Science.gov

Sample records for access sufficient quantities

  1. Is open access sufficient? A review of the quality of open-access nursing journals.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Marie; Carlyle, Dave

    2015-02-01

    The present study aims to review the quality of open-access nursing journals listed in the Directory of Open Access Journals that published papers in 2013 with a nursing focus, written in English, and were freely accessible. Each journal was reviewed in relation to their publisher, year of commencement, number of papers published in 2013, fee for publication, indexing, impact factor, and evidence of requirements for ethics and disclosure statements. The quality of the journals was assessed by impact factors and the requirements for indexing in PubMed. A total of 552 were published in 2013 in the 19 open-access nursing journals that met the inclusion criteria. No journals had impact factors listed in Web of Knowledge, but three had low Scopus impact factors. Only five journals were indexed with PubMed. The quality of the 19 journals included in the review was evaluated as inferior to most subscription-fee journals. Mental health nursing has some responsibility to the general public, and in particular, consumers of mental health services and their families, for the quality of papers published in open-access journals. The way forward might involve dual-platform publication or a process that enables assessment of how research has improved clinical outcomes. PMID:25388929

  2. Giving Economically Disadvantaged, Minority Food Pantry Patrons' a Voice: Implications for Equitable Access to Sufficient, Nutritious Food.

    PubMed

    Greer, Anna E; Cross-Denny, Bronwyn; McCabe, Michelle; Castrogivanni, Brianna

    2016-01-01

    This study provides economically disadvantaged, minority food pantry patrons (hereafter, patrons) a meaning-ful voice by examining their experiences trying to obtain sufficient, nutritious food. Five focus groups were conducted using a semistructured discussion guide. Atlast.ti software was used to manage and analyze the data. Patrons reported that pantry staff who preserved their dignity by showing compassion were highly valued. Stigma and shame associated with pantry use were major concerns. Patrons suggested environmental and policy changes to improve their food acquisition experiences. These findings suggest that multilevel interventions addressing food access, food distribution policies, and patron-staff interactions are warranted. PMID:27214675

  3. Is Access Sufficient?: An Examination of the Effects of the MedShare Program to Expand Access to Prescription Drugs for Indigent Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Thomas; Carrozza, Mark

    2008-01-01

    We conduct an evaluation of MedShare, a program designed to enhance access to prescription drugs for indigent patients in the Greater Cincinnati area. The program expands access to drugs by providing subsidies to reduce the costs paid by patients for their prescriptions. The assumption is that by expanding access to prescription drugs, participant…

  4. 10 CFR 37.21 - Personnel access authorization requirements for category 1 or category 2 quantities of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or category 2 quantities of radioactive material. 37.21 Section 37.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF CATEGORY 1 AND CATEGORY 2 QUANTITIES OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Background... 1 or category 2 quantities of radioactive material. (a) General. (1) Each licensee that possesses...

  5. Necessary but not Sufficient - Closing the Gap Between Data Access and Use by a Broad User Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedict, K. K.; Pennington, D. D.

    2012-12-01

    Earth science cyberinfrastructure developers like the team at the University of New Mexico Earth Data Analysis Center (EDAC) and University of Texas at El Paso Cyber-ShARE Center of Excellence work closely with researchers to document and transfer their research products (data and related materials) into systems that will allow for long-term access and reuse, both in the research domain within which they were generated but also for potential use outside that domain. While we have generally treated this problem as a technical one in which we develop robust systems that can reliably deliver interoperable data and visualization services to a wide variety of client applications and platforms we have not yet achieved the potential of ubiquitous use of our science data holdings outside of the community that developed them. A number of barriers must be overcome to realize the broader potential of these data: Discoverability - data must be discoverable through the tools and interfaces that are used by the broader community in addition to the specialized archives with which the source communities interact Understanding - data must be documented in ways that allow other potential users to understand the content, context, and potential use of data products Usability - data must be available in a variety of formats and packages that are easily integrated into the systems and processes that are already in use by the prospective end users Transferability - the rights and obligations of potential users must be clearly defined for data products (i.e. licensing terms) Planning - data management must be planned for from the beginning so that all of the above can be accomplished This paper presents some of the activities that EDAC and Cyber-ShARE have undertaken (in partnership with collaborators at KU, DataONE, New Mexico Department of Health, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the New Mexico EPSCoR Program) in working to overcome these barriers to increased use of

  6. Access to What? Creating a Composite Measure of Educational Quantity and Educational Quality for 11 African Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaull, Nicholas; Taylor, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to create a composite statistic of educational quantity and educational quality by combining household data (Demographic and Health Survey) on grade completion and survey data (Southern and Eastern African Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality) on cognitive outcomes for 11 African countries: Kenya, Lesotho,…

  7. Is provision of healthcare sufficient to ensure better access? An exploration of the scope for public-private partnership in India

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Sabitri; Lahiri, Kausik

    2015-01-01

    Background: India’s economic growth rate in recent years has been fairly impressive. But, it has been consistently failing to make considerable progress in achieving health related Millennium Development Goal (MDG) targets. Lack of coherence between provisions and utilization becomes the face of the problem. Inadequacies in outreach, access and affordability coupled with escalating healthcare costs have aggravated the problem. Here the application of Public-Private Partnership (PPP) model seems to have enormous potential to ease the impasse. Methods: This paper tries to find the gap between the provisions and access in healthcare. The paper attempts to construct a Health Infrastructure Index (HII) and Health Attainment Index (HAI) for different states of India. Considering the presence of regional variations found in health infrastructure and attainment among the states, two states, viz. Maharashtra (MAH) and West Bengal (WB) have been chosen. Then contributions of health programs like Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY), National Rural Telemedicine Network (NRTN) and Fair Price Shops (FPS), all PPP initiatives, have been assessed for both the states by carrying out comprehensive benefit-cost analysis. Results: The health infrastructure for population per unit area captures the outreach/delivery issue and the health attainment reveals the true scenario about how far the infrastructure has been accessed by the people; and the gap between the two, as the paper finds, is the root of the problem. The combined effect of RSBY and NRTN will leave both MAH and WB higher benefits in terms of health attainment. The contributions of RSBY and NRTN have been assessed for both the states by carrying out comprehensive benefit-cost analysis. FPS comes up with immense benefits for WB. It is yet to be implemented in MAH. Conclusion: The outreach and access problems arising from deficiencies in infrastructure, human resources and financial ability are expected to be well

  8. Accessibility

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/accessibility.html MedlinePlus Accessibility To use the sharing features on this page, ... Subscribe to RSS Follow us Disclaimers Copyright Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs ...

  9. Necessary, but also Sufficient?

    PubMed

    Martens, Sascha

    2016-07-01

    Cell biologists are equipped with a plethora of techniques and approaches to unravel the fascinating inner working of the cell. Among these, biochemistry has the ability to define the machinery that is both necessary and sufficient for a given process and, therefore, to define its core mechanism. PMID:27142894

  10. When is Testing Sufficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, Linda H.; Arthur, James D.; Stapko, Ruth K.; Davani, Darush

    1999-01-01

    The Software Assurance Technology Center (SATC) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has been investigating how projects can determine when sufficient testing has been completed. For most projects, schedules are underestimated, and the last phase of the software development, testing, must be decreased. Two questions are frequently asked: "To what extent is the software error-free? " and "How much time and effort is required to detect and remove the remaining errors? " Clearly, neither question can be answered with absolute certainty. Nonetheless, the ability to answer these questions with some acceptable level of confidence is highly desirable. First, knowing the extent to which a product is error-free, we can judge when it is time to terminate testing. Secondly, if errors are judged to be present, we can perform a cost/benefit trade-off analysis to estimate when the software will be ready for use and at what cost. This paper explains the efforts of the SATC to help projects determine what is sufficient testing and when is the most cost-effective time to stop testing.

  11. 14 CFR 23.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 23.1551 Section 23... Information Markings and Placards § 23.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked in sufficient increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  12. 14 CFR 23.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 23.1551 Section 23... Information Markings and Placards § 23.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked in sufficient increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  13. 14 CFR 23.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 23.1551 Section 23... Information Markings and Placards § 23.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked in sufficient increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  14. 14 CFR 23.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 23.1551 Section 23... Information Markings and Placards § 23.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked in sufficient increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  15. Name Those Quantities

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2004-03-22

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has created a number of radiation protection quantities since its Publication 26 appeared in 1977. The ensuing years have brought chaos in the form of multiple definitions and symbols for the same and similar quantities, conflicting definitions, mathematical absurdities, and a proliferation of terms. Despite this, the most commonly used radiation protection quantities in the USA and in the International Atomic Energy Agency's Basic Safety Standards have not been named or clearly defined by the ICRP. This paper proposes the names "total effective dose" for the prospective quantity, and "total personal effective dose" for the quantity pertaining to an exposed individual.

  16. Extensive quantities in thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannaerts, Sebastiaan H.

    2014-05-01

    A literature survey shows little consistency in the definitions of the term ‘extensive quantity’ (a.k.a. extensive property) as used in thermodynamics. A majority assumes that extensive quantities are those that are proportional to mass. Taking the mathematical meaning of proportional and taking the ‘mass’ to be that of the system or subsystem, it is shown that the proportionality assumption is only correct for a few extensive quantities under condition of constant composition. A large subset of extensive quantities are completely independent of mass; for most systems extensive quantities are not proportional to mass, but mass is the (extensive) constant of proportionality. The definition by IUPAC, based on the additivity of extensive quantities, is the preferred baseline for discussing this subject. It is noted however, that two types of additivity need to be distinguished and that a few intensive quantities are also additive. This paper leaves several interesting questions open to further scrutiny.

  17. Conserved quantities from piecewise Killing vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dray, Tevian; Padmanabhan, T.

    1989-07-01

    In the presence of symmetries, conserved quantities can be obtained by contracting the stress-energy tensor with a Killing vector. We generalize this result to piecewise Killing vectors by giving sufficient conditions for the construction of an associated conserved quantity. A typical example, namely, two stationary space-times joined together in such a way that the resulting space-time is not stationary, is treated in detail.

  18. Quantities, Units, and Symbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royal Society, London (England).

    This booklet provides a reference to the quantities, units, and their symbols which are used in physical science. It is a revision of a 1969 report and takes account of the progress which has been made in obtaining international agreement on the definitions, names, and symbols for units and on the rules for the expression of relations involving…

  19. Working toward Self-Sufficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Nathan

    1985-01-01

    Upon arrival in the United States, the Southeast Asian "Boat People" faced a multitude of problems that would seem to have hindered their achieving economic self-sufficiency. Nonetheless, by the time of a 1982 research study which interviewed nearly 1,400 refugee households, 25 percent of all the households in the sample had achieved economic…

  20. Repulsive Casimir force: Sufficient conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Rosa, Luigi; Lambrecht, Astrid

    2010-09-15

    In this paper the Casimir energy of two parallel plates made by materials of different penetration depth and no medium in between is derived. We study the Casimir force density and derive analytical constraints on the two penetration depths which are sufficient conditions to ensure repulsion. Compared to other methods our approach needs no specific model for dielectric or magnetic material properties and constitutes a complementary analysis.

  1. RF modal quantity gaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanleuven, K.

    1989-05-01

    The primary objective is to provide a concept of a radio frequency (RF) modal resonance technique which is being investigated as a method for gaging the quantities of subcritical cryogenic propellants in metallic tanks. Of special interest are the potential applications of the technique to microgravity propellant gaging situations. The results of concept testing using cryogenic oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen, as well as paraffin simulations of microgravity fluid orientations, are reported. These test results were positive and showed that the gaging concept was viable.

  2. Quantification is Neither Necessary Nor Sufficient for Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari, Luca; Maul, Andrew; Torres Irribarra, David; Wilson, Mark

    2013-09-01

    Being an infrastructural, widespread activity, measurement is laden with stereotypes. Some of these concern the role of measurement in the relation between quality and quantity. In particular, it is sometimes argued or assumed that quantification is necessary for measurement; it is also sometimes argued or assumed that quantification is sufficient for or synonymous with measurement. To assess the validity of these positions the concepts of measurement and quantitative evaluation should be independently defined and their relationship analyzed. We contend that the defining characteristic of measurement should be the structure of the process, not a feature of its results. Under this perspective, quantitative evaluation is neither sufficient nor necessary for measurement.

  3. Energy Strategic Planning & Sufficiency Project

    SciTech Connect

    Retziaff, Greg

    2005-03-30

    This report provides information regarding options available, their advantages and disadvantages, and the costs for pursuing activities to advance Smith River Rancheria toward an energy program that reduces their energy costs, allows greater self-sufficiency and stimulates economic development and employment opportunities within and around the reservation. The primary subjects addressed in this report are as follows: (1) Baseline Assessment of Current Energy Costs--An evaluation of the historical energy costs for Smith River was conducted to identify the costs for each component of their energy supply to better assess changes that can be considered for energy cost reductions. (2) Research Viable Energy Options--This includes a general description of many power generation technologies and identification of their relative costs, advantages and disadvantages. Through this research the generation technology options that are most suited for this application were identified. (3) Project Development Considerations--The basic steps and associated challenges of developing a generation project utilizing the selected technologies are identified and discussed. This included items like selling to third parties, wheeling, electrical interconnections, fuel supply, permitting, standby power, and transmission studies. (4) Energy Conservation--The myriad of federal, state and utility programs offered for low-income weatherization and utility bill payment assistance are identified, their qualification requirements discussed, and the subsequent benefits outlined. (5) Establishing an Energy Organization--The report includes a high level discussion of formation of a utility to serve the Tribal membership. The value or advantages of such action is discussed along with some of the challenges. (6) Training--Training opportunities available to the Tribal membership are identified.

  4. Measurements, Physical Quantities, and Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Laurence E.

    1988-01-01

    Explains the significance of the mole as a unit of measure by showing the relationship between physical quantities and their mathematical representations. Offers a summary of the principles of metrology that make creation of physical quantities and units seem reasonable. A table of base physical quantities and units is included. (RT)

  5. Strategies for Estimating Discrete Quantities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crites, Terry W.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the benchmark and decomposition-recomposition estimation strategies and presents five techniques to develop students' estimation ability. Suggests situations involving quantities of candy and popcorn in which the teacher can model those strategies for the students. (MDH)

  6. Evaluating Whole Chemical Mixtures and Sufficient Similarity

    EPA Science Inventory

    This powerpoint presentation supports apresentation describing dose-response assessment for complex chemical mixtures including deriving reference doses for mixtures evaluating sufficient similarity among chemical mixtures.

  7. Some existence and sufficient conditions of optimality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Assefi, T.

    1976-01-01

    The role of the existence and sufficiency conditions in the field of optimal control was briefly described. The existence theorems are discussed for general nonlinear systems. However, the sufficiency conditions pertain to "nearly" linear systems with integral convex costs. Moreover, a brief discussion of linear systems with multiple-cost functions is presented.

  8. Quantity and accessibility for specific targeting of receptors in tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Sajid; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Maria; Braun, Gary B.; Doyle, Francis J.; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2014-06-01

    Synaphic (ligand-directed) targeting of drugs is an important potential new approach to drug delivery, particularly in oncology. Considerable success with this approach has been achieved in the treatment of blood-borne cancers, but the advances with solid tumours have been modest. Here, we have studied the number and availability for ligand binding of the receptors for two targeting ligands. The results show that both paucity of total receptors and their poor availability are major bottlenecks in drug targeting. A tumour-penetrating peptide greatly increases the availability of receptors by promoting transport of the drug to the extravascular tumour tissue, but the number of available receptors still remains low, severely limiting the utility of the approach. Our results emphasize the importance of using drugs with high specific activity to avoid exceeding receptor capacity because any excess drug conjugate would lose the targeting advantage. The mathematical models we describe make it possible to focus on those aspects of the targeting mechanism that are most likely to have a substantial effect on the overall efficacy of the targeting.

  9. Trigonometric functions of nonlinear quantities

    SciTech Connect

    Wester, D.W.

    1994-08-01

    Trigonometric functions of nonlinear quantities are introduced. Functions of the form {line_integral}(x{sup a}), {line_integral}(x{sup y}), and {line_integral}{sup n}(x{sup a}) are reported, where {line_integral} is a trigonometric function such as cos, sin, tan, cot, sec, or csc; x is a variable; a is a constant; y is a variable; and n is a constant. Sums, products and quotients of these functions are defined. Trigonometric functions of nonlinear quantities involving constants to variable powers also are mentioned. Possible applications to quantum mechanics, gravity, and a final theory of matter are discussed.

  10. Characteristic quantities and dimensional analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimvall, Göran

    Phenomena in the physical sciences are described with quantities that have a numerical value and a dimension, i.e., a physical unit. Dimensional analysis is a powerful aspect of modeling and simulation. Characteristic quantities formed by a combination of model parameters can give new insights without detailed analytic or numerical calculations. Dimensional requirements lead to Buckingham's Π theorem - a general mathematical structure of all models in physics. These aspects are illustrated with many examples of modeling, e.g., an elastic beam on supports, wave propagation on a liquid surface, the Lennard-Jones potential for the interaction between atoms, the Lindemann melting rule, and saturation phenomena in electrical and thermal conduction.

  11. Household Water Quantity and Health: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Stelmach, Rachel D.; Clasen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    While the quantity of water used in the home is thought to be an important determinant of health, much of the evidence relies on using water access as a proxy for quantity. This review examines the health effects of household water quantity using studies that directly measured water quantity. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and article reference lists. Eligible studies included experimental and observational studies that measured a difference in water quantity and quantified an association between water quantity and health outcomes. 21 studies, divided into six of the many possible water-quantity associated outcomes, met the eligibility criteria. Due to heterogeneity in designs, settings, methods, and outcomes, a meta-analysis was inappropriate. Overall results showed a positive association between water quantity and health outcomes, but the effect depended on how the water was used. Increased water usage for personal hygiene was generally associated with improved trachoma outcomes, while increased water consumption was generally associated with reduced gastrointestinal infection and diarrheal disease and improved growth outcomes. In high-income countries, increased water consumption was associated with higher rates of renal cell carcinoma and bladder cancer but not associated with type II diabetes, cardiac-related mortality, or all-cause mortality. PMID:26030467

  12. Recognizing Prefixes in Scientific Quantities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Although recognizing prefixes in physical quantities is inherent for practitioners, it might not be inherent for students, who do not use prefixes in their everyday life experiences. This deficiency surfaces in AP Physics exams. For example, readers of an AP Physics exam reported "a common mistake of incorrectly converting nanometers to…

  13. Quantity Estimation Of The Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Gorana, Agim; Malkaj, Partizan; Muda, Valbona

    2007-04-23

    In this paper we present some considerations about quantity estimations, regarding the range of interaction and the conservations laws in various types of interactions. Our estimations are done under classical and quantum point of view and have to do with the interaction's carriers, the radius, the influence range and the intensity of interactions.

  14. 7 CFR 985.12 - Salable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.12 Salable quantity. Salable quantity means the total quantity of each class of oil which handlers may purchase...

  15. 7 CFR 985.12 - Salable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.12 Salable quantity. Salable quantity means the total quantity of each class of oil which handlers may purchase...

  16. 7 CFR 985.12 - Salable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.12 Salable quantity. Salable quantity means the total quantity of each class of oil which handlers may purchase...

  17. 7 CFR 985.12 - Salable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.12 Salable quantity. Salable quantity means the total quantity of each class of oil which handlers may purchase...

  18. 7 CFR 985.12 - Salable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.12 Salable quantity. Salable quantity means the total quantity of each class of oil which handlers may purchase...

  19. Recognizing Prefixes in Scientific Quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    Although recognizing prefixes in physical quantities is inherent for practitioners, it might not be inherent for students, who do not use prefixes in their everyday life experiences. This deficiency surfaces in AP Physics exams. For example, readers of an AP Physics exam reported "a common mistake of incorrectly converting nanometers to meters." Similar students' mistakes were reported also by AP Chemistry readers "as in previous years, students still had difficulty converting kJ to J." While traditional teaching focuses on memorizing the symbols of prefixes, little attention is given to helping learners recognize a prefix in a given quantity. I noticed in my teaching practice that by making the processes of identifying prefixes more explicit, students make fewer mistakes on unit conversion. Thus, this paper presents an outline of a lesson that focuses on prefix recognition. It is designed for a first-year college physics class; however, its key points can be addressed to any group of physics students.

  20. Characteristic quantities and dimensional analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimvall, Göran

    2008-04-01

    Phenomena in the physical sciences are described with quantities that have a numerical value and a dimension, i.e., a physical unit. Dimensional analysis is a powerful aspect of modeling and simulation. Characteristic quantities formed by a combination of model parameters can give new insights without detailed analytic or numerical calculations. Dimensional requirements lead to Buckingham’s Π theorem—a general mathematical structure of all models in physics. These aspects are illustrated with many examples of modeling, e.g., an elastic beam on supports, wave propagation on a liquid surface, the Lennard-Jones potential for the interaction between atoms, the Lindemann melting rule, and saturation phenomena in electrical and thermal conduction.

  1. Characteristic quantities and dimensional analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimvall, Göran

    Phenomena in the physical sciences are described with quantities that have a numerical value and a dimension, i.e., a physical unit. Dimensional analysis is a powerful aspect of modeling and simulation. Characteristic quantities formed by a combination of model parameters can give new insights without detailed analytic or numerical calculations. Dimensional requirements lead to Buckingham's Π theorem—a general mathematical structure of all models in physics. These aspects are illustrated with many examples of modeling, e.g., an elastic beam on supports, wave propagation on a liquid surface, the Lennard-Jones potential for the interaction between atoms, the Lindemann melting rule, and saturation phenomena in electrical and thermal conduction.

  2. Semiparametric tests for sufficient cause interaction

    PubMed Central

    Vansteelandt, Stijn; VanderWeele, Tyler J.; Robins, James M.

    2014-01-01

    A sufficient cause interaction between two exposures signals the presence of individuals for whom the outcome would occur only under certain values of the two exposures. When the outcome is dichotomous and all exposures are categorical, then under certain no confounding assumptions, empirical conditions for sufficient cause interactions can be constructed based on the sign of linear contrasts of conditional outcome probabilities between differently exposed subgroups, given confounders. It is argued that logistic regression models are unsatisfactory for evaluating such contrasts, and that Bernoulli regression models with linear link are prone to misspecification. We therefore develop semiparametric tests for sufficient cause interactions under models which postulate probability contrasts in terms of a finite-dimensional parameter, but which are otherwise unspecified. Estimation is often not feasible in these models because it would require nonparametric estimation of auxiliary conditional expectations given high-dimensional variables. We therefore develop ‘multiply robust tests’ under a union model that assumes at least one of several working submodels holds. In the special case of a randomized experiment or a family-based genetic study in which the joint exposure distribution is known by design or Mendelian inheritance, the procedure leads to asymptotically distribution-free tests of the null hypothesis of no sufficient cause interaction. PMID:25558182

  3. Sufficiency, Intimacy and the Good Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Donald L.

    Our capacity to provide food and shelter is freeing us from the constant burden of keeping the wolf away from the door. We are increasingly able to give our attention to other values. This type of sufficiency provides time and circumstances for developing intimate relationships. Intimate relationships are characterized by revelation of one's…

  4. Sufficient separability criteria and linear maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewenstein, Maciej; Augusiak, Remigiusz; Chruściński, Dariusz; Rana, Swapan; Samsonowicz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    We study families of positive and completely positive maps acting on a bipartite system CM⊗CN (with M ≤N ). The maps have a property that, when applied to any state (of a given entanglement class), result in a separable state or, more generally, a state of another certain entanglement class (e.g., Schmidt number ≤k ). This allows us to derive useful families of sufficient separability criteria. Explicit examples of such criteria have been constructed for arbitrary M ,N , with a special emphasis on M =2 . Our results can be viewed as generalizations of the known facts that in the sufficiently close vicinity of the completely depolarized state (the normalized identity matrix), all states are separable (belong to "weakly" entangled classes). Alternatively, some of our results can be viewed as an entanglement classification for a certain family of states, corresponding to mixtures of the completely polarized state with pure states, partial transposes, and/or local transformations thereof.

  5. Balancing Teacher Quality and Quantity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Helen

    The world is facing a shortage of trained teachers. According to the 2010 Global Monitoring Report approximately 10.3 million teachers will be needed globally to staff classrooms from Bangkok to Canada. The situation is worse in Sub-Saharan Africa. Estimates suggest that approximately 1.2 million new teachers will be needed in Sub-Saharan Africa alone to achieve universal primary education goals by 2015. Increases in primary school enrollments, drought, and HIV-AIDS have exacerbated the need for well trained teachers. Despite the need, the focus is on balancing quality with quantity. An effective teacher is deemed a critical element, although not the only one, in a student's success in the classroom. This paper focuses on the dilemma of meeting universal primary education goals in Sub-Saharan Africa, while maintaining teacher quality in fragile contexts.

  6. Quantity Discrimination in Domestic Rats, Rattus norvegicus

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Laura; Montrose, V. Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Quantity discrimination involves distinguishing which of two quantities is greater. This discrimination between larger and smaller quantities has only been demonstrated in rats post extensive training. We tested whether domestic rats could perform quantity discrimination without explicit training. We found that rats could distinguish the greater amount in comparisons of 1 vs. 2, 2 vs. 3, 3 vs. 5, 3 vs. 8, 4 vs. 6, and 4 vs. 8. Rats could not distinguish between 3 vs. 4, 4 vs. 5 and 5 vs. 6. We also found that as the ratio between quantities became finer the choice of the larger quantity decreased. We conclude that rats can perform quantity discrimination without extensive training and that their quantity discrimination ability is influenced by the ratio between quantities. Abstract Quantity discrimination is a basic form of numerical competence where an animal distinguishes which of two amounts is greater in size. Whilst quantity discrimination in rats has been investigated via training paradigms, rats’ natural quantity discrimination abilities without explicit training for a desired response have not been explored. This study investigated domestic rats’ ability to perform quantity discrimination. Domestic rats (n = 12) were examined for their ability to distinguish the larger amount under nine quantity comparisons. One-sample t-tests identified a significant preference for the larger quantity in comparisons of 1 vs. 2, 2 vs. 3, 3 vs. 5, 3 vs. 8, 4 vs. 6, and 4 vs. 8. No preference between quantities was found for comparisons of 3 vs. 4, 4 vs. 5 and 5 vs. 6. Overall, this study drew two key conclusions. Firstly, that domestic rats are capable of performing quantity discrimination without extensive training. Secondly, as subjects adhered to Weber’s law, it was concluded that the approximate number system underpins domestic rats’ ability to perform spontaneous quantity discrimination. PMID:27527223

  7. Multimodal Semantic Quantity Representations: Further Evidence from Korean Sign Language

    PubMed Central

    Domahs, Frank; Klein, Elise; Moeller, Korbinian; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Yoon, Byung-Chen; Willmes, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Korean deaf signers performed a number comparison task on pairs of Arabic digits. In their response times profiles, the expected magnitude effect was systematically modified by properties of number signs in Korean sign language in a culture-specific way (not observed in hearing and deaf Germans or hearing Chinese). We conclude that finger-based quantity representations are automatically activated even in simple tasks with symbolic input although this may be irrelevant and even detrimental for task performance. These finger-based numerical representations are accessed in addition to another, more basic quantity system which is evidenced by the magnitude effect. In sum, these results are inconsistent with models assuming only one single amodal representation of numerical quantity. PMID:22291669

  8. 16 CFR 500.19 - Conversion of SI metric quantities to inch/pound quantities and inch/pound quantities to SI...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .../pound quantities and inch/pound quantities to SI metric quantities. 500.19 Section 500.19 Commercial... LABELING ACT § 500.19 Conversion of SI metric quantities to inch/pound quantities and inch/pound quantities to SI metric quantities. (a) For calculating the conversion of SI metric quantities to...

  9. Quantity Cognition: Numbers, Numerosity, Zero and Mathematics.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Ben M

    2016-05-23

    Physical quantities differ from abstract numbers and mathematics, but recent results are revealing the neural representation of both: a new study demonstrates how an absence of quantity is transformed into a representation of zero as a number. PMID:27218850

  10. Properties of acoustic energy quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uosukainen, Seppo

    1989-09-01

    The sound power of a source is shown to depend on other sources and environment through the coherent and incoherent interaction and on the mounting conditions of the source. The conditions for a source to be a constant power source (being a rare exception amoung sound sources) are defined. A new quantity semianalytic intensity is defined. By its help the mean value, time-dependent, active and reactive intensity are defined in general time-dependent fields. In time harmonic fields the active part of the mean value intensity is rotational. The rotationality is proportional to the polarization vector of particle velocity, the polarization being elliptical in general. The changes of sound field are shown to generate rotationality in all intensity components. The negative pI-indicator is shown to be a possible indication of the rotationality of intensity. Fundamental intensity vortices are defined. The size of the lowest order vortices is of the order of 0.5 to 0.7 (Lambda). A modified J.M.C. method is developed for the basis of the vector and dyadic weighting, the former of which weights the sound pressure and particle velocity differently, and the latter also changes the polarization (or direction) of the particle velocity. Theoretical possibilities of general field modifications and acoustic sink optimization based on these new field reshapers are presented. A new field indicator for intensity measurements is defined. It can be used as a measure of the diffuseness and reactivity as a function of time and observation direction.

  11. Policy Capacity Is Necessary but Not Sufficient

    PubMed Central

    Gen, Sheldon; Wright, Amy Conley

    2015-01-01

    Policy capacity focuses on the managerial and organizational abilities to inform policy decisions with sound research and analysis, and facilitate policy implementation with operational efficiency. It stems from a view of the policy process that is rational and positivistic, in which optimal policy choices can be identified, selected, and implemented with objectivity. By itself, however, policy capacity neglects the political aspects of policy-making that can dominate the process, even in health policies. These technical capabilities are certainly needed to advance reforms in health policies, but they are not sufficient. Instead, they must be complemented with public engagement and policy advocacy to ensure support from the public that policies are meant to serve. PMID:26673469

  12. 48 CFR 36.516 - Quantity surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Quantity surveys. 36.516... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.516 Quantity surveys. The contracting officer may insert the clause at 52.236-16, Quantity Surveys, in solicitations and contracts...

  13. 48 CFR 36.516 - Quantity surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quantity surveys. 36.516... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.516 Quantity surveys. The contracting officer may insert the clause at 52.236-16, Quantity Surveys, in solicitations and contracts...

  14. 48 CFR 36.516 - Quantity surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Quantity surveys. 36.516... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.516 Quantity surveys. The contracting officer may insert the clause at 52.236-16, Quantity Surveys, in solicitations and contracts...

  15. 48 CFR 36.516 - Quantity surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Quantity surveys. 36.516... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.516 Quantity surveys. The contracting officer may insert the clause at 52.236-16, Quantity Surveys, in solicitations and contracts...

  16. 48 CFR 36.516 - Quantity surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Quantity surveys. 36.516... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.516 Quantity surveys. The contracting officer may insert the clause at 52.236-16, Quantity Surveys, in solicitations and contracts...

  17. 40 CFR 201.21 - Quantities measured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Quantities measured. 201.21 Section 201.21 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS... § 201.21 Quantities measured. The quantities to be measured under the test conditions described...

  18. 40 CFR 201.21 - Quantities measured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Quantities measured. 201.21 Section 201.21 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS... § 201.21 Quantities measured. The quantities to be measured under the test conditions described...

  19. 40 CFR 201.21 - Quantities measured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quantities measured. 201.21 Section 201.21 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS... § 201.21 Quantities measured. The quantities to be measured under the test conditions described...

  20. 40 CFR 201.21 - Quantities measured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Quantities measured. 201.21 Section 201.21 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS... § 201.21 Quantities measured. The quantities to be measured under the test conditions described...

  1. 40 CFR 201.21 - Quantities measured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Quantities measured. 201.21 Section 201.21 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS... § 201.21 Quantities measured. The quantities to be measured under the test conditions described...

  2. 30 CFR 75.325 - Air quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air quantity. 75.325 Section 75.325 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.325 Air quantity. (a)(1) In bituminous and lignite mines the quantity of air shall be at least 3,000 cubic feet per minute reaching each working...

  3. 30 CFR 75.325 - Air quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air quantity. 75.325 Section 75.325 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.325 Air quantity. (a)(1) In bituminous and lignite mines the quantity of air shall be at least 3,000 cubic feet per minute reaching each working...

  4. 30 CFR 75.325 - Air quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air quantity. 75.325 Section 75.325 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.325 Air quantity. (a)(1) In bituminous and lignite mines the quantity of air shall be at least 3,000 cubic feet per minute reaching each working...

  5. 30 CFR 75.325 - Air quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air quantity. 75.325 Section 75.325 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.325 Air quantity. (a)(1) In bituminous and lignite mines the quantity of air shall be at least 3,000 cubic feet per minute reaching each working...

  6. 30 CFR 75.325 - Air quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quantity. 75.325 Section 75.325 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.325 Air quantity. (a)(1) In bituminous and lignite mines the quantity of air shall be at least 3,000 cubic feet per minute reaching each working...

  7. Operational quantities and new approach by ICRU.

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    The protection quantities, equivalent dose in a tissue or organ and effective dose, were developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) to allow quantification of the extent of exposure of the human body to ionising radiation. These quantities are used for the implementation of limitation and optimisation principles. Body-related protection quantities are not measurable in practice. Therefore, the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) developed a set of operational dose quantities for use in radiation measurements for external exposure that can assess the protection quantities. The current ICRU operational quantities were defined more than 30 years ago. ICRU Report Committee 26 examined the rationale for the operational quantities, taking account of changes in the definitions of the protection quantities in ICRP's 2007 Recommendations. The considerations included the range of types and energies of particles contributing to exposure of workers and members of the public. ICRU Report Committee 26 investigated a set of alternative definitions for the operational quantities. The major change to the currently favoured set of quantities is redefinition of the operational quantities, from being based on doses at specific points in the ICRU sphere and soft tissue, to being based on particle fluence and conversion coefficients for effective dose and absorbed dose to the lens of the eye and local skin. PMID:26980797

  8. Neurodegenerative Diseases: Neurotoxins as Sufficient Etiologic Agents?

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Christopher A.; Höglinger, Günter U.

    2008-01-01

    A dominant paradigm in neurological disease research is that the primary etiological factors for diseases such as Alzheimer’s (AD), Parkinson’s (PD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are genetic. Opposed to this perspective are the clear observations from epidemiology that purely genetic casual factors account for a relatively small fraction of all cases. Many who support a genetic etiology for neurological disease take the view that while the percentages may be relatively small, these numbers will rise in the future with the inevitable discoveries of additional genetic mutations. The follow up argument is that even if the last is not true, the events triggered by the aberrant genes identified so far will be shown to impact the same neuronal cell death pathways as those activated by environmental factors that trigger most sporadic disease cases. In this article we present a countervailing view that environmental neurotoxins may be the sole sufficient factor in at least three neurological disease clusters. For each, neurotoxins have been isolated and characterized that, at least in animal models, faithfully reproduce each disorder without the need for genetic co-factors. Based on these data, we will propose a set of principles that would enable any potential toxin to be evaluated as an etiological factor in a given neurodegenerative disease. Finally, we will attempt to put environmental toxins into the context of possible genetically-determined susceptibility. PMID:17985252

  9. Sufficient dimension reduction with additional information.

    PubMed

    Hung, Hung; Liu, Chih-Yen; Horng-Shing Lu, Henry

    2016-07-01

    Sufficient dimension reduction is widely applied to help model building between the response [Formula: see text] and covariate [Formula: see text] In some situations, we also collect additional covariate [Formula: see text] that has better performance in predicting [Formula: see text], but has a higher obtaining cost, than [Formula: see text] While constructing a predictive model for [Formula: see text] based on [Formula: see text] is straightforward, this strategy is not applicable since [Formula: see text] is not available for future observations in which the constructed model is to be applied. As a result, the aim of the study is to build a predictive model for [Formula: see text] based on [Formula: see text] only, where the available data is [Formula: see text] A naive method is to conduct analysis using [Formula: see text] directly, but ignoring [Formula: see text] can cause the problem of inefficiency. On the other hand, it is not trivial to utilize the information of [Formula: see text] to infer [Formula: see text], either. In this article, we propose a two-stage dimension reduction method for [Formula: see text] that is able to utilize the information of [Formula: see text] In the breast cancer data, the risk score constructed from the two-stage method can well separate patients with different survival experiences. In the Pima data, the two-stage method requires fewer components to infer the diabetes status, while achieving higher classification accuracy than the conventional method. PMID:26704765

  10. Energy Strategic Planning & Self-Sufficiency Project

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Retzlaff

    2005-03-30

    This report provides information regarding options available, their advantages and disadvantages, and the costs for pursuing activities to advance Smith River Rancheria toward an energy program that reduces their energy costs, allows greater self-sufficiency and stimulates economic development and employment opportunities within and around the reservation. The primary subjects addressed in this report are as follow: (1) Baseline Assessment of Current Energy Costs--An evaluation of the historical energy costs for Smith River was conducted to identify the costs for each component of their energy supply to better assess changes that can be considered for energy cost reductions. (2) Research Viable Energy Options--This includes a general description of many power generation technologies and identification of their relative costs, advantages and disadvantages. Through this research the generation technology options that are most suited for this application were identified. (3) Project Development Considerations--The basic steps and associated challenges of developing a generation project utilizing the selected technologies are identified and discussed. This included items like selling to third parties, wheeling, electrical interconnections, fuel supply, permitting, standby power, and transmission studies. (4) Energy Conservation--The myriad of federal, state and utility programs offered for low-income weatherization and utility bill payment assistance are identified, their qualification requirements discussed, and the subsequent benefits outlined. (5) Establishing an Energy Organization--The report includes a high level discussion of formation of a utility to serve the Tribal membership. The value or advantages of such action is discussed along with some of the challenges. (6) Training--Training opportunities available to the Tribal membership are identified.

  11. Quantities and units in radiation protection dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, W. A.

    1994-08-01

    A new report, entitled Quantities and Units in Radiation Protection Dosimetry, has recently been published by the international Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements. That report (No. 51) aims to provide a coherent system of quantities and units for purposes of measurement and calculation in the assessment of compliance with dose limitations. The present paper provides an extended summary of that report, including references to the operational quantities needed for area and individual monitoring of external radiations.

  12. [Vitamin-antioxidant sufficiency of winter sports athletes].

    PubMed

    Beketova, N A; Kosheleva, O V; Pereverzeva, O G; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Solntseva, T N; Khanfer'ian, R A

    2013-01-01

    The sufficiency of 169 athletes (six disciplines: bullet shooting, biathlon, bobsleigh, skeleton, freestyle skiing, snowboarding) with vitamins A, E, C, B2, and beta-carotene has been investigated in April-September 2013. All athletes (102 juniors, mean age--18.5 +/- 0.3 years, and 67 adult high-performance athletes, mean age--26.8 +/- 0.7 years) were sufficiently supplied with vitamin A (70.7 +/- 1.7 mcg/dl). Mean blood serum retinol level was 15% higher the upper limit of the norm (80 mcg/dl) in biathletes while median reached 90.9 mcg/dl. Blood serum level of tocopherols (1.22 +/- 0.03 mg/dl), ascorbic acid (1.06 +/- 0.03 mg/dl), riboflavin (7.1 +/- 0.4 ng/ml), and beta-carotene (25.1 +/- 1.7 mcg/dl) was in within normal range, but the incidence of insufficiency of vitamins E, C, B2, and carotenoid among athletes varied in the range of 0-25, 0-17, 15-67 and 42-75%, respectively. 95% of adults and 80% of younger athletes were sufficiently provided with vitamin E. Vitamin E level in blood serum of juniors involved in skeleton and biathlon was lower by 51 and 72% (p < 0.05), than this parameter in adult athletes. Vitamin A, C and B2, and beta-carotene blood serum level did not significantly differ in junior and adult athletes. Women were better supplied with vitamins C, B2, and beta-carotene: a reduced blood serum level of these micronutrients in women was detected 2-3 fold rare (p < 0.10) than among men. Blood serum concentration of vitamin C (1.20 +/- 0.05 mg/dl) and beta-carotene (32.0 +/- 3.9 mcg/dl) in women was greater by 15 and 54% (p < 0.05) than in men. In general, the biathletes were better provided with vitamins compared with other athletes. The vast majority (80%) were optimally provided by all three antioxidants (beta-carotene and vitamins E and C). In other sports, the relative quantity of athletes sufficiently supplied with these essential nutrients did not exceed 56%. The quota of supplied with all antioxidants among bullet shooters (31.1%) and

  13. 49 CFR 172.315 - Limited quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.315 Limited quantities. (a) Except for transportation by aircraft or as... transportation by aircraft, a limited quantity package conforming to Table 3 of § 173.27(f) of this subchapter... section. (d) Transitional exception. Except for transportation by aircraft, until December 31, 2013,...

  14. Rethinking Intensive Quantities via Guided Mediated Abduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahamson, Dor

    2012-01-01

    Some intensive quantities, such as slope, velocity, or likelihood, are perceptually privileged in the sense that they are experienced as holistic, irreducible sensations. However, the formal expression of these quantities uses "a/b" analytic metrics; for example, the slope of a line is the quotient of its rise and run. Thus, whereas students'…

  15. 36 CFR 223.220 - Quantity determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quantity determination. 223.220 Section 223.220 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Special Forest Products § 223.220 Quantity...

  16. A Viewpoint on the Quantity "Plane Angle"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    Properties of the quantity "plane angle" are explored under the hypothesis that it is a dimensional quantity. The exploration proceeds especially with respect to the physical concept, its mathematical treatment, vector concepts, measurement theory, units of related quantities, engineering pragmatism, and SI. An attempt is made to bring these different relations into a rational, logical and consistent framework, and thus to justify the hypothesis. Various types of vectorial quantities are recognized, and their properties described with an outline of the necessary algebraic manipulations. The concept of plane angle is amplified, and its interdependence with the circular arc is explored. The resulting units of plane angle form a class of similar scales of measurement. Consequences of the confirmed hypothesis are developed for mathematical expressions involving trigonometric functions, rotational volumes and areas, mathematical limits, differentiation and series expansion. Consequences for mechanical rotational quantities are developed, with proposals for revisions to a number of expressions for derived units within SI. A revised definition for the quantity "plane angle" is stated to take account of the developed insights. There is a clear need to reconsider the status of plane angle and some other quantities within the international framework of SI.

  17. 10 CFR 1046.14 - Access authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... Security police officer personnel who have access to Category I or II quantities of special nuclear.... Security police officers shall possess a minimum of an “L” or DOE Secret access authorization. Security police officers possessing less than “Q” access authorization shall not be assigned to...

  18. Zero-gravity quantity gaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Zero-Gravity Quantity Gaging System program is a technology development effort funded by NASA-LeRC and contracted by NASA-JSC to develop and evaluate zero-gravity quantity gaging system concepts suitable for application to large, on-orbit cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen tankage. The contract effective date was 28 May 1985. During performance of the program, 18 potential quantity gaging approaches were investigated for their merit and suitability for gaging two-phase cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen in zero-gravity conditions. These approaches were subjected to a comprehensive trade study and selection process, which found that the RF modal quantity gaging approach was the most suitable for both liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen applications. This selection was made with NASA-JSC concurrence.

  19. Method and Apparatus for Measuring Radiation Quantities

    DOEpatents

    Roberts, N O

    1955-01-25

    This patent application describes a compact dosimeter for measuring X-ray and gamma radiation by the use of solutions which undergo a visible color change upon exposure to a predetermined quantity of radiation.

  20. Arsenic Treatment Residuals: Quantities, Characteristics and Disposal

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation provides information on the quantities, the characteristics and the disposal options for the common arsenic removal technologies. The technologies consist of adsorption media, iron removal, coagulation/filtration and ion exchange. The information for the prese...

  1. Lighting Quantity and Quality in Educational Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elwazanim, Salim A.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses educational facility lighting management, and examines how light quantity, distribution, and quality-enhancement strategies can improve the indoor environment while reducing lighting costs. Informational tables provide lighting pattern, color, and illuminance data. (GR)

  2. 7 CFR 929.14 - Marketable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF.... Marketable quantity means for a crop year the number of pounds of cranberries necessary to meet the...

  3. 7 CFR 929.14 - Marketable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF.... Marketable quantity means for a crop year the number of pounds of cranberries necessary to meet the...

  4. 7 CFR 929.14 - Marketable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF.... Marketable quantity means for a crop year the number of pounds of cranberries necessary to meet the...

  5. 7 CFR 929.14 - Marketable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF.... Marketable quantity means for a crop year the number of pounds of cranberries necessary to meet the...

  6. 7 CFR 929.14 - Marketable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF.... Marketable quantity means for a crop year the number of pounds of cranberries necessary to meet the...

  7. A conserved quantity in thin body dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, J. A.; Pendar, H.

    2016-02-01

    Thin, solid bodies with metric symmetries admit a restricted form of reparameterization invariance. Their dynamical equilibria include motions with both rigid and flowing aspects. On such configurations, a quantity is conserved along the intrinsic coordinate corresponding to the symmetry. As an example of its utility, this conserved quantity is combined with linear and angular momentum currents to construct solutions for the equilibria of a rotating, flowing string, for which it is akin to Bernoulli's constant.

  8. Maximal Holevo Quantity Based on Weak Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yao-Kun; Fei, Shao-Ming; Wang, Zhi-Xi; Cao, Jun-Peng; Fan, Heng

    2015-01-01

    The Holevo bound is a keystone in many applications of quantum information theory. We propose “ maximal Holevo quantity for weak measurements” as the generalization of the maximal Holevo quantity which is defined by the optimal projective measurements. The scenarios that weak measurements is necessary are that only the weak measurements can be performed because for example the system is macroscopic or that one intentionally tries to do so such that the disturbance on the measured system can be controlled for example in quantum key distribution protocols. We evaluate systematically the maximal Holevo quantity for weak measurements for Bell-diagonal states and find a series of results. Furthermore, we find that weak measurements can be realized by noise and project measurements. PMID:26090962

  9. Physical quantities involved in a Mueller matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, José J.

    2016-05-01

    The polarimetric properties of a material medium are summarized in the sixteen elements of its associated Mueller matrix. The quantities carrying specific information on the significant polarimetric features have to be defined on the basis of the analysis of the mathematical structure of Mueller matrices. It is found that any Mueller matrix can be parameterized through two retardance vectors and ten quantities that are invariant under dual retarder transformations. This parameterization leads to proper definitions of the retardance and depolarization properties, which together with the diattenuation and polarizance properties provide complete polarimetric characterization of the sample under consideration.

  10. The influence of spin on thermodynamical quantities

    SciTech Connect

    Li, G.-Q.

    2007-03-15

    We use the brick-wall method to investigate thermodynamical quantities around a static Gibbons-Maeda dilaton black hole and show that each of these quantities contains an additional spin-dependent term and that the usual result that the entropy density, energy density, and pressure take the same forms as in flat spacetime holds only for the leading term. Our results are compatible with the early conclusions that the black hole entropy is not exactly proportional to the horizon area and that Hawking radiation is not purely thermal.

  11. 41 CFR 51-9.303-3 - Granting access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) If an individual's request for access does not contain sufficient information to permit the Executive... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Granting access. 51-9.303...-Individual Access to Records § 51-9.303-3 Granting access. (a) Upon receipt of a request for access to...

  12. Research on Necessary and Sufficient Condition for Hamilton Graph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yan; Cui, Chao-Dong

    An important concept, "closed domain" is proposed in this paper. In the same time, necessary and sufficient lemma for closed domain, R, is proved on which necessary and sufficient theorem for judging whether a general graph G is a Hamilton graph is proposed and proved. All instances in this paper are judged by comparatively using the theorem proposed herein and the original necessary condition theorem and sufficient condition theorem to prove the correctness of the method proposed in this paper.

  13. 45 CFR 98.43 - Equal access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equal access. 98.43 Section 98.43 Public Welfare... Operations (Child Care Services)-Lead Agency and Provider Requirements § 98.43 Equal access. (a) The Lead... sufficient to ensure equal access, for eligible families in the area served by the Lead Agency, to child...

  14. 45 CFR 98.43 - Equal access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equal access. 98.43 Section 98.43 Public Welfare... Operations (Child Care Services)-Lead Agency and Provider Requirements § 98.43 Equal access. (a) The Lead... sufficient to ensure equal access, for eligible families in the area served by the Lead Agency, to child...

  15. Quantity judgments and individuation: evidence that mass nouns count.

    PubMed

    Barner, David; Snedeker, Jesse

    2005-08-01

    Three experiments explored the semantics of the mass-count distinction in young children and adults. In Experiments 1 and 2, the quantity judgments of participants provided evidence that some mass nouns refer to individuals, as such. Participants judged one large portion of stuff to be "more" than three tiny portions for substance-mass nouns (e.g. mustard, ketchup), but chose according to number for count nouns (e.g. shoes, candles) and object-mass nouns (e.g. furniture, jewelry). These results suggest that some mass nouns quantify over individuals, and that therefore reference to individuals does not distinguish count nouns from mass nouns. Thus, Experiments 1 and 2 failed to support the hypothesis that there exist one-to-one mappings between mass-count syntax and semantics for either adults or young children. In Experiment 3, it was found that for mass-count flexible terms (e.g. string, stone) participants based quantity judgments on number when the terms were used with count syntax, but on total amount of stuff when used with mass syntax. Apparently, the presence of discrete physical objects in a scene (e.g. stones) is not sufficient to permit quantity judgments based on number. It is proposed that object-mass nouns (e.g. furniture) can be used to refer to individuals due to lexically specified grammatical features that normally occur in count syntax. Also, we suggest that children learning language parse words that refer to individuals as count nouns unless given morpho-syntactic and referential evidence to the contrary, in which case object-mass nouns are acquired. PMID:16139586

  16. 7 CFR 966.53 - Minimum quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum quantities. 966.53 Section 966.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA...

  17. Measurement of gas quantities by liquid displacement.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Derivation of equations relating the different variables involved in gas quantity measurements by liquid displacement from a Mariotte flask. The results are used to elucidate design criteria and operational procedures required for the realization of various degrees of desired accuracy down to 0.01%.

  18. Infants Make Quantity Discriminations for Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hespos, Susan J.; Dora, Begum; Rips, Lance J.; Christie, Stella

    2012-01-01

    Infants can track small groups of solid objects, and infants can respond when these quantities change. But earlier work is equivocal about whether infants can track continuous substances, such as piles of sand. Experiment 1 ("N" = 88) used a habituation paradigm to show infants can register changes in the size of piles of sand that they see poured…

  19. Practice Makes Perfect: Contracting Quantity and Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichert, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how contract grading promotes quality writing as well as a larger quantity of writing. Considers how teachers can use contract grading to support and promote the behaviors, thinking skills, and writing skills they believe will help students create quality writing. Notes that contract grading leads students to write more, to have fewer…

  20. 49 CFR 172.315 - Limited quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and outer package quantity limits in § 173.27(f) of this subchapter. (1) Marking description. The top... the square-on-point must be at least 2 mm and the minimum dimension of each side must be 100 mm unless...) Marking Description. The top and bottom portions of the square-on-point and the border forming the...

  1. 36 CFR 223.220 - Quantity determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Quantity determination. 223.220 Section 223.220 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  2. 36 CFR 223.220 - Quantity determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Quantity determination. 223.220 Section 223.220 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  3. 36 CFR 223.220 - Quantity determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Quantity determination. 223.220 Section 223.220 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  4. 36 CFR 223.220 - Quantity determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Quantity determination. 223.220 Section 223.220 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  5. Hypergraph topological quantities for tagged social networks.

    PubMed

    Zlatić, Vinko; Ghoshal, Gourab; Caldarelli, Guido

    2009-09-01

    Recent years have witnessed the emergence of a new class of social networks, which require us to move beyond previously employed representations of complex graph structures. A notable example is that of the folksonomy, an online process where users collaboratively employ tags to resources to impart structure to an otherwise undifferentiated database. In a recent paper, we proposed a mathematical model that represents these structures as tripartite hypergraphs and defined basic topological quantities of interest. In this paper, we extend our model by defining additional quantities such as edge distributions, vertex similarity and correlations as well as clustering. We then empirically measure these quantities on two real life folksonomies, the popular online photo sharing site Flickr and the bookmarking site CiteULike. We find that these systems share similar qualitative features with the majority of complex networks that have been previously studied. We propose that the quantities and methodology described here can be used as a standard tool in measuring the structure of tagged networks. PMID:19905191

  6. Hypergraph topological quantities for tagged social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlatić, Vinko; Ghoshal, Gourab; Caldarelli, Guido

    2009-09-01

    Recent years have witnessed the emergence of a new class of social networks, which require us to move beyond previously employed representations of complex graph structures. A notable example is that of the folksonomy, an online process where users collaboratively employ tags to resources to impart structure to an otherwise undifferentiated database. In a recent paper, we proposed a mathematical model that represents these structures as tripartite hypergraphs and defined basic topological quantities of interest. In this paper, we extend our model by defining additional quantities such as edge distributions, vertex similarity and correlations as well as clustering. We then empirically measure these quantities on two real life folksonomies, the popular online photo sharing site Flickr and the bookmarking site CiteULike. We find that these systems share similar qualitative features with the majority of complex networks that have been previously studied. We propose that the quantities and methodology described here can be used as a standard tool in measuring the structure of tagged networks.

  7. Variation and Change in Northern Bavarian Quantity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Derek

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents new research on the "Bavarian Quantity Law" (the BQL) in the northern Bavarian dialect of Hahnbach. Building upon earlier investigation of the BQL (cf. Bannert 1976a,b for Central Bavarian) this study examines the historical, phonological, and phonetic motivations for this feature as well the variability in its…

  8. Quantity language speakers show enhanced subcortical processing.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Caitlin; Aalto, Daniel; Šimko, Juraj; Putkinen, Vesa; Tervaniemi, Mari; Vainio, Martti

    2016-07-01

    The complex auditory brainstem response (cABR) can reflect language-based plasticity in subcortical stages of auditory processing. It is sensitive to differences between language groups as well as stimulus properties, e.g. intensity or frequency. It is also sensitive to the synchronicity of the neural population stimulated by sound, which results in increased amplitude of wave V. Finnish is a full-fledged quantity language, in which word meaning is dependent upon duration of the vowels and consonants. Previous studies have shown that Finnish speakers have enhanced behavioural sound duration discrimination ability and larger cortical mismatch negativity (MMN) to duration change compared to German and French speakers. The next step is to find out whether these enhanced duration discrimination abilities of quantity language speakers originate at the brainstem level. Since German has a complementary quantity contrast which restricts the possible patterns of short and long vowels and consonants, the current experiment compared cABR between nonmusician Finnish and German native speakers using seven short complex stimuli. Finnish speakers had a larger cABR peak amplitude than German speakers, while the peak onset latency was only affected by stimulus intensity and spectral band. The results suggest that early cABR responses are better synchronised for Finns, which could underpin the enhanced duration sensitivity of quantity language speakers. PMID:27297179

  9. Representation of relativistic quantities by trigonometric functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majerník, V.

    1986-06-01

    A ``space-time angle'' φ is defined by setting v=c(sin φ). This leads to a form of Lorentz transformations which uses simple real trigonometric functions and yields a graphic correlation of important relativistic quantities for particles and for corresponding de Broglie waves. A number of relativistic relationships is obtained by the use of common trigonometric identities and formulas.

  10. CALL, Prewriting Strategies, and EFL Writing Quantity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiee, Sajad; Koosha, Mansour; Afghar, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to explore the effect of teaching prewriting strategies through different methods of input delivery (i.e. conventional, web-based, and hybrid) on EFL learners' writing quantity. In its quasi-experimental study, the researchers recruited 98 available sophomores, and assigned them to three experimental groups (conventional,…

  11. Units for quantities of dimension one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybkaer, René

    2004-02-01

    All quantities of dimension one are said to have the SI coherent derived unit "one" with the symbol '1'. (Single quotation marks are used here sometimes to indicate a quote, name, term or symbol; double quotation marks flag a concept when necessary.) Conventionally, the term and symbol may not be combined with the SI prefixes (except for the special terms and symbols for one and 1: radian, rad, and steradian, sr). This restriction is understandable, but leads to correct yet impractical alternatives and ISO deprecated symbols such as ppm or in some cases redundant combinations of units, such as mg/kg. "Number of entities" is dimensionally independent of the current base quantities and should take its rightful place among them. The corresponding base unit is "one". A working definition is given. Other quantities of dimension one are derived as fraction, ratio, efficiency, relative quantity, relative increment or characteristic number and may also use the unit "one", whether considered to be base or derived. The special term 'uno' and symbol 'u' in either case are proposed, allowing combination with SI prefixes.

  12. Quantity, Quality, Children's Characteristics, and Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Bridget A.

    2008-01-01

    This review of literature shows that how often a child is read to is related to subsequent gains in vocabulary. Not only do adults differ in the frequency with which they read to children (quantity), they also vary in reading style (quality). Several studies have proposed that the cognitive demand level of questions children are asked may be…

  13. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-05-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  14. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan; Jersey Inst Ansari, New; Jersey Inst, New

    2005-04-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  15. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-06-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  16. 48 CFR 52.236-16 - Quantity Surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Quantity Surveys. 52.236... Quantity Surveys. As prescribed in 36.516, the contracting officer may insert the following clause in... payment based on quantity surveys is contemplated: Quantity Surveys (APR 1984) (a) Quantity surveys...

  17. 48 CFR 52.236-16 - Quantity Surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Quantity Surveys. 52.236... Quantity Surveys. As prescribed in 36.516, the contracting officer may insert the following clause in... payment based on quantity surveys is contemplated: Quantity Surveys (APR 1984) (a) Quantity surveys...

  18. 48 CFR 52.236-16 - Quantity Surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quantity Surveys. 52.236... Quantity Surveys. As prescribed in 36.516, the contracting officer may insert the following clause in... payment based on quantity surveys is contemplated: Quantity Surveys (APR 1984) (a) Quantity surveys...

  19. 48 CFR 52.236-16 - Quantity Surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Quantity Surveys. 52.236... Quantity Surveys. As prescribed in 36.516, the contracting officer may insert the following clause in... payment based on quantity surveys is contemplated: Quantity Surveys (APR 1984) (a) Quantity surveys...

  20. 48 CFR 52.236-16 - Quantity Surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Quantity Surveys. 52.236... Quantity Surveys. As prescribed in 36.516, the contracting officer may insert the following clause in... payment based on quantity surveys is contemplated: Quantity Surveys (APR 1984) (a) Quantity surveys...

  1. 24 CFR 242.2 - Program financial self-sufficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program financial self-sufficiency... self-sufficiency and actuarial soundness; i.e., to avoid mortgage defaults and claims for insurance... AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS General Eligibility Requirements § 242.2 Program financial...

  2. 39 CFR 491.3 - Sufficient legal form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sufficient legal form. 491.3 Section 491.3 Postal... AND THE POSTAL RATE COMMISSION § 491.3 Sufficient legal form. No document purporting to garnish... or an authorized official pursuant to an order of such a court or pursuant to federal, state or...

  3. 39 CFR 491.3 - Sufficient legal form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sufficient legal form. 491.3 Section 491.3 Postal... AND THE POSTAL RATE COMMISSION § 491.3 Sufficient legal form. No document purporting to garnish... or an authorized official pursuant to an order of such a court or pursuant to federal, state or...

  4. 39 CFR 491.3 - Sufficient legal form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sufficient legal form. 491.3 Section 491.3 Postal... AND THE POSTAL RATE COMMISSION § 491.3 Sufficient legal form. No document purporting to garnish... or an authorized official pursuant to an order of such a court or pursuant to federal, state or...

  5. Southeast Asian Refugee Self-Sufficiency Study. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Nathan; And Others

    This study on the economic self-sufficiency of the Southeast Asian refugee household was conducted in order to gather information on the economic status of these refugees, the factors that contribute to self-sufficiency, and refugees' needs for services. A survey of 1,384 households of Vietnamese, Sino-Vietnamese, and Lao refugees who arrived in…

  6. 27 CFR 25.174 - Bond not sufficient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bond not sufficient. 25.174 Section 25.174 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Prepayment of Tax § 25.174 Bond not sufficient. When...

  7. 27 CFR 25.174 - Bond not sufficient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bond not sufficient. 25.174 Section 25.174 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Prepayment of Tax § 25.174 Bond not sufficient. When...

  8. 27 CFR 25.174 - Bond not sufficient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bond not sufficient. 25.174 Section 25.174 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Prepayment of Tax § 25.174 Bond not sufficient. When...

  9. 27 CFR 25.174 - Bond not sufficient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bond not sufficient. 25.174 Section 25.174 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Prepayment of Tax § 25.174 Bond not sufficient. When...

  10. 27 CFR 25.174 - Bond not sufficient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bond not sufficient. 25.174 Section 25.174 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Prepayment of Tax § 25.174 Bond not sufficient. When...

  11. 39 CFR 491.3 - Sufficient legal form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sufficient legal form. 491.3 Section 491.3 Postal... AND THE POSTAL RATE COMMISSION § 491.3 Sufficient legal form. No document purporting to garnish... is legal process in the nature of garnishment; that it is issued by a court of competent...

  12. 39 CFR 491.3 - Sufficient legal form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sufficient legal form. 491.3 Section 491.3 Postal... AND THE POSTAL RATE COMMISSION § 491.3 Sufficient legal form. No document purporting to garnish... is legal process in the nature of garnishment; that it is issued by a court of competent...

  13. Quantity Processing in Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children: Evidence from Symbolic and Nonsymbolic Comparison Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodríguez-Santos, José Miguel; Calleja, Marina; García-Orza, Javier; Iza, Mauricio; Damas, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Deaf Children usually achieve lower scores on numerical tasks than normally hearing peers. Explanations for mathematical disabilities in hearing children are based on quantity representation deficits (Geary, 1994) or on deficits in accessing these representations (Rousselle & Noël, 2008). The present study aimed to verify, by means of symbolic…

  14. A horizontal mobile measuring system for atmospheric quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübner, J.; Olesch, J.; Falke, H.; Meixner, F. X.; Foken, T.

    2014-05-01

    A fully automatic Horizontal Mobile Measuring System (HMMS) for atmospheric quantities has been developed. The HMMS is based on the drive mechanism of a garden railway system and can be installed at any location and with any measuring track. In addition to meteorological quantities (temperature, humidity and short/long-wave down/upwelling radiation), HMMS also measures trace gas concentrations (carbon dioxide and ozone). While sufficient spatial resolution is a problem even for measurements on distributed towers, this could be easily achieved with the HMMS, which has been specifically developed to obtain higher information density about horizontal gradients in a heterogeneous forest ecosystem. There, horizontal gradients of meteorological quantities and trace gases could be immense, particularly at the transition from a dense forest to an open clearing, with large impact on meteorological parameters and exchange processes. Consequently, HMMS was firstly applied during EGER IOP3 project (ExchanGE processes in mountainous Regions - Intense Observation Period 3) in the Fichtelgebirge Mountains (SE Germany) during summer 2011. At a constant 1 m above ground, the measuring track of the HMMS consisted of a straight line perpendicular to the forest edge, starting in the dense spruce forest and leading 75 m into an open clearing. Tags with bar codes, mounted every meter on the wooden substructure, allowed (a) keeping the speed of the HMMS constant (approx. 0.5 m s-1) and (b) operation of the HMMS in a continuous back and forth running mode. During EGER IOP3, HMMS was operational for almost 250 h. Results show that - due to considerably long response times (between 4 s and 20 s) of commercial temperature, humidity and the radiation sensors - true spatial variations of the meteorological quantities could not be adequately captured (mainly at the forest edge). Corresponding dynamical (spatial) errors of the measurement values were corrected on the basis of well defined

  15. A horizontal mobile measuring system for atmospheric quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübner, J.; Olesch, J.; Falke, H.; Meixner, F. X.; Foken, T.

    2014-09-01

    A fully automatic horizontal mobile measuring system (HMMS) for atmospheric quantities has been developed. The HMMS is based on the drive mechanism of a garden railway system and can be installed at any location and along any measuring track. In addition to meteorological quantities (temperature, humidity and short-/long-wave down/upwelling radiation), HMMS also measures trace gas concentrations (carbon dioxide and ozone). While sufficient spatial resolution is a problem even for measurements on distributed towers, this could be easily achieved with the HMMS, which has been specifically developed to obtain higher information density about horizontal gradients in a heterogeneous forest ecosystem. There, horizontal gradients of meteorological quantities and trace gases could be immense, particularly at the transition from a dense forest to an open clearing, with large impact on meteorological parameters and exchange processes. Consequently, HMMS was firstly applied during the EGER IOP3 project (ExchanGE processes in mountainous Regions - Intense Observation Period 3) in the Fichtelgebirge Mountains (SE Germany) during summer 2011. At a constant 1 m above ground, the measuring track of the HMMS consisted of a straight line perpendicular to the forest edge, starting in the dense spruce forest and leading 75 m into an open clearing. Tags with bar codes, mounted every metre on the wooden substructure, allowed (a) keeping the speed of the HMMS constant (approx. 0.5 m s-1) and (b) operation of the HMMS in a continuous back and forth running mode. During EGER IOP3, HMMS was operational for almost 250 h. Results show that - due to considerably long response times (between 4 and 20 s) of commercial temperature, humidity and the radiation sensors - true spatial variations of the meteorological quantities could not be adequately captured (mainly at the forest edge). Corresponding dynamical (spatial) errors of the measurement values were corrected on the basis of well

  16. Observable quantities for electrodiffusion processes in membranes.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Javier

    2008-03-13

    Electrically driven ion transport processes in a membrane system are analyzed in terms of observable quantities, such as the apparent volume flow, the time dependence of the electrolyte concentration in one cell compartment, and the electrical potential difference between the electrodes. The relations between the fluxes and these observable quantities are rigorously deduced from balances for constituent mass and solution volume. These relations improve the results for the transport coefficients up to 25% with respect to those obtained using simplified expressions common in the literature. Given the practical importance of ionic transport numbers and the solvent transference number in the phenomenological description of electrically driven processes, the transport equations are presented using the electrolyte concentration difference and the electric current as the drivers of the different constituents. Because various electric potential differences can be used in this traditional irreversible thermodynamics approach, the advantages of the formulation of the transport equations in terms of concentration difference and electric current are emphasized. PMID:18284224

  17. A conserved quantity in thin body dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, James; Pendar, Hodjat

    We use an example from textile processing to illustrate the utility of a conserved quantity associated with metric symmetry in a thin body. This quantity, when combined with the usual linear and angular momentum currents, allows us to construct a four-parameter family of curves representing the equilibria of a rotating, flowing string. To achieve this, we introduce a non-material action of mixed Lagrangian-Eulerian type, applicable to fixed windows of axially-moving systems. We will point out intriguing similarities with Bernoulli's equation, discuss the effects of axial flow on rotating conservative systems, and make connections with 19th- and 20th-century results on the dynamics of cables.

  18. Radiation Protection Quantities for Near Earth Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clowdsley, Martha S.; Wilson, John W.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Anderson, Brooke M.; Nealy, John E.

    2004-01-01

    As humans travel beyond the protection of the Earth's magnetic field and mission durations grow, risk due to radiation exposure will increase and may become the limiting factor for such missions. Here, the dosimetric quantities recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) for the evaluation of health risk due to radiation exposure, effective dose and gray-equivalent to eyes, skin, and blood forming organs (BFO), are calculated for several near Earth environments. These radiation protection quantities are evaluated behind two different shielding materials, aluminum and polyethylene. Since exposure limits for missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) have not yet been defined, results are compared to limits recommended by the NCRP for LEO operations.

  19. Enzyme catalysis with small ionic liquid quantities.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Fabian; Mutschler, Julien; Zufferey, Daniel

    2011-04-01

    Enzyme catalysis with minimal ionic liquid quantities improves reaction rates, stereoselectivity and enables solvent-free processing. In particular the widely used lipases combine well with many ionic liquids. Demonstrated applications are racemate separation, esterification and glycerolysis. Minimal solvent processing is also an alternative to sluggish solvent-free catalysis. The method allows simplified down-stream processing, as only traces of ionic liquids have to be removed. PMID:21107639

  20. Mass quantity gauging by RF mode analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, R. S.; Ellerbruch, D.; Cruz, J. E.; Stokes, R. W.; Luft, P. E.; Peterson, R. G.; Hiester, A. E.

    1973-01-01

    Work done to date is reported concerning Radio Frequency Mass Quantity Gauging. Experimental apparatus has been designed and tested which measures the resonant frequencies of a tank in the time domain. These frequencies correspond to the total mass of fluid within the tank. Experimental results are discussed for nitrogen and hydrogen in normal gravity both in the supercritical state and also in the two phase (liquid-gas) region. Theoretical discussions for more general cases are given.

  1. Shielded radiation protection quantities beyond LEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clowdsley, M. S.; Wilson, J. W.; Kim, M. Y.; Anderson, B. M.; Nealy, J. E.

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has recommended that the quantities used to evaluate health risk to astronauts due to radiation exposure be effective dose and gray-equivalent. The NCRP recommends that effective dose be the limiting quantity for prevention of stochastic effects. Effective dose is a measure of whole body exposure, a weighted average of dose equivalent to a number body tissues for which the NCRP has adopted tissue weighting factors recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP). For deterministic effects, the NCRP has recommended that gray-equivalent be used. Gray-equivalent is evaluated for specific critical organs and is the weighted sum of absorbed dose from field components to that organ using the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) number for that field component. RBE numbers recommended by the NCRP are used. The NCRP has provided effective dose limits as well as limits for gray-equivalent to eyes, skin, and blood forming organs (BFO) for astronauts in low earth orbit (LEO). As yet, no such limits have been defined for astronaut operations beyond LEO. In this study, the radiation protection quantities, effective dose and gray-equivalent to the eyes, skin, and BFO, are calculated for several environments beyond LEO. The lunar surface and Martian environments are included. For each environment, these radiation protection quantities are calculated behind varying amounts of various types of shielding materials. The results are compared to the exposure limits for LEO, since limits have not yet been defined for interplanetary missions. The benefits of using shielding material containing hydrogen and choosing optimal mission times are discussed.

  2. Quantity Discrimination in Wolves (Canis lupus)

    PubMed Central

    Utrata, Ewelina; Virányi, Zsófia; Range, Friederike

    2012-01-01

    Quantity discrimination has been studied extensively in different non-human animal species. In the current study, we tested 11 hand-raised wolves (Canis lupus) in a two-way choice task. We placed a number of food items (one to four) sequentially into two opaque cans and asked the wolves to choose the larger amount. Moreover, we conducted two additional control conditions to rule out non-numerical properties of the presentation that the animals might have used to make the correct choice. Our results showed that wolves are able to make quantitative judgments at the group, but also at the individual level even when alternative strategies such as paying attention to the surface area or time and total amount are ruled out. In contrast to previous canine studies on dogs (Canis familiaris) and coyotes (Canis latrans), our wolves’ performance did not improve with decreasing ratio, referred to as Weber’s law. However, further studies using larger quantities than we used in the current set-up are still needed to determine whether and when wolves’ quantity discrimination conforms to Weber’s law. PMID:23181044

  3. Web Accessibility and Accessibility Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Ravonne A.; Huprich, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Section 508 of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) mandates that programs and services be accessible to people with disabilities. While schools of library and information science (SLIS*) and university libraries should model accessible Web sites, this may not be the case. This article examines previous studies about the Web accessibility of…

  4. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-03-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  5. Quantum Markov chains, sufficiency of quantum channels, and Rényi information measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Nilanjana; Wilde, Mark M.

    2015-12-01

    A short quantum Markov chain is a tripartite state {ρ }{ABC} such that system A can be recovered perfectly by acting on system C of the reduced state {ρ }{BC}. Such states have conditional mutual information I(A;B| C) equal to zero and are the only states with this property. A quantum channel {N} is sufficient for two states ρ and σ if there exists a recovery channel using which one can perfectly recover ρ from {N}(ρ ) and σ from {N}(σ ). The relative entropy difference D(ρ \\parallel σ )-D({N}(ρ )\\parallel {N}(σ )) is equal to zero if and only if {N} is sufficient for ρ and σ. In this paper, we show that these properties extend to Rényi generalizations of these information measures which were proposed in (Berta et al 2015 J. Math. Phys. 56 022205; Seshadreesan et al 2015 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 48 395303), thus providing an alternate characterization of short quantum Markov chains and sufficient quantum channels. These results give further support to these quantities as being legitimate Rényi generalizations of the conditional mutual information and the relative entropy difference. Along the way, we solve some open questions of Ruskai and Zhang, regarding the trace of particular matrices that arise in the study of monotonicity of relative entropy under quantum operations and strong subadditivity of the von Neumann entropy.

  6. Density Estimation for Projected Exoplanet Quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Robert A.

    2011-05-01

    Exoplanet searches using radial velocity (RV) and microlensing (ML) produce samples of "projected" mass and orbital radius, respectively. We present a new method for estimating the probability density distribution (density) of the unprojected quantity from such samples. For a sample of n data values, the method involves solving n simultaneous linear equations to determine the weights of delta functions for the raw, unsmoothed density of the unprojected quantity that cause the associated cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the projected quantity to exactly reproduce the empirical CDF of the sample at the locations of the n data values. We smooth the raw density using nonparametric kernel density estimation with a normal kernel of bandwidth σ. We calibrate the dependence of σ on n by Monte Carlo experiments performed on samples drawn from a theoretical density, in which the integrated square error is minimized. We scale this calibration to the ranges of real RV samples using the Normal Reference Rule. The resolution and amplitude accuracy of the estimated density improve with n. For typical RV and ML samples, we expect the fractional noise at the PDF peak to be approximately 80 n -log 2. For illustrations, we apply the new method to 67 RV values given a similar treatment by Jorissen et al. in 2001, and to the 308 RV values listed at exoplanets.org on 2010 October 20. In addition to analyzing observational results, our methods can be used to develop measurement requirements—particularly on the minimum sample size n—for future programs, such as the microlensing survey of Earth-like exoplanets recommended by the Astro 2010 committee.

  7. Photometric quantities for solar irradiance modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preminger, D. G.; Walton, S. R.; Chapman, G. A.

    2002-11-01

    We analyze photometric quantities for the modeling of the total solar irradiance, S. These quantities are derived from full-disk solar images taken at the San Fernando Observatory. We introduce a new quantity, the photometric sum, Σ, which is the sum over an entire image of each pixel's contribution to the irradiance in that image. Σ combines both bright and dark features; and because the sum is over the entire image, it will include low contrast features that cannot be identified directly. Specifically, we examine Σr, Σb, and ΣK, the photometric sums over broadband red, broadband blue, and 1-nm bandpass Ca II K images, respectively. Σr and Σb measure the effects of solar features on the variability in S at two different continuum wavelengths. ΣK measures the variability in spectral lines due to solar features. We find that Σr and Σb have no long-term trend. ΣK, however, varies in phase with the solar cycle. We carry out several multiple linear regressions on the value of S from cycle 22; the best fit uses Σr and ΣK and reproduces the observed composite S with a multiple regression coefficient R = 0.96. We conclude that the long-term change in S over the solar cycle can be accounted for by the variability in the spectral lines as measured by ΣK, assuming no change in the quiet Sun; the contribution of the continuum to the variations in S is only on active region timescales.

  8. Invariant quantities of a nondepolarizing Mueller matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, José J.; José, Ignacio San

    2016-07-01

    Orthogonal Mueller matrices can be considered either as corresponding to retarders or to generalized transformations of the polarization basis for the representation of Stokes vectors, so that they constitute the only type of Mueller matrices that preserve the degree of polarization and the intensity of any partially-polarized input Stokes vector. The physical quantities which remain invariant when a nondepolarizing Mueller matrix is transformed through its product by different types of orthogonal Mueller matrices are identified and interpreted, providing a better knowledge of the information contained in a nondepolarizing Mueller matrix.

  9. Rhetorically self-sufficient arguments in Western Australian parliamentary debates on Lesbian and Gay Law Reform.

    PubMed

    Summers, Mark

    2007-12-01

    Western Australia's Acts Amendment (Lesbian and Gay Law Reform) Bill 2001 delivered a measure of legal equality in such areas as property transfer, superannuation, inheritance and discrimination, and more controversially, adoption, lesbian access to IVF, lowering the age of consent for sex between men from 21 to 16, and incorporating information on homosexuality into high school sex education classes. This paper examines the use of various moral principles within parliamentary speeches supporting or opposing the legislation, and the extent to which they were treated by members as beyond question, or 'rhetorically self-sufficient'. The resources of 'equality', 'human rights', 'democracy', 'the interests of the majority' and 'the interests of children' were given a kind of beyond-question, self-sufficient status, but their use was able to be undermined in a number of ways, relating to members' management of what the Bill was 'about', and the flexibility of these social constructs. It is argued that rather than pitting one set of resources against another, members on both sides of the debate faced a rhetorical pressure to adopt and mobilize all of the same self-sufficient moral resources, due to the flexible, constructed and non-hierarchical, yet often rhetorically self-sufficient nature of common-sense moral principles. PMID:17535460

  10. 14 CFR 25.1551 - Oil quantity indication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil quantity indication. 25.1551 Section 25... Placards § 25.1551 Oil quantity indication. Each oil quantity indicating means must be marked to indicate the quantity of oil readily and accurately....

  11. 14 CFR 29.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 29.1551 Section 29... Placards § 29.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked with enough increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  12. 14 CFR 29.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 29.1551 Section 29... Placards § 29.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked with enough increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  13. 14 CFR 27.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 27.1551 Section 27... § 27.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked with enough increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  14. 14 CFR 25.1551 - Oil quantity indication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil quantity indication. 25.1551 Section 25... Placards § 25.1551 Oil quantity indication. Each oil quantity indicating means must be marked to indicate the quantity of oil readily and accurately....

  15. 14 CFR 27.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 27.1551 Section 27... § 27.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked with enough increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  16. 14 CFR 27.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 27.1551 Section 27... § 27.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked with enough increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  17. 14 CFR 29.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 29.1551 Section 29... Placards § 29.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked with enough increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  18. 14 CFR 25.1551 - Oil quantity indication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil quantity indication. 25.1551 Section 25... Placards § 25.1551 Oil quantity indication. Each oil quantity indicating means must be marked to indicate the quantity of oil readily and accurately....

  19. 14 CFR 25.1551 - Oil quantity indication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil quantity indication. 25.1551 Section 25... Placards § 25.1551 Oil quantity indication. Each oil quantity indicating means must be marked to indicate the quantity of oil readily and accurately....

  20. 7 CFR 61.102 - Determination of quantity index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of quantity index. 61.102 Section 61.102... quantity index. The quantity index of cottonseed shall be determined as follows: (a) For upland cottonseed the quantity index shall equal four times percentage of oil plus six times percentage of ammonia,...

  1. 7 CFR 61.102 - Determination of quantity index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of quantity index. 61.102 Section 61.102... quantity index. The quantity index of cottonseed shall be determined as follows: (a) For upland cottonseed the quantity index shall equal four times percentage of oil plus six times percentage of ammonia,...

  2. 7 CFR 61.102 - Determination of quantity index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of quantity index. 61.102 Section 61.102... quantity index. The quantity index of cottonseed shall be determined as follows: (a) For upland cottonseed the quantity index shall equal four times percentage of oil plus six times percentage of ammonia,...

  3. 7 CFR 61.102 - Determination of quantity index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of quantity index. 61.102 Section 61.102... quantity index. The quantity index of cottonseed shall be determined as follows: (a) For upland cottonseed the quantity index shall equal four times percentage of oil plus six times percentage of ammonia,...

  4. 7 CFR 61.102 - Determination of quantity index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of quantity index. 61.102 Section 61.102... quantity index. The quantity index of cottonseed shall be determined as follows: (a) For upland cottonseed the quantity index shall equal four times percentage of oil plus six times percentage of ammonia,...

  5. Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  6. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Building access control (BAC)--a catchall phrase to describe the systems that control access to facilities across campus--has traditionally been handled with remarkably low-tech solutions: (1) manual locks; (2) electronic locks; and (3) ID cards with magnetic strips. Recent improvements have included smart cards and keyless solutions that make use…

  7. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-02-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  8. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-01-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks

    Guest Editors Jun Zheng, University of Ottawa Nirwan Ansari, New Jersey Institute of Technology

    Submission Deadline: 1 June 2005

    Background

    With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the

  9. Quantity without numbers and numbers without quantity in the parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Muggleton, Neil; Walsh, Vincent

    2009-06-01

    A dominant view in numerical cognition is that processing the quantity indicated by numbers (e.g. deciding the larger between two numbers such as '12.07' or '15.02') relies on the intraparietal regions (IPS) of the cerebral cortex. However, it remains unclear whether the IPS could play a more general role in numerical cognition, for example in (1) quantity processing even with non-numerical stimuli (e.g. choosing the larger of 'bikini' and 'coat'); and/or (2) conceptual tasks involving numbers beyond those requiring quantity processing (e.g. attributing a summer date to either '12.07' or '15.02'). In this study we applied fMRI-guided TMS to the left and right IPS, while independently manipulating stimulus and task. Our results showed that IPS involvement in numerical cognition is neither stimulus-specific nor specific for conceptual tasks. Thus, quantity judgments with numerical and non-numerical stimuli were equally affected by IPS-TMS, as well as a number conceptual task not requiring quantity comparisons. However, IPS-TMS showed no impairment for perceptual decisions on numbers without any conceptual processing (i.e. colour judgment), nor for conceptual decisions that did not involve quantity or number stimuli (e.g. summer object: 'bikini' or 'coat'?). These results are consistent with proposals that the parietal areas are engaged in the conceptual representation of numbers but they challenge the most common view that number processing is so automatic that the simple presentation of numbers activates the IPS and a sense of magnitude. Rather, our results show that the IPS is only necessary when conceptual operations need to be explicitly oriented to numerical concepts. PMID:19236924

  10. Quantity without numbers and numbers without quantity in the parietal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Muggleton, Neil; Walsh, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    A dominant view in numerical cognition is that processing the quantity indicated by numbers (e.g. deciding the larger between two numbers such as ‘12.07’ or ‘15.02’) relies on the intraparietal regions (IPS) of the cerebral cortex. However, it remains unclear whether the IPS could play a more general role in numerical cognition, for example in (1) quantity processing even with non-numerical stimuli (e.g. choosing the larger of ‘bikini’ and ‘coat’); and/or (2) conceptual tasks involving numbers beyond those requiring quantity processing (e.g. attributing a summer date to either ‘12.07’ or ‘15.02’). In this study we applied fMRI-guided TMS to the left and right IPS, while independently manipulating stimulus and task. Our results showed that IPS involvement in numerical cognition is neither stimulus-specific nor specific for conceptual tasks. Thus, quantity judgments with numerical and non-numerical stimuli were equally affected by IPS-TMS, as well as a number conceptual task not requiring quantity comparisons. However, IPS-TMS showed no impairment for perceptual decisions on numbers without any conceptual processing (i.e. colour judgment), nor for conceptual decisions that did not involve quantity or number stimuli (e.g. summer object: ‘bikini’ or ‘coat’?). These results are consistent with proposals that the parietal areas are engaged in the conceptual representation of numbers but they challenge the most common view that number processing is so automatic that the simple presentation of numbers activates the IPS and a sense of magnitude. Rather, our results show that the IPS is only necessary when conceptual operations need to be explicitly oriented to numerical concepts. PMID:19236924

  11. Quantity quotient reporting. Comparison of various models.

    PubMed

    Haeckel, Rainer; Wosniok, Werner; Postma, Theo

    2015-11-01

    Quantity quotient (QQ) reporting has been proposed by several authors to improve or support the present situation of presenting quantitative laboratory results. This proposal is based on a concept (symmetrical model) known from the intelligence quotient, which was developed to make intelligence tests comparable. In laboratory medicine, however, most measurands follow a non-symmetrical (skewed) distribution, leading to a compression of the QQ values at the lower end of the reference interval. This effect can be avoided by several alternatives. Three models considering non-symmetrical distributions are compared with the symmetrical model in the present study. The corresponding algorithms can be easily handled on the Excel platform. Graphical presentation of the QQ allows a quick overview of test results if they occur in a large number. PMID:26536582

  12. Is the Supply of Mathematics and Science Teachers Sufficient?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Richard M.; Perda, David

    2010-01-01

    This study seeks to empirically ground the debate over mathematics and science teacher shortages and evaluate the extent to which there is, or is not, sufficient supply of teachers in these fields. The authors' analyses of nationally representative data from multiple sources show that math and science are the fields most difficult to staff, but…

  13. Online Learning in Higher Education: Necessary and Sufficient Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Cher Ping

    2005-01-01

    The spectacular development of information and communication technologies through the Internet has provided opportunities for students to explore the virtual world of information. In this article, the author discusses the necessary and sufficient conditions for successful online learning in educational institutions. The necessary conditions…

  14. Sufficient observables for large-scale structure in galaxy surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carron, J.; Szapudi, I.

    2014-03-01

    Beyond the linear regime, the power spectrum and higher order moments of the matter field no longer capture all cosmological information encoded in density fluctuations. While non-linear transforms have been proposed to extract this information lost to traditional methods, up to now, the way to generalize these techniques to discrete processes was unclear; ad hoc extensions had some success. We pointed out in Carron and Szapudi's paper that the logarithmic transform approximates extremely well the optimal `sufficient statistics', observables that extract all information from the (continuous) matter field. Building on these results, we generalize optimal transforms to discrete galaxy fields. We focus our calculations on the Poisson sampling of an underlying lognormal density field. We solve and test the one-point case in detail, and sketch out the sufficient observables for the multipoint case. Moreover, we present an accurate approximation to the sufficient observables in terms of the mean and spectrum of a non-linearly transformed field. We find that the corresponding optimal non-linear transformation is directly related to the maximum a posteriori Bayesian reconstruction of the underlying continuous field with a lognormal prior as put forward in the paper of Kitaura et al.. Thus, simple recipes for realizing the sufficient observables can be built on previously proposed algorithms that have been successfully implemented and tested in simulations.

  15. Housing Policy and Family Self-Sufficiency. Background Briefing Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratt, Rachel

    The relationship between housing and family well-being and self-sufficiency are explored in this paper's three major sections. The first section provides background information on the relationship between housing and the physical and social well-being of individuals and families and describes the major federal housing initiatives that have been…

  16. Leadership, the Logic of Sufficiency and the Sustainability of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottery, Mike

    2012-01-01

    The notion of sufficiency has not yet entered mainstream educational thinking, and it still has to make its mark upon educational leadership. However, a number of related concepts--particularly those of sustainability and complexity theory--are beginning to be noticed. This article examines these two concepts and uses them to critique the…

  17. Hawaii's energy self-sufficiency program from renewable energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Neill, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    The need for public support for incentives to accelerate commercialization of renewable energy sources is discussed from the viewpoint of the Hawaiian program to use the state's wind, solar, geothermal, and OTEC resources to achieve energy self-sufficiency. The objectives and major events in the research, development and demonstration and implementation programs and related activities are described. (LEW)

  18. Intellectual Freedom and Economic Sufficiency as Educational Entitlements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Jane Fowler

    2001-01-01

    Using the theories of John Stuart Mill and Karl Marx, this article supports the educational entitlements of intellectual freedom and economic sufficiency. Explores these issues in reference to their implications for teaching, the teaching profession and its training. Concludes that ideas cannot be controlled by the interests of the dominant class.…

  19. The Indochinese in America: Progress Towards Self Sufficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finck, John

    Despite suspicion in some quarters that refugee resettlement has been unduly expensive, evidence indicates that the Indochinese have made steady progress toward self-sufficiency. The majority of Hmong refugees in Providence, Rhode Island, for example, which has been "heavily impacted" by the large number of Indochinese who have become its newest…

  20. Exploring Necessary and Sufficient Conditions in Dynamic Geometry Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Allen; Chan, Yip-Cheung

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a possible dragging experiment in a dynamic geometry environment (DGE) that explores a necessary and sufficient condition for cyclic quadrilateral. The dragging modalities identified by Arzarello, Olivero, Paola, and Robutti (2002) and the functions of variation realized in DGE discussed by Leung (2003) will be used as tools…

  1. Recent Widows' Kin Support and Orientations to Self-Sufficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Bryant, Shirley L.; Morgan, Leslie A.

    1990-01-01

    Data on recently widowed women suggest that many are quite self-sufficient; however, in areas where support is needed, they largely rely on children. Widows' past experiences and attitudes toward independence influenced amount of overall help they received, whereas income, number of children, and perceived willingness of children to help affected…

  2. 10 CFR 37.33 - Access authorization program review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Access authorization program review. 37.33 Section 37.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF CATEGORY 1 AND CATEGORY 2 QUANTITIES OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Background Investigations and Access Authorization Program § 37.33 Access...

  3. ISO terminological analysis of the VIM3 concepts 'quantity' and 'kind-of-quantity'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybkaer, René

    2010-06-01

    The recent third edition of the International Vocabulary of Metrology—Basic and General Concepts and Associated Terms (VIM3) (JCGM 200:2008 (Sèvres: BIPM); also ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007 3rd edn (Geneva: ISO)) has undergone important changes, not least by adhering to ISO International Standards on terminology work (ISO 704:2000 Terminology Work—Principles and Methods; ISO 1087-1:2000 Terminology Work—Vocabulary—Part 1: Theory and Application; ISO 10241:1992 International Terminology Standards—Preparation and Layout). A recent critique (Mari 2009 Metrologia 46 L11-L15)—based on Object-Oriented Analysis—centres on the meaning and relation of the two first and fundamental concepts 'quantity'Single quotation marks ('...') or bold type indicate a concept when necessary, double quotation marks ("...") a term or quotation. and the new entry 'kind-of-quantity'. This makes it timely to analyse the two concepts, their relation and their respective role in forming the generic hierarchical concept system of VIM3 from 'property' to individual quantities. It is suggested that 'kind-of-quantity' acts as a division criterionSynonyms are "criterion of subdivision", "type of characteristic(s)", see the annexe..

  4. 16 CFR 500.25 - Net quantity, average quantity, permitted variations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... variations. 500.25 Section 500.25 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENT OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION AND EXEMPTIONS UNDER THE FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT REGULATIONS UNDER SECTION 4 OF THE FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT § 500.25 Net quantity, average...

  5. A modular method to handle multiple time-dependent quantities in Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, J.; Perl, J.; Schümann, J.; Paganetti, H.; Faddegon, B. A.

    2012-06-01

    A general method for handling time-dependent quantities in Monte Carlo simulations was developed to make such simulations more accessible to the medical community for a wide range of applications in radiotherapy, including fluence and dose calculation. To describe time-dependent changes in the most general way, we developed a grammar of functions that we call ‘Time Features’. When a simulation quantity, such as the position of a geometrical object, an angle, a magnetic field, a current, etc, takes its value from a Time Feature, that quantity varies over time. The operation of time-dependent simulation was separated into distinct parts: the Sequence samples time values either sequentially at equal increments or randomly from a uniform distribution (allowing quantities to vary continuously in time), and then each time-dependent quantity is calculated according to its Time Feature. Due to this modular structure, time-dependent simulations, even in the presence of multiple time-dependent quantities, can be efficiently performed in a single simulation with any given time resolution. This approach has been implemented in TOPAS (TOol for PArticle Simulation), designed to make Monte Carlo simulations with Geant4 more accessible to both clinical and research physicists. To demonstrate the method, three clinical situations were simulated: a variable water column used to verify constancy of the Bragg peak of the Crocker Lab eye treatment facility of the University of California, the double-scattering treatment mode of the passive beam scattering system at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), where a spinning range modulator wheel accompanied by beam current modulation produces a spread-out Bragg peak, and the scanning mode at MGH, where time-dependent pulse shape, energy distribution and magnetic fields control Bragg peak positions. Results confirm the clinical applicability of the method.

  6. A modular method to handle multiple time-dependent quantities in Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Shin, J; Perl, J; Schümann, J; Paganetti, H; Faddegon, B A

    2012-06-01

    A general method for handling time-dependent quantities in Monte Carlo simulations was developed to make such simulations more accessible to the medical community for a wide range of applications in radiotherapy, including fluence and dose calculation. To describe time-dependent changes in the most general way, we developed a grammar of functions that we call 'Time Features'. When a simulation quantity, such as the position of a geometrical object, an angle, a magnetic field, a current, etc, takes its value from a Time Feature, that quantity varies over time. The operation of time-dependent simulation was separated into distinct parts: the Sequence samples time values either sequentially at equal increments or randomly from a uniform distribution (allowing quantities to vary continuously in time), and then each time-dependent quantity is calculated according to its Time Feature. Due to this modular structure, time-dependent simulations, even in the presence of multiple time-dependent quantities, can be efficiently performed in a single simulation with any given time resolution. This approach has been implemented in TOPAS (TOol for PArticle Simulation), designed to make Monte Carlo simulations with Geant4 more accessible to both clinical and research physicists. To demonstrate the method, three clinical situations were simulated: a variable water column used to verify constancy of the Bragg peak of the Crocker Lab eye treatment facility of the University of California, the double-scattering treatment mode of the passive beam scattering system at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), where a spinning range modulator wheel accompanied by beam current modulation produces a spread-out Bragg peak, and the scanning mode at MGH, where time-dependent pulse shape, energy distribution and magnetic fields control Bragg peak positions. Results confirm the clinical applicability of the method. PMID:22572201

  7. 7 CFR 1207.511 - Determination of assessable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1207.511 Determination of assessable quantity. The assessable quantity of potatoes in any lot shall be determined on the basis...

  8. 7 CFR 1207.511 - Determination of assessable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1207.511 Determination of assessable quantity. The assessable quantity of potatoes in any lot shall be determined on the basis...

  9. 7 CFR 1207.511 - Determination of assessable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1207.511 Determination of assessable quantity. The assessable quantity of potatoes in any lot shall be determined on the basis...

  10. 7 CFR 1207.511 - Determination of assessable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1207.511 Determination of assessable quantity. The assessable quantity of potatoes in any lot shall be determined on the basis...

  11. Category 3 threshold quantities for hazard categorization of nonreactor facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mandigo, R.L.

    1996-02-13

    This document provides the information necessary to determine Hazard Category 3 threshold quantities for those isotopes of interest not listed in WHC-CM-4-46, Section 4, Table 1.''Threshold Quantities.''

  12. On the Hojman conservation quantities in Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paliathanasis, A.; Leach, P. G. L.; Capozziello, S.

    2016-04-01

    We discuss the application of the Hojman's Symmetry Approach for the determination of conservation laws in Cosmology, which has been recently applied by various authors in different cosmological models. We show that Hojman's method for regular Hamiltonian systems, where the Hamiltonian function is one of the involved equations of the system, is equivalent to the application of Noether's Theorem for generalized transformations. That means that for minimally-coupled scalar field cosmology or other modified theories which are conformally related with scalar-field cosmology, like f (R) gravity, the application of Hojman's method provide us with the same results with that of Noether's Theorem. Moreover we study the special Ansatz. ϕ (t) = ϕ (a (t)) , which has been introduced for a minimally-coupled scalar field, and we study the Lie and Noether point symmetries for the reduced equation. We show that under this Ansatz, the unknown function of the model cannot be constrained by the requirement of the existence of a conservation law and that the Hojman conservation quantity which arises for the reduced equation is nothing more than the functional form of Noetherian conservation laws for the free particle. On the other hand, for f (T) teleparallel gravity, it is not the existence of Hojman's conservation laws which provide us with the special function form of f (T) functions, but the requirement that the reduced second-order differential equation admits a Jacobi Last multiplier, while the new conservation law is nothing else that the Hamiltonian function of the reduced equation.

  13. Entrepreneurship by any other name: self-sufficiency versus innovation.

    PubMed

    Parker Harris, Sarah; Caldwell, Kate; Renko, Maija

    2014-01-01

    Entrepreneurship has been promoted as an innovative strategy to address the employment of people with disabilities. Research has predominantly focused on the self-sufficiency aspect without fully integrating entrepreneurship literature in the areas of theory, systems change, and demonstration projects. Subsequently there are gaps in services, policies, and research in this field that, in turn, have limited our understanding of the support needs and barriers or facilitators of entrepreneurs with disabilities. A thorough analysis of the literature in these areas led to the development of two core concepts that need to be addressed in integrating entrepreneurship into disability employment research and policy: clarity in operational definitions and better disability statistics and outcome measures. This article interrogates existing research and policy efforts in this regard to argue for a necessary shift in the field from focusing on entrepreneurship as self-sufficiency to understanding entrepreneurship as innovation. PMID:25225770

  14. Retinal flow is sufficient for steering during observer rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Li; Warren, William H Jr

    2002-01-01

    How do people control locomotion while their eyes are simultaneously rotating? A previous study found that during simulated rotation, they can perceive a straight path of self-motion from the retinal flow pattern, despite conflicting extraretinal information, on the basis of dense motion parallax and reference objects. Here we report that the same information is sufficient for active control ofjoystick steering. Participants steered toward a target in displays that simulated a pursuit eye movement. Steering was highly inaccurate with a textured ground plane (motion parallax alone), but quite accurate when an array of posts was added (motion parallax plus reference objects). This result is consistent with the theory that instantaneous heading is determined from motion parallax, and the path of self-motion is determined by updating heading relative to environmental objects. Retinal flow is thus sufficient for both perceiving self-motion and controlling self-motion with a joystick; extraretinal and positional information can also contribute, but are not necessary.

  15. Efficiency, sufficiency, and recent change in Newfoundland subsistence horticulture

    SciTech Connect

    Omohundro, J.T.

    1986-09-01

    Traditional Newfoundland horticulture has been a subordinate and compensatory element of the subsistence sphere in a plural economy centered on fishing. Criticized as inefficient and ruinous to the land, this tuber-rootbrassica gardening has in fact been a valuable contribution to diet, is relatively efficient, and compensates for the inadequacies of land and weather. Field data from the Great Northern Peninsula, where some traditional practices persist, demonstrate that the practices conserve time and labor, and substitute massive applications of materials to assure a yield sufficient for household needs. The inefficiency in the tradition may be understood as a response to the constraints upon household labor and follows a kind of Leibig's law of the minimum. Recent changes in gardening practices reveal the dynamics of horticulture in the household's mixed economic strategy. As cash and land have become more common, they have been used to further reduce time while maintaining sufficiency.

  16. Measuring what latent fingerprint examiners consider sufficient information for individualization determinations.

    PubMed

    Ulery, Bradford T; Hicklin, R Austin; Roberts, Maria Antonia; Buscaglia, JoAnn

    2014-01-01

    Latent print examiners use their expertise to determine whether the information present in a comparison of two fingerprints (or palmprints) is sufficient to conclude that the prints were from the same source (individualization). When fingerprint evidence is presented in court, it is the examiner's determination--not an objective metric--that is presented. This study was designed to ascertain the factors that explain examiners' determinations of sufficiency for individualization. Volunteer latent print examiners (n = 170) were each assigned 22 pairs of latent and exemplar prints for examination, and annotated features, correspondence of features, and clarity. The 320 image pairs were selected specifically to control clarity and quantity of features. The predominant factor differentiating annotations associated with individualization and inconclusive determinations is the count of corresponding minutiae; other factors such as clarity provided minimal additional discriminative value. Examiners' counts of corresponding minutiae were strongly associated with their own determinations; however, due to substantial variation of both annotations and determinations among examiners, one examiner's annotation and determination on a given comparison is a relatively weak predictor of whether another examiner would individualize. The extensive variability in annotations also means that we must treat any individual examiner's minutia counts as interpretations of the (unknowable) information content of the prints: saying "the prints had N corresponding minutiae marked" is not the same as "the prints had N corresponding minutiae." More consistency in annotations, which could be achieved through standardization and training, should lead to process improvements and provide greater transparency in casework. PMID:25372036

  17. 10 CFR 37.27 - Requirements for criminal history records checks of individuals granted unescorted access to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... individuals granted unescorted access to category 1 or category 2 quantities of radioactive material. 37.27... QUANTITIES OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Background Investigations and Access Authorization Program § 37.27... category 2 quantities of radioactive material. (a) General performance objective and requirements....

  18. Predictive sufficiency and the use of stored internal state

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musliner, David J.; Durfee, Edmund H.; Shin, Kang G.

    1994-01-01

    In all embedded computing systems, some delay exists between sensing and acting. By choosing an action based on sensed data, a system is essentially predicting that there will be no significant changes in the world during this delay. However, the dynamic and uncertain nature of the real world can make these predictions incorrect, and thus, a system may execute inappropriate actions. Making systems more reactive by decreasing the gap between sensing and action leaves less time for predictions to err, but still provides no principled assurance that they will be correct. Using the concept of predictive sufficiency described in this paper, a system can prove that its predictions are valid, and that it will never execute inappropriate actions. In the context of our CIRCA system, we also show how predictive sufficiency allows a system to guarantee worst-case response times to changes in its environment. Using predictive sufficiency, CIRCA is able to build real-time reactive control plans which provide a sound basis for performance guarantees that are unavailable with other reactive systems.

  19. Working Concept of Accessibility

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Bastian J.; Rouphail, Nagui M.; Hughes, Ronald G.

    2010-01-01

    This research presents an analysis framework and associated performance measures for quantifying the accessibility of pedestrian crossings at modern roundabouts for pedestrians who are blind. The measures, developed under two ongoing national research projects, NCHRP Project 3-78A and a bioengineering research grant from the National Institutes of Health–National Eye Institute, attempt to isolate the components of the crossing task for a blind pedestrian into computable and replicable quantities that allow the comparison of accessibility across individuals or sites. The framework differentiates between crossing opportunities in the form of yields and crossable gaps and the utilization of these opportunities by the pedestrian. It further accounts for the amount of delay and risk involved in the crossing. The analysis framework and measures are demonstrated for two single-lane roundabouts in North Carolina evaluated under the aforementioned research projects. The application shows that the accessibility of a pedestrian crossing to a blind pedestrian is characterized by a combination of different measures and further depends on crossing geometry, traffic volume, driver behavior, and the travel skills and risk-taking behavior of the individual. With successful demonstration at roundabout crosswalks, the analysis framework is hypothesized to have broader application to unsignalized pedestrian crossings, including midblock locations. PMID:20664802

  20. 7 CFR 760.1307 - Dairy operation payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dairy operation payment quantity. 760.1307 Section 760..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Dairy Economic Loss Assistance Payment Program § 760.1307 Dairy operation payment quantity. (a) A dairy operation's payment quantity...

  1. 7 CFR 1430.207 - Dairy operation payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dairy operation payment quantity. 1430.207 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Milk Income Loss Contract Program § 1430.207 Dairy operation payment quantity. (a) The applicant's payment quantity of...

  2. 7 CFR 1430.207 - Dairy operation payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dairy operation payment quantity. 1430.207 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Milk Income Loss Contract Program § 1430.207 Dairy operation payment quantity. (a) The applicant's payment quantity of...

  3. 7 CFR 1430.207 - Dairy operation payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dairy operation payment quantity. 1430.207 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Milk Income Loss Contract Program § 1430.207 Dairy operation payment quantity. (a) The applicant's payment quantity of...

  4. 7 CFR 760.1307 - Dairy operation payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dairy operation payment quantity. 760.1307 Section 760..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Dairy Economic Loss Assistance Payment Program § 760.1307 Dairy operation payment quantity. (a) A dairy operation's payment quantity...

  5. 7 CFR 1430.207 - Dairy operation payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dairy operation payment quantity. 1430.207 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Milk Income Loss Contract Program § 1430.207 Dairy operation payment quantity. (a) The applicant's payment quantity of...

  6. 7 CFR 760.1307 - Dairy operation payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dairy operation payment quantity. 760.1307 Section 760..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Dairy Economic Loss Assistance Payment Program § 760.1307 Dairy operation payment quantity. (a) A dairy operation's payment quantity...

  7. 7 CFR 1430.207 - Dairy operation payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dairy operation payment quantity. 1430.207 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Milk Income Loss Contract Program § 1430.207 Dairy operation payment quantity. (a) The applicant's payment quantity of...

  8. 7 CFR 760.1307 - Dairy operation payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dairy operation payment quantity. 760.1307 Section 760..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Dairy Economic Loss Assistance Payment Program § 760.1307 Dairy operation payment quantity. (a) A dairy operation's payment quantity...

  9. 7 CFR 760.1307 - Dairy operation payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dairy operation payment quantity. 760.1307 Section 760..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Dairy Economic Loss Assistance Payment Program § 760.1307 Dairy operation payment quantity. (a) A dairy operation's payment quantity...

  10. 27 CFR 25.183 - Determination of quantity transferred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Brewery of Same Ownership § 25.183 Determination of quantity transferred. The shipping brewer shall determine the quantity of beer shipped at the time of removal from the consignor brewery, and the receiving brewer shall determine the quantity of beer received at the time of receipt at the consignee brewery....

  11. 27 CFR 25.183 - Determination of quantity transferred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Brewery of Same Ownership § 25.183 Determination of quantity transferred. The shipping brewer shall determine the quantity of beer shipped at the time of removal from the consignor brewery, and the receiving brewer shall determine the quantity of beer received at the time of receipt at the consignee brewery....

  12. 27 CFR 25.183 - Determination of quantity transferred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Brewery of Same Ownership § 25.183 Determination of quantity transferred. The shipping brewer shall determine the quantity of beer shipped at the time of removal from the consignor brewery, and the receiving brewer shall determine the quantity of beer received at the time of receipt at the consignee brewery....

  13. 27 CFR 25.183 - Determination of quantity transferred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Brewery of Same Ownership § 25.183 Determination of quantity transferred. The shipping brewer shall determine the quantity of beer shipped at the time of removal from the consignor brewery, and the receiving brewer shall determine the quantity of beer received at the time of receipt at the consignee brewery....

  14. 27 CFR 25.183 - Determination of quantity transferred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Brewery of Same Ownership § 25.183 Determination of quantity transferred. The shipping brewer shall determine the quantity of beer shipped at the time of removal from the consignor brewery, and the receiving brewer shall determine the quantity of beer received at the time of receipt at the consignee brewery....

  15. 43 CFR 3430.1-2 - Commercial quantities defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Commercial quantities defined. 3430.1-2... Leases § 3430.1-2 Commercial quantities defined. For the purpose of § 3430.1-1 of this title, commercial quantities is defined as follows: (a) The coal deposit discovered under the prospecting permit shall be...

  16. 41 CFR 101-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Economic order quantity... MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 101-27.102 Economic order quantity principle. The economic order quantity (EOQ) principle is a means for achieving economical inventory management. Application of the...

  17. 41 CFR 101-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Economic order quantity... MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 101-27.102 Economic order quantity principle. The economic order quantity (EOQ) principle is a means for achieving economical inventory management. Application of the...

  18. 41 CFR 101-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Economic order quantity... MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 101-27.102 Economic order quantity principle. The economic order quantity (EOQ) principle is a means for achieving economical inventory management. Application of the...

  19. 41 CFR 101-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Economic order quantity... MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 101-27.102 Economic order quantity principle. The economic order quantity (EOQ) principle is a means for achieving economical inventory management. Application of the...

  20. 41 CFR 101-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Economic order quantity... MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 101-27.102 Economic order quantity principle. The economic order quantity (EOQ) principle is a means for achieving economical inventory management. Application of the...

  1. 48 CFR 52.211-18 - Variation in Estimated Quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Variation in Estimated....211-18 Variation in Estimated Quantity. As prescribed in 11.703(c), insert the following clause in... in the estimated quantity of unit-priced items: Variation in Estimated Quantity (APR 1984) If...

  2. 48 CFR 852.216-70 - Estimated quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Estimated quantities. 852... Estimated quantities. As prescribed in 816.504(a), insert the following clause: Estimated Quantities (APR... percent of the estimated requirement or which provide that the Government shall guarantee any...

  3. Hemodialysis access - self care

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency - hemodialysis access; Chronic kidney failure - hemodialysis access; Chronic renal failure - hemodialysis access; dialysis - hemodialysis access

  4. Hemodialysis access - self care

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency - hemodialysis access; Chronic kidney failure - hemodialysis access; Chronic renal failure - ...

  5. Expanding Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    There is no question that the United States lags behind most industrialized nations in consumer access to broadband Internet service. For many policy makers and activists, this shortfall marks the latest phase in the struggle to overcome the digital divide. To remedy this lack of broadband affordability and availability, one start-up firm--with…

  6. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2012-01-01

    As faculty members add online and multimedia elements to their courses, colleges and universities across the country are realizing that there is a lot of work to be done to ensure that disabled students (and employees) have equal access to course material and university websites. Unfortunately, far too few schools consider the task a top priority.…

  7. Easy Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettelman, Alan

    2009-01-01

    School and university restrooms, locker and shower rooms have specific ADA accessibility requirements that serve the needs of staff, students and campus visitors who are disabled as a result of injury, illness or age. Taking good care of them is good for the reputation of a sensitive community institution, and fosters positive public relations.…

  8. Thermodynamics of quantum systems with multiple conserved quantities

    PubMed Central

    Guryanova, Yelena; Popescu, Sandu; Short, Anthony J.; Silva, Ralph; Skrzypczyk, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been much progress in understanding the thermodynamics of quantum systems, even for small individual systems. Most of this work has focused on the standard case where energy is the only conserved quantity. Here we consider a generalization of this work to deal with multiple conserved quantities. Each conserved quantity, which, importantly, need not commute with the rest, can be extracted and stored in its own battery. Unlike the standard case, in which the amount of extractable energy is constrained, here there is no limit on how much of any individual conserved quantity can be extracted. However, other conserved quantities must be supplied, and the second law constrains the combination of extractable quantities and the trade-offs between them. We present explicit protocols that allow us to perform arbitrarily good trade-offs and extract arbitrarily good combinations of conserved quantities from individual quantum systems. PMID:27384384

  9. Law of genome evolution direction: Coding information quantity grows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Liao-Fu

    2009-06-01

    The problem of the directionality of genome evolution is studied. Based on the analysis of C-value paradox and the evolution of genome size, we propose that the function-coding information quantity of a genome always grows in the course of evolution through sequence duplication, expansion of code, and gene transfer from outside. The function-coding information quantity of a genome consists of two parts, p-coding information quantity that encodes functional protein and n-coding information quantity that encodes other functional elements. The evidences on the law of the evolutionary directionality are indicated. The needs of function are the motive force for the expansion of coding information quantity, and the information quantity expansion is the way to make functional innovation and extension for a species. Therefore, the increase of coding information quantity of a genome is a measure of the acquired new function, and it determines the directionality of genome evolution.

  10. Thermodynamics of quantum systems with multiple conserved quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guryanova, Yelena; Popescu, Sandu; Short, Anthony J.; Silva, Ralph; Skrzypczyk, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Recently, there has been much progress in understanding the thermodynamics of quantum systems, even for small individual systems. Most of this work has focused on the standard case where energy is the only conserved quantity. Here we consider a generalization of this work to deal with multiple conserved quantities. Each conserved quantity, which, importantly, need not commute with the rest, can be extracted and stored in its own battery. Unlike the standard case, in which the amount of extractable energy is constrained, here there is no limit on how much of any individual conserved quantity can be extracted. However, other conserved quantities must be supplied, and the second law constrains the combination of extractable quantities and the trade-offs between them. We present explicit protocols that allow us to perform arbitrarily good trade-offs and extract arbitrarily good combinations of conserved quantities from individual quantum systems.

  11. Thermodynamics of quantum systems with multiple conserved quantities.

    PubMed

    Guryanova, Yelena; Popescu, Sandu; Short, Anthony J; Silva, Ralph; Skrzypczyk, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been much progress in understanding the thermodynamics of quantum systems, even for small individual systems. Most of this work has focused on the standard case where energy is the only conserved quantity. Here we consider a generalization of this work to deal with multiple conserved quantities. Each conserved quantity, which, importantly, need not commute with the rest, can be extracted and stored in its own battery. Unlike the standard case, in which the amount of extractable energy is constrained, here there is no limit on how much of any individual conserved quantity can be extracted. However, other conserved quantities must be supplied, and the second law constrains the combination of extractable quantities and the trade-offs between them. We present explicit protocols that allow us to perform arbitrarily good trade-offs and extract arbitrarily good combinations of conserved quantities from individual quantum systems. PMID:27384384

  12. Technology for human self-sufficiency in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, John L.

    1988-01-01

    A proposed Pathfinder program would determine the critical human and technology requirements for human self-sufficiency and productivity on manned and long-duration missions to the moon and Mars. Human health would require countermeasures against weightlessness, protection from space radiation and habitats conducive to psychological well-being. Life support systems would need regeneration of expendable resources, power systems for plant life support and processing; and microbial contaminant control. Operational performance requirements include extravehicular activities suit, interactive systems for shared control between humans and computers, and human-centered semi-autonomous systems.

  13. Is recurrent processing necessary and/or sufficient for consciousness?

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Naotsugu; van Boxtel, Jeroen J A

    2010-09-01

    Abstract Abstract While we agree with Lamme's general framework, we are not so convinced by his mapping between psychological concepts with their underlying neuronal mechanisms. Specifically, we doubt if recurrent processing is either necessary or sufficient for consciousness. A gist of a scene may be consciously perceived by purely feedforward, without recurrent, processing. Neurophysiological studies of perceptual suppression show recurrent processing in visual cortex for consciously invisible objects. While the neuronal correlates of attention and consciousness remain to be clarified, we agree with Lamme that these two processes are independent, evinced by our recent demonstration of opposing effects of attention and consciousness. PMID:24168345

  14. Vitamin D sufficiency and Staphylococcus aureus infection in children.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jeffrey W; Hogan, Patrick G; Hunstad, David A; Fritz, Stephanie A

    2015-05-01

    Vitamin D promotes epithelial immunity by upregulating antimicrobial peptides, including LL-37, which have bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus. We found that children with vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency [25-hydroxyvitamin D <30 ng/mL] were more likely to present with recurrent, rather than primary, S. aureus skin or soft tissue infection. Vitamin D sufficiency may be one of a myriad of host and environmental factors that can be directly impacted to reduce the frequency of S. aureus skin and soft tissue infection. PMID:25860535

  15. Multiplex immunoassay analysis of biomarkers in clinically accessible quantities of human aqueous humor

    PubMed Central

    Rogojina, Anna T.; Chalam, K.V.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Aqueous humor is intimately related to the cells of the anterior and posterior chambers, which affect its composition. Aqueous analysis provides useful information regarding physiological and pathophysiological processes in the eye. Human aqueous samples are typically less than 100 µl, limiting the usefulness of the analysis with traditional Enzyme-Linked immunoSorbant Assay (ELISA) techniques. The specific aim of this study was to investigate if whether large numbers of analytes can be identified in clinically available samples of aqueous humor and to document the detectability of certain biomarkers in the aqueous. Methods We used a technology developed by Luminex xMAP to analyze hundreds of analytes in a small sample. Aqueous from eight normal and two diabetic patients was analyzed. Results Of the 90 analytes evaluated, 52 (57%) were detectable in the normal aqueous. To place these results in biological context, we analyzed the list of expressed analytes using the MetaCore database. The functional pathways, networks, biological processes, and disease processes that these analytes represented were identified. Several ocular pathology-related processes were represented in the aqueous. The detected analytes represented biomarkers of several relevant disease processes including vascular diseases, arteriosclerosis, ischemia, necrosis, and inflammation. To provide the proof of principle that the aqueous profile could offer useful information about the pathophysiological processes, we analyzed two aqueous samples from diabetic patients. These limited samples showed the differences between normal and diabetic samples, including those relevant to diabetic retinopathy such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), C reactive protein, glutathione, and cytokines. Several biomarker groups for disease processes relevant to diabetes were perturbed. Conclusions These results demonstrate that multiplex analysis of the aqueous can be a useful tool in screening for any pathophysiological changes of the ocular environment. Moreover, ocular pathology/pathophysiology-specific Multi-analyte profiles MAPs can be developed and used to analyze the aqueous. PMID:19145248

  16. Photon underproduction crisis: Are QSOs sufficient to resolve it?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaire, Vikram; Srianand, Raghunathan

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the recent claim of `photon underproduction crisis' by Kollmeier et al. which suggests that the known sources of ultraviolet (UV) radiation may not be sufficient to generate the inferred H I photoionization rate (Γ _{H I}) in the low-redshift intergalactic medium. Using the updated QSO emissivities from the recent studies and our cosmological radiative transfer code developed to estimate the UV background, we show that the QSO contributions to Γ _{H I} is higher by a factor ˜2 as compared to the previous estimates. Using self-consistently computed combinations of star formation rate density and dust attenuation, we show that a typical UV escape fraction of 4 per cent from star-forming galaxies should be sufficient to explain the inferred Γ _{H I} by Kollmeier et al. Interestingly, we find that the contribution from QSOs alone can explain the recently inferred Γ _{H I} by Shull et al. which used the same observational data but different simulation. Therefore, we conclude that the crisis is not as severe as it was perceived before and there seems no need to look for alternate explanations such as low luminosity hidden QSOs or decaying dark matter particles.

  17. A geochemical module for "AMDTreat" to compute caustic quantity, effluent quantity, and sludge volume

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, Charles A., III; Parkhurst, David L.; Means, Brent P; McKenzie, Bob; Morris, Harry; Arthur, Bill

    2010-01-01

    Treatment with caustic chemicals typically is used to increase pH and decrease concentrations of dissolved aluminum, iron, and/or manganese in largevolume, metal-laden discharges from active coal mines. Generally, aluminum and iron can be removed effectively at near-neutral pH (6 to 8), whereas active manganese removal requires treatment to alkaline pH (~10). The treatment cost depends on the specific chemical used (NaOH, CaO, Ca(OH)2, Na2CO3, or NH3) and increases with the quantities of chemical added and sludge produced. The pH and metals concentrations do not change linearly with the amount of chemical added. Consequently, the amount of caustic chemical needed to achieve a target pH and the corresponding effluent composition and sludge volume can not be accurately determined without empirical titration data or the application of geochemical models to simulate the titration of the discharge water with caustic chemical(s). The AMDTreat computer program (http://amd.osmre.gov/ ) is widely used to compute costs for treatment of coal-mine drainage. Although AMDTreat can use results of empirical titration with industrial grade caustic chemicals to compute chemical costs for treatment of net-acidic or net-alkaline mine drainage, such data are rarely available. To improve the capability of AMDTreat to estimate (1) the quantity and cost of caustic chemicals to attain a target pH, (2) the concentrations of dissolved metals in treated effluent, and (3) the volume of sludge produced by the treatment, a titration simulation is being developed using the geochemical program PHREEQC (wwwbrr.cr.usgs.gov/projects/GWC_coupled/phreeqc/) that will be coupled as a module to AMDTreat. The simulated titration results can be compared with or used in place of empirical titration data to estimate chemical quantities and costs. This paper describes the development, evaluation, and potential utilization of the PHREEQC titration module for AMDTreat.

  18. Methodology to Estimate the Quantity, Composition, and Management of Construction and Demolition Debris in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report, Methodology to Estimate the Quantity, Composition and Management of Construction and Demolition Debris in the US, was developed to expand access to data on CDD in the US and to support research on CDD and sustainable materials management. Since past US EPA CDD estima...

  19. The influence of data curation on QSAR Modeling – examining issues of quality versus quantity of data (SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The construction of QSAR models is critically dependent on the quality of available data. As part of our efforts to develop public platforms to provide access to predictive models, we have attempted to discriminate the influence of the quality versus quantity of data available ...

  20. Tritium self-sufficiency time and inventory evolution for solid-type breeding blanket materials for DEMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packer, L. W.; Pampin, R.; Zheng, S.

    2011-10-01

    One of the primary functions of a fusion blanket is to generate enough tritium to make a fusion power plant (FPP) self-sufficient. To ensure that there is satisfactory tritium production in a real plant the tritium breeding ratio (TBR) in the blanket must be greater than 1 + M, where M is the breeding margin. For solid-type blanket designs, the initial TBR must be significantly higher than 1 + M, since the blanket TBR will be reduced over time as the lithium fuel is consumed. The rate of TBR reduction will impact on the overall blanket self-sufficiency time, the time in which the net tritium inventory of the system is positive. DEMO relevant blanket materials, Li 4SiO 4 and Li 2TiO 3, are investigated by computational simulation using radiation transport tools coupled with time-dependent inventory calculations. The results include tritium inventory assessments and depletion of breeding materials over time, which enable self-sufficiency times and maximum surplus tritium inventories to be evaluated, which are essential quantities to determine to allow one to design a credible FPP using solid-type breeding material concepts. The blanket concepts investigated show self-sufficiency times of several years in some cases and maximum surplus inventories of up to a few tens of kg.

  1. Variational necessary and sufficient stability conditions for inviscid shear flow

    PubMed Central

    Hirota, M.; Morrison, P. J.; Hattori, Y.

    2014-01-01

    A necessary and sufficient condition for linear stability of inviscid parallel shear flow is formulated by developing a novel variational principle, where the velocity profile is assumed to be monotonic and analytic. It is shown that unstable eigenvalues of Rayleigh's equation (which is a non-self-adjoint eigenvalue problem) can be associated with positive eigenvalues of a certain self-adjoint operator. The stability is therefore determined by maximizing a quadratic form, which is theoretically and numerically more tractable than directly solving Rayleigh's equation. This variational stability criterion is based on the understanding of Kreĭn signature for continuous spectra and is applicable to other stability problems of infinite-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. PMID:25484600

  2. Geothermal resource requirements for an energy self-sufficient spaceport

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, P.; Fioravanti, M.; Duchane, D.; Vaughan, A.

    1997-01-01

    Geothermal resources in the southwestern United States provide an opportunity for development of isolated spaceports with local energy self-sufficiency. Geothermal resources can provide both thermal energy and electrical energy for the spaceport facility infrastructure and production of hydrogen fuel for the space vehicles. In contrast to hydrothermal resources by which electric power is generated for sale to utilities, hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resources are more wide-spread and can be more readily developed at desired spaceport locations. This paper reviews a dynamic model used to quantify the HDR resources requirements for a generic spaceport and estimate the necessary reservoir size and heat extraction rate. The paper reviews the distribution of HDR resources in southern California and southern New Mexico, two regions where a first developmental spaceport is likely to be located. Finally, the paper discusses the design of a HDR facility for the generic spaceport and estimates the cost of the locally produced power.

  3. Nonpetroleum mobility fuels and military-energy self-sufficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Freiwald, D.A.; Barattino, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Nonpetroleum hydrocarbon fuels will likely serve as transition fuels for a few decades after petroleum sources become scarce. But nonpetroleum hydrocarbon fuels are ultimately either nonrenewable (e.g., coal and oil shale synfuels) or are inefficient to produce. Nuclear sources (supplemented by solar, geothermal, etc., as available) for electric power generation and hydrogen production provide a combination that can be used for military energy needs including mobility fuels, namely liquid hydrogen. This approach can give the military energy self-sufficiency for stationary needs as well as ground vehicles, ships, and aircraft. System integration concepts are discussed, and concepts for a methodology to evaluate source-to-use pathways for different classes of military bases are outlined.

  4. Sufficient and necessary condition of separability for generalized Werner states

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Dongling; Chen Jingling

    2009-02-15

    In a celebrated paper [Optics Communications 179, 447, 2000], A.O. Pittenger and M.H. Rubin presented for the first time a sufficient and necessary condition of separability for the generalized Werner states. Inspired by their ideas, we generalized their method to a more general case. We obtain a sufficient and necessary condition for the separability of a specific class of N d-dimensional system (qudits) states, namely special generalized Werner state (SGWS): W{sup [d{sup N}]}(v)=(1-v)(I{sup (N)})/(d{sup N}) +v|{psi}{sub d}{sup N}><{psi}{sub d}{sup N}|, where |{psi}{sub d}{sup N}>={sigma}{sub i=0}{sup d-1}{alpha}{sub i}|i...i> is an entangled pure state of N qudits system and {alpha}{sub i} satisfies two restrictions: (i) {sigma}{sub i=0}{sup d-1}{alpha}{sub i}{alpha}{sub i}*=1; (ii) Matrix 1/d (I{sup (1)}+T{sigma}{sub i{ne}}{sub j}{alpha}{sub i}|i>

  5. Using scientifically and statistically sufficient statistics in comparing image segmentations.

    PubMed

    Chi, Yueh-Yun; Muller, Keith E

    2010-01-01

    Automatic computer segmentation in three dimensions creates opportunity to reduce the cost of three-dimensional treatment planning of radiotherapy for cancer treatment. Comparisons between human and computer accuracy in segmenting kidneys in CT scans generate distance values far larger in number than the number of CT scans. Such high dimension, low sample size (HDLSS) data present a grand challenge to statisticians: how do we find good estimates and make credible inference? We recommend discovering and using scientifically and statistically sufficient statistics as an additional strategy for overcoming the curse of dimensionality. First, we reduced the three-dimensional array of distances for each image comparison to a histogram to be modeled individually. Second, we used non-parametric kernel density estimation to explore distributional patterns and assess multi-modality. Third, a systematic exploratory search for parametric distributions and truncated variations led to choosing a Gaussian form as approximating the distribution of a cube root transformation of distance. Fourth, representing each histogram by an individually estimated distribution eliminated the HDLSS problem by reducing on average 26,000 distances per histogram to just 2 parameter estimates. In the fifth and final step we used classical statistical methods to demonstrate that the two human observers disagreed significantly less with each other than with the computer segmentation. Nevertheless, the size of all disagreements was clinically unimportant relative to the size of a kidney. The hierarchal modeling approach to object-oriented data created response variables deemed sufficient by both the scientists and statisticians. We believe the same strategy provides a useful addition to the imaging toolkit and will succeed with many other high throughput technologies in genetics, metabolomics and chemical analysis. PMID:24967000

  6. Hemodialysis access procedures

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic-dialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-dialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency-dialysis access; Chronic kidney failure-dialysis access; Chronic renal failure-dialysis access

  7. More or less: spontaneous quantity discrimination in the domestic cat.

    PubMed

    Bánszegi, Oxána; Urrutia, Andrea; Szenczi, Péter; Hudson, Robyn

    2016-09-01

    We examined spontaneous quantity discrimination in untrained domestic cats in three food choice experiments. In Experiment 1, we presented the cats with two different quantities of food in eight numerical combinations. Overall, the subjects chose the larger quantity more often than the smaller one, and significantly so when the ratio between the quantities was less than 0.5. In Experiment 2, we presented the cats with two pieces of food in four different size combinations. Again, subjects chose the larger piece above chance, although not in the combination where the largest item was presented. In Experiment 3, a subset of the cats was presented multiple times with two different quantities of food, which were hidden from view. In this case, the cats did not choose the larger quantity more often than the smaller one, suggesting that in the present experiments they mainly used visual cues when comparing quantities. We conclude that domestic cats are capable of spontaneously discriminating quantities when faced with different numbers or sizes of food items, and we suggest why they may not always be motivated to choose the larger quantity. In doing so, we highlight the advantages of testing spontaneous choice behavior, which is more likely to reflect animals' everyday manner of responding than is the case when training them in order to test their absolute limits of performance which may not always coincide with their daily needs. PMID:27106666

  8. Tracking of food quantity by coyotes (Canis latrans).

    PubMed

    Baker, Joseph M; Shivik, John; Jordan, Kerry E

    2011-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Weber's Law mediates quantitative discrimination abilities across various species. Here, we tested coyotes' (Canis latrans) ability to discriminate between various quantities of food and investigated whether this ability conforms to predictions of Weber's Law. We demonstrate herein that coyotes are capable of reliably discriminating large versus small quantities of discrete food items. As predicted by Weber's Law, coyotes' quantitative discrimination abilities are mediated by the ratio between the large and small quantities of food and exhibit scalar variability. Furthermore, in this task coyotes were not discriminating large versus small quantities based on olfactory cues alone. PMID:21856389

  9. Complex interferometry potential in case of sufficiently stable diagnostic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalal, M.

    2016-06-01

    Classical interferometry is one of the key methods among active optical diagnostics. Its more advanced version, which allows recording and subsequent reconstruction of up to three sets of data using just one data object —a complex interferogram—was developed in the past and became known as complex interferometry. Employing this diagnostics, not only the usual phase shift, but also the amplitude of the probing beam as well as the fringe contrast (leading directly to the phase shift time derivative) can be reconstructed simultaneously from such a complex interferogram. In this paper it will be demonstrated that even in the case of a not particularly good diagnostic beam quality these three quantities can be reconstructed with a high degree of accuracy provided both the diagnostic beam as well as the corresponding optical line feature a reasonable stability. Such stability requirement is important as in an ideal case four shots need to be gradually recorded (one by one): the signal complex interferogram, the reference interferogram as well as the intensity structures of the signal and reference part of the diagnostic beam. Two examples of complex interferograms obtained in experiments will be analyzed: the laser produced plasma (spark in the air) and the high pressure gas jet. A general ray-tracing based iterative algorithm will be outlined in order to increase a precision of the index of refraction spatial profile taking into account refraction effects (omitted in the Abel inversion) and employing the original reconstructed phase shift and amplitude.

  10. Determination of AFIS "sufficiency" in friction ridge examination.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Cedric; Armstrong, Douglas E; Wu, Teresa

    2016-06-01

    Fingerprints have been used with considerable success over the past century in multiple civil government, law enforcement and criminal investigation applications. Since the 1970s, computer assisted systems (AFIS - Automated Fingerprint Identification System) have been increasingly used to automatically compare fingerprints and propose associations between multiple friction ridge impressions of known or unknown sources. AFIS were initially entirely subordinated to human examiners. Improvements in the matching algorithms and workload considerations have pushed agencies to implement completely automated processes, known as "Lights-out" modes, where AFIS's render unsupervised conclusions on the donors of the queries. Such fully automated process is common for tenprint-to-tenprint comparisons; however it is currently not being widely adopted for other types of comparisons, such as latent print-to-tenprint comparisons. In this paper, we explore a statistical model that can be used to facilitate the latent print examination workflow by predicting whether any latent print should be searched in AFIS. In particular, we are interested in preventing poor quality latent prints to be searched in vain, and thus unnecessarily consume resources. Ultimately, we show that our model could be used to efficiently manage workflow and workload by categorizing latent prints as a function of the quality and quantity of information that can be observed on them, which enables examiners to select the most appropriate examination and quality assurance processes for each print. PMID:27111746

  11. Measuring What Latent Fingerprint Examiners Consider Sufficient Information for Individualization Determinations

    PubMed Central

    Ulery, Bradford T.; Hicklin, R. Austin; Roberts, Maria Antonia; Buscaglia, JoAnn

    2014-01-01

    Latent print examiners use their expertise to determine whether the information present in a comparison of two fingerprints (or palmprints) is sufficient to conclude that the prints were from the same source (individualization). When fingerprint evidence is presented in court, it is the examiner's determination—not an objective metric—that is presented. This study was designed to ascertain the factors that explain examiners' determinations of sufficiency for individualization. Volunteer latent print examiners (n = 170) were each assigned 22 pairs of latent and exemplar prints for examination, and annotated features, correspondence of features, and clarity. The 320 image pairs were selected specifically to control clarity and quantity of features. The predominant factor differentiating annotations associated with individualization and inconclusive determinations is the count of corresponding minutiae; other factors such as clarity provided minimal additional discriminative value. Examiners' counts of corresponding minutiae were strongly associated with their own determinations; however, due to substantial variation of both annotations and determinations among examiners, one examiner's annotation and determination on a given comparison is a relatively weak predictor of whether another examiner would individualize. The extensive variability in annotations also means that we must treat any individual examiner's minutia counts as interpretations of the (unknowable) information content of the prints: saying “the prints had N corresponding minutiae marked” is not the same as “the prints had N corresponding minutiae.” More consistency in annotations, which could be achieved through standardization and training, should lead to process improvements and provide greater transparency in casework. PMID:25372036

  12. India's baseline plan for nuclear energy self-sufficiency.

    SciTech Connect

    Bucher, R .G.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-01-01

    India's nuclear energy strategy has traditionally strived for energy self-sufficiency, driven largely by necessity following trade restrictions imposed by the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) following India's 'peaceful nuclear explosion' of 1974. On September 6, 2008, the NSG agreed to create an exception opening nuclear trade with India, which may create opportunities for India to modify its baseline strategy. The purpose of this document is to describe India's 'baseline plan,' which was developed under constrained trade conditions, as a basis for understanding changes in India's path as a result of the opening of nuclear commerce. Note that this treatise is based upon publicly available information. No attempt is made to judge whether India can meet specified goals either in scope or schedule. In fact, the reader is warned a priori that India's delivery of stated goals has often fallen short or taken a significantly longer period to accomplish. It has been evident since the early days of nuclear power that India's natural resources would determine the direction of its civil nuclear power program. It's modest uranium but vast thorium reserves dictated that the country's primary objective would be thorium utilization. Estimates of India's natural deposits vary appreciably, but its uranium reserves are known to be extremely limited, totaling approximately 80,000 tons, on the order of 1% of the world's deposits; and nominally one-third of this ore is of very low uranium concentration. However, India's roughly 300,000 tons of thorium reserves account for approximately 30% of the world's total. Confronted with this reality, the future of India's nuclear power industry is strongly dependent on the development of a thorium-based nuclear fuel cycle as the only way to insure a stable, sustainable, and autonomous program. The path to India's nuclear energy self-sufficiency was first outlined in a seminal paper by Drs. H. J. Bhabha and N. B. Prasad presented at the Second

  13. On necessity and sufficiency in counseling and psychotherapy (revisited).

    PubMed

    Lazarus, Arnold A

    2007-09-01

    It seems to me that Carl Rogers (see record 2007-14639-002) was far too ambitious in trying to specify general conditions of necessity and sufficiency that would be relevant to the entire spectrum of problems and the diverse expectancies and personalities of the people who seek our help. Rogers' position and orientation almost totally overlook the array of problems under the rubric of "response deficits" that stem from misinformation and missing information and call for active correction, training, and retraining. Rogers also paid scant attention to problems with significant biological determinants. Nevertheless, as exemplified by his seminal 1957 article and many other articles and books, Rogers made major contributions within the domain of the therapeutic alliance. Today, the scientific emphasis looks at accountability, the need to establish various treatments of choice, and the need to understand their presumed mechanisms. Treatment efficacy and generalizability across different methodologies are now considered key issues. The efficacy narrowing and clinically self-limiting consequences of adhering to one particular school of thought are now self-evident to most. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:22122247

  14. The Generalized Asymptotic Equipartition Property: Necessary and Sufficient Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Matthew T.

    2011-01-01

    Suppose a string X1n=(X1,X2,…,Xn) generated by a memoryless source (Xn)n≥1 with distribution P is to be compressed with distortion no greater than D ≥ 0, using a memoryless random codebook with distribution Q. The compression performance is determined by the “generalized asymptotic equipartition property” (AEP), which states that the probability of finding a D-close match between X1n and any given codeword Y1n, is approximately 2−nR(P, Q, D), where the rate function R(P, Q, D) can be expressed as an infimum of relative entropies. The main purpose here is to remove various restrictive assumptions on the validity of this result that have appeared in the recent literature. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the generalized AEP are provided in the general setting of abstract alphabets and unbounded distortion measures. All possible distortion levels D ≥ 0 are considered; the source (Xn)n≥1 can be stationary and ergodic; and the codebook distribution can have memory. Moreover, the behavior of the matching probability is precisely characterized, even when the generalized AEP is not valid. Natural characterizations of the rate function R(P, Q, D) are established under equally general conditions. PMID:21614133

  15. Manual curation is not sufficient for annotation of genomic databases

    PubMed Central

    Baumgartner, William A.; Cohen, K. Bretonnel; Fox, Lynne M.; Acquaah-Mensah, George; Hunter, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    Motivation Knowledge base construction has been an area of intense activity and great importance in the growth of computational biology. However, there is little or no history of work on the subject of evaluation of knowledge bases, either with respect to their contents or with respect to the processes by which they are constructed. This article proposes the application of a metric from software engineering known as the found/fixed graph to the problem of evaluating the processes by which genomic knowledge bases are built, as well as the completeness of their contents. Results Well-understood patterns of change in the found/fixed graph are found to occur in two large publicly available knowledge bases. These patterns suggest that the current manual curation processes will take far too long to complete the annotations of even just the most important model organisms, and that at their current rate of production, they will never be sufficient for completing the annotation of all currently available proteomes. Contact larry.hunter@uchsc.edu PMID:17646325

  16. 16 CFR 300.28 - Undetermined quantities of reclaimed fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Undetermined quantities of reclaimed fibers... quantities of reclaimed fibers. (a) Where a wool product is composed in part of various man-made fibers recovered from textile products containing underdetermined qualities of such fibers, the percentage...

  17. 30 CFR 75.322 - Harmful quantities of noxious gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Harmful quantities of noxious gases. 75.322 Section 75.322 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.322 Harmful quantities of noxious gases. Concentrations of...

  18. 30 CFR 75.322 - Harmful quantities of noxious gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Harmful quantities of noxious gases. 75.322 Section 75.322 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.322 Harmful quantities of noxious gases. Concentrations of...

  19. 19 CFR 159.21 - Quantity upon which duties based.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Quantity upon which duties based. 159.21 Section 159.21 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES Weight, Gage, and Measure § 159.21 Quantity upon which duties based. Insofar as duties are...

  20. 14 CFR 25.1553 - Fuel quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel quantity indicator. 25.1553 Section 25.1553 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Placards § 25.1553 Fuel quantity indicator. If the unusable fuel supply for any tank exceeds one gallon,...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1553 - Fuel quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel quantity indicator. 23.1553 Section 23.1553 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Information Markings and Placards § 23.1553 Fuel quantity indicator. A red radial line must be marked on...

  2. Radiation quantities and units--understanding the sievert.

    PubMed

    Allisy-Roberts, P J

    2005-03-01

    International recommendations for changes to the SI brochure regarding the definition and use of the quantity dose equivalent are presented. The second part of this note is a simple explanation of the difference between a radiation quantity and its unit. PMID:15798283

  3. 10 CFR 40.22 - Small quantities of source material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Small quantities of source material. 40.22 Section 40.22 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SOURCE MATERIAL General Licenses § 40.22 Small quantities of source material. (a) A general license is hereby issued authorizing commercial and...

  4. 10 CFR 40.22 - Small quantities of source material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small quantities of source material. 40.22 Section 40.22 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SOURCE MATERIAL General Licenses § 40.22 Small quantities of source material. (a) A general license is hereby issued authorizing commercial and...

  5. Numerical Order and Quantity Processing in Number Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turconi, Eva; Campbell, Jamie I. D.; Seron, Xavier

    2006-01-01

    We investigated processing of numerical order information and its relation to mechanisms of numerical quantity processing. In two experiments, performance on a quantity-comparison task (e.g. 2 5; which is larger?) was compared with performance on a relative-order judgment task (e.g. 2 5; ascending or descending order?). The comparison task…

  6. The Study of Tone in Languages with a Quantity Contrast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remijsen, Bert

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the study of tone in languages that additionally have a phonological contrastive of quantity, such as vowel length or stress. In such complex word-prosodic systems, tone and the quantity contrast(s) can be fully independent of one another, or they may interact. Both of these configurations are illustrated in this paper, and…

  7. 16 CFR 300.28 - Undetermined quantities of reclaimed fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... quantities of reclaimed fibers. (a) Where a wool product is composed in part of various man-made fibers recovered from textile products containing underdetermined qualities of such fibers, the percentage content... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Undetermined quantities of reclaimed...

  8. 7 CFR 1434.9 - Determination of quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.9 Determination of quantity. The amount of a marketing assistance loan and loan... the producer and verified by the county office representative for honey on Form CCC-633 (Honey) that is eligible to be pledged as security for the loan or LDP Estimates of the quantity of honey shall...

  9. 7 CFR 1434.9 - Determination of quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.9 Determination of quantity. The amount of a marketing assistance loan and loan... the producer and verified by the county office representative for honey on Form CCC-633 (Honey) that is eligible to be pledged as security for the loan or LDP Estimates of the quantity of honey shall...

  10. 7 CFR 1434.9 - Determination of quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.9 Determination of quantity. The amount of a marketing assistance loan and loan... the producer and verified by the county office representative for honey on Form CCC-633 (Honey) that is eligible to be pledged as security for the loan or LDP Estimates of the quantity of honey shall...

  11. 7 CFR 1434.9 - Determination of quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.9 Determination of quantity. The amount of a marketing assistance loan and loan... the producer and verified by the county office representative for honey on Form CCC-633 (Honey) that is eligible to be pledged as security for the loan or LDP Estimates of the quantity of honey shall...

  12. 7 CFR 1434.9 - Determination of quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.9 Determination of quantity. The amount of a marketing assistance loan and loan... the producer and verified by the county office representative for honey on Form CCC-633 (Honey) that is eligible to be pledged as security for the loan or LDP Estimates of the quantity of honey shall...

  13. Finite difference approximation of hedging quantities in the Heston model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    in't Hout, Karel

    2012-09-01

    This note concerns the hedging quantities Delta and Gamma in the Heston model for European-style financial options. A modification of the discretization technique from In 't Hout & Foulon (2010) is proposed, which enables a fast and accurate approximation of these important quantities. Numerical experiments are given that illustrate the performance.

  14. 14 CFR 23.1553 - Fuel quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel quantity indicator. 23.1553 Section 23.1553 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Information Markings and Placards § 23.1553 Fuel quantity indicator. A red radial line must be marked on...

  15. Quantity Concept Development in Individuals with Cerebral Palsy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lister, Caroline; Juniper, Kirsten

    1995-01-01

    Investigated order of quantity concept development on a range of quantity conservation tasks. Subjects were 15 adults and children having spastic cerebral palsy from birth and attending the same special school or day unit. Found a sequence of development similar to that in children without the handicap, and scalogram analysis supported similarity…

  16. 21 CFR 316.36 - Insufficient quantities of orphan drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insufficient quantities of orphan drugs. 316.36... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE ORPHAN DRUGS Orphan-drug Exclusive Approval § 316.36 Insufficient quantities of orphan drugs. (a) Under section 527 of the act, whenever the Director has reason to believe...

  17. 10 CFR 26.109 - Urine specimen quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Urine specimen quantity. 26.109 Section 26.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.109 Urine specimen quantity. (a) Licensees and other entities who are subject to this subpart shall establish...

  18. 10 CFR 26.109 - Urine specimen quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Urine specimen quantity. 26.109 Section 26.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.109 Urine specimen quantity. (a) Licensees and other entities who are subject to this subpart shall establish...

  19. 10 CFR 26.109 - Urine specimen quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Urine specimen quantity. 26.109 Section 26.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.109 Urine specimen quantity. (a) Licensees and other entities who are subject to this subpart shall establish...

  20. 10 CFR 26.109 - Urine specimen quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Urine specimen quantity. 26.109 Section 26.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.109 Urine specimen quantity. (a) Licensees and other entities who are subject to this subpart shall establish...

  1. 10 CFR 26.109 - Urine specimen quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Urine specimen quantity. 26.109 Section 26.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.109 Urine specimen quantity. (a) Licensees and other entities who are subject to this subpart shall establish...

  2. 48 CFR 52.211-17 - Delivery of Excess Quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delivery of Excess....211-17 Delivery of Excess Quantities. As prescribed in 11.703(b), insert the following clause: Delivery of Excess Quantities (SEP 1989) The Contractor is responsible for the delivery of each...

  3. 46 CFR 108.433 - Quantity of CO2: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Quantity of CO2: General. 108.433 Section 108.433 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.433 Quantity of CO2: General. Each CO2 system must...

  4. Judgments of Discrete and Continuous Quantity: An Illusory Stroop Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Hilary C.

    2008-01-01

    Evidence from human cognitive neuroscience, animal neurophysiology, and behavioral research demonstrates that human adults, infants, and children share a common nonverbal quantity processing system with nonhuman animals. This system appears to represent both discrete and continuous quantity, but the proper characterization of the relationship…

  5. 41 CFR 109-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Economic order quantity principle. 109-27.102 Section 109-27.102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 109-27.102 Economic order quantity principle....

  6. 41 CFR 109-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Economic order quantity principle. 109-27.102 Section 109-27.102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 109-27.102 Economic order quantity principle....

  7. 41 CFR 109-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Economic order quantity principle. 109-27.102 Section 109-27.102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 109-27.102 Economic order quantity principle....

  8. 41 CFR 109-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Economic order quantity principle. 109-27.102 Section 109-27.102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 109-27.102 Economic order quantity principle....

  9. 41 CFR 109-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Economic order quantity principle. 109-27.102 Section 109-27.102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 109-27.102 Economic order quantity principle....

  10. 46 CFR 108.469 - Quantity of foam producing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Quantity of foam producing materials. 108.469 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.469 Quantity of foam producing materials. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each...

  11. 46 CFR 95.17-5 - Quantity of foam required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Quantity of foam required. 95.17-5 Section 95.17-5... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.17-5 Quantity of foam required. (a) Area... blanket of foam over the entire tank top or bilge of the space protected. The arrangement of piping...

  12. 46 CFR 76.17-5 - Quantity of foam required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Quantity of foam required. 76.17-5 Section 76.17-5... EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.17-5 Quantity of foam required. (a) Area protected. (1... of foam over the entire tank top or bilge of the space protected. The arrangement of piping shall...

  13. 46 CFR 76.17-5 - Quantity of foam required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quantity of foam required. 76.17-5 Section 76.17-5... EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.17-5 Quantity of foam required. (a) Area protected. (1... of foam over the entire tank top or bilge of the space protected. The arrangement of piping shall...

  14. 46 CFR 95.17-5 - Quantity of foam required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Quantity of foam required. 95.17-5 Section 95.17-5... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.17-5 Quantity of foam required. (a) Area... blanket of foam over the entire tank top or bilge of the space protected. The arrangement of piping...

  15. 46 CFR 76.17-5 - Quantity of foam required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Quantity of foam required. 76.17-5 Section 76.17-5... EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.17-5 Quantity of foam required. (a) Area protected. (1... of foam over the entire tank top or bilge of the space protected. The arrangement of piping shall...

  16. 46 CFR 95.17-5 - Quantity of foam required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quantity of foam required. 95.17-5 Section 95.17-5... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.17-5 Quantity of foam required. (a) Area... blanket of foam over the entire tank top or bilge of the space protected. The arrangement of piping...

  17. 46 CFR 108.469 - Quantity of foam producing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quantity of foam producing materials. 108.469 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.469 Quantity of foam producing materials. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each...

  18. 46 CFR 76.17-5 - Quantity of foam required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Quantity of foam required. 76.17-5 Section 76.17-5... EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.17-5 Quantity of foam required. (a) Area protected. (1... of foam over the entire tank top or bilge of the space protected. The arrangement of piping shall...

  19. 46 CFR 95.17-5 - Quantity of foam required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Quantity of foam required. 95.17-5 Section 95.17-5... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.17-5 Quantity of foam required. (a) Area... blanket of foam over the entire tank top or bilge of the space protected. The arrangement of piping...

  20. 46 CFR 108.469 - Quantity of foam producing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Quantity of foam producing materials. 108.469 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.469 Quantity of foam producing materials. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each...

  1. 46 CFR 108.469 - Quantity of foam producing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Quantity of foam producing materials. 108.469 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.469 Quantity of foam producing materials. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each...

  2. 46 CFR 108.469 - Quantity of foam producing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Quantity of foam producing materials. 108.469 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.469 Quantity of foam producing materials. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each...

  3. 46 CFR 95.17-5 - Quantity of foam required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Quantity of foam required. 95.17-5 Section 95.17-5... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.17-5 Quantity of foam required. (a) Area... blanket of foam over the entire tank top or bilge of the space protected. The arrangement of piping...

  4. 46 CFR 76.17-5 - Quantity of foam required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Quantity of foam required. 76.17-5 Section 76.17-5... EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.17-5 Quantity of foam required. (a) Area protected. (1... of foam over the entire tank top or bilge of the space protected. The arrangement of piping shall...

  5. 19 CFR 144.33 - Minimum quantities to be withdrawn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Withdrawals from Warehouse § 144.33 Minimum quantities to be withdrawn. Unless by special authority of the Commissioner of Customs, merchandise shall not be withdrawn from bonded warehouse in quantities less than an entire...

  6. Supply chain coordination with defective items and quantity discount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hsien-Jen; Lin, Yu-Jen

    2014-12-01

    This study develops an integrated inventory system involving defective items and quantity discount for optimal pricing and ordering strategies. The model analysed in this study is one in which the buyer orders a quantity, the vendor produces more than buyer's order quantity in order to reduce set-up cost, and then he/she offers an all-units quantity discount to the buyer. Our objective is to determine the optimal order quantity, retail price, mark-up rate, and the number of shipments per production run from the vendor to the buyer, so that the entire supply chain joint total profit incurred has a maximum value. Furthermore, an algorithm of finding the optimal solution is developed. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the theoretical results.

  7. Improving the Rate of Sufficient Sweat Collected in Infants Referred for Sweat Testing in Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Kleyn, Mary; Langbo, Carrie; Gregoire-Bottex, Myrtha; Schuen, John; Shanmugasundaram, Krithika; Nasr, Samya Z

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Sweat collected for testing should have quantity not sufficient (QNS) rate of ≤10% in babies ≤3 months of age. Michigan (MI) cystic fibrosis (CF) centers’ QNS rates were 12% to 25% in 2009. This project was initiated to reduce sweat QNS rates in MI. Methods/Steps. (a) Each center’s sweat testing procedures were reviewed by a consultant. (b) Each center received a report with recommendations to improve QNS rates. (c) Technicians visited other participating centers to observe their procedures. Results. A total of 778 infants were identified as positive via CF newborn screening over a 2-year period. The mean age at time of sweat test was 23.2 days (SD ± 13.0 days). The overall QNS percent decreased from 14.4% to 9.5% (P = .04) during the study. Conclusion. This project and teamwork approach led to a decrease of sweat test QNS rates, opportunities to solve a common problem, and improved quality of care. PMID:27335913

  8. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) accurately compare poured liquid quantities.

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J

    2010-07-01

    Although many studies have shown that nonhuman animals can choose the larger of two discrete quantities of items, less emphasis has been given to discrimination of continuous quantity. These studies are necessary to discern the similarities and differences in discrimination performance as a function of the type of quantities that are compared. Chimpanzees made judgments between continuous quantities (liquids) in a series of three experiments. In the first experiment, chimpanzees first chose between two clear containers holding differing amounts of juice. Next, they watched as two liquid quantities were dispensed from opaque syringes held above opaque containers. In the second experiment, one liquid amount was presented by pouring it into an opaque container from an opaque syringe, whereas the other quantity was visible the entire time in a clear container. In the third experiment, the heights at which the opaque syringes were held above opaque containers differed for each set, so that sometimes sets with smaller amounts of juice were dropped from a greater height, providing a possible visual illusion as to the total amount. Chimpanzees succeeded in all tasks and showed many similarities in their continuous quantity estimation to how they performed previously in similar tasks with discrete quantities (for example, performance was constrained by the ratio between sets). Chimpanzees could compare visible sets to nonvisible sets, and they were not distracted by perceptual illusions created through various presentation styles that were not relevant to the actual amount of juice dispensed. This performance demonstrated a similarity in the quantitative discrimination skills of chimpanzees for continuous quantities that matches that previously shown for discrete quantities. PMID:20146077

  9. An Algebraic Approach to Unital Quantities and their Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domotor, Zoltan; Batitsky, Vadim

    2016-06-01

    The goals of this paper fall into two closely related areas. First, we develop a formal framework for deterministic unital quantities in which measurement unitization is understood to be a built-in feature of quantities rather than a mere annotation of their numerical values with convenient units. We introduce this idea within the setting of certain ordered semigroups of physical-geometric states of classical physical systems. States are assumed to serve as truth makers of metrological statements about quantity values. A unital quantity is presented as an isomorphism from the target system's ordered semigroup of states to that of positive reals. This framework allows us to include various derived and variable quantities, encountered in engineering and the natural sciences. For illustration and ease of presentation, we use the classical notions of length, time, electric current and mean velocity as primordial examples. The most important application of the resulting unital quantity calculus is in dimensional analysis. Second, in evaluating measurement uncertainty due to the analog-to-digital conversion of the measured quantity's value into its measuring instrument's pointer quantity value, we employ an ordered semigroup framework of pointer states. Pointer states encode the measuring instrument's indiscernibility relation, manifested by not being able to distinguish the measured system's topologically proximal states. Once again, we focus mainly on the measurement of length and electric current quantities as our motivating examples. Our approach to quantities and their measurement is strictly state-based and algebraic in flavor, rather than that of a representationalist-style structure-preserving numerical assignment.

  10. Proteomic Challenges: Sample Preparation Techniques for Microgram-Quantity Protein Analysis from Biological Samples

    PubMed Central

    Feist, Peter; Hummon, Amanda B.

    2015-01-01

    Proteins regulate many cellular functions and analyzing the presence and abundance of proteins in biological samples are central focuses in proteomics. The discovery and validation of biomarkers, pathways, and drug targets for various diseases can be accomplished using mass spectrometry-based proteomics. However, with mass-limited samples like tumor biopsies, it can be challenging to obtain sufficient amounts of proteins to generate high-quality mass spectrometric data. Techniques developed for macroscale quantities recover sufficient amounts of protein from milligram quantities of starting material, but sample losses become crippling with these techniques when only microgram amounts of material are available. To combat this challenge, proteomicists have developed micro-scale techniques that are compatible with decreased sample size (100 μg or lower) and still enable excellent proteome coverage. Extraction, contaminant removal, protein quantitation, and sample handling techniques for the microgram protein range are reviewed here, with an emphasis on liquid chromatography and bottom-up mass spectrometry-compatible techniques. Also, a range of biological specimens, including mammalian tissues and model cell culture systems, are discussed. PMID:25664860

  11. [Effect of vitamin sufficiency on adaptation syndrome in growing rats].

    PubMed

    Sidorova, Iu S; Beketova, N A; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Kosheleva, O V; Zorin, S N; Selifanov, A V; Mazo, V K

    2014-01-01

    The influence of vitamin supply of growing male -Wistar rats (n=21) with an initial body weight 53,5±0,9 g on their resistance to a single distress induced by the electric shock has been investigated. Control rats within 21 days received a complete semisynthetic diet,providingadequate amounts of vitamins. Combined vitamin deficiency in experimental rats was caused by 5-fold decrease of vitamin mixture amount in the feed and the total vitamin E exclusion from the mixture. On the 21st day, one day before the end of the experiment, both groups of rats were subjected to stress impact (electrocutaneous irritation on paws, 0,4 mA for 8 sec) and then animals were placed in metabolic cages to collect urine. By the end of the experiment, the animals with the combined vitamin deficiency lag behind in growth. Vitamin B2, A, B1 and E liver content decreased in experimental rats by 1,6, 2,3, 4,4 and 15 fold accordingly. Retinol plasma concentration was significantly reduced by 18%, α-tocopherol level - by 5 fold, urinary excretionof riboflavin and 4-pyridoxic acid (vitamin B6 metabolite) was significantly reduced by 6,5 and 2,46 times accordingly. MDA blood plasma concentration and the urinary ratio of oxidized and not oxidized form of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxy-guanosine did not differ in both groups of rats. Urinary excretion of stress biomarker corticosterone in rats with combined vitamin deficit was 2,5-fold higher than in control rats. Thus, reducing of vitamins supply resulted in an increase of urine corticosterone in stressed rats, that characterized the intensity of general adaptation syndrome. This fact shows the importance of optimal sufficiency with vitamins in nonspecific (general) resistance to stress. PMID:25816622

  12. Greater learnability is not sufficient to produce cultural universals.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, Anna N; Griffiths, Thomas L; Ettlinger, Marc

    2013-10-01

    Looking across human societies reveals regularities in the languages that people speak and the concepts that they use. One explanation that has been proposed for these "cultural universals" is differences in the ease with which people learn particular languages and concepts. A difference in learnability means that languages and concepts possessing a particular property are more likely to be accurately transmitted from one generation of learners to the next. Intuitively, this difference could allow languages and concepts that are more learnable to become more prevalent after multiple generations of cultural transmission. If this is the case, the prevalence of languages and concepts with particular properties can be explained simply by demonstrating empirically that they are more learnable. We evaluate this argument using mathematical analysis and behavioral experiments. Specifically, we provide two counter-examples that show how greater learnability need not result in a property becoming prevalent. First, more learnable languages and concepts can nonetheless be less likely to be produced spontaneously as a result of transmission failures. We simulated cultural transmission in the laboratory to show that this can occur for memory of distinctive items: these items are more likely to be remembered, but not generated spontaneously once they have been forgotten. Second, when there are many languages or concepts that lack the more learnable property, sheer numbers can swamp the benefit produced by greater learnability. We demonstrate this using a second series of experiments involving artificial language learning. Both of these counter-examples show that simply finding a learnability bias experimentally is not sufficient to explain why a particular property is prevalent in the languages or concepts used in human societies: explanations for cultural universals based on cultural transmission need to consider the full set of hypotheses a learner could entertain and all of

  13. Data access service of China-VO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Jian; Zhao, Yong-Heng; Cui, Chen-Zhou

    2004-09-01

    With the development of technologies and the implementation of large quantity of astronomical observation projects, astronomy faces data avalanche and has entered an information era. A basic aim of the Virtual Observatory is to provide uniform access to highly distributed, complicated, huge astronomical datasets, and to realize federation of global astronomical data resources, so that astronomers can obtain required data efficiently and conveniently for their research. China Virtual Observatory (China-VO) project designs and implements astronomical data access services based on Grid technology, and provides uniform interface to Grid client application. In this paper, we introduce the data access service toolkit development using Globus Toolkit, the Grid services encapsulation of catalogs according to the latest astronomical data standards recommended by International Virtual Observatory Alliance, the implements of catalog Cone Search access service. Furthermore, we also introduce how to construct other Grid services using above data access services.

  14. Conceptual Model of Quantities, Units, Dimensions, and Values

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouquette, Nicolas F.; DeKoenig, Hans-Peter; Burkhart, Roger; Espinoza, Huascar

    2011-01-01

    JPL collaborated with experts from industry and other organizations to develop a conceptual model of quantities, units, dimensions, and values based on the current work of the ISO 80000 committee revising the International System of Units & Quantities based on the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM). By providing support for ISO 80000 in SysML via the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM), this conceptual model provides, for the first time, a standard-based approach for addressing issues of unit coherence and dimensional analysis into the practice of systems engineering with SysML-based tools. This conceptual model provides support for two kinds of analyses specified in the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM): coherence of units as well as of systems of units, and dimension analysis of systems of quantities. To provide a solid and stable foundation, the model for defining quantities, units, dimensions, and values in SysML is explicitly based on the concepts defined in VIM. At the same time, the model library is designed in such a way that extensions to the ISQ (International System of Quantities) and SI Units (Systeme International d Unites) can be represented, as well as any alternative systems of quantities and units. The model library can be used to support SysML user models in various ways. A simple approach is to define and document libraries of reusable systems of units and quantities for reuse across multiple projects, and to link units and quantity kinds from these libraries to Unit and QuantityKind stereotypes defined in SysML user models.

  15. Context-Based E-Health System Access Control Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Neyadi, Fahed; Abawajy, Jemal H.

    E-Health systems logically demand a sufficiently fine-grained authorization policy for access control. The access to medical information should not be just role-based but should also include the contextual condition of the role to access data. In this paper, we present a mechanism to extend the standard role-based access control to incorporate contextual information for making access control decisions in e-health application. We present an architecture consisting of authorisation and context infrastructure that work cooperatively to grant access rights based on context-aware authorization policies and context information.

  16. Quantity Intelligent Reckoning for Packaged Granary Grain Based Onimage Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ying; Liu, Yong; Sun, Yueheng; Sun, Yanhong

    This paper presents a quantity intelligent reckoning approach for packaged granary grain based on image processing. The actual scene video was taken as the analysis object, and the dual-threshold Canny operator and the morphology processing method are used to extract the object grain bags’ characteristic outline-- the boundary of the counter-band of light. Then, a counting algorithm which integrates mode theory and variance analysis technology is presented for the quantity second-judgment. Experimental results show that by accurately extracting the characteristic outline and counting the number of the characteristic outline, the algorithm presents an effective method for grain quantity detection with high recognition precision and efficiency.

  17. Quantity Intelligent Reckoning for Packaged Granary Grain Based Onimage Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ying; Liu, Yong; Sun, Yueheng; Sun, Yanhong

    This paper presents a quantity intelligent reckoning approach for packaged granary grain based on image processing. The actual scene video was taken as the analysis object, and the dual-threshold Canny operator and the morphology processing method are used to extract the object grain bags' characteristic outline-- the boundary of the counter-band of light. Then, a counting algorithm which integrates mode theory and variance analysis technology is presented for the quantity second-judgment. Experimental results show that by accurately extracting the characteristic outline and counting the number of the characteristic outline, the algorithm presents an effective method for grain quantity detection with high recognition precision and efficiency.

  18. The Quantity-Quality Relationship in Environmental Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budowski, Gerardo

    1970-01-01

    Describes, with examples, the change from a quantity" to a quality" criterion for environmental management after ecocatastrophes occurred. Provides some guidelines for attaining quality," including preserving many options, increasing environmental diversity, and recognizing environmental tolerance limits. (AL)

  19. From measurements to inferences of physical quantities in numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Tota

    2016-01-01

    We propose a change of style for numerical estimations of physical quantities from measurements to inferences. We estimate the most probable quantities for all the parameter region simultaneously by using the raw data cooperatively. Estimations with higher precisions are made possible. We can obtain a physical quantity as a continuous function, which is processed to obtain another quantity. We applied the method to the Heisenberg spin-glass model in three dimensions. A dynamic correlation-length scaling analysis suggests that the spin-glass and the chiral-glass transitions occur at the same temperature with a common exponent ν . The value is consistent with the experimental results. We explained a spin-chirality separation problem by a size-crossover effect.

  20. 49 CFR 173.4a - Excepted quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... UN2803 (Gallium) and UN2809 (Mercury); and (9) Class 9, except for UN1845 (Carbon dioxide, solid or Dry ice), and lithium batteries and cells. (c) Inner packaging limits. The maximum quantity of...

  1. 19 CFR 351.409 - Differences in quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DUTIES Calculation of Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.409... price differential (or lack thereof) is wholly or partly due to that difference in quantities....

  2. Heterologously Expressed Staphylococcus aureus Fibronectin-Binding Proteins Are Sufficient for Invasion of Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Bhanu; Francois, Patrice; Que, Yok-Ai; Hussain, Muzaffar; Heilmann, Christine; Moreillon, Philippe; Lew, Daniel; Krause, Karl-Heinz; Peters, Georg; Herrmann, Mathias

    2000-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus invasion of mammalian cells, including epithelial, endothelial, and fibroblastic cells, critically depends on fibronectin bridging between S. aureus fibronectin-binding proteins (FnBPs) and the host fibronectin receptor integrin α5β1 (B. Sinha et al., Cell. Microbiol. 1:101–117, 1999). However, it is unknown whether this mechanism is sufficient for S. aureus invasion. To address this question, various S. aureus adhesins (FnBPA, FnBPB, and clumping factor [ClfA]) were expressed in Staphylococcus carnosus and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris. Both noninvasive gram-positive microorganisms are genetically distinct from S. aureus, lack any known S. aureus surface protein, and do not bind fibronectin. Transformants of S. carnosus and L. lactis harboring plasmids coding for various S. aureus surface proteins (FnBPA, FnBPB, and ClfA) functionally expressed adhesins (as determined by bacterial clumping in plasma, specific latex agglutination, Western ligand blotting, and binding to immobilized and soluble fibronectin). FnBPA or FnBPB but not of ClfA conferred invasiveness to S. carnosus and L. lactis. Invasion of 293 cells by transformants was comparable to that of strongly invasive S. aureus strain Cowan 1. Binding of soluble and immobilized fibronectin paralleled invasiveness, demonstrating that the amount of accessible surface FnBPs is rate limiting. Thus, S. aureus FnBPs confer invasiveness to noninvasive, apathogenic gram-positive cocci. Furthermore, FnBP-coated polystyrene beads were internalized by 293 cells, demonstrating that FnBPs are sufficient for invasion of host cells without the need for (S. aureus-specific) coreceptors. PMID:11083807

  3. Quantity, Revisited: An Object-Oriented Reusable Class

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funston, Monica Gayle; Gerstle, Walter; Panthaki, Malcolm

    1998-01-01

    "Quantity", a prototype implementation of an object-oriented class, was developed for two reasons: to help engineers and scientists manipulate the many types of quantities encountered during routine analysis, and to create a reusable software component to for large domain-specific applications. From being used as a stand-alone application to being incorporated into an existing computational mechanics toolkit, "Quantity" appears to be a useful and powerful object. "Quantity" has been designed to maintain the full engineering meaning of values with respect to units and coordinate systems. A value is a scalar, vector, tensor, or matrix, each of which is composed of Value Components, each of which may be an integer, floating point number, fuzzy number, etc., and its associated physical unit. Operations such as coordinate transformation and arithmetic operations are handled by member functions of "Quantity". The prototype has successfully tested such characteristics as maintaining a numeric value, an associated unit, and an annotation. In this paper we further explore the design of "Quantity", with particular attention to coordinate systems.

  4. Can nonhuman primates use tokens to represent and sum quantities?

    PubMed

    Evans, Theodore A; Beran, Michael J; Addessi, Elsa

    2010-11-01

    It is unclear whether nonhuman animals can use physical tokens to flexibly represent various quantities by combining token values. Previous studies showed that chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and a macaque (Macaca mulatta) were only partly successful in tests involving sets of different-looking food containers representing different food quantities, while some capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) have shown greater success in tests involving sets of various concrete objects representing different food quantities. Some of the discrepancy in results between these studies may be attributed to the different methods used. In an effort to reconcile these discrepancies, we presented two primates species, chimpanzees and capuchin monkeys, with two token tasks. The critical test in each task involved summing the value of multiple tokens of different types to make accurate quantity judgments. We found that, using either method, individuals of both species learned to associate individual tokens with specific quantities, as well as successfully compare individual tokens to one another or to sets of visible food items. However, regardless of method, only a few individuals exhibited the capacity to sum multiple tokens of different types and then use those summed values to make an optimal response. This suggests that flexible combination of symbolic stimuli in quantity judgments tasks is within the abilities of chimpanzees and capuchins but does not characterize the majority of individuals. Furthermore, the results suggest the need to carefully examine specific methodological details that may promote or hinder such possible representation. PMID:20836596

  5. Chronic alcohol self-administration in monkeys shows long-term quantity/frequency categorical stability

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Erich J.; Farro, Jonathan; Gonzales, Steven; Helms, Christa; Grant, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The current criteria for alcohol use disorders (AUD) do not include consumption (quantity/frequency) measures of alcohol intake, in part due to the difficulty of these measures in humans. Animal models of ethanol self-administration have been fundamental in advancing our understanding of the neurobiological basis of (AUD) and can address quantity/frequency measures with accurate measurements over prolonged periods of time. The non-human primate (NHP) model of voluntary oral alcohol self-administration has documented both binge drinking and drinking to dependence and can be used to test the stability of consumption measures over time. Methods and Results Here, an extensive set of alcohol intakes (g/kg/day) was analyzed from a large multi-cohort population of Rhesus (Macaca mulatta) monkeys (n=31). Daily ethanol intake was uniformly distributed over chronic (12 months) access for all animals. Underlying this distribution of intakes were subpopulations of monkeys that exhibited distinctive clustering of drinking patterns, allowing us to categorically define very heavy drinking (VHD), heavy drinking (HD), binge drinking (BD), and low drinking (LD). These categories were stable across the 12-month assessed by the protocol, but exhibited fluctuations when examined at shorter intervals. Conclusions The establishment of persistent drinking categories based on quantity/frequency suggests that consumption variables can be used to track long-term changes in behavioral, molecular or physiochemical mechanisms related to our understanding of diagnosis, prevention, intervention and treatment efficacies. PMID:25421519

  6. Disparate British Breast Reconstruction Utilization: Is Universal Coverage Sufficient to Ensure Expanded Care?

    PubMed Central

    Offodile, Anaeze C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Our intent is to improve the understanding of the ability of healthcare providers to deliver high-quality care as we approach an era of universal coverage. We adopted 2 unique vantage points in this article: (1) the mandated coverage for immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) surgery as a microcosmic surrogate for universal coverage overall and (2) we then scrutinized the respective IBR utilization rates in a contemporaneous system of 2 healthcare delivery models in the United Kingdom, that is, the public National Health Service trust versus private-sector hospitals. A literature review was performed for IBR rates across public trust and private-sector hospitals in the United Kingdom. The IBR rate among public trust hospitals was 17% compared with 43% in the private sector. In the trust hospital setting, the enactment of 2 government mandates, intended to increase the access to cancer care, seemed to fall short in maximizing the ability of surgical practitioners to deliver quality care to patients. Among women who did not receive IBR, 65% felt that they had received the sufficient amount of information to appropriately inform their decision. In addition, only 46% of this same cohort reported a consultation with a reconstructive surgeon preoperatively. Private-sector hospitals delivered better IBR care because of the likely presence of infrastructure and financial incentives for physicians. These results serve as a call for a better alignment between policy initiatives designed to expand care access and the perogatives of physicians to ensure an optimized delivery of the expanded care such policy mandates. PMID:27482486

  7. Does pilates exercise increase physical activity, quality of life, latency, and sleep quantity in middle-aged people?

    PubMed

    García-Soidán, J L; Giraldez, V Arufe; Cachón Zagalaz, J; Lara-Sánchez, A J

    2014-12-01

    This prospective study assessed the effects of a 12-wk. exercise program based on the Pilates method (2 one-hr. sessions per week) on 99 sedentary middle-aged volunteers (M age = 47.6 yr., SD = 0.8), using an accelerometry, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the SF-36 questionnaire to measure changes in physical activity, quality of life, sleep latency, and quantity. The variables (quality of life, sleep latency, and quantity) were compared before and after applying the Pilates program. All of the physical and emotional components of the SF-36 questionnaire showed significant improvement, and the latency and sleep quantity also showed significant increases. The results indicate that Pilates is an accessible, interesting exercise program that can generate important changes in middle age. PMID:25456245

  8. Trained Quantity Abilities in Horses (Equus caballus): A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena

    2014-01-01

    Once believed to be a human prerogative, the capacity to discriminate between quantities now has also been reported in several vertebrates. To date, only two studies investigated numerical abilities in horses (Equus caballus) but reported contrasting data. To assess whether horses can be trained to discriminate between quantities, I have set up a new experimental protocol using operant conditioning. One adult female was trained to discriminate between 1 and 4 (Test 1) in three different conditions: non-controlled continuous variables (numerical and continuous quantities that co-vary with number are simultaneously available), 50% controlled continuous variables (intermediate condition), and 100% controlled continuous variables (only numerical information available). The subject learned the discrimination in all conditions, showing the capacity to process numerical information. When presented with a higher numerical ratio (2 vs. 4, Test 2), the subject still discriminated between the quantities but its performance was statistically significant only in the non-controlled condition, suggesting that the subject used multiple cues in presence of a more difficult discrimination. On the whole, the results here reported encourage the use of this experimental protocol as a valid tool to investigate the capacity to process numerical and continuous quantities in horses in future research. PMID:25379278

  9. Quantity analysis of micro-organisms in bottled water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Juan; Li, Xiangyong

    2008-12-01

    Water is necessary to human being and all kinds of animals and plants. In recently years, Bottled Water become the main drinking water whatever for families or for institutions. But most of them have no conception of the water's safety or quality. To have conceptions of the count and distributing of the microorganisms in bucket pure water, we use fluorescent microscope counting stained with SYBR Green I to research the microorganisms (including virus) quantity in Bottled Water for six samples produced in different place. Analyzing shows that the quantity of the microorganisms in these water are different. Some up to 11.912×106 virus/ m L. The quality of Bottled Water needs to be improved. And the quantity of microorganisms in the water is different with different ways to keep the water. At the same time, it shows that fluorescent microscope counting stained with SYBR Green I method is simple and high sensitive to such low microorganisms quantity water sample. It can be used in the microorganisms dynamic quantity research in drinking water.

  10. Health care cost in Switzerland: quantity- or price-driven?

    PubMed

    Schleiniger, Reto

    2014-07-01

    In Switzerland, per capita health care costs vary substantially from canton to canton and rise considerably and steadily from year to year. Since costs are equal to the product of quantities and prices, the question arises whether regional cost variations and cost increase over time are quantity- or price-driven. Depending on the answer, the containment of health care costs must be approached differently. This article examines the cost of mandatory health insurance in Switzerland for the period from 2004 to 2010 and breaks it down into quantity and price effects. The main result of the cross-section analysis reveals that regional cost differences are mainly due to quantity differences. Similarly, the longitudinal analysis shows that the cost increase across all health care services is primarily caused by increasing per capita quantities. Any attempt to contain costs must therefore focus primarily on the extent of medical care utilization, and the key challenge to be met is how to identify medical care services which do not have a positive effect on patients' health status. PMID:24794986

  11. Computing Information-Theoretic Quantities in Large Climate Data Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuth, K. H.; Castle, J. P.; Curry, C. T.; Gotera, A.; Huyser, K. A.; Wheeler, K. R.; Rossow, W. B.

    2005-12-01

    Information-theoretic quantities, such as mutual information, allow one to quantify the amount of information shared by two variables. In large data sets, the mutual information can be used to identify sets of co-informative variables and thus are able to identify variables that can act as predictors of a phenomenon of interest. While mutual information alone does not distinguish a causal interaction between two variables, another information-theoretic quantity called the transfer entropy can indicate such possible causal interactions. Together, these quantities can be used to identify causal interactions among sets of variables in large distributed data sets. We are currently developing a suite of computational tools that will allow researchers to calculate, from data, these useful information-theoretic quantities. Our software tools estimate these quantities along with their associated error bars, the latter of which are critical for describing the degree of uncertainty in the estimates. In this presentation we demonstrate how mutual information and transfer entropy can be applied so as to allow researchers not only to identify relations among climate variables, but also to characterize and quantify their possible causal interactions.

  12. Accelerating global access to plant diversity information.

    PubMed

    Lughadha, Eimear Nic; Miller, Chuck

    2009-11-01

    Botanic gardens play key roles in the development and dissemination of plant information resources. Drivers for change have included progress in information technology, growing public expectations of electronic access and international conservation policy. Great advances have been made in the quantity, quality and accessibility of plant information in digital form and the extent to which information from multiple providers can be accessed through a single portal. However, significant challenges remain to be addressed in making botanic gardens resources maximally accessible and impactful, not least the overwhelming volume of material which still awaits digitisation. The year 2010 represents an opportunity for botanic gardens to showcase their collaborative achievements in delivery of electronic plant information and reinforce their relevance to pressing environmental issues. PMID:19836991

  13. Quality control by a mobile molecular workshop: Quality versus quantity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ajeet K.; Chowdhury, Debashish

    2010-09-01

    Ribosome is a molecular machine that moves on a messenger RNA (mRNA) track while, simultaneously, polymerizing a protein using the mRNA also as the corresponding template. We define, and analytically calculate, two different measures of the efficiency of this machine. However, we argue that its performance is evaluated better in terms of the translational fidelity and the speed with which it polymerizes a protein. We define both these quantities and calculate these analytically. Fidelity is a measure of the quality of the products, while the total quantity of products synthesized in a given interval depends on the speed of polymerization. We show that for synthesizing a large quantity of proteins, it is not necessary to sacrifice the quality. We also explore the effects of the quality control mechanism on the strength of mechanochemical coupling. We suggest experiments for testing some of the ideas presented here.

  14. Optical measurement of pulp quantity in a rotating disc refiner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alahautala, Taito; Lassila, Erkki; Hernberg, Rolf; Härkönen, Esko; Vuorio, Petteri

    2004-11-01

    An optical method based on light extinction was used in measuring pulp quantity in the plate gap of a 10 MW thermomechanical pulping refiner for the first time. The relationship between pulp quantity and light extinction was determined by empirical laboratory experiments. The empirical relationship was then applied to interpret the image data obtained from field measurements. The results show the local distribution of pulp in the refiner plate gap for different rotor plate positions and refiner operation points. The maximum relative uncertainty in the measured pulp quantity was 50%. Relative pulp distributions were measured at higher accuracy. The measurements have influenced the development of a laser-based optical diagnostic method that can be applied to the quantitative visualization of technically demanding industrial processes.

  15. Mobile access control vestibule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DePoy, Jennifer M.

    1998-12-01

    The mobile access control vestibule (MACV) is an adaptation of techniques developed for mobile military command centers. The overall configuration of modules acts as an entry control/screening facility or transportable command center. The system would provide the following capabilities: (1) A key element for force protection, rapid deployment units sent to areas having no prepositioned equipment or where there has been a degradation of that equipment as a result of natural disasters or civil unrest. (2) A rapidly deployable security control center to upgrade the security at nonmilitary sites (e.g., diplomatic or humanitarian organizations). (3) Personnel screening, package screening, badge/identification card production for authorized personnel, centralized monitoring of deployed perimeter sensors, and centralized communications for law enforcement personnel. (4) Self-contained screening and threat detection systems, including explosives detection using the system developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the FAA. When coupled with transportable electric generators, the system is self-sufficient. The communication system for the MACV would be a combination of physically wired and wireless communication units that supports by ad hoc networking.

  16. A semi-automated method for purification of milligram quantities of proteins on the QIAcube

    PubMed Central

    McGraw, J; Tatipelli, VK; Traore, MC; Feyijinmi, O; Eangoor, P; Lane, S; Stollar, EJ

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of studies require the purification of multiple proteins simultaneously and the development of simple economical high-throughput purification methods is essential. We have tested the purification of two related proteins in a variety of conditions to benchmark the semi-automated affinity chromatography method for the QIAcube that we have developed. We find that this new QIAcube method can successfully purify milligram quantities of proteins with minimal user involvement and performs as well as methods based on gravity. The method could easily be adapted to other chromatography resins and should prove to be a versatile method for optimizing protein expression or purification conditions for multiple proteins while obtaining sufficient amounts for subsequent biochemical analyses. PMID:24508590

  17. A Shared System of Representation Governing Quantity Discrimination in Canids

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Joseph M.; Morath, Justice; Rodzon, Katrina S.; Jordan, Kerry E.

    2012-01-01

    One way to investigate the evolution of cognition is to compare the abilities of phylogenetically related species. The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris), for example, still shares cognitive abilities with the coyote (Canis latrans). Both of these canids possess the ability to make psychophysical “less/more” discriminations of food based on quantity. Like many other species including humans, this ability is mediated by Weber’s Law: discrimination of continuous quantities is dependent on the ratio between the two quantities. As two simultaneously presented quantities of food become more similar, choice of the large or small option becomes random in both dogs and coyotes. It remains unknown, however, whether these closely related species within the same family – one domesticated, and one wild – make such quantitative comparisons with comparable accuracy. Has domestication honed or diminished this quantitative ability? Might different selective and ecological pressures facing coyotes drive them to be more or less able to accurately represent and discriminate food quantity than domesticated dogs? This study is an effort to elucidate this question concerning the evolution of non-verbal quantitative cognition. Here, we tested the quantitative discrimination ability of 16 domesticated dogs. Each animal was given nine trials in which two different quantities of food were simultaneously displayed to them. The domesticated dogs’ performance on this task was then compared directly to the data from 16 coyotes’ performance on this same task reported by Baker et al. (2011). The quantitative discrimination abilities between the two species were strikingly similar. Domesticated dogs demonstrated similar quantitative sensitivity as coyotes, suggesting that domestication may not have significantly altered the psychophysical discrimination abilities of canids. Instead, this study provides further evidence for similar non-verbal quantitative abilities across multiple

  18. Difference in quantity discrimination in dogs and wolves

    PubMed Central

    Range, Friederike; Jenikejew, Julia; Schröder, Isabelle; Virányi, Zsófia

    2014-01-01

    Certain aspects of social life, such as engaging in intergroup conflicts, as well as challenges posed by the physical environment, may facilitate the evolution of quantity discrimination. In lack of excessive comparative data, one can only hypothesize about its evolutionary origins, but human-raised wolves performed well when they had to choose the larger of two sets of 1–4 food items that had been sequentially placed into two opaque cans. Since in such paradigms, the animals never see the entire content of either can, their decisions are thought to rely on mental representation of the two quantities rather than on some perceptual factors such as the overall volume or surface area of the two amounts. By equaling the time that it takes to enter each quantity into the cans or the number of items entered, one can further rule out the possibility that animals simply choose based on the amount of time needed to present the two quantities. While the wolves performed well even in such a control condition, dogs failed to choose the larger one of two invisible quantities in another study using a similar paradigm. Because this disparity could be explained by procedural differences, in the current study, we set out to test dogs that were raised and kept identically as the previously tested wolves using the same set-up and procedure. Our results confirm the former finding that dogs, in comparison to wolves, have inferior skills to represent quantities mentally. This seems to be in line with Frank’s (1980) hypothesis suggesting that domestication altered the information processing of dogs. However, as discussed, also alternative explanations may exist. PMID:25477834

  19. 76 FR 39115 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Transformation Initiative Family Self-Sufficiency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... Family Self-Sufficiency Demonstration Small Grants. Description of the need for information and proposed... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Transformation Initiative Family Self-Sufficiency Demonstration Small Grants AGENCY: Office of Policy Development and Research, HUD. ACTION:...

  20. 24 CFR 960.255 - Self-sufficiency incentives-Disallowance of increase in annual income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Self-sufficiency incentives... and Reexamination § 960.255 Self-sufficiency incentives—Disallowance of increase in annual income. (a... participation in any economic self-sufficiency or other job training program; or (iii) Whose annual...

  1. Sufficiency of Longitudinal Moment of Inertia for Haptic Cylinder Length Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabe, Patrick A.

    2010-01-01

    Many studies invoke moment of inertia (I[subscript ii]) as necessary and sufficient information to perceive cylinder length via wielding, yet some assert that I[subscript ii] is neither necessary (weight, "m", or static moment, M, are sufficient) nor sufficient for length judgments ("m" or M is necessary). Mathematical expressions for I[subscript…

  2. United States Access Board

    MedlinePlus

    ... disabilities through leadership in accessible design and the development of accessibility guidelines and standards for the built environment, transportation, communication, medical diagnostic equipment, and information technology. ...

  3. Influence of aging on the quantity and quality of human cardiac stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Tamami; Hosoyama, Tohru; Kawamura, Daichi; Takeuchi, Yuriko; Tanaka, Yuya; Samura, Makoto; Ueno, Koji; Nishimoto, Arata; Kurazumi, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Ryo; Ito, Hiroshi; Sakata, Kensuke; Mikamo, Akihito; Li, Tao-Sheng; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2016-01-01

    Advanced age affects various tissue-specific stem cells and decreases their regenerative ability. We therefore examined whether aging affected the quantity and quality of cardiac stem cells using cells obtained from 26 patients of various ages (from 2 to 83 years old). We collected fresh right atria and cultured cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs), which are a type of cardiac stem cell. Then we investigated growth rate, senescence, DNA damage, and the growth factor production of CDCs. All samples yielded a sufficient number of CDCs for experiments and the cellular growth rate was not obviously associated with age. The expression of senescence-associated b-galactosidase and the DNA damage marker, gH2AX, showed a slightly higher trend in CDCs from older patients (≥65 years). The expression of VEGF, HGF, IGF-1, SDF-1, and TGF-b varied among samples, and the expression of these beneficial factors did not decrease with age. An in vitro angiogenesis assay also showed that the angiogenic potency of CDCs was not impaired, even in those from older patients. Our data suggest that the impact of age on the quantity and quality of CDCs is quite limited. These findings have important clinical implications for autologous stem cell transplantation in elderly patients. PMID:26947751

  4. Influence of aging on the quantity and quality of human cardiac stem cells.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tamami; Hosoyama, Tohru; Kawamura, Daichi; Takeuchi, Yuriko; Tanaka, Yuya; Samura, Makoto; Ueno, Koji; Nishimoto, Arata; Kurazumi, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Ryo; Ito, Hiroshi; Sakata, Kensuke; Mikamo, Akihito; Li, Tao-Sheng; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2016-01-01

    Advanced age affects various tissue-specific stem cells and decreases their regenerative ability. We therefore examined whether aging affected the quantity and quality of cardiac stem cells using cells obtained from 26 patients of various ages (from 2 to 83 years old). We collected fresh right atria and cultured cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs), which are a type of cardiac stem cell. Then we investigated growth rate, senescence, DNA damage, and the growth factor production of CDCs. All samples yielded a sufficient number of CDCs for experiments and the cellular growth rate was not obviously associated with age. The expression of senescence-associated b-galactosidase and the DNA damage marker, gH2AX, showed a slightly higher trend in CDCs from older patients (≥ 65 years). The expression of VEGF, HGF, IGF-1, SDF-1, and TGF-b varied among samples, and the expression of these beneficial factors did not decrease with age. An in vitro angiogenesis assay also showed that the angiogenic potency of CDCs was not impaired, even in those from older patients. Our data suggest that the impact of age on the quantity and quality of CDCs is quite limited. These findings have important clinical implications for autologous stem cell transplantation in elderly patients. PMID:26947751

  5. 26 CFR 50.6 - Ascertainment of quantity mined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.6 Ascertainment of quantity mined. Each person engaged in hydraulic mining operations within the... hydraulic mining operations are conducted for the purpose of determining the cubic yardage mined from...

  6. 26 CFR 50.6 - Ascertainment of quantity mined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.6 Ascertainment of quantity mined. Each person engaged in hydraulic mining operations within the... hydraulic mining operations are conducted for the purpose of determining the cubic yardage mined from...

  7. 26 CFR 50.6 - Ascertainment of quantity mined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.6 Ascertainment of quantity mined. Each person engaged in hydraulic mining operations within the... hydraulic mining operations are conducted for the purpose of determining the cubic yardage mined from...

  8. 26 CFR 50.6 - Ascertainment of quantity mined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.6 Ascertainment of quantity mined. Each person engaged in hydraulic mining operations within the... hydraulic mining operations are conducted for the purpose of determining the cubic yardage mined from...

  9. 49 CFR 224.105 - Sheeting dimensions and quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sheeting dimensions and quantity. 224.105 Section 224.105 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD..., Inspection, and Maintenance of Retroreflective Material § 224.105 Sheeting dimensions and...

  10. 49 CFR 224.105 - Sheeting dimensions and quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sheeting dimensions and quantity. 224.105 Section 224.105 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD..., Inspection, and Maintenance of Retroreflective Material § 224.105 Sheeting dimensions and...

  11. Determination of microgram quantities of inorganic sulfate in atmospheric particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfson, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    This method makes it possible for a minimally equipped analytical laboratory to measure the microgram quantities of water soluble inorganic sulfate in respirable-sized ambient air particulates. It is particularly appropriate for indoor and personal dosimeter samples which often contain cigarette smoke.

  12. 30 CFR 36.45 - Quantity of ventilating air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Quantity of ventilating air. 36.45 Section 36.45 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements §...

  13. 30 CFR 36.45 - Quantity of ventilating air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Quantity of ventilating air. 36.45 Section 36.45 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION... constituents in the diluted mixture shall not exceed: 0.25 percent, by volume, of carbon dioxide (CO2)....

  14. 30 CFR 75.322 - Harmful quantities of noxious gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the Mine... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Harmful quantities of noxious gases. 75.322 Section 75.322 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL...

  15. 30 CFR 36.45 - Quantity of ventilating air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Quantity of ventilating air. 36.45 Section 36.45 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements §...

  16. 30 CFR 36.45 - Quantity of ventilating air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Quantity of ventilating air. 36.45 Section 36.45 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION... constituents in the diluted mixture shall not exceed: 0.25 percent, by volume, of carbon dioxide (CO2)....

  17. 30 CFR 36.45 - Quantity of ventilating air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quantity of ventilating air. 36.45 Section 36.45 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION... constituents in the diluted mixture shall not exceed: 0.25 percent, by volume, of carbon dioxide (CO2)....

  18. 30 CFR 75.322 - Harmful quantities of noxious gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the Mine... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Harmful quantities of noxious gases. 75.322 Section 75.322 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL...

  19. 30 CFR 75.322 - Harmful quantities of noxious gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the Mine... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Harmful quantities of noxious gases. 75.322 Section 75.322 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL...

  20. Children's Multiplicative Transformations of Discrete and Continuous Quantities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Hilary; Baron, Andrew; Spelke, Elizabeth; Carey, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have documented an evolutionarily primitive, early emerging cognitive system for the mental representation of numerical quantity (the analog magnitude system). Studies with nonhuman primates, human infants, and preschoolers have shown this system to support computations of numerical ordering, addition, and subtraction involving…

  1. Separating Effects of Frequency, Quantity, Disruptive, and Problematic Substance Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Judith A.; And Others

    There is widespread concern about the use and abuse of alcohol and other drugs by adolescents and young adults. It has yet to be determined whether drug use in itself is invariably associated with disruptive or problem use of drugs. Additionally, drug use may vary by frequency and quantity of ingestion which may be differentially related to…

  2. 9 CFR 381.121 - Quantity of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Quantity of contents. 381.121 Section 381.121 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... separated, from other label information appearing to the left or right of the statement, by a space at...

  3. 9 CFR 381.121 - Quantity of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quantity of contents. 381.121 Section 381.121 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... separated, from other label information appearing to the left or right of the statement, by a space at...

  4. 9 CFR 381.121 - Quantity of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Quantity of contents. 381.121 Section 381.121 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... separated, from other label information appearing to the left or right of the statement, by a space at...

  5. 9 CFR 381.121 - Quantity of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Quantity of contents. 381.121 Section 381.121 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... separated, from other label information appearing to the left or right of the statement, by a space at...

  6. 9 CFR 381.121 - Quantity of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Quantity of contents. 381.121 Section 381.121 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... separated, from other label information appearing to the left or right of the statement, by a space at...

  7. Food quantity affects the sensitivity of Daphnia to road salt.

    PubMed

    Brown, Arran H; Yan, Norman D

    2015-04-01

    Road deicing operations have raised chloride (Cl) levels in many temperate lakes in Europe and North America. These lakes vary widely in trophic status, but to date, no one has quantified the interaction between food quantity and road salt toxicity. We examined the effects of food quantity (particulate algal C concentration (C)) on the chronic toxicity of Cl to Daphnia in soft-water bioassays. There was a strong positive linear relationship (r(2) = 0.92 for NaCl and r(2) = 0.96 for CaCl2) between food quantity and Cl LC50. As food quantity increased from 0.2 to 1.0 mg C/L (levels characteristic of oligotrophic to eutrophic lakes, respectively), the chronic Cl LC50 increased from 55.7 to 284.8 mg Cl/L. Salt type (NaCl or CaCl2) did not affect the Cl LC50, Daphnia life history parameters, or the intrinsic rate of population increase (r). The life history parameter most sensitive to Cl was neonate production. Cl did not inhibit egg production, nor was the maternal lipid investment in eggs changed, but egg viability and the subsequent release of live neonates decreased as Cl levels increased and food decreased. Our results suggest the trophic status of lakes should be considered when assessing ecological threat from Cl. PMID:25751457

  8. 49 CFR 173.4a - Excepted quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Excepted quantities. 173.4a Section 173.4a Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS General §...

  9. Hazardous Waste Management for the Small Quantity Generator. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This instructional package for teaching about the regulations imposed on small quantity generators by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Resource Conservation Recovery Act is organized around ll program objectives: students will be able to (l) determine a hazardous waste from lists or by identifying characteristics; (2) identify…

  10. Can the Lorenz-Gauge Potentials Be Considered Physical Quantities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heras, Jose A.; Fernandez-Anaya, Guillermo

    2010-01-01

    Two results support the idea that the scalar and vector potentials in the Lorenz gauge can be considered to be physical quantities: (i) they separately satisfy the properties of causality and propagation at the speed of light and do not imply spurious terms and (ii) they can naturally be written in a manifestly covariant form. In this paper we…

  11. 48 CFR 16.504 - Indefinite-quantity contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... contract file. The contracting officer may determine that a class of acquisitions is not appropriate for... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Indefinite-quantity contracts. 16.504 Section 16.504 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION...

  12. Quantity, Quality, and Satisfaction with Mentoring: What Matters Most?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Xiaohong; Payne, Stephanie C.

    2014-01-01

    According to Kram's mentor role theory, satisfaction with mentoring and mentorship quality are key indicators of effective and successful mentoring. We contribute to mentoring research by demonstrating the relative importance of mentorship quantity, mentorship quality, and satisfaction with mentoring to the prediction of job satisfaction,…

  13. Quantity Judgments and Individuation: Evidence that Mass Nouns Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barner, David; Snedeker, Jesse

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments explored the semantics of the mass-count distinction in young children and adults. In Experiments 1 and 2, the quantity judgments of participants provided evidence that some mass nouns refer to individuals, as such. Participants judged one large portion of stuff to be ''more'' than three tiny portions for substance-mass nouns…

  14. 40 CFR 302.5 - Determination of reportable quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... shall apply. (b) Unlisted hazardous substances. Unlisted hazardous substances designated by 40 CFR 302.4... exhibit toxicity identified in 40 CFR 261.24. Unlisted hazardous wastes which exhibit toxicity have the... other characteristics referenced in 40 CFR 302.4(b), the reportable quantity for that waste shall be...

  15. 40 CFR 302.5 - Determination of reportable quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... shall apply. (b) Unlisted hazardous substances. Unlisted hazardous substances designated by 40 CFR 302.4... exhibit toxicity identified in 40 CFR 261.24. Unlisted hazardous wastes which exhibit toxicity have the... other characteristics referenced in 40 CFR 302.4(b), the reportable quantity for that waste shall be...

  16. 40 CFR 302.5 - Determination of reportable quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... shall apply. (b) Unlisted hazardous substances. Unlisted hazardous substances designated by 40 CFR 302.4... exhibit toxicity identified in 40 CFR 261.24. Unlisted hazardous wastes which exhibit toxicity have the... other characteristics referenced in 40 CFR 302.4(b), the reportable quantity for that waste shall be...

  17. 40 CFR 302.5 - Determination of reportable quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... shall apply. (b) Unlisted hazardous substances. Unlisted hazardous substances designated by 40 CFR 302.4... exhibit toxicity identified in 40 CFR 261.24. Unlisted hazardous wastes which exhibit toxicity have the... other characteristics referenced in 40 CFR 302.4(b), the reportable quantity for that waste shall be...

  18. Plotting Rates of Photosynthesis as a Function of Light Quantity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Rob L.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses methods for plotting rates of photosynthesis as a function of light quantity. Presents evidence that suggests that empirically derived conversion factors, which are used to convert foot candles to photon fluence rates, should be used with extreme caution. Suggests how rate data are best plotted when any kind of light meter is not…

  19. Number versus Continuous Quantity in Numerosity Judgments by Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agrillo, Christian; Piffer, Laura; Bisazza, Angelo

    2011-01-01

    In quantity discrimination tasks, adults, infants and animals have been sometimes observed to process number only after all continuous variables, such as area or density, have been controlled for. This has been taken as evidence that processing number may be more cognitively demanding than processing continuous variables. We tested this hypothesis…

  20. 40 CFR 117.3 - Determination of reportable quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Determination of reportable quantities. Each substance in Table 117.3 that is listed in Table 302.4, 40 CFR part... Esters B 100 (45.4) DDT X 1 (0.454) Diazinon X 1 (0.454) Dicamba C 1,000 (454) Dichlobenil B 100...

  1. 49 CFR 173.4a - Excepted quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Excepted quantities. 173.4a Section 173.4a Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS General §...

  2. Linear actuation using milligram quantities of CL-20 and TAGDNAT.

    SciTech Connect

    Snedigar, Shane; Salton, Jonathan Robert; Tappan, Alexander Smith; Ball, James Patrick; Basiliere, Marc; Fischer, Gary John

    2009-07-01

    There are numerous applications for small-scale actuation utilizing pyrotechnics and explosives. In certain applications, especially when multiple actuation strokes are needed, or actuator reuse is required, it is desirable to have all gaseous combustion products with no condensed residue in the actuator cylinder. Toward this goal, we have performed experiments on utilizing milligram quantities of high explosives to drive a millimeter-diameter actuator with a stroke of 30 mm. Calculations were performed to select proper material quantities to provide 0.5 J of actuation energy. This was performed utilizing the thermochemical code Cheetah to calculate the impetus for numerous propellants and to select quantities based on estimated efficiencies of these propellants at small scales. Milligram quantities of propellants were loaded into a small-scale actuator and ignited with an ignition increment and hot wire ignition. Actuator combustion chamber pressure was monitored with a pressure transducer and actuator stroke was monitored using a laser displacement meter. Total actuation energy was determined by calculating the kinetic energy of reaction mass motion against gravity. Of the materials utilized, the best performance was obtained with a mixture of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) and bis-triaminoguanidinium(3,3{prime}dinitroazotriazolate) (TAGDNAT).

  3. Predictors of Sleep Quantity and Quality in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Eric S.

    2012-01-01

    Whereas sleep is often thought of as a common health issue among college students, few, if any, researchers have comprehensively evaluated correlates and predictors of sleep quality and quantity within this population. Most often, studies of this type are used by researchers to assess particular categories of correlates and predictors (e.g.,…

  4. Impact of corn residue quantity on yield of following crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have observed that crop growth can be suppressed in fields where high quantities of corn residue are present on the soil surface. To examine this perceived trend, we grew dry pea, spring wheat, and red clover in two levels of corn residues, achieved by growing corn at 21,000 and 30,000 plants/ac...

  5. 7 CFR 1421.202 - Loan deficiency payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Loan deficiency payment quantity. 1421.202 Section 1421.202 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT... COMMODITIES-MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOANS AND LOAN DEFICIENCY PAYMENTS FOR 2008 THROUGH 2012 Loan...

  6. Early Numeracy Intervention: Does Quantity Discrimination Really Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansmann, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The current study demonstrates that a taped problem intervention is an effective tool for increasing the early numeracy skill of QD. A taped problems intervention was used with two variations of the quantity discrimination measure (triangle and traditional). A 3x2 doubly multivariate multivariate analysis of variance was…

  7. Requirements and process control for quantity of product in prepackages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, C. H.

    2007-02-01

    Verification of the actual quantity of product in prepackages is an important part of compliance testing to facilitate fair trade, maintain a competitive marketplace and protect consumers against under-filled prepackages. Two of the most widely used legal metrological requirements are (i) the average net quantity of product in prepackages of an inspection lot shall be at least equal to the labelled quantity and (ii) the number of prepackages, in a randomly selected sample, that are under-filled by more than a permitted quantity is less than or equal to a permitted number. Industrial and government metrology officials are required to check whether prepackages in an inspection lot comply with these requirements by sampling prepackages at the point-of-pack, wholesale outlets and retail stores. This paper discusses some drawbacks of the acceptance sampling plans and metrological requirements recommended in the international recommendation OIML R87 developed by the International Organization of Legal Metrology. To counter these drawbacks, alternative sampling plans and average prepackage requirements are proposed. Statistical control of filling processes under the OIML R87 requirements is also discussed.

  8. 40 CFR 302.5 - Determination of reportable quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... shall apply. (b) Unlisted hazardous substances. Unlisted hazardous substances designated by 40 CFR 302.4... exhibit toxicity identified in 40 CFR 261.24. Unlisted hazardous wastes which exhibit toxicity have the... other characteristics referenced in 40 CFR 302.4(b), the reportable quantity for that waste shall be...

  9. Birthday Cake Activity Structured Arrangement for Helping Children Determining Quantities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mariana, Neni

    2010-01-01

    Few researches have been concerned about relation between children's spatial thinking and number sense. Narrowing for this small research, we focused on one component of spatial thinking, that is structuring objects, and one component of number senses, that is cardinality by determining quantities. This study focused on a design research that was…

  10. 40 CFR 117.3 - Determination of reportable quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Determination of reportable quantities. Each substance in Table 117.3 that is listed in Table 302.4, 40 CFR part...) Barium cyanide A 10 (4.54) Benzene A 10 (4.54) Benzoic acid D 5,000 (2,270) Benzonitrile D 5,000...

  11. 40 CFR 117.3 - Determination of reportable quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Determination of reportable quantities. Each substance in Table 117.3 that is listed in Table 302.4, 40 CFR part...) Barium cyanide A 10 (4.54) Benzene A 10 (4.54) Benzoic acid D 5,000 (2,270) Benzonitrile D 5,000...

  12. 40 CFR 117.3 - Determination of reportable quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Determination of reportable quantities. Each substance in Table 117.3 that is listed in Table 302.4, 40 CFR part...) Barium cyanide A 10 (4.54) Benzene A 10 (4.54) Benzoic acid D 5,000 (2,270) Benzonitrile D 5,000...

  13. 40 CFR 117.3 - Determination of reportable quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Determination of reportable quantities. Each substance in Table 117.3 that is listed in Table 302.4, 40 CFR part...) Barium cyanide A 10 (4.54) Benzene A 10 (4.54) Benzoic acid D 5,000 (2,270) Benzonitrile D 5,000...

  14. Feeling Number: Grounding Number Sense in a Sense of Quantity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, David; Davis, Brent

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on results from psychology and from cultural and linguistic studies, we argue for an increased focus on developing quantity sense in school mathematics. We explore the notion of "feeling number", a phrase that we offer in a twofold sense--resisting tendencies to feel numb-er (more numb) by developing a feeling for numbers and the…

  15. Quantity Recognition among Speakers of an Anumeric Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Caleb; Madora, Keren

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that the Piraha, an Amazonian tribe with a number-less language, are able to match quantities greater than 3 if the matching task does not require recall or spatial transposition. This finding contravenes previous work among the Piraha. In this study, we re-tested the Pirahas' performance in the crucial one-to-one…

  16. 46 CFR 108.433 - Quantity of CO2: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quantity of CO2: General. 108.433 Section 108.433 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems §...

  17. 46 CFR 108.433 - Quantity of CO2: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Quantity of CO2: General. 108.433 Section 108.433 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems §...

  18. How Do Our Actions Affect Water Quantity and Quality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Water is an essential resource for all living things. How we live on our watershed can impact water quantity and quality. It is important to recognize how humans alter watershed dynamics, but students often find it challenging to visualize watershed processes and understand how decisions that they make as individuals and together as a community…

  19. 49 CFR 224.105 - Sheeting dimensions and quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sheeting dimensions and quantity. 224.105 Section 224.105 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... be applied in strips 4 inches wide and 18 or 36 inches long, as practicable. The amount...

  20. 49 CFR 224.105 - Sheeting dimensions and quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sheeting dimensions and quantity. 224.105 Section 224.105 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... be applied in strips 4 inches wide and 18 or 36 inches long, as practicable. The amount...

  1. 49 CFR 224.105 - Sheeting dimensions and quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sheeting dimensions and quantity. 224.105 Section 224.105 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... be applied in strips 4 inches wide and 18 or 36 inches long, as practicable. The amount...

  2. The Effects of Meal Schedule and Quantity on Problematic Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wacker, David P.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Two case examples (a toddler with severe developmental delays and a 7-year old with severe mental retardation) illustrating effects of meal schedule and food quantity on displays of problematic behavior are offered. Brief functional analyses of aberrant behavior provided useful information for interpreting distinct patterns of behavior. (DB)

  3. 48 CFR 14.212 - Economic purchase quantities (supplies).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Economic purchase... REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.212 Economic purchase quantities (supplies). Contracting officers shall comply with the economic purchase...

  4. 48 CFR 14.212 - Economic purchase quantities (supplies).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Economic purchase... REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.212 Economic purchase quantities (supplies). Contracting officers shall comply with the economic purchase...

  5. 48 CFR 14.212 - Economic purchase quantities (supplies).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Economic purchase... REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.212 Economic purchase quantities (supplies). Contracting officers shall comply with the economic purchase...

  6. 48 CFR 14.212 - Economic purchase quantities (supplies).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Economic purchase... REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.212 Economic purchase quantities (supplies). Contracting officers shall comply with the economic purchase...

  7. 48 CFR 14.212 - Economic purchase quantities (supplies).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Economic purchase... REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.212 Economic purchase quantities (supplies). Contracting officers shall comply with the economic purchase...

  8. 7 CFR 983.53 - Testing of minimal quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Regulations § 983.53 Testing of minimal quantities. (a) Aflatoxin. Handlers who... following methods for testing for aflatoxin: (1) The handler may have an inspector sample and test his or her entire inventory of hulled and dried pistachios for the aflatoxin certification before...

  9. 7 CFR 983.53 - Testing of minimal quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Regulations § 983.53 Testing of minimal quantities. (a) Aflatoxin. Handlers who... following methods for testing for aflatoxin: (1) The handler may have an inspector sample and test his or her entire inventory of hulled and dried pistachios for the aflatoxin certification before...

  10. Do Speakers and Listeners Observe the Gricean Maxim of Quantity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Paul E.; Bailey, Karl G. D.; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2006-01-01

    The Gricean Maxim of Quantity is believed to govern linguistic performance. Speakers are assumed to provide as much information as required for referent identification and no more, and listeners are believed to expect unambiguous but concise descriptions. In three experiments we examined the extent to which naive participants are sensitive to the…

  11. 26 CFR 50.6 - Ascertainment of quantity mined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.6 Ascertainment of quantity mined. Each person engaged in hydraulic mining operations within the... hydraulic mining operations are conducted for the purpose of determining the cubic yardage mined from...

  12. Unraveling water quality and quantity effects of biofuels production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developing a sustainable biofuels industry is crucial for several reasons, but what impact will it have on soil water quantity and quality? This popular press article for ISU alumni, teachers, middle/high school students and others is written to help them understand the complexity of this seemingly ...

  13. 7 CFR 1421.202 - Loan deficiency payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan deficiency payment quantity. 1421.202 Section 1421.202 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRAINS AND SIMILARLY HANDLED COMMODITIES-MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOANS AND...

  14. 7 CFR 1421.202 - Loan deficiency payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... under § 1421.12. (b) Two or more producers may obtain a single joint loan deficiency payment for... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Loan deficiency payment quantity. 1421.202 Section... COMMODITIES-MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOANS AND LOAN DEFICIENCY PAYMENTS FOR 2008 THROUGH 2012 Loan...

  15. Minimal sufficient positive-operator valued measure on a separable Hilbert space

    SciTech Connect

    Kuramochi, Yui

    2015-10-15

    We introduce a concept of a minimal sufficient positive-operator valued measure (POVM), which is the least redundant POVM among the POVMs that have the equivalent information about the measured quantum system. Assuming the system Hilbert space to be separable, we show that for a given POVM, a sufficient statistic called a Lehmann-Scheffé-Bahadur statistic induces a minimal sufficient POVM. We also show that every POVM has an equivalent minimal sufficient POVM and that such a minimal sufficient POVM is unique up to relabeling neglecting null sets. We apply these results to discrete POVMs and information conservation conditions proposed by the author.

  16. A Theory of Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribot, Jesse C.; Peluso, Nancy Lee

    2003-01-01

    The term "access" is frequently used by property and natural resource analysts without adequate definition. In this paper we develop a concept of access and examine a broad set of factors that differentiate access from property. We define access as "the "ability" to derive benefits from things," broadening from property's classical definition as…

  17. Informal Urban Green-Space: Comparison of Quantity and Characteristics in Brisbane, Australia and Sapporo, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Rupprecht, Christoph D. D.; Byrne, Jason A.

    2014-01-01

    Informal urban green-space (IGS) such as vacant lots, brownfields and street or railway verges is receiving growing attention from urban scholars. Research has shown IGS can provide recreational space for residents and habitat for flora and fauna, yet we know little about the quantity, spatial distribution, vegetation structure or accessibility of IGS. We also lack a commonly accepted definition of IGS and a method that can be used for its rapid quantitative assessment. This paper advances a definition and typology of IGS that has potential for global application. Based on this definition, IGS land use percentage in central Brisbane, Australia and Sapporo, Japan was systematically surveyed in a 10×10 km grid containing 121 sampling sites of 2,500 m2 per city, drawing on data recorded in the field and aerial photography. Spatial distribution, vegetation structure and accessibility of IGS were also analyzed. We found approximately 6.3% of the surveyed urban area in Brisbane and 4.8% in Sapporo consisted of IGS, a non-significant difference. The street verge IGS type (80.4% of all IGS) dominated in Brisbane, while lots (42.2%) and gaps (19.2%) were the two largest IGS types in Sapporo. IGS was widely distributed throughout both survey areas. Vegetation structure showed higher tree cover in Brisbane, but higher herb cover in Sapporo. In both cities over 80% of IGS was accessible or partly accessible. The amount of IGS we found suggests it could play a more important role than previously assumed for residents' recreation and nature experience as well as for fauna and flora, because it substantially increased the amount of potentially available greenspace in addition to parks and conservation greenspace. We argue that IGS has potential for recreation and conservation, but poses some challenges to urban planning. To address these challenges, we propose some directions for future research. PMID:24941046

  18. Inventory management - More than reorder points and quantities

    SciTech Connect

    Bromenschenkel, K.E. ); Hicks, R.D. ); Wheeler, L.J. )

    1992-01-01

    In today's competitive environment, many companies, including utilities, are looking for ways to keep costs down so as to maintain or improve their market position. One of the significant costs for a nuclear utility is its material and supplies inventory, which, for many, has continually escalated. Many of us recognize that one element of any good materials management system is the ability to calculate the reorder point (ROP) and reorder quantity (ROQ) for the material so as to establish proper inventory levels and quantities. Nevertheless, when beginning to consider the elements contained in these algorithms, it is obvious that many additional factors constitute good inventory management. This paper conveys some of the necessary elements of an effective inventory system and the actions which should be taken to effectuate such a system. Furthermore, the interrelationship of these elements are demonstrated by considering the key facets of a good materials system.

  19. Equidistribution of energy and other quantities in oscillating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolff, Charles L.

    1993-01-01

    Energy of a high harmonic standing wave tends to be distributed equally over the whole wave even in a stratified medium where the wave's peak amplitude can be much larger near the upper boundary than the lower one. This fact is generalized to the many diverse physical problems which solve second-order differential equations of Sturm-Liouville type. For any such solution y(z) whose sign fluctuates along the z-axis, quantities are found which have the same value between any two neighboring zeros of y. One of the equidistributed quantities for an oscillating fluid sphere is similar to kinetic energy but is identical only in limiting cases. The acoustic midpoint of a cavity can be a unique place where some nonlinear perturbations have extra strength. This may apply to the puzzling solar phenomenon called supergranulation.

  20. Bone loss in chronic kidney disease: Quantity or quality?

    PubMed

    Zheng, Cai-Mei; Zheng, Jin-Quan; Wu, Chia-Chao; Lu, Chien-Lin; Shyu, Jia-Fwu; Yung-Ho, Hsu; Wu, Mei-Yi; Chiu, I-Jen; Wang, Yuan-Hung; Lin, Yuh-Feng; Lu, Kuo-Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients experience bone loss and fracture because of a specific CKD-related systemic disorder known as CKD-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD). The bone turnover, mineralization, and volume (TMV) system describes the morphological bone lesions in renal osteodystrophy related to CKD-MBD. Bone turnover and bone volume are defined as high, normal, or low, and bone mineralization is classified as normal or abnormal. All types of bone histology related to TMV are responsible for both bone quantity and bone quality losses in CKD patients. This review focuses on current bone quantity and bone quality losses in CKD patients and finally discusses potential therapeutic measures. PMID:27049042

  1. Nicotine quantity and packaging disclosure in smoked and smokeless tobacco products in India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Priyamvada; Murthy, Pratima; Shivhare, Parul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: A variety of smoked and smokeless tobacco products with varying nicotine content are accessible in India. Nicotine quantity in tobacco products has direct bearing on tobacco dependence. Our objective was to estimate nicotine content in various types of smoked and smokeless products. Disclosure for essential health warning was also checked. Materials and Methods: Liquid-liquid extraction was used for nicotine extraction and high-performance thin layer chromatography technique was applied for quantification of nicotine in seventy-one smoked and smokeless tobacco products. Results: Significant variation in nicotine content was observed across products. In smoked tobacco, nicotine content varied from 1.01 to 13.0 mg/rod, while in smokeless tobacco products it ranged from 0.8 mg/g to 50.0 mg/g. Moisture content varied from 9% to 21%. Conclusion: This work lists a range of smoked and smokeless tobacco products available in this region. We report a wide variability in nicotine quantity across smoked and smokeless tobacco products. Such variation in nicotine content may have important implications for tobacco cessation interventions and policies PMID:26288479

  2. Radio frequency tank eigenmode sensor for propellant quantity gauging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerli, Gregory A. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for measuring the quantity of fluid in a tank may include the steps of selecting a match between a measured set of electromagnetic eigenfrequencies and a simulated plurality of sets of electromagnetic eigenfrequencies using a matching algorithm, wherein the match is one simulated set of electromagnetic eigenfrequencies from the simulated plurality of sets of electromagnetic eigenfrequencies, and determining the fill level of the tank based upon the match.

  3. Scenario aggregation for supply chain quantity-flexibility contract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gitae; Wu, Chih-Hang

    2013-11-01

    In this research, we apply a scenario aggregation approach to solving the supply chain contract model formulated by two-stage stochastic programming problem. The supply chain contract can achieve the coordination between the buyer and the supplier. We formulate the stochastic programming model for a quantity-flexibility contract. The scenario aggregation method called the progressive hedging method is used to solve this problem. Experimental results show the convergence behaviour of the algorithm and the sensitivity of parameters.

  4. Consumer-Resource Dynamics: Quantity, Quality, and Allocation

    PubMed Central

    Getz, Wayne M.; Owen-Smith, Norman

    2011-01-01

    Background The dominant paradigm for modeling the complexities of interacting populations and food webs is a system of coupled ordinary differential equations in which the state of each species, population, or functional trophic group is represented by an aggregated numbers-density or biomass-density variable. Here, using the metaphysiological approach to model consumer-resource interactions, we formulate a two-state paradigm that represents each population or group in a food web in terms of both its quantity and quality. Methodology and Principal Findings The formulation includes an allocation function controlling the relative proportion of extracted resources to increasing quantity versus elevating quality. Since lower quality individuals senesce more rapidly than higher quality individuals, an optimal allocation proportion exists and we derive an expression for how this proportion depends on population parameters that determine the senescence rate, the per-capita mortality rate, and the effects of these rates on the dynamics of the quality variable. We demonstrate that oscillations do not arise in our model from quantity-quality interactions alone, but require consumer-resource interactions across trophic levels that can be stabilized through judicious resource allocation strategies. Analysis and simulations provide compelling arguments for the necessity of populations to evolve quality-related dynamics in the form of maternal effects, storage or other appropriate structures. They also indicate that resource allocation switching between investments in abundance versus quality provide a powerful mechanism for promoting the stability of consumer-resource interactions in seasonally forcing environments. Conclusions/Significance Our simulations show that physiological inefficiencies associated with this switching can be favored by selection due to the diminished exposure of inefficient consumers to strong oscillations associated with the well-known paradox of

  5. Gender-Specific Barriers to Self-Sufficiency among Former Supplemental Security Income Drug Addiction and Alcoholism Beneficiaries: Implications for Welfare-To-Work Programs and Services

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Sean R; Unick, George J.; Speiglman, Richard; Norris, Jean C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines barriers to economic self-sufficiency among a panel of 219 former Supplemental Security Income (SSI) drug addiction and alcoholism (DA&A) recipients following elimination of DA&A as an eligibility category for SSI disability benefits. Study participants were comprehensively surveyed at six measurement points following the policy change. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine full-sample and gender-specific barriers to economic self-sufficiency. Results indicate that access to transportation, age, and time are the strongest predictors of achieving self-sufficiency for both men and women leaving the welfare system. Gender-specific barriers are also identified. Future research needs to assess the generalizability of these results to other public assistance recipients. PMID:21625301

  6. Tidal signatures in thermospheric and ionospheric quantities (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhr, H.; Rother, M.; Fejer, B. G.; Haeusler, K.; Alken, P.

    2009-12-01

    Recent years provided more and more evidence for tidal signatures in various kinds of upper atmospheric measurements. In this talk special emphasis is put on non-migrating tides. Several of these tidal modes are believed to be generated in the lower atmosphere, and to propagate from here all the way up to the exosphere. Quantities, that reflect the characteristics of the tides very well, are thermospheric temperature and wind. Based on TIMED and CHAMP measurements the complete tidal spectrum has been derived for these two quantities at both MLT and upper thermospheric (400 km) altitudes. Main features of the tides will be presented, as deduced from these observations. The dynamics of the neutrals is partly transferred to charged particles in the ionospheric E-layer. For that reason some tidal signals are also observable in ionospheric parameters. Since the coupling conditions between neutral and charged particle vary over the course of a day (a year, a solar cycle), the recovery of the tidal signal in electrodynamic quantities is, due to its non-linear distortion, much more sophisticated. Even though, tidal signatures are quite evident in the observations during certain local times. We will show the amplitude and temporal variations for some of the prominent tidal components in the equatorial electrojet, in the vertical plasma drift and in electron density.

  7. Two-Higgs-doublet model in terms of observable quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginzburg, I. F.; Kanishev, K. A.

    2015-07-01

    We found a minimal and a comprehensive set of directly measurable quantities defining the most general two-Higgs-doublet model (2HDM); we call these quantities observables. The potential parameters of the model are expressed explicitly via these observables (plus nonphysical parameters which are similar to gauge parameters). The model with arbitrary values of these observables can, in principle, be realized (up to general enough limitations). Our results open the door for the study of Higgs models in terms of measurable quantities only. The experimental limitations can be implemented here directly, without complex, often model-dependent, analysis of the Lagrangian coefficients. The principal opportunity to determine all parameters of the 2HDM from the (future) data meets strong practical limitation. It is the problem for a very long time. Apart from this construction per se, we also obtain some by-products. Among them are the following: a simple criterium for charge parity symmetry (C P ) conservation in the 2HDM, a new sum rules for Higgs couplings, a clear possibility of the coexistence of relatively light Higgses with the strong interaction in the Higgs sector, and a simple expression for the triple Higgs vertex g (hahaha) , useful for the analysis of future h h h coupling measurements.

  8. Synchrotron radiation shielding design and ICRP radiological protection quantities.

    PubMed

    Bassey, Bassey; Moreno, Beatriz; Chapman, Dean

    2015-06-01

    Protection and operational quantities as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) are the two sets of quantities recommended for use in radiological protection for external radiation. Since the '80s, the protection quantities have evolved from the concept of dose equivalent to effective dose equivalent to effective dose, and the associated conversion coefficients have undergone changes. In this work, the influence of three different versions of ICRP photon dose conversion coefficients in the synchrotron radiation shielding calculations of an experimental enclosure has been examined. The versions are effective dose equivalent (ICRP Publication 51), effective dose (ICRP Publication 74), and effective dose (ICRP Publication 116) conversion coefficients. The sources of the synchrotron radiation white beam into the enclosure were a bending magnet, an undulator and a wiggler. The ranges of photons energy from these sources were 10-200 keV for the bending magnet and undulator, and 10-500 keV for the wiggler. The design criterion aimed a radiation leakage less than 0.5 µSv h(-1) from the enclosure. As expected, larger conversion coefficients in ICRP Publication 51 lead to higher calculated dose rates. However, the percentage differences among the calculated dose rates get smaller once shielding is added, and the choice of conversion coefficients set did not affect the final shielding decision. PMID:25906251

  9. World Wide Access: Accessible Web Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Univ., Seattle.

    This brief paper considers the application of "universal design" principles to Web page design in order to increase accessibility for people with disabilities. Suggestions are based on the World Wide Web Consortium's accessibility initiative, which has proposed guidelines for all Web authors and federal government standards. Seven guidelines for…

  10. Boiling sheep liver or lung for 30 minutes is necessary and sufficient to kill Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces in hydatid cysts.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Wu, Chuanchuan; Wang, Hui; Liu, Huanyuan; Vuitton, Dominique A; Wen, Hao; Zhang, Wenbao

    2014-01-01

    Proper disposal of carcasses and offal after home slaughter is difficult in poor and remote communities and therefore dogs readily have access to hydatid cysts containing offal from livestock, thus completing the parasite cycle of Echinococcus granulosus and putting communities at risk of cystic echinococcosis. Boiling livers and lungs which contain hydatid cysts could be a simple, efficient and energy- and time-saving way to kill the infectious protoscoleces. The aim of this study was to provide precise practical recommendations to livestock owners. Our results show that boiling the whole sheep liver and/or lung, with single or multiple hydatid cysts, for 30 min is necessary and sufficient to kill E. granulosus protoscoleces in hydatid cysts. Advertising on this simple rule in at-risk communities would be an efficient and cheap complement to other veterinary public health operations to control cystic echinococcosis. PMID:25456565

  11. Hemodialysis access procedures

    MedlinePlus

    National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse. Vascular Access for Hemodialysis . Updated July 23, 2014. Available at: kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/vascularaccess/index.aspx. Accessed: February 9, 2015. ...

  12. 33 CFR 115.30 - Sufficiency of State authority for bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for bridges. 115.30 Section 115.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.30 Sufficiency of State authority for bridges. An opinion of the attorney general of the State as to the sufficiency of...

  13. 33 CFR 115.30 - Sufficiency of State authority for bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for bridges. 115.30 Section 115.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.30 Sufficiency of State authority for bridges. An opinion of the attorney general of the State as to the sufficiency of...

  14. 33 CFR 115.30 - Sufficiency of State authority for bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for bridges. 115.30 Section 115.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.30 Sufficiency of State authority for bridges. An opinion of the attorney general of the State as to the sufficiency of...

  15. 33 CFR 115.30 - Sufficiency of State authority for bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for bridges. 115.30 Section 115.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.30 Sufficiency of State authority for bridges. An opinion of the attorney general of the State as to the sufficiency of...

  16. 33 CFR 115.30 - Sufficiency of State authority for bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for bridges. 115.30 Section 115.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.30 Sufficiency of State authority for bridges. An opinion of the attorney general of the State as to the sufficiency of...

  17. Dorsal Hippocampal CREB Is Both Necessary and Sufficient for Spatial Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekeres, Melanie J.; Neve, Rachael L.; Frankland, Paul W.; Josselyn, Sheena A.

    2010-01-01

    Although the transcription factor CREB has been widely implicated in memory, whether it is sufficient to produce spatial memory under conditions that do not normally support memory formation in mammals is unknown. We found that locally and acutely increasing CREB levels in the dorsal hippocampus using viral vectors is sufficient to induce robust…

  18. Sufficiency and Conditional Estimation of Person Parameters in the Polytomous Rasch Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrich, David

    2010-01-01

    Rasch models are characterised by sufficient statistics for all parameters. In the Rasch unidimensional model for two ordered categories, the parameterisation of the person and item is symmetrical and it is readily established that the total scores of a person and item are sufficient statistics for their respective parameters. In contrast, in the…

  19. Municipal water quantities and health in Nunavut households: an exploratory case study in Coral Harbour, Nunavut, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Daley, Kiley; Castleden, Heather; Jamieson, Rob; Furgal, Chris; Ell, Lorna

    2014-01-01

    Background Access to adequate quantities of water has a protective effect on human health and well-being. Despite this, public health research and interventions are frequently focused solely on water quality, and international standards for domestic water supply minimums are often overlooked or unspecified. This trend is evident in Inuit and other Arctic communities even though numerous transmissible diseases and bacterium infections associated with inadequate domestic water quantities are prevalent. Objectives Our objective was to explore the pathways by which the trucked water distribution systems being used in remote northern communities are impacting health at the household level, with consideration given to the underlying social and environmental determinants shaping health in the region. Methods Using a qualitative case study design, we conducted 37 interviews (28 residents, 9 key informants) and a review of government water documents to investigate water usage practices and perspectives. These data were thematically analysed to understand potential health risks in Arctic communities and households. Results Each resident receives an average of 110 litres of municipal water per day. Fifteen of 28 households reported experiencing water shortages at least once per month. Of those 15, most were larger households (5 people or more) with standard sized water storage tanks. Water shortages and service interruptions limit the ability of some households to adhere to public health advice. The households most resilient, or able to cope with domestic water supply shortages, were those capable of retrieving their own drinking water directly from lake and river sources. Residents with extended family and neighbours, whom they can rely on during shortages, were also less vulnerable to municipal water delays. Conclusions The relatively low in-home water quantities observed in Coral Harbour, Nunavut, appear adequate for some families. Those living in overcrowded households

  20. Evaluating the uncertainty of input quantities in measurement models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Possolo, Antonio; Elster, Clemens

    2014-06-01

    The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) gives guidance about how values and uncertainties should be assigned to the input quantities that appear in measurement models. This contribution offers a concrete proposal for how that guidance may be updated in light of the advances in the evaluation and expression of measurement uncertainty that were made in the course of the twenty years that have elapsed since the publication of the GUM, and also considering situations that the GUM does not yet contemplate. Our motivation is the ongoing conversation about a new edition of the GUM. While generally we favour a Bayesian approach to uncertainty evaluation, we also recognize the value that other approaches may bring to the problems considered here, and focus on methods for uncertainty evaluation and propagation that are widely applicable, including to cases that the GUM has not yet addressed. In addition to Bayesian methods, we discuss maximum-likelihood estimation, robust statistical methods, and measurement models where values of nominal properties play the same role that input quantities play in traditional models. We illustrate these general-purpose techniques in concrete examples, employing data sets that are realistic but that also are of conveniently small sizes. The supplementary material available online lists the R computer code that we have used to produce these examples (stacks.iop.org/Met/51/3/339/mmedia). Although we strive to stay close to clause 4 of the GUM, which addresses the evaluation of uncertainty for input quantities, we depart from it as we review the classes of measurement models that we believe are generally useful in contemporary measurement science. We also considerably expand and update the treatment that the GUM gives to Type B evaluations of uncertainty: reviewing the state-of-the-art, disciplined approach to the elicitation of expert knowledge, and its encapsulation in probability distributions that are usable in

  1. Optical algorithm for calculating the quantity distribution of fiber assembly.

    PubMed

    Wu, Meiqin; Wang, Fumei

    2016-09-01

    A modification of the two-flux model of Kubelka-Munk was proposed for the description of light propagating through a fiber-air mixture medium, which simplified fibers' internal reflection as a part of the scattering on the total fiber path length. A series of systematical experiments demonstrated a higher consistency with the reference quantity distribution than the common Lambert law on the fibrogram used in the textile industry did. Its application in the fibrogram for measuring the cotton fiber's length was demonstrated to be good, extending its applicability to the wool fiber, the length of which is harder to measure than that of the cotton fiber. PMID:27607296

  2. [Accessible Rural Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Nick, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This issue of the quarterly newsletter "Rural Exchange" provides information and resources on accessible rural housing for the disabled. "Accessible Manufactured Housing Could Increase Rural Home Supply" (Nick Baker) suggests that incorporation of access features such as lever door handles and no-step entries into manufactured housing could help…

  3. Open Access Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Open access publishing is a hot topic today. But open access publishing can have many different definitions, and pros and cons vary with the definitions. Open access publishing is especially attractive to companies and small colleges or universities that are likely to have many more readers than authors. A downside is that a membership fee sounds…

  4. Demystifying Remote Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Grant

    2009-01-01

    With money tight, more and more districts are considering remote access as a way to reduce expenses and budget information technology costs more effectively. Remote access allows staff members to work with a hosted software application from any school campus without being tied to a specific physical location. Each school can access critical…

  5. Open Access and beyond.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Shawn; Schmidt, Christian; Das, Chhaya; Tucker, Philip W

    2006-01-01

    Uncensored exchange of scientific results hastens progress. Open Access does not stop at the removal of price and permission barriers; still, censorship and reading disabilities, to name a few, hamper access to information. Here, we invite the scientific community and the public to discuss new methods to distribute, store and manage literature in order to achieve unfettered access to literature. PMID:16956402

  6. Reflective Database Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lars E.

    2009-01-01

    "Reflective Database Access Control" (RDBAC) is a model in which a database privilege is expressed as a database query itself, rather than as a static privilege contained in an access control list. RDBAC aids the management of database access controls by improving the expressiveness of policies. However, such policies introduce new interactions…

  7. Reasoning about Intensive Quantities in Whole-Number Multiplication? A Possible Basis for Ratio Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Martin A.; Placa, Nicora

    2012-01-01

    One of the challenges of learning ratio concepts is that it involves intensive quantities, a type of quantity that is more conceptually demanding than those that are evaluated by counting or measuring (extensive quantities). In this paper, we engage in an exploration of the possibility of developing reasoning about intensive quantities during the…

  8. Oscillatory brain activity reveals linguistic prints in the quantity code.

    PubMed

    Salillas, Elena; Barraza, Paulo; Carreiras, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Number representations change through education, although it is currently unclear whether and how language could impact the magnitude representation that we share with other species. The most prominent view is that language does not play any role in modulating the core numeric representation involved in the contrast of quantities. Nevertheless, possible cultural hints on the numerical magnitude representation are currently on discussion focus. In fact, the acquisition of number words provides linguistic input that the quantity system may not ignore. Bilingualism offers a window to the study of this question, especially in bilinguals where the two number wording systems imply also two different numerical systems, such as in Basque-Spanish bilinguals. The present study evidences linguistic prints in the core number representational system through the analysis of EEG oscillatory activity during a simple number comparison task. Gamma band synchronization appears when Basque-Spanish bilinguals compare pairs of Arabic numbers linked through the Basque base-20 wording system, but it does not if the pairs are related through the base-10 system. Crucially, this gamma activity, originated in a left fronto-parietal network, only appears in bilinguals who learned math in Basque and not in equivalent proficiency bilinguals who learned math in Spanish. Thus, this neural index reflected in gamma band synchrony appears to be triggered by early learning experience with the base-20 numerical associations in Basque number words. PMID:25875210

  9. Gene-Environment Interactions Between Depressive Symptoms and Smoking Quantity.

    PubMed

    Keskitalo-Vuokko, Kaisu; Korhonen, Tellervo; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2016-08-01

    We investigated genetic and environmental correlations and gene by environment interactions (GxE) between depressive symptoms measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and quantity smoked measured by number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) using quantitative genetic modeling. The population-based sample consisted of 12,063 twin individuals from the Finnish Twin Cohort Study. Bivariate Cholesky decomposition revealed that the phenotypic correlation (r = 0.09) between BDI and CPD was explained by shared genetic (r g = 0.18) and environmental (r e = 0.08) factors. GxE models incorporating moderator effects were built by using CPD as trait and BDI as moderator and vice versa. The importance of the genetic variance component increased with increasing moderator value in both models. Thus, the influence of genetic effects on variance of smoking quantity was enhanced in individuals with elevated depression score and vice versa; the genetic effects on depression variance were potentiated among heavy smokers. In conclusion, shared genetic and environmental factors as well as GxE underlie the association of smoking with depression. PMID:27161145

  10. An economic order quantity model with shortage and inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulan, Elis Ratna; Nurjaman, Wildan

    2015-09-01

    The effect of inflation has become a persistent characteristic and more significant problem of many developing economies especially in the third world countries. While making effort to achieve optimal quantity of product to be produced or purchased using the simplest and on the shelf classical EOQ model, the non-inclusion of conflicting economic realities as shortage and inflation has rendered its result quite uneconomical and hence the purpose for this study. Mathematical expression was developed for each of the cost components the sum of which become the total inventory model over the period (0,L) ((TIC(0,L)). L is planning horizon and TIC(0,L) is total inventory cost over a period of (0,L). Significant savings with increase in quantity was achieved based on deference in the varying price regime. With the assumptions considered and subject to the availability of reliable inventory cost element, the developed model is found to produce a feasible, and economic inventory stock-level with the numerical example of a material supply of a manufacturing company.

  11. Bulky waste quantities and treatment methods in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Anna W; Petersen, Claus; Christensen, Thomas H

    2012-02-01

    Bulky waste is a significant and increasing waste stream in Denmark. However, only little research has been done on its composition and treatment. In the present study, data about collection methods, waste quantities and treatment methods for bulky waste were obtained from two municipalities. In addition a sorting analysis was conducted on combustible waste, which is a major fraction of bulky waste in Denmark. The generation of bulky waste was found to be 150-250 kg capita(-1) year(-1), and 90% of the waste was collected at recycling centres; the rest through kerbside collection. Twelve main fractions were identified of which ten were recyclable and constituted 50-60% of the total quantity. The others were combustible waste for incineration (30-40%) and non-combustible waste for landfilling (10%). The largest fractions by mass were combustible waste, bricks and tile, concrete, non-combustible waste, wood, and metal scrap, which together made up more than 90% of the total waste amounts. The amount of combustible waste could be significantly reduced through better sorting. Many of the waste fractions consisted of composite products that underwent thorough separation before being recycled. The recyclable materials were in many cases exported to other countries which made it difficult to track their destination and further treatment. PMID:21890876

  12. Oscillatory Brain Activity Reveals Linguistic Prints in the Quantity Code

    PubMed Central

    Salillas, Elena; Barraza, Paulo; Carreiras, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Number representations change through education, although it is currently unclear whether and how language could impact the magnitude representation that we share with other species. The most prominent view is that language does not play any role in modulating the core numeric representation involved in the contrast of quantities. Nevertheless, possible cultural hints on the numerical magnitude representation are currently on discussion focus. In fact, the acquisition of number words provides linguistic input that the quantity system may not ignore. Bilingualism offers a window to the study of this question, especially in bilinguals where the two number wording systems imply also two different numerical systems, such as in Basque-Spanish bilinguals. The present study evidences linguistic prints in the core number representational system through the analysis of EEG oscillatory activity during a simple number comparison task. Gamma band synchronization appears when Basque-Spanish bilinguals compare pairs of Arabic numbers linked through the Basque base-20 wording system, but it does not if the pairs are related through the base-10 system. Crucially, this gamma activity, originated in a left fronto-parietal network, only appears in bilinguals who learned math in Basque and not in equivalent proficiency bilinguals who learned math in Spanish. Thus, this neural index reflected in gamma band synchrony appears to be triggered by early learning experience with the base-20 numerical associations in Basque number words. PMID:25875210

  13. Role of sufficient phosphorus in biodiesel production from diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shi-Jin; Shen, Xiao-Fei; Ge, Huo-Qing; Zheng, Hang; Chu, Fei-Fei; Hu, Hao; Zeng, Raymond J

    2016-08-01

    In order to study the role of sufficient phosphorus (P) in biodiesel production by microalgae, Phaeodactylum tricornutum were cultivated in six different media treatments with combination of nitrogen (N) sufficiency/deprivation and phosphorus sufficiency/limitation/deprivation. Profiles of N and P, biomass, and fatty acids (FAs) content and compositions were measured during a 7-day cultivation period. The results showed that the FA content in microalgae biomass was promoted by P deprivation. However, statistical analysis showed that FA productivity had no significant difference (p = 0.63, >0.05) under the treatments of N deprivation with P sufficiency (N-P) and N deprivation with P deprivation (N-P-), indicating P sufficiency in N deprivation medium has little effect on increasing biodiesel productivity from P. triornutum. It was also found that the P absorption in N-P medium was 1.41 times higher than that in N sufficiency and P sufficiency (NP) medium. N deprivation with P limitation (N-P-l) was the optimal treatment for producing biodiesel from P. triornutum because of both the highest FA productivity and good biodiesel quality. PMID:27260287

  14. Access to Special Nuclear Material at the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    R. Bean; J. Barrett; D. Gerts; B. Brush

    2010-07-01

    Access to special nuclear material (SNM) such as enriched uranium or plutonium is critical to the experimental validation of measurement techniques for nuclear nonproliferation applications. It is especially important that realistic quantities be available for measurements in the field. Security and safety requirements have made such access nearly impossible at many U.S. facilities. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been able to provide kilogram quantities of SNM for in situ measurements ranging from testing of equipment in laboratory facilities, to outdoor measurements simulating real conditions, to transfer of the SNM to the customer’s facility and back for measurements in the field. The INL will be working to make SNM more widely accessible for measurements by nuclear nonproliferation projects, including those with international researchers.

  15. 9 CFR 590.134 - Accessibility of product and cooler rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessibility of product and cooler... INSPECTION ACT) Performance of Service § 590.134 Accessibility of product and cooler rooms. (a) Each product..., quantity, and condition as the circumstances may warrant. (b) The perimeter of each cooler room used...

  16. 9 CFR 590.134 - Accessibility of product and cooler rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accessibility of product and cooler... INSPECTION ACT) Performance of Service § 590.134 Accessibility of product and cooler rooms. (a) Each product..., quantity, and condition as the circumstances may warrant. (b) The perimeter of each cooler room used...

  17. Gauge transformations and conserved quantities in classical and quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berche, Bertrand; Malterre, Daniel; Medina, Ernesto

    2016-08-01

    We are taught that gauge transformations in classical and quantum mechanics do not change the physics of the problem. Nevertheless, here we discuss three broad scenarios where under gauge transformations: (i) conservation laws are not preserved in the usual manner; (ii) non-gauge-invariant quantities can be associated with physical observables; and (iii) there are changes in the physical boundary conditions of the wave function that render it non-single-valued. We give worked examples that illustrate these points, in contrast to general opinions from classic texts. We also give a historical perspective on the development of Abelian gauge theory in relation to our particular points. Our aim is to provide a discussion of these issues at the graduate level.

  18. Quantity and structure of word knowledge across adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional and longitudinal data from moderately large samples of healthy adults confirmed prior findings of age-related declines in measures of the quantity of word knowledge beginning around age 65. Additional analyses were carried out to investigate the interrelations of different types of vocabulary knowledge at various periods in adulthood. Although the organizational structures were similar in adults of different ages, scores on tests with different formats had weaker relations to a higher-order vocabulary construct beginning when adults were in their 60's. The within-person dispersion among different vocabulary test scores was also greater after about 65 years of age. The discovery of quantitative decreases in amount of knowledge occurring at about the same age as qualitative shifts in the structure of knowledge raises the possibility that the two types of changes may be causally linked. PMID:24932055

  19. Quantity change in collagen following 830-nm diode laser welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jing; O'Callaghan, David; Rouy, Simone; Godlewski, Guilhem; Prudhomme, Michel

    1996-12-01

    The actual mechanism for production of laser welding of tissue is presently unknown, but collagen plays an important role is tissue welded after laser irradiance. The quantity change in collagen extracted from the abdominal aorta of Wistar rats after tissue welding using an 830 nm diode laser was investigated. The collagen contents following repeated pepsin digestion after acetic acid extraction were determined with Sircol collagen assay. Compared with untreated aorta, the collagen content of the treated vessel was obvious decreased immediately after laser irradiation and following an initial increase on day 3, there was a peak at day 10. The results suggest that a part of collagen molecules is denatured by the heat of laser. There is an effect of stimulating collagen synthesis after laser welding with parameters used in this study.

  20. Age-dependent protection quantities for external photon irradiation.

    PubMed

    Chou, D P; Wang, J N; Chen, I J

    2001-01-01

    The age-dependent conversion coefficients of the protection quantities, the equivalent dose and the effective dose defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), are obtained. A Monte Carlo computer code and the age-dependent hermaphrodite mathematical phantoms of six age groups: newborn, 1, 5, 10, 15 years old and adult are used for the evaluation. Twenty-three photon source energies from 10 keV to 10 MeV and six kinds of irradiation geometries: AP, PA, RLAT, LLAT, ROT, and ISO are chosen in the calculation. The evaluated conversion coefficients for the adult are compared with those in ICRP Publication 74 with good agreement. The conversion coefficients of the equivalent dose and the effective dose increase while the age of the phantom decreases, but with some exceptions for the AP irradiation geometry under certain conditions. PMID:11605795

  1. Is VIRTU4L larger than VIR7UAL? Automatic processing of number quantity and lexical representations in leet words.

    PubMed

    García-Orza, Javier; Comesaña, Montserrat; Piñeiro, Ana; Soares, Ana Paula; Perea, Manuel

    2016-06-01

    Recent research has shown that leet words (i.e., words in which some of the letters are replaced by visually similar digits; e.g., VIRTU4L) can be processed as their base words without much cost. However, it remains unclear whether the digits inserted in leet words are simply processed as letters or whether they are simultaneously processed as numbers (i.e., in terms of access to their quantity representation). To address this question, we conducted 2 experiments that examined the size congruity effect (i.e., when comparisons of the physical size of numbers are affected by their numerical magnitudes) in a physical-size judgment task. Participants were presented with pairs of leet words that were nominally identical except for the embedded digit (e.g., VIR7UAL-VIRTU4L) and were asked to decide as quickly and accurately as possible which word in the pair appeared in a bigger font. In Experiment 1, we examined the congruity effect (congruent: VIRTU4L-VIR7UAL vs. incongruent: VIR7UAL-VIRTU4L vs. neutral: VIR7UAL-VIR7UAL) and the numerical distance effect (distance 1: PAN3L-P4NEL vs. distance 3: VIRTU4L-VIR7UAL). To examine whether the meaning of these words was accessed, we also manipulated word frequency (i.e., a marker of lexical access) in Experiment 2. Results revealed effects of congruity, distance, and word frequency, thus suggesting automatic access to both number quantity and word representations for leet words. These findings favor multidimensional accounts of number/word recognition. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26641447

  2. Effects of Insemination Quantity on Honey Bee Queen Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Freddie-Jeanne; Tarpy, David R.; Grozinger, Christina M.

    2007-01-01

    Mating has profound effects on the physiology and behavior of female insects, and in honey bee (Apis mellifera) queens, these changes are permanent. Queens mate with multiple males during a brief period in their early adult lives, and shortly thereafter they initiate egg-laying. Furthermore, the pheromone profiles of mated queens differ from those of virgins, and these pheromones regulate many different aspects of worker behavior and colony organization. While it is clear that mating causes dramatic changes in queens, it is unclear if mating number has more subtle effects on queen physiology or queen-worker interactions; indeed, the effect of multiple matings on female insect physiology has not been broadly addressed. Because it is not possible to control the natural mating behavior of queens, we used instrumental insemination and compared queens inseminated with semen from either a single drone (single-drone inseminated, or SDI) or 10 drones (multi-drone inseminated, or MDI). We used observation hives to monitor attraction of workers to SDI or MDI queens in colonies, and cage studies to monitor the attraction of workers to virgin, SDI, and MDI queen mandibular gland extracts (the main source of queen pheromone). The chemical profiles of the mandibular glands of virgin, SDI, and MDI queens were characterized using GC-MS. Finally, we measured brain expression levels in SDI and MDI queens of a gene associated with phototaxis in worker honey bees (Amfor). Here, we demonstrate for the first time that insemination quantity significantly affects mandibular gland chemical profiles, queen-worker interactions, and brain gene expression. Further research will be necessary to elucidate the mechanistic bases for these effects: insemination volume, sperm and seminal protein quantity, and genetic diversity of the sperm may all be important factors contributing to this profound change in honey bee queen physiology, queen behavior, and social interactions in the colony. PMID

  3. Effects of insemination quantity on honey bee queen physiology.

    PubMed

    Richard, Freddie-Jeanne; Tarpy, David R; Grozinger, Christina M

    2007-01-01

    Mating has profound effects on the physiology and behavior of female insects, and in honey bee (Apis mellifera) queens, these changes are permanent. Queens mate with multiple males during a brief period in their early adult lives, and shortly thereafter they initiate egg-laying. Furthermore, the pheromone profiles of mated queens differ from those of virgins, and these pheromones regulate many different aspects of worker behavior and colony organization. While it is clear that mating causes dramatic changes in queens, it is unclear if mating number has more subtle effects on queen physiology or queen-worker interactions; indeed, the effect of multiple matings on female insect physiology has not been broadly addressed. Because it is not possible to control the natural mating behavior of queens, we used instrumental insemination and compared queens inseminated with semen from either a single drone (single-drone inseminated, or SDI) or 10 drones (multi-drone inseminated, or MDI). We used observation hives to monitor attraction of workers to SDI or MDI queens in colonies, and cage studies to monitor the attraction of workers to virgin, SDI, and MDI queen mandibular gland extracts (the main source of queen pheromone). The chemical profiles of the mandibular glands of virgin, SDI, and MDI queens were characterized using GC-MS. Finally, we measured brain expression levels in SDI and MDI queens of a gene associated with phototaxis in worker honey bees (Amfor). Here, we demonstrate for the first time that insemination quantity significantly affects mandibular gland chemical profiles, queen-worker interactions, and brain gene expression. Further research will be necessary to elucidate the mechanistic bases for these effects: insemination volume, sperm and seminal protein quantity, and genetic diversity of the sperm may all be important factors contributing to this profound change in honey bee queen physiology, queen behavior, and social interactions in the colony. PMID

  4. Assessing sufficiency of thermal riverscapes for resilient salmon and steelhead populations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resilient salmon populations require river networks that provide water temperature regimes sufficient to support a diversity of salmonid life histories across space and time. Efforts to protect, enhance and restore watershed thermal regimes for salmon may target specific location...

  5. OBT analysis method using polyethylene beads for limited quantities of animal tissue.

    PubMed

    Kim, S B; Stuart, M

    2015-08-01

    This study presents a polyethylene beads method for OBT determination in animal tissues and animal products for cases where the amount of water recovered by combustion is limited by sample size or quantity. In the method, the amount of water recovered after combustion is enhanced by adding tritium-free polyethylene beads to the sample prior to combustion in an oxygen bomb. The method reduces process time by allowing the combustion water to be easily collected with a pipette. Sufficient water recovery was achieved using the polyethylene beads method when 2 g of dry animal tissue or animal product were combusted with 2 g of polyethylene beads. Correction factors, which account for the dilution due to the combustion water of the beads, are provided for beef, chicken, pork, fish and clams, as well as egg, milk and cheese. The method was tested by comparing its OBT results with those of the conventional method using animal samples collected on the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site. The results determined that the polyethylene beads method added no more than 25% uncertainty when appropriate correction factors are used. PMID:25913056

  6. Standardized large-scale H-1PV production process with efficient quality and quantity monitoring.

    PubMed

    Leuchs, Barbara; Roscher, Mandy; Müller, Marcus; Kürschner, Kathrin; Rommelaere, Jean

    2016-03-01

    The promising anticancer properties of rodent protoparvoviruses, notably H-1PV, have led to their clinical testing. This makes it necessary to produce highly pure, well-characterized virus batches in sufficient quantity. The present work focused on developing standardized production, purification, and characterization procedures as a basis for exploiting H-1PV both preclinically and in clinical trials for anticancer virotherapy. Two infection and two virus purification strategies were tested and the resulting virus preparations compared for their purity and full-, infectious-, and empty-particle contents. The adopted production process, which involves culturing and infecting NB-324K cells in 10-layer CellSTACK(®) chambers (1×10(3) infectious units per infected cell), is simple, scalable, and reproducible. Downstream processing to eliminate contaminating DNA and protein includes DNAse treatment, filtration, and two Iodixanol density-gradient centrifugations, the first gradient being a step gradient and the second, either a step (1×10(10) PFU/ml) or a continuous gradient (3×10(11) PFU/ml). A procedure was also developed for obtaining infectious particle-free preparations of empty virions for research purposes: cesium chloride density gradient centrifugation followed by UV irradiation (1×10(14) physical particles/ml). For quick, sensitive determination of physical particles (and hence, particle-to-infectivity ratios), a "Capsid-ELISA" was developed, based on a novel monoclonal antibody that specifically targets assembled capsids. PMID:26658622

  7. Necessary and sufficient conditions for self-focusing of short ultraintense laser pulse in underdense plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, X.L.; Sudan, R.N. )

    1993-04-05

    We analyze the propagation of a short intense laser pulse in underdense cold plasma. When no electron cavitation is present, a global invariant [ital H] is obtained, and its relation with self-focusing is studied. For relativistic self-focusing, [ital H][lt]0 is a sufficient and necessary condition. For relativistic and ponderomotive self-focusing, [ital H][lt]0 is sufficient but not necessary. Numerical simulations are performed to confirm the above points.

  8. Demystifying Open Access

    SciTech Connect

    Mele, Salvatore

    2007-05-14

    The tenets of Open Access are to grant anyone, anywhere and anytime free access to the results of scientific research. HEP spearheaded the Open Access dissemination of scientific results with the mass mailing of preprints in the pre-WWW era and with the launch of the arXiv preprint system at the dawn of the '90s. The HEP community is now ready for a further push to Open Access while retaining all the advantages of the peer-review system and, at the same time, bring the spiralling cost of journal subscriptions under control. I will present a possible plan for the conversion to Open Access of HEP peer-reviewed journals, through a consortium of HEP funding agencies, laboratories and libraries: SCOAP3 (Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics). SCOAP3 will engage with scientific publishers towards building a sustainable model for Open Access publishing, which is as transparent as possible for HEP authors. The current system in which journals income comes from subscription fees is replaced with a scheme where SCOAP3 compensates publishers for the costs incurred to organise the peer-review service and give Open Access to the final version of articles. SCOAP3 will be funded by all countries active in HEP under a 'fair share' scenario, according to their production of HEP articles. In this talk I will present a short overview of the history of Open Access in HEP, the details of the SCOAP3 model and the outlook for its implementation.

  9. Demystifying Open Access

    SciTech Connect

    Mele, Salvatore

    2007-05-14

    The tenets of Open Access are to grant anyone, anywhere and anytime free access to the results of scientific research. HEP spearheaded the Open Access dissemination of scientific results with the mass mailing of preprints in the pre-WWW era and with the launch of the arXiv preprint system at the dawn of the '90s. The HEP community is now ready for a further push to Open Access while retaining all the advantages of the peer-review system and, at the same time, bring the spiralling cost of journal subscriptions under control. I will present a possible plan for the conversion to Open Access of HEP peer-reviewed journals, through a consortium of HEP funding agencies, laboratories and libraries: SCOAP3 (Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics). SCOAP3 will engage with scientific publishers towards building a sustainable model for Open Access publishing, which is as transparent as possible for HEP authors. The current system in which journals income comes from subscription fees is replaced with a scheme where SCOAP3 compensates publishers for the costs incurred to organise the peer-review service and give Open Access to the final version of articles. SCOAP3 will be funded by all countries active in HEP under a "fair share" scenario, according to their production of HEP articles. In this talk I will present a short overview of the history of Open Access in HEP, the details of the SCOAP3 model and the outlook for its implementation.

  10. Access Interface Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Fager, Susan; Beukelman, David R.; Fried-Oken, Melanie; Jakobs, Tom; Baker, John

    2013-01-01

    Individuals who rely on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices to support their communication often have physical movement challenges that require alternative methods of access. Technology that supports access, particularly for those with the most severe movement deficits, have expanded substantially over the years. The purposes of this article are to review the state of the science of access technologies that interface with augmentative and alternative communication devices and to propose a future research and development agenda that will enhance access options for people with limited movement capability due to developmental and acquired conditions. PMID:22590797

  11. The good, the bad and the plenty: interactive effects of food quality and quantity on the growth of different Daphnia species.

    PubMed

    Bukovinszky, Tibor; Verschoor, Antonie M; Helmsing, Nico R; Bezemer, T Martijn; Bakker, Elisabeth S; Vos, Matthijs; de Senerpont Domis, Lisette N

    2012-01-01

    Effects of food quality and quantity on consumers are neither independent nor interchangeable. Although consumer growth and reproduction show strong variation in relation to both food quality and quantity, the effects of food quality or food quantity have usually been studied in isolation. In two experiments, we studied the growth and reproduction in three filter-feeding freshwater zooplankton species, i.e. Daphnia galeata x hyalina, D. pulicaria and D. magna, on their algal food (Scenedesmus obliquus), varying in carbon to phosphorus (C∶P) ratios and quantities (concentrations). In the first experiment, we found a strong positive effect of the phosphorus content of food on growth of Daphnia, both in their early and late juvenile development. Variation in the relationship between the P-content of animals and their growth rate reflected interspecific differences in nutrient requirements. Although growth rates typically decreased as development neared maturation, this did not affect these species-specific couplings between growth rate and Daphnia P-content. In the second experiment, we examined the effects of food quality on Daphnia growth at different levels of food quantity. With the same decrease in P-content of food, species with higher estimated P-content at zero growth showed a larger increase in threshold food concentrations (i.e. food concentration sufficient to meet metabolic requirements but not growth). These results suggest that physiological processes such as maintenance and growth may in combination explain effects of food quality and quantity on consumers. Our study shows that differences in response to variation in food quality and quantity exist between species. As a consequence, species-specific effects of food quality on consumer growth will also determine how species deal with varying food levels, which has implications for resource-consumer interactions. PMID:23049734

  12. Minimum quantity lubrication machining of aluminum and magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmick, Sukanta

    2011-12-01

    The use of minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) machining, i.e. drilling and tapping of aluminum and magnesium alloys using very low quantities of cutting fluids was studied and the MQL machining performance was compared to dry and conventional flooded conditions. An experimental drilling station with an MQL system was built to measure torque and thrust force responses. Uncoated and diamond-like carbon (DLC) coated HSS drills were tested against 319 Al and AZ91 alloys using 10--50 ml/h of distilled water (H 2O-MQL) and a fatty acid based MQL agent (FA-MQL). The results indicated that H2O-MQL used in conjunction with non-hydrogenated DLC (NH-DLC) coatings reduced the average torque and thrust-force compared to dry cutting and achieved a performance comparable with conventional flooded drilling. At least 103 holes could be drilled using NH-DLC in H2O-MQL and uncoated HSS in FA-MQL in drilling of both 319 Al and AZ91. MQL drilling and tapping provided a stable machining performance, which was evident from the uniform torque and force patterns and also resulted in desirable hole surface, thread quality and chip segments. The maximum temperature generated in the workpiece during MQL machining was lower than that observed in dry drilling and tapping, and comparable to flooded conditions. The mechanical properties of the material adjacent to drilled holes, as evaluated through plastic strain and hardness measurements, revealed a notable softening in case of dry drilling, with magnesium alloys exhibiting a recrystallized grain zone, but not for MQL drilling. Softened aluminum and magnesium promoted adhesion to the tools resulted built-up edge formation and consequently high torques and thrust-forces were generated. NH-DLC coatings' low COF in H 2O-MQL against 319 Al (0.10) and AZ91 (0.12) compared to uncoated HSS (0.63 and 0.65) limited the temperature increase during NH-DLC in H2 O-MQL drilling and hence both torques and thrust forces were effectively reduced.

  13. SU-E-T-596: P3DVHStats - a Novel, Automatic, Institution Customizable Program to Compute and Report DVH Quantities On Philips Pinnacle TPS

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To implement a novel, automatic, institutional customizable DVH quantities evaluation and PDF report tool on Philips Pinnacle treatment planning system (TPS) Methods: An add-on program (P3DVHStats) is developed by us to enable automatic DVH quantities evaluation (including both volume and dose based quantities, such as V98, V100, D2), and automatic PDF format report generation, for EMR convenience. The implementation is based on a combination of Philips Pinnacle scripting tool and Java language pre-installed on each Pinnacle Sun Solaris workstation. A single Pinnacle script provide user a convenient access to the program when needed. The activated script will first export DVH data for user selected ROIs from current Pinnacle plan trial; a Java program then provides a simple GUI interface, utilizes the data to compute any user requested DVH quantities, compare with preset institutional DVH planning goals; if accepted by users, the program will also generate a PDF report of the results and export it from Pinnacle to EMR import folder via FTP. Results: The program was tested thoroughly and has been released for clinical use at our institution (Pinnacle Enterprise server with both thin clients and P3PC access), for all dosimetry and physics staff, with excellent feedback. It used to take a few minutes to use MS-Excel worksheet to calculate these DVH quantities for IMRT/VMAT plans, and manually save them as PDF report; with the new program, it literally takes a few mouse clicks in less than 30 seconds to complete the same tasks. Conclusion: A Pinnacle scripting and Java language based program is successfully implemented, customized to our institutional needs. It is shown to dramatically reduce time and effort needed for DVH quantities computing and EMR reporting.

  14. 12 CFR 404.14 - Requirements of request for access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... must describe the records sought in sufficient detail so as to enable Ex-Im Bank personnel to locate... request for access that does not contain a fee statement or a request for a fee waiver, Ex-Im Bank shall... requester, in writing, that Ex-Im Bank will not process the request. (2) A general statement by...

  15. Accessing the Microform Publication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schindler, Stan

    1985-01-01

    Characterizes types of indexing programs used by Research Publications, Inc. and describes provision of access to four major projects: "The Official Washington Post Index" (provides access to newspaper and microfilm edition); "The Eighteenth Century"; "The Declassified Documents Reference System" (ongoing fiche project abstracted and indexed…

  16. ACCESS Pointing Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brugarolas, Paul; Alexander, James; Trauger, John; Moody, Dwight; Egerman, Robert; Vallone, Phillip; Elias, Jason; Hejal, Reem; Camelo, Vanessa; Bronowicki, Allen; O'Connor, David; Partrick, Richard; Orzechowski, Pawel; Spitter, Connie; Lillie, Chuck

    2010-01-01

    ACCESS (Actively-Corrected Coronograph for Exoplanet System Studies) was one of four medium-class exoplanet concepts selected for the NASA Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study (ASMCS) program in 2008/2009. The ACCESS study evaluated four major coronograph concepts under a common space observatory. This paper describes the high precision pointing control system (PCS) baselined for this observatory.

  17. Access to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Felecia; De Oliver, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    This case study researches the degree to which the location and services offered by a multicampus university, geographically situated consistent with the commercial principles of a large mass-market enterprise, facilitate access for educationally underserved groups. First, the necessity of democratizing educational access to an underprivileged…

  18. Intellectual Access to Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsin-Liang; Rasmussen, Edie M.

    1999-01-01

    The increased availability of digital images is accompanied by a need for solutions to the problems inherent in indexing them for retrieval. Problems in image description and access are discussed, with a perspective on traditional and new solutions. Recent developments in intellectual access to images are surveyed and contrasted with…

  19. The Universal Access System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Neil G.

    This final report discusses the outcomes of a project that created a Universal Access System (UAS), a system that gives students with disabilities access to the same computers as their classmates. The project developed a new approach in which the needs of the individual with disabilities are handled separately from the computers and other devices…

  20. MedlinePlus: Accessibility

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tools Español You Are Here: Home → MedlinePlus Accessibility URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/accessibility.html ... or (301) 594-5983 and provide the address (URL) of the page on which you need assistance, ...

  1. Access and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Lemuel W.

    2004-01-01

    Community colleges are well positioned to provide underserved student populations with access to computer technology. This chapter explores the issues of access and technology from multiple perspectives in the community college, and explains how community colleges can develop a foundation for their technology plan.

  2. Improving School Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Few things are more important for school safety and security than controlling access to buildings and grounds. It is relatively easy to incorporate effective access control measures in new school designs but more difficult in existing schools, where most building and site features cannot be readily altered or reconfigured. The National…

  3. 23 CFR 635.123 - Determination and documentation of pay quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... quantities are among those records and documents which must be retained pursuant to 49 CFR part 18. ... documentation of pay quantities. (a) The STD shall have procedures in effect which will provide...

  4. 23 CFR 635.123 - Determination and documentation of pay quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... quantities are among those records and documents which must be retained pursuant to 49 CFR part 18. ... documentation of pay quantities. (a) The STD shall have procedures in effect which will provide...

  5. 23 CFR 635.123 - Determination and documentation of pay quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... quantities are among those records and documents which must be retained pursuant to 49 CFR part 18. ... documentation of pay quantities. (a) The STD shall have procedures in effect which will provide...

  6. 48 CFR 2452.216-76 - Minimum and maximum quantities and amounts for order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Order (FEB 2006) The minimum quantity and/or amount to be ordered under this contract shall not be less... amount to be ordered under this contract shall not exceed the maximum quantity and/or amount shown in...

  7. 77 FR 43077 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Economic Purchase Quantity-Supplies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Economic Purchase Quantity--Supplies AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DOD... Office of Management and Budget (OMB) a request to review and approve an extension of a previously approved information collection requirement concerning Economic Purchase Quantity--Supplies....

  8. 48 CFR 52.207-4 - Economic Purchase Quantity-Supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... quantity(ies) of supplies on which bids, proposals or quotes are requested in this solicitation is (are... quantities are recommended, a total and a unit price must be quoted for applicable items. An...

  9. Correlation, necessity, and sufficiency: Common errors in the scientific reasoning of undergraduate students for interpreting experiments.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Aaron B; Lam, Diane P; Soowal, Lara N

    2015-01-01

    Gaining an understanding of how science works is central to an undergraduate education in biology and biochemistry. The reasoning required to design or interpret experiments that ask specific questions does not come naturally, and is an essential part of the science process skills that must be learned for an understanding of how scientists conduct research. Gaps in these reasoning skills make it difficult for students to become proficient in reading primary scientific literature. In this study, we assessed the ability of students in an upper-division biochemistry laboratory class to use the concepts of correlation, necessity, and sufficiency in interpreting experiments presented in a format and context that is similar to what they would encounter when reading a journal article. The students were assessed before and after completion of a laboratory module where necessary vs. sufficient reasoning was used to design and interpret experiments. The assessment identified two types of errors that were commonly committed by students when interpreting experimental data. When presented with an experiment that only establishes a correlation between a potential intermediate and a known effect, students frequently interpreted the intermediate as being sufficient (causative) for the effect. Also, when presented with an experiment that tests only necessity for an intermediate, they frequently made unsupported conclusions about sufficiency, and vice versa. Completion of the laboratory module and instruction in necessary vs. sufficient reasoning showed some promise for addressing these common errors. PMID:26146931

  10. On wormholes with arbitrarily small quantities of exotic matter

    SciTech Connect

    Fewster, Christopher J.; Roman, Thomas A.

    2005-08-15

    Recently several models of traversable wormholes have been proposed which require only arbitrarily small amounts of negative energy to hold them open against self-collapse. If the exotic matter is assumed to be provided by quantum fields, then quantum inequalities can be used to place constraints on the negative energy densities required. In this paper, we introduce an alternative method for obtaining constraints on wormhole geometries, using a recently derived quantum inequality bound on the null-contracted stress-energy averaged over a timelike worldline. The bound allows us to perform a simplified analysis of general wormhole models, not just those with small quantities of exotic matter. We then use it to study, in particular, the models of Visser, Kar, and Dadhich (VKD) and the models of Kuhfittig. The VKD models are constrained to be either submicroscopic or to have a large discrepancy between throat size and curvature radius. A recent model of Kuhfittig is shown to be nontraversable. This is due to the fact that the throat of his wormhole flares outward so slowly that light rays and particles, starting from outside the throat, require an infinite lapse of affine parameter to reach the throat.

  11. Spill response: Reportable quantities are not the whole story

    SciTech Connect

    Christie, W.N. )

    1994-07-01

    Numerous articles about regulatory requirements for reporting hazardous substance spills or releases have appeared in professional trade journals. In most cases, the authors of such articles concentrate solely on a quantitative threshold commonly known as the reportable quantity, or RQ. The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) lists RQs primarily in three places. RQs for hazardous substances regulated under the comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) are listed in CFR, Vol. 40, Part 302. RQs for extremely hazardous substances identified under the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act are listed in CFR, Vol. 40, Part 355, Appendix A. RQs for Clean Water Act toxic pollutants are listed in CFR, Vol. 40, Part 117. Whenever a hazardous substance is spilled or released in an amount equal to or greater than its RQ, the responsible party immediately must notify the National Response Center (and often several other government agencies). However, reporting requirements for hazardous substance releases are not limited to such situations. Few people presumably ever are confronted with a hazardous substance release for which RQ thresholds are relevant. However, many people routinely face hazardous substance spills and releases involving amounts smaller than the federal RQs. Such incidents in many cases must be reported to one or more regulatory agencies. It is essential for responsible parties to recognize that such less than RQ'' situations also may be reportable to federal authorities, as well as to state, regional and local agencies.

  12. Preparation of colloidal graphene in quantity by electrochemical exfoliation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kunfeng; Xue, Dongfeng

    2014-12-15

    We reported the preparation of colloidal graphene in quantity via the anodic exfoliation of graphite in (NH4)2SO4 aqueous solution. In the currently designed electrochemical exfoliation route, mass high-quality graphene was produced within short reaction time, around 1h. The proposed electrochemical exfoliation mechanism showed that SO4(2-) and H2O can be intercalated into those graphite sheets, monolayer and few-layer graphene were obtained by the formation of gaseous SO2 and O2 within graphite sheets. Stability evaluation showed that our exfoliated colloidal graphene can be perfectly stabilized in DMF solvent more than 1 week. The colloidal graphene can be used to construct various simple and complex patterns by writing it on A4 paper, which can be applied to flexible printed electronic devices. Furthermore, colloidal graphene can show promising applications in the fabrication of binder- and additive-free electrodes for supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries. Our present method shows huge potential for industrial-scale synthesis of high-quality graphene and further commercialization of graphene colloid for numerous advanced applications in flexible printed electronics and energy storage devices. PMID:25265584

  13. Position- and quantity-dependent responses in zebrafish turning behavior

    PubMed Central

    Umeda, Keiko; Ishizuka, Toru; Yawo, Hiromu; Shoji, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    Neural reflexes are stereotypical automatic responses often modulated by both intrinsic and environmental factors. We report herein that zebrafish larval C-shaped turning is modulated by the stimulated position of Rohon-Beard (RB) neurons. Targeted stimulation of more anterior RB neurons produces larger trunk flexion, which anticipates adult escape behavior by coordinated turning toward the appropriate direction. We also demonstrated that turning laterality varies with the numbers of stimulated neurons. Multi-cell stimulation of RB neurons elicits contralateral turning, as seen in the touch response to physical contact, while minimum input from single-cell stimulation induces ipsilateral turning, a phenomenon not previously reported. This ipsilateral response, but not the contralateral one, is impaired by transecting the ascending neural tract known as the dorsolateral fascicule (DLF), indicating that two, distinct neural circuits trigger these two responses. Our results suggest that RB neurons transmit the position and quantity of sensory information, which are then processed separately to modulate behavioral strength and to select turning laterality. PMID:27292818

  14. A pilot study to evaluate runoff quantity from green roofs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju Young; Lee, Min Jung; Han, Mooyoung

    2015-04-01

    The use of green roofs is gaining increased recognition in many countries as a solution that can be used to improve environmental quality and reduce runoff quantity. To achieve these goals, pilot-scale green roof assemblies have been constructed and operated in an urban setting. From a stormwater management perspective, green roofs are 42.8-60.8% effective in reducing runoff for 200 mm soil depth and 13.8-34.4% effective in reducing runoff for 150 mm soil depth. By using Spearman rank correlation analysis, high rainfall intensity was shown to have a negative relationship with delayed occurrence time, demonstrating that the soil media in green roofs do not efficiently retain rainwater. Increasing the number of antecedent dry days can help to improve water retention capacity and delay occurrence time. From the viewpoint of runoff water quality, green roofs are regarded as the best management practice by filtration and adsorption through growth media (soil). PMID:25666437

  15. Household hazardous waste and conditionally exempt small-quantity generators

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, T.K.

    1993-02-01

    Each year, US consumers buy millions of pounds of paint, disinfectant, toilet bowl cleaner; furniture polish, drain cleaner, bleach and other products designed to beautify and clean their homes. Many do-it-yourselfers also buy automotive supplies, such as brake fluid, batteries, starting fluid, oil and antifreeze. Unused portions of these products often find their way into local landfills as household hazardous waste (HHW). Untreated, these wastes represent a possible threat to landfill employees, and a potential source of groundwater and surface water contamination. Recognizing the potential hazards posed by these materials, most states have established HHW management programs. California, Florida, Minnesota, Washington and New Jersey have well-established programs serving state residents and conditionally exempt small-quantity generators (CESQGs). CESQGs are commercial facilities that generate less than 100 kilograms (220 pounds) of hazardous waste per calendar month. RCRA established the statutory framework for identifying and managing hazardous wastes. However, household waste, including HHW, a specifically is excluded from regulation as a hazardous waste under 40 CFR 261.4(b)(1). Therefore, there are no current federal regulations governing HHW. Implementing and enforcing pollution legislation aimed at private citizens is a complex, if not impossible, task.

  16. Forage quantity estimation from MERIS using band depth parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, Saleem; Yali, Si; Schlerf, Martin

    Saleem Ullah1 , Si Yali1 , Martin Schlerf1 Forage quantity is an important factor influencing feeding pattern and distribution of wildlife. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the predictive performance of vegetation indices and band depth analysis parameters for estimation of green biomass using MERIS data. Green biomass was best predicted by NBDI (normalized band depth index) and yielded a calibration R2 of 0.73 and an accuracy (independent validation dataset, n=30) of 136.2 g/m2 (47 % of the measured mean) compared to a much lower accuracy obtained by soil adjusted vegetation index SAVI (444.6 g/m2, 154 % of the mean) and by other vegetation indices. This study will contribute to map and monitor foliar biomass over the year at regional scale which intern can aid the understanding of bird migration pattern. Keywords: Biomass, Nitrogen density, Nitrogen concentration, Vegetation indices, Band depth analysis parameters 1 Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), University of Twente, The Netherlands

  17. Spectroscopic ellipsometry data analysis: Measured vs. calculated quantities

    SciTech Connect

    Jellison, G.E. Jr.

    1997-05-01

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry is a very powerful technique for optical characterization of thin-film and bulk materials, but the technique measures functions of complex reflection coefficients, which are usually not of interest per se. The interesting characteristics such as film thickness, surface roughness thickness, and optical functions can be determined only by modeling the near-surface region of the sample. However, the measured quantities are not equivalent to those determined from the modeling. Ellipsometry measurements determine elements of the sample Mueller matrix, but the usual result of modeling calculations are elements of the sample. Often this difference is academic, but if the sample depolarizes the light, it is not. Ellipsometry calculations also include methods for determining the optical functions of materials. Data for bulk materials are usually accurate for substrates, but are not appropriate for most thin films. Therefore, reasonable parameterizations are quite useful in performing spectroscopic ellipsometry data analysis. Recently, there has been an increased interest in anisotropic materials, both in thin-film and bulk form. A generalized procedure will be presented for calculating the elements of the Jones matrix for any number of layers, any one of which may or may not be uniaxial.

  18. A comparison of methods for representing sparsely sampled random quantities.

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, Vicente Jose; Swiler, Laura Painton; Urbina, Angel; Mullins, Joshua

    2013-09-01

    This report discusses the treatment of uncertainties stemming from relatively few samples of random quantities. The importance of this topic extends beyond experimental data uncertainty to situations involving uncertainty in model calibration, validation, and prediction. With very sparse data samples it is not practical to have a goal of accurately estimating the underlying probability density function (PDF). Rather, a pragmatic goal is that the uncertainty representation should be conservative so as to bound a specified percentile range of the actual PDF, say the range between 0.025 and .975 percentiles, with reasonable reliability. A second, opposing objective is that the representation not be overly conservative; that it minimally over-estimate the desired percentile range of the actual PDF. The presence of the two opposing objectives makes the sparse-data uncertainty representation problem interesting and difficult. In this report, five uncertainty representation techniques are characterized for their performance on twenty-one test problems (over thousands of trials for each problem) according to these two opposing objectives and other performance measures. Two of the methods, statistical Tolerance Intervals and a kernel density approach specifically developed for handling sparse data, exhibit significantly better overall performance than the others.

  19. Position- and quantity-dependent responses in zebrafish turning behavior.

    PubMed

    Umeda, Keiko; Ishizuka, Toru; Yawo, Hiromu; Shoji, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    Neural reflexes are stereotypical automatic responses often modulated by both intrinsic and environmental factors. We report herein that zebrafish larval C-shaped turning is modulated by the stimulated position of Rohon-Beard (RB) neurons. Targeted stimulation of more anterior RB neurons produces larger trunk flexion, which anticipates adult escape behavior by coordinated turning toward the appropriate direction. We also demonstrated that turning laterality varies with the numbers of stimulated neurons. Multi-cell stimulation of RB neurons elicits contralateral turning, as seen in the touch response to physical contact, while minimum input from single-cell stimulation induces ipsilateral turning, a phenomenon not previously reported. This ipsilateral response, but not the contralateral one, is impaired by transecting the ascending neural tract known as the dorsolateral fascicule (DLF), indicating that two, distinct neural circuits trigger these two responses. Our results suggest that RB neurons transmit the position and quantity of sensory information, which are then processed separately to modulate behavioral strength and to select turning laterality. PMID:27292818

  20. 42 CFR 422.114 - Access to services under an MA private fee-for-service plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Access to services under an MA private fee-for... Benefits and Beneficiary Protections § 422.114 Access to services under an MA private fee-for-service plan. (a) Sufficient access. (1) An MA organization that offers an MA private fee-for-service plan...