPAC) were prepared. In order to compare the different treatments, we use spiked oil and negative control animals. Forty male piglets were randomly distributed in 7 contaminated and one control groups (n = 5 for each group). During 10 days, the piglets were fed artificial soil or a corn oil spiked with 19,200 ng of Aroclor 1254 per g of dry matter (6,000 ng.g⁻¹ of NDL-PCBs) to achieve an exposure dose of 1,200 ng NDL-PCBs.Kg⁻¹ of body weight per day. NDL-PCBs in adipose tissue were analyzed by GC-MS. Fulvic acid reduced slightly the bioavailability of NDL-PCBs compared to oil. Humic acid and Sphagnum peat reduced it significantly higher whereas activated carbon reduced the most. Piglets exposed to soil containing both activated carbon and Shagnum peat exhibited a lower reduction than soil with only activated carbon. Therefore, treatment groups are ordered by decreasing value of relative bioavailability as following: oil ≥ fulvic acid>Sphagnum peat ≥ Sphagnum peat and activated carbon ≥ Humic acid>activated carbon. This suggests competition between Sphagnum peat and activated carbon. The present study highlights that quality of organic matter does have a significant effect on bioavailability of sequestrated organic compounds.

  15. Effects of Standard Humic Materials on Relative Bioavailability of NDL-PCBs in Juvenile Swine

    PubMed Central

    Delannoy, Matthieu; Schwarz, Jessica; Fournier, Agnès; Rychen, Guido; Feidt, Cyril

    2014-01-01

    Young children with their hand-to-mouth activity may be exposed to contaminated soils. However few studies assessing exposure of organic compounds sequestrated in soil were realized. The present study explores the impact of different organic matters on retention of NDL-PCBs during digestive processes using commercial humic substances in a close digestive model of children: the piglet. Six artificial soils were used. One standard soil, devoid of organic matter, and five amended versions of this standard soil with either fulvic acid, humic acid, Sphagnum peat, activated carbon or a mix of Sphagnum peat and activated carbon (95∶5) (SPAC) were prepared. In order to compare the different treatments, we use spiked oil and negative control animals. Forty male piglets were randomly distributed in 7 contaminated and one control groups (n  = 5 for each group). During 10 days, the piglets were fed artificial soil or a corn oil spiked with 19 200 ng of Aroclor 1254 per g of dry matter (6 000 ng.g−1 of NDL-PCBs) to achieve an exposure dose of 1 200 ng NDL-PCBs.Kg−1 of body weight per day. NDL-PCBs in adipose tissue were analyzed by GC-MS. Fulvic acid reduced slightly the bioavailability of NDL-PCBs compared to oil. Humic acid and Sphagnum peat reduced it significantly higher whereas activated carbon reduced the most. Piglets exposed to soil containing both activated carbon and Shagnum peat exhibited a lower reduction than soil with only activated carbon. Therefore, treatment groups are ordered by decreasing value of relative bioavailability as following: oil ≥ fulvic acid>Sphagnum peat ≥ Sphagnum peat and activated carbon ≥ Humic acid>>activated carbon. This suggests competition between Sphagnum peat and activated carbon. The present study highlights that quality of organic matter does have a significant effect on bioavailability of sequestrated organic compounds. PMID:25549096

  16. [Science of Acupuncture and Moxibustion should include standards related to acupuncture and moxibustion].

    PubMed

    Tian, Kaiyu

    2016-03-01

    The development of Science of Acupuncture and Moxibustion should be in accord with the trend of standardization and internationalization of the science of acupuncture and moxibustion. Based on the arrangement of chapters and sections in the textbook, 29 national standards, 6 standards or guidelines made by World Health Or- ganization(WHO) and 1 standard out of International Standardization Organization (ISO) are classified and intro- duced. It is suggested that the above contents should be considered as the evidence when the textbook is reedited. Also, it is proposed that humanization should be supplemented and the newest research findings should be traced.

  17. Accessing 3D Location of Standing Pelvis: Relative Position of Sacral Plateau and Acetabular Cavities versus Pelvis.

    PubMed

    Berthonnaud, E; Hilmi, R; Dimnet, J

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to access to pelvis position and morphology in standing posture and to determine the relative locations of their articular surfaces. This is obtained from coupling biplanar radiography and bone modeling. The technique involves different successive steps. Punctual landmarks are first reconstructed, in space, from their projected images, identified on two orthogonal standing X-rays. Geometric models, of global pelvis and articular surfaces, are determined from punctual landmarks. The global pelvis is represented as a triangle of summits: the two femoral head centers and the sacral plateau center. The two acetabular cavities are modeled as hemispheres. The anterior sacral plateau edge is represented by an hemi-ellipsis. The modeled articular surfaces are projected on each X-ray. Their optimal location is obtained when the projected contours of their models best fit real outlines identified from landmark images. Linear and angular parameters characterizing the position of global pelvis and articular surfaces are calculated from the corresponding sets of axis. Relative positions of sacral plateau, and acetabular cavities, are then calculated. Two hundred standing pelvis, of subjects and scoliotic patients, have been studied. Examples are presented. They focus upon pelvis orientations, relative positions of articular surfaces, and pelvis asymmetries.

  18. [Standardization of the Neisseria meningitidis antibiogram. Detection of strains relatively resistant to penicillin].

    PubMed

    Nicolas, P; Cavallo, J D; Fabre, R; Martet, G

    1998-01-01

    Studying the susceptibility of 189 Neisseria meningitidis strains to penicillin, amoxicillin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol and rifampicin by determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) by agar dilution (reference method), E-test and disc diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar at 37 degrees C with 5% CO2 enabled us to standardize the antibiograms. While MIC determination by agar dilution is still the reference method, it is possible to obtain exact or approximate MIC values using the E-test. For laboratories that cannot determine penicillin MICs, it is impossible to detect strains that are relatively resistant to penicillin (RRP strains: 0.1 < or = MIC < or = 1 mg/l) using a 10-U penicillin disc. A 1 microgram-oxacillin disc allows MIC to be determined in most cases when the oxacillin inhibition zone is < or = 10 mm. Such strains must be sent to a reference laboratory for exact MIC determination. Based on our results and literature data on pharmacokinetics, we propose critical concentrations for these various antibiotics as well as critical diameters for chloramphenicol and rifampicin discs.

  19. United States Government Regulations and International Standards Related to Food Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    Knowledge of government regulations relevant to the chemical analysis of foods is extremely important to persons working in the food industry. Federal laws and regulations reinforce the efforts of the food industry to provide wholesome foods, to inform consumers about the nutritional composition of foods, and to eliminate economic frauds. In some cases, they dictate what ingredients a food must contain, what must be tested, and the procedures used to analyze foods for safety factors and quality attributes. This chapter describes the US federal regulations related to the composition of foods. The reader is referred to references (1-4) for comprehensive coverage of US food laws and regulations. Many of the regulations referred to in this chapter are published in the various titles of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) (5). This chapter also includes information about food standards and safety practices established by international organizations. Internet addresses are given at the end of this chapter for many of the government agencies, organizations, and documents discussed.

  20. How to Solve Dilemmas Arising from the Idea of Improving Physical Accessibility in Relation to Aesthetics and Architectural Heritage.

    PubMed

    Asmervik, Sigmund

    2016-01-01

    The Norwegian state has been working for more than fifteen years on various ways of improving accessibility for the general public. An important part of this work has been to develop new legislation and other forms of formal guidelines to reduce physical barriers. The new Anti-Discrimination and Accessibility Act, Obligation to ensure general accommodation (universal design), came into force January 2009, and introduces some complicated dilemmas, especially when it states: "When assessing whether the design or accommodation entails an undue burden, particular importance shall be attached to the effect of the accommodation on the dismantling of disabling barriers, the necessary costs associated with the accommodation, the undertaking's resources, whether the normal function of the undertaking is of a public nature, safety considerations and cultural heritage considerations." What is an "undue burden" in relation to architectural visual qualities and to the historical heritage expressed in buildings and townscapes? This paper will look into these dilemmas by discussing specific cases from some cities in different countries. What kinds of procedure are suitable and decisive when it comes to these complicated questions? Is this a task exclusively reserved for professionals, or should the voice of lay people be heard and taken into consideration? By presenting examples from architecture and landscape architecture, I will show how universal design even can be implemented in old buildings and environments. The paper will argue for more focus on procedures than just physical solutions. The procedures should be based on accepted principles for changing historical monuments, such as wholeness, readability, reversibility and sustainability.

  1. The Challenges and Opportunities of Wireless Technologies in the Classroom: Related Standards and Regulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oriaku, Ngozi

    2008-01-01

    Wireless technologies have revolutionized the ways teaching and learning have become in many colleges and universities. It is therefore interesting to observe the way wireless technologies are used to organize small group meetings. It provides online access to internet resources such as instructor lecture series. It finally helps in…

  2. Status of emerging standards for removable computer storage media and related contributions of NIST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podio, Fernando L.

    1992-01-01

    Standards for removable computer storage media are needed so that users may reliably interchange data both within and among various computer installations. Furthermore, media interchange standards support competition in industry and prevent sole-source lock-in. NIST participates in magnetic tape and optical disk standards development through Technical Committees X3B5, Digital Magnetic Tapes, X3B11, Optical Digital Data Disk, and the Joint Technical Commission on Data Permanence. NIST also participates in other relevant national and international standards committees for removable computer storage media. Industry standards for digital magnetic tapes require the use of Standard Reference Materials (SRM's) developed and maintained by NIST. In addition, NIST has been studying care and handling procedures required for digital magnetic tapes. NIST has developed a methodology for determining the life expectancy of optical disks. NIST is developing care and handling procedures for optical digital data disks and is involved in a program to investigate error reporting capabilities of optical disk drives. This presentation reflects the status of emerging magnetic tape and optical disk standards, as well as NIST's contributions in support of these standards.

  3. Issues Related to Judging the Alignment of Curriculum Standards and Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Norman L.

    2007-01-01

    A process for judging the alignment between curriculum standards and assessments developed by the author is presented. This process produces information on the relationship of standards and assessments on four alignment criteria: Categorical Concurrence, Depth of Knowledge Consistency, Range of Knowledge Correspondence, and Balance of…

  4. SGML and Related Standards: New Directions as the Second Decade Begins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, James David

    1997-01-01

    ISO--International Organization for Standards highlights the activities of WG8 (Working Group 8 of ISO) in the alignment of standards for a common tree model and common query languages. Examines the how Document Style Semantics and Specification Language (DSSSL) and HyTime make documents easier to work with and more powerful in their ability to…

  5. 41 CFR 105-64.107 - What standards of conduct apply to employees with privacy-related responsibilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... conduct apply to employees with privacy-related responsibilities? 105-64.107 Section 105-64.107 Public...-Policies and Responsibilities § 105-64.107 What standards of conduct apply to employees with privacy-related responsibilities? (a) Employees who design, develop, operate, or maintain Privacy Act...

  6. 41 CFR 105-64.107 - What standards of conduct apply to employees with privacy-related responsibilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... conduct apply to employees with privacy-related responsibilities? 105-64.107 Section 105-64.107 Public...-Policies and Responsibilities § 105-64.107 What standards of conduct apply to employees with privacy-related responsibilities? (a) Employees who design, develop, operate, or maintain Privacy Act...

  7. 41 CFR 105-64.107 - What standards of conduct apply to employees with privacy-related responsibilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... conduct apply to employees with privacy-related responsibilities? 105-64.107 Section 105-64.107 Public...-Policies and Responsibilities § 105-64.107 What standards of conduct apply to employees with privacy-related responsibilities? (a) Employees who design, develop, operate, or maintain Privacy Act...

  8. Development of Relativization in Korean as a Foreign Language: The Noun Phrase Accessibility Hierarchy in Head-Internal and Head-External Relative Clauses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, K. Seon; Kim, Hae-Young

    2007-01-01

    This study examines how Keenan and Comrie's (1977) noun phrase accessibility hierarchy (NPAH) intersects with the typological characteristics of Korean in the acquisition of relative clauses (RCs). Korean has two types of RC constructions: head-external and head-internal. The head-external relative has its head to the right of the RC, whereas the…

  9. The relation of standardized mental health screening and categorical assessment in detained male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Colins, Olivier F; Grisso, Thomas; Mulder, Eva; Vermeiren, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Having an effective triage tool is an important step toward a careful use of the restricted time and qualified personnel to perform comprehensive psychiatric assessment in juvenile justice settings. The aims of this study were to examine the construct validity of the Massachusetts Youth Screening Inventory-second version (MAYSI-2), and its likelihood to identify youths who might have a psychiatric disorder. Data from up to 781 male adolescents (mean age = 16.73 years) were gathered as part of the standardized mental health screening and assessment in two all-male Youth Detention Centers in the Netherlands. Categorical assessments were based on two structured diagnostic interviews. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and the area under the curve were calculated to evaluate the likelihood of the MAYSI-2 to identify youths with a psychiatric disorder. Youths with a disorder scored significantly higher on the corresponding MAYSI-2 subscale than youths without a disorder. In the total sample, 70 % of the youths with a disorder met the Caution cut-off criteria on at least one MAYSI-2 scale, while youths without a psychiatric disorder were very unlikely to meet cut-off criteria for multiple MAYSI-2 scales. Overall, the sensitivity was slightly better when analyses were repeated in groups of youths from various ethnic origins. The findings supported the construct validity of the Dutch MAYSI-2 and suggested that the MAYSI-2 is a valid mental health screening tool that may serve relatively well as a triage tool. Its effectiveness, however, may differ between ethnic groups.

  10. World Wide Access: Accessible Web Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Univ., Seattle.

    This brief paper considers the application of "universal design" principles to Web page design in order to increase accessibility for people with disabilities. Suggestions are based on the World Wide Web Consortium's accessibility initiative, which has proposed guidelines for all Web authors and federal government standards. Seven guidelines for…

  11. Easy Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettelman, Alan

    2009-01-01

    School and university restrooms, locker and shower rooms have specific ADA accessibility requirements that serve the needs of staff, students and campus visitors who are disabled as a result of injury, illness or age. Taking good care of them is good for the reputation of a sensitive community institution, and fosters positive public relations.…

  12. Comprehensive Health Education Standards (Including Physical Activity Standards). Comprehensive Health Rationale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.

    Arizona's comprehensive health education standards begins with a health rationale for each standard, then details the seven standards: (1) students comprehend concepts related to health promotion and disease prevention; (2) students demonstrate the ability to access accurate health information; (3) students demonstrate the ability to practice…

  13. 77 FR 50757 - Charging Standard Administrative Fees for Nonprogram-Related Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... certain limited exceptions.\\3\\ \\3\\ Office of Management and Budget (OMB), Circular A-25, User Charges. The... standard fee by check, money order, or credit card. We will not accept cash. If we revise any of...

  14. 78 FR 67210 - Charging Standard Administrative Fees for Nonprogram-Related Information; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY...: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of standard administrative fees for providing information... administrative fees; Correction. SUMMARY: The Social Security Administration published a document in the...

  15. Access to water and related resources in Ngamiland, Botswana: Toward a more critical perspective and sustainable approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kgomotso, Phemo K.; Swatuk, Larry A.

    Governance structures in Botswana are highly centralized and top-down in orientation. For water and related resources management in rural areas, this creates particular difficulties - from lack of decision-making capacity to limited human and financial capital at the level of the resource base. In Ngamiland, government is currently undertaking the Okavango Delta Management Plan project as part of its commitment to the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. The project purports to develop an integrated management plan based on an ecosystems approach. Meaningful participation by local people is a requirement of the process. Data from 43 village meetings undertaken under the auspices of the ODMP process reveal that local people’s access to their resource base is diminishing. Information from key informant interviews and a variety of government documents, however, suggests that policy makers are either unaware of or uninterested in this growing problem. Although citizens and government are engaged in an on-going dialogue, there is little evidence to suggest that policy and practice are moving toward sustainable solutions for all. This article highlights these issues in the hope that a more meaningful dialogue among all stakeholders may be undertaken.

  16. Deportation along the U.S.-Mexico border: its relation to drug use patterns and accessing care

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, K.C.; Lozada, R.; Cornelius, W. A.; Cruz, M. Firestone; Magis-Rodríguez, C.; Zúñiga de Nuncio, M.L.; Strathdee, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Since migration has been linked to new drug trends and risky behaviors, and deported individuals face unique economic and social stressors, we investigated behaviors of injection drug users (IDUs) from Tijuana, Mexico in relation to deportation history In 2005, IDUs ≥18 years old who injected within the prior month were recruited by respondent-driven sampling, administered a questionnaire, and underwent antibody testing for HIV, HCV, and syphilis. Logistic regression compared IDUs who reported coming to Tijuana due to deportation from the U.S. versus others in the study. Of 219 participants, 16% were deportees. Prevalence of HIV, HCV and syphilis was 3%, 95% and 13%, respectively. Deportees had lived in Tijuana for a shorter time (median: 2 vs. 16 years), were more likely to inject multiple times/day (OR:5.52; 95%CI:1.62–18.8), but less likely to have smoked/inhaled methamphetamine (OR:0.17; 95%CI:0.17–0.86). Deportation history was inversely associated with receiving drug treatment (OR:0.41; 95%CI:0.19–0.89), recent medical care (OR:0.37; 95%CI:0.13–1.00), or HIV testing (OR:0.44; 95%CI:0.19–1.02). Deportees had different drug use patterns and less interaction with public health services than other study participants. Our study is an indication that migration history might relate to current risk behaviors and access to health care. More in-depth studies to determine factors driving such behaviors are needed. PMID:18247117

  17. Dishwashing water recycling system and related water quality standards for military use.

    PubMed

    Church, Jared; Verbyla, Matthew E; Lee, Woo Hyoung; Randall, Andrew A; Amundsen, Ted J; Zastrow, Dustin J

    2015-10-01

    As the demand for reliable and safe water supplies increases, both water quality and available quantity are being challenged by population growth and climate change. Greywater reuse is becoming a common practice worldwide; however, in remote locations of limited water supply, such as those encountered in military installations, it is desirable to expand its classification to include dishwashing water to maximize the conservation of fresh water. Given that no standards for dishwashing greywater reuse by the military are currently available, the current study determined a specific set of water quality standards for dishwater recycling systems for U.S. military field operations. A tentative water reuse standard for dishwashing water was developed based on federal and state regulations and guidelines for non-potable water, and the developed standard was cross-evaluated by monitoring water quality data from a full-scale dishwashing water recycling system using an innovative electrocoagulation and ultrafiltration process. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was also performed based on exposure scenarios derived from literature data. As a result, a specific set of dishwashing water reuse standards for field analysis (simple, but accurate) was finalized as follows: turbidity (<1 NTU), Escherichia coli (<50 cfu mL(-1)), and pH (6-9). UV254 was recommended as a surrogate for organic contaminants (e.g., BOD5), but requires further calibration steps for validation. The developed specific water standard is the first for dishwashing water reuse and will be expected to ensure that water quality is safe for field operations, but not so stringent that design complexity, cost, and operational and maintenance requirements will not be feasible for field use. In addition the parameters can be monitored using simple equipment in a field setting with only modest training requirements and real-time or rapid sample turn-around. This standard may prove useful in future development

  18. 45 CFR 156.200 - QHP issuer participation standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Section 156.200 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS HEALTH INSURANCE ISSUER STANDARDS UNDER THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT, INCLUDING STANDARDS RELATED TO EXCHANGES Qualified Health Plan Minimum Certification Standards § 156.200 QHP...

  19. Exploring the Relationship between Access Technology and Standardized Test Scores for Youths with Visual Impairments: Secondary Analysis of the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, Amy L.; Emerson, Robert Wall; Curtis, Amy B.; Fogarty, Kieran

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a secondary analysis of the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 that explored the predictive association between training in access technology and performance on the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Academic Achievement: III. The results indicated that the use of access technology had a limited predictive…

  20. Activation of the attachment system in adulthood: threat-related primes increase the accessibility of mental representations of attachment figures.

    PubMed

    Mikulincer, Mario; Gillath, Omri; Shaver, Phillip R

    2002-10-01

    Three studies explored the effects of subliminal threat on the activation of representations of attachment figures. This accessibility was measured in a lexical decision task and a Stroop task following threat- or neutral-word primes, and was compared with the accessibility of representations of other close persons, known but not close persons, and unknown persons. Participants also reported on their attachment style. Threat primes led to increased accessibility of representations of attachment figures. This effect was specific to attachment figures and was replicated across tasks and experiments. Attachment anxiety heightened accessibility of representations of attachment figures even in neutral contexts, whereas attachment avoidance inhibited this activation when the threat prime was the word separation. These effects were not, explained by trait anxiety. The discussion focuses on the dynamics of attachment-system activation in adulthood.

  1. Restricted access to standard or high fat chow alters sensitivity of rats to the 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylphenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOM)

    PubMed Central

    Serafine, Katherine M.; France, Charles P.

    2017-01-01

    Feeding conditions can impact sensitivity to drugs acting on dopamine receptors; less is known about the impact of feeding conditions on the effects of drugs acting on serotonin (5-HT) receptors. This study examined the effects of feeding condition on sensitivity to the direct-acting 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylphenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOM; 0.1–3.2 mg/kg) and the direct-acting dopamineD3/D2 receptor agonist quinpirole (0.0032–0.32 mg/kg). Male Sprague-Dawley rats had free access (11 weeks) followed by restricted access (6 weeks) to high (34.3%, n = 8) fat or standard (5.7% fat; n = 7) chow. Rats eating high fat chow became insulin resistant and gained more weight than rats eating standard chow. Free access to high fat chow did not alter sensitivity to DOM-induced head twitch but increased sensitivity to quinpirole-induced yawning. Restricting access to high fat or standard chow shifted the DOM-induced head twitch dose-response curve to the right and shifted the quinpirole-induced yawning dose-response curve downward in both groups of rats. Some drugs of abuse and many therapeutic drugs act on 5-HT and dopamine systems; these results demonstrate that feeding condition impacts sensitivity to drugs acting on these systems, thereby possibly impacting vulnerability to abuse as well as therapeutic effectiveness of drugs. PMID:24346289

  2. Integrative Literature Review: A Review of Literature Related to Geographical Information Systems, Healthcare Access, and Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Barbara Ann

    2008-01-01

    Differences in access to healthcare services and the resulting adverse health outcomes are major public health priorities. The Institute of Medicine and the Department of Health and Human Services have identified the need for strategies to improve access to healthcare services and to support the improvement of health outcomes. The literature documents health disparities associated with healthcare access and health outcomes from a geographic perspective. Place of residence, location of healthcare services, and geography in general are important factors in the analysis of health. Geographical information systems (GISs) are an emerging technology in the analysis of health from a geographical or location context. As a type of information technology, GISs are potentially powerful assessment tools for the investigation of healthcare access, health outcomes, and the possible resulting health disparities. Their ability to integrate health data with mapping functions allows for visualization, exploration, and modeling of health patterns. Application of GIS technology using health data can help in describing and explaining disparities in healthcare access and health outcomes. The studies reviewed demonstrated the use of GISs to investigate various aspects of healthcare access and health outcomes, including environmental variables of Lyme disease, sociodemographic variables and teen pregnancy, geographical disparities in breast cancer mortality by racial groups, PCP and AIDS prevalence, and factors of a leptospirosis disease outbreak. The literature reviewed shows effective integration and analysis of health data using GIS technology. PMID:18698429

  3. Differences in Glycoprotein Complex Receptor Binding Site Accessibility Prompt Poor Cross-Reactivity of Neutralizing Antibodies between Closely Related Arenaviruses.

    PubMed

    Brouillette, Rachel B; Phillips, Elisabeth K; Ayithan, Natarajan; Maury, Wendy

    2017-04-01

    Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease-assigned category A priority pathogens. In this study, we sought to better understand how closely related arenaviruses elude cross-species neutralization by investigating the structural bases of antibody binding and avoidance. In our studies, we found that neutralizing antibodies against two New World arenaviruses, Machupo virus (MACV) and Junín virus (JUNV), bound to the envelope glycoprotein 1 (GP1) with JUNV monoclonal antibodies targeting the receptor binding site (RBS). We further show that altered structures surrounding the RBS pocket in MACV GP1 impede access of JUNV-elicited antibodies.

  4. College Access Improves for Black Students but for Which Ones?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokley, Kevin; Obaseki, Victor; Moran-Jackson, Karen; Jones, Leonie; Vohra-Gupta, Shetal

    2016-01-01

    The challenges for increasing opportunities and college access for black students typically focus on the traditional barriers related to academic preparation, the racial gap in standardized test scores, and dropping out of high school. While these challenges remain, new and emerging challenges to college access are also important to discuss. They…

  5. Cross-Validation of FITNESSGRAM® Health-Related Fitness Standards in Hungarian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurson, Kelly R.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Karsai, István; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to cross-validate FITNESSGRAM® aerobic and body composition standards in a representative sample of Hungarian youth. Method: A nationally representative sample (N = 405) of Hungarian adolescents from the Hungarian National Youth Fitness Study (ages 12-18.9 years) participated in an aerobic capacity assessment…

  6. Comparing Teachers' Literacy-Related Knowledge to Their State's Standards for Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCombes-Tolis, Jule; Feinn, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This study compared elementary and special education teachers' knowledge of when K-3 students develop key reading competencies, their knowledge of who is responsible for teaching K-3 students key reading competencies, and teachers' perceptions of their own instructionally relevant competencies to those standards articulated within their state's…

  7. How Have State Level Standards-Based Tests Related to Norm-Referenced Tests in Alaska?.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenton, Ray

    This overview of the Alaska system for test development, scoring, and reporting explored differences and similarities between norm-referenced and standards-based tests. The current Alaska testing program is based on legislation passed in 1997 and 1998, and is designed to meet the requirements of the federal No Child Left Behind Legislation. In…

  8. Development of BIATECH-54 standard mixtures for assessment of protein identification and relative expression.

    PubMed

    Kolker, Eugene; Hogan, Jason M; Higdon, Roger; Kolker, Natali; Landorf, Elizabeth; Yakunin, Alexander F; Collart, Frank R; van Belle, Gerald

    2007-10-01

    Mixtures of known proteins have been very useful in the assessment and validation of methods for high-throughput (HTP) MS (MS/MS) proteomics experiments. However, these test mixtures have generally consisted of few proteins at near equal concentration or of a single protein at varied concentrations. Such mixtures are too simple to effectively assess the validity of error rates for protein identification and differential expression in HTP MS/MS studies. This work aimed at overcoming these limitations and simulating studies of complex biological samples. We introduced a pair of 54-protein standard mixtures of variable concentrations with up to a 1000-fold dynamic range in concentration and up to ten-fold expression ratios with additional negative controls (infinite expression ratios). These test mixtures comprised 16 off-the-shelf Sigma-Aldrich proteins and 38 Shewanella oneidensis proteins produced in-house. The standard proteins were systematically distributed into three main concentration groups (high, medium, and low) and then the concentrations were varied differently for each mixture within the groups to generate different expression ratios. The mixtures were analyzed with both low mass accuracy LCQ and high mass accuracy FT-LTQ instruments. In addition, these 54 standard proteins closely follow the molecular weight distributions of both bacterial and human proteomes. As a result, these new standard mixtures allow for a much more realistic assessment of approaches for protein identification and label-free differential expression than previous mixtures. Finally, methodology and experimental design developed in this work can be readily applied in future to development of more complex standard mixtures for HTP proteomics studies.

  9. 41 CFR 105-64.107 - What standards of conduct apply to employees with privacy-related responsibilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conduct apply to employees with privacy-related responsibilities? 105-64.107 Section 105-64.107 Public... SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Regional Offices-General Services Administration 64-GSA PRIVACY ACT RULES 64.1-Policies and Responsibilities § 105-64.107 What standards of conduct apply to employees with...

  10. Middle School Mathematics Teachers' Perceptions of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics and Related Assessment and Teacher Evaluation Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDuffie, Amy Roth; Drake, Corey; Choppin, Jeffrey; Davis, Jon D.; Magaña, Margarita V.; Carson, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    In this study, U.S. middle school teachers' perceptions of Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM), CCSSM-related assessments, teacher evaluation processes, and resources for implementing CCSSM were investigated. Using a mixed methods design, a national sample of 366 teachers was surveyed, and 24 teachers were interviewed. Findings…

  11. Reduction of medication errors related to sliding scale insulin by the introduction of a standardized order sheet.

    PubMed

    Harada, Saki; Suzuki, Akio; Nishida, Shohei; Kobayashi, Ryo; Tamai, Sayuri; Kumada, Keisuke; Murakami, Nobuo; Itoh, Yoshinori

    2016-12-07

    Insulin is frequently used for glycemic control. Medication errors related to insulin are a common problem for medical institutions. Here, we prepared a standardized sliding scale insulin (SSI) order sheet and assessed the effect of its introduction. Observations before and after the introduction of the standardized SSI template were conducted at Gifu University Hospital. The incidence of medication errors, hyperglycemia, and hypoglycemia related to SSI were obtained from the electronic medical records. The introduction of the standardized SSI order sheet significantly reduced the incidence of medication errors related to SSI compared with that prior to its introduction (12/165 [7.3%] vs 4/159 [2.1%], P = .048). However, the incidence of hyperglycemia (≥250 mg/dL) and hypoglycemia (≤50 mg/dL) in patients who received SSI was not significantly different between the 2 groups. The introduction of the standardized SSI order sheet reduced the incidence of medication errors related to SSI.

  12. 40 CFR 1045.515 - What are the test procedures related to not-to-exceed standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the test procedures related to not-to-exceed standards? 1045.515 Section 1045.515 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  13. 40 CFR 1045.515 - What are the test procedures related to not-to-exceed standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the test procedures related to not-to-exceed standards? 1045.515 Section 1045.515 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  14. 40 CFR 1045.515 - What are the test procedures related to not-to-exceed standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the test procedures related to not-to-exceed standards? 1045.515 Section 1045.515 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  15. 40 CFR 1045.515 - What are the test procedures related to not-to-exceed standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are the test procedures related to not-to-exceed standards? 1045.515 Section 1045.515 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  16. 29 CFR 2509.95-1 - Interpretive bulletin relating to the fiduciary standards under ERISA when selecting an annuity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... under ERISA when selecting an annuity provider for a defined benefit pension plan. 2509.95-1 Section... 1974 § 2509.95-1 Interpretive bulletin relating to the fiduciary standards under ERISA when selecting... Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA), 29 U.S.C. 1104-1114, applicable to the selection of an...

  17. 29 CFR 2509.95-1 - Interpretive bulletin relating to the fiduciary standards under ERISA when selecting an annuity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... under ERISA when selecting an annuity provider for a defined benefit pension plan. 2509.95-1 Section... 1974 § 2509.95-1 Interpretive bulletin relating to the fiduciary standards under ERISA when selecting... Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA), 29 U.S.C. 1104-1114, applicable to the selection of an...

  18. 29 CFR 2509.95-1 - Interpretive bulletin relating to the fiduciary standards under ERISA when selecting an annuity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... under ERISA when selecting an annuity provider for a defined benefit pension plan. 2509.95-1 Section... 1974 § 2509.95-1 Interpretive bulletin relating to the fiduciary standards under ERISA when selecting... Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA), 29 U.S.C. 1104-1114, applicable to the selection of an...

  19. 29 CFR 2509.95-1 - Interpretive bulletin relating to the fiduciary standards under ERISA when selecting an annuity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... under ERISA when selecting an annuity provider for a defined benefit pension plan. 2509.95-1 Section... 1974 § 2509.95-1 Interpretive bulletin relating to the fiduciary standards under ERISA when selecting... Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA), 29 U.S.C. 1104-1114, applicable to the selection of an...

  20. 29 CFR 2509.95-1 - Interpretive bulletin relating to the fiduciary standards under ERISA when selecting an annuity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... under ERISA when selecting an annuity provider for a defined benefit pension plan. 2509.95-1 Section... 1974 § 2509.95-1 Interpretive bulletin relating to the fiduciary standards under ERISA when selecting... Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA), 29 U.S.C. 1104-1114, applicable to the selection of an...

  1. Relative response of alanine dosemeters for high-energy electrons determined using a Fricke primary standard.

    PubMed

    Vörös, Sándor; Anton, Mathias; Boillat, Bénédicte

    2012-03-07

    A significant proportion of cancer patients is treated using MeV electron radiation. One of the measurement methods which is likely to furnish reliable dose values also under non-reference conditions is the dosimetry using alanine and read-out via electron spin resonance (ESR). The system has already proven to be suitable for QA purposes for modern radiotherapy involving megavoltage x-rays. In order to render the secondary standard measurement system of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt based on alanine/ESR useable for dosimetry in radiotherapy, the dose-to-water (D(W)) response of the dosemeter needs to be known for relevant radiation qualities. For MeV electrons, the D(W) response was determined using the Fricke primary standard of the Swiss Federal Office of Metrology. Since there were no citable detailed publications on the Swiss primary standard available, this measurement system is described in some detail. The experimental results for the D(W) response are compared to results of Monte Carlo simulations which model in detail the beams furnished by the electron accelerator as well as the geometry of the detectors. The agreement between experiment and simulation is very good, as well as the agreement with results published by the National Research Council of Canada which are based on a different primary standard. No significant dependence of the D(W) response was found in the range between 6 and 20 MeV. It is therefore suggested to use a unique correction factor k(E) for alanine for all MeV qualities of k(E) = 1.012 ± 0.010.

  2. Variations in acoustic admittance related to type of ear tip. A plea for a standardized method.

    PubMed

    Himelfarb, M Z; Rapoport, Y; Shanon, E

    1976-11-01

    In order to assess the validity of using various ear tips, tympanometry and acoustic admittance were studied in 20 young healthy subjects, and three different types of ear tip used to seal the external auditory canal. Significant variations in the admittance components and tympanometry curves were observed, resulting most probably from changes in the canal volume and the physical nature of the tipe. It appears advisable to develop and adopt an appropriate, standard ear tip for studies of admittance audiometry.

  3. Making access to TV contingent on physical activity: effects on liking and relative reinforcing value of TV and physical activity in overweight and obese children.

    PubMed

    Goldfield, Gary S

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the effects of making access to television (TV) viewing contingent on physical activity on the liking and reinforcing value of TV and attitudes towards physical activity in overweight and obese children. Secondary data analysis from a randomized controlled trial designed to increase physical activity and reduce TV viewing in 30, 8-12 years old overweight or obese children by making access to TV contingent on physical activity (intervention) or free access to TV (control). Liking of TV and physical activity was measured by a 100 point visual analog scale, while the relative reinforcing value of TV in relation to physical activity was assessed using a questionnaire based on behavioural choice paradigm that provided children an opportunity to work (button presses) to gain access to TV or physical activity according to a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Enjoyment, Adequacy, Predilection and Motivation for physical activity was assessed by self-report questionnaire. Making access to TV contingent on physical activity showed a trend that approached statistical significance towards increased enjoyment of physical activity and did not adversely affect change in the liking or the relative reinforcing value of TV viewing. Making access to TV contingent on physical activity had no adverse effects on the liking or reinforcing value of TV and even showed a suggestive effect of increased enjoyment of physical activity. Thus, given this intervention markedly increased physical activity and reduced TV viewing in overweight and obese children, long-term evaluations of this interventions to assess sustainability of these behavioral changes and associated health benefits are warranted.

  4. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; standards related to essential health benefits, actuarial value and accreditation. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2013-02-25

    This final rule sets forth standards for health insurance issuers consistent with title I of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, referred to collectively as the Affordable Care Act. Specifically, this final rule outlines Exchange and issuer standards related to coverage of essential health benefits and actuarial value. This rule also finalizes a timeline for qualified health plans to be accredited in Federally-facilitated Exchanges and amends regulations providing an application process for the recognition of additional accrediting entities for purposes of certification of qualified health plans.

  5. Attitude accessibility as a moderator of the attitude-perception and attitude-behavior relations: an investigation of the 1984 presidential election.

    PubMed

    Fazio, R H; Williams, C J

    1986-09-01

    It was hypothesized that the extent to which individuals' attitudes guide their subsequent perceptions of and behavior toward the attitude object is a function of the accessibility of those attitudes from memory. A field investigation concerning the 1984 presidential election was conducted as a test of these hypotheses. Attitudes toward each of the two candidates, Reagan and Mondale, and the accessibility of those attitudes, as indicated by the latency of response to the attitudinal inquiry, were measured for a large sample of townspeople months before the election. Judgments of the performance of the candidates during the televised debates served as the measure of subsequent perceptions, and voting served as the measure of subsequent behavior. As predicted, both the attitude-perception and the attitude-behavior relations were moderated by attitude accessibility. The implications of these findings for theoretical models of the processes by which attitudes guide behavior, along with their practical implications for survey research, are discussed.

  6. 77 FR 16551 - Standards for Private Laboratory Analytical Packages and Introduction to Laboratory Related...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... Introduction to Laboratory Related Portions of the Food Modernization Safety Act for Private Laboratory... and Introduction to Laboratory Related Portions of the Food Modernization Safety Act for Private... and an introduction to sections of the Food Safety Modernization Act of January 6, 2011, that...

  7. National Technology Standards for K-12 Schools: A Case Study of Unresolved Issues in Public Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Carol A.; Kealy, William A.; Sullivan, Ashley

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses an important need--the dissemination of information relating to technology as a public relations tool--and the associated exigency for administrator and teacher technology training. Specifically, we identify the increased expectations for the performance of school leaders and teachers, as well as unresolved issues in public…

  8. 29 CFR 96.42 - Audit standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Audit standards. 96.42 Section 96.42 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor AUDIT REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS, CONTRACTS, AND OTHER AGREEMENTS Access to Records, Audit Standards and Relation of Organization-wide Audits to Other Audit Requirements § 96.42 Audit...

  9. Are There Inequities in Treatment of End-Stage Renal Disease in Sweden? A Longitudinal Register-Based Study on Socioeconomic Status-Related Access to Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ye; Jarl, Johan; Gerdtham, Ulf-G.

    2017-01-01

    Socioeconomic status-related factors have been associated with access to kidney transplantation, yet few studies have investigated both individual income and education as determinates of access to kidney transplantation. Therefore, this study aims to explore the effects of both individual income and education on access to kidney transplantation, controlling for both medical and non-medical factors. We linked the Swedish Renal Register to national registers for a sample of adult patients who started Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT) in Sweden between 1 January 1995, and 31 December 2013. Using uni- and multivariate logistic models, we studied the association between pre-RRT income and education and likelihood of receiving kidney transplantation. For non-pre-emptive transplantation patients, we also used multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to assess the association between treatment and socioeconomic factors. Among the 16,215 patients in the sample, 27% had received kidney transplantation by the end of 2013. After adjusting for covariates, the highest income group had more than three times the chance of accessing kidney transplantation compared with patients in the lowest income group (odds ratio (OR): 3.22; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.73–3.80). Patients with college education had more than three times higher chance of access to kidney transplantation compared with patients with mandatory education (OR: 3.18; 95% CI: 2.77–3.66). Neither living in the county of the transplantation center nor gender was shown to have any effect on the likelihood of receiving kidney transplantation. For non-pre-emptive transplantation patients, the results from Cox models were similar with what we got from logistic models. Sensitive analyses showed that results were not sensitive to different conditions. Overall, socioeconomic status-related inequities exist in access to kidney transplantation in Sweden. Additional studies are needed to explore the possible

  10. Requirements relating to radon in the International Basic Safety Standards: information, measurement and national strategies.

    PubMed

    Colgan, P A; Boal, T; Czarwinski, R

    2013-03-01

    The fifth edition of the International Basic Safety Standards (BSS) has recently been established as Part 3 of the General Safety Requirements of the IAEA Safety Standards Series. The BSS applies to all exposure situations and to all categories of exposure. As such, the BSS addresses both occupational exposure due to radon in workplaces and public exposure due to radon in dwellings. In workplaces, exposure due to radon is treated either as a planned exposure situation or as an existing exposure situation, depending on the circumstances. With regard to exposure due to radon in dwellings, the BSS requires that general information on radon, including information on health risks and the synergy with smoking, be made available to the public and other interested parties. Countries are also required to determine whether an action plan for controlling exposure due to radon indoors is necessary, and, if so, to establish and implement such an action plan. Guidance material, covering the establishment of reference levels, national and regional radon surveys, identification of radon prone areas, building codes for new buildings, corrective actions for existing buildings, information campaigns and programme evaluation and effectiveness is currently being developed.

  11. 77 FR 75014 - Schedule of Fees for Access to NOAA Environmental Data, Information, and Related Products and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... increased. Users have the ability to access the data offline, online and through the NESDIS e-Commerce... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... (NOAA), Department of Commerce. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: In this final rule, NESDIS establishes...

  12. Evaluating a Sex Related Ability: Social Comparison with Similar Others and Standard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanna, Mark P.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to reevaluate Festinger's similarity hypothesis and to investigate the relative strengths of the desire to compare with similar others and the desire to compare with those who are best off. (Author)

  13. Water for haemodialysis and related therapies: recent standards and emerging issues.

    PubMed

    Hoenich, Nicholas A; Levin, Robert; Ronco, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    Dialysis is a well-established and widely used procedure. For a number of years, the focus has been on ensuring that water used in the preparation of dialysis fluid meets the required chemical and microbiological quality and complies with national or international standards which have recently been updated. Continued vigilance is required, in particular when new chemicals such as silver-stabilized hydrogen peroxide and chlorine dioxide are used to prevent growth of Legionella bacteria in hospital water systems, since residues are harmful to patients receiving dialysis. To achieve the required quality, large volumes of water are processed, and a substantial portion is sent to waste via the municipal sewer systems with little attempt to reuse such water on site. In view of concern about global warming and climate change, there is a need to adopt a more environmentally conscious attitude requiring dialysis providers to focus on this aspect of water usage.

  14. Establishing health standards for indoor foreign proteins related to asthma: Dust mite, cat and cockroach

    SciTech Connect

    Platts-Mills, T.A.E.; Chapman, M.D.; Pollart, S.M.; Heymann, P.W.; Luczynska, C.M. )

    1990-01-01

    There is no doubt that a large number of individuals become allergic to foreign proteins that are predominantly or exclusively present indoors. In each case this immune response can be demonstrated either by immediate skin test responses or by measuring serum IgE antibodies. It has also been obvious for some time that patients presenting with asthma, perennial rhinitis and atopic dermatitis have an increased prevalence of IgE antibodies to these indoor allergens. More recently several epidemiological surveys have suggested that both mite exposure and IgE antibodies are important risk factors for asthma. The present situation is that assays have been developed capable of measuring the presence of mite, cockroach and cat allergens in house dust. Further clinical studies will be necessary to test the proposed standards for mite allergens and to define risk levels for other allergens.

  15. Comparison of selected codes and standards relating to existing residential buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, P. W.

    1980-07-01

    The performance levels of older residential buildings generally do not comply with the standards for safety or function that are applied of new buildings. The extent to which seven codes vary among each other in establishing minimum requirements for life, health and safety in existing dwellings, the differing approaches provided by traditional housing codes in contrast to more recently developed rehabilitation guideline documents regarding performance levels, and the degree to which each code meets its intended goals of providing and maintaining human shelter, protection, and privacy is examined. The code provisions are compared and analyzed in sixteen major code areas (e.g., structural requirements, light and illumination, plumbing requirements, etc.). Various inconsistencies among code documents with respect to uniformity and irrational approaches in the historical development of code provisions are indicated.

  16. Draft 16 of a working document for a proposed standard to be entitled: IEEE standard definitions of terms associated with ferroelectric and related materials.

    PubMed

    2003-12-01

    Prior to acceptance of a standard by IEEE, it is important that the document be widely reviewed by experts in the field. This draft version of the standard is being published here to solicit that input. Readers are encouraged to submit any suggestions or corrections to the IEEE ferroelectrics standards committee for inclusion in the final version.

  17. Early heart rate responses to standardized trauma-related pictures predict posttraumatic stress disorder – a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Suendermann, Oliver; Ehlers, Anke; Boellinghaus, Inga; Gamer, Matthias; Glucksman, Edward

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Trauma survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) report heightened physiological responses to a wide range of stimuli. It has been suggested that associative learning and stimulus generalization play a key role in the development of these symptoms. Some studies have found that trauma survivors with PTSD show greater physiological responses to individualized trauma reminders in the initial weeks after trauma than those without PTSD. This study investigated whether heart rate and skin conductance responses (HRR, SCR) to standardized trauma-related pictures at 1 month after the trauma predict chronic PTSD. METHOD Survivors of motor vehicle accidents or physical assaults (N=166) watched standardized trauma-related, generally threatening and neutral pictures at 1 month post- trauma while their HRR and SCR were recorded. PTSD symptoms were assessed with structured clinical interviews at 1 and 6 months; self-reports of fear responses and dissociation during trauma were obtained soon after the trauma. RESULTS At 1 month, trauma survivors with PTSD showed greater HRR to trauma-related pictures than those without PTSD, but not to general threat or neutral pictures. HRR to trauma-related pictures predicted PTSD severity at 1 and 6 months, and were related to fear and dissociation during trauma. SCR was not related to PTSD. CONCLUSION HRR to standardized trauma reminders at 1 month after the trauma differentiate between trauma survivors with and without PTSD, and predict chronic PTSD. Results are consistent with a role of associative learning in PTSD and suggest that early stimulus generalization may be an indicator of risk for chronic PTSD. PMID:20124426

  18. The Relations between Teasing and Bullying and Middle School Standardized Exam Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacey, Anna; Cornell, Dewey; Konold, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relations between the schoolwide prevalence of teasing and bullying (PTB) and schoolwide academic performance in a sample of 271 Virginia middle schools. In addition, the study examined the mediating effects of student engagement. A three-step sequence of path models investigated associations between schoolwide PTB and…

  19. Related Core Academic Knowledge and Skills. Georgia Core Standards for Occupational Clusters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Occupational Studies.

    This document lists the industry-identified core academic knowledge and skills that should be possessed by all Georgia students who are enrolled in occupational cluster programs and are preparing to enter the work force or continue their occupational specialization at the postsecondary level. First, 63 related communications competencies are…

  20. The NORM technology connection web site : streamlined access to NORM-related service company and regulatory information.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K. P.; Richmond, P.; LePoire, D. J.; Arnish, J. J.; Johnson, R.

    2000-11-08

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed an Internet web site providing access to critical information needed to support decisions on the management and disposal of wastes containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The NORM Technology Connection web site provides current information on (1) service companies that provide support on NORM issues (e.g., site characterization and remediation, sample analysis, radiation safety training, disposal) and (2) existing applicable NORM regulations and guidelines. A third element of the site is an electronic mail list that allows users to post or respond to questions about the management of NORM. Development of the NORM Technology Connection web site was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. It is hosted and maintained by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The web site is publicly available; access is free, as is participation by any of the service companies.

  1. Development of a Standardized Approach for Environmental Microbiota Investigations related to Asthma Development in Children

    PubMed Central

    Fujimura, Kei E.; Rauch, Marcus; Matsui, Elizabeth; Iwai, Shoko; Calatroni, Agustin; Lynn, Henry; Mitchell, Herman; Johnson, Christine C.; Gern, James E.; Togias, Alkis; Boushey, Homer A.; Kennedy, Suzanne; Lynch, Susan V.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Standardized studies examining environmental microbial exposure in populations at risk for asthma are necessary to improve our understanding of the role this factor plays in disease development. Here we describe studies aimed at developing guidelines for high-resolution culture-independent microbiome profiling, using a phylogenetic microarray (PhyloChip), of house dust samples in a cohort collected as part of the NIH-funded Inner City Asthma Consortium (ICAC). We demonstrate that though extracted DNA concentrations varied across dust samples, the majority produced sufficient 16S rRNA to be profiled by the array. Comparison of array and 454-pyrosequencing performed in parallel on a subset of samples, illustrated that increasingly deeper sequencing efforts validated greater numbers of array-detected taxa. Community composition agreement across samples exhibited a hierarchy in concordance, with the highest level of agreement in replicate array profiles followed by samples collected from adjacent 1×1 m2 sites in the same room, adjacent sites with different sized sampling quadrants (1×1 and 2×2 m2), different sites within homes (living and bedroom) to lowest in living room samples collected from different homes. The guidelines for sample collection and processing in this pilot study extend beyond PhyloChip based studies of house-associated microbiota, and bear relevance for other microbiome profiling approaches such as next-generation sequencing. PMID:22975469

  2. Dose limits to the lens of the eye: International Basic Safety Standards and related guidance.

    PubMed

    Boal, T J; Pinak, M

    2015-06-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safety requirements: 'General Safety Requirements Part 3--Radiation protection and safety of radiation sources: International Basic Safety Standards' (BSS) was approved by the IAEA Board of Governors at its meeting in September 2011, and was issued as General Safety Requirements Part 3 in July 2014. The equivalent dose limit for the lens of the eye for occupational exposure in planned exposure situations was reduced from 150 mSv year(-1) to 20 mSv year(-1), averaged over defined periods of 5 years, with no annual dose in a single year exceeding 50 mSv. This reduction in the dose limit for the lens of the eye followed the recommendation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection in its statement on tissue reactions of 21 April 2011. IAEA has developed guidance on the implications of the new dose limit for the lens of the eye. This paper summarises the process that led to the inclusion of the new dose limit for the lens of the eye in the BSS, and the implications of the new dose limit.

  3. Neck and shoulder muscle activity during standardized work-related postural tasks.

    PubMed

    Ng, D; McNee, C; Kieser, J; Farella, M

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the activity levels of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and upper trapezius muscle during static postures under controlled and standardized conditions, and to determine whether the muscle activity differed between sexes. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded unilaterally from the sternocleidomastoid and upper trapezius muscle in 17 participants whilst they were performing various postural tasks. EMG amplitude was measured by the root mean square values of the raw signals and normalized to peak maximum contractile values for each muscle (%MVC). The intensity of muscle activity was ranked as light (<3%MVC), moderate (3%MVC ≤ EMG ≤ 8%MVC), and substantial (>8%MVC). During most tasks the two muscles contracted light to moderately. Head leaning and shoulder shrugging postures yielded substantial muscle activity in both muscles. Muscle activity did not differ significantly between male and female participants (F = 3.1; p = 0.078). Our findings provided normative values, which will enhance future studies of muscle activity during work in a natural, unrestrained environment.

  4. Heuristic Evaluation of Ehealth Interventions: Establishing Standards That Relate to the Therapeutic Process Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Muench, Fred

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the number of available eHealth interventions aimed at treating behavioral and mental health challenges has been growing. From the perspective of health care providers, there is a need for eHealth interventions to be evaluated prior to clinical trials and for the limited resources allocated to empirical research to be invested in the most promising products. Following a literature review, a gap was found in the availability of eHealth interventions evaluation principles related to the patient experience of the therapeutic process. This paper introduces principles and concepts for the evaluation of eHealth interventions developed as a first step in a process to outline general evaluation guidelines that relate to the clinical context from health care providers’ perspective. Our approach was to conduct a review of literature that relates to the examination of eHealth interventions. We identified the literature that was most relevant to our study and used it to define guidelines that relate to the clinical context. We then compiled a list of heuristics we found to be useful for the evaluation of eHealth intervention products’ suitability for empirical examination. Four heuristics were identified with respect to the therapeutic process: (1) the product’s ease of use (ie, usability), (2) the eHealth intervention’s compatibility with the clinical setting, (3) the presence of tools that make it easier for the user to engage in therapeutic activities, and (4) the provision of a feasible therapeutic pathway to growth. We then used this set of heuristics to conduct a detailed examination of MyFitnessPal. This line of work could help to set the bar higher for product developers and to inform health care providers about preferred eHealth intervention designs. PMID:26764209

  5. 45 CFR 153.540 - Compliance with risk corridors standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... with risk corridors standards. HHS or its designee may audit a QHP issuer to assess its compliance with... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compliance with risk corridors standards. 153.540... CARE ACCESS STANDARDS RELATED TO REINSURANCE, RISK CORRIDORS, AND RISK ADJUSTMENT UNDER THE...

  6. Evaluating the accessibility and utility of HIV-related point-of-care diagnostics for maternal health in rural South Africa: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Mashamba-Thompson, T P; Drain, P K; Sartorius, B

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Poor healthcare access is a major barrier to receiving antenatal care and a cause of high maternal mortality in South Africa (SA). ‘Point-of-care’ (POC) diagnostics is a powerful emerging healthcare approach to improve healthcare access. This study focuses on evaluating the accessibility and utility of POC diagnostics for maternal health in rural SA primary healthcare (PHC) clinics in order to generate a model framework of implementation of POC diagnostics in rural South African clinics. Method and analyses We will use several research methods, including a systematic review, quasi-experiments, survey, key informant interviews and audits. We will conduct a systematic review and experimental study to determine the impact of POC diagnostics on maternal health. We will perform a cross-sectional case study of 100 randomly selected rural primary healthcare clinics in KwaZulu-Natal to measure the context and patterns of POC diagnostics access and usage by maternal health providers and patients. We will conduct interviews with relevant key stakeholders to determine the reasons for POC deficiencies regarding accessibility and utility of HIV-related POC diagnostics for maternal health. We will also conduct a vertical audit to investigate all the quality aspects of POC diagnostic services including diagnostic accuracy in a select number of clinics. On the basis of information gathered, we will propose a model framework for improved implementation of POC diagnostics in rural South African public healthcare clinics. Statistical (Stata-13) and thematic (NVIVO) data analysis will be used in this study. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the University of KwaZulu-Natal (BE 484/14) and the KwaZulu-Natal Department of Health based on the Helsinki Declaration (HRKM 40/15). Findings of this study will be disseminated electronically and in print. They will be presented to conferences related to HIV/AIDS, diagnostics

  7. Impact of age on access site-related outcomes in 469,983 percutaneous coronary intervention procedures: Insights from the British Cardiovascular Intervention Society.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Simon G; Ratib, Karim; Myint, Phyo K; Keavney, Bernard; Kwok, Chun Shing; Zaman, Azfar; Ludman, Peter F; de Belder, Mark A; Nolan, James; Mamas, Mamas A

    2015-11-15

    We investigate adoption of the TRA in different age groups and study the relationship between age and access site related outcomes in a national cohort of patients undergoing PCI in the UK. Previous studies have reported conflicting data on radial access site adoption between different age groups, with age an independent predictor of failure of procedures undertaken through the radial approach. Age and access site related outcomes (based on transradial (TRA) and transfemoral (TFA) access) were studied in 469,983 PCI procedures undertaken in the UK from 2006 to 2012 in the age groups; <60, 60-<70, 70-<80, and ≥80 in the British Cardiovascular Intervention Society database. We studied access site practice in 469,983 patients who underwent PCI procedures in the United Kingdom. TRA utilization increased from 17.5% to 65.6% in the age group <60, and 16.6% to 54.5% in the age group ≥80 between 2006 and 2012. TRA was independently associated with decreased 30-day mortality in all age groups (<60: OR 0.64; 95% CI 0.54-0.74, P < 0.0001; 60-<70: OR 0.65; 95% CI 0.57-75, P < 0.0001, 70-<80: OR 0.58 (0.52-0.65, P < 0.0001 and ≥80: OR 0.65 (0.57-0.73, P < 0.0001). Adoption of the TRA for PCI has occurred least in older patients in the UK despite similar associations between TRA use and decreased 30-day mortality observed in all age groups.

  8. Ergonomics and accessibility for people with visual impairment in hotels.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Larissa Nascimento; de Carvalho, Ricardo José Matos

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a diagnosis of luxury or superior hotels in the city of Natal, located in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, in northeastern Brazil, in what concerns accessibility to the visually impaired. The main objective is to present the guiding principles to design actions and interventions that must be considered in the preparation or revision of technical standards and manuals of good practice in accessibility related to people with visual impairments who are hotel users. The survey showed that the hotels do not meet the normative indications of accessibility, their facilities are in-accessible (have prevented access) or of reduced accessibility and its employees are not prepared to provide adequate hospital services for people with visual impairment. It was concluded that some of the accessibility problems faced by people with visual impairments are also faced by people in general.

  9. Effects of ethanol on CYP2E1 levels and related oxidative stress using a standard balanced diet.

    PubMed

    Azzalis, Ligia A; Fonseca, Fernando L A; Simon, Karin A; Schindler, Fernanda; Giavarotti, Leandro; Monteiro, Hugo P; Videla, Luis A; Junqueira, Virgínia B C

    2012-07-01

    Expression of cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) is very much influenced by nutritional factors, especially carbohydrate consumption, and various results concerning the expression of CYP2E1 were obtained with a low-carbohydrate diet. This study describes the effects of ethanol treatment on CYP2E1 levels and its relationship with oxidative stress using a balanced standard diet to avoid low or high carbohydrate consumption. Rats were fed for 1, 2, 3, or 4 weeks a commercial diet plus an ethanol-sucrose solution. The results have shown that ethanol administration was associated with CYP2E1 induction and stabilization without related oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that experimental models with a low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet produce some undesirable CYP2E1 changes that are not present when a balanced standard diet is given.

  10. EBMT transplant centers with FACT-JACIE accreditation have significantly better compliance with related donor care standards

    PubMed Central

    Anthias, Chloe; O'Donnell, Paul V; Kiefer, Deidre M; Yared, Jean; Norkin, Maxim; Anderlini, Paolo; Savani, Bipin N; Diaz, Miguel A; Bitan, Menachem; Halter, Joerg P; Logan, Brent R; Switzer, Galen E; Pulsipher, Michael A; Confer, Dennis L; Shaw, Bronwen E

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have identified healthcare practices that may place undue pressure on related donors (RDs) of hematopoietic cell products, and an increase in serious adverse events associated with morbidities in this population. As a result, specific requirements to safeguard RD health have been introduced to FACT-JACIE Standards, but the impact of accreditation on RD care has not previously been evaluated. A survey of transplant program directors of EBMT member centers was conducted by the Donor Health and Safety Working Committee of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) to test the hypothesis that RD care in FACT-JACIE accredited centers is more closely aligned with international consensus donor care recommendations than RD care delivered in centers without accreditation. Responses were received from 39% of 304 centers. Our results show that practice in accredited centers was much closer to recommended standards as compared to non-accredited centers. Specifically, a higher percentage of accredited centers use eligibility criteria to assess RDs (93% versus 78%; P=0.02) and a lower percentage have a single physician simultaneously responsible for a RD and their recipient (14% versus 35%; P=0.008). In contrast, where regulatory standards do not exist, both accredited and non-accredited centers fell short of accepted best practice. These results raise concerns that despite improvements in care, current practice can place undue pressure on donors, and may increase the risk of donation-associated adverse events. We recommend measures to address these issues through enhancement of regulatory standards as well as national initiatives to standardize RD care. PMID:26597079

  11. An evaluation of the Essential Medicines List, Standard Treatment Guidelines and prescribing restrictions, as an integrated strategy to enhance quality, efficacy and safety of and improve access to essential medicines in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Joshua, Isaac B; Passmore, Phillip R; Sunderland, Bruce V

    2016-05-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has advocated the development and use of country specific Standard Treatment Guidelines (STGs) and Essential Medicines Lists (EML) as strategies to promote the rational use of medicines. When implemented effectively STGs offer many health advantages. Papua New Guinea (PNG) has official STGs and a Medical and Dental Catalogue (MDC) which serves as a national EML for use at different levels of health facilities. This study evaluated consistency between the PNG Adult STGs (2003 and 2012) and those for children (2005 and 2011) with respect to the MDCs (2002, 2012) for six chronic and/or acute diseases: asthma, arthritis, diabetes, hypertension, pneumonia and psychosis. Additionally, the potential impact of prescriber level restrictions on rational medicines use for patient's living in rural areas, where no medical officer is present, was evaluated. Almost all drugs included in the STGs for each disease state evaluated were listed in the MDCs. However, significant discrepancies occurred between the recommended treatments in the STGs with the range of related medicines listed in the MDCs. Many medicines recommended in the STGs for chronic diseases had prescriber level restrictions hindering access for most of the PNG population who live in rural and remote areas. In addition many more medicines were listed in the MDCs which are commonly used to treat arthritis, high blood pressure and psychosis than were recommended in the STGs contributing to inappropriate prescribing. We recommend the public health and rational use of medicines deficiencies associated with these findings are addressed requiring: reviewing prescriber level restrictions; updating the STGs; aligning the MDC to reflect recommendations in the STGs; establishing the process where the MDC would automatically be updated based on any changes made to the STGs; and developing STGs for higher levels of care.

  12. Geographic approaches to quantifying the risk environment: a focus on syringe exchange program site access and drug-related law enforcement activities

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Hannah LF; Bossak, Brian; Tempalski, Barbara; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Friedman, Samuel R.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of the “risk environment” – defined as the “space … [where] factors exogenous to the individual interact to increase the chances of HIV transmission” – draws together the disciplines of public health and geography. Researchers have increasingly turned to geographic methods to quantify dimensions of the risk environment that are both structural and spatial (e.g., local poverty rates). The scientific power of the intersection between public health and geography, however, has yet to be fully mined. In particular, research on the risk environment has rarely applied geographic methods to create neighbourhood-based measures of syringe exchange programs (SEPs) or of drug-related law enforcement activities, despite the fact that these interventions are widely conceptualized as structural and spatial in nature and are two of the most well-established dimensions of the risk environment. To strengthen research on the risk environment, this paper presents a way of using geographic methods to create neighbourhood-based measures of (1) access to SEP sites and (2) exposure to drug-related arrests, and then applies these methods to one setting (New York City). NYC-based results identified substantial cross-neighbourhood variation in SEP site access and in exposure to drug-related arrest rates (even within the subset of neighbourhoods nominally experiencing the same drug-related police strategy). These geographic measures – grounded as they are in conceptualizations of SEPs and drug-related law enforcement strategies – can help develop new arenas of inquiry regarding the impact of these two dimensions of the risk environment on injectors’ health, including exploring whether and how neighbourhood-level access to SEP sites and exposure to drug-related arrests shape a range of outcomes among local injectors. PMID:18963907

  13. Flour Quality and Related Molecular Characterization of High Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunit Genes from Wild Emmer Wheat Accession TD-256.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Da-Le; He, Ting-Ting; Liang, Hui-Hui; Huang, Lu-Yu; Su, Ya-Zhong; Li, Yu-Ge; Li, Suo-Ping

    2016-06-22

    To clarify the effect of high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) from wild emmer wheat on flour quality, which has the same mobility as that from common wheat, the composition and molecular characterization of HMW-GS from wild emmer wheat accession TD-256, as well as its flour quality, were intensively analyzed. It is found that the mobilities of Glu-A1 and Glu-B1 subunits from TD-256 are consistent with those of bread wheat cv. 'XiaoYan 6'. Nevertheless, dough rheological properties of TD-256 reveal its poor flour quality. In the aspect of molecular structure from HMW-GS, only two conserved cysteine residues can be observed in the deduced protein sequence of 1Bx14* from TD-256, while most Glu-1Bx contain four conserved cysteine residues. In addition, as can be predicted from secondary structure, the quantity both of α-helixes and their amino acid residues of the subunits from TD-256 is fewer than those of common wheat. Though low molecular weight glutenin subunit (LMW-GS) and gliadin can also greatly influence flour quality, the protein structure of the HMW-GS revealed in this work can partly explain the poor flour quality of wild emmer accession TD-256.

  14. Arteriovenous Access

    PubMed Central

    MacRae, Jennifer M.; Dipchand, Christine; Oliver, Matthew; Moist, Louise; Yilmaz, Serdar; Lok, Charmaine; Leung, Kelvin; Clark, Edward; Hiremath, Swapnil; Kappel, Joanne; Kiaii, Mercedeh; Luscombe, Rick; Miller, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Complications of vascular access lead to morbidity and may reduce quality of life. In this module, we review both infectious and noninfectious arteriovenous access complications including neuropathy, aneurysm, and high-output access. For the challenging patients who have developed many complications and are now nearing their last vascular access, we highlight some potentially novel approaches. PMID:28270919

  15. 77 FR 36231 - Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) and Architectural Barriers Act (ABA) Accessibility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... standards for residential facilities are the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS). When HUD... residential facilities covered by the ABA are the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS).\\5\\ HUD...

  16. Vascular Access Tracking System: a Web-Based Clinical Tracking Tool for Identifying Catheter Related Blood Stream Infections in Interventional Radiology Placed Central Venous Catheters.

    PubMed

    Morrison, James; Kaufman, John

    2016-12-01

    Vascular access is invaluable in the treatment of hospitalized patients. Central venous catheters provide a durable and long-term solution while saving patients from repeated needle sticks for peripheral IVs and blood draws. The initial catheter placement procedure and long-term catheter usage place patients at risk for infection. The goal of this project was to develop a system to track and evaluate central line-associated blood stream infections related to interventional radiology placement of central venous catheters. A customized web-based clinical database was developed via open-source tools to provide a dashboard for data mining and analysis of the catheter placement and infection information. Preliminary results were gathered over a 4-month period confirming the utility of the system. The tools and methodology employed to develop the vascular access tracking system could be easily tailored to other clinical scenarios to assist in quality control and improvement programs.

  17. A nutrition strategy to reduce the burden of diet related disease: access to dietician services must complement population health approaches

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Leonie; Opie, Rachelle S.

    2015-01-01

    Poor diet quality is implicated in almost every disease and health issue. And yet, in most advanced market economies diet quality is poor, with a minority meeting guidelines for healthy eating. Poor diet is thus responsible for substantial disease burden. Societies have at their disposal a range of strategies to influence diet behaviors. These can be classified into: (i) population level socio-educational approaches to enhance diet knowledge; (ii) pricing incentives (subsidies on healthy foods, punitive taxes on unhealthy foods); (iii) regulations to modify the food environment, and (iv) the provision of clinical dietetic services. There is little evidence that societies are active in implementing the available strategies. Advertising of “junk foods” is largely unchecked, contrasting with strict controls on advertising tobacco products, which also attract punitive taxes. Access to dieticians is restricted in most countries, even in the context of universal health care. In Australia in 2011 there were just 2,969 practicing dieticians/nutritionists or 1.3 clinicians per 10,000 persons, compared with 5.8 physiotherapists per 10,000 persons, 14.8 general practitioners (family physicians) per 10,000 persons or 75 nurses per 10,000 persons. It is time to implement comprehensive national nutrition strategies capable of effecting change. Such strategies need to be multi-component, incorporating both public health approaches and expanded publicly funded dietetic services. Access to individualized dietetic services is needed by those at risk, or with current chronic conditions, given the complexity of the diet message, the need for professional support for behavior change and to reflect individual circumstances. The adoption of a comprehensive nutrition strategy offers the promise of substantial improvement in diet quality, better health and wellbeing and lower health care costs. PMID:26321951

  18. Genome-Wide Association Study for Traits Related to Plant and Grain Morphology, and Root Architecture in Temperate Rice Accessions

    PubMed Central

    Cozzi, Paolo; Casella, Laura; Riccardi, Paolo; Vattari, Alessandra; Orasen, Gabriele; Perrini, Rosaria; Tacconi, Gianni; Tondelli, Alessandro; Biselli, Chiara; Cattivelli, Luigi; Spindel, Jennifer; McCouch, Susan; Abbruscato, Pamela; Valé, Giampiero; Piffanelli, Pietro; Greco, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    Background In this study we carried out a genome-wide association analysis for plant and grain morphology and root architecture in a unique panel of temperate rice accessions adapted to European pedo-climatic conditions. This is the first study to assess the association of selected phenotypic traits to specific genomic regions in the narrow genetic pool of temperate japonica. A set of 391 rice accessions were GBS-genotyped yielding—after data editing—57000 polymorphic and informative SNPS, among which 54% were in genic regions. Results In total, 42 significant genotype-phenotype associations were detected: 21 for plant morphology traits, 11 for grain quality traits, 10 for root architecture traits. The FDR of detected associations ranged from 3 · 10−7 to 0.92 (median: 0.25). In most cases, the significant detected associations co-localised with QTLs and candidate genes controlling the phenotypic variation of single or multiple traits. The most significant associations were those for flag leaf width on chromosome 4 (FDR = 3 · 10−7) and for plant height on chromosome 6 (FDR = 0.011). Conclusions We demonstrate the effectiveness and resolution of the developed platform for high-throughput phenotyping, genotyping and GWAS in detecting major QTLs for relevant traits in rice. We identified strong associations that may be used for selection in temperate irrigated rice breeding: e.g. associations for flag leaf width, plant height, root volume and length, grain length, grain width and their ratio. Our findings pave the way to successfully exploit the narrow genetic pool of European temperate rice and to pinpoint the most relevant genetic components contributing to the adaptability and high yield of this germplasm. The generated data could be of direct use in genomic-assisted breeding strategies. PMID:27228161

  19. A nutrition strategy to reduce the burden of diet related disease: access to dietician services must complement population health approaches.

    PubMed

    Segal, Leonie; Opie, Rachelle S

    2015-01-01

    Poor diet quality is implicated in almost every disease and health issue. And yet, in most advanced market economies diet quality is poor, with a minority meeting guidelines for healthy eating. Poor diet is thus responsible for substantial disease burden. Societies have at their disposal a range of strategies to influence diet behaviors. These can be classified into: (i) population level socio-educational approaches to enhance diet knowledge; (ii) pricing incentives (subsidies on healthy foods, punitive taxes on unhealthy foods); (iii) regulations to modify the food environment, and (iv) the provision of clinical dietetic services. There is little evidence that societies are active in implementing the available strategies. Advertising of "junk foods" is largely unchecked, contrasting with strict controls on advertising tobacco products, which also attract punitive taxes. Access to dieticians is restricted in most countries, even in the context of universal health care. In Australia in 2011 there were just 2,969 practicing dieticians/nutritionists or 1.3 clinicians per 10,000 persons, compared with 5.8 physiotherapists per 10,000 persons, 14.8 general practitioners (family physicians) per 10,000 persons or 75 nurses per 10,000 persons. It is time to implement comprehensive national nutrition strategies capable of effecting change. Such strategies need to be multi-component, incorporating both public health approaches and expanded publicly funded dietetic services. Access to individualized dietetic services is needed by those at risk, or with current chronic conditions, given the complexity of the diet message, the need for professional support for behavior change and to reflect individual circumstances. The adoption of a comprehensive nutrition strategy offers the promise of substantial improvement in diet quality, better health and wellbeing and lower health care costs.

  20. Research Opportunities Related to Establishing Standards for Tobacco Products Under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This paper was written in response to a request from the U.S. National Cancer Institute. The goal is to discuss some research directions related to establishing tobacco product standards under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, which empowers the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to regulate tobacco products. Potential research related to tobacco product ingredients, nicotine, and harmful or potentially harmful constituents of tobacco products is discussed. Discussion: Ingredients, which are additives, require less attention than nicotine and harmful or potentially harmful constituents. With respect to nicotine, the threshold level in tobacco products below which dependent users will be able to freely stop using the product if they choose to do so is a very important question. Harmful and potentially harmful constituents include various toxicants and carcinogens. An updated list of 72 carcinogens in cigarette smoke is presented. A crucial question is the appropriate levels of toxicants and carcinogens in tobacco products. The use of carcinogen and toxicant biomarkers to determine these levels is discussed. Conclusions: The need to establish regulatory standards for added ingredients, nicotine, and other tobacco and tobacco smoke constituents leads to many interesting and potentially highly significant research questions, which urgently need to be addressed. PMID:21324834

  1. National Crime Information Center Mandatory Minimum Standards Curriculum for Full Access Terminal Operators. Volume One--Administrative Issues, Policy and the Interstate Identification Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Bureau of Investigation, Washington, DC. National Crime Information Center.

    This document is the first volume of a two-volume set of lesson plans which together make up a complete training package for full-service terminal operators. The lesson plans are designed to ensure that a state's National Crime Information Center (NCIC) training program meets Advisory Policy Board standards. (NCIC is a nationwide computerized…

  2. A Rising Tide of Primary School Standards--The Role of Data Systems in Improving Equitable Access for All to Quality Education in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attfield, Ian; Vu, Binh Thanh

    2013-01-01

    The approach taken over the past decade to introduce minimum primary school standards in Vietnam is reviewed, with annual school audits that measured both input (quality) and output indicators. It describes a successful, context specific approach in which flexible data systems were used to support the evolution and adoption of a new set of…

  3. [The Russian and international standards of age-related allocation of population for medical statistics, medical demographic analysis and risk assessment].

    PubMed

    Demin, V F; Paltsev, M A

    2013-01-01

    The actual European standard of age-related allocation of population in action is largely implemented in medical demographic studies of international (WHO etc.) and national organizations. The Rosstat also implements this standard in its demographic yearbooks and other publications. The standard is applied in computing the standardized indicator of population mortality in different countries and territories and also in assessing risk factors. The standard is based on the idea of evaluating mortality with an integrated standard in order to compare between different countries mortality of population, genders and calendar years. The analysis of results of testing calculations of values of standardized indicator of mortality of population of Russia and EU countries applying European standard in action revealed serious shortcomings. For example. unfounded overstating of values of standardized indicator, of mortality for males and its understating for females artificially increases already wide difference in mortality of males and females in the Russian Federation. The calculation on this background of standardized indicator of mortality for particular causes of death results in erroneous values due to neglected concurrence of risks. Because of necessity of improvement of standard a new concept of development of national and international standards is proposed. This concept is based on application of notion of balanced age-related allocation of population and its number values.

  4. Comparison of x ray computed tomography number to proton relative linear stopping power conversion functions using a standard phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Moyers, M. F.

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Adequate evaluation of the results from multi-institutional trials involving light ion beam treatments requires consideration of the planning margins applied to both targets and organs at risk. A major uncertainty that affects the size of these margins is the conversion of x ray computed tomography numbers (XCTNs) to relative linear stopping powers (RLSPs). Various facilities engaged in multi-institutional clinical trials involving proton beams have been applying significantly different margins in their patient planning. This study was performed to determine the variance in the conversion functions used at proton facilities in the U.S.A. wishing to participate in National Cancer Institute sponsored clinical trials. Methods: A simplified method of determining the conversion function was developed using a standard phantom containing only water and aluminum. The new method was based on the premise that all scanners have their XCTNs for air and water calibrated daily to constant values but that the XCTNs for high density/high atomic number materials are variable with different scanning conditions. The standard phantom was taken to 10 different proton facilities and scanned with the local protocols resulting in 14 derived conversion functions which were compared to the conversion functions used at the local facilities. Results: For tissues within ±300 XCTN of water, all facility functions produced converted RLSP values within ±6% of the values produced by the standard function and within 8% of the values from any other facility's function. For XCTNs corresponding to lung tissue, converted RLSP values differed by as great as ±8% from the standard and up to 16% from the values of other facilities. For XCTNs corresponding to low-density immobilization foam, the maximum to minimum values differed by as much as 40%. Conclusions: The new method greatly simplifies determination of the conversion function, reduces ambiguity, and in the future could promote

  5. 45 CFR 155.270 - Use of standards and protocols for electronic transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use of standards and protocols for electronic transactions. 155.270 Section 155.270 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS EXCHANGE ESTABLISHMENT STANDARDS AND OTHER RELATED STANDARDS UNDER...

  6. The Quik Fix study: a randomised controlled trial of brief interventions for young people with alcohol-related injuries and illnesses accessing emergency department and crisis support care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol is a major preventable cause of injury, disability and death in young people. Large numbers of young people with alcohol-related injuries and medical conditions present to hospital emergency departments (EDs). Access to brief, efficacious, accessible and cost effective treatment is an international health priority within this age group. While there is growing evidence for the efficacy of brief motivational interviewing (MI) for reducing alcohol use in young people, there is significant scope to increase its impact, and determine if it is the most efficacious and cost effective type of brief intervention available. The efficacy of personality-targeted interventions (PIs) for alcohol misuse delivered individually to young people is yet to be determined or compared to MI, despite growing evidence for school-based PIs. This study protocol describes a randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of telephone-delivered MI, PI and an Assessment Feedback/Information (AF/I) only control for reducing alcohol use and related harm in young people. Methods/design Participants will be 390 young people aged 16 to 25 years presenting to a crisis support service or ED with alcohol-related injuries and illnesses (including severe alcohol intoxication). This single blinded superiority trial randomized young people to (i) 2 sessions of MI; (ii) 2 sessions of a new PI or (iii) a 1 session AF/I only control. Participants are reassessed at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months on the primary outcomes of alcohol use and related problems and secondary outcomes of mental health symptoms, functioning, severity of problematic alcohol use, alcohol injuries, alcohol-related knowledge, coping self-efficacy to resist using alcohol, and cost effectiveness. Discussion This study will identify the most efficacious and cost-effective telephone-delivered brief intervention for reducing alcohol misuse and related problems in young people presenting to crisis support

  7. [Perspectives of pharmaceutical education--while explaining the related evaluation standards and their viewpoints of "evaluation of pharmaceutical education programs"].

    PubMed

    Hirata, Kazumasa

    2015-01-01

      In 2013, a program to be implemented by the Japan Accreditation Board for Pharmaceutical Education, Third-party Pharmaceutical Education Evaluation, was initiated. The purposes of this program are: 1) to ensure the quality of education programs; 2) to promote their improvement; and 3) to provide support to actively obtain public understanding and cooperation. In the next 7 years, all pharmaceutical departments and universities will undergo this third-party evaluation. The evaluation standards specify the necessity of establishing indices to evaluate goal achievement levels and to ensure appropriate evaluation based on standards in a number of very important domains of pharmaceutical education. They also emphasize that it is necessary to similarly evaluate overall learning achievement levels in undergraduate degree accreditation. On the other hand, the revision of pharmaceutical education models and core curricula was also proposed and considered in 2013, and preparations for the adoption of revised curricula are currently proceeding. The revised models and core curricula are mainly characterized by setting learning goals within a learning-achievement-based education approach, taking into consideration the 10 qualities to be achieved before graduating. In line with this, in order to nurture pharmacists who appropriately meet social needs by enhancing the quality of their education and training, it is crucial for universities to establish methods to appropriately evaluate learning goal achievement levels as a basis for the realization of these qualities. In this article, appropriate pharmaceutical education curricula, particularly evaluation methods, will be discussed from the above-mentioned perspectives, while explaining the related third-party evaluation standards and their viewpoints.

  8. Science and Language for English Language Learners in Relation to Next Generation Science Standards and with Implications for Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Okhee; Quinn, Helen; Valdes, Guadalupe

    2013-01-01

    The National Research Council (2011) released "A Framework for K-12 Science Education" that is guiding the development of the Next Generation Science Standards, which are expected to be finalized in early 2013. This article addresses language demands and opportunities that are embedded in the science and engineering practices delineated in the…

  9. Standards Relating to Schools and Education. Juvenile Justice Standards Project [of the] Institute of Judicial Administration [and the] American Bar Association. Tentative Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    [Buss, William; Goldstein, Stephen

    The standards and commentary in this volume are part of a series designed to cover the juvenile justice system and its relationship to the rights and responsibilities of juveniles. This volume on public education is addressed to legislators, courts, lawyers, educators, parents, students, and the general public. The volume proposes standards…

  10. Restaurant wheelchair accessibility.

    PubMed

    McClain, L; Beringer, D; Kuhnert, H; Priest, J; Wilkes, E; Wilkinson, S; Wyrick, L

    1993-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the compliance of restaurants to the wheelchair accessibility standards set forth in the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards. The standards that were operationalized in this study are also found in Title III of the Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990. The data were collected at 120 sites in three midwestern states. For one who uses a wheelchair, parking the car is often an obstacle to eating out. Only 53% of the restaurants surveyed provide handicapped parking. Entering the building may also be a problem. Of the restaurants that required a ramp, only 66% provided them. Inside the restaurant, the key problems were accessible rest-rooms and the height of tables. The study provided comparisons between restaurants in rural and urban settings, as well as comparisons between conventional restaurants and fast food restaurants. No notable differences emerged for these comparisons.

  11. Long-term changes in the total ozone mapping spectrometer relative to world primary standard Dobson spectrometer 83

    SciTech Connect

    McPeters, R.D. ); Komhyr, W.D. )

    1991-02-20

    The authors have examined the stability of the calibration of the Nimbus 7 solar backscatter ultraviolet (SBUV) and total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) instruments by comparing their ozone measurements with those made by a single, very stable Dobson instrument: the world primary standard Dobson spectrometer number 83. Measurements of ozone made with instrument 83 at Mauna Loa observatory in eight summers between 1979 and 1989 were compared with coincident TOMS ozone measurements. The comparison shows that relative to instrument 83, ozone measured by TOMS (and SBUV) was stable between 1979 and approximately 1983, had decreased by 3% by 1986, and had decreased by almost 7% by 1989. A similar time dependence is seen when data from an ensemble of 39 Dobson stations throughout the world is compared with TOMS over the period 1979-1987. The most likely reason for the relative drift is that the diffuser plate used by both SBUV and TOMS to measure solar flux has suffered an uncorrected wavelength dependent degradation, with most of the degradation occurring after 1983. The recently released version 6 TOMS data, corrected using the internal pair justification technique, show almost no drift relative to Dobson instrument 83. The authors conclude from these comparisons that accurate measurements of long-term global ozone change will require a coherent system incorporating both ground based and satellite based ozone measurements.

  12. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-05-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  13. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan; Jersey Inst Ansari, New; Jersey Inst, New

    2005-04-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  14. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-06-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  15. Health-related beliefs and decisions about accessing HIV medical care among HIV-infected persons who are not receiving care.

    PubMed

    Beer, Linda; Fagan, Jennifer L; Valverde, Eduardo; Bertolli, Jeanne

    2009-09-01

    In the United States, the publically supported national HIV medical care system is designed to provide HIV medical care to those who would otherwise not receive such care. Nevertheless, many HIV-infected persons are not receiving medical care. Limited information is available from HIV-infected persons not currently in care about the reasons they are not receiving care. From November 2006 to February 2007, we conducted five focus groups at community-based organizations and health departments in five U.S. cities to elicit qualitative information about barriers to entering HIV care. The 37 participants were mostly male (n = 29), over the age of 30 (n = 34), and all but one had not received HIV medical care in the previous 6 months. The focus group discussions revealed health belief-related barriers that have often been overlooked by studies of access to care. Three key themes emerged: avoidance and disbelief of HIV serostatus, conceptions of illness and appropriate health care, and negative experiences with, and distrust of, health care. Our findings point to the potentially important influence of these health-related beliefs on individual decisions about whether to access HIV medical care. We also discuss the implications of these beliefs for provider-patient communication, and suggest that providers frame their communications with patients such that they are attentive to the issues identified by our respondents, to better engage patients as partners in the treatment process.

  16. Does China's new cooperative medical scheme promote rural elders' access to healthcare services in relation to chronic conditions?

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Baozhen

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examined use of healthcare services by elderly people with a long-term condition living in rural China and participating in that country's New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS). Methods Data were taken from the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey. Results The study results showed that education level and annual income were low among rural elders (aged ≥65 years); the illiteracy rate was 58.0% (200/345) and 67.6% (92/136) had an annual income of less than 5000 Chinese yuan renminbi. The elders had low rates of treatment and use of preventive healthcare services while the prevalence of chronic disease was highest among them when compared to other age groups. Among the few elders who received preventive healthcare, most received it at village clinics. Conclusions Preventive healthcare services and chronic disease management are urgently needed by rural elders in China. NCMS should initiate payments to township health centers to enable them to undertake community outreach and education campaigns among rural residents, and train village doctors in standard chronic condition management and prevention, with prioritization of the provision of prevention and management of chronic conditions by village clinics. PMID:25091022

  17. Comparison of values for standardized total tract digestibility and relative bioavailability of phosphorus in dicalcium phosphate and distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Baker, S R; Kim, B G; Stein, H H

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to compare values for the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) and the relative bioavailability of P in dicalcium phosphate (DCP) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) when fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), the basal endogenous P loss (EPL), and the STTD of P in DCP and DDGS were determined. Eighteen pigs (initial BW: 34.93±1.04 kg) were allotted to 3 cornstarch-based diets in a randomized complete block design and housed individually in metabolism cages. Two diets contained DCP and DDGS, respectively, as the sole source of P and the last diet was a P-free diet that was used to measure EPL from the pigs. Results indicated that the ATTD of P in DCP and DDGS were 86.1 and 58.8%, respectively, and the STTD of P in DCP and DDGS were 93.1 and 63.1%, respectively. The EPL was determined at 174 mg/kg DMI. In Exp. 2, 42 pigs (initial BW: 29.02±2.03 kg) were allotted to 7 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design. Pigs were housed individually and allowed ad libitum access to feed and water. A basal diet (0.22% P) based on corn, casein, cornstarch, and potato protein concentrate was formulated. Three additional diets were formulated by adding 0.04, 0.08, or 0.12% P from DCP to the basal diet to create diets containing 0.26, 0.30, or 0.34% P. The last 3 diets were formulated by adding 0.04, 0.08, or 0.12% P from DDGS to the basal diet at the expense of cornstarch. Pigs were fed experimental diets for 28 d. They were then euthanized and the third and fourth metacarpals from the right front foot were collected. Metacarpal bone ash and bone P were regressed against P intake for each ingredient and via slope ratio methodology, it was determined that the bioavailability of P in DDGS was 87% relative to that in DCP. It was concluded from this work that the value for relative bioavailability of P in DDGS overestimates the digestibility of P in DDGS and values for the

  18. The Human Proteome Organization-Proteomics Standards Initiative Quality Control Working Group: Making Quality Control More Accessible for Biological Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bittremieux, Wout; Walzer, Mathias; Tenzer, Stefan; Zhu, Weimin; Salek, Reza M; Eisenacher, Martin; Tabb, David L

    2017-03-30

    To have confidence in results acquired during biological mass spectrometry experiments, a systematic approach to quality control is of vital importance. Nonetheless, until now, only scattered initiatives have been undertaken to this end, and these individual efforts have often not been complementary. To address this issue, the Human Proteome Organization-Proteomics Standards Initiative has established a new working group on quality control at its meeting in the spring of 2016. The goal of this working group is to provide a unifying framework for quality control data. The initial focus will be on providing a community-driven standardized file format for quality control. For this purpose, the previously proposed qcML format will be adapted to support a variety of use cases for both proteomics and metabolomics applications, and it will be established as an official PSI format. An important consideration is to avoid enforcing restrictive requirements on quality control but instead provide the basic technical necessities required to support extensive quality control for any type of mass spectrometry-based workflow. We want to emphasize that this is an open community effort, and we seek participation from all scientists with an interest in this field.

  19. Web Accessibility and Accessibility Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Ravonne A.; Huprich, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Section 508 of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) mandates that programs and services be accessible to people with disabilities. While schools of library and information science (SLIS*) and university libraries should model accessible Web sites, this may not be the case. This article examines previous studies about the Web accessibility of…

  20. The Council on Accreditation of Park, Recreation, Tourism, and Related Professions: 2013 Standards-- The Importance of Outcome-Based Assessment and the Connection to Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazey, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA) adopted recognition standards in 2006 requiring regional and professional accreditors such as the Council on Accreditation of Park, Recreation, Tourism, and Related Professions (COAPRT) to adopt standards and practices advancing academic quality, demonstrating accountability, and encouraging…

  1. The Equal Access Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catron, J. Gregory

    1987-01-01

    Reviews past history of access of religious activities in public schools in relation to the establishment clause of the First Amendment and sets forth the prerequisites in the Equal Access Act of 1984 for creating a well-defined forum for student-initiated free speech including religious groups in public high schools. (MD)

  2. Design for Accessibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conn, David R.; McCallum, Barry

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the facets of building design which affect the accessibility of libraries for the physically disabled and presents some basic guidelines for designing accessible libraries. Types of disabilities, questions relating to site design, and specific architectural and physical features of libraries (entranceways, lighting, stairways, and…

  3. 36 CFR 1191.1 - Accessibility guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Department of Justice adopted the 2010 ADA Standards for Accessible Design (2010 Standards) as the regulatory.... Complete copies of the 2010 Standards can be obtained from the Department of Justice's ADA Web site...

  4. Accessible Neurobehavioral Anger-Related Markers for Vulnerability to Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in a Population of Male Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tamar; Gilam, Gadi; Raz, Gal; Or-Borichev, Ayelet; Bar-Haim, Yair; Fruchter, Eyal; Hendler, Talma

    2017-01-01

    Identifying vulnerable individuals prone to develop post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) is of paramount importance, especially in populations at high risk for stress exposure such as combat soldiers. While several neural and psychological risk factors are known, no post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) biomarker has yet progressed to clinical use. Here we present novel and clinically applicable anger-related neurobehavioral risk markers for military-related PTSS in a large cohort of Israeli soldiers. The psychological, electrophysiological and neural (Simultaneous recording of scalp electroencephalography [EEG] and functional magnetic resonance imaging [fMRI]) reaction to an anger-inducing film were measured prior to advanced military training and PTSS were recorded at 1-year follow-up. Limbic modulation was measured using a novel approach that monitors amygdala modulation using fMRI-inspired EEG, hereafter termed amygdala electrical fingerprint (amyg-EFP). Inter-subject correlation (ISC) analysis on fMRI data indicated that during movie viewing participants’ brain activity was synchronized in limbic regions including the amygdala. Self-reported state-anger and amyg-EFP modulation successfully predicted PTSS levels. State-anger significantly accounted for 20% of the variance in PTSS, and amyg-EFP signal modulation significantly accounted for additional 15% of the variance. Our study was limited by the moderate PTSS levels and lack of systematic baseline symptoms assessment. These results suggest that pre-stress neurobehavioral measures of anger may predict risk for later PTSS, pointing to anger-related vulnerability factors that can be measured efficiently and at a low cost before stress exposure. Possible mechanisms underlying the association between the anger response and risk for PTSS are discussed. PMID:28326027

  5. Central Venous Access Device-Related Bacillus Cereus Endocarditis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Wright, William F

    2016-06-01

    Bacillus cereus typically presents as a gastrointestinal infection, but rarely manifests as systemic disease. This report describes a case of B. cereus-related endocarditis that presented as a sickle cell crisis and bacteremia. Initial clinical suspicion was for laboratory contamination of blood cultures. The case herein described is intended to demonstrate an uncommon presentation of B. cereus infection and highlights the value of an aggressive need to further investigate and interpret unexpected blood culture findings in clinical practice, early adequate antimicrobial therapy, prompt diagnosis, and consideration to urgent surgical interventions in such cases.

  6. Central Venous Access Device-Related Bacillus Cereus Endocarditis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Wright, William F.

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus typically presents as a gastrointestinal infection, but rarely manifests as systemic disease. This report describes a case of B. cereus-related endocarditis that presented as a sickle cell crisis and bacteremia. Initial clinical suspicion was for laboratory contamination of blood cultures. The case herein described is intended to demonstrate an uncommon presentation of B. cereus infection and highlights the value of an aggressive need to further investigate and interpret unexpected blood culture findings in clinical practice, early adequate antimicrobial therapy, prompt diagnosis, and consideration to urgent surgical interventions in such cases. PMID:27231118

  7. The Meaning of Curriculum-Related Examination Standards in Scotland and England: A Home-International Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Jo-Anne; Gray, Lena

    2016-01-01

    The ways in which examination standards are conceptualised and operationalised differently across nations has not been given sufficient attention. The international literature on standard-setting has been dominated by the psychometrics tradition. Broader conceptualisations of examination standards have been discussed in the literature in England,…

  8. Choice of FDMA/SCPC access technique for aeronautical satellite voice system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. K.

    1989-01-01

    A worldwide aeronautical mobile satellite system is about to become operational. The system architecture and access methods have been debated extensively, resulting in the selection of Time Division Multiplexing/Time Division Multiple Access (TDM/TDMA) access for packet data, and Single Channel Per Carrier (SCPC) for voice. These have become standards for airline use, and also satisfy the known requirements of ICAO for safety related communications. Voice communications are expected to absorb a high proportion of satellite bandwidth and power in the future. Here, it is explained why INMARSAT selected Frequency Division Multiple Access/SCPC satellite access for this application.

  9. Prediction Enhancement of Residue Real-Value Relative Accessible Surface Area in Transmembrane Helical Proteins by Solving the Output Preference Problem of Machine Learning-Based Predictors.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Feng; Shen, Hong-Bin

    2015-11-23

    The α-helical transmembrane proteins constitute 25% of the entire human proteome space and are difficult targets in high-resolution wet-lab structural studies, calling for accurate computational predictors. We present a novel sequence-based method called MemBrain-Rasa to predict relative solvent accessibility surface area (rASA) from primary sequences. MemBrain-Rasa features by an ensemble prediction protocol composed of a statistical machine-learning engine, which is trained in the sequential feature space, and a segment template similarity-based engine, which is constructed with solved structures and sequence alignment. We locally constructed a comprehensive database of residue relative solvent accessibility surface area from the solved protein 3D structures in the PDB database. It is searched against for segment templates that are expected to be structurally similar to the query sequence's segments. The segment template-based prediction is then fused with the support vector regression outputs using knowledge rules. Our experiments show that pure machine learning output cannot cover the entire rASA solution space and will have a serious prediction preference problem due to the relatively small size of membrane protein structures that can be used as the training samples. The template-based engine solves this problem very well, resulting in significant improvement of the prediction performance. MemBrain-Rasa achieves a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.733 and mean absolute error of 13.593 on the benchmark dataset, which are 26.4% and 26.1% better than existing predictors. MemBrain-Rasa represents a new progress in structure modeling of α-helical transmembrane proteins. MemBrain-Rasa is available at www.csbio.sjtu.edu.cn/bioinf/MemBrain/.

  10. Accessible DNA and Relative Depletion of H3K9me2 at Maize Loci Undergoing RNA-Directed DNA Methylation[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Gent, Jonathan I.; Madzima, Thelma F.; Bader, Rechien; Kent, Matthew R.; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Stam, Maike; McGinnis, Karen M.; Dawe, R. Kelly

    2014-01-01

    RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) in plants is a well-characterized example of RNA interference-related transcriptional gene silencing. To determine the relationships between RdDM and heterochromatin in the repeat-rich maize (Zea mays) genome, we performed whole-genome analyses of several heterochromatic features: dimethylation of lysine 9 and lysine 27 (H3K9me2 and H3K27me2), chromatin accessibility, DNA methylation, and small RNAs; we also analyzed two mutants that affect these processes, mediator of paramutation1 and zea methyltransferase2. The data revealed that the majority of the genome exists in a heterochromatic state defined by inaccessible chromatin that is marked by H3K9me2 and H3K27me2 but that lacks RdDM. The minority of the genome marked by RdDM was predominantly near genes, and its overall chromatin structure appeared more similar to euchromatin than to heterochromatin. These and other data indicate that the densely staining chromatin defined as heterochromatin differs fundamentally from RdDM-targeted chromatin. We propose that small interfering RNAs perform a specialized role in repressing transposons in accessible chromatin environments and that the bulk of heterochromatin is incompatible with small RNA production. PMID:25465407

  11. [Oral health and access to dental care services in relation to the Health Necessities Index: São Paulo, Brazil, 2008].

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Simone Rennó; Frias, Antônio Carlos; Zilbovicius, Celso; Araujo, Maria Ercilia de

    2012-04-01

    The Health Department of São Paulo, Brazil, has developed a Health Necessities Index (HNI) to identify priority areas for providing health assistance. In 2008, a survey of the status of oral health was conducted. The objective of this ecological study was to analyze the status of oral health in relation to the HNI. The variables, stratified by the age of 5, 12 and 15 years old were: percentage of individuals with difficulty of access to dental care services; DMFT and DMFS; prevalence of the need for tooth extraction and treatment of dental caries. Data were analyzed for the 25 Health Technical Supervision Units (HTS). The Statistical Covariance Test was used as well as the Pearson correlation coefficient and linear regression model. A positive correlation was observed between high scores of the HNI and difficulty of access to services. In the HTS with high scores of HNI a higher incidence of dental caries was observed, a greater need for tooth extractions and low caries-free incidence. In order to improve health conditions of the population it is mandatory to prioritize actions in areas of social deprivation.

  12. Relation of structure to function for the US reference standard endotoxin after exposure to /sup 60/Co radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Csako, G.; Suba, E.A.; Ahlgren, A.; Tsai, C.M.; Elin, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    The structure and function of the highly purified US reference standard endotoxin (RSE) were studied after exposure to ionizing radiation from a /sup 60/Co source. With increasing doses of radiation, the trilaminar ribbon-like structure of untreated endotoxin exhibited focal swelling, after which only spherical particles were seen by electron microscopy. These morphological changes were paralleled by the respective loss of O-side chain repeating units and pieces of the R-core from the lipopolysaccharide molecules, as demonstrated by electrophoresis. The biologic function of the irradiated endotoxin was assessed with a variety of tests. At higher doses of radiation, a direct relation was observed between the degradation of the molecular and supramolecular structure and the loss of biologic function. At lower doses of radiation, however, there was variability among the functional assays in their rate of change with progressive irradiation of the RSE. The results suggest that the carbohydrate moiety plays an important role both in determining the supramolecular structure and in modulating certain biologic activities of bacterial endotoxins.

  13. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Building access control (BAC)--a catchall phrase to describe the systems that control access to facilities across campus--has traditionally been handled with remarkably low-tech solutions: (1) manual locks; (2) electronic locks; and (3) ID cards with magnetic strips. Recent improvements have included smart cards and keyless solutions that make use…

  14. Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  15. Nuclear and cytoplasmic genetic diversity in weed beet and sugar beet accessions compared to wild relatives: new insights into the genetic relationships within the Beta vulgaris complex species.

    PubMed

    Fénart, Stéphane; Arnaud, Jean-François; De Cauwer, Isabelle; Cuguen, Joël

    2008-05-01

    Hybridization between cultivated species and their wild relatives is now widely considered to be common. In the Beta vulgaris complex, the sugar beet seed multiplication areas have been the scene of inadvertent pollination of sugar beet seed bearers by wild ruderal pollen donors, generating a weedy form of beet which infests sugar beet fields in European countries. Up to now, investigations of evolutionary dynamics of genetic diversity within the B. vulgaris complex were addressed using few genetical markers and few accessions. In this study, we tackled this issue using a panel of complementary markers: five nuclear microsatellite loci, four mitochondrial minisatellite loci and one chloroplastic PCR-RFLP marker. We sampled 1,640 individuals that illustrate the actual distribution of inland ruderal beets of South Western France, weed beets and wild sea beets of northern France as well as the diversity of 35 contemporary European diploid cultivars. Nuclear genetic diversity in weed beets appeared to be as high as those of ruderal beets and sea beets, whereas the narrowness of cultivar accessions was confirmed. This genetic bottleneck in cultivars is even more important in the cytoplasmic genome as only one haplotype was found among all sugar beet cultivars. The large majority of weed beet populations also presented this unique cytoplasmic haplotype, as expected owing to their maternal cultivated origin. Nonetheless, various cytoplasmic haplotypes were found within three populations of weed beets, implying wild-to-weed seed flows. Finally, our findings gave new insights into the genetical relationships between the components of the B. vulgaris complex: (1) we found a very strong genetic divergence between wild sea beet and other relatives, which was unexpected given the recent evolutionary history and the full cross-compatibility of all taxa and (2) we definitely confirmed that the classification into cultivated, wild, ruderal and weed forms according to their

  16. Web Accessibility and Guidelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Simon; Yesilada, Yeliz

    Access to, and movement around, complex online environments, of which the World Wide Web (Web) is the most popular example, has long been considered an important and major issue in the Web design and usability field. The commonly used slang phrase ‘surfing the Web’ implies rapid and free access, pointing to its importance among designers and users alike. It has also been long established that this potentially complex and difficult access is further complicated, and becomes neither rapid nor free, if the user is disabled. There are millions of people who have disabilities that affect their use of the Web. Web accessibility aims to help these people to perceive, understand, navigate, and interact with, as well as contribute to, the Web, and thereby the society in general. This accessibility is, in part, facilitated by the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) currently moving from version one to two. These guidelines are intended to encourage designers to make sure their sites conform to specifications, and in that conformance enable the assistive technologies of disabled users to better interact with the page content. In this way, it was hoped that accessibility could be supported. While this is in part true, guidelines do not solve all problems and the new WCAG version two guidelines are surrounded by controversy and intrigue. This chapter aims to establish the published literature related to Web accessibility and Web accessibility guidelines, and discuss limitations of the current guidelines and future directions.

  17. Accessibility and assistive products

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Porrero, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Accessibility and assistive products and technologies are needed to ensure the rights of persons with disabilities and older persons. Many developments have been implemented in laws, standards, markets and from the consumers perspective, at international, European and national levels. The real issue is that not all the potential users benefit from the use of assistive products or accessible measures. Discussion Innovative methods are needed to allow all potential users to have real advantage of assistive technologies and accessible and design for all facilities. Best practices will be presented and existing gaps and recommendations will be discussed. Cost-benefits aspects will also be presented. Conclusion In order to get advantages from opportunities of globalization, hard work and responsibilities of all stakeholders are needed, so that assistive products and accessibility reach a whole range of situations and environments and contribute to ensure quality of life in a society for all.

  18. Current state of web accessibility of Malaysian ministries websites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmi, Aidi; Mohamad, Rosli

    2016-08-01

    Despite the fact that Malaysian public institutions have progressed considerably on website and portal usage, web accessibility has been reported as one of the issues deserves special attention. Consistent with the government moves to promote an effective use of web and portal, it is essential for the government institutions to ensure compliance with established standards and guidelines on web accessibility. This paper evaluates accessibility of 25 Malaysian ministries websites using automated tools i.e. WAVE and Achecker. Both tools are designed to objectively evaluate web accessibility in conformance with Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 (WCAG 2.0) and United States Rehabilitation Act 1973 (Section 508). The findings reported somewhat low compliance to web accessibility standard amongst the ministries. Further enhancement is needed in the aspect of input elements such as label and checkbox to be associated with text as well as image-related elements. This findings could be used as a mechanism for webmasters to locate and rectify errors pertaining to the web accessibility and to ensure equal access of the web information and services to all citizen.

  19. Cross-State Findings. Benchmarking State Implementation of College- and Career-Readiness Standards, Aligned Assessments and Related Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kimberly; Mira, Mary Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Implementation of college- and career-readiness standards is some of the most important work currently underway in states to improve student achievement and public education overall. SREB examined the efforts of 14 states--including 11 SREB states--to support implementation of new college- and career-readiness standards. The goal of the research…

  20. Database service for Japanese Standards Information : 'KIKAKU NET'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Masayuki

    Japanese Standards Association (JSA) started the standards information database services, 'KIKAKU NET' in October 1989. In Japan, it is the only standards information database compiled based on the information and know-hows which the Association has accumulated over fifteen years and has been entrusted the project for research by Agency Industrial Science and Technology, Ministry of International Trade and Industry. It covers the domestic standards information datafile for Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS), Japanese Agricultural Standards (JAS), and some Japanese Association Standards which are related to JIS, and the foreign standards information datafile for international standards of ISO and IEC, foreign national standards, and foreign association standards. 'KIKAKU NET' is available for user's personal computer by on-line access to the host computer of distributors which have been contracted with the Association. This paper describes characteristics, contents and the system outline of 'KIKAKU NET'.

  1. Structural Determinants of the Closed KCa3.1 Channel Pore in Relation to Channel Gating: Results from a Substituted Cysteine Accessibility Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Hélène; Garneau, Line; Banderali, Umberto; Simoes, Manuel; Parent, Lucie; Sauvé, Rémy

    2007-01-01

    In this work we address the question of the KCa3.1 channel pore structure in the closed configuration in relation to the contribution of the C-terminal end of the S6 segments to the Ca2+-dependent gating process. Our results based on SCAM (substituted cysteine accessibility method) experiments first demonstrate that the S6 transmembrane segment of the open KCa3.1 channel contains two distinct functional domains delimited by V282 with MTSEA and MTSET binding leading to a total channel inhibition at positions V275, T278, and V282 and to a steep channel activation at positions A283 and A286. The rates of modification by MTSEA (diameter 4.6 Å) of the 275C (central cavity) and 286C residues (S6 C-terminal end) for the closed channel configuration were found to differ by less than sevenfold, whereas experiments performed with the larger MTSET reagent (diameter 5.8 Å) resulted in modification rates 103–104 faster for cysteines at 286 compared with 275. Consistent with these results, the modification rates of the cavity lining 275C residue by MTSEA, Et-Hg+, and Ag+ appeared poorly state dependent, whereas modification rates by MTSET were 103 faster for the open than the closed configuration. A SCAM analysis of the channel inner vestibule in the closed state revealed in addition that cysteine residues at 286 were accessible to MTS reagents as large as MTS-PtrEA, a result supported by the observation that binding of MTSET to cysteines at positions 283 or 286 could neither sterically nor electrostatically block the access of MTSEA to the closed channel cavity (275C). It follows that the closed KCa3.1 structure can hardly be accountable by an inverted teepee-like structure as described for KcsA, but is better represented by a narrow passage centered at V282 (equivalent to V474 in Shaker) connecting the channel central cavity to the cytosolic medium. This passage would not be however restrictive to the diffusion of small reagents such as MTSEA, Et-Hg+, and Ag+, arguing

  2. The validity of a monitoring system based on routinely collected dairy cattle health data relative to a standardized herd check.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, H; Stegeman, J A; Straatsma, J W; Hooijer, G A; Schaik, G van

    2015-11-01

    Dairy cattle health is often assessed during farm visits. However, farm visits are time consuming and cattle health is assessed at only one point in time. Moreover, farm visits are poorly comparable and/or repeatable when inspection is carried out by many different professionals. Many countries register cattle health parameters such as bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) and mortality in central databases. A great advantage of such routinely available data is that they are uniformly gathered and registered throughout time. This makes comparison between dairy cattle herds possible and could result in opportunities to develop reliable tools for assessing cattle health based on routinely available data. In 2005, a monitoring system for the assessment of cattle health in Dutch dairy herds based on routinely available data was developed. This system had to serve as an alternative for the compulsory quarterly farm visits, which were implemented in 2002. However, before implementation of the alternative system for dairy cows, the validity of the data-based monitoring system and the compulsory quarterly visits relative to the real health status of the herd should be known. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of the data-based monitoring system and the compulsory quarterly visits relative to a standardized herd check for detecting dairy herds with health problems. The results showed that routinely available data can be used to develop an effective screening instrument for detecting herds with poor cattle health. Routinely available data such as cattle mortality and BMSCC that were used in this study had a significant association with animal-based measurements such as the general health impression of the dairy cows (including e.g. rumen fill and body condition). Our study supports the view that cattle health parameters based on routinely available data can serve as a tool for detecting herds with a poor cattle health status which can reduce the number of

  3. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-03-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  4. Equal Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Patta, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Presents an interview with Stephen McCarthy, co-partner and president of Equal Access ADA Consulting Architects of San Diego, California, about designing schools to naturally integrate compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). (EV)

  5. Impact of Indoxyl Sulfate on Progenitor Cell-Related Neovascularization of Peripheral Arterial Disease and Post-Angioplasty Thrombosis of Dialysis Vascular Access

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chih-Cheng; Hung, Szu-Chun; Kuo, Ko-Lin; Tarng, Der-Cherng

    2017-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased risk of vascular disease, which is associated with considerable health care costs. Vascular disease in CKD differs clinically and pathobiologically from that in patients with normal renal function. Besides the traditional risk factors, retention of uremic toxins contributes to the pathogenesis of vascular disease in patients with CKD. Indoxyl sulfate is a protein-bound uremic toxin and is inefficiently removed by conventional dialysis. Accumulating evidence suggests that indoxyl sulfate is a vascular toxin involved in atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, vascular calcification and vascular repair. Clinically, indoxyl sulfate is associated with total and cardiovascular mortality in patients with CKD. Recent studies have indicated that in addition to coronary and cerebral arteries, indoxyl sulfate plays a role in peripheral artery disease (PAD) and dialysis graft thrombosis. Emerging evidence suggests that indoxyl sulfate is implicated via novel mechanisms, including progenitor cell-related neovascularization and tissue factor-related hypercoagulability. These findings raise the possibility that strategies targeting serum indoxyl sulfate may have the potential to improve the outcomes of PAD and dialysis vascular access in patients with CKD. PMID:28067862

  6. A Standard of Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheat, Dave; Cramer, James E.; Cramer, Mary Kay

    2000-01-01

    Principals can support teachers' pursuit of National Board of Professional Teaching Standards certification by learning about the NBPTS's certification process, putting candidates in contact with NBPTS support programs, facilitating access to technology, providing building access on weekends, volunteering to photocopy or obtain needed materials,…

  7. Scientist engagement in NGSS-related professional development: the role of subject-matter experts in implementing the Next-Generation Science Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Implementation of the Next-Generation Science Standards (NGSS) will require a significant commitment from instructors in the K-12 arena to mastering a broad area of subject matter. In particular, this presentation focuses on weather- and climate-related areas in the NGSS, specifically fifth- and sixth-grade standards (MS-ESS5-2 and MS-ESS2-6, respectively) and the requirements of a teacher to connect both observations and model development to complex atmospheric concepts to satisfy the standards. Involving scientists as subject-matter experts in professional development modules designed to address the NGSS standards can greatly improve instructor understanding of the necessary material. Results from extant teacher development workshops developed by the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere at Colorado State University, using the Colorado fifth-grade state standards for weather and climate (which are materially similar to the NGSS standards), are demonstrated, focusing on knowledge transfer and follow-up with educators. Efforts to maintain contact and continue scientist-instructor relationship post-workshop are detailed, as well as challenges faced implementing workshops. Possible best-practices guidelines that would extend to other fields of research germane to NGSS standards are discussed as well.

  8. Performance of the new Efratom optically pumped rubidium frequency standards and their possible application in space relativity experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alley, C. O.; Williams, R.; Singh, G.; Mullendore, J.

    1972-01-01

    The characteristics of Efratom optically pumped rubidium frequency standards are discussed. The Efratom units were compared with cesium beam and hydrogen maser standards and showed a stability of approximately 5 times 10 to the minus 12th power over two one-week periods. Dependency of frequency upon the environmental parameters of pressure, magnetic field, temperature, supply voltage, and acceleration was measured. A package of three units with automatic phase comparison and recording was designed and constructed to allow a measurement of relativistic effects on time with high accuracy during space missions.

  9. Registered access: a 'Triple-A' approach.

    PubMed

    Dyke, Stephanie O M; Kirby, Emily; Shabani, Mahsa; Thorogood, Adrian; Kato, Kazuto; Knoppers, Bartha M

    2016-12-01

    We propose a standard model for a novel data access tier - registered access - to facilitate access to data that cannot be published in open access archives owing to ethical and legal risk. Based on an analysis of applicable research ethics and other legal and administrative frameworks, we discuss the general characteristics of this Registered Access Model, which would comprise a three-stage approval process: Authentication, Attestation and Authorization. We are piloting registered access with the Demonstration Projects of the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health for which it may provide a suitable mechanism for access to certain data types and to different types of data users.

  10. Using a Wheelchair as a Seat in a Motor Vehicle: An Overview of Wheelchair Transportation Safety and Related Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Larry

    2007-01-01

    This is the first of a series of six articles on the topic of transportation safety for wheelchair-seated travelers and will highlight some of the basic issues and principles that have been considered in the development of voluntary standards for wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraints systems (WTORS) as well as for wheelchairs that are used as…

  11. Dollars, Distinction, or Duty? The Meaning of the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards for Teachers' Work and Collegial Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anagnostopoulos, Dorothea; Sykes, Gary; McCrory, Raven; Cannata, Marisa; Frank, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) is the most prominent contemporary effort to professionalize teaching. Along with identifying exceptional teachers, the NBPTS seeks to alter teachers' work by establishing a cadre of expert teachers capable of and obligated to leading school improvement efforts. This article reports…

  12. GIS Education at Geographical Departments in Japanese Universities in Relation to the Japan Standard GIS Core Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasaki, Midori; Oguchi, Takashi; Okabe, Atsuyuki; Sadahiro, Yukio

    2008-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) education in Japan lags far behind that in Western developed countries. As such the development of systematic GIS education in Japanese universities, including the preparation of a GIS standard curriculum, becomes an urgent issue. This article examines the present situation and recent trends of GIS education in…

  13. 75 FR 32178 - Release of Final Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... final document titled, Quantitative Risk and Exposure Assessment for Carbon Monoxide (REA). The REA describes ] quantitative analyses that have been conducted as part of the review of the National Ambient Air... Standards (Mail code C504-06), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711;...

  14. 77 FR 42495 - Release of Draft Documents Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ... Ozone, First External Review Draft. These two draft assessment documents describe the quantitative analyses the EPA is conducting as part of the review of the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS... NAAQS,\\3\\ the Agency is conducting quantitative assessments characterizing the: (1) Health...

  15. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-02-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  16. A "Common" Vision of Instruction? An Analysis of English/Language Arts Professional Development Materials Related to the Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Emily; Benko, Susanna L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the stances put forward by a selection of professional development resources interpreting the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts (ELA) teachers, and to analyse where these resources stand in relation to research in ELA. Specifically, we analyse resources written by English educators…

  17. Standards of care for patients with spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed

    Abad, Miguel Ángel; Ariza, Rafael Ariza; Aznar, Juan José; Batlle, Enrique; Beltrán, Emma; de Dios Cañete, Juan; de Miguel, Eugenio; Escudero, Alejandro; Fernández-Carballido, Cristina; Gratacós, Jordi; Loza, Estíbaliz; Linares, Luis Francisco; Montilla, Carlos; Ramos, Manuel Moreno; Mulero, Juan; Queiro, Rubén; Raya, Enrique; Lozano, Carlos Rodríguez; Moreno, Jesús Rodríguez; Sanz, Jesús; Silva-Fernández, Lucía; Torre Alonso, Juan Carlos; Zarco, Pedro; Fernández-Sueiro, José Luis; Juanola, Xavier

    2014-02-01

    To define and give priory to standards of care in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA). A systematic literature review on SpA standards of care and a specific search in relevant and related sources was performed. An expert panel was established who developed the standards of care and graded their priority (high, mild, low, or no priority) following qualitative methodology and Delphi process. An electronic survey was sent to a representative sample of 167 rheumatologists all around the country, who also gave priority to the standards of care (same scale). A descriptive analysis is presented. The systematic literature review retrieved no article specifically related to SpA patients. A total of 38 standards of care were obtained-12 related to structure, 20 to process, and 6 to result. Access to care, treatment, and safety standards of care were given a high priority by most of rheumatologists. Standards not directly connected to daily practice were not given such priority, as standards which included a time framework. The standards generated for the performance evaluation (including patient and professionals satisfaction) were not considered especially important in general. This set of standards of care should help improve the quality of care in SpA patients.

  18. Expanding Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    There is no question that the United States lags behind most industrialized nations in consumer access to broadband Internet service. For many policy makers and activists, this shortfall marks the latest phase in the struggle to overcome the digital divide. To remedy this lack of broadband affordability and availability, one start-up firm--with…

  19. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2012-01-01

    As faculty members add online and multimedia elements to their courses, colleges and universities across the country are realizing that there is a lot of work to be done to ensure that disabled students (and employees) have equal access to course material and university websites. Unfortunately, far too few schools consider the task a top priority.…

  20. Easy Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Donald R.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a revised building standard, 1980 A 117.1, requiring barrier-free locksets in new and renovated buildings. The standard specifies that locksets must be designed so that the handle need not be twisted, grasped, or pinched to open the door. Lever-handle, push-type, and U-shaped handles are preferred. (TE)

  1. A case study of the Secure Anonymous Information Linkage (SAIL) Gateway: a privacy-protecting remote access system for health-related research and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kerina H; Ford, David V; Jones, Chris; Dsilva, Rohan; Thompson, Simon; Brooks, Caroline J; Heaven, Martin L; Thayer, Daniel S; McNerney, Cynthia L; Lyons, Ronan A

    2014-08-01

    With the current expansion of data linkage research, the challenge is to find the balance between preserving the privacy of person-level data whilst making these data accessible for use to their full potential. We describe a privacy-protecting safe haven and secure remote access system, referred to as the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage (SAIL) Gateway. The Gateway provides data users with a familiar Windows interface and their usual toolsets to access approved anonymously-linked datasets for research and evaluation. We outline the principles and operating model of the Gateway, the features provided to users within the secure environment, and how we are approaching the challenges of making data safely accessible to increasing numbers of research users. The Gateway represents a powerful analytical environment and has been designed to be scalable and adaptable to meet the needs of the rapidly growing data linkage community.

  2. NASA's UAS NAS Access Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Charles W.

    2011-01-01

    The vision of the Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project is "A global transportation system which allows routine access for all classes of UAS." The goal of the UAS Integration in the NAS Project is to "contribute capabilities that reduce technical barriers related to the safety and operational challenges associated with enabling routine UAS access to the NAS." This goal will be accomplished through a two-phased approach based on development of system-level integration of key concepts, technologies and/or procedures, and demonstrations of integrated capabilities in an operationally relevant environment. Phase 1 will take place the first two years of the Project and Phase 2 will take place the following three years. The Phase 1 and 2 technical objectives are: Phase 1: Developing a gap analysis between current state of the art and the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) UAS Concept of Operations . Validating the key technical areas identified by this Project . Conducting initial modeling, simulation, and flight testing activities . Completing Sub-project Phase 1 deliverables (spectrum requirements, comparative analysis of certification methodologies, etc.) and continue Phase 2 preparation (infrastructure, tools, etc.) Phase 2: Providing regulators with a methodology for developing airworthiness requirements for UAS, and data to support development of certifications standards and regulatory guidance . Providing systems-level, integrated testing of concepts and/or capabilities that address barriers to routine access to the NAS. Through simulation and flight testing, address issues including separation assurance, communications requirements, and human systems integration in operationally relevant environments. The UAS in the NAS Project will demonstrate solutions in specific technology areas, which will address operational/safety issues related to UAS access to the NAS. Since the resource allocation for

  3. 30 CFR 56.11001 - Safe access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safe access. 56.11001 Section 56.11001 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Travelways § 56.11001 Safe access. Safe means of access shall be provided and maintained to all working places....

  4. Standards, Standards, Standards: The Unintended Consequences of Widening Participation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Mary

    2002-01-01

    Debate over widening access to higher education is narrowing to a focus on preservation of standards. Examination of the discourses of school policy, classroom environment, and peer culture shows how these competing cultures can work against efforts to increase participation. (Contains 17 references.) (SK)

  5. Use of Universal 16S rRNA Gene PCR as a Diagnostic Tool for Venous Access Port-Related Bloodstream Infections

    PubMed Central

    Marín, M.; Martín-Rabadán, P.; Echenagusia, A.; Camúñez, F.; Rodríguez-Rosales, G.; Simó, G.; Echenagusia, M.; Bouza, E.

    2013-01-01

    Amplification of the universal 16S rRNA gene using PCR has improved the diagnostic yield of microbiological samples. However, no data have been reported on the reliability of this technique with venous access ports (VAPs). We assessed the utility of 16S rRNA PCR for the prediction of VAP-related bloodstream infection (VAP-RBSI). During a 2-year period, we prospectively received all VAPs removed by interventional radiologists. PCR and conventional cultures were performed using samples from the different VAP sites. We compared the results of PCR with those of conventional culture for patients with confirmed VAP-RBSI. We collected 219 VAPs from 219 patients. Conventional VAP culture revealed 15 episodes of VAP-RBSI. PCR revealed a further 4 episodes in patients undergoing antibiotic therapy which would have gone undetected using conventional culture. Moreover, it had a negative predictive value of 97.8% for the prediction of VAP-RBSI when it was performed using biofilm from the internal surface of the port. In conclusion, universal 16S rRNA PCR performed with samples from the inside of VAPs proved to be a useful tool for the diagnosis of VAP-RBSI. It increased detection of VAP-RBSI episodes by 21.1% in patients undergoing antibiotic therapy whose episodes would have gone undetected using conventional culture. Therefore, we propose a new application of 16S rRNA PCR as a useful tool for the diagnosis of VAP-RBSI in patients receiving antibiotic therapy. PMID:23254136

  6. A Hybrid Evaluation System Framework (Shell & Web) with Standardized Access to Climate Model Data and Verification Tools for a Clear Climate Science Infrastructure on Big Data High Performance Computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadow, C.; Illing, S.; Kunst, O.; Cubasch, U.

    2014-12-01

    The project 'Integrated Data and Evaluation System for Decadal Scale Prediction' (INTEGRATION) as part of the German decadal prediction project MiKlip develops a central evaluation system. The fully operational hybrid features a HPC shell access and an user friendly web-interface. It employs one common system with a variety of verification tools and validation data from different projects in- and outside of MiKlip. The evaluation system is located at the German Climate Computing Centre (DKRZ) and has direct access to the bulk of its ESGF node including millions of climate model data sets, e.g. from CMIP5 and CORDEX. The database is organized by the international CMOR standard using the meta information of the self-describing model, reanalysis and observational data sets. Apache Solr is used for indexing the different data projects into one common search environment. This implemented meta data system with its advanced but easy to handle search tool supports users, developers and their tools to retrieve the required information. A generic application programming interface (API) allows scientific developers to connect their analysis tools with the evaluation system independently of the programming language used. Users of the evaluation techniques benefit from the common interface of the evaluation system without any need to understand the different scripting languages. Facilitating the provision and usage of tools and climate data increases automatically the number of scientists working with the data sets and identify discrepancies. Additionally, the history and configuration sub-system stores every analysis performed with the evaluation system in a MySQL database. Configurations and results of the tools can be shared among scientists via shell or web-system. Therefore, plugged-in tools gain automatically from transparency and reproducibility. Furthermore, when configurations match while starting a evaluation tool, the system suggests to use results already produced

  7. A Hybrid Evaluation System Framework (Shell & Web) with Standardized Access to Climate Model Data and Verification Tools for a Clear Climate Science Infrastructure on Big Data High Performance Computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadow, Christopher; Illing, Sebastian; Kunst, Oliver; Ulbrich, Uwe; Cubasch, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    The project 'Integrated Data and Evaluation System for Decadal Scale Prediction' (INTEGRATION) as part of the German decadal prediction project MiKlip develops a central evaluation system. The fully operational hybrid features a HPC shell access and an user friendly web-interface. It employs one common system with a variety of verification tools and validation data from different projects in- and outside of MiKlip. The evaluation system is located at the German Climate Computing Centre (DKRZ) and has direct access to the bulk of its ESGF node including millions of climate model data sets, e.g. from CMIP5 and CORDEX. The database is organized by the international CMOR standard using the meta information of the self-describing model, reanalysis and observational data sets. Apache Solr is used for indexing the different data projects into one common search environment. This implemented meta data system with its advanced but easy to handle search tool supports users, developers and their tools to retrieve the required information. A generic application programming interface (API) allows scientific developers to connect their analysis tools with the evaluation system independently of the programming language used. Users of the evaluation techniques benefit from the common interface of the evaluation system without any need to understand the different scripting languages. Facilitating the provision and usage of tools and climate data increases automatically the number of scientists working with the data sets and identify discrepancies. Additionally, the history and configuration sub-system stores every analysis performed with the evaluation system in a MySQL database. Configurations and results of the tools can be shared among scientists via shell or web-system. Therefore, plugged-in tools gain automatically from transparency and reproducibility. Furthermore, when configurations match while starting a evaluation tool, the system suggests to use results already produced

  8. 76 FR 77738 - Telecommunications Act Accessibility Guidelines; Electronic and Information Technology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... Accessibility Guidelines; Electronic and Information Technology Accessibility Standards AGENCY: Architectural... Guidelines and its Electronic and Information Technology Accessibility Standards. DATES: The hearings will be... information technology covered by Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1998. 76 FR...

  9. A Content Standard for Computational Models; Digital Rights Management (DRM) Architectures; A Digital Object Approach to Interoperable Rights Management: Finely-Grained Policy Enforcement Enabled by a Digital Object Infrastructure; LOCKSS: A Permanent Web Publishing and Access System; Tapestry of Time and Terrain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Linda L.; Crosier, Scott J.; Smith, Terrence R.; Goodchild, Michael; Iannella, Renato; Erickson, John S.; Reich, Vicky; Rosenthal, David S. H.

    2001-01-01

    Includes five articles. Topics include requirements for a content standard to describe computational models; architectures for digital rights management systems; access control for digital information objects; LOCKSS (Lots of Copies Keep Stuff Safe) that allows libraries to run Web caches for specific journals; and a Web site from the U.S.…

  10. Designed for Access in the School Washroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettelman, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Many stakeholders in the public and private sectors have been involved in establishing minimum accessibility standards for people with disabilities in public buildings. One of the most important spaces in any building is the restroom. Unless a building has a restroom that is compliant with applicable accessibility standards such as the Americans…

  11. Variability of phenotype, anthocyanin indexes, and flavonoids in accessions from a close relative of soybean, Neontonia wightii (Wright & Arn. J.A. Lackey) in the U.S. germplasm collection for potential use as a health forage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A close relative of soybean, Neonotonia wightii (Wright & Arn. J.A. Lackey), is used as a ruminant feed and restores soil productivity in Brazil and Zimbabwe, respectively. Neonotonia wightii accessions were grown in a greenhouse at Griffin, Georgia, characterized for various phenotypic traits, and...

  12. Collaborative study for the calibration of HCV RNA, HBV DNA and HIV RNA reference preparations against the relative international standards.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Giulio; Marino, Francesco; Cristiano, Karen; Bisso, Guillermo Mario; Mele, Caludio; Luciani, Francesca; Wirz, Maria; Gentili, Giuliano

    2007-01-01

    We organised a collaborative study to calibrate three new ISS reference preparations (ISS: Istituto Superiore di Sanità), one for HCV RNA, one for HIV RNA and one for HBV DNA, to be used for nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAT) in blood testing. Serial dilution of the ISS reference preparations and the respective international standards were tested in different days by each participating laboratory using two commercial NAT assays. Data were collected by the ISS for statistical analysis. Based on the mean potency of the HCV RNA and HIV RNA preparations, calculated from the results provided by the 12 participating laboratories, a definitive concentrations of 5700 IU/mL and 4000 IU/mL, respectively, were assigned to the reference materials. On the contrary, it was not possible to obtain a consensus titre for the HBV DNA reference material. These new Italian reference preparations (HCV RNA ISS/1005 and HIV RNA ISS/1005) calibrated against the respective international standards are available free of charge to any laboratory upon request.

  13. Intermittent access to liquid sucrose differentially modulates energy intake and related central pathways in control or high-fat fed mice.

    PubMed

    Soto, Marion; Chaumontet, Catherine; Even, Patrick C; Nadkarni, Nachiket; Piedcoq, Julien; Darcel, Nicolas; Tomé, Daniel; Fromentin, Gilles

    2015-03-01

    Intake of sodas has been shown to increase energy intake and to contribute to obesity in humans and in animal models, although the magnitude and importance of these effects are still debated. Moreover, intake of sugar sweetened beverages is often associated with high-fat food consumption in humans. We studied two different accesses to a sucrose-sweetened water (SSW, 12.3%, a concentration similar to that usually found in sugar sweetened beverages) in C57BL/6 mice fed a normal-fat (NF) or a high-fat (HF) diet in a scheduled access (7.5h). NF-fed and HF-fed mice received during 5weeks access to water, to SSW continuously for 7.5h (SSW), or to water plus SSW for 2h (randomly-chosen time slot for only 5 random days/week) (SSW-2h). Mouse preference for SSW was greater in HF-fed mice than NF-fed mice. Continuous SSW access induced weight gain whatever the diet and led to greater caloric intake than mice drinking water in NF-fed mice and in the first three weeks in HF-fed mice. In HF-fed mice, 2h-intermittent access to SSW induced a greater body weight gain than mice drinking water, and led to hyperphagia on the HF diet when SSW was accessible compared to days without SSW 2h-access (leading to greater overall caloric intake), possibly through inactivation of the anorexigenic neuropeptide POMC in the hypothalamus. This was not observed in NF-fed mice, but 2h-intermittent access to SSW stimulated the expression of dopamine, opioid and endocannabinoid receptors in the nucleus accumbens compared to water-access. In conclusion, in mice, a sucrose solution provided 2h-intermittently and a high-fat diet have combined effects on peripheral and central homeostatic systems involved in food intake regulation, a finding which has significant implications for human obesity.

  14. Hemodialysis access - self care

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency - hemodialysis access; Chronic kidney failure - hemodialysis access; Chronic renal failure - hemodialysis access; dialysis - hemodialysis ...

  15. 75 FR 39252 - Release of Final Documents Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... documents titled, Quantitative Health Risk Assessment for Particulate Matter and Particulate Matter Urban-Focused Visibility Assessment. These two documents describe the quantitative analyses that have been... key results, observations, and related uncertainties associated with the quantitative...

  16. 75 FR 10252 - Release of Draft Documents Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ...--Second External Review Draft. This draft document describes the quantitative analyses that are being... results, observations, and related uncertainties associated with the quantitative analyses performed. An... primary (health-based) CO NAAQS, the Agency is conducting qualitative and quantitative...

  17. 22 CFR 9a.7 - Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Access. 9a.7 Section 9a.7 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS APPLICABLE TO CERTAIN INTERNATIONAL ENERGY PROGRAMS; RELATED MATERIAL § 9a.7 Access. (a) Except as set forth in this section, access to information...

  18. A proposal for a standardized system of reporting human lymph node morphology in relation to immunological function

    PubMed Central

    Cottier, H.; Turk, J.; Sobin, L.

    1972-01-01

    This Memorandum proposes a standardized system of reporting the histology of human lymph nodes based on commonly used simple staining techniques. The purpose is to provide a uniform, internationally acceptable system by which the histological structure of lymph nodes can be correlated with other parameters of immunological status. The proposed protocols are intended to provide information that is not available in conventional written reports, that use such terms as “hyperplasia” or “nonspecific lymphadenitis”. ImagesFigure 22Figure 13Figure 5Figure 4Figure 3Figure 14Figure 15Figure 9Figure 21Figure 8Figure 12Figure 17Figure 16Figure 2Figure 7Figure 6Figure 20Figure 19Figure 11Figure 10Figure 18 PMID:4539822

  19. A novel method for creating endodontic access preparations through all-ceramic restorations: air abrasion and its effect relative to diamond and carbide bur use.

    PubMed

    Sabourin, Christopher R; Flinn, Brian D; Pitts, David L; Gatten, Timothy L; Johnson, James D

    2005-08-01

    Access through porcelain restorations is a technically delicate and stressful procedure. Although this is a common dilemma in endodontics, little research has explored alternatives in cutting through porcelain. The purpose of this study was to compare the use of a carbide bur plus water, diamond bur plus water, and air abrasion to access through porcelain. All-ceramic samples were accessed using the different techniques. Samples were evaluated using two transillumination methods, white light, and fluorescent liquid penetrant described by the American Society for Testing and Materials. Edge chipping, microcracking, and catastrophic fracture of porcelain caused by the techniques were statistically compared. Fluorescent liquid penetrant was a more sensitive method for microcrack detection. There were significant differences between the preparation techniques. Air abrasion was significantly less destructive, and caused no catastrophic fractures, edge chipping or microcracks. Preparation by air abrasion took longer to complete.

  20. College Access Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    College Access Marketing (CAM) is a relatively new phenomenon that seeks to positively influence the college-going rate. This report defines CAM, describes CAM examples, and discusses how CAM seeks to counter barriers to college. It explores four main elements of CAM: information, marketing, advocacy, and social mobilization. Further, it…

  1. Global standardization of scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Daisuke; Itoh, Hiroshi; Ichimura, Shingo; Kurosawa, Tomizo

    2007-02-01

    Recent efforts to achieve global standardization of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) including noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM), especially through the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and related research, are surveyed. Since the unification of terminology for SPM is a prerequisite for standardization, it should have the first priority, followed by the unification of data management and treatment, which will enable access to and processing of SPM data collected by different types of instrument. Among the various SPM analytical methods, the dimensional metrology of SPM is regarded to be the first priority for standardization. This requires solving two basic problems: calibrating the x, y, and z coordinate axes with traceability to the SI unit of length, and eliminating the morphological artefacts caused by the shape of the probe tip. Pre-standardization efforts on restoring distorted images and characterizing the tip shape during use are discussed.

  2. Macroscopic characterisations of Web accessibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Rui; Carriço, Luis

    2010-12-01

    The Web Science framework poses fundamental questions on the analysis of the Web, by focusing on how microscopic properties (e.g. at the level of a Web page or Web site) emerge into macroscopic properties and phenomena. One research topic on the analysis of the Web is Web accessibility evaluation, which centres on understanding how accessible a Web page is for people with disabilities. However, when framing Web accessibility evaluation on Web Science, we have found that existing research stays at the microscopic level. This article presents an experimental study on framing Web accessibility evaluation into Web Science's goals. This study resulted in novel accessibility properties of the Web not found at microscopic levels, as well as of Web accessibility evaluation processes themselves. We observed at large scale some of the empirical knowledge on how accessibility is perceived by designers and developers, such as the disparity of interpretations of accessibility evaluation tools warnings. We also found a direct relation between accessibility quality and Web page complexity. We provide a set of guidelines for designing Web pages, education on Web accessibility, as well as on the computational limits of large-scale Web accessibility evaluations.

  3. Effect of transsphenoidal surgery and standard care on fertility related indicators of patients with prolactinomas during child-bearing period

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhiyue; Wang, Yiming; Shou, Xuefei; Su, Jianguang; Lang, Liwei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the surgical therapeutic effects in the endocrine and reproductive system of women with prolactinoma at child-bearing age, and to investigate the potential influencing factors for therapeutic outcome. Methods: This retrospective study was performed using the medical records of 99 cases of female patients with pituitary PRL adenomas at child-bearing age, who underwent transsphenoidal surgery and took standard perioperative care from January, 2013 to June, 2013 in Huashan hospital, in which micro adenoma (≤1 cm) of 68 cases, large adenomas (> 1 cm) of 31 cases, 88 cases were total resection, 9 cases were subtotal resection, and 2 cases were massive resection. Retrospective study on the preoperative serum level of PRL, menstruation, galactorrhea and reproductive function, etc. Patients were followed up in 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after operation for endocrine indicators, the situation of menstruation and pregnancy. Results: Overall, 88.9%, 9.1%, and 2% patients underwent total, subtotal, and massive resection of prolactinoma in 99 cases of patients. Before accepting transsphenoidal surgery and standard care, all 99 cases with serum PRL level higher than normal 25 ng/ml, 71.7% (71 cases, all total resection) patients had their serum PRL < 25 ng/ml on the first day after surgery, and micro adenomas remission rate of 80.9% (55 cases) was significantly higher than 51.6% of large adenomas (16 cases) (P < 0.05); the postoperative PRL of 11 cases of total or massive resection in patients were not back to normal, Chi-square test results showed that the PRL remission rate after total resection were significantly higher than that of subtotal or massive resection (P < 0.01). 67.3% (66/98) irregular menstruation patients had menstruation recovery after surgery, in addition, total resection of the tumor, micro- adenoma, preoperative PRL < 200 ng/ml and first day of postoperative PRL ≤25 ng/ml were favorable factors for menstrual improvement (P < 0.05). 83

  4. Education Data Confidentiality: Two Studies. Issues in Education Data Confidentiality and Access and Compilation of Statutes, Laws, and Regulations Related to the Confidentiality of Education Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pechman, Ellen M.; And Others

    Two studies were commissioned by the National Forum on Education Statistics to address concerns about the confidentiality and security of education data. The first, "Issues in Education Data Confidentiality and Access," by Ellen Pechman, Eileen O'Brien, Amy Hightower, and Angela Williams covers major court challenges, data collection issues…

  5. Specifications of Standards in Systems and Synthetic Biology.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Falk; Bader, Gary D; Golebiewski, Martin; Hucka, Michael; Kormeier, Benjamin; Le Novère, Nicolas; Myers, Chris; Nickerson, David; Sommer, Björn; Waltemath, Dagmar; Weise, Stephan

    2015-09-04

    Standards shape our everyday life. From nuts and bolts to electronic devices and technological processes, standardised products and processes are all around us. Standards have technological and economic benefits, such as making information exchange, production, and services more efficient. However, novel, innovative areas often either lack proper standards, or documents about standards in these areas are not available from a centralised platform or formal body (such as the International Standardisation Organisation). Systems and synthetic biology is a relatively novel area, and it is only in the last decade that the standardisation of data, information, and models related to systems and synthetic biology has become a community-wide effort. Several open standards have been established and are under continuous development as a community initiative. COMBINE, the ‘COmputational Modeling in BIology’ NEtwork has been established as an umbrella initiative to coordinate and promote the development of the various community standards and formats for computational models. There are yearly two meeting, HARMONY (Hackathons on Resources for Modeling in Biology), Hackathon-type meetings with a focus on development of the support for standards, and COMBINE forums, workshop-style events with oral presentations, discussion, poster, and breakout sessions for further developing the standards. For more information see http://co.mbine.org/. So far the different standards were published and made accessible through the standards’ web- pages or preprint services. The aim of this special issue is to provide a single, easily accessible and citable platform for the publication of standards in systems and synthetic biology. This special issue is intended to serve as a central access point to standards and related initiatives in systems and synthetic biology, it will be published annually to provide an opportunity for standard development groups to communicate updated specifications.

  6. Measuring the distance-redshift relation with the cross-correlation of gravitational wave standard sirens and galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguri, Masamune

    2016-04-01

    Gravitational waves from inspiraling compact binaries are known to be an excellent absolute distance indicator, yet it is unclear whether electromagnetic counterparts of these events are securely identified for measuring their redshifts, especially in the case of black hole-black hole mergers such as the one recently observed with the Advanced LIGO. We propose to use the cross-correlation between spatial distributions of gravitational wave sources and galaxies with known redshifts as an alternative means of constraining the distance-redshift relation from gravitational waves. In our analysis, we explicitly include the modulation of the distribution of gravitational wave sources due to weak gravitational lensing. We show that the cross-correlation analysis in next-generation observations will be able to tightly constrain the relation between the absolute distance and the redshift and therefore constrain the Hubble constant as well as dark energy parameters.

  7. Standards not that standard.

    PubMed

    Vilanova, Cristina; Tanner, Kristie; Dorado-Morales, Pedro; Villaescusa, Paula; Chugani, Divya; Frías, Alba; Segredo, Ernesto; Molero, Xavier; Fritschi, Marco; Morales, Lucas; Ramón, Daniel; Peña, Carlos; Peretó, Juli; Porcar, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    There is a general assent on the key role of standards in Synthetic Biology. In two consecutive letters to this journal, suggestions on the assembly methods for the Registry of standard biological parts have been described. We fully agree with those authors on the need of a more flexible building strategy and we highlight in the present work two major functional challenges standardization efforts have to deal with: the need of both universal and orthogonal behaviors. We provide experimental data that clearly indicate that such engineering requirements should not be taken for granted in Synthetic Biology.

  8. 7 CFR 37.9 - Access to establishments or records; record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS PROGRAM TO ASSESS ORGANIC CERTIFYING AGENCIES § 37.9 Access to... which service is requested, to be made easily accessible for examination. Supervisors and...

  9. Jejunal access loop cholangiogram and intervention using image guided access.

    PubMed

    Amitha Vikrama, K S; Keshava, S N; Surendrababu, N R S; Moses, V; Joseph, P; Vyas, F; Sitaram, V

    2010-02-01

    Jejunal access loop is fashioned in patients who undergo Roux en Y hepaticojejunostomy and biliary intervention is anticipated on follow up. Post-operative study of the biliary tree through the access loop is usually done under fluoroscopic guidance. We present a series of 20 access loop cholangiograms performed in our institution between August 2004 and November 2008. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the procedure and to highlight the role of CT guidance in procuring access. Access loop was accessed using CT (n = 13), ultrasound (n = 3) or fluoroscopic guidance (n = 4). Fluoroscopy was used for performing cholangiograms and interventions. Twelve studies had balloon plasty of the stricture at anastomotic site or high up in the hepatic ducts. Seven studies showed normal cholangiogram. Plasty was unsuccessful in one study. Technical success in accessing the jejunal access loop was 100%; in cannulation of anastomotic site and balloon plasty it was 95%. One case required two attempts. Procedure-related complications were not seen. All patients who underwent balloon plasty of the stricture were doing well for variable lengths of time. Access loop cholangiogram and interventions are safe and effective. CT guidance in locating/procuring the access loop is a good technique.

  10. Mind the gap: access to ARV medication, rights and the politics of scale in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Jones, Peris Sean

    2012-01-01

    Global access to anti-retroviral medication (ARVs) has increased exponentially in recent years. As a relatively recent phenomenon for the global South, much knowledge is being added, but analysis of 'access' to ARVs remains partial. The main research objective of this article is to gain a fuller picture of the range of forces constituting 'access' to ARVs by providing a local community case study from Hammanskraal, South Africa. A qualitative and relational approach situates specific points of 'local' access to ARVs within relations stretched over space. Spatial awareness enables us to consider the reinforcing effects of local geographies upon access to health care but also simultaneously sees this in relation to non-local geographies. The concept of scale is pivotal to creating linkages across space and reveals a number of 'gaps' in access that otherwise might not be shown. Elaborating on the meaning of "access" to treatment produces a more rounded picture of the context that people-living-with-AIDS encounter. A multi-scale and multi-disciplinary analysis of 'access' is therefore also highly informative in a related sense, namely, for closing the gap between human rights standards and actual implementation. A geographical imagination is useful not only to 'mind' but also to close the 'gap' in both senses.

  11. Nevada Department of Education Health Content Standards [and] Performance Level Descriptors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada State Dept. of Education, Carson City.

    This document presents content and performance standards for health and safety education in Nevada's public schools. The seven content standards are: students will comprehend concepts related to health promotion and disease prevention; students will demonstrate the ability to access valid health information and health-promoting products and…

  12. [Implementation and validation in the Italian context of the HSE management standards: a contribution to provide a practical model for the assessment of work-related stress].

    PubMed

    Iavicoli, S; Natali, E; Rondinone, B M; Castaldi, T; Persechino, B

    2010-01-01

    Over the last years, stress has been recognized as a potential work-related risk factor. Unfortunately, work-related stress is a very delicate subject, especially because it is difficult to assess it objectively and in broadly acceptable terms. In fact, work-related stress is a subjective personal response to a specific work environment, ad is of a multifactorial origin. In order to provide a practical tool for the assessment of work-related stress, the authors carried out a thorough benchmarking analysis of the various models to manage work stress problems adopted by EU countries. As a result, the authors have chosen to apply and implement the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) Management Standards approach in the Italian context. In compliance with the European Framework Agreement signed on October 8, 2004, HSE Management Standards ask for the coordinated and integrated involvement of workers and safety personnel and represent a valid assessment approach based on principles widely acknowledged in the scientific literature.

  13. 7 CFR 51.12 - Accessibility of products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL... STANDARDS) Regulations 1 Inspection Service § 51.12 Accessibility of products. The applicant shall cause...

  14. European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Centers with FACT-JACIE Accreditation Have Significantly Better Compliance with Related Donor Care Standards.

    PubMed

    Anthias, Chloe; O'Donnell, Paul V; Kiefer, Deidre M; Yared, Jean; Norkin, Maxim; Anderlini, Paolo; Savani, Bipin N; Diaz, Miguel A; Bitan, Menachem; Halter, Joerg P; Logan, Brent R; Switzer, Galen E; Pulsipher, Michael A; Confer, Dennis L; Shaw, Bronwen E

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have identified healthcare practices that may place undue pressure on related donors (RDs) of hematopoietic cell products and an increase in serious adverse events associated with morbidities in this population. As a result, specific requirements to safeguard RD health have been introduced to Foundation for the Accreditation of Cellular Therapy/The Joint Accreditation Committee ISCT and EBMT (FACT-JACIE) Standards, but the impact of accreditation on RD care has not previously been evaluated. A survey of transplant program directors of European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation member centers was conducted by the Donor Health and Safety Working Committee of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research to test the hypothesis that RD care in FACT-JACIE accredited centers is more closely aligned with international consensus donor care recommendations than RD care delivered in centers without accreditation. Responses were received from 39% of 304 centers. Our results show that practice in accredited centers was much closer to recommended standards as compared with nonaccredited centers. Specifically, a higher percentage of accredited centers use eligibility criteria to assess RDs (93% versus 78%; P = .02), and a lower percentage have a single physician simultaneously responsible for an RD and their recipient (14% versus 35%; P = .008). In contrast, where regulatory standards do not exist, both accredited and nonaccredited centers fell short of accepted best practice. These results raise concerns that despite improvements in care, current practice can place undue pressure on donors and may increase the risk of donation-associated adverse events. We recommend measures to address these issues through enhancement of regulatory standards as well as national initiatives to standardize RD care.

  15. Interim Report on Feasibility of Improving Recreation Access and Related Water and Land Management in the Buffalo Metropolitan Area, New York.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-01

    western and eastern markets. Outside the Buffalo urbanized area, the study area is primarily agri- cultural, consisting of small farms and dairies with...9422 Great Lame 16 October 1975 Robwl A. SwOeeny, Dec Col. Bernard Hughes, District Engineer Buffalo District - U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 1776...ADA102 434 CORPS OF ENGINEERS BUFFALO NY BUFFALO DISTRICT F/ 13/2 I NTERIM REPORT ON FEASIBILITY OF IMPROVING RECREATION ACCESS AN-ETC(U) APR

  16. Arteriovenous Access Failure, Stenosis, and Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    MacRae, Jennifer M; Dipchand, Christine; Oliver, Matthew; Moist, Louise; Lok, Charmaine; Clark, Edward; Hiremath, Swapnil; Kappel, Joanne; Kiaii, Mercedeh; Luscombe, Rick; Miller, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    Vascular access-related complications can lead to patient morbidity and reduced patient quality of life. Some of the common arteriovenous access complications include failure to mature, stenosis formation, and thrombosis.

  17. 29 CFR 32.28 - Architectural standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Architectural standards. 32.28 Section 32.28 Labor Office of... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 32.28 Architectural standards. (a) Design and construction... usable by qualified handicapped individuals. (c) Standards for architectural accessibility....

  18. Widening Access to Higher Education: An Evaluative Case Study of a Foundation Year Alternative to Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Peter A.; Moores, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    Universities are encouraged to widen access to a broad range of applicants, including mature students taking Access qualifications. Admissions tutors can find it difficult to compare and choose between Access and A-level applications, and Access applicants for popular courses may be disadvantaged relative to students with good A-levels. In this…

  19. 45 CFR 155.615 - Verification process related to eligibility for exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... exemptions. 155.615 Section 155.615 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS EXCHANGE ESTABLISHMENT STANDARDS AND OTHER RELATED STANDARDS UNDER THE.... (c) Verification related to exemption for membership in a health care sharing ministry. (1) For...

  20. 45 CFR 155.615 - Verification process related to eligibility for exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... exemptions. 155.615 Section 155.615 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS EXCHANGE ESTABLISHMENT STANDARDS AND OTHER RELATED STANDARDS UNDER THE.... (c) Verification related to exemption for membership in a health care sharing ministry. (1) For...

  1. Immune function is related to adult carotenoid and bile pigment levels, but not to dietary carotenoid access during development, in female mallard ducks.

    PubMed

    Butler, Michael W; McGraw, Kevin J

    2013-07-15

    Immune function can be modulated by multiple physiological factors, including nutrition and reproductive state. Because these factors can vary throughout an individual's lifetime as a result of environmental conditions (affecting nutrition) or life-history stage (e.g. entering the adult reproduction stage), we must carefully examine the degree to which developmental versus adult conditions shape performance of the immune system. We investigated how variation in dietary access to carotenoid pigments - a class of molecules with immunostimulatory properties that females deposit into egg yolks - during three different developmental time points affected adult immunological and reproductive traits in female mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). In males and females of other avian species, carotenoid access during development affects carotenoid assimilation ability, adult sexual ornamentation and immune function, while carotenoid access during adulthood can increase immune response and reproductive investment (e.g. egg-laying capacity, biliverdin deposition in eggshells). We failed to detect effects of developmental carotenoid supplementation on adult immune function [phytohemagglutinin-induced cutaneous immune response, antibody production in response to the novel antigen keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), or oxidative burst, assessed by changes in circulating nitric oxide levels], carotenoid-pigmented beak coloration, ovarian development, circulating carotenoid levels or concentration of bile pigments in the gall bladder. However, we did uncover positive relationships between circulating carotenoid levels during adulthood and KLH-specific antibody production, and a negative relationship between biliverdin concentration in bile and KLH-specific antibody production. These results are consistent with the view that adult physiological parameters better predict current immune function than do developmental conditions, and highlight a possible, previously unstudied relationship

  2. Preventing upper limb work-related musculoskeletal disorders (UL-WMSDS): new approaches in job (re)design and current trends in standardization.

    PubMed

    Colombini, Daniela; Occhipinti, Enrico

    2006-07-01

    In industrialized countries, upper limb work-related musculoskeletal disorders (UL-WMSDs) are the most common form of occupational diseases. They are generating a growing population of workers with reduced working capacity. The link between these pathologies and different aspects of work organization has been convincingly proven. Recent experiences in Europe supporting the combination of traditional work design methods used in manufacturing companies with ergonomics methods are reported briefly, with special focus on the use of the occupational repetitive action (OCRA) method for risk assessment and management of manual repetitive tasks. The combined approach strives to achieve the goal of maintaining a satisfactory level of productivity while respecting ergonomics criteria and, definitely, workers' health. New ergonomics standards provide for interaction between job and machinery designers and ergonomists in the design of work processes and workplaces. These standards generally refer only to the healthy adult working population and do not always provide criteria for protecting particular working populations, such as that represented by workers affected by UL-WMSDs. The results of preliminary studies concerning productive re-employment of workers with UL-WMSDs allow the introduction of some criteria for implementing current ergonomics standards in this connection. One aim of this paper is to summarize experiences of close cooperation between ergonomists, machinery designers and job designers to guarantee productivity and the prevention of musculoskeletal disorders. A second aim is to examine current ergonomics standards in the field of manual physical work (designed for healthy workers) and to suggest preliminary criteria for their implementation taking into account the capabilities and needs of specific sub-groups of the working population.

  3. Accessibility: Maximum Mobility and Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyser, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Describes how to design school and university labs to comply with Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) standards, focusing on counter height for students in wheelchairs; appropriate knee space and sink height in sink areas; ADA-compliant fume hoods; accessible laboratory doors and entryways; and safety concerns (e.g., emergency eyewash stations…

  4. Transhepatic central venous catheter for long-term access in paediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Mortell, Alan; Said, Hanan; Doodnath, Reshma; Walsh, Kevin; Corbally, Martin

    2008-02-01

    Vascular access in paediatric patients with chronic and/or life-threatening illness is crucial to survival. Access is frequently lost in this group because of thrombosis, infection, or displacement, and vascular options can quickly be exhausted. The last resort access procedure is generally a direct atrial catheter inserted via a thoracotomy. A viable alternative is the percutaneous transhepatic Broviac catheter (Bard Access Systems, Salt Lake City, UT). We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 5 patients who underwent percutaneous transhepatic Broviac insertion for long-term access over a 4-year period in a single institution. Four of the patients (80%) had a significant cardiac abnormality, with 1 patient requiring long-term parenteral nutrition after complicated necrotizing enterocolitis. All patients had significant caval thrombosis, which precluded them having placement of a standard percutaneous or openly placed central catheter. Of the 5 patients, 2 (40%) died of cardiac-related illnesses. Of the 3 surviving patients, 2 had functioning catheters electively removed because they were no longer required. One catheter was removed at thoracotomy for right atrial perforation because of catheter erosion. Vascular access in paediatric patients with chronic and/or life-threatening illness is crucial to survival. Transhepatic central venous catheters are a feasible, reliable, and relatively easily placed form of central access in patients with multiple venous thromboses requiring long-term access. This route should be considered in paediatric patients requiring central access in preference to a thoracotomy.

  5. Standard test method for density, relative density (specific gravity), or API gravity of crude petroleum and liquid petroleum products by hydrometer method

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This method covers the laboratory determination, using a glass hydrometer, of the density, relative density (specific gravity), of API gravity of crude petroleum, petroleum products, or mixtures of petroleum and nonpetroleum products normally handled as liquids, and having a Reid vapor pressure (Method D 323, or IP 69) of 26 lb or less. Values are measured on a hydrometer at convenient temperatures, reading of density being reduced to 15/sup 0/C, and readings of relative density (specific gravity) and API gravity to 60/sup 0/F, by means of international standard tables. By means of these same tables, values determined in any one of the three systems of measurement are convertible to equivalent values in either of the other two so that measurements may be made in the units of local convenience.

  6. Relative EBV antibody concentrations and cost of standard IVIG and CMV-IVIG for PTLD prophylaxis in solid organ transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Avila, L; Garner, O B; Cherry, J D

    2014-09-01

    Some centers prefer CMV-IVIG over IVIG for the prophylaxis of EBV-related PTLD in solid organ transplant patients. Our objective was to compare the relative dose-related EBV ELISA antibody concentrations and cost of standard IVIG and CMV-IVIG. The concentration of EBV IgG to VCA was analyzed via ELISA in four lots of IVIG and four lots of CMV-IVIG. Relative EBV ELISA antibody concentrations and cost were compared assuming an IVIG dose of 0.5 gm/kg and CMV-IVIG dose of 0.15 gm/kg in a 50-kg patient. The price of IVIG was $70/gm and CMV-IVIG $430/gm. IVIG contains the same EBV antibody concentrations (20 790 ELISA antibody units/mL) than CMV-IVIG (17 430 ELISA antibody units/mL, p > 0.2) in the four lots of each product sampled. When factoring in the dosing scheme for a 50-kg patient, IVIG contains two times more EBV antibody than CMV-IVIG. Yet, CMV-IVIG is 1.8 times more expensive than IVIG ($3225 vs. $1750). In the four lots of each product sampled, IVIG contains more EBV antibodies and costs less than CMV-IVIG when factoring in the dosing scheme. Studies are needed to determine whether there is clinical efficacy of immunoglobulin products for EBV-related PTLD prophylaxis.

  7. Mood impact on effort-related cardiovascular reactivity depends on task context: evidence from a task with an unfixed performance standard.

    PubMed

    Richter, Michael; Knappe, Katja

    2014-08-01

    Gendolla and colleagues have consistently found that negative mood leads to higher effort-related cardiovascular reactivity than positive mood if performers can choose their own performance standard (Gendolla et al., 2001; Gendolla and Krüsken, 2001a, 2002a,b). However, an integration of motivational intensity theory with the mood literature suggests that the impact of mood on cardiovascular activity should vary with task context. In a 2 (task context: demand vs. reward)×2 (mood valence: negative vs. positive) between-persons design, participants performed a memory task without a fixed performance standard. The results showed the expected interaction. Positive mood led to higher effort mobilization-reflected by increased pre-ejection period and heart rate reactivity-than negative mood if participants had answered questions about task reward before performing the task. If participants had responded to questions about task demand, the pattern was reversed. These results extend and add to preceding research that has demonstrated that mood impact on effort-related cardiovascular activity is not stable but depends on task context.

  8. When Being a Girl Matters Less: Accessibility of Gender-Related Self-Knowledge in Single-Sex and Coeducational Classes and Its Impact on Students' Physics-Related Self-Concept of Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessels, Ursula; Hannover, Bettina

    2008-01-01

    Background: Establishing or preserving single-sex schooling has been widely discussed as a way of bringing more girls into the natural sciences. Aims: We test the assumption that the beneficial effects of single-sex education on girls' self-concept of ability in masculine subjects such as physics are due to the lower accessibility of…

  9. The role of endovascular stents in dialysis access maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Kassem, Mohamad El; Alghamdi, Issam; Vazquez-Padron, Roberto I; Asif, Arif; Lenz, Oliver; Sanjar, Tina; Fayad, Fadi; Salman, Loay

    2015-01-01

    Vascular stenosis is most often the culprit behind hemodialysis vascular access dysfunction, and while percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) remains the gold standard treatment for vascular stenosis, over the past decade the use of stents as a treatment option has been on the rise. Aside from the two FDA approved stent-grafts for the treatment of venous graft anastomosis (VGA) stenosis, use of all other stents in vascular access dysfunction is off-label. KDOQI recommends limiting stent use to specific conditions, such as elastic lesions and recurrent stenosis; otherwise, additional adapted indications are in procedure-related complications, such as grade 2 and 3 hematomas. Published reports have shown the potential use of stents in a variety of conditions leading to vascular access dysfunction; such as VGA stenosis, cephalic arch stenosis, central venous stenosis, dialysis access aneurysmal elimination, Cardiac Implantable Electronic Device induced stenosis, and thrombosed arteriovenous grafts (AVG). While further research is needed for many of these conditions, evidence for recommendations has been clear in some; for instance, we know now that stents should be avoided along cannulations sites and should not be used in eliminating dialysis access aneurysms. In this review article, we evaluate the available evidence for the use of stents in each of the aforementioned conditions leading to hemodialysis vascular access dysfunctions. PMID:26524950

  10. (abstract) Towards Ancillary Data Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, Charles H.

    1997-01-01

    NASA's SPICE information system for archiving, distributing, and accessing spacecraft navigation, orientation, and other ancillary data is described. A proposal is made for the further evolution of this concept to an internationally useful standard, to be.

  11. Advanced Cosmic-Ray Composition Experiment for Space Station (ACCESS): ACCESS Accommodation Study Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas L. (Editor); Wefel, John P. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    In 1994 NASA Administrator selected the first high-energy particle physics experiment for the Space Station, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), to place a magnetic spectrometer in Earth orbit and search for cosmic antimatter. A natural consequence of this decision was that NASA would begin to explore cost-effective ways through which the design and implementation of AMS might benefit other promising payload experiments. The first such experiment to come forward was Advanced Cosmic-Ray Composition Experiment for Space Station (ACCESS) in 1996. It was proposed as a new mission concept in space physics to attach a cosmic-ray experiment of weight, volume, and geometry similar to the AMS on the International Space Station (ISS), and replace the latter as its successor when the AMS is returned to Earth. This was to be an extension of NASA's suborbital balloon program, with balloon payloads serving as the precursor flights and heritage for ACCESS. The balloon programs have always been a cost-effective NASA resource since the particle physics instrumentation for balloon and space applications are directly related. The next step was to expand the process, pooling together expertise from various NASA centers and universities while opening up definition of the ACCESS science goals to the international community through the standard practice of peer review. This process is still ongoing, and the accommodation study presented here will discuss the baseline definition of ACCESS as we understand it today.

  12. The Need for Standardized Assessment of Muscle Quality in Skeletal Muscle Function Deficit and Other Aging-Related Muscle Dysfunctions: A Symposium Report.

    PubMed

    Correa-de-Araujo, Rosaly; Harris-Love, Michael O; Miljkovic, Iva; Fragala, Maren S; Anthony, Brian W; Manini, Todd M

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of scientific literature suggests that not only changes in skeletal muscle mass, but also other factors underpinning muscle quality, play a role in the decline in skeletal muscle function and impaired mobility associated with aging. A symposium on muscle quality and the need for standardized assessment was held on April 28, 2016 at the International Conference on Frailty and Sarcopenia Research in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The purpose of this symposium was to provide a venue for basic science and clinical researchers and expert clinicians to discuss muscle quality in the context of skeletal muscle function deficit and other aging-related muscle dysfunctions. The present article provides an expanded introduction concerning the emerging definitions of muscle quality and a potential framework for scientific inquiry within the field. Changes in muscle tissue composition, based on excessive levels of inter- and intra-muscular adipose tissue and intramyocellular lipids, have been found to adversely impact metabolism and peak force generation. However, methods to easily and rapidly assess muscle tissue composition in multiple clinical settings and with minimal patient burden are needed. Diagnostic ultrasound and other assessment methods continue to be developed for characterizing muscle pathology, and enhanced sonography using sensors to provide user feedback and improve reliability is currently the subject of ongoing investigation and development. In addition, measures of relative muscle force such as specific force or grip strength adjusted for body size have been proposed as methods to assess changes in muscle quality. Furthermore, performance-based assessments of muscle power via timed tests of function and body size estimates, are associated with lower extremity muscle strength may be responsive to age-related changes in muscle quality. Future aims include reaching consensus on the definition and standardized assessments of muscle quality, and

  13. The Need for Standardized Assessment of Muscle Quality in Skeletal Muscle Function Deficit and Other Aging-Related Muscle Dysfunctions: A Symposium Report

    PubMed Central

    Correa-de-Araujo, Rosaly; Harris-Love, Michael O.; Miljkovic, Iva; Fragala, Maren S.; Anthony, Brian W.; Manini, Todd M.

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of scientific literature suggests that not only changes in skeletal muscle mass, but also other factors underpinning muscle quality, play a role in the decline in skeletal muscle function and impaired mobility associated with aging. A symposium on muscle quality and the need for standardized assessment was held on April 28, 2016 at the International Conference on Frailty and Sarcopenia Research in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The purpose of this symposium was to provide a venue for basic science and clinical researchers and expert clinicians to discuss muscle quality in the context of skeletal muscle function deficit and other aging-related muscle dysfunctions. The present article provides an expanded introduction concerning the emerging definitions of muscle quality and a potential framework for scientific inquiry within the field. Changes in muscle tissue composition, based on excessive levels of inter- and intra-muscular adipose tissue and intramyocellular lipids, have been found to adversely impact metabolism and peak force generation. However, methods to easily and rapidly assess muscle tissue composition in multiple clinical settings and with minimal patient burden are needed. Diagnostic ultrasound and other assessment methods continue to be developed for characterizing muscle pathology, and enhanced sonography using sensors to provide user feedback and improve reliability is currently the subject of ongoing investigation and development. In addition, measures of relative muscle force such as specific force or grip strength adjusted for body size have been proposed as methods to assess changes in muscle quality. Furthermore, performance-based assessments of muscle power via timed tests of function and body size estimates, are associated with lower extremity muscle strength may be responsive to age-related changes in muscle quality. Future aims include reaching consensus on the definition and standardized assessments of muscle quality, and

  14. 29 CFR 1915.1020 - Access to employee exposure and medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Access to employee exposure and medical records. 1915.1020 Section 1915.1020 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD...

  15. The Accessibility and Usability of College Websites: Is Your Website Presenting Barriers to Potential Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, William; Trerise, Sharon; Lee, Camille; VanLooy, Sara; Knowlton, Samuel; Bruyère, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Thirty community college websites were evaluated for compliance with federal web accessibility standards found in Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 794d). Two typical sites were tested for usability by individuals with visual impairments, individuals with reading-related learning disabilities (LD), and a control group of…

  16. Broadband Access and Implications for Efforts to Address Equity Gaps in Postsecondary Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisneros, Lauren; Sponsler, Brian A.

    2016-01-01

    This education trends report focuses on two related but distinct challenges confronting state policy leaders and students as they seek to leverage online distance education to meet personal and statewide education goals: (1) access to the infrastructure necessary to provide industry-standard broadband speeds and (2) ensuring availability of the…

  17. Behavioral testing-related changes in the expression of Synapsin I and glucocorticoid receptors in standard and enriched aged Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sampedro-Piquero, P; Arias, J L; Begega, A

    2014-10-01

    Our aim was to assess the changes in the Synapsin I and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression induced by behavioral testing in the dorsal and ventral hippocampi of standard and enriched aged Wistar rats. The environmental enrichment (EE) was carried out 3h/day over a period of two months and then, the rats were tested in the elevated zero-maze (EZM) and radial-arm water maze (RAWM). Behavioral results showed that, even at an advanced age, EE was able to reduce anxiety-related behaviors and improve the performance in the RAWM. Regarding the neurobiological data, Synapsin I expression in the dorsal CA3, but not in the ventral, was enhanced both in enriched and standard rats when they performed the behavioral testing. Interestingly, the EE exposure was enough to increase Synapsin I in the ventral CA3. The analysis of GR in the dorsal hippocampus showed an increase of this receptor in the dDG both in enriched and standard rats when they performed the behavioral testing, whereas in the dCA1 and dCA3, the effect of the testing depended on the previous housing condition. In the ventral region, we found that the effects of EE were higher because on the one hand, the GR expression induced by the behavioral testing was enhanced in the dSUB, vCA1 and vCA3 when the rats were previously enriched and on the other hand, EE, regardless of the behavioral testing, increased the GR expression in the vDG and vSUB. Therefore, our results suggest that the effect of the behavioral testing on the neurobiological mechanisms studied is different depending on the previous housing condition of aged rats.

  18. 28 CFR 68.51 - Restricted access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restricted access. 68.51 Section 68.51... ALIENS, UNFAIR IMMIGRATION-RELATED EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES, AND DOCUMENT FRAUD § 68.51 Restricted access. On... be a restricted access portion of the record to contain any material in the record to which...

  19. Freedom of the Press vs. Public Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Benno C., Jr.

    This book surveys the implications of freedom of the press for a constitutionally rooted public right of access to electronic and print media. Part one provides general perspectives on access to the media, including discussions of access in relation to the Supreme Court, to First Amendment history and theory, to current perceptions of the press,…

  20. Hemodialysis access procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... returned to your body. Usually the access is put in your arm but it can also go ... A surgeon will put the access in. There are 3 types of access. Fistula: The surgeon joins an artery and vein under the ...

  1. Access in crisis.

    PubMed

    1996-09-01

    Recent advances in HIV drug access and affordability have collided with a health care delivery system unequipped to handle the flow equitably and inexpensively. The AIDS Drug Assistance Program (ADAP) concludes that $169 million more in Federal spending is needed in 1997 to maintain an essential core of HIV/AIDS treatments, and presidential and congressional funding proposals are falling far short. ADAP funding also differs from state to state, but it is often inadequate and many programs cannot supply drugs. Several program aspects to be considered to ensure a strong ADAP are discussed and include the need to assure there is enough state funding, the need for programs to achieve better pricing for drugs, a formalized decision process on who decides what drugs ADAP covers, standardized eligibility criteria, and community members and advocates ensuring that ADAP information is adequately distributed to those who can use it.

  2. A 24-h helpline for access to expert management advice for food allergy-related anaphylaxis in children: protocol for a pragmatic randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kelleher, Maeve M; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B; DunnGalvin, Audrey; Cullinane, Claire; Fitzsimons, John; Sheikh, Aziz

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Anaphylaxis is an important, potentially life-threatening paediatric emergency. It is responsible for considerable morbidity and, in some cases, death. Poor outcomes may be associated with an inability to differentiate between milder and potentially more severe reactions and an associated reluctance to administer self-injectable adrenaline. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a 24-h telephone access to specialist paediatric allergy expert advice in improving the quality of life of children and their families with potentially life-threatening food allergy (ie, anaphylaxis) compared with usual clinical care. Methods and analysis Children aged less than 16 years with food allergy and who carry an adrenaline autoinjector will be recruited from the Paediatric Allergy Clinic at Cork University Hospital, Ireland and baseline disease-specific quality of life will be ascertained using the validated Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire (FAQLQ). Participants will be randomised for a period of 6 months to the 24-h telephone specialist support line or usual care. The primary outcome measure of interest is a change in FAQLQ scores, which will be assessed at 0, 1 and 6 months postrandomisation. Analysis will be on an intention-to-treat basis using a 2×3 repeated measures within-between analysis of variance. Although lacking power, we will in addition assess the impact of the intervention on a range of relevant process and clinical endpoints. Ethics and dissemination This trial protocol has been approved by the Clinical Research Ethics Committee of the Cork Teaching Hospitals. The findings will be presented at international scientific conferences and will be reported on in the peer-reviewed literature in early 2013. PMID:22893666

  3. Restricted access molecularly imprinted polymers obtained by bovine serum albumin and/or hydrophilic monomers' external layers: a comparison related to physical and chemical properties.

    PubMed

    Santos, Mariane Gonçalves; Moraes, Gabriel de Oliveira Isac; Nakamura, Maurício Gustavo; dos Santos-Neto, Álvaro José; Figueiredo, Eduardo Costa

    2015-11-21

    Molecularly imprinting polymers (MIPs) can be modified with external layers in order to obtain restricted access molecularly imprinted polymers (RAMIPs) able to exclude macromolecules and retain low weight compounds. These modifications have been frequently achieved using hydrophilic monomers, chemically bound on the MIP surface. Recently, our group proposed a new biocompatible RAMIP based on the formation of a bovine serum albumin coating on the surface of MIP particles. This material has been used to extract drugs directly from untreated human plasma samples, but its physicochemical evaluation has not been carried out yet, mainly in comparison with RAMIPs obtained by hydrophilic monomers. Thus, we proposed in this paper a comparative study involving the surface composition, microscopic aspect, selectivity, binding kinetics, adsorption and macromolecule elimination ability of these different materials. We concluded that the synthesis procedure influences the size and shape of particles and that hydrophilic co-monomer addition as well as coating with BSA do not alter the chemical recognition ability of the material. The difference between imprinted and non-imprinted polymers' adsorption was evident (suggesting that imprinted polymers have a better capacity to bind the template than the non-imprinted ones). The Langmuir model presents the best fit to describe the materials' adsorption profile. The polymer covered with hydrophilic monomers presented the best adsorption for the template in an aqueous medium, probably due to a hydrophilic layer on its surface. We also concluded that an association of the hydrophilic monomers with the bovine serum albumin coating is important to obtain materials with higher capacity of macromolecule exclusion.

  4. Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephani, Hans

    2004-02-01

    Preface; Notation; Part I. Special Relativity: 1. Introduction: inertial systems and Galilei invariance of classical mechanics; 2. Light propagation in moving coordinate systems and Lorentz transformations; 3. Our world as a Minkowski space; 4. Mechanics of special relativity; 5. Optics of plane waves; 6. Four-dimensional vectors and tensors; 7. Electrodynamics in vacuo; 8. Transformation properties of electromagnetic fields: examples; 9. Null vectors and the algebraic properties of electromagnetic field tensors; 10. Charged point particles and their field; 11. Pole-dipole particles and their field; 12. Electrodynamics in media; 13. Perfect fluids and other physical theories; Part II. Riemannian Geometry: 14. Introduction: the force-free motion of particles in Newtonian mechanics; 15. Why Riemannian geometry?; 16. Riemannian space; 17. Tensor algebra; 18. The covariant derivative and parallel transport; 19. The curvature tensor; 20. Differential operators, integrals and integral laws; 21. Fundamental laws of physics in Riemannian spaces; Part III. Foundations of Einstein's Theory of Gravitation: 22. The fundamental equations of Einstein's theory of gravitation; 23. The Schwarzschild solution; 24. Experiments to verify the Schwarzschild metric; 25. Gravitational lenses; 26. The interior Schwarzschild solution; Part IV. Linearized Theory of Gravitation, Far Fields and Gravitational Waves: 27. The linearized Einstein theory of gravity; 28. Far fields due to arbitrary matter distributions and balance equations for momentum and angular momentum; 29. Gravitational waves; 30. The Cauchy problem for the Einstein field equations; Part V. Invariant Characterization of Exact Solutions: 31. Preferred vector fields and their properties; 32. The Petrov classification; 33. Killing vectors and groups of motion; 34. A survey of some selected classes of exact solutions; Part VI. Gravitational Collapse and Black Holes: 35. The Schwarzschild singularity; 36. Gravitational collapse

  5. General practitioner management related to skin cancer prevention and screening during standard medical encounters: a French cross-sectional study based on the International Classification of Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Rat, Cédric; Houd, Sara; Gaultier, Aurélie; Grimault, Charlotte; Quereux, Gaelle; Mercier, Alain; Letrilliart, Laurent; Dreno, Brigitte; Nguyen, Jean Michel

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess general practitioner (GP) management practices related to skin cancer prevention and screening during standard medical encounters. Setting Data on medical encounters addressing skin cancer issues were obtained from a French database containing information from 17 019 standard primary care consultations. Participants Data were collected between December 2011 and April 2012 by 54 trainees who reported the regular practice of 128 GPs using the International Classification of Primary Care. Outcome measures Reasons for encounters and the following care processes were recorded: counselling, clinical examinations and referral to a specialist. Medical encounters addressing skin cancer issues were compared with medical encounters that addressed other health problems using a multivariate analysis. Results Only 0.7% of medical encounters addressed skin cancer issues. When patients did require management of a skin cancer-related issue, this was more likely initiated by the doctor than the patient (70.7% vs 29.3%; p<0.001). Compared with medical encounters addressing other health problems, encounters that addressed skin cancer problems required more tasks (3.7 vs 2.5; p<0.001) and lasted 1 min and 20 s longer (p=0.003). GPs were less involved in clinical examinations (67.5% vs 97.1%; p<0.001), both complete (7.3% vs 22.3%, p<0.001) and partial examinations (60.2% vs 74.9%), and were less involved in counselling (5.7% vs 16.9%; p<0.001). Patients presenting skin cancer issues were referred to a specialist more often than patients consulting for other health problems (39.0% vs 12.1%; p<0.001). GPs performed a biopsy in 6.7% of all skin cancer-related encounters. Conclusions This study demonstrates discrepancies between the high prevalence of skin cancer and the low rate of medical encounters addressing these issues in general practice. Our findings should be followed by qualitative interviews to better understand the observed

  6. NASA's Standards Process Support for New Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullman, R.; Enloe, Y.

    2011-12-01

    NASA's Standards Process Group (SPG) facilitates the approval of proposed standards that have proven implementation and operational benefit for use in NASA's Earth science data systems. There are benefits to the NASA Earth science community for having a repository of endorsed Earth science data systems standards that have been successfully implemented and used within the NASA environment. NASA's Earth science data providers can rely on these endorsed standards to achieve interoperability. The SPG is working with NASA's Decadal Survey Missions (e.g. SMAP, ICESat-2, ..) to facilitate the use of NASA's endorsed standards in these future mission data systems. The Standards Process Group is designing a notional reference architecture that together with an as-built architecture documentation can assist missions in identifying where and what kinds of standards they need to develop their mission data systems. We will discuss an overview of the reference architecture and discuss how to use the reference architecture in evolving data systems and identifying standards that are needed. We will discuss real examples of the different types of candidate standards that have been proposed and endorsed (i.e. OPeNDAP's Data Access Protocol, Open Geospatial Consortium's Web Map Server, the Hierarchical Data Format, Global Change Master Directory's Directory Interchange Format, NetCDF Classic, CF Metadata). We will discuss real examples of the different types of best practices and implementation experiences that have been documented and endorsed as Technical Notes (i.e. Interoperability between OGC CS/W and WCS Protocols, Lessons Learned Regarding WCS Server Design and Implementation, Mapping HDF5 to DAP2, Creating File Format Guidelines - The Aura Experience, ECHO Metadata) But are there any benefits to communities who propose the RFCs for consideration as a NASA Earth science data systems standard? We have seen that the Standards Process encourages consensus within a community during

  7. Evolving data access policy: The Canadian context

    PubMed Central

    Dyke, Stephanie O.M.; Saulnier, Katie M.; Pastinen, Tomi; Bourque, Guillaume; Joly, Yann

    2016-01-01

    In setting up a data access policy to share controlled access data from the McGill Epigenomics Mapping Centre (EMC), an International Human Epigenome Consortium (IHEC) partner project, we encountered ethical and legal challenges that are likely to be relevant to other researchers sharing data, especially from Canadian projects. We discuss our solutions to the following data-sharing challenges, based on comparative legal and policy analysis: (1) providing access to data to a growing number of researchers; (2) maintaining Canadian privacy standards while sharing controlled access data internationally; (3) freedom of information requests; and (4) providing more incentives for researchers to share pre-publication data. PMID:27990475

  8. Registered access: a ‘Triple-A' approach

    PubMed Central

    Dyke, Stephanie O M; Kirby, Emily; Shabani, Mahsa; Thorogood, Adrian; Kato, Kazuto; Knoppers, Bartha M

    2016-01-01

    We propose a standard model for a novel data access tier – registered access – to facilitate access to data that cannot be published in open access archives owing to ethical and legal risk. Based on an analysis of applicable research ethics and other legal and administrative frameworks, we discuss the general characteristics of this Registered Access Model, which would comprise a three-stage approval process: Authentication, Attestation and Authorization. We are piloting registered access with the Demonstration Projects of the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health for which it may provide a suitable mechanism for access to certain data types and to different types of data users. PMID:27677416

  9. Assessing quality standards for ChIP-seq and related massive parallel sequencing-generated datasets: When rating goes beyond avoiding the crisis.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Parra, Marco Antonio; Gronemeyer, Hinrich

    2014-12-01

    Massive parallel DNA sequencing combined with chromatin immunoprecipitation and a large variety of DNA/RNA-enrichment methodologies is at the origin of data resources of major importance. Indeed these resources, available for multiple genomes, represent the most comprehensive catalogue of (i) cell, development and signal transduction-specified patterns of binding sites for transcription factors ('cistromes') and for transcription and chromatin modifying machineries and (ii) the patterns of specific local post-translational modifications of histones and DNA ('epigenome') or of regulatory chromatin binding factors. In addition, (iii) the resources specifying chromatin structure alterations are emerging. Importantly, these types of "omics" datasets populate increasingly public repositories and provide highly valuable resources for the exploration of general principles of cell function in a multi-dimensional genome-transcriptome-epigenome-chromatin structure context. However, data mining is critically dependent on the data quality, an issue that, surprisingly, is still largely ignored by scientists and well-financed consortia, data repositories and scientific journals. So what determines the quality of ChIP-seq experiments and the datasets generated therefrom and what refrains scientists from associating quality criteria to their data? In this 'opinion' we trace the various parameters that influence the quality of this type of datasets, as well as the computational efforts that were made until now to qualify them. Moreover, we describe a universal quality control (QC) certification approach that provides a quality rating for ChIP-seq and enrichment-related assays. The corresponding QC tool and a regularly updated database, from which at present the quality parameters of more than 8000 datasets can be retrieved, are freely accessible at www.ngs-qc.org.

  10. Proposed Rule and Related Materials for Control of Emissions of Air Pollution From Nonroad Diesel Engines Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Proposed Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Proposed Rule and Related Materials for Control of Emissions of Air Pollution From Nonroad Diesel Engines Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Proposed Emission Standards and Test Procedures

  11. Quantitative comparison using generalized relative object detectability (G-ROD) metrics of an amorphous selenium detector with high resolution microangiographic fluoroscopes (MAF) and standard flat panel detectors (FPD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russ, M.; Shankar, A.; Jain, A.; Setlur Nagesh, S. V.; Ionita, C. N.; Scott, C.; Karim, K. S.; Bednarek, D. R.; Rudin, S.

    2016-03-01

    A novel amorphous selenium (a-Se) direct detector with CMOS readout has been designed, and relative detector performance investigated. The detector features include a 25μm pixel pitch, and 1000μm thick a-Se layer operating at 10V/μm bias field. A simulated detector DQE was determined, and used in comparative calculations of the Relative Object Detectability (ROD) family of prewhitening matched-filter (PWMF) observer and non-pre-whitening matched filter (NPWMF) observer model metrics to gauge a-Se detector performance against existing high resolution micro-angiographic fluoroscopic (MAF) detectors and a standard flat panel detector (FPD). The PWMF-ROD or ROD metric compares two x-ray imaging detectors in their relative abilities in imaging a given object by taking the integral over spatial frequencies of the Fourier transform of the detector DQE weighted by an object function, divided by the comparable integral for a different detector. The generalized-ROD (G-ROD) metric incorporates clinically relevant parameters (focal- spot size, magnification, and scatter) to show the degradation in imaging performance for detectors that are part of an imaging chain. Preliminary ROD calculations using simulated spheres as the object predicted superior imaging performance by the a-Se detector as compared to existing detectors. New PWMF-G-ROD and NPWMF-G-ROD results still indicate better performance by the a-Se detector in an imaging chain over all sphere sizes for various focal spot sizes and magnifications, although a-Se performance advantages were degraded by focal spot blurring. Nevertheless, the a-Se technology has great potential to provide break- through abilities such as visualization of fine details including of neuro-vascular perforator vessels and of small vascular devices.

  12. Standardization: colorfull or dull?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Nes, Floris L.

    2003-01-01

    After mentioning the necessity of standardization in general, this paper explains how human factors, or ergonomics standardization by ISO and the deployment of information technology were linked. Visual display standardization is the main topic; the present as well as the future situation in this field are treated, mainly from an ISO viewpoint. Some observations are made about the necessary and interesting co-operation between physicists and psychologists, of different nationality, who both may be employed by either private enterprise or governmental institutions, in determining visual display requirements. The display standard that is to succeed the present ISO standards in this area: ISO 9241-3, -7, -8 and ISO 13406-1, -2, will have a scope that is not restricted to office tasks. This means a large extension of the contexts for which display requirements have to be investigated and specified especially if mobile use of displays, under outdoor lighting conditions, is included. The new standard will be structured in such a way that it is better accessible than the present ones for different categories of standards users. The subject color in the new standard is elaborated here. A number of questions are asked as to which requirements on color rendering should be made, taking new research results into account, and how far the new standard should go in making recommendations to the display user.

  13. Standard Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uher, Alan E.

    Whether common standards exist among the national standards for kindergarten through grade 12 mathematics, science, and civics and government was studied. Common standards were explored among "Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics," produced by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, the "National…

  14. Access to the Common Core for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Margaret J.

    2012-01-01

    Too often under the various state-developed standards and assessments, accommodations for students with disabilities--a heterogeneous group with varied characteristics and needs--have not been adequately addressed or have been ignored. The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) initiative provides an historic opportunity to improve access to rigorous…

  15. The Simple Spectral Access protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolensky, Markus; Tody, Doug

    2004-09-01

    The goal of the Simple Spectral Access (SSA) specification is to define a uniform interface to spectral data including spectral energy distributions (SEDs), 1D spectra, and time series data. In contrast to 2D images, spectra are stored in a wide variety of formats and there is no widely used standard in astronomy for representing spectral data, hence part of the challenge of specifying SSA was defining a general spectrophotometric data model as well as definitions of standard serializations in a variety of data formats including XML and FITS. Access is provided to both atlas (pre-computed) data and to virtual data which is computed on demand. The term simple in Simple Spectrum Access refers to the design goal of simplicity in both implementing spectral data services and in retrieving spectroscopic data from distributed data collections. SSA is a product of the data access layer (DAL) working group of the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA). The requirements were derived from a survey among spectral data providers and data consumers and were further refined in a broad discussion in meetings and electronic forums as well as by prototyping efforts within the European Astrophysical Virtual Observatory (AVO) and the US National Virtual Observatory (NVO).

  16. Telemedicine Versus Standard Follow-Up Care for Diabetes-Related Foot Ulcers: Protocol for a Cluster Randomized Controlled Noninferiority Trial (DiaFOTo)

    PubMed Central

    Espehaug, Birgitte; Hausken, Marie F; Graue, Marit; Østbye, Truls; Skeie, Svein; Cooper, John G; Tell, Grethe S; Günther, Bodo Erhardt; Dale, Håvard; Smith-Strøm, Hilde; Kolltveit, Beate-Christin H; Kirkevold, Marit; Rokne, Berit

    2016-01-01

    Background This paper presents the protocol for an ongoing study to evaluate a telemedicine follow-up intervention for patients with diabetes-related foot ulcers. Diabetes-related foot ulcers represent challenges for patients and the health services. The large increase in the prevalence of diabetes, combined with the aging population, means that the absolute number of patients with diabetes-related foot ulcers is likely to continue to increase. Health care services therefore need to provide close clinical follow-up care for people with diabetes both in primary and specialist care. Information and communication technologies may enable more integrated treatment and care pathways across organizational boundaries. However, we lack knowledge about the effect of telemedicine follow-up and how such services can be optimally organized. Objective To present the design and methods of a study evaluating a telemedicine follow-up intervention for patients with diabetes-related foot ulcers. Methods The study is designed as a cluster randomized controlled trial (noninferiority trial) involving municipalities or municipality districts (clusters) belonging to one clinical site in Western Norway. The study includes patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes presenting with a new foot ulcer at the initial visit to the clinic. Patients in the intervention group receive telemedicine follow-up care in the community. The key ingredient in the intervention is the close integration between health care levels. The intervention is facilitated by the use of an interactive wound platform consisting of a Web-based ulcer record combined with a mobile phone, enabling counseling and communication between nurses in the community and specialist health care. Patients in the control group receive standard hospital outpatient care. The primary endpoint in the trial is healing time; secondary outcomes include amputation and death, patient-reported outcome measures, and follow-up data on the recurrence of

  17. A Theory of Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribot, Jesse C.; Peluso, Nancy Lee

    2003-01-01

    The term "access" is frequently used by property and natural resource analysts without adequate definition. In this paper we develop a concept of access and examine a broad set of factors that differentiate access from property. We define access as "the "ability" to derive benefits from things," broadening from property's classical definition as…

  18. Vascular access in oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Gallieni, Maurizio; Pittiruti, Mauro; Biffi, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Adequate vascular access is of paramount importance in oncology patients. It is important in the initial phase of surgical treatment or chemotherapy, as well as in the chronic management of advanced cancer and in the palliative care setting. We present an overview of the available vascular access devices and of the most relevant issues regarding insertion and management of vascular access. Particular emphasis is given to the use of ultrasound guidance as the preferred technique of insertion, which has dramatically decreased insertion-related complications. Vascular access management has considerably improved after the publication of effective guidelines for the appropriate nursing of the vascular device, which has reduced the risk of late complications, such as catheter-related bloodstream infection. However, many areas of clinical practice are still lacking an evidence-based background, such as the choice of the most appropriate vascular access device in each clinical situation, as well as prevention and treatment of thrombosis. We suggest an approach to the choice of the most appropriate vascular access device for the oncology patient, based on the literature available to date.

  19. GI-axe: an access broker framework for the geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldrini, E.; Nativi, S.; Santoro, M.; Papeschi, F.; Mazzetti, P.

    2012-12-01

    The efficient and effective discovery of heterogeneous geospatial resources (e.g. data and services) is currently addressed by implementing "Discovery Brokering components"—such as GI-cat which is successfully used by the GEO brokering framework. A related (and subsequent) problem is the access of discovered resources. As for the discovery case, there exists a clear challenge: the geospatial Community makes use of heterogeneous access protocols and data models. In fact, different standards (and best practices) are defined and used by the diverse Geoscience domains and Communities of practice. Besides, through a client application, Users want to access diverse data to be jointly used in a common Geospatial Environment (CGE): a geospatial environment characterized by a spatio-temporal CRS (Coordinate Reference System), resolution, and extension. Users want to define a CGE and get the selected data ready to be used in such an environment. Finally, they want to download data according to a common encoding (either binary or textual). Therefore, it is possible to introduce the concept of "Access Brokering component" which addresses all these intermediation needs, in a transparent way for both clients (i.e. Users) and access servers (i.e. Data Providers). This work presents GI-axe: a flexible Access Broker which is capable to intermediate the different access standards and to get data according to a CGE, previously specified by the User. In doing that, GI-axe complements the capabilities of the brokered access servers, in keeping with the brokering principles. Let's consider a sample use case of a User needing to access a global temperature dataset available online on a THREDDS Data Server and a rainfall dataset accessible through a WFS—she/he may have obtained the datasets as a search result from a discovery broker. Distribution information metadata accompanying the temperature dataset further indicate that a given OPeNDAP service has to be accessed to retrieve it

  20. Relation of structure to function for the US reference standard endotoxin after exposure to /sup 60/Co radiation, Interim report, September 1984-December 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Suba, E.A.; Elin, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    The structure and function of the highly purified U.S. reference standard endotoxin (RSE) were studied after exposure to ionizing radiation from a /sup 60/Co source. With increasing doses of radiation, the trilaminar ribbon-like structure of untreated endotoxin exhibited focal swelling, after which only spherical particles were seen by electron microscopy. These morphological changes were paralleled by the respective loss of O-side chain-repeating units and pieces of the R-core from the lipopolysaccharide molecules, as demonstrated by electrophoresis. The biologic function of the irradiated endotoxin was assessed with a variety of tests. At higher doses of radiation, a direct relation was observed between the degradation of the molecular and supramolecular structure and the loss of biologic function. At lower doses of radiation, however, there was variability among the functional assays in their rate of change with progressive irradiation of the RSE. The results suggest that the carbohydrate moiety plays an important role both in determining the supramolecular structure and in modulating certain biologic activities of bacterial endotoxins.

  1. Enabling Virtual Observatory Access to Planetary Resources through PDS4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, J. S.; Hardman, S. H.; Crichton, D. J.; Cecconi, B.; Barbarisi, I.; Arviset, C.

    2015-12-01

    PDS4, the next generation Planetary Data System (PDS), was developed using architectural principles that enable relatively easy access to the planetary science digital archive. The Virtual Observatory's Europlanet-VO Table Access Protocol (EPN-TAP) provides a good use case to demonstrate how an additional international protocol can be applied to allow access to international planetary science resources. PDS4 consists primarily of two architectural components, an information and systems architecture. The information architecture is developed and maintained independent of the systems architecture and provides a formal, sharable, and stable set of requirements that enable understanding of the system, the configuration of system components, and the basis for mapping to and from external systems. The architecture also includes multi-level governance for flexibility. The application architecture is a system based on generic common software and common protocols for accessing that software. These include the PDS Registry Service with its REST-based API as the main component and the PDS Search Service based on Apache Solr providing support for high performance facet-based search. The PDS4 information model provides data object definitions and configures the software where appropriate. The EPN-TAP data access protocol has been set up to search and retrieve Planetary Science data in general. This protocol will allow the user to select a subset of data from an archive in a standard way, based on the IVOA Table Access Protocol (TAP). The TAP mechanism is defined by an underlying Data Model and reference dictionaries. This presentation will provide an overview of PDS4, EPN-TAP, and a test-bed to demonstrate and test the potential capabilities for Virtual Observatory access to NASA's Planetary Science Archive.

  2. 7 CFR 57.132 - Access to plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Access to plants. 57.132 Section 57.132 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Access to plants. Access shall not be refused to any representative of the Secretary to any plant,...

  3. Guidelines for Making Web Content Accessible to All Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Terrill; Primlani, Saroj; Fiedor, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of accessibility standards and guidelines is to design websites everyone can use. The "IT Accessibility Constituent Group" developed this set of draft guidelines to help EQ authors, reviewers, and staff and the larger EDUCAUSE community ensure that web content is accessible to all users, including those with disabilities. This…

  4. 7 CFR 57.132 - Access to plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Access to plants. 57.132 Section 57.132 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Access to plants. Access shall not be refused to any representative of the Secretary to any plant,...

  5. 7 CFR 57.132 - Access to plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Access to plants. 57.132 Section 57.132 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Access to plants. Access shall not be refused to any representative of the Secretary to any plant,...

  6. 48 CFR 302.7100 - HHS standard templates and formats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS HHS Standard Templates and Formats 302.7100 HHS standard templates..., may be accessed on the ASFR/OGAPA/DA Internet Web site. A complete listing of the standard...

  7. Phasic brain activity related to the onset of rapid eye movements during rapid eye movement sleep: study of event-related potentials and standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Keiko; Abe, Takashi; Nittono, Hiroshi; Yamazaki, Katuo; Hori, Tadao

    2010-09-01

    The function of rapid eye movements (REMs) during REM sleep is still a matter that is open to debate. In a previous study, we found positive brain potential (P200r) time-locked to the onset of REMs. This potential was not observed during saccades of wakefulness. In this study, we estimated the electrical generation of this potential to investigate the phasic brain activity related to REMs. Data were collected in a sleep laboratory from nine healthy university students. REMs during REM sleep were recorded during natural nocturnal sleep. Event-related potential time-locked to the onset of REMs were averaged. Standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) was used to identify the current sources of P200r. The results showed that P200r have neuronal generators in the left premotor area, left primary motor and sensory cortices, left inferior parietal lobule and bilateral occipital areas (precuneus, cuneus and lingual gyrus). All these areas are known to contribute to visuomotor processing. These phasic brain activities might play a key role in explaining the function of REMs during REM sleep.

  8. Access Nets: Modeling Access to Physical Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frohardt, Robert; Chang, Bor-Yuh Evan; Sankaranarayanan, Sriram

    Electronic, software-managed mechanisms using, for example, radio-frequency identification (RFID) cards, enable great flexibility in specifying access control policies to physical spaces. For example, access rights may vary based on time of day or could differ in normal versus emergency situations. With such fine-grained control, understanding and reasoning about what a policy permits becomes surprisingly difficult requiring knowledge of permission levels, spatial layout, and time. In this paper, we present a formal modeling framework, called AccessNets, suitable for describing a combination of access permissions, physical spaces, and temporal constraints. Furthermore, we provide evidence that model checking techniques are effective in reasoning about physical access control policies. We describe our results from a tool that uses reachability analysis to validate security policies.

  9. 18F-fludrodeoxyglucose maximal standardized uptake value and metabolic tumor burden are associated with major chemotherapy-related tumor markers in NSCLC patients

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Lu; Guo, Chihua; Wang, Jiansheng; Liu, Xiang; Li, Yang; Li, Miao; Guo, Youmin; Duan, Xiaoyi

    2016-01-01

    Objective Metabolic activity and tumor burden are significant for prognosis and metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), including maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG). Chemotherapy resistance is a great challenge for treating NSCLC patients and is also closely related with several biomarkers such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), p53, and excision repair cross-complementing group 1 protein (ERCC1). Our purpose was to determine the correlation between positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) parameters and tumor markers-related chemotherapy resistance in NSCLC. Methods Forty-six NSCLC chemotherapy-naïve patients were enrolled. The SUVmax, MTV, and TLG were calculated by PET/CT imaging, and expression of EGFR, p53, and ERCC1 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry on tissues. SUVmax, MTV, and TLG compared for their performance in predicting the expression of EGFR, p53, and ERCC1 were illustrated with statistical analysis. Results SUVmax was significantly correlated with p53 expression (P=0.001), and MTV and TLG were significantly associated with ERCC1 (P=0.000; P=0.000). Furthermore, multiple stepwise regression analysis revealed that SUVmax was the primary predictor for p53, MTV and TLG was the primary predictor for ERCC1. SUVmax had a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 50% for the detection of p53 positive. The sensitivities of MTV and TLG were 83% and 80%, and specificities were 69% and 75% for the detection of ERCC1 positive, respectively. When we suggested p53 or ERCC1 positive, the cutoff value of SUVmax, MTV, and TLG were 7.68, 23.62, and 129.65 cm3, respectively. Conclusion SUVmax, MTV, and TLG were closely associated with p53 and ERCC1’ expressions. Therefore, 18F-fludrodeoxyglucose PET/CT could be a new way of predicting p53 or ERCC1-related chemotherapy effect in NSCLC patients with more convenience. PMID:27789962

  10. ACCESS: Design and Sub-System Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Morris, Matthew J.; McCandliss, Stephan R.; Rasucher, Bernard J.; Kimble, Randy A.; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Pelton, Russell; Mott, D. Brent; Wen, Hiting; Foltz, Roger; Quijada, Manuel A.; Gum, Jeffery S.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Kahle, Duncan M.; Benford, Dominic J.; Woodgate, Bruce E.; Wright, Edward L.; Feldman, Paul D.; Hart, Murdock; Moos, H. Warren; Reiss, Adam G.; Bohlin, Ralph; Deustua, Susana E.; Dixon, W. V.; Sahnow, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Establishing improved spectrophotometric standards is important for a broad range of missions and is relevant to many astrophysical problems. ACCESS, "Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars", is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments designed to enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of absolute laboratory detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35 -1.7 micrometer bandpass.

  11. Mirror, Mirror on the Wall, Which Is the Fairest Test of All? An Examination of the Equitability of Portfolio Assessment Relative to Standardized Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supovitz, Jonathan A.; Brennan, Robert T.

    1997-01-01

    Comparison of standardized test scores and language arts portfolios of 5,264 first and second graders showed that alternative assessments can decrease inequities between blacks and whites. However, girls performed far better than boys on portfolios than on standardized tests. (SK)

  12. Analyzing Social Issues Related to Teaching about the Federal Budget, Federal Debt, and Budget Deficit in Fifty State High School Social Studies Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marri, Anand R.; Crocco, Margaret S.; Shuttleworth, Jay; Gaudelli, William; Grolnick, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    This study of all fifty state, high school social studies curriculum standards found a lack of attention in the vast majority of state standards to the federal budget, federal debt, and budget deficit, topics of significant concern. These concepts are important to teaching about economics in the United States since they lie at the center of…

  13. Relating a Reading Comprehension Test to the CEFR Levels: A Case of Standard Setting in Practice with Focus on Judges and Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueras, Neus; Kaftandjieva, Felianka; Takala, Sauli

    2013-01-01

    The article addresses some problems and options in setting standards on language tests and examinations. More specifically, it reports on a set of three workshops conducted in the European context where standard setting in language education typically concerns linking tests and examinations to the Council of Europe's "Common European…

  14. SGML as a Framework for Digital Preservation and Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, James; Willis, Don

    This report explores the suitability of Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) as a framework for building, managing, and providing access to digital libraries, with special emphasis on preservation and access issues. SGML is an international standard (ISO 8879) designed to promote text interchange. It is used to define markup languages,…

  15. 28 CFR 115.182 - Access to emergency medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Access to emergency medical services. 115... to emergency medical treatment. (b) Treatment services shall be provided to the victim without... ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Medical and Mental Care § 115.182 Access to...

  16. 28 CFR 115.182 - Access to emergency medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Access to emergency medical services. 115... to emergency medical treatment. (b) Treatment services shall be provided to the victim without... ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Medical and Mental Care § 115.182 Access to...

  17. 28 CFR 115.182 - Access to emergency medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Access to emergency medical services. 115... to emergency medical treatment. (b) Treatment services shall be provided to the victim without... ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Medical and Mental Care § 115.182 Access to...

  18. DOE technical standards list: Department of Energy standards index

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    This Department of Energy (DOE) technical standards list (TSL) has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards (EH-31) on the basis of currently available technical information. Periodic updates of this TSL will be issued as additional information is received on standardization documents being issued, adopted, or canceled by DOE. This document was prepared for use by personnel involved in the selection and use of DOE technical standards and other Government and non-Government standards. This TSL provides listings of current DOE technical standards, non-Government standards that have been adopted by DOE, other standards-related documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and canceled DOE technical standards. Information on new DOE technical standards projects, technical standards released for coordination, recently published DOE technical standards, and activities of non-Government standards bodies that may be of interest to DOE is published monthly in Standards Actions.

  19. Memory availability and referential access

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Clinton L.; Gordon, Peter C.; Long, Debra L.; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2013-01-01

    Most theories of coreference specify linguistic factors that modulate antecedent accessibility in memory; however, whether non-linguistic factors also affect coreferential access is unknown. Here we examined the impact of a non-linguistic generation task (letter transposition) on the repeated-name penalty, a processing difficulty observed when coreferential repeated names refer to syntactically prominent (and thus more accessible) antecedents. In Experiment 1, generation improved online (event-related potentials) and offline (recognition memory) accessibility of names in word lists. In Experiment 2, we manipulated generation and syntactic prominence of antecedent names in sentences; both improved online and offline accessibility, but only syntactic prominence elicited a repeated-name penalty. Our results have three important implications: first, the form of a referential expression interacts with an antecedent’s status in the discourse model during coreference; second, availability in memory and referential accessibility are separable; and finally, theories of coreference must better integrate known properties of the human memory system. PMID:24443621

  20. Neurological complications of vascular access.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Christopher P

    2015-01-01

    Neurological problems are common in patients undergoing haemodialysis. Over 60% of patients will suffer from symptoms of underlying polyneuropathy due to uraemia or diabetes. Others will have subclinical disease demonstrable by nerve conduction studies. Nerve injury following haemodialysis access surgery is underreported. However, sensory nerve lesions are probably common after most vascular access procedures but are rarely debilitating. Nerve compression syndromes such as carpal tunnel and ulnar compression syndromes are common, especially in patients who have been on dialysis for some years and at least some of these are related to or exacerbated by the access. Recognition is essential as they are eminently treatable by decompression surgery. Tourniquet use appears to be safe for carpal tunnel or ulnar nerve decompression surgery. Ischaemic monomelic neuropathy (IMN) is rare but follows a period of ischaemia during or as a result of access surgery, most commonly to construct a brachial arteriovenous fistula or graft. It is characterised by intense pain, out of proportion to any ischaemia, involves all of the upper limb nerves and may progress to involve the motor nerves eventually resulting in a useless clawed hand. It requires prompt treatment of any residual ischaemia after access creation, if necessary by access ligation, as in the established syndrome, like the even rarer complication of reflex sympathetic dystrophy, it is very difficult to offer any useful treatment other than symptomatic relief and physiotherapy.