Science.gov

Sample records for accessibility method scam

  1. Educators Beware: Avoiding the Scams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuBoff, Leonard D.; King, Christy O.

    2009-01-01

    The technology boom has provided opportunities for practitioners to work more efficiently by making available a host of timesaving, as well as cost-effective, tools. Sadly, modern technology has also provided the less scrupulous segments of society with opportunities to take advantage of others. All too familiar are the Nigerian money scams that…

  2. Academic Scam: A Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alper, Paul

    1991-01-01

    Although "ProfScam: Professors and the Demise of Higher Education," a harshly critical book by Charles J. Sykes, documents a perverse system in which research university faculty do little teaching and are too closely linked to industry, the book gives too little credit to the many institutions where teaching is highly valued. (MSE)

  3. The online romance scam: a serious cybercrime.

    PubMed

    Whitty, Monica T; Buchanan, Tom

    2012-03-01

    The Online Romance Scam is a relatively new form of fraud that became apparent in about 2008. In this crime, criminals pretend to initiate a relationship through online dating sites then defraud their victims of large sums of money. This paper presents some descriptive statistics about knowledge and victimization of the online dating romance scam in Great Britain. Our study found that despite its newness, an estimated 230,000 British citizens may have fallen victim to this crime. We conclude that there needs to be some rethinking about providing avenues for victims to report the crime or at least making them more comfortable when doing so.

  4. 6 Tip-offs to Rip-offs: Don't Fall for Health Fraud Scams

    MedlinePlus

    ... Scams Beware of Fraudulent Flu Products The Possible Dangers of Buying Medicines over the Internet Buying Medicines Online? Be Wary, FDA Says Scam ... in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food ...

  5. Role of TARP interaction in S-SCAM-mediated regulation of AMPA receptors.

    PubMed

    Danielson, Eric; Metallo, Jacob; Lee, Sang H

    2012-01-01

    Scaffolding proteins are involved in the incorporation, anchoring, maintenance, and removal of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) at synapses, either through a direct interaction with AMPARs or via indirect association through auxiliary subunits of transmembrane AMPAR regulatory proteins (TARPs). Synaptic scaffolding molecule (S-SCAM) is a newly characterized member of the scaffolding proteins critical for the regulation and maintenance of AMPAR levels at synapses, and directly binds to TARPs through a PDZ interaction. However, the functional significance of S-SCAM-TARP interaction in the regulation of AMPARs has not been tested. Here we show that overexpression of the C-terminal peptide of TARP-γ2 fused to EGFP abolished the S-SCAM-mediated enhancement of surface GluA2 expression. Conversely, the deletion of the PDZ-5 domain of S-SCAM that binds TARPs greatly attenuated the S-SCAM-induced increase of surface GluA2 expression. In contrast, the deletion of the guanylate kinase domain of S-SCAM did not show a significant effect on the regulation of AMPARs. Together, these results suggest that S-SCAM is regulating AMPARs through TARPs.

  6. Grey matter correlates of susceptibility to scams in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Duke Han, S; Boyle, Patricia A; Yu, Lei; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; James, Bryan D; Fleischman, Debra A; Bennett, David A

    2016-06-01

    Susceptibility to scams is a significant issue among older adults, even among those with intact cognition. Age-related changes in brain macrostructure may be associated with susceptibility to scams; however, this has yet to be explored. Based on previous work implicating frontal and temporal lobe functioning as important in decision making, we tested the hypothesis that susceptibility to scams is associated with smaller grey matter volume in frontal and temporal lobe regions in a large community-dwelling cohort of non-demented older adults. Participants (N = 327, mean age = 81.55, mean education = 15.30, 78.9 % female) completed a self-report measure used to assess susceptibility to scams and an MRI brain scan. Results indicated an inverse association between overall grey matter and susceptibility to scams in models adjusted for age, education, and sex; and in models further adjusted for cognitive function. No significant associations were observed for white matter, cerebrospinal fluid, or total brain volume. Models adjusted for age, education, and sex revealed seven clusters showing smaller grey matter in the right parahippocampal/hippocampal/fusiform, left middle temporal, left orbitofrontal, right ventromedial prefrontal, right middle temporal, right precuneus, and right dorsolateral prefrontal regions. In models further adjusted for cognitive function, results revealed three significant clusters showing smaller grey matter in the right parahippocampal/hippocampal/fusiform, right hippocampal, and right middle temporal regions. Lower grey matter concentration in specific brain regions may be associated with susceptibility to scams, even after adjusting for cognitive ability. Future research is needed to determine whether grey matter reductions in these regions may be a biomarker for susceptibility to scams in old age.

  7. Assessment and Evaluation Methods for Access Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Dallas

    2014-01-01

    This article serves as a primer for assessment and evaluation design by describing the range of methods commonly employed in library settings. Quantitative methods, such as counting and benchmarking measures, are useful for investigating the internal operations of an access services department in order to identify workflow inefficiencies or…

  8. Research Investigation of Information Access Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinrichs, John H.; Sharkey, Thomas W.; Lim, Jeen-Su

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the satisfaction of library users at Wayne State University who utilize alternative information access methods. The LibQUAL+[TM] desired and perceived that satisfaction ratings are used to determine the user's "superiority gap." By focusing limited library resources to address "superiority gap" issues identified by each…

  9. Terminology access methods leveraging LDAP resources.

    PubMed

    Solbrig, Harold R; Chute, Christopher G

    2004-01-01

    Health terminologies have become more complex, more massive, and more ubiquitous in the modern healthcare enterprise. Present technology makes the use of these terminologies by humans, unaided by machines, virtually impossible. However, system and message interoperability can be severely compromised if the software services deploying terminology content and interfaces are themselves non-standard. We review some characteristics for good terminology services and introduce an open-source, robust, widely deployed and widely available software resource to underpin terminology service implementations. The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol, or LDAP, is compared with alternative technologies. We describe a reference implementation of terminology services built around the HL7 Common Terminology Services using LDAP methods. We propose that LDAP is well suited as a common platform for federated, synchronized, and algorithmically distributed terminology content from multiple sources.

  10. VIEWCACHE: An incremental database access method for autonomous interoperable databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roussopoulos, Nick; Sellis, Timoleon

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to illustrate the concept of incremental access to distributed databases. An experimental database management system, ADMS, which has been developed at the University of Maryland, in College Park, uses VIEWCACHE, a database access method based on incremental search. VIEWCACHE is a pointer-based access method that provides a uniform interface for accessing distributed databases and catalogues. The compactness of the pointer structures formed during database browsing and the incremental access method allow the user to search and do inter-database cross-referencing with no actual data movement between database sites. Once the search is complete, the set of collected pointers pointing to the desired data are dereferenced.

  11. Method for Accessing Distributed Heterogeneous Databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    A scenario of relational, hierarchial, and network data bases is presented and a distributed access view integrated data base system (DAVID) is described for uniformly accessing data bases which are heterogeneous and physically distributed. The DAVID system is based on data base logic so that the relational approach is generalized to the heterogeneous approach. The global data manager is explained as are global data manipulation languages which can operate on all the data bases and can query the data dictionary and the data directory.

  12. Intravenous access: a comparison of two methods.

    PubMed

    Duffy, B L; Lee, J S

    1983-05-01

    The reliability in providing a continued venous route to the circulation is compared between a winged needle (Abbott "Butterfly--23 INT") and a plastic catheter (Jelco Teflon "Catheter Placement Unit", 22 gauge). The catheter remained within the vein in all cases and had a much lower incidence of total obstruction during the study period. Where an intravenous infusion is not in place, a plastic catheter provides a more reliable access route to the circulation than does a winged needle.

  13. S-SCAM, A Rare Copy Number Variation Gene, Induces Schizophrenia-Related Endophenotypes in Transgenic Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Nanyan; Zhong, Peng; Shin, Seung Min; Metallo, Jacob; Danielson, Eric; Olsen, Christopher M.; Liu, Qing-song

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating genetic evidence suggests that schizophrenia (SZ) is associated with individually rare copy number variations (CNVs) of diverse genes, often specific to single cases. However, the causality of these rare mutations remains unknown. One of the rare CNVs found in SZ cohorts is the duplication of Synaptic Scaffolding Molecule (S-SCAM, also called MAGI-2), which encodes a postsynaptic scaffolding protein controlling synaptic AMPA receptor levels, and thus the strength of excitatory synaptic transmission. Here we report that, in a transgenic mouse model simulating the duplication conditions, elevation of S-SCAM levels in excitatory neurons of the forebrain was sufficient to induce multiple SZ-related endophenotypes. S-SCAM transgenic mice showed an increased number of lateral ventricles and a reduced number of parvalbumin-stained neurons. In addition, the mice exhibited SZ-like behavioral abnormalities, including hyperlocomotor activity, deficits in prepulse inhibition, increased anxiety, impaired social interaction, and working memory deficit. Notably, the S-SCAM transgenic mice showed a unique sex difference in showing these behavioral symptoms, which is reminiscent of human conditions. These behavioral abnormalities were accompanied by hyperglutamatergic function associated with increased synaptic AMPA receptor levels and impaired long-term potentiation. Importantly, reducing glutamate release by the group 2 metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist LY379268 ameliorated the working memory deficits in the transgenic mice, suggesting that hyperglutamatergic function underlies the cognitive functional deficits. Together, these results contribute to validate a causal relationship of the rare S-SCAM CNV and provide supporting evidence for the rare CNV hypothesis in SZ pathogenesis. Furthermore, the S-SCAM transgenic mice provide a valuable new animal model for studying SZ pathogenesis. PMID:25653350

  14. Economic effects of petroleum-supply shortfalls on the US economy: alternatives to the SCAM methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Anandalingam, G.

    1981-06-01

    The DRI Quarterly Macro Model is used to forecast final demands and simulate the base case for the Supply Constrained Analysis Modeling (SCAM) system. As in other commercially available macroeconomic forecasting models, the only expectations formulation used in the DRI Macro Model is adaptive in nature and is estimated with historical data. This is inadequate in modeling short-term major changes in consumption behavior, for example, panic buying of gasoline, when there is a supply shortfall in petroleum. This report describes alternatives to using the DRI Macro Model to estimate the macroeconomic impacts in the SCAM system. The possibility of using models that incorporate the rational expectations formulation was investigated, as was the possibility of modifying the DRI model to better capture short-run consumption behavior. It is suggested that in the absence a good commercially available rational expectations macroeconomic model, the modification of the DRI Macro Model would have the lowest resource cost in terms of person- and computer-hours spent.

  15. Method and apparatus for globally-accessible automated testing

    DOEpatents

    Layne, Scott P.; Beugelsdijk, Tony J.

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for sharing integrated testing services with a plurality of autonomous remote clients is disclosed. In the disclosed method, in response to an access request message, a process controller transmits an access enabling message to the remote client. The access enabling message includes instructions performable by a remote client to generate test equipment commands. A process controller interprets and transforms these commands into automated test instrument suite commands, which are provided to laboratory modules to perform the indicated tests. Test data results are then obtained and transmitted to the remote client.

  16. New Earth Science Data and Access Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, John F.; Weinstein, Beth E.; Farnham, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, working with its domestic and international partners, provides scientific data and analysis to improve life here on Earth. NASA provides science data products that cover a wide range of physical, geophysical, biochemical and other parameters, as well as services for interdisciplinary Earth science studies. Management and distribution of these products is administered through the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs), which all hold data within a different Earth science discipline. This paper will highlight selected EOS datasets and will focus on how these observations contribute to the improvement of essential services such as weather forecasting, climate prediction, air quality, and agricultural efficiency. Emphasis will be placed on new data products derived from instruments on board Terra, Aqua and ICESat as well as new regional data products and field campaigns. A variety of data tools and services are available to the user community. This paper will introduce primary and specialized DAAC-specific methods for finding, ordering and using these data products. Special sections will focus on orienting users unfamiliar with DAAC resources, HDF-EOS formatted data and the use of desktop research and application tools.

  17. Improving Nearest Neighbour Search in 3d Spatial Access Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhaibaha, A.; Rahman, A. A.; Uznir, U.; Anton, F.; Mioc, D.

    2016-10-01

    Nearest Neighbour (NN) is one of the important queries and analyses for spatial application. In normal practice, spatial access method structure is used during the Nearest Neighbour query execution to retrieve information from the database. However, most of the spatial access method structures are still facing with unresolved issues such as overlapping among nodes and repetitive data entry. This situation will perform an excessive Input/Output (IO) operation which is inefficient for data retrieval. The situation will become more crucial while dealing with 3D data. The size of 3D data is usually large due to its detail geometry and other attached information. In this research, a clustered 3D hierarchical structure is introduced as a 3D spatial access method structure. The structure is expected to improve the retrieval of Nearest Neighbour information for 3D objects. Several tests are performed in answering Single Nearest Neighbour search and k Nearest Neighbour (kNN) search. The tests indicate that clustered hierarchical structure is efficient in handling Nearest Neighbour query compared to its competitor. From the results, clustered hierarchical structure reduced the repetitive data entry and the accessed page. The proposed structure also produced minimal Input/Output operation. The query response time is also outperformed compared to the other competitor. For future outlook of this research several possible applications are discussed and summarized.

  18. Kinds of access: different methods for report reveal different kinds of metacognitive access

    PubMed Central

    Overgaard, Morten; Sandberg, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    In experimental investigations of consciousness, participants are asked to reflect upon their own experiences by issuing reports about them in different ways. For this reason, a participant needs some access to the content of her own conscious experience in order to report. In such experiments, the reports typically consist of some variety of ratings of confidence or direct descriptions of one's own experiences. Whereas different methods of reporting are typically used interchangeably, recent experiments indicate that different results are obtained with different kinds of reporting. We argue that there is not only a theoretical, but also an empirical difference between different methods of reporting. We hypothesize that differences in the sensitivity of different scales may reveal that different types of access are used to issue direct reports about experiences and metacognitive reports about the classification process. PMID:22492747

  19. [Ectopic parathyroid glands. Imaging methods and surgical access].

    PubMed

    Fialová, M; Adámková, J; Adámek, S; Libánský, P; Kubinyi, J

    2014-08-01

    We discuss the benefits of imaging methods in localizing ectopic parathyroid glands in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. The ectopic localizations are discussed within the context of the orthotopic norm. In the sample of 123 patients, a 23% rate of ectopic parathyroid glands was detected. Three selected case studies are presented, supporting the benefit of SPECT/CT imaging in terms of surgical access strategy selection.

  20. Analytical resource assessment method for continuous (unconventional) oil and gas accumulations - The "ACCESS" Method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crovelli, Robert A.; revised by Charpentier, Ronald R.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) periodically assesses petroleum resources of areas within the United States and the world. The purpose of this report is to explain the development of an analytic probabilistic method and spreadsheet software system called Analytic Cell-Based Continuous Energy Spreadsheet System (ACCESS). The ACCESS method is based upon mathematical equations derived from probability theory. The ACCESS spreadsheet can be used to calculate estimates of the undeveloped oil, gas, and NGL (natural gas liquids) resources in a continuous-type assessment unit. An assessment unit is a mappable volume of rock in a total petroleum system. In this report, the geologic assessment model is defined first, the analytic probabilistic method is described second, and the spreadsheet ACCESS is described third. In this revised version of Open-File Report 00-044 , the text has been updated to reflect modifications that were made to the ACCESS program. Two versions of the program are added as appendixes.

  1. An incremental database access method for autonomous interoperable databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roussopoulos, Nicholas; Sellis, Timos

    1994-01-01

    We investigated a number of design and performance issues of interoperable database management systems (DBMS's). The major results of our investigation were obtained in the areas of client-server database architectures for heterogeneous DBMS's, incremental computation models, buffer management techniques, and query optimization. We finished a prototype of an advanced client-server workstation-based DBMS which allows access to multiple heterogeneous commercial DBMS's. Experiments and simulations were then run to compare its performance with the standard client-server architectures. The focus of this research was on adaptive optimization methods of heterogeneous database systems. Adaptive buffer management accounts for the random and object-oriented access methods for which no known characterization of the access patterns exists. Adaptive query optimization means that value distributions and selectives, which play the most significant role in query plan evaluation, are continuously refined to reflect the actual values as opposed to static ones that are computed off-line. Query feedback is a concept that was first introduced to the literature by our group. We employed query feedback for both adaptive buffer management and for computing value distributions and selectivities. For adaptive buffer management, we use the page faults of prior executions to achieve more 'informed' management decisions. For the estimation of the distributions of the selectivities, we use curve-fitting techniques, such as least squares and splines, for regressing on these values.

  2. ERSYS-SPP access method subsystem design specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weise, R. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The STARAN special purpose processor (SPP) is a machine allowing the same operation to be performed on up to 512 different data elements simultaneously. In the ERSYS system, it is to be attached to a 4341 plug compatible machine (PCM) to do certain existing algorithms and, at a later date, to perform other to be specified algorithms. That part of the interface between the 4341 PCM and the SPP located in the 4341 PCM is known as the SPP access method (SPPAM). Access to the SPPAM will be obtained by use of the NQUEUE and DQUEUE commands. The subsystem design specification is to incorporate all applicable design considerations from the ERSYS system design specification and the Level B requirements documents relating to the SPPAM. It is intended as a basis for the preliminary design review and will expand into the subsystem detailed design specification.

  3. Nanotube structures, methods of making nanotube structures, and methods of accessing intracellular space

    DOEpatents

    VanDersarl, Jules J.; Xu, Alexander M.; Melosh, Nicholas A.; Tayebi, Noureddine

    2016-02-23

    In accordance with the purpose(s) of the present disclosure, as embodied and broadly described herein, embodiments of the present disclosure, in one aspect, relate to methods of making a structure including nanotubes, a structure including nanotubes, methods of delivering a fluid to a cell, methods of removing a fluid to a cell, methods of accessing intracellular space, and the like.

  4. Accessibility

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Federal laws, including Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act, mandate that people with disabilities have access to the same information that someone without a disability would have. 508 standards cover electronic and information technology (EIT) products.

  5. Method and apparatus for granting processors access to a resource

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Salapura, Valentina

    2010-03-16

    An apparatus and method for granting one or more requesting entities access to a resource in a predetermined time interval. The apparatus includes a first circuit receiving one or more request signals, and implementing logic for assigning a priority to the one or more request signals, and, generating a set of first_request signals based on the priorities assigned. One or more priority select circuits for receiving the set of first_request signals and generating corresponding one or more fixed grant signals representing one or more highest priority request signals when asserted during the predetermined time interval. A second circuit device receives the one or more fixed grant signals generates one or more grant signals associated with one or more highest priority request signals assigned, the grant signals for enabling one or more respective requesting entities access to the resource in the predetermined time interval, wherein the priority assigned to the one or more request signals changes each successive predetermined time interval. In one embodiment, the assigned priority is based on a numerical pattern, the first circuit changing the numerical pattern with respect to the first_request signals generated at each successive predetermined time interval.

  6. Evaluation of Mixed-Phase Cloud Microphysics Parameterizations with the NCAR Single Column Climate Model (SCAM) and ARM Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, X; Ghan, SJ; Xie, S

    2007-04-01

    Mixed-phase stratus clouds are ubiquitous in the Arctic and play an important role in climate in this region. However, climate models have generally proven unsuccessful at simulating the partitioning of condensed water into liquid droplets and ice crystals in these Arctic clouds, which affect modeled cloud phase, cloud lifetime and radiative properties. An ice nucleation parameterization and a vapor deposition scheme were developed that together provide a physically-consistent treatment of mixed-phase clouds in global climate models. These schemes have been implemented in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmospheric Model Version 3 (CAM3). This report documents the performance of these schemes against ARM Mixed-phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE) observations using the CAM single column model version (SCAM). SCAM with our new schemes has a more realistic simulation of the cloud phase structure and the partitioning of condensed water into liquid droplets against observations during the M-PACE than the standard CAM simulations.

  7. Reconceptualising Access in Education Policy: Method and Mindset

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vongalis-Macrow, Athena

    2010-01-01

    Enhancing access to education and knowledge is a long-held principle enshrined in education policy. Access to education offers leverage for educational attainment and achievement, at the individual and social levels. In policy, the term equates with concepts of inclusion, social justice and equity. Over the last decades, as education policy has…

  8. Quantitative methods in electroencephalography to access therapeutic response.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Roseane Costa; Fontenele, Andrea Martins Melo; Carmo, Luiza Helena Araújo do; Ribeiro, Aurea Celeste da Costa; Sales, Fábio Henrique Silva; Monteiro, Sally Cristina Moutinho; Sousa, Ana Karoline Ferreira de Castro

    2016-07-01

    Pharmacometrics or Quantitative Pharmacology aims to quantitatively analyze the interaction between drugs and patients whose tripod: pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and disease monitoring to identify variability in drug response. Being the subject of central interest in the training of pharmacists, this work was out with a view to promoting this idea on methods to access the therapeutic response of drugs with central action. This paper discusses quantitative methods (Fast Fourier Transform, Magnitude Square Coherence, Conditional Entropy, Generalised Linear semi-canonical Correlation Analysis, Statistical Parametric Network and Mutual Information Function) used to evaluate the EEG signals obtained after administration regimen of drugs, the main findings and their clinical relevance, pointing it as a contribution to construction of different pharmaceutical practice. Peter Anderer et. al in 2000 showed the effect of 20mg of buspirone in 20 healthy subjects after 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8h after oral ingestion of the drug. The areas of increased power of the theta frequency occurred mainly in the temporo-occipital - parietal region. It has been shown by Sampaio et al., 2007 that the use of bromazepam, which allows the release of GABA (gamma amino butyric acid), an inhibitory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system could theoretically promote dissociation of cortical functional areas, a decrease of functional connectivity, a decrease of cognitive functions by means of smaller coherence (electrophysiological magnitude measured from the EEG by software) values. Ahmad Khodayari-Rostamabad et al. in 2015 talk that such a measure could be a useful clinical tool potentially to assess adverse effects of opioids and hence give rise to treatment guidelines. There was the relation between changes in pain intensity and brain sources (at maximum activity locations) during remifentanil infusion despite its potent analgesic effect. The statement of mathematical and computational

  9. Measuring access to medicines: a review of quantitative methods used in household surveys

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Medicine access is an important goal of medicine policy; however the evaluation of medicine access is a subject under conceptual and methodological development. The aim of this study was to describe quantitative methodologies to measure medicine access on household level, access expressed as paid or unpaid medicine acquisition. Methods Searches were carried out in electronic databases and health institutional sites; within references from retrieved papers and by contacting authors. Results Nine papers were located. The methodologies of the studies presented differences in the recall period, recruitment of subjects and medicine access characterization. Conclusions The standardization of medicine access indicators and the definition of appropriate recall periods are required to evaluate different medicines and access dimensions, improving studies comparison. Besides, specific keywords must be established to allow future literature reviews about this topic. PMID:20509960

  10. VIEWCACHE: An incremental pointer-based access method for autonomous interoperable databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roussopoulos, N.; Sellis, Timos

    1993-01-01

    One of the biggest problems facing NASA today is to provide scientists efficient access to a large number of distributed databases. Our pointer-based incremental data base access method, VIEWCACHE, provides such an interface for accessing distributed datasets and directories. VIEWCACHE allows database browsing and search performing inter-database cross-referencing with no actual data movement between database sites. This organization and processing is especially suitable for managing Astrophysics databases which are physically distributed all over the world. Once the search is complete, the set of collected pointers pointing to the desired data are cached. VIEWCACHE includes spatial access methods for accessing image datasets, which provide much easier query formulation by referring directly to the image and very efficient search for objects contained within a two-dimensional window. We will develop and optimize a VIEWCACHE External Gateway Access to database management systems to facilitate database search.

  11. VIEWCACHE: An incremental pointer-based access method for autonomous interoperable databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roussopoulos, N.; Sellis, Timos

    1992-01-01

    One of biggest problems facing NASA today is to provide scientists efficient access to a large number of distributed databases. Our pointer-based incremental database access method, VIEWCACHE, provides such an interface for accessing distributed data sets and directories. VIEWCACHE allows database browsing and search performing inter-database cross-referencing with no actual data movement between database sites. This organization and processing is especially suitable for managing Astrophysics databases which are physically distributed all over the world. Once the search is complete, the set of collected pointers pointing to the desired data are cached. VIEWCACHE includes spatial access methods for accessing image data sets, which provide much easier query formulation by referring directly to the image and very efficient search for objects contained within a two-dimensional window. We will develop and optimize a VIEWCACHE External Gateway Access to database management systems to facilitate distributed database search.

  12. Final Report: Advanced Methods for Accessing and Disseminating Nuclear Data, August 13, 1996 - March 15, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Craig A.

    1999-03-15

    Scientific Digital Visions, Inc. developed methods of accessing and dissemination nuclear data contained within the databases of the National Data Center (NNDC) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory supporting a long standing and important DOE Program to provide scientists access to NNDC Databases. The NNDC participated as a partner in this effort.

  13. Action Research to Improve Methods of Delivery and Feedback in an Access Grid Room Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, Lynne C.; Klass, Lara; Eberhard, Andrew; Stacey, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative study which was undertaken to improve the delivery methods and feedback opportunity in honours mathematics lectures which are delivered through Access Grid Rooms. Access Grid Rooms are facilities that provide two-way video and audio interactivity across multiple sites, with the inclusion of smart boards. The…

  14. A sensitivity analysis of cloud properties to CLUBB parameters in the single-column Community Atmosphere Model (SCAM5)

    DOE PAGES

    Guo, Zhun; Wang, Minghuai; Qian, Yun; ...

    2014-08-13

    In this study, we investigate the sensitivity of simulated shallow cumulus and stratocumulus clouds to selected tunable parameters of Cloud Layers Unified by Binormals (CLUBB) in the single column version of Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (SCAM5). A quasi-Monte Carlo (QMC) sampling approach is adopted to effectively explore the high-dimensional parameter space and a generalized linear model is adopted to study the responses of simulated cloud fields to tunable parameters. One stratocumulus and two shallow convection cases are configured at both coarse and fine vertical resolutions in this study.. Our results show that most of the variance in simulated cloudmore » fields can be explained by a small number of tunable parameters. The parameters related to Newtonian and buoyancy-damping terms of total water flux are found to be the most influential parameters for stratocumulus. For shallow cumulus, the most influential parameters are those related to skewness of vertical velocity, reflecting the strong coupling between cloud properties and dynamics in this regime. The influential parameters in the stratocumulus case are sensitive to the choice of the vertical resolution while little sensitivity is found for the shallow convection cases, as eddy mixing length (or dissipation time scale) plays a more important role and depends more strongly on the vertical resolution in stratocumulus than in shallow convections. The influential parameters remain almost unchanged when the number of tunable parameters increases from 16 to 35. This study improves understanding of the CLUBB behavior associated with parameter uncertainties.« less

  15. A sensitivity analysis of cloud properties to CLUBB parameters in the single-column Community Atmosphere Model (SCAM5)

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Zhun; Wang, Minghuai; Qian, Yun; Larson, Vincent E.; Ghan, Steven; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Bogenschutz, Peter A.; Zhao, Chun; Lin, Guang; Zhou, Tianjun

    2014-08-13

    In this study, we investigate the sensitivity of simulated shallow cumulus and stratocumulus clouds to selected tunable parameters of Cloud Layers Unified by Binormals (CLUBB) in the single column version of Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (SCAM5). A quasi-Monte Carlo (QMC) sampling approach is adopted to effectively explore the high-dimensional parameter space and a generalized linear model is adopted to study the responses of simulated cloud fields to tunable parameters. One stratocumulus and two shallow convection cases are configured at both coarse and fine vertical resolutions in this study.. Our results show that most of the variance in simulated cloud fields can be explained by a small number of tunable parameters. The parameters related to Newtonian and buoyancy-damping terms of total water flux are found to be the most influential parameters for stratocumulus. For shallow cumulus, the most influential parameters are those related to skewness of vertical velocity, reflecting the strong coupling between cloud properties and dynamics in this regime. The influential parameters in the stratocumulus case are sensitive to the choice of the vertical resolution while little sensitivity is found for the shallow convection cases, as eddy mixing length (or dissipation time scale) plays a more important role and depends more strongly on the vertical resolution in stratocumulus than in shallow convections. The influential parameters remain almost unchanged when the number of tunable parameters increases from 16 to 35. This study improves understanding of the CLUBB behavior associated with parameter uncertainties.

  16. Accessing inoculation methods of maize and wheat with Azospirillum brasilense.

    PubMed

    Fukami, Josiane; Nogueira, Marco Antonio; Araujo, Ricardo Silva; Hungria, Mariangela

    2016-03-01

    The utilization of inoculants containing Azospirillum is becoming more popular due to increasing reports of expressive gains in grain yields. However, incompatibility with pesticides used in seed treatments represents a main limitation for a successful inoculation. Therefore, in this study we searched for alternatives methods for seed inoculation of maize and wheat, aiming to avoid the direct contact of bacteria with pesticides. Different doses of inoculants containing Azospirillum brasilense were employed to perform inoculation in-furrow, via soil spray at sowing and via leaf spray after seedlings had emerged, in comparison to seed inoculation. Experiments were conducted first under greenhouse controlled conditions and then confirmed in the field at different locations in Brazil. In the greenhouse, most parameters measured responded positively to the largest inoculant dose used in foliar sprays, but benefits could also be observed from both in-furrow and soil spray inoculation. However, our results present evidence that field inoculation with plant-growth promoting bacteria must consider inoculant doses, and point to the need of fine adjustments to avoid crossing the threshold of growth stimulation and inhibition. All inoculation techniques increased the abundance of diazotrophic bacteria in plant tissues, and foliar spray improved colonization of leaves, while soil inoculations favored root and rhizosphere colonization. In field experiments, inoculation with A. brasilense allowed for a 25 % reduction in the need for N fertilizers. Our results have identified alternative methods of inoculation that were as effective as the standard seed inoculation that may represent an important strategy to avoid the incompatibility between inoculant bacteria and pesticides employed for seed treatment.

  17. The effect of alkaline pretreatment methods on cellulose structure and accessibility

    DOE PAGES

    Bali, Garima; Meng, Xianzhi; Deneff, Jacob I.; ...

    2014-11-24

    The effects of different alkaline pretreatments on cellulose structural features and accessibility are compared and correlated with the enzymatic hydrolysis of Populus. The pretreatments are shown to modify polysaccharides and lignin content to enhance the accessibility for cellulase enzymes. The highest increase in the cellulose accessibility was observed in dilute sodium hydroxide, followed by methods using ammonia soaking and lime (Ca(OH)2). The biggest increase of cellulose accessibility occurs during the first 10 min of pretreatment, with further increases at a slower rate as severity increases. Low temperature ammonia soaking at longer residence times dissolved a major portion of hemicellulose andmore » exhibited higher cellulose accessibility than high temperature soaking. Moreover, the most significant reduction of degree of polymerization (DP) occurred for dilute sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and ammonia pretreated Populus samples. The study thus identifies important cellulose structural features and relevant parameters related to biomass recalcitrance.« less

  18. The effect of alkaline pretreatment methods on cellulose structure and accessibility

    SciTech Connect

    Bali, Garima; Meng, Xianzhi; Deneff, Jacob I.; Sun, Qining; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2014-11-24

    The effects of different alkaline pretreatments on cellulose structural features and accessibility are compared and correlated with the enzymatic hydrolysis of Populus. The pretreatments are shown to modify polysaccharides and lignin content to enhance the accessibility for cellulase enzymes. The highest increase in the cellulose accessibility was observed in dilute sodium hydroxide, followed by methods using ammonia soaking and lime (Ca(OH)2). The biggest increase of cellulose accessibility occurs during the first 10 min of pretreatment, with further increases at a slower rate as severity increases. Low temperature ammonia soaking at longer residence times dissolved a major portion of hemicellulose and exhibited higher cellulose accessibility than high temperature soaking. Moreover, the most significant reduction of degree of polymerization (DP) occurred for dilute sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and ammonia pretreated Populus samples. The study thus identifies important cellulose structural features and relevant parameters related to biomass recalcitrance.

  19. 47 CFR 51.321 - Methods of obtaining interconnection and access to unbundled elements under section 251 of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of Incumbent Local Exchange Carriers § 51.321 Methods of obtaining interconnection and access to... or access to unbundled network elements at a particular point upon a request by a telecommunications carrier. (b) Technically feasible methods of obtaining interconnection or access to unbundled...

  20. Multi-views storage model and access methods of conversation history in converged IP messaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Meilian; Yang, Dong; Zhou, Xing

    2013-03-01

    Based on the analysis of the requirements of conversation history storage in CPM (Converged IP Messaging) system, a Multi-views storage model and access methods of conversation history are proposed. The storage model separates logical views from physical storage and divides the storage into system managed region and user managed region. It simultaneously supports conversation view, system pre-defined view and user-defined view of storage. The rationality and feasibility of multi-view presentation, the physical storage model and access methods are validated through the implemented prototype. It proves that, this proposal has good scalability, which will help to optimize the physical data storage structure and improve storage performance.

  1. Extra-corporeal blood access, sensing, and radiation methods and apparatuses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, Kent D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The described invention is related to extra-corporeal blood access and radiation methods and apparatuses and, in particular, to subjecting flowing blood to energy in variety of forms, including radiation, electromagnetic force fields or atomic particles. It is directed to methods and apparatuses for accessing flowing blood and for subjecting the blood to electrical conductive, electrostatic or electromagnetic fields or for radiating the blood with some type of radiation, e.g., radio waves, ultrasonic or audio waves, microwaves, IR rays, visible light, UV radiation, x-rays, alpha, beta or gamma rays. An apparatus is employed which includes one or more access ports or windows for radiating blood and/or for sensing/analyzing blood. This invention is useful for killing viruses and bacteria in blood, monitoring blood for medical purposes, genetic modification of blood, and analyzing and/or treating blood components.

  2. Transgressing the Traditional? Teaching and Learning Methods in a Medieval History Access Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Victoria A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a medieval history access course at the University of Glasgow (Scotland) in which non-traditional teaching methods were used, specifically collaborative group work and embedded rhetorical training for essay writing. Questions the idea of discipline-specific pedagogical practice. (Author/DB)

  3. Teens' Survey of Stores in the District of Columbia on Accessibility of Family Planning Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.

    Access to and availability of contraceptive methods in stores play an important role in the prevention of AIDS, unwanted pregnancies, and other sexually transmitted diseases. Although teens are generally knowledgable about birth control, many encounter barriers when attempting to obtain contraceptive. Forty-five drug stores and 15 convenience…

  4. The Method behind the Madness: Acquiring Online Journals and a Solution to Provide Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skekel, Donna

    2005-01-01

    Libraries are seeking the best possible solution for integrating online journals into their collections. While exploring the different methods and technology available, many libraries still strive to fulfill the original "library mission" proposed by Charles Cutter in his "Rules for a Dictionary Catalog". Providing comprehensive access to…

  5. Mof-Tree: A Spatial Access Method To Manipulate Multiple Overlapping Features.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manolopoulos, Yannis; Nardelli, Enrico; Papadopoulos, Apostolos; Proietti, Guido

    1997-01-01

    Investigates the manipulation of large sets of two-dimensional data representing multiple overlapping features, and presents a new access method, the MOF-tree. Analyzes storage requirements and time with respect to window query operations involving multiple features. Examines both the pointer-based and pointerless MOF-tree representations.…

  6. A Method for Selection of Appropriate Assistive Technology for Computer Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenko, Mojca

    2010-01-01

    Assistive technologies (ATs) for computer access enable people with disabilities to be included in the information society. Current methods for assessment and selection of the most appropriate AT for each individual are nonstandardized, lengthy, subjective, and require substantial clinical experience of a multidisciplinary team. This manuscript…

  7. Structural Determinants of the Closed KCa3.1 Channel Pore in Relation to Channel Gating: Results from a Substituted Cysteine Accessibility Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Hélène; Garneau, Line; Banderali, Umberto; Simoes, Manuel; Parent, Lucie; Sauvé, Rémy

    2007-01-01

    In this work we address the question of the KCa3.1 channel pore structure in the closed configuration in relation to the contribution of the C-terminal end of the S6 segments to the Ca2+-dependent gating process. Our results based on SCAM (substituted cysteine accessibility method) experiments first demonstrate that the S6 transmembrane segment of the open KCa3.1 channel contains two distinct functional domains delimited by V282 with MTSEA and MTSET binding leading to a total channel inhibition at positions V275, T278, and V282 and to a steep channel activation at positions A283 and A286. The rates of modification by MTSEA (diameter 4.6 Å) of the 275C (central cavity) and 286C residues (S6 C-terminal end) for the closed channel configuration were found to differ by less than sevenfold, whereas experiments performed with the larger MTSET reagent (diameter 5.8 Å) resulted in modification rates 103–104 faster for cysteines at 286 compared with 275. Consistent with these results, the modification rates of the cavity lining 275C residue by MTSEA, Et-Hg+, and Ag+ appeared poorly state dependent, whereas modification rates by MTSET were 103 faster for the open than the closed configuration. A SCAM analysis of the channel inner vestibule in the closed state revealed in addition that cysteine residues at 286 were accessible to MTS reagents as large as MTS-PtrEA, a result supported by the observation that binding of MTSET to cysteines at positions 283 or 286 could neither sterically nor electrostatically block the access of MTSEA to the closed channel cavity (275C). It follows that the closed KCa3.1 structure can hardly be accountable by an inverted teepee-like structure as described for KcsA, but is better represented by a narrow passage centered at V282 (equivalent to V474 in Shaker) connecting the channel central cavity to the cytosolic medium. This passage would not be however restrictive to the diffusion of small reagents such as MTSEA, Et-Hg+, and Ag+, arguing

  8. Joint Power and Multiple Access Control for Wireless Mesh Network with Rose Projection Method

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Meiqin; Shang, Lili; Xin, Yalin; Liu, Xiaohua; Wei, Xinjiang

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the utility maximization problem for the downlink of the multi-interface multichannel wireless mesh network with orthogonal frequency division multiple access. A cross-layer joint power and multiple access control algorithm are proposed. Rosen projection matrix is combined with Solodov projection techniques to build a three-memory gradient Rosen projection method, which is applied to solve this optimization problem. The convergence analysis is given and simulations show that the proposed solution achieves significant throughput compared with existing approaches. PMID:24883384

  9. Joint power and multiple access control for wireless mesh network with Rose projection method.

    PubMed

    Tang, Meiqin; Shang, Lili; Xin, Yalin; Liu, Xiaohua; Wei, Xinjiang

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the utility maximization problem for the downlink of the multi-interface multichannel wireless mesh network with orthogonal frequency division multiple access. A cross-layer joint power and multiple access control algorithm are proposed. Rosen projection matrix is combined with Solodov projection techniques to build a three-memory gradient Rosen projection method, which is applied to solve this optimization problem. The convergence analysis is given and simulations show that the proposed solution achieves significant throughput compared with existing approaches.

  10. Action research to improve methods of delivery and feedback in an Access Grid Room environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McArthur, Lynne C.; Klass, Lara; Eberhard, Andrew; Stacey, Andrew

    2011-12-01

    This article describes a qualitative study which was undertaken to improve the delivery methods and feedback opportunity in honours mathematics lectures which are delivered through Access Grid Rooms. Access Grid Rooms are facilities that provide two-way video and audio interactivity across multiple sites, with the inclusion of smart boards. The principal aim was to improve the student learning experience, given the new environment. The specific aspects of the course delivery that the study focused on included presentation of materials and provision of opportunities for interaction between the students and between students and lecturers. The practical considerations in the delivery of distance learning are well documented in the literature, and similar problems arise in the Access Grid Room environment; in particular, those of limited access to face-to-face interaction and the reduction in peer support. The nature of the Access Grid Room classes implies that students studying the same course can be physically situated in different cities, and possibly in different countries. When studying, it is important that students have opportunity to discuss new concepts with others; particularly their peers and their lecturer. The Access Grid Room environment also presents new challenges for the lecturer, who must learn new skills in the delivery of materials. The unique nature of Access Grid Room technology offers unprecedented opportunity for effective course delivery and positive outcomes for students, and was developed in response to a need to be able to interact with complex data, other students and the instructor, in real-time, at a distance and from multiple sites. This is a relatively new technology and as yet there has been little or no studies specifically addressing the use and misuse of the technology. The study found that the correct placement of cameras and the use of printed material and smart boards were all crucial to the student experience. In addition, the

  11. Spatial Access Priority Mapping (SAPM) with Fishers: A Quantitative GIS Method for Participatory Planning

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Katherine L.; Schoeman, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial management tools, such as marine spatial planning and marine protected areas, are playing an increasingly important role in attempts to improve marine management and accommodate conflicting needs. Robust data are needed to inform decisions among different planning options, and early inclusion of stakeholder involvement is widely regarded as vital for success. One of the biggest stakeholder groups, and the most likely to be adversely impacted by spatial restrictions, is the fishing community. In order to take their priorities into account, planners need to understand spatial variation in their perceived value of the sea. Here a readily accessible, novel method for quantitatively mapping fishers’ spatial access priorities is presented. Spatial access priority mapping, or SAPM, uses only basic functions of standard spreadsheet and GIS software. Unlike the use of remote-sensing data, SAPM actively engages fishers in participatory mapping, documenting rather than inferring their priorities. By so doing, SAPM also facilitates the gathering of other useful data, such as local ecological knowledge. The method was tested and validated in Northern Ireland, where over 100 fishers participated in a semi-structured questionnaire and mapping exercise. The response rate was excellent, 97%, demonstrating fishers’ willingness to be involved. The resultant maps are easily accessible and instantly informative, providing a very clear visual indication of which areas are most important for the fishers. The maps also provide quantitative data, which can be used to analyse the relative impact of different management options on the fishing industry and can be incorporated into planning software, such as MARXAN, to ensure that conservation goals can be met at minimum negative impact to the industry. This research shows how spatial access priority mapping can facilitate the early engagement of fishers and the ready incorporation of their priorities into the decision

  12. Spatial access priority mapping (SAPM) with fishers: a quantitative GIS method for participatory planning.

    PubMed

    Yates, Katherine L; Schoeman, David S

    2013-01-01

    Spatial management tools, such as marine spatial planning and marine protected areas, are playing an increasingly important role in attempts to improve marine management and accommodate conflicting needs. Robust data are needed to inform decisions among different planning options, and early inclusion of stakeholder involvement is widely regarded as vital for success. One of the biggest stakeholder groups, and the most likely to be adversely impacted by spatial restrictions, is the fishing community. In order to take their priorities into account, planners need to understand spatial variation in their perceived value of the sea. Here a readily accessible, novel method for quantitatively mapping fishers' spatial access priorities is presented. Spatial access priority mapping, or SAPM, uses only basic functions of standard spreadsheet and GIS software. Unlike the use of remote-sensing data, SAPM actively engages fishers in participatory mapping, documenting rather than inferring their priorities. By so doing, SAPM also facilitates the gathering of other useful data, such as local ecological knowledge. The method was tested and validated in Northern Ireland, where over 100 fishers participated in a semi-structured questionnaire and mapping exercise. The response rate was excellent, 97%, demonstrating fishers' willingness to be involved. The resultant maps are easily accessible and instantly informative, providing a very clear visual indication of which areas are most important for the fishers. The maps also provide quantitative data, which can be used to analyse the relative impact of different management options on the fishing industry and can be incorporated into planning software, such as MARXAN, to ensure that conservation goals can be met at minimum negative impact to the industry. This research shows how spatial access priority mapping can facilitate the early engagement of fishers and the ready incorporation of their priorities into the decision-making process

  13. Simple and accessible analytical methods for the determination of mercury in soil and coal samples.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul Hee; Eom, Yujin; Lee, Lauren Jong-Eun; Lee, Tai Gyu

    2013-09-01

    Simple and accessible analytical methods compared to conventional methods such as US EPA Method 7471B and ASTM-D6414 for the determination of mercury (Hg) in soil and coal samples are proposed. The new methods are consisted of fewer steps without the Hg oxidizing step consequently eliminating a step necessary to reduce excess oxidant. In the proposed methods, a Hg extraction is an inexpensive and accessible step utilizing a disposable test tube and a heating block instead of an expensive autoclave vessel and a specially-designed microwave. Also, a common laboratory vacuum filtration was used for the extracts instead of centrifugation. As for the optimal conditions, first, best acids for extracting Hg from soil and coal samples was investigated using certified reference materials (CRMs). Among common laboratory acids (HCl, HNO3, H2SO4, and aqua regia), aqua regia was most effective for the soil CRM whereas HNO3 was for the coal CRM. Next, the optimal heating temperature and time for Hg extraction were evaluated. The most effective Hg extraction was obtained at 120°C for 30min for soil CRM and at 70°C for 90min for coal CRM. Further tests using selected CRMs showed that all the measured values were within the allowable certification range. Finally, actual soil and coal samples were analyzed using the new methods and the US EPA Method 7473. The relative standard deviation values of 1.71-6.55% for soil and 0.97-12.11% for coal samples were obtained proving that the proposed methods were not only simple and accessible but also accurate.

  14. Discriminating Between Legitimate and Predatory Open Access Journals: Report from the International Federation for Emergency Medicine Research Committee

    PubMed Central

    Hansoti, Bhakti; Langdorf, Mark I.; Murphy, Linda S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Open access (OA) medical publishing is growing rapidly. While subscription-based publishing does not charge the author, OA does. This opens the door for “predatory” publishers who take authors’ money but provide no substantial peer review or indexing to truly disseminate research findings. Discriminating between predatory and legitimate OA publishers is difficult. Methods We searched a number of library indexing databases that were available to us through the University of California, Irvine Libraries for journals in the field of emergency medicine (EM). Using criteria from Jeffrey Beall, University of Colorado librarian and an expert on predatory publishing, and the Research Committee of the International Federation for EM, we categorized EM journals as legitimate or likely predatory. Results We identified 150 journal titles related to EM from all sources, 55 of which met our criteria for OA (37%, the rest subscription based). Of these 55, 25 (45%) were likely to be predatory. We present lists of clearly legitimate OA journals, and, conversely, likely predatory ones. We present criteria a researcher can use to discriminate between the two. We present the indexing profiles of legitimate EM OA journals, to inform the researcher about degree of dissemination of research findings by journal. Conclusion OA journals are proliferating rapidly. About half in EM are legitimate. The rest take substantial money from unsuspecting, usually junior, researchers and provide no value for true dissemination of findings. Researchers should be educated and aware of scam journals. PMID:27625710

  15. Cancer Treatment Scams

    MedlinePlus

    ... health and fitness updates by email Looking for business guidance on health claims? Get Email Updates Blog ... FTC works to prevent fraudulent, deceptive and unfair business practices in the marketplace. Privacy Policy About Us ...

  16. Guarding against purchase scams

    SciTech Connect

    Arkin, J.

    1986-05-01

    Every business owner who sells a credit, e.g., the sale by the manufacturer, jobber, or wholesaler to a retail outlet, faces some risk. In recent years the FBI has had occasion to investigate a form of fraud being perpetrated upon those who sell on credit. However, the risk can be lessened if the firm making the sales on credit takes precautionary measures. Some of these measures are listed and discussed.

  17. A stochastic simulation method for the assessment of resistive random access memory retention reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Berco, Dan Tseng, Tseung-Yuen

    2015-12-21

    This study presents an evaluation method for resistive random access memory retention reliability based on the Metropolis Monte Carlo algorithm and Gibbs free energy. The method, which does not rely on a time evolution, provides an extremely efficient way to compare the relative retention properties of metal-insulator-metal structures. It requires a small number of iterations and may be used for statistical analysis. The presented approach is used to compare the relative robustness of a single layer ZrO{sub 2} device with a double layer ZnO/ZrO{sub 2} one, and obtain results which are in good agreement with experimental data.

  18. Do public reports of provider performance make their data and methods available and accessible?

    PubMed

    Damberg, Cheryl L; Hyman, David; France, Julie

    2014-10-01

    Public reports of provider performance are widespread and the methods used to generate the provider ratings differ across the sponsoring entities. We examined 115 hospital and 27 physician public reports to determine whether report sponsors made the methods used to score providers available and accessible. While nearly all websites made transparent some of the methods used to assess provider performance, we found substantial variation in the extent to which they fully adhered to recommended methods elements identified in the Consumer-Purchaser Disclosure Project's Patient Charter for performance reporting. Most public reports provided descriptions of the data sources, whether measures were endorsed, and the attribution approach. Least often made transparent were methods descriptions related to advanced provider review and reconsideration of results, reliability assessment, and case-mix adjustment. Future research should do more to identify the core elements that would lead consumer end users to have confidence in public reports.

  19. System and method for integrating and accessing multiple data sources within a data warehouse architecture

    DOEpatents

    Musick, Charles R.; Critchlow, Terence; Ganesh, Madhaven; Slezak, Tom; Fidelis, Krzysztof

    2006-12-19

    A system and method is disclosed for integrating and accessing multiple data sources within a data warehouse architecture. The metadata formed by the present method provide a way to declaratively present domain specific knowledge, obtained by analyzing data sources, in a consistent and useable way. Four types of information are represented by the metadata: abstract concepts, databases, transformations and mappings. A mediator generator automatically generates data management computer code based on the metadata. The resulting code defines a translation library and a mediator class. The translation library provides a data representation for domain specific knowledge represented in a data warehouse, including "get" and "set" methods for attributes that call transformation methods and derive a value of an attribute if it is missing. The mediator class defines methods that take "distinguished" high-level objects as input and traverse their data structures and enter information into the data warehouse.

  20. An Indoor Space Partition Method and its Fingerprint Positioning Optimization Considering Pedestrian Accessibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yue; Shi, Yong; Zheng, Xingyu; Long, Yi

    2016-06-01

    Fingerprint positioning method is generally the first choice in indoor navigation system due to its high accuracy and low cost. The accuracy depends on partition density to the indoor space. The accuracy will be higher with higher grid resolution. But the high grid resolution leads to significantly increasing work of the fingerprint data collection, processing and maintenance. This also might decrease the performance, portability and robustness of the navigation system. Meanwhile, traditional fingerprint positioning method use equational grid to partition the indoor space. While used for pedestrian navigation, sometimes a person can be located at the area where he or she cannot access. This paper studied these two issues, proposed a new indoor space partition method considering pedestrian accessibility, which can increase the accuracy of pedestrian position, and decrease the volume of the fingerprint data. Based on this proposed partition method, an optimized algorithm for fingerprint position was also designed. A across linker structure was used for fingerprint point index and matching. Experiment based on the proposed method and algorithm showed that the workload of fingerprint collection and maintenance were effectively decreased, and poisoning efficiency and accuracy was effectively increased

  1. The Model and Control Methods of Access to Information and Technology Resources of Automated Control Systems in Water Supply Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rytov, M. Yu; Spichyack, S. A.; Fedorov, V. P.; Petreshin, D. I.

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes a formalized control model of access to information and technological resources of automated control systems at water supply enterprises. The given model considers the availability of various communication links with information systems and technological equipment. There are also studied control methods of access to information and technological resources of automated control systems at water supply enterprises. On the basis of the formalized control model and appropriate methods there was developed a software-hardware complex for rapid access to information and technological resources of automated control systems, which contains an administrator’s automated workplace and ultimate users.

  2. Toward Proper Authentication Methods in Electronic Medical Record Access Compliant to HIPAA and C.I.A. Triangle.

    PubMed

    Tipton, Stephen J; Forkey, Sara; Choi, Young B

    2016-04-01

    This paper examines various methods encompassing the authentication of users in accessing Electronic Medical Records (EMRs). From a methodological perspective, multiple authentication methods have been researched from both a desktop and mobile accessibility perspective. Each method is investigated at a high level, along with comparative analyses, as well as real world examples. The projected outcome of this examination is a better understanding of the sophistication required in protecting the vital privacy constraints of an individual's Protected Health Information (PHI). In understanding the implications of protecting healthcare data in today's technological world, the scope of this paper is to grasp an overview of confidentiality as it pertains to information security. In addressing this topic, a high level overview of the three goals of information security are examined; in particular, the goal of confidentiality is the primary focus. Expanding upon the goal of confidentiality, healthcare accessibility legal aspects are considered, with a focus upon the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA). With the primary focus of this examination being access to EMRs, the paper will consider two types of accessibility of concern: access from a physician, or group of physicians; and access from an individual patient.

  3. An Enhanced Variable Two-Step Floating Catchment Area Method for Measuring Spatial Accessibility to Residential Care Facilities in Nanjing.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jianhua; Wang, Jinyin; Rui, Yikang; Qian, Tianlu; Wang, Jiechen

    2015-11-13

    Civil administration departments require reliable measures of accessibility so that residential care facility shortage areas can be accurately identified. Building on previous research, this paper proposes an enhanced variable two-step floating catchment area (EV2SFCA) method that determines facility catchment sizes by dynamically summing the population around the facility until the facility-to-population ratio (FPR) is less than the FPR threshold (FPRT). To minimize the errors from the supply and demand catchments being mismatched, this paper proposes that the facility and population catchment areas must both contain the other location in calculating accessibility. A case study evaluating spatial accessibility to residential care facilities in Nanjing demonstrates that the proposed method is effective in accurately determining catchment sizes and identifying details in the variation of spatial accessibility. The proposed method can be easily applied to assess other public healthcare facilities, and can provide guidance to government departments on issues of spatial planning and identification of shortage and excess areas.

  4. Quantitative Methods to Assess Differential Susceptibility of Arabidopsis thaliana Natural Accessions to Dickeya dadantii

    PubMed Central

    Rigault, Martine; Buellet, Amélie; Masclaux-Daubresse, Céline; Fagard, Mathilde; Chardon, Fabien; Dellagi, Alia

    2017-01-01

    Among the most devastating bacterial diseases of plants, soft rot provoked by Dickeya spp. cause crop yield losses on a large range of species with potato being the most economically important. The use of antibiotics being prohibited in most countries in the field, identifying tolerance genes is expected to be one of the most effective alternate disease control approaches. A prerequisite for the identification of tolerance genes is to develop robust disease quantification methods and to identify tolerant plant genotypes. In this work, we investigate the feasibility of the exploitation of Arabidopsis thaliana natural variation to find tolerant genotypes and to develop robust quantification methods. We compared different quantification methods that score either symptom development or bacterial populations in planta. An easy to set up and reliable bacterial quantification method based on qPCR amplification of bacterial DNA was validated. This study demonstrates that it is possible to conduct a robust phenotyping of soft rot disease, and that Arabidopsis natural accessions are a relevant source of tolerance genes.

  5. Quantitative Methods to Assess Differential Susceptibility of Arabidopsis thaliana Natural Accessions to Dickeya dadantii.

    PubMed

    Rigault, Martine; Buellet, Amélie; Masclaux-Daubresse, Céline; Fagard, Mathilde; Chardon, Fabien; Dellagi, Alia

    2017-01-01

    Among the most devastating bacterial diseases of plants, soft rot provoked by Dickeya spp. cause crop yield losses on a large range of species with potato being the most economically important. The use of antibiotics being prohibited in most countries in the field, identifying tolerance genes is expected to be one of the most effective alternate disease control approaches. A prerequisite for the identification of tolerance genes is to develop robust disease quantification methods and to identify tolerant plant genotypes. In this work, we investigate the feasibility of the exploitation of Arabidopsis thaliana natural variation to find tolerant genotypes and to develop robust quantification methods. We compared different quantification methods that score either symptom development or bacterial populations in planta. An easy to set up and reliable bacterial quantification method based on qPCR amplification of bacterial DNA was validated. This study demonstrates that it is possible to conduct a robust phenotyping of soft rot disease, and that Arabidopsis natural accessions are a relevant source of tolerance genes.

  6. Review of clinically accessible methods to determine lean body mass for normalization of standardized uptake values.

    PubMed

    Devriese, Joke; Beels, Laurence; Maes, Alex; Van De Wiele, Christophe; Gheysens, Olivier; Pottel, Hans

    2016-03-01

    With the routine use of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]-fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans, metabolic activity of tumors can be quantitatively assessed through calculation of SUVs. One possible normalization parameter for the standardized uptake value (SUV) is lean body mass (LBM), which is generally calculated through predictive equations based on height and body weight. (Semi-)direct measurements of LBM could provide more accurate results in cancer populations than predictive equations based on healthy populations. In this context, four methods to determine LBM are reviewed: bioelectrical impedance analysis, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. CT, and magnetic resonance imaging. These methods were selected based on clinical accessibility and are compared in terms of methodology, precision and accuracy. By assessing each method's specific advantages and limitations, a well-considered choice of method can hopefully lead to more accurate SUVLBM values, hence more accurate quantitative assessment of 18F-FDG PET images.

  7. Method and device for maximizing memory system bandwidth by accessing data in a dynamically determined order

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wulf, William A. (Inventor); McKee, Sally A. (Inventor); Klenke, Robert (Inventor); Schwab, Andrew J. (Inventor); Moyer, Stephen A. (Inventor); Aylor, James (Inventor); Hitchcock, Charles Young (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A data processing system is disclosed which comprises a data processor and memory control device for controlling the access of information from the memory. The memory control device includes temporary storage and decision ability for determining what order to execute the memory accesses. The compiler detects the requirements of the data processor and selects the data to stream to the memory control device which determines a memory access order. The order in which to access said information is selected based on the location of information stored in the memory. The information is repeatedly accessed from memory and stored in the temporary storage until all streamed information is accessed. The information is stored until required by the data processor. The selection of the order in which to access information maximizes bandwidth and decreases the retrieval time.

  8. Early Patient Access to Medicines: Health Technology Assessment Bodies Need to Catch Up with New Marketing Authorization Methods.

    PubMed

    Leyens, Lada; Brand, Angela

    National and international medicines agencies have developed innovative methods to expedite promising new medicines to the market and facilitate early patient access. Some of these approval pathways are the conditional approval and the adaptive pathways by the European Medicines Agency (EMA); the Promising Innovative Medicine (PIM) designation and the Early Access to Medicines Scheme (EAMS) by the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA), as well as the Fast Track, Breakthrough or Accelerated Approval methods by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, at least in Europe, these methods cannot achieve the goal of improving timely access for patients to new medicines on their own; the reimbursement process also has to become adaptive and flexible. In the past 2 years, the effective access (national patient access) to newly approved oncology drugs ranged from 1 to 30 months, with an extremely high variability between European countries. The goal of early patient access in Europe can only be achieved if the national health technology assessment bodies, such as NICE (ENG), HAS (FR), G-BA (DE) or AIFA (IT), provide harmonized, transparent, flexible, conditional and adaptive methods that adopt the level of evidence accepted by the medicines agencies. The efforts from medicines agencies are welcome but will be in vain if health technology assessments do not follow with similar initiatives, and the European 'postcode' lottery will continue.

  9. Early Patient Access to Medicines: Health Technology Assessment Bodies Need to Catch Up with New Marketing Authorization Methods

    PubMed Central

    Leyens, Lada; Brand, Angela

    2016-01-01

    National and international medicines agencies have developed innovative methods to expedite promising new medicines to the market and facilitate early patient access. Some of these approval pathways are the conditional approval and the adaptive pathways by the European Medicines Agency (EMA); the Promising Innovative Medicine (PIM) designation and the Early Access to Medicines Scheme (EAMS) by the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA), as well as the Fast Track, Breakthrough or Accelerated Approval methods by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, at least in Europe, these methods cannot achieve the goal of improving timely access for patients to new medicines on their own; the reimbursement process also has to become adaptive and flexible. In the past 2 years, the effective access (national patient access) to newly approved oncology drugs ranged from 1 to 30 months, with an extremely high variability between European countries. The goal of early patient access in Europe can only be achieved if the national health technology assessment bodies, such as NICE (ENG), HAS (FR), G-BA (DE) or AIFA (IT), provide harmonized, transparent, flexible, conditional and adaptive methods that adopt the level of evidence accepted by the medicines agencies. The efforts from medicines agencies are welcome but will be in vain if health technology assessments do not follow with similar initiatives, and the European ‘postcode’ lottery will continue. PMID:27238553

  10. Access to Money and Relation to Women's Use of Family Planning Methods Among Young Married Women in Rural India.

    PubMed

    Reed, Elizabeth; Donta, Balaiah; Dasgupta, Anindita; Ghule, Mohan; Battala, Madhusudana; Nair, Saritha; Silverman, Jay; Jadhav, Arun; Palaye, Prajakta; Saggurti, Niranjan; Raj, Anita

    2016-06-01

    Objectives The social positioning (i.e. social status and autonomy) of women in the household facilitates women's access to and decision-making power related to family planning (FP). Women's access to spending money, which may be an indicator of greater social positioning in the household, may also be greater among women who engage in income generating activities for their families, regardless of women's status in the household. However, in both scenarios, access to money may independently afford greater opportunity to obtain family planning services among women. This study seeks to assess whether access to money is associated with FP outcomes independently of women's social positioning in their households. Methods Using survey data from married couples in rural Maharashtra, India (n = 855), crude and adjusted regression was used to assess women's access to their own spending money in relation to past 3 month use of condoms and other forms of contraceptives (pills, injectables, intrauterine device). Results Access to money (59 %) was associated with condom and other contraceptive use (AORs ranged 1.5-1.8). These findings remained significant after adjusting for women's FP decision-making power in the household and mobility to seek FP services. Conclusion While preliminary, findings suggest that access to money may increase women's ability to obtain FP methods, even in contexts where social norms to support women's power in FP decision-making may not be readily adopted.

  11. Improving Access to Long-Acting Contraceptive Methods and Reducing Unplanned Pregnancy Among Women with Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Black, Kirsten I.; Day, Carolyn A.

    2016-01-01

    Much has been written about the consequences of substance use in pregnancy, but there has been far less focus on the prevention of unintended pregnancies in women with substance use disorders (SUDs). We examine the literature on pregnancy incidence for women with SUDs, the clinical and economic benefits of increasing access to long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods in this population, and the current hurdles to increased access and uptake. High rates of unintended pregnancies and poor physical and psychosocial outcomes among women with SUDs underscore the need for increased access to, and uptake of, LARC methods among these women. A small number of studies that focused on improving access to contraception, especially LARC, via integrated contraception services predominantly provided in drug treatment programs were identified. However, a number of barriers remain, highlighting that much more research is needed in this area. PMID:27199563

  12. Numerical method for accessing the universal scaling function for a multiparticle discrete time asymmetric exclusion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chia, Nicholas; Bundschuh, Ralf

    2005-11-01

    In the universality class of the one-dimensional Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) surface growth, Derrida and Lebowitz conjectured the universality of not only the scaling exponents, but of an entire scaling function. Since and Derrida and Lebowitz’s original publication [Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 209 (1998)] this universality has been verified for a variety of continuous-time, periodic-boundary systems in the KPZ universality class. Here, we present a numerical method for directly examining the entire particle flux of the asymmetric exclusion process (ASEP), thus providing an alternative to more difficult cumulant ratios studies. Using this method, we find that the Derrida-Lebowitz scaling function (DLSF) properly characterizes the large-system-size limit (N→∞) of a single-particle discrete time system, even in the case of very small system sizes (N⩽22) . This fact allows us to not only verify that the DLSF properly characterizes multiple-particle discrete-time asymmetric exclusion processes, but also provides a way to numerically solve for quantities of interest, such as the particle hopping flux. This method can thus serve to further increase the ease and accessibility of studies involving even more challenging dynamics, such as the open-boundary ASEP.

  13. Numerical method for accessing the universal scaling function for a multiparticle discrete time asymmetric exclusion process.

    PubMed

    Chia, Nicholas; Bundschuh, Ralf

    2005-11-01

    In the universality class of the one-dimensional Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) surface growth, Derrida and Lebowitz conjectured the universality of not only the scaling exponents, but of an entire scaling function. Since and Derrida and Lebowitz's original publication [Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 209 (1998)] this universality has been verified for a variety of continuous-time, periodic-boundary systems in the KPZ universality class. Here, we present a numerical method for directly examining the entire particle flux of the asymmetric exclusion process (ASEP), thus providing an alternative to more difficult cumulant ratios studies. Using this method, we find that the Derrida-Lebowitz scaling function (DLSF) properly characterizes the large-system-size limit (N--> infinity) of a single-particle discrete time system, even in the case of very small system sizes (N< or =22). This fact allows us to not only verify that the DLSF properly characterizes multiple-particle discrete-time asymmetric exclusion processes, but also provides a way to numerically solve for quantities of interest, such as the particle hopping flux. This method can thus serve to further increase the ease and accessibility of studies involving even more challenging dynamics, such as the open-boundary ASEP.

  14. A new access density definition and its correlation with crash rates by microscopic traffic simulation method.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bing; Zhang, Yu; Lu, Linjun; Lu, Jian John

    2014-03-01

    Better access management can improve highway safety by reducing potential crashes and conflicts. To make adequate access management decisions, it is essential to understand the impact of different access types on roadway safety, usually represented by the crash rate of a roadway segment. The objective of this paper is to propose a new access density definition reflecting the impact of traffic speed variation of different access types. The traffic speed variation was obtained from a microscopic traffic simulation software package TSIS-CORSIM. A sample roadway Temple Terrace Highway was selected to perform traffic simulation. Access Weight was obtained from traffic speed variation, and access density was obtained from access weight. The proposed access density was then compared with the existing definition by analyzing their correlations with crash rates on one suburban street in Temple Terrace, Florida. The comparison demonstrates that crash rates are more highly correlated with the proposed access density than that in the previous study, which is helpful for Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), United States Department of Transportation (USDOT), and transportation consulting companies to regulate the construction, management and design of roadway segments.

  15. Finding Food Deserts: A Comparison of Methods Measuring Spatial Access to Food Stores.

    PubMed

    Jaskiewicz, Lara; Block, Daniel; Chavez, Noel

    2016-05-01

    Public health research has increasingly focused on how access to resources affects health behaviors. Mapping environmental factors, such as distance to a supermarket, can identify intervention points toward improving food access in low-income and minority communities. However, the existing literature provides little guidance on choosing the most appropriate measures of spatial access. This study compared the results of different measures of spatial access to large food stores and the locations of high and low access identified by each. The data set included U.S. Census population data and the locations of large food stores in the six-county area around Chicago, Illinois. Six measures of spatial access were calculated at the census block group level and the results compared. The analysis found that there was little agreement in the identified locations of high or low access between measures. This study illustrates the importance of considering the access measure used when conducting research, interpreting results, or comparing studies. Future research should explore the correlation of different measures with health behaviors and health outcomes.

  16. New efficient DNA extraction method to access the microbiome of Ricinus communis seeds.

    PubMed

    Santos, C D; Dias, A C C; Amaral, I M R; Bonetti, A M; Campos, T A

    2013-02-28

    Ricinus communis (castor bean) seeds are used to produce an alcohol-soluble oil that is used in more than 400 industrial processes. Despite its economic importance, there has been little research on the endophytic microbiota of castor bean seeds. This microbiota is important for plant metabolic processes and may have considerable biotechnological potential, such as production of lipases and plant growth promoter agents. We evaluated several DNA extraction methodologies in order to access the microbial diversity of castor bean through a metagenomic approach. Based on our observations, we developed a new methodology that takes advantage of the low solubility of calcium phosphates and the high affinity of these phosphates for proteins and polysaccharides. The extracted DNA quality was evaluated by PCR, using a selective primer pair for bacterial and mitochondrial 16S rDNA genes (799F and 1492R). We found this methodology quantitatively and qualitatively more efficient than the other approaches. In evaluating this new extraction methodology, we found that the difficulties of DNA extraction from castor bean seeds, such as abundant oil, polysaccharides, phenolic compounds, and plant enzymes, could be overcome. The resulting extracts had high concentration and purity, and they were obtained faster than with previous methods. The samples contained virtually all of the DNA, including the microbial DNA; this was validated by PCR analysis.

  17. Methods and apparatus for integrating, organizing, and accessing flight planning and other data on multifunction cockpit displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, Michael J. (Inventor); Van Omen, Debi (Inventor); Adams, Michael B. (Inventor); Chase, Karl L. (Inventor); Lewis, Daniel E. (Inventor); McCrobie, Daniel E. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method and system for displaying a flight plan such that an entire flight plan is viewable through the use of scrolling devices is disclosed. The flight plan display may also include a method and system for collapsing and expanding a flight plan display, have provisions for the conspicuous marking of changes to a flight plan, the use of tabs to switch between various displays of data, and access to a navigation database that allows a user to view information about various navigational aids. The database may also the access to the information about the navigational aids to be prioritized based on proximity to the current position of the aircraft.

  18. An Alternative and Validated Injection Method for Accessing the Subretinal Space via a Transcleral Posterior Approach.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Sachin; Le, Andrew; Davenport, Julian; Gorin, Michael B; Nusinowitz, Steven; Matynia, Anna

    2016-12-07

    Subretinal injections have been successfully used in both humans and rodents to deliver therapeutic interventions of proteins, viral agents, and cells to the interphotoreceptor/subretinal compartment that has direct exposure to photoreceptors and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Subretinal injections of plasminogen as well as recent preclinical and clinical trials have demonstrated safety and/or efficacy of delivering viral vectors and stem cells to individuals with advanced retinal disease. Mouse models of retinal disease, particularly hereditary retinal dystrophies, are essential for testing these therapies. The most common injection procedure in rodents is to use small transcorneal or transcleral incisions with an anterior approach to the retina. With this approach, the injection needle penetrates the neurosensory retina disrupting the underlying RPE and on insertion can easily nick the lens, causing lens opacification and impairment of noninvasive imaging. Accessing the subretinal space via a transcleral, posterior approach avoids these problems: the needle crosses the sclera approximately 0.5 mm from the optic nerve, without retinal penetration and avoids disrupting the vitreous. Collateral damage is limited to that associated with the focal sclerotomy and the effects of a transient, serous retinal detachment. The simplicity of the method minimizes ocular injury, ensures rapid retinal reattachment and recovery, and has a low failure rate. The minimal damage to the retina and RPE allows for clear assessment of the efficacy and direct effects of the therapeutic agents themselves. This manuscript describes a novel subretinal injection technique that can be used to target viral vectors, pharmacological agents, stem cells or induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells to the subretinal space in mice with high efficacy, minimal damage, and fast recovery.

  19. The Role of Need for Contraception in the Evaluation of Interventions to Improve Access to Family-Planning Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon, Federico R.; Lundgren, Rebecka; Sinai, Irit; Jennings, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    A nonrandomized experiment carried out in Jharkhand, India, shows how the effects of interventions designed to improve access to family-planning methods can be erroneously regarded as trivial when contraceptive use is utilized as dependent variable, ignoring women's need for contraception. Significant effects of the intervention were observed on…

  20. Provider imposed restrictions to clients’ access to family planning in urban Uttar Pradesh, India: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medical barriers refer to unnecessary policies or procedures imposed by health care providers that are not necessarily medically advised; these restrictions impede clients’ access to family planning (FP). This mixed methods study investigates provider imposed barriers to provision of FP using recent quantitative and qualitative data from urban Uttar Pradesh, India. Methods Baseline quantitative data were collected in six cities in Uttar Pradesh, India from service delivery points (SDP), using facility audits, exit interviews, and provider surveys; for this study, the focus is on the provider surveys. More than 250 providers were surveyed in each city. Providers were asked about the FP methods they provide, and if they restrict clients’ access to each method based on age, parity, partner consent, or marital status. For the qualitative research, we conducted one-on-one interviews with 21 service providers in four of the six cities in Uttar Pradesh. Each interview lasted approximately 45 minutes. Results The quantitative findings show that providers restrict clients’ access to spacing and long-acting and permanent methods of FP based on age, parity, partner consent and marital status. Qualitative findings reinforce that providers, at times, make judgments about their clients’ education, FP needs and ability to understand FP options thereby imposing unnecessary barriers to FP methods. Conclusions Provider restrictions on FP methods are common in these urban Uttar Pradesh sites. This means that women who are young, unmarried, have few or no children, do not have the support of their partner, or are less educated may not be able to access or use FP or their preferred method. These findings highlight the need for in-service training for staff, with a focus on reviewing current guidelines and eligibility criteria for provision of methods. PMID:24365015

  1. Method for Evaluation of Outage Probability on Random Access Channel in Mobile Communication Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollár, Martin

    2012-05-01

    In order to access the cell in all mobile communication technologies a so called random-access procedure is used. For example in GSM this is represented by sending the CHANNEL REQUEST message from Mobile Station (MS) to Base Transceiver Station (BTS) which is consequently forwarded as an CHANNEL REQUIRED message to the Base Station Controller (BSC). If the BTS decodes some noise on the Random Access Channel (RACH) as random access by mistake (so- called ‘phantom RACH') then it is a question of pure coincidence which èstablishment cause’ the BTS thinks to have recognized. A typical invalid channel access request or phantom RACH is characterized by an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT procedure (assignment of an SDCCH or TCH) which is not followed by sending an ESTABLISH INDICATION from MS to BTS. In this paper a mathematical model for evaluation of the Power RACH Busy Threshold (RACHBT) in order to guaranty in advance determined outage probability on RACH is described and discussed as well. It focuses on Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) however the obtained results can be generalized on remaining mobile technologies (ie WCDMA and LTE).

  2. An Enhanced Variable Two-Step Floating Catchment Area Method for Measuring Spatial Accessibility to Residential Care Facilities in Nanjing

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Jianhua; Wang, Jinyin; Rui, Yikang; Qian, Tianlu; Wang, Jiechen

    2015-01-01

    Civil administration departments require reliable measures of accessibility so that residential care facility shortage areas can be accurately identified. Building on previous research, this paper proposes an enhanced variable two-step floating catchment area (EV2SFCA) method that determines facility catchment sizes by dynamically summing the population around the facility until the facility-to-population ratio (FPR) is less than the FPR threshold (FPRT). To minimize the errors from the supply and demand catchments being mismatched, this paper proposes that the facility and population catchment areas must both contain the other location in calculating accessibility. A case study evaluating spatial accessibility to residential care facilities in Nanjing demonstrates that the proposed method is effective in accurately determining catchment sizes and identifying details in the variation of spatial accessibility. The proposed method can be easily applied to assess other public healthcare facilities, and can provide guidance to government departments on issues of spatial planning and identification of shortage and excess areas. PMID:26580637

  3. Videophone Technology and Students with Deaf-Blindness: A Method for Increasing Access and Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Judith; Bishop, John

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Seeing the Possibilities with Videophone Technology began as research project funded by the National Center for Technology Innovation. The project implemented a face-to-face social networking program for students with deaf-blindness to investigate the potential for increasing access and communication using videophone technology.…

  4. Beyond the Test Score: A Mixed Methods Analysis of a College Access Intervention in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treviño, Ernesto; Scheele, Judith; Flores, Stella M.

    2014-01-01

    Using both quantitative and qualitative analyses, we examine the role of a college access intervention in the enrollment and persistence outcomes of low-income students in Chile modeled partially after a Texas admissions program. We find that, although students from the program have a mean cumulative GPA significantly lower than that of their…

  5. Beyond the Repository: A Mixed Method Approach to Providing Access to Collections Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Brian Wade

    2013-01-01

    After providing access to over 100 video interviews conducted by a professor with notable entertainers and personalities from film through an institutional repository, an experiment was conducted to discover whether a larger audience could be gained by adding a subset of 32 of these videos to YouTube. The results, over 400,000 views, indicate that…

  6. Exam Scams and Classroom Flimflams: Urban Legends as an Alternative Lens for Viewing the College Classroom Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Claire Howell; Bray, Nathaniel

    2008-01-01

    Campus-based urban legends have the potential to convey and construct student culture in higher education. Basic qualitative and humanistic research methods were used to collect, analyze, and interpret legends related to the academic experience of collegiate life.

  7. Spatial accessibility of primary health care utilising the two step floating catchment area method: an assessment of recent improvements

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The two step floating catchment area (2SFCA) method has emerged in the last decade as a key measure of spatial accessibility, particularly in its application to primary health care access. Many recent ‘improvements’ to the original 2SFCA method have been developed, which generally either account for distance-decay within a catchment or enable the usage of variable catchment sizes. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of various proposed methods within these two improvement groups. Moreover, its assessment focuses on how well these improvements operate within and between rural and metropolitan populations over large geographical regions. Results Demonstrating these improvements to the whole state of Victoria, Australia, this paper presents the first comparison between continuous and zonal (step) decay functions and specifically their effect within both rural and metropolitan populations. Especially in metropolitan populations, the application of either type of distance-decay function is shown to be problematic by itself. Its inclusion necessitates the addition of a variable catchment size function which can enable the 2SFCA method to dynamically define more appropriate catchments which align with actual health service supply and utilisation. Conclusion This study assesses recent ‘improvements’ to the 2SFCA when applied over large geographic regions of both large and small populations. Its findings demonstrate the necessary combination of both a distance-decay function and variable catchment size function in order for the 2SFCA to appropriately measure healthcare access across all geographical regions. PMID:23153335

  8. Elevated waterproof access floor system and method of making the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Marc M. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An elevated waterproof access floor system having subfloor channels or compartments for power lines, gas lines or the like is adapted such that it can be opened and subsequently resealed without destroying the waterproofing and without destroying its aesthetic appearance. A multiplicity of tiles are supported on a support grid, and a flooring sheet is supported on the tiles. Attachment means are provided to prevent lateral but not vertical movement of the flooring sheet with respect to the tiles so that the flooring sheet can be lifted off the tiles, but when the flooring sheet is supported on the tiles, no lateral slipping will occur. The flooring sheet is made of a heat resealable material, so that it can be cut away in sections, and the tiles therebelow lifted off, to provide access to subfloor compartments.

  9. Apparatus, method and system to control accessibility of platform resources based on an integrity level

    DOEpatents

    Jenkins, Chris; Pierson, Lyndon G.

    2016-10-25

    Techniques and mechanism to selectively provide resource access to a functional domain of a platform. In an embodiment, the platform includes both a report domain to monitor the functional domain and a policy domain to identify, based on such monitoring, a transition of the functional domain from a first integrity level to a second integrity level. In response to a change in integrity level, the policy domain may configure the enforcement domain to enforce against the functional domain one or more resource accessibility rules corresponding to the second integrity level. In another embodiment, the policy domain automatically initiates operations in aid of transitioning the platform from the second integrity level to a higher integrity level.

  10. Selective Access to Heterocyclic Sulfonamides and Sulfonyl Fluorides via a Parallel Medicinal Chemistry Enabled Method.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Joseph W; Chenard, Lois; Young, Joseph M

    2015-11-09

    A sulfur-functionalized aminoacrolein derivative is used for the efficient and selective synthesis of heterocyclic sulfonyl chlorides, sulfonyl fluorides, and sulfonamides. The development of a 3-step parallel medicinal chemistry (PMC) protocol for the synthesis of pyrazole-4-sulfonamides effectively demonstrates the utility of this reagent. This reactivity was expanded to provide rapid access to other heterocyclic sulfonyl fluorides, including pyrimidines and pyridines, whose corresponding sulfonyl chlorides lack suitable chemical stability.

  11. Water accessibility in a membrane-inserting peptide comparing Overhauser DNP and pulse EPR methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segawa, Takuya F.; Doppelbauer, Maximilian; Garbuio, Luca; Doll, Andrin; Polyhach, Yevhen O.; Jeschke, Gunnar

    2016-05-01

    Water accessibility is a key parameter for the understanding of the structure of biomolecules, especially membrane proteins. Several experimental techniques based on the combination of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy with site-directed spin labeling are currently available. Among those, we compare relaxation time measurements and electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) experiments using pulse EPR with Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) at X-band frequency and a magnetic field of 0.33 T. Overhauser DNP transfers the electron spin polarization to nuclear spins via cross-relaxation. The change in the intensity of the 1H NMR spectrum of H2O at a Larmor frequency of 14 MHz under a continuous-wave microwave irradiation of the nitroxide spin label contains information on the water accessibility of the labeled site. As a model system for a membrane protein, we use the hydrophobic α-helical peptide WALP23 in unilamellar liposomes of DOPC. Water accessibility measurements with all techniques are conducted for eight peptides with different spin label positions and low radical concentrations (10-20 μM). Consistently in all experiments, the water accessibility appears to be very low, even for labels positioned near the end of the helix. The best profile is obtained by Overhauser DNP, which is the only technique that succeeds in discriminating neighboring positions in WALP23. Since the concentration of the spin-labeled peptides varied, we normalized the DNP parameter ɛ, being the relative change of the NMR intensity, by the electron spin concentration, which was determined from a continuous-wave EPR spectrum.

  12. [A particular anthropometric method for the study of accessibility of a workstation].

    PubMed

    Molinaro, V; Del Ferraro, S

    2008-01-01

    One of the main factors which can involve musculo-skeletal disorders is the assumption of awkward postures. These lasts can be caused, in some cases, by a no-suitable collocation of some devices which are indispensable for the work. It is possible to evaluate if the chosen collocation is adequate or not by studying the accessibility of the workstation with a special regard for the accessibility of the devices placed inside the workstation. EN ISO 14738:2002 is a specific standard which has been adopted in Italy as UNI EN ISO 14738:2004. This standard gives some useful requirements, in terms of accessibility, to design a workstation at no-mobile machinery. In this study, the authors have analyzed a check out workstation by following the requirements described in UNI EN ISO 14738:2004. Critical aspects, related to the organization both of the work activities either of the workstation, have been highlighted taking into account standard criteria. Finally the authors make a new design of the check out workstation trying to optimize device collocation in order to reduce awkward postures. The new configuration has been investigated by applying the criteria mentioned in the standard.

  13. A Computer-Based Method for Teaching Catheter-Access Hemodialysis Management.

    PubMed

    Pun, Sut-Kam; Chiang, Vico Chung-Lim; Choi, Kup-Sze

    2016-10-01

    Patients undergoing hemodialysis are highly susceptible to infections, which could lead to morbidity and mortality. One of the major sources of infections stems from the mishandling of hemodialysis access sites. Although healthcare workers receive training on how to aseptically handle hemodialysis catheters, the increasing number of blood infections associated with dialysis suggests that the conventional approach to training may not be sufficient to ensure a clear understanding of the necessary knowledge and skills. With advancements in digital technology, computer-assisted learning has been gaining popularity as an approach to teaching clinical skills. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a computer-based training system developed to teach healthcare workers catheter-access hemodialysis management. Forty nurses were recruited and randomly assigned into two groups: the control group, which received conventional training only; and the experimental group, which received both conventional and computer-based training. A knowledge test and a skills competence test were administered to both groups before and after the intervention to evaluate their performance. The results show that the performance of the nurses in the experimental group was significantly better than that in the control group, indicating that the proposed training system is an effective tool for supplementing the learning of catheter-access hemodialysis management.

  14. An Adaptive Channel Access Method for Dynamic Super Dense Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Lei, Chunyang; Bie, Hongxia; Fang, Gengfa; Zhang, Xuekun

    2015-12-03

    Super dense and distributed wireless sensor networks have become very popular with the development of small cell technology, Internet of Things (IoT), Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications, Vehicular-to-Vehicular (V2V) communications and public safety networks. While densely deployed wireless networks provide one of the most important and sustainable solutions to improve the accuracy of sensing and spectral efficiency, a new channel access scheme needs to be designed to solve the channel congestion problem introduced by the high dynamics of competing nodes accessing the channel simultaneously. In this paper, we firstly analyzed the channel contention problem using a novel normalized channel contention analysis model which provides information on how to tune the contention window according to the state of channel contention. We then proposed an adaptive channel contention window tuning algorithm in which the contention window tuning rate is set dynamically based on the estimated channel contention level. Simulation results show that our proposed adaptive channel access algorithm based on fast contention window tuning can achieve more than 95 % of the theoretical optimal throughput and 0 . 97 of fairness index especially in dynamic and dense networks.

  15. An Introductory Mixed-Methods Intersectionality Analysis of College Access and Equity: An Examination of First-Generation Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Museus, Samuel D.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how researchers can use mixed-methods approaches and intersectional analyses to understand college access among first-generation Asian American and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs). First, he discusses the utility of mixed-methods approaches and intersectionality research in studying college access. Then, he…

  16. The image pyramid system--an unbiased, inexpensive and broadly accessible method of telepathology.

    PubMed

    Gombás, Péter; Skepper, Jeremy N; Hegyi, László

    2002-01-01

    Although computerised information technology, including the Internet is broadly used and globally accessible it is still not a significant form of professional communications in diagnostic histopathology. The high cost of interactive dynamic telepathology systems makes their use limited outside the richest economies. In contrast static telepathology systems are relatively cheap but in practice their information content can be heavily biased by the choice of images sent by the consulting pathologist. The degree of this bias may be regarded simply as the amount of information transferred to a remote location expressed as a percentage of the total information present in the histological sample. We refer to this as the percentage of explicit versus implicit information. Another major source of bias may be found in the information transmitted in written or verbal discussion with a remote consultant. We have developed a system of static telepathology, the image pyramid, which attempts to minimise bias by transferring all of the information in a section to the consultant. It is inexpensive and should prove to be widely accessible.

  17. Methods for Generating Year-Round Access to Amphioxus in the Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Benito-Gutiérrez, Èlia; Weber, Hermann; Bryant, Diana Virginia; Arendt, Detlev

    2013-01-01

    Cephalochordates, commonly known as amphioxus, are key to understanding vertebrate origins. However, laboratory work suffers from limited access to adults and embryonic material. Here we report the design and experimental validation of an inland marine facility that allows establishing stable amphioxus colonies in the laboratory and obtaining embryos at any time of day and over almost the entire year, far exceeding natural conditions. This is achieved by mimicking the natural benthic environment, natural day- and moon- light, natural substrate and by providing a strictly controlled and seasonally fluctuating temperature regimen. Moreover, supplemented algae diets allow animals to refill their gonads in consecutive years. Spontaneous spawning, a major problem in previous setups, no longer occurs in our facility; instead, all breeding is induced and fertilization occurs fully in vitro. Our system makes amphioxus a standard laboratory animal model. PMID:23990962

  18. ThermoBuild: Online Method Made Available for Accessing NASA Glenn Thermodynamic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McBride, Bonnie; Zehe, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    The new Web site program "ThermoBuild" allows users to easily access and use the NASA Glenn Thermodynamic Database of over 2000 solid, liquid, and gaseous species. A convenient periodic table allows users to "build" the molecules of interest and designate the temperature range over which thermodynamic functions are to be displayed. ThermoBuild also allows users to build custom databases for use with NASA's Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA) program or other programs that require the NASA format for thermodynamic properties. The NASA Glenn Research Center has long been a leader in the compilation and dissemination of up-to-date thermodynamic data, primarily for use with the NASA CEA program, but increasingly for use with other computer programs.

  19. Protecting yourself from cancer scams

    MedlinePlus

    ... to know if a product or drug really works just from reading claims or studies. That is why it is important to use ... part of a clinical trial. This is a study to test how well the drug works, and to check its side effects and safety. ...

  20. Average Likelihood Methods of Classification of Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    where the system’s stochastic model is either incomplete or too complex to be described in mathematical terms. Feature based methods often provide an...developing mathematical rules that guarantees optimal performance in noise, i.e., rules that guarantee the lowest error in classification. The method is...suitable in problems where models are available and have low complexity. Its main disadvantage is the development of rules due to the mathematical

  1. Expanding Access to the Intrauterine Device in Public Health Facilities in Ethiopia: A Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Tilahun, Yewondwossen; Mehta, Sarah; Zerihun, Habtamu; Lew, Candace; Brooks, Mohamad I; Nigatu, Tariku; Hagos, Kidest Lulu; Asnake, Mengistu; Tasissa, Adeba; Ali, Seid; Desalegn, Ketsela; Adane, Girmay

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In Ethiopia, modern contraceptive prevalence among currently married women nearly tripled over the last decade, but the method mix remains skewed toward short-acting methods. Since 2011, the Integrated Family Health Program (IFHP+), jointly implemented by Pathfinder International and John Snow Inc., has supported the Federal Ministry of Health to introduce intrauterine devices (IUDs) in more than 800 health centers across 4 regions to improve access to a wider range of methods. Between March and August 2014, Pathfinder conducted a mixed-methods study in 40 purposively selected health centers to assess shifts in the contraceptive method mix following introduction of IUDs using data from family planning registers; determine the characteristics of IUD users through a cross-sectional survey of 2,943 family planning clients who accepted the IUD; explore reasons for method discontinuation among 165 clients seeking IUD removal services; and identify facilitators and barriers to IUD use through focus group discussions (N = 115 clients) and key informant interviews (N = 36 providers, facility heads, and health office heads). Introduction of IUDs into the 40 health centers participating in the study was correlated with a statistically significant increase in the contribution of all long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs)—both IUDs and implants—to the method mix, from 6.9% in 2011 to 20.5% in 2014 (P<.001). Our study found that latent demand for the IUD was more prevalent than anticipated and that the method was acceptable to a broad cross-section of women. Of the 2,943 women who sought IUDs during the 6-month study period, 18.0% were new contraceptive users (i.e., those using a contraceptive method for the first time ever), 44.7% reported no educational attainment, 62.5% were from rural areas, and 59.3% were younger than 30 years old, with almost 3 in 10 (27.7%) under the age of 25. The most commonly cited reason for seeking IUD removal services

  2. National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines (PNAUM): household survey component methods

    PubMed Central

    Mengue, Sotero Serrate; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Boing, Alexandra Crispim; Tavares, Noemia Urruth Leão; Pizzol, Tatiane da Silva Dal; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora; Arrais, Paulo Sérgio Dourado; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Farias, Mareni Rocha; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata; de Barros, Aluísio Jardim Dornellas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe methodological aspects of the household survey National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines (PNAUM) related to sampling design and implementation, the actual obtained sample, instruments and fieldwork. METHODS A cross-sectional, population-based study with probability sampling in three stages of the population living in households located in Brazilian urban areas. Fieldwork was carried out between September 2013 and February 2014. The data collection instrument included questions related to: information about households, residents and respondents; chronic diseases and medicines used; use of health services; acute diseases and events treated with drugs; use of contraceptives; use of pharmacy services; behaviors that may affect drug use; package inserts and packaging; lifestyle and health insurance. RESULTS In total, 41,433 interviews were carried out in 20,404 households and 576 urban clusters corresponding to 586 census tracts distributed in the five Brazilian regions, according to eight domains defined by age and gender. CONCLUSIONS The results of the survey may be used as a baseline for future studies aiming to assess the impact of government action on drug access and use. For local studies using a compatible method, PNAUM may serve as a reference point to evaluate variations in space and population. With a comprehensive evaluation of drug-related aspects, PNAUM is a major source of data for a variety of analyses to be carried out both at academic and government level. PMID:27982381

  3. Method and Apparatus to Access Optimum Strength During Processing of Precipitation Strengthened Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, John H. (Inventor); Yost, William T. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided which enable the nondestructive testing of strength of a heat treated alloy. An alloy is insonified with an ultrasonic signal. The resulting convoluted signal is detected and the acoustic nonlinearity parameter is determined. The acoustic nonlinearity parameter shows a peak corresponding to a peak in material strength.

  4. Novel Scheme of Carrier Tri-reuse and Distribution Fiber Protection Based on Round Shift Method in Optical Access Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haibin; Gan, Chaoqin; Yin, Maojun; Ni, Cuiping

    2015-06-01

    A novel architecture of optical access network based on round shift method is proposed. Round shift method is composed by round service mode of carriers and cycle characteristic of 2×N arrayed waveguide grating (AWG). By utilizing the round service mode, every carrier is tri-reused to provide service for three different optical network units. Besides, in remote node, the 2×3N AWG can be replaced by three 2×N AWGs and AWGs' channel spacing is increased. So, the demand on RN's AWGs is decreased. Furthermore, based on the cycle characteristic of 2×N AWG, a 1+1 protection scheme is presented to provide independent protection for distribution fibers. Simulation and analysis show the proposed scheme works well.

  5. [Eru somparative analysis of efficiency of various methods of operative access in cases of complications after filling material extrusion into mandibular channel].

    PubMed

    Grigor'iants, L A; Sirak, S V

    2006-01-01

    Comparative analysis of efficiency of various methods of operative access to mandibular channel is presented in the framework of the surgical help to the patients with complications endodontic treatment in the form of some filling material extrusion into mandibular channel.

  6. An Innovative Method of Measuring Changes in Access to Healthful Foods in School Lunch Programs: Findings from a Pilot Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Allison P.; Weinberg, Stacy L.; Janusz, Ruth; Demont-Heinrich, Christine; Vogt, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A large local health department in Colorado partnered with 15 school districts to develop an approach to evaluate changes in access to healthy foods in reimbursable school lunches and a la carte offerings. Materials and Methods School district nutrition managers were engaged at the start of this project. Health department dietitians developed criteria to classify food items as “Lower Fat and less added Sugar” (LFS) and “Higher Fat and more added Sugar” (HFS) based on the percentage of calories from fat and grams of added sugar. Lunch production sheets were obtained for two time periods, food items and the number of planned servings recorded. LFS and HFS planned servings were summed for each time period, and a LFS to HFS ratio calculated by dividing LFS planned servings by HFS planned servings. Additional analyses included calculating LFS: HFS ratios by school district, and for a la carte offerings. Results In 2009, the LFS: HFS ratio was 2.08, in 2011, 3.71 (P<0.0001). The method also detected changes in ratios at the school district level. For a la carte items, in 2009 the ratio of LFS: HFS was 0.53, and in 2011, 0.61 (not statistically significant). Conclusions This method detected an increase in the LFS: HFS ratio over time and demonstrated that the school districts improved access to healthful food/drink by changing the contents of reimbursable school lunches. The evaluation method discussed here can generate information that districts can use in helping sustain and expand their efforts to create healthier environments for children and adults. Although federal regulations now cover all food and beverages served during the school day, there are still opportunities to improve and measure changes in food served in other settings such as child care centers, youth correction facilities, or in schools not participating in the National School Lunch Program. PMID:26800523

  7. Information Accessibility of the Charcoal Burning Suicide Method in Mainland China

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Qijin; Chang, Shu-Sen; Guo, Yingqi; Yip, Paul S. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background There has been a marked rise in suicide by charcoal burning (CB) in some East Asian countries but little is known about its incidence in mainland China. We examined media-reported CB suicides and the availability of online information about the method in mainland China. Methods We extracted and analyzed data for i) the characteristics and trends of fatal and nonfatal CB suicides reported by mainland Chinese newspapers (1998–2014); ii) trends and geographic variations in online searches using keywords relating to CB suicide (2011–2014); and iii) the content of Internet search results. Results 109 CB suicide attempts (89 fatal and 20 nonfatal) were reported by newspapers in 13 out of the 31 provinces or provincial-level-municipalities in mainland China. There were increasing trends in the incidence of reported CB suicides and in online searches using CB-related keywords. The province-level search intensities were correlated with CB suicide rates (Spearman’s correlation coefficient = 0.43 [95% confidence interval: 0.08–0.68]). Two-thirds of the web links retrieved using the search engine contained detailed information about the CB suicide method, of which 15% showed pro-suicide attitudes, and the majority (86%) did not encourage people to seek help. Limitations The incidence of CB suicide was based on newspaper reports and likely to be underestimated. Conclusions Mental health and suicide prevention professionals in mainland China should be alert to the increased use of this highly lethal suicide method. Better surveillance and intervention strategies need to be developed and implemented. PMID:26474297

  8. Guided imagery and music: using the Bonny method to evoke emotion and access the unconscious.

    PubMed

    Beebe, Lora Humphrey; Wyatt, Tami H

    2009-01-01

    The healing power of music has been recognized since ancient times. The use of music has been documented in diverse cultures worldwide, for ailments ranging from pain and cancer to depression and posttraumati stress disorder. The various models of music therapy are based on different theoretical traditions, including behaviorist, humanist, and psychodynamic approache This article describes the music therapy approach known as the Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and Music (GIM) therapy, reviews its research base, and presents a first-person account of the experience of GIM treatment.

  9. A new method for low-powered laser reflectance and scattering monitoring of MOVPE growth with narrow optical access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bäckström, C.; Irvine, S. J. C.; Barrioz, V.

    2003-02-01

    During metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) growth of layers of CdS/CdTe, two different sets of data has been extracted in situ at normal incidence, with only a narrow optical access to the sample, using a charge coupled device (CCD) array as the detector. When growing CdTe on Si (0 0 1) in a 2″ single wafer reactor, the growth rate was determined through reflectance interferometry, and film roughness through scattering measurements. A dual wavelength method has been used, where the wavelengths have been chosen to match the CCD detector elements for green and red light in an Agilent HDCS1000 CCD-array. The second wavelength has been used to correct for the absorption/scattering extinction problem of single wavelength interferometry. The relative high intensity of the laser light relative to the ambient minimised the need for filtering of ambient light. The result has been a very simple and robust instrument. The blue light pixels were used for ambient light correction, but could be used for blue laser light detection. The interferograms have been recorded by simple integration of the imaging data sets. The growth rate for both wavelengths was 0.83 nm/s. Through creating a diffused laser spot on a surface, and correlating this to the initial state, roughness data were also accessible. Roughness could be determined quantitatively through correlating scattering data from the interferograms with AFM micrographs of the samples.

  10. Research on Quantum Authentication Methods for the Secure Access Control Among Three Elements of Cloud Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yumin; Xiao, Shufen; Ma, Hongyang; Chen, Libo

    2016-12-01

    Cloud computing and big data have become the developing engine of current information technology (IT) as a result of the rapid development of IT. However, security protection has become increasingly important for cloud computing and big data, and has become a problem that must be solved to develop cloud computing. The theft of identity authentication information remains a serious threat to the security of cloud computing. In this process, attackers intrude into cloud computing services through identity authentication information, thereby threatening the security of data from multiple perspectives. Therefore, this study proposes a model for cloud computing protection and management based on quantum authentication, introduces the principle of quantum authentication, and deduces the quantum authentication process. In theory, quantum authentication technology can be applied in cloud computing for security protection. This technology cannot be cloned; thus, it is more secure and reliable than classical methods.

  11. BIDS apps: Improving ease of use, accessibility, and reproducibility of neuroimaging data analysis methods.

    PubMed

    Gorgolewski, Krzysztof J; Alfaro-Almagro, Fidel; Auer, Tibor; Bellec, Pierre; Capotă, Mihai; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Churchill, Nathan W; Cohen, Alexander Li; Craddock, R Cameron; Devenyi, Gabriel A; Eklund, Anders; Esteban, Oscar; Flandin, Guillaume; Ghosh, Satrajit S; Guntupalli, J Swaroop; Jenkinson, Mark; Keshavan, Anisha; Kiar, Gregory; Liem, Franziskus; Raamana, Pradeep Reddy; Raffelt, David; Steele, Christopher J; Quirion, Pierre-Olivier; Smith, Robert E; Strother, Stephen C; Varoquaux, Gaël; Wang, Yida; Yarkoni, Tal; Poldrack, Russell A

    2017-03-01

    The rate of progress in human neurosciences is limited by the inability to easily apply a wide range of analysis methods to the plethora of different datasets acquired in labs around the world. In this work, we introduce a framework for creating, testing, versioning and archiving portable applications for analyzing neuroimaging data organized and described in compliance with the Brain Imaging Data Structure (BIDS). The portability of these applications (BIDS Apps) is achieved by using container technologies that encapsulate all binary and other dependencies in one convenient package. BIDS Apps run on all three major operating systems with no need for complex setup and configuration and thanks to the comprehensiveness of the BIDS standard they require little manual user input. Previous containerized data processing solutions were limited to single user environments and not compatible with most multi-tenant High Performance Computing systems. BIDS Apps overcome this limitation by taking advantage of the Singularity container technology. As a proof of concept, this work is accompanied by 22 ready to use BIDS Apps, packaging a diverse set of commonly used neuroimaging algorithms.

  12. BIDS apps: Improving ease of use, accessibility, and reproducibility of neuroimaging data analysis methods

    PubMed Central

    Auer, Tibor; Churchill, Nathan W.; Flandin, Guillaume; Guntupalli, J. Swaroop; Raffelt, David; Quirion, Pierre-Olivier; Smith, Robert E.; Strother, Stephen C.; Varoquaux, Gaël

    2017-01-01

    The rate of progress in human neurosciences is limited by the inability to easily apply a wide range of analysis methods to the plethora of different datasets acquired in labs around the world. In this work, we introduce a framework for creating, testing, versioning and archiving portable applications for analyzing neuroimaging data organized and described in compliance with the Brain Imaging Data Structure (BIDS). The portability of these applications (BIDS Apps) is achieved by using container technologies that encapsulate all binary and other dependencies in one convenient package. BIDS Apps run on all three major operating systems with no need for complex setup and configuration and thanks to the comprehensiveness of the BIDS standard they require little manual user input. Previous containerized data processing solutions were limited to single user environments and not compatible with most multi-tenant High Performance Computing systems. BIDS Apps overcome this limitation by taking advantage of the Singularity container technology. As a proof of concept, this work is accompanied by 22 ready to use BIDS Apps, packaging a diverse set of commonly used neuroimaging algorithms. PMID:28278228

  13. A hybrid 3D spatial access method based on quadtrees and R-trees for globe data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Jun; Ke, Shengnan; Li, Xiaomin; Qi, Shuhua

    2009-10-01

    3D spatial access method for globe data is very crucial technique for virtual earth. This paper presents a brand-new maintenance method to index 3d objects distributed on the whole surface of the earth, which integrates the 1:1,000,000- scale topographic map tiles, Quad-tree and R-tree. Furthermore, when traditional methods are extended into 3d space, the performance of spatial index deteriorates badly, for example 3D R-tree. In order to effectively solve this difficult problem, a new algorithm of dynamic R-tree is put forward, which includes two sub-procedures, namely node-choosing and node-split. In the node-choosing algorithm, a new strategy is adopted, not like the traditional mode which is from top to bottom, but firstly from bottom to top then from top to bottom. This strategy can effectively solve the negative influence of node overlap. In the node-split algorithm, 2-to-3 split mode substitutes the traditional 1-to-2 mode, which can better concern the shape and size of nodes. Because of the rational tree shape, this R-tree method can easily integrate the concept of LOD. Therefore, it will be later implemented in commercial DBMS and adopted in time-crucial 3d GIS system.

  14. Access to a polymerase chain reaction assay method targeting 13 respiratory viruses can reduce antibiotics: a randomised, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Viral respiratory infections are common worldwide and range from completely benign disease to life-threatening illness. Symptoms can be unspecific, and an etiologic diagnosis is rarely established because of a lack of suitable diagnostic tools. Improper use of antibiotics is common in this setting, which is detrimental in light of the development of bacterial resistance. It has been suggested that the use of diagnostic tests could reduce antibiotic prescription rates. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether access to a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay panel for etiologic diagnosis of acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) would have an impact on antibiotic prescription rate in primary care clinical settings. Methods Adult patients with symptoms of ARTI were prospectively included. Nasopharyngeal and throat swabs were analysed by using a multiplex real-time PCR method targeting thirteen viruses and two bacteria. Patients were recruited at 12 outpatient units from October 2006 through April 2009, and samples were collected on the day of inclusion (initial visit) and after 10 days (follow-up visit). Patients were randomised in an open-label treatment protocol to receive a rapid or delayed result (on the following day or after eight to twelve days). The primary outcome measure was the antibiotic prescription rate at the initial visit, and the secondary outcome was the total antibiotic prescription rate during the study period. Results A total sample of 447 patients was randomised. Forty-one were excluded, leaving 406 patients for analysis. In the group of patients randomised for a rapid result, 4.5% (9 of 202) of patients received antibiotics at the initial visit, compared to 12.3% (25 of 204) (P = 0.005) of patients in the delayed result group. At follow-up, there was no significant difference between the groups: 13.9% (28 of 202) in the rapid result group and 17.2% (35 of 204) in the delayed result group (P = 0

  15. Genetic relationships among wild and cultivated accessions of curry leaf plant (Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng.), as revealed by DNA fingerprinting methods.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sushma; Rana, T S

    2013-02-01

    Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. (Rutaceae), is an aromatic plant and much valued for its flavor, nutritive and medicinal properties. In this study, three DNA fingerprinting methods viz., random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD), directed amplification of minisatellite DNA (DAMD), and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), were used to unravel the genetic variability and relationships across 92 wild and cultivated M. koenigii accessions. A total of 310, 102, and 184, DNA fragments were amplified using 20 RAPD, 5 DAMD, and 13 ISSR primers, revealing 95.80, 96.07, and 96.73% polymorphism, respectively, across all accessions. The average polymorphic information content value obtained with RAPD, DAMD, and ISSR markers was 0.244, 0.250, and 0.281, respectively. The UPGMA tree, based on Jaccard's similarity coefficient generated from the cumulative (RAPD, DAMD, and ISSR) band data showed two distinct clusters, clearly separating wild and cultivated accessions in the dendrogram. Percentage polymorphism, gene diversity (H), and Shannon information index (I) estimates were higher in cultivated accessions compared to wild accessions. The overall high level of polymorphism and varied range of genetic distances revealed a wide genetic base in M. koenigii accessions. The study suggests that RAPD, DAMD, and ISSR markers are highly useful to unravel the genetic variability in wild and cultivated accessions of M. koenigii.

  16. Clean access, measurement, and sampling of Ellsworth Subglacial Lake: A method for exploring deep Antarctic subglacial lake environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegert, Martin J.; Clarke, Rachel J.; Mowlem, Matt; Ross, Neil; Hill, Christopher S.; Tait, Andrew; Hodgson, Dominic; Parnell, John; Tranter, Martyn; Pearce, David; Bentley, Michael J.; Cockell, Charles; Tsaloglou, Maria-Nefeli; Smith, Andy; Woodward, John; Brito, Mario P.; Waugh, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Antarctic subglacial lakes are thought to be extreme habitats for microbial life and may contain important records of ice sheet history and climate change within their lake floor sediments. To find whether or not this is true, and to answer the science questions that would follow, direct measurement and sampling of these environments are required. Ever since the water depth of Vostok Subglacial Lake was shown to be >500 m, attention has been given to how these unique, ancient, and pristine environments may be entered without contamination and adverse disturbance. Several organizations have offered guidelines on the desirable cleanliness and sterility requirements for direct sampling experiments, including the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research. Here we summarize the scientific protocols and methods being developed for the exploration of Ellsworth Subglacial Lake in West Antarctica, planned for 2012-2013, which we offer as a guide to future subglacial environment research missions. The proposed exploration involves accessing the lake using a hot-water drill and deploying a sampling probe and sediment corer to allow sample collection. We focus here on how this can be undertaken with minimal environmental impact while maximizing scientific return without compromising the environment for future experiments.

  17. MetNetAPI: A flexible method to access and manipulate biological network data from MetNet

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Convenient programmatic access to different biological databases allows automated integration of scientific knowledge. Many databases support a function to download files or data snapshots, or a webservice that offers "live" data. However, the functionality that a database offers cannot be represented in a static data download file, and webservices may consume considerable computational resources from the host server. Results MetNetAPI is a versatile Application Programming Interface (API) to the MetNetDB database. It abstracts, captures and retains operations away from a biological network repository and website. A range of database functions, previously only available online, can be immediately (and independently from the website) applied to a dataset of interest. Data is available in four layers: molecular entities, localized entities (linked to a specific organelle), interactions, and pathways. Navigation between these layers is intuitive (e.g. one can request the molecular entities in a pathway, as well as request in what pathways a specific entity participates). Data retrieval can be customized: Network objects allow the construction of new and integration of existing pathways and interactions, which can be uploaded back to our server. In contrast to webservices, the computational demand on the host server is limited to processing data-related queries only. Conclusions An API provides several advantages to a systems biology software platform. MetNetAPI illustrates an interface with a central repository of data that represents the complex interrelationships of a metabolic and regulatory network. As an alternative to data-dumps and webservices, it allows access to a current and "live" database and exposes analytical functions to application developers. Yet it only requires limited resources on the server-side (thin server/fat client setup). The API is available for Java, Microsoft.NET and R programming environments and offers flexible query and broad

  18. Determinants of access to chronic illness care: a mixed-methods evaluation of a national multifaceted chronic disease package for Indigenous Australians

    PubMed Central

    Bailie, Jodie; Schierhout, Gill; Laycock, Alison; Kelaher, Margaret; Percival, Nikki; O'Donoghue, Lynette; McNeair, Tracy; Bailie, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Indigenous Australians have a disproportionately high burden of chronic illness, and relatively poor access to healthcare. This paper examines how a national multicomponent programme aimed at improving prevention and management of chronic disease among Australian Indigenous people addressed various dimensions of access. Design Data from a place-based, mixed-methods formative evaluation were analysed against a framework that defines supply and demand-side dimensions to access. The evaluation included 24 geographically bounded ‘sentinel sites’ that included a range of primary care service organisations. It drew on administrative data on service utilisation, focus group and interview data on community members’ and service providers’ perceptions of chronic illness care between 2010 and 2013. Setting Urban, regional and remote areas of Australia that have relatively large Indigenous populations. Participants 670 community members participated in focus groups; 374 practitioners and representatives of regional primary care support organisations participated in in-depth interviews. Results The programme largely addressed supply-side dimensions of access with less focus or impact on demand-side dimensions. Application of the access framework highlighted the complex inter-relationships between dimensions of access. Key ongoing challenges are achieving population coverage through a national programme, reaching high-need groups and ensuring provision of ongoing care. Conclusions Strategies to improve access to chronic illness care for this population need to be tailored to local circumstances and address the range of dimensions of access on both the demand and supply sides. These findings highlight the importance of flexibility in national programme guidelines to support locally determined strategies. PMID:26614617

  19. Early assessment of medical technologies to inform product development and market access: a review of methods and applications.

    PubMed

    Ijzerman, Maarten J; Steuten, Lotte M G

    2011-09-01

    Worldwide, billions of dollars are invested in medical product development and there is an increasing pressure to maximize the revenues of these investments. That is, governments need to be informed about the benefits of spending public resources, companies need more information to manage their product development portfolios and even universities may need to direct their research programmes in order to maximize societal benefits. Assuming that all medical products need to be adopted by the heavily regulated healthcare market at one point in time, it is worthwhile to look at the logic behind healthcare decision making, specifically, decisions on the coverage of medical products and decisions on the use of these products under competing and uncertain conditions. With the growing tension between leveraging economic growth through R&D spending on the one hand and stricter control of healthcare budgets on the other, several attempts have been made to apply the health technology assessment (HTA) methodology to earlier stages of technology development and implementation. For instance, horizon scanning was introduced to systematically assess emerging technologies in order to inform health policy. Others have introduced iterative economic evaluation, e.g. economic evaluations in earlier stages of clinical research. However, most of these methods are primarily intended to support governments in making decisions regarding potentially expensive new medical products. They do not really inform biomedical product developers on the probability of return on investment, nor do they inform about the market needs and specific requirements of technologies in development. It is precisely this aspect that increasingly receives attention, i.e. is it possible to use HTA tools and methods to inform biomedical product development and to anticipate further development and market access. Several methods have been used in previous decades, but have never been compiled in a comprehensive review

  20. A novel method for creating endodontic access preparations through all-ceramic restorations: air abrasion and its effect relative to diamond and carbide bur use.

    PubMed

    Sabourin, Christopher R; Flinn, Brian D; Pitts, David L; Gatten, Timothy L; Johnson, James D

    2005-08-01

    Access through porcelain restorations is a technically delicate and stressful procedure. Although this is a common dilemma in endodontics, little research has explored alternatives in cutting through porcelain. The purpose of this study was to compare the use of a carbide bur plus water, diamond bur plus water, and air abrasion to access through porcelain. All-ceramic samples were accessed using the different techniques. Samples were evaluated using two transillumination methods, white light, and fluorescent liquid penetrant described by the American Society for Testing and Materials. Edge chipping, microcracking, and catastrophic fracture of porcelain caused by the techniques were statistically compared. Fluorescent liquid penetrant was a more sensitive method for microcrack detection. There were significant differences between the preparation techniques. Air abrasion was significantly less destructive, and caused no catastrophic fractures, edge chipping or microcracks. Preparation by air abrasion took longer to complete.

  1. BPO crude oil analysis data base user`s guide: Methods, publications, computer access correlations, uses, availability

    SciTech Connect

    Sellers, C.; Fox, B.; Paulz, J.

    1996-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has one of the largest and most complete collections of information on crude oil composition that is available to the public. The computer program that manages this database of crude oil analyses has recently been rewritten to allow easier access to this information. This report describes how the new system can be accessed and how the information contained in the Crude Oil Analysis Data Bank can be obtained.

  2. Arteriovenous Access

    PubMed Central

    MacRae, Jennifer M.; Dipchand, Christine; Oliver, Matthew; Moist, Louise; Yilmaz, Serdar; Lok, Charmaine; Leung, Kelvin; Clark, Edward; Hiremath, Swapnil; Kappel, Joanne; Kiaii, Mercedeh; Luscombe, Rick; Miller, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Complications of vascular access lead to morbidity and may reduce quality of life. In this module, we review both infectious and noninfectious arteriovenous access complications including neuropathy, aneurysm, and high-output access. For the challenging patients who have developed many complications and are now nearing their last vascular access, we highlight some potentially novel approaches. PMID:28270919

  3. Adaption of an in vitro digestion method to screen carotenoid liberation and in vitro accessibility from differently processed spinach preparations.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Jane N; Luu, Amy Y; Dragsted, Lars O; Arrigoni, Eva

    2017-06-01

    Dark green leafy vegetables are primary food sources for lutein and β-carotene, however these bioactives have low bioavailability. The effects of mechanical and thermal processing as well as fat addition and fat type on lutein and β-carotene liberation and in vitro accessibility from spinach were investigated. Lutein liberation and in vitro accessibility were three-fold higher from spinach puree compared to whole leaves. Results for β-carotene liberation were similar, whereas that of β-carotene accessibility was only about two-fold. Steaming had no or a negative effect on carotenoid liberation. Fat addition increased β-carotene liberation from raw and steamed puree, but reduced lutein liberation from steamed leaves and raw puree. Fat types affected β-carotene differently. Butter addition led to a 2.5 fold increased liberation from raw spinach puree, while the effect of olive and peanut oil was significantly lower, but only minor effects were observed for lutein.

  4. Accessing Sexual and Reproductive Health Information and Services: A Mixed Methods Study of Young Women's Needs and Experiences in Soweto, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lince-Deroche, Naomi; Hargey, Adila; Holt, Kelsey; Shochet, Tara

    2015-03-01

    Young women and girls in South Africa are at high risk of unintended pregnancy and HIV. Previous studies have reported barriers to contraceptive and other sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services among young women in this context. We aimed to assess young women's SRH knowledge and experiences and to determine how they get SRH information and services in Soweto, South Africa using quantitative and qualitative methods. Young women, aged 18-24, recruited from primary health clinics and a shopping mall, reported that they have access to SRH information and know where to obtain services. However there are challenges to accessing and utilizing information and services including providers' unsupportive attitudes, uneven power dynamics in relationships and communication issues with parents and community members. There is a need to assist young women in understanding the significance of SRH information. They need access to age-appropriate, youth-friendly services in order to have healthy sexual experiences.

  5. In ... and out: open access publishing in scientific journals.

    PubMed

    Boumil, Marcia M; Salem, Deeb N

    2014-01-01

    Open access (OA) journals are a growing phenomenon largely of the past decade wherein readers can access the content of scientific journals without paying for a subscription. The costs are borne by authors (or their institutions) who pay a fee to be published, thus allowing readers to access, search, print, and cite the journals without cost. Although the OA model, in and of itself, need not diminish scientific rigor, selectivity, or peer review, the "author pays" model creates an inherent conflict of interest: it operates with the incentive on the part of the journal to publish more and reject less. This is coupled with cost containment measures that affect the journals' ability to engage experienced editors and professional staff to scrutinize data, data analyses, and author conflicts of interest. While some OA journals appear to be comparable to their print competitors, others are "predatory" and have no legitimacy at all. Two recent "scams"--one recently published in Science--highlight the urgency of addressing the issues raised by OA publication so that OA does not lose its credibility just as it begins to gather substantial momentum. High-quality journals develop their reputations over time, and OA outlets will be no exception. For this to occur, however, the OA audience will need to be satisfied that OA can deliver high-quality publications utilizing rigorous peer review, editing, and conflict of interest scrutiny. Academic tenure and promotion committees that review scholarly credentials are understandably skeptical of publications in unrecognized journals, and the large number of new OA outlets contributes to this urgency from their perspective as well.

  6. Using Geographic Information Systems and Spatial Analysis Methods to Assess Household Water Access and Sanitation Coverage in the SHINE Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ntozini, Robert; Marks, Sara J.; Mangwadu, Goldberg; Mbuya, Mduduzi N. N.; Gerema, Grace; Mutasa, Batsirai; Julian, Timothy R.; Schwab, Kellogg J.; Humphrey, Jean H.; Zungu, Lindiwe I.

    2015-01-01

    Access to water and sanitation are important determinants of behavioral responses to hygiene and sanitation interventions. We estimated cluster-specific water access and sanitation coverage to inform a constrained randomization technique in the SHINE trial. Technicians and engineers inspected all public access water sources to ascertain seasonality, function, and geospatial coordinates. Households and water sources were mapped using open-source geospatial software. The distance from each household to the nearest perennial, functional, protected water source was calculated, and for each cluster, the median distance and the proportion of households within <500 m and >1500 m of such a water source. Cluster-specific sanitation coverage was ascertained using a random sample of 13 households per cluster. These parameters were included as covariates in randomization to optimize balance in water and sanitation access across treatment arms at the start of the trial. The observed high variability between clusters in both parameters suggests that constraining on these factors was needed to reduce risk of bias. PMID:26602299

  7. Using Geographic Information Systems and Spatial Analysis Methods to Assess Household Water Access and Sanitation Coverage in the SHINE Trial.

    PubMed

    Ntozini, Robert; Marks, Sara J; Mangwadu, Goldberg; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Gerema, Grace; Mutasa, Batsirai; Julian, Timothy R; Schwab, Kellogg J; Humphrey, Jean H; Zungu, Lindiwe I

    2015-12-15

    Access to water and sanitation are important determinants of behavioral responses to hygiene and sanitation interventions. We estimated cluster-specific water access and sanitation coverage to inform a constrained randomization technique in the SHINE trial. Technicians and engineers inspected all public access water sources to ascertain seasonality, function, and geospatial coordinates. Households and water sources were mapped using open-source geospatial software. The distance from each household to the nearest perennial, functional, protected water source was calculated, and for each cluster, the median distance and the proportion of households within <500 m and >1500 m of such a water source. Cluster-specific sanitation coverage was ascertained using a random sample of 13 households per cluster. These parameters were included as covariates in randomization to optimize balance in water and sanitation access across treatment arms at the start of the trial. The observed high variability between clusters in both parameters suggests that constraining on these factors was needed to reduce risk of bias.

  8. Design, methods, and evaluation directions of a multi-access service for the management of diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Bellazzi, Riccardo; Arcelloni, Marco; Bensa, Giuliana; Blankenfeld, Hannes; Brugués, Eulàlia; Carson, Ewart; Cobelli, Claudio; Cramp, Derek; D'Annunzio, Giuseppe; De Cata, Pasquale; De Leiva, Alberto; Deutsch, Tibor; Fratino, Pietro; Gazzaruso, Carmine; Garcìa, Angel; Gergely, Tamás; Gómez, Enrique; Harvey, Fiona; Ferrari, Pietro; Hernando, Elena; Boulos, Maged Kamel; Larizza, Cristiana; Ludekke, Hans; Maran, Alberto; Nucci, Gianluca; Pennati, Cristina; Ramat, Stefano; Roudsari, Abdul; Rigla, Mercedes; Stefanelli, Mario

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in information and communication technology allow the design and testing of new models of diabetes management, which are able to provide assistance to patients regardless of their distance from the health care providers. The M2DM project, funded by the European Commission, has the specific aim to investigate the potential of novel telemedicine services in diabetes management. A multi-access system based on the integration of Web access, telephone access through interactive voice response systems, and the use of palmtops and smart modems for data downloading has been implemented. The system is based on a technological platform that allows a tight integration between the access modalities through a middle layer called the multi-access organizer. Particular attention has been devoted to the design of the evaluation scheme for the system: A randomized controlled study has been defined, with clinical, organizational, economic, usability, and users' satisfaction outcomes. The evaluation of the system started in January 2002. The system is currently used by 67 patients and seven health care providers in five medical centers across Europe. After 6 months of usage of the system no major technical problems have been encountered, and the majority of patients are using the Web and data downloading modalities with a satisfactory frequency. From a clinical viewpoint, the hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) of both active patients and controls decreased, and the variance of HbA1c in active patients is significantly lower than the control ones. The M2DM system allows for the implementation of an easy-to-use, user-tailored telemedicine system for diabetes management. The first clinical results are encouraging and seem to substantiate the hypothesis of its clinical effectiveness.

  9. Piloting the use of indigenous methods to prevent Nipah virus infection by interrupting bats' access to date palm sap in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Nazmun; Mondal, Utpal Kumar; Sultana, Rebeca; Hossain, M Jahangir; Khan, M Salah Uddin; Gurley, Emily S; Oliveras, Elizabeth; Luby, Stephen P

    2013-09-01

    People in Bangladesh frequently drink fresh date palm sap. Fruit bats (Pteropus giganteus) also drink raw sap and may contaminate the sap by shedding Nipah virus through saliva and urine. In a previous study we identified two indigenous methods to prevent bats accessing the sap, bamboo skirts and lime (calcium carbonate). We conducted a pilot study to assess the acceptability of these two methods among sap harvesters. We used interactive community meetings and group discussions to encourage all the sap harvesters (n = 12) from a village to use either bamboo skirts or lime smear that some of them (n = 4) prepared and applied. We measured the preparation and application time and calculated the cost of bamboo skirts. We conducted interviews after the use of each method. The sap harvesters found skirts effective in preventing bats from accessing sap. They were sceptical that lime would be effective as the lime was washed away by the sap flow. Preparation of the skirt took ∼105 min. The application of each method took ∼1 min. The cost of the bamboo skirt is minimal because bamboo is widely available and they made the skirts with pieces of used bamboo. The bamboo skirt method appeared practical and affordable to the sap harvesters. Further studies should explore its ability to prevent bats from accessing date palm sap and assess if its use produces more or better quality sap, which would provide further incentives to make it more acceptable for its regular use.

  10. Facilitators and barriers to accessing reproductive health care for migrant beer promoters in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam: A mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of the research was to assess access to sexual and reproductive health services for migrant women who work as beer promoters. This mixed methods research was conducted in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, Bangkok, Thailand, Vientiane, Laos, and Hanoi, Vietnam during 2010 to 2011. Methods Focus groups were held with beer promoters and separate focus groups or interviews with key informants to explore the factors affecting beer promoters’ access to health care institutions for reproductive health care. The findings of the focus groups were used to develop a survey for beer promoters. This survey was conducted in popular health institutions for these women in each of the four Asian cities. Results Several common themes were evident. Work demands prevented beer promoters from accessing health care. Institutional factors affecting care included cost, location, environmental factors (e.g. waiting times, cleanliness and confidentiality) and service factors (e.g. staff attitudes, clinic hours, and availability of medications). Personal factors affecting access were shyness and fear, lack of knowledge, and support from family and friends. The survey of the beer promoters confirmed that cost, location and both environmental and service factors impact on access to health care services for beer promoters. Many beer promoters are sexually active, and a significant proportion of those surveyed rely on sex work to supplement their income. Many also drink with their clients. Despite a few differences amongst the surveyed population, the findings were remarkably similar across the four research sites. Conclusions Recommendations from the research include the provision of evening and weekend clinic hours to facilitate access, free or low cost clinics, and health insurance through employer or government plans which are easy to access for migrants. Other improvements that would facilitate the access of beer promoters to these services include increased funding to hire

  11. Web Accessibility and Accessibility Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Ravonne A.; Huprich, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Section 508 of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) mandates that programs and services be accessible to people with disabilities. While schools of library and information science (SLIS*) and university libraries should model accessible Web sites, this may not be the case. This article examines previous studies about the Web accessibility of…

  12. High temperature adhesive silicone foam composition, foam generating system and method of generating foam. [For access denial

    DOEpatents

    Mead, J.W.; Montoya, O.J.; Rand, P.B.; Willan, V.O.

    1983-12-21

    Access to a space is impeded by generation of a sticky foam from a silicone polymer and a low boiling solvent such as a halogenated hydrocarbon. In a preferred aspect, the formulation is polydimethylsiloxane gel mixed with F502 Freon as a solvent and blowing agent, and pressurized with CO/sub 2/ in a vessel to about 250 PSI, whereby when the vessel is opened, a sticky and solvent resistant foam is deployed. The foam is deployable, over a wide range of temperatures, adhering to wet surfaces as well as dry, is stable over long periods of time and does not propagate flame or lose adhesive properties during an externally supported burn.

  13. Apparatus and method for servicing an elongated suspended pump motor in an electric power plant with limited access

    DOEpatents

    Chavez, Rossemary V.; Ekeroth, Douglas E.; Johnson, F. Thomas; Matusz, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Elongated coolant pumps suspended under steam generators within containment in a power plant with limited access space, are removed and replaced by an elongated maintenance cart with an elongated opening along one side in which the motor is received. Rollers support the cart for conveying the elongated motor in an upright position out from under the steam generator and onto an elevator. The elevator is lowered to transfer support of the cart and motor through trunnions to saddles straddling the elevator for rotation of the cart to a generally horizontal position. The elevator then raises the horizontally disposed cart carrying the motor to a higher floor where it is rolled off the elevator and out through the auxiliary equipment hatch.

  14. Apparatus and method for servicing an elongated suspended pump motor in an electric power plant with limited access

    DOEpatents

    Chavez, R.V.; Ekeroth, D.E.; Johnson, F.T.; Matusz, J.M.

    1994-04-26

    Elongated coolant pumps suspended under steam generators within containment in a power plant with limited access space, are removed and replaced by an elongated maintenance cart with an elongated opening along one side in which the motor is received. Rollers support the cart for conveying the elongated motor in an upright position out from under the steam generator and onto an elevator. The elevator is lowered to transfer support of the cart and motor through trunnions to saddles straddling the elevator for rotation of the cart to a generally horizontal position. The elevator then raises the horizontally disposed cart carrying the motor to a higher floor where it is rolled off the elevator and out through the auxiliary equipment hatch. 14 figures.

  15. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Building access control (BAC)--a catchall phrase to describe the systems that control access to facilities across campus--has traditionally been handled with remarkably low-tech solutions: (1) manual locks; (2) electronic locks; and (3) ID cards with magnetic strips. Recent improvements have included smart cards and keyless solutions that make use…

  16. Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  17. Implementation of the epilepsy center of excellence to improve access to and quality of care – protocol for a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To address the growing problem of epilepsy among aging Veterans and younger Veterans who have experienced a traumatic brain injury (TBI), the Veterans Health Administration (VA) has implemented 16 Epilepsy Centers of Excellence (ECOE) to assure increased access to high quality of care for Veterans with epilepsy. Each ECOE consists of a network of regional hubs to which spoke facilities refer Veterans for subspecialty treatment. The ECOEs are expected to improve access to and quality of epilepsy care through patient care, consultation and education. This study aims to: evaluate the effectiveness of the ECOE structure by describing changes in the quality of and access to care for epilepsy before and after the ECOE initiative using QUality Indicators in Epilepsy Treatment (QUIET Indicators); describe associations between changes in the structure and processes of care and Relational Coordination (RC), a model of task-oriented communication that has been shown to play a role in implementation science; and determine if variations in care are related to levels of RC. Methods This four-year comparative case study uses a mixed-methods approach. We will use VA inpatient, outpatient, pharmacy, and chart abstraction data to identify changes in the quality of and access to epilepsy care in the VA between Fiscal Year 2008 and Fiscal Year 2014. Qualitative and survey methods will be used to identify changes in the structure and processes of epilepsy care and RC over the course of the study. We will then link data from the first two objectives to determine the extent to which quality of and access to epilepsy care is associated with RC using multivariable models. Discussion This innovative study has the potential to improve understanding of hub-and-spoke model effectiveness, VA epilepsy care, and models of epilepsy specialty care more globally. Moreover, it contributes to implementation science by advancing understanding of the role of RC in the context of a major

  18. The effect of cooking and washing rice on the bio-accessibility of As, Cu, Fe, V and Zn using an on-line continuous leaching method.

    PubMed

    Horner, Nolan S; Beauchemin, Diane

    2013-01-03

    A previously developed method based on continuous on-line leaching with artificial gastro-intestinal fluids was used to determine the bio-accessible fraction of As, Cu, Fe, V and Zn in brown and white rice from California by inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Saliva generally accounted for the largest percentage of total element leached in comparison to gastric and intestinal juices. Arsenic speciation analysis was performed on the saliva and gastric juice leachates using ion exchange chromatography coupled to ICP-MS. The four most toxic species of As (As(III), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and As(V)), as well as Cl(-) in the gastric juice leachate, were successfully separated within 5.5min using a simple nitric acid gradient. While cooking rice had relatively little effect on total bio-accessibility, a change in species from As(V) and DMA to As(III) was observed for both types of rice. On the other hand, washing the rice with doubly deionized water prior to cooking removed a large percentage of the total bio-accessible fraction of As, Cu, Fe, V and Zn.

  19. Switching characteristics in Cu:SiO2 by chemical soak methods for resistive random access memory (ReRAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Fun-Tat; Lin, Yu-Hsien; Yang, Wen-Luh; Liao, Chin-Hsuan; Lin, Li-Min; Hsiao, Yu-Ping; Chao, Tien-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    A limited copper (Cu)-source Cu:SiO2 switching layer composed of various Cu concentrations was fabricated using a chemical soaking (CS) technique. The switching layer was then studied for developing applications in resistive random access memory (ReRAM) devices. Observing the resistive switching mechanism exhibited by all the samples suggested that Cu conductive filaments formed and ruptured during the set/reset process. The experimental results indicated that the endurance property failure that occurred was related to the joule heating effect. Moreover, the endurance switching cycle increased as the Cu concentration decreased. In high-temperature tests, the samples demonstrated that the operating (set/reset) voltages decreased as the temperature increased, and an Arrhenius plot was used to calculate the activation energy of the set/reset process. In addition, the samples demonstrated stable data retention properties when baked at 85 °C, but the samples with low Cu concentrations exhibited short retention times in the low-resistance state (LRS) during 125 °C tests. Therefore, Cu concentration is a crucial factor in the trade-off between the endurance and retention properties; furthermore, the Cu concentration can be easily modulated using this CS technique.

  20. Developing a WWW Resource Centre for Acquiring and Accessing Open Learning Materials on Research Methods (ReMOTE).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Robert; Marcella, Rita; Middleton, Iain; McConnell, Michael

    This paper reports on ReMOTE (Research Methods Online Teaching Environment), a Robert Gordon University (Scotland) project focusing on the development of a World Wide Web (WWW) site devoted to the teaching of research methods. The aim of ReMOTE is to provide an infrastructure that allows direct links to specialist sources in order to enable the…

  1. Novel method to ascertain chromatin accessibility at specific genomic loci from frozen brain homogenates and laser capture microdissected defined cells.

    PubMed

    Delvaux, Elaine; Mastroeni, Diego; Nolz, Jennifer; Coleman, Paul D

    2016-06-01

    We describe a novel method for assessing the "open" or "closed" state of chromatin at selected locations within the genome. This method combines the use of Benzonase, which can digest DNA in the presence of actin, with qPCR to define digested regions. We demonstrate the application of this method in brain homogenates and laser captured cells. We also demonstrate application to selected sites within more than one gene and multiple sites within one gene. We demonstrate the validity of the method by treating cells with valproate, known to render chromatin more permissive, and by comparison with classical digestion with DNase I in an in vitro preparation. Although we demonstrate the use of this method in brain tissue we also recognize its applicability to other tissue types.

  2. Biomass accessibility analysis using electron tomography

    DOE PAGES

    Hinkle, Jacob D.; Ciesielski, Peter N.; Gruchalla, Kenny; ...

    2015-12-25

    Substrate accessibility to catalysts has been a dominant theme in theories of biomass deconstruction. Furthermore, current methods of quantifying accessibility do not elucidate mechanisms for increased accessibility due to changes in microstructure following pretreatment.

  3. The new efficient multi-beamforming method based on multiple-access register block on a post-fractional filtering architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jeeun; Kim, Giduck; Yoon, Changhan; Yoo, Yangmo; Song, Tai-Kyong

    2011-03-01

    In medical ultrasound imaging, a multi-beamforming (MBF) method is used for supporting high frame rate imaging or functional imaging where multiple scanlines are reconstructed from a single excitation event. For efficient MBF, a time-sharing technique (i.e., MBF-TS) can be applied. However, the MBF-TS could degrade image quality due to the decreased beamforming frequency. In this paper, the multi-access register-based MBF (MBF-MAR) method running on the post-fractional filtering (PFF) architecture is presented. In PFF-MBF-MAR, instead of lowering beamforming frequency, a multi-access register at each channel is utilized for generating multiple scanlines simultaneously. To evaluate the performance of the proposed PFF-MBF-MAR method, the phantom experiment was conducted where 64- channel pre-beamformed radio-frequency (RF) data were captured from a tissue mimicking phantom by using a modified commercial ultrasound system (SONOLINE G40, Siemens Inc., USA) using a 3-MHz phased array probe. From the phantom experiment, the PFF-MBF-MAR method showed 4.7 dB and 0.6 improvements in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), respectively, compared to the PFF-MBF-TS method, while slightly increasing the hardware complexity (<5.2%). The similar results were achieved with the in vivo thyroid data. These results indicate that the proposed PFF-MBF-MAR method can be used for high frame rate imaging or functional imaging without sacrificing image quality while slightly increasing the hardware complexity.

  4. Equal Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Patta, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Presents an interview with Stephen McCarthy, co-partner and president of Equal Access ADA Consulting Architects of San Diego, California, about designing schools to naturally integrate compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). (EV)

  5. 5 CFR 2606.203 - Granting access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Granting access. 2606.203 Section 2606... Access to Records and Accounting of Disclosures § 2606.203 Granting access. (a) The methods for allowing access to records, when such access has been granted by OGE or the other agency concerned are:...

  6. 5 CFR 2606.203 - Granting access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Granting access. 2606.203 Section 2606... Access to Records and Accounting of Disclosures § 2606.203 Granting access. (a) The methods for allowing access to records, when such access has been granted by OGE or the other agency concerned are:...

  7. 5 CFR 2606.203 - Granting access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Granting access. 2606.203 Section 2606... Access to Records and Accounting of Disclosures § 2606.203 Granting access. (a) The methods for allowing access to records, when such access has been granted by OGE or the other agency concerned are:...

  8. 5 CFR 2606.203 - Granting access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Granting access. 2606.203 Section 2606... Access to Records and Accounting of Disclosures § 2606.203 Granting access. (a) The methods for allowing access to records, when such access has been granted by OGE or the other agency concerned are:...

  9. 5 CFR 2606.203 - Granting access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Granting access. 2606.203 Section 2606... Access to Records and Accounting of Disclosures § 2606.203 Granting access. (a) The methods for allowing access to records, when such access has been granted by OGE or the other agency concerned are:...

  10. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous 'push-introducer' gastrostomy is a valuable method for accessing the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Klek, Stanislaw; Hermanowicz, Adam; Salowka, Jerzy; Cegielny, Tomasz; Matysiak, Konrad; Chourdakis, Michael; Szybinski, Piotr

    2014-02-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is the most effective and least invasive method for enteral nutrition (EN). The most common system for PEG is the 'pull' technique, which . It is not available in case endoscopy cannot be performed. The 'push' technique may be an option if effective identification of the abdominal structures can be achieved. X-ray or ultrasonography can be used for that purpose. The aim was to assess the clinical value of ultrasound-guided 'push' gastrostomy. A retrospective analysis of eleven patients (6 F, 5 M, mean age 65.1) including the procedure itself, complication rate, and cost was conducted. In all eleven patients the surgery was successful, and EN was introduced 4-6 hours afterwards. Complications included pain requiring removal of a supporting stitch (n = 1) and balloon deflation (n = 1). All patients were successfully fed enterally. Ultrasound-guided 'push' technique gastrostomy should become a method of choice if the 'pull' method is unavailable.

  11. Apparatus and method supporting wireless access to multiple security layers in an industrial control and automation system or other system

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yu-Gene T.

    2013-04-16

    A method includes receiving a message at a first wireless node. The first wireless node is associated with a first wired network, and the first wired network is associated with a first security layer. The method also includes transmitting the message over the first wired network when at least one destination of the message is located in the first security layer. The method further includes wirelessly transmitting the message for delivery to a second wireless node when at least one destination of the message is located in a second security layer. The second wireless node is associated with a second wired network, and the second wired network is associated with the second security layer. The first and second security layers may be associated with different security paradigms and/or different security domains. Also, the message could be associated with destinations in the first and second security layers.

  12. Methods to measure potential spatial access to delivery care in low- and middle-income countries: a case study in rural Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Access to skilled attendance at childbirth is crucial to reduce maternal and newborn mortality. Several different measures of geographic access are used concurrently in public health research, with the assumption that sophisticated methods are generally better. Most of the evidence for this assumption comes from methodological comparisons in high-income countries. We compare different measures of travel impedance in a case study in Ghana’s Brong Ahafo region to determine if straight-line distance can be an adequate proxy for access to delivery care in certain low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings. Methods We created a geospatial database, mapping population location in both compounds and village centroids, service locations for all health facilities offering delivery care, land-cover and a detailed road network. Six different measures were used to calculate travel impedance to health facilities (straight-line distance, network distance, network travel time and raster travel time, the latter two both mechanized and non-mechanized). The measures were compared using Spearman rank correlation coefficients, absolute differences, and the percentage of the same facilities identified as closest. We used logistic regression with robust standard errors to model the association of the different measures with health facility use for delivery in 9,306 births. Results Non-mechanized measures were highly correlated with each other, and identified the same facilities as closest for approximately 80% of villages. Measures calculated from compounds identified the same closest facility as measures from village centroids for over 85% of births. For 90% of births, the aggregation error from using village centroids instead of compound locations was less than 35 minutes and less than 1.12 km. All non-mechanized measures showed an inverse association with facility use of similar magnitude, an approximately 67% reduction in odds of facility delivery per standard

  13. In-vivo assessment of tissue metabolite levels using 1H MRS and the Electric REference To access In vivo Concentrations (ERETIC) method.

    PubMed

    Heinzer-Schweizer, S; De Zanche, N; Pavan, M; Mens, G; Sturzenegger, U; Henning, A; Boesiger, P

    2010-05-01

    Quantitative values of metabolite concentrations in (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been obtained using the Electric REference To access In vivo Concentrations (ERETIC) method, whereby a synthetic reference signal is injected during the acquisition of spectra. The method has been improved to enable quantification of metabolite concentrations in vivo. Optical signal transmission was used to eliminate random fluctuations in ERETIC signal coupling to the receiver coil due to changes in position of cables and highly dielectric human tissue. Stability and reliability of the signal were tested in vitro, achieving stability with a mean error of 2.83%. Scaling of the signal in variable loading conditions was demonstrated and in-vivo measurements of brain were acquired on a 3T Philips system using a transmit/receive coil. The quantitative brain water and metabolite concentration values are in good agreement with those in the literature.

  14. Macromolecular competition titration method accessing thermodynamics of the unmodified macromolecule-ligand interactions through spectroscopic titrations of fluorescent analogs.

    PubMed

    Bujalowski, Wlodzimierz; Jezewska, Maria J

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of thermodynamically rigorous binding isotherms provides fundamental information about the energetics of the ligand-macromolecule interactions and often an invaluable insight about the structure of the formed complexes. The Macromolecular Competition Titration (MCT) method enables one to quantitatively obtain interaction parameters of protein-nucleic acid interactions, which may not be available by other methods, particularly for the unmodified long polymer lattices and specific nucleic acid substrates, if the binding is not accompanied by adequate spectroscopic signal changes. The method can be applied using different fluorescent nucleic acids or fluorophores, although the etheno-derivatives of nucleic acid are especially suitable as they are relatively easy to prepare, have significant blue fluorescence, their excitation band lies far from the protein absorption spectrum, and the modification eliminates the possibility of base pairing with other nucleic acids. The MCT method is not limited to the specific size of the reference nucleic acid. Particularly, a simple analysis of the competition titration experiments is described in which the fluorescent, short fragment of nucleic acid, spanning the exact site-size of the protein-nucleic acid complex, and binding with only a 1:1 stoichiometry to the protein, is used as a reference macromolecule. Although the MCT method is predominantly discussed as applied to studying protein-nucleic acid interactions, it can generally be applied to any ligand-macromolecule system by monitoring the association reaction using the spectroscopic signal originating from the reference macromolecule in the presence of the competing macromolecule, whose interaction parameters with the ligand are to be determined.

  15. Activation of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor leads to movement of the sixth transmembrane domain: analysis by the substituted cysteine accessibility method.

    PubMed

    Martin, Stéphane S; Holleran, Brian J; Escher, Emanuel; Guillemette, Gaétan; Leduc, Richard

    2007-07-01

    The role of transmembrane domain six (TMD6) of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor, which is predicted to undergo conformational changes after agonist binding, was investigated using the substituted-cysteine accessibility method. Each residue in the Lys240-Leu265 fragment was mutated, one at a time, to a cysteine. The resulting mutants were expressed in COS-7 cells, which were subsequently treated with the charged sulfhydryl-specific alkylating agent methanethiosulfonate-ethylammonium (MTSEA). This treatment led to a significant reduction in binding of (125)I-[Sar(1),Ile(8)]AngII to the F249C, H256C, T260C, and V264C mutant receptors, suggesting that these residues orient themselves within the water-accessible binding pocket of the AT(1) receptor. It is noteworthy that this pattern of acquired MTSEA sensitivity was altered for TMD6 cysteines engineered in a constitutively active AT(1) receptor. Indeed, mutant F249C was insensitive to MTSEA treatment, whereas the sensitivity of mutant V264C decreased. Under these conditions, one other mutant, F261C, was found to be sensitive to MTSEA treatment. Our results suggest that constitutive activation of the AT(1) receptor causes TMD6 to pivot. This movement moves the top (extracellular side) of TMD6 toward the binding pocket and simultaneously distances the bottom (intracellular side) away from the binding pocket. Using this approach, we identified key elements within TMD6 that contribute to the activation of class A GPCRs through structural rearrangements.

  16. Phone Scam Prevention Act of 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Nelson, Bill [D-FL

    2014-11-20

    11/20/2014 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (text of measure as introduced: CR S6208-6209) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fraud, Waste, Abuse or Mismanagement Whistleblower Protection OIG Audits and Evaluations OIG Investigations OIG Reading Room Notice ... Fora Litigation Status Report Magnuson-Moss Warranty Public Audit Filings Rotational Health Warnings Webb-Pomerene Act Filings ...

  18. Expanding Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    There is no question that the United States lags behind most industrialized nations in consumer access to broadband Internet service. For many policy makers and activists, this shortfall marks the latest phase in the struggle to overcome the digital divide. To remedy this lack of broadband affordability and availability, one start-up firm--with…

  19. Easy Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettelman, Alan

    2009-01-01

    School and university restrooms, locker and shower rooms have specific ADA accessibility requirements that serve the needs of staff, students and campus visitors who are disabled as a result of injury, illness or age. Taking good care of them is good for the reputation of a sensitive community institution, and fosters positive public relations.…

  20. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2012-01-01

    As faculty members add online and multimedia elements to their courses, colleges and universities across the country are realizing that there is a lot of work to be done to ensure that disabled students (and employees) have equal access to course material and university websites. Unfortunately, far too few schools consider the task a top priority.…

  1. Quantifying data retention of perpendicular spin-transfer-torque magnetic random access memory chips using an effective thermal stability factor method

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Luc Jan, Guenole; Le, Son; Wang, Po-Kang

    2015-04-20

    The thermal stability of perpendicular Spin-Transfer-Torque Magnetic Random Access Memory (STT-MRAM) devices is investigated at chip level. Experimental data are analyzed in the framework of the Néel-Brown model including distributions of the thermal stability factor Δ. We show that in the low error rate regime important for applications, the effect of distributions of Δ can be described by a single quantity, the effective thermal stability factor Δ{sub eff}, which encompasses both the median and the standard deviation of the distributions. Data retention of memory chips can be assessed accurately by measuring Δ{sub eff} as a function of device diameter and temperature. We apply this method to show that 54 nm devices based on our perpendicular STT-MRAM design meet our 10 year data retention target up to 120 °C.

  2. Accessibility and assistive products

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Porrero, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Accessibility and assistive products and technologies are needed to ensure the rights of persons with disabilities and older persons. Many developments have been implemented in laws, standards, markets and from the consumers perspective, at international, European and national levels. The real issue is that not all the potential users benefit from the use of assistive products or accessible measures. Discussion Innovative methods are needed to allow all potential users to have real advantage of assistive technologies and accessible and design for all facilities. Best practices will be presented and existing gaps and recommendations will be discussed. Cost-benefits aspects will also be presented. Conclusion In order to get advantages from opportunities of globalization, hard work and responsibilities of all stakeholders are needed, so that assistive products and accessibility reach a whole range of situations and environments and contribute to ensure quality of life in a society for all.

  3. Beverage consumption in an Alaska Native village: a mixed-methods study of behaviour, attitudes and access.

    PubMed

    Elwan, Deena; Schweinitz, Peter de; Wojcicki, Janet M

    2016-01-01

    Background American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) have the highest prevalence of obesity for any racial/ethnic group. Previous studies examining risk factors for obesity have identified excessive sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) and inadequate water consumption as major risk factors for this population group. The historical scarcity of water in rural Alaska may explain consumption patterns including reliance on SSBs and other packaged drinks. Methods Our study was designed to assess SSB, water and other beverage consumption and attitudes towards consumption in Alaska Native children and adults residing in rural Alaska. During summer 2014, 2 focus groups were conducted employing community members in a small rural village more than 200 air miles west of Fairbanks, Alaska. Interviews were completed with shop owners, Early Head Start and Head Start program instructors (n=7). SSB and total beverage intakes were measured using a modified version of the BEVQ-15, (n=69). Results High rates of SSB consumption (defined as sweetened juice beverages, soda, sweet tea, energy drink or sports drinks) and low rates of water consumption were reported for all age groups in the village. All adolescents and 81% of children reported drinking SSBs at least once per week in the last month, and 48% of adolescents and 29% of younger children reported daily consumption. Fifty-two per cent of adults reported consuming SSBs at least once per week and 20% reported daily consumption. Twenty-five per cent of adolescents reported never drinking water in the past month, and 19% of younger children and 21% of adults did not consume water daily. Conclusion Alaska Native children and adults living in the Interior Alaska consume high amounts of SSBs including energy drinks and insufficient amounts of water. Interventions targeting beverage consumption are urgently needed for the Alaska Native population in rural Alaska.

  4. Beverage consumption in an Alaska Native village: a mixed-methods study of behaviour, attitudes and access

    PubMed Central

    de Schweinitz, Peter; Wojcicki, Janet M.

    2016-01-01

    Background American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) have the highest prevalence of obesity for any racial/ethnic group. Previous studies examining risk factors for obesity have identified excessive sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) and inadequate water consumption as major risk factors for this population group. The historical scarcity of water in rural Alaska may explain consumption patterns including reliance on SSBs and other packaged drinks. Methods Our study was designed to assess SSB, water and other beverage consumption and attitudes towards consumption in Alaska Native children and adults residing in rural Alaska. During summer 2014, 2 focus groups were conducted employing community members in a small rural village more than 200 air miles west of Fairbanks, Alaska. Interviews were completed with shop owners, Early Head Start and Head Start program instructors (n=7). SSB and total beverage intakes were measured using a modified version of the BEVQ-15, (n=69). Results High rates of SSB consumption (defined as sweetened juice beverages, soda, sweet tea, energy drink or sports drinks) and low rates of water consumption were reported for all age groups in the village. All adolescents and 81% of children reported drinking SSBs at least once per week in the last month, and 48% of adolescents and 29% of younger children reported daily consumption. Fifty-two per cent of adults reported consuming SSBs at least once per week and 20% reported daily consumption. Twenty-five per cent of adolescents reported never drinking water in the past month, and 19% of younger children and 21% of adults did not consume water daily. Conclusion Alaska Native children and adults living in the Interior Alaska consume high amounts of SSBs including energy drinks and insufficient amounts of water. Interventions targeting beverage consumption are urgently needed for the Alaska Native population in rural Alaska. PMID:26928369

  5. Production of intraspecific F1 hybrids between wild and cultivated accessions of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) walp.) using conventional methods.

    PubMed

    Lelou, B; Van Damme, P

    2006-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) is an important food legume in the tropics. It belongs to the Phaseoleae (L.) tribe (Fabaceae family), it is diploid and its chromosome number is 22. Its gene pool includes the cultivated cowpea and its wild relatives, which are connected with Vigna subgenus, Catiang section. Cowpea has a great potential in increasing food legume production. The cowpea varieties, however, are susceptible to a number of insect pests, especially the pod borer Maruca testulalis and a pod sucking-bug complex (e.g.: Clavigralla tomentosicollis, Anoplocnemis curvipes and Riptortus dentipes), which cause severe damage. The crossing programme presented here exploits the variability existing in the wild African germplasm of V. unguiculata and cultivated cowpea. To incorporate the insect pest resistance into the cultivated cowpea economically, reciprocal crosses between wild forms and cowpea varieties were performed, using the stigmatic pollination methods at anthesis. Some barriers were found in these intraspecific crosses. In the majority of reciprocal crosses, the growth of the pollen tubes was arrested in the stigmatic tissue. Only 16.01% of the ovules were fertilised. In these ovules, embryo development was normal at about 20-25 days after pollination. The failure of the intraspecific crosses in about 80.7% of the cases is thus the result of the lack of fertilisation and the unfertilised ovules. There seems to exist considerable incompatibility within the primary cowpea gene pool. The breeding programme carried out under controlled conditions has proved to be less successful in developed cowpea intraspecific F1 hybrids. Further studies should concentrate on germplasm from Africa with documented resistance to major insect pests. In addition, the application of techniques for bypassing barriers to hybridisation of parent genotypes should enable these embryos to grow to plants.

  6. Hemodialysis access - self care

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency - hemodialysis access; Chronic kidney failure - hemodialysis access; Chronic renal failure - hemodialysis access; dialysis - hemodialysis ...

  7. Genes galore: a summary of methods for accessing results from large-scale partial sequencing of anonymous Arabidopsis cDNA clones.

    PubMed Central

    Newman, T; de Bruijn, F J; Green, P; Keegstra, K; Kende, H; McIntosh, L; Ohlrogge, J; Raikhel, N; Somerville, S; Thomashow, M

    1994-01-01

    High-throughput automated partial sequencing of anonymous cDNA clones provides a method to survey the repertoire of expressed genes from an organism. Comparison of the coding capacity of these expressed sequence tags (ESTs) with the sequences in the public data bases results in assignment of putative function to a significant proportion of the ESTs. Thus, the more than 13,400 plant ESTs that are currently available provide a new resource that will facilitate progress in many areas of plant biology. These opportunities are illustrated by a description of the results obtained from analysis of 1500 Arabidopsis ESTs from a cDNA library prepared from equal portions of poly(A+) mRNA from etiolated seedlings, roots, leaves, and flowering inflorescences. More than 900 different sequences were represented, 32% of which showed significant nucleotide or deduced amino acid sequences similarity to previously characterized genes or proteins from a wide range of organisms. At least 165 of the clones had significant deduced amino acid sequence homology to proteins or gene products that have not been previously characterized from higher plants. A summary of methods for accessing the information and materials generated by the Arabidopsis cDNA sequencing project is provided. PMID:7846151

  8. Atomic memory access hardware implementations

    DOEpatents

    Ahn, Jung Ho; Erez, Mattan; Dally, William J

    2015-02-17

    Atomic memory access requests are handled using a variety of systems and methods. According to one example method, a data-processing circuit having an address-request generator that issues requests to a common memory implements a method of processing the requests using a memory-access intervention circuit coupled between the generator and the common memory. The method identifies a current atomic-memory access request from a plurality of memory access requests. A data set is stored that corresponds to the current atomic-memory access request in a data storage circuit within the intervention circuit. It is determined whether the current atomic-memory access request corresponds to at least one previously-stored atomic-memory access request. In response to determining correspondence, the current request is implemented by retrieving data from the common memory. The data is modified in response to the current request and at least one other access request in the memory-access intervention circuit.

  9. Unique Access to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goble, Don

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the many learning opportunities that broadcast technology students at Ladue Horton Watkins High School in St. Louis, Missouri, experience because of their unique access to technology and methods of learning. Through scaffolding, stepladder techniques, and trial by fire, students learn to produce multiple television programs,…

  10. Accessing Electronic Theses: Progress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Roy

    2000-01-01

    Describes various ways by which universities provide access to their electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs), discussing UMI (University Microfilms International), XML (eXtensible Markup Language), and other formats. Discusses key leaders--national and international--in the ETD effort. Outlines the two main methods for locating ETDs. Presents a…

  11. Development of the relaxation-assisted 2DIR method for accessing structures of molecules and its application for studying the energy transport on a molecular level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasyanenko, Valeriy Mitrofanovich

    Measuring the three-dimensional structure of molecules, dynamics of structural changes, and energy transport on a molecular scale is important for many areas of natural science. Supplementing the widely used methods of x-ray diffraction, NMR, and optical spectroscopies, a two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy (2DIR) method was introduced about a decade ago. The 2DIR method measures pair-wise interactions between vibrational modes in molecules, thus acquiring molecular structural constraints such as distances between vibrating groups and the angles between their transition dipoles. The 2DIR method has been applied to a variety of molecular systems but in studying larger molecules such as proteins and peptides the method is facing challenges associated with the congestion of their vibrational spectra and delocalized character of their vibrational modes. To help extract structural information from such spectra and make efficient use of vibrational modes separated by large distances, a novel relaxation-assisted 2DIR method (RA 2DIR) has recently been proposed, which exploits the transport of excess vibrational energy from the initially excited mode. With the goal of further development of RA 2DIR, we applied it to a variety of molecular systems, including model compounds, transition-metal complexes, and isomers. The experiments revealed several novel effects which both enhance the power of RA 2DIR and bring a deeper understanding to the fundamental process of energy transport on a molecular level. We demonstrated that RA 2DIR can enhance greatly (27-fold) the cross-peak amplitude among spatially remote modes, which leads to an increase of the range of distances accessible for structural measurements by several fold. We demonstrated that the energy transport time correlates with the intermode distance. This correlation offers a new way for identifying connectivity patterns in molecules. We developed two models of energy transport in molecules. In one, a spatial overlap

  12. Access to housing as a structural intervention for homeless and unstably housed people living with HIV: rationale, methods, and implementation of the housing and health study.

    PubMed

    Kidder, Daniel P; Wolitski, Richard J; Royal, Scott; Aidala, Angela; Courtenay-Quirk, Cari; Holtgrave, David R; Harre, David; Sumartojo, Esther; Stall, Ron

    2007-11-01

    Homelessness and unstable housing have been associated with HIV risk behavior and poorer health among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), yet prior research has not tested causal associations. This paper describes the challenges, methods, and baseline sample of the Housing and Health Study, a longitudinal, multi-site, randomized controlled trial investigating the effects of providing immediate rental housing assistance to PLWHA who were homeless or at severe risk of homelessness. Primary outcomes included HIV disease progression, medical care access and utilization, treatment adherence, mental and physical health, and risks of transmitting HIV. Across three study sites, 630 participants completed baseline sessions and were randomized to receive either immediate rental housing assistance (treatment group) or assistance finding housing according to local standard practice (comparison group). Baseline sessions included a questionnaire, a two-session HIV risk-reduction counseling intervention, and blood sample collection to measure CD4 counts and viral load levels. Three follow-up visits occurred at 6, 12, and 18 months after baseline. Participants were mostly male, Black, unmarried, low-income, and nearly half were between 40 and 49 years old. At 18 months, 84% of the baseline sample was retained. The retention rates demonstrate the feasibility of conducting scientifically rigorous housing research, and the baseline results provide important information regarding characteristics of this understudied population that can inform future HIV prevention and treatment efforts.

  13. Selective access and editing in a database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maluf, David A. (Inventor); Gawdiak, Yuri O. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Method and system for providing selective access to different portions of a database by different subgroups of database users. Where N users are involved, up to 2.sup.N-1 distinguishable access subgroups in a group space can be formed, where no two access subgroups have the same members. Two or more members of a given access subgroup can edit, substantially simultaneously, a document accessible to each member.

  14. Using shared goal setting to improve access and equity: a mixed methods study of the Good Goals intervention in children’s occupational therapy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Access and equity in children’s therapy services may be improved by directing clinicians’ use of resources toward specific goals that are important to patients. A practice-change intervention (titled ‘Good Goals’) was designed to achieve this. This study investigated uptake, adoption, and possible effects of that intervention in children’s occupational therapy services. Methods Mixed methods case studies (n = 3 services, including 46 therapists and 558 children) were conducted. The intervention was delivered over 25 weeks through face-to-face training, team workbooks, and ‘tools for change’. Data were collected before, during, and after the intervention on a range of factors using interviews, a focus group, case note analysis, routine data, document analysis, and researchers’ observations. Results Factors related to uptake and adoptions were: mode of intervention delivery, competing demands on therapists’ time, and leadership by service manager. Service managers and therapists reported that the intervention: helped therapists establish a shared rationale for clinical decisions; increased clarity in service provision; and improved interactions with families and schools. During the study period, therapists’ behaviours changed: identifying goals, odds ratio 2.4 (95% CI 1.5 to 3.8); agreeing goals, 3.5 (2.4 to 5.1); evaluating progress, 2.0 (1.1 to 3.5). Children’s LoT decreased by two months [95% CI −8 to +4 months] across the services. Cost per therapist trained ranged from £1,003 to £1,277, depending upon service size and therapists’ salary bands. Conclusions Good Goals is a promising quality improvement intervention that can be delivered and adopted in practice and may have benefits. Further research is required to evaluate its: (i) impact on patient outcomes, effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and (ii) transferability to other clinical contexts. PMID:22898191

  15. The Change4Life Convenience Store Programme to Increase Retail Access to Fresh Fruit and Vegetables: A Mixed Methods Process Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Jean; Halligan, Joel; Burges Watson, Duika; Ryan, Vicky; Penn, Linda; Adamson, Ashley J.; White, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Background Consumption of fruit and vegetables is important for health, but is often lower than recommended and tends to be socio-economically patterned with lower consumption in more deprived groups. In 2008, the English Department of Health introduced the Change4Life convenience store programme. This aimed to increase retail access to fresh fruit and vegetables in deprived, urban areas by providing existing convenience stores with a range of support and branded point-of-sale materials and equipment. Methods We undertook a mixed-methods study of the Change4Life convenience store programme in the North East of England around two years after initial implementation. Store mapping (n = 87; 100% stores) and systematic in-store observations (n = 74; 85% stores) provided information on intervention fidelity; the variety, purchase price and quality of fresh fruit and vegetables on sale; and purchase price compared to a major supermarket. Ten qualitative interviews with a purposive sample of retailers and other professionals explored experiences of the intervention and provided further insight on quantitative results. Results Intervention stores were primarily located in socio-economically disadvantaged areas. Fidelity, in terms of presence of branded materials and equipment, was low and much was not being used as intended. Fresh fruit and vegetables on sale were of high quality and had a purchase price around 10% more than comparable products at a major supermarket. Interviewees were supportive of the health improvement aim of the intervention. Retailers were appreciative of part-funding for chill cabinets and free point-of-sale materials. The intervention suffered from: poor initial and on-going communication between the intervention delivery team and retailers; poor availability of replacement point-of-sale materials; and failure to cement intended links with health workers and community organisations. Conclusions Overall, intervention fidelity was low and the

  16. Using IT to improve access, communication, and asthma in African American and Hispanic/Latino Adults: Rationale, design, and methods of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Apter, Andrea J; Bryant-Stephens, Tyra; Morales, Knashawn H; Wan, Fei; Hardy, Sharmaine; Reed-Wells, Shakira; Dominguez, Maria; Gonzalez, Rodalyn; Mak, NaDea; Nardi, Alyssa; Park, Hami; Howell, John T; Localio, Russell

    2015-08-08

    Asthma morbidity is high among inner-city minority adults. Improving access to care and patient-provider communication are believed essential for improving outcomes. Access and communication in turn increasingly rely on information technology including features of the Electronic Health Record. Its patient portal offers web-based communication with providers and practices. How patients with limited resources and educational opportunities can benefit from this portal is unclear. In contrast, home visits by community health workers (CHWs) have improved access to care for asthmatic children and promoted caretaker-clinician communication. We describe the planning, design, and methodology of an ongoing randomized controlled trial for 300 adults, predominantly African American and Hispanic/Latino, with uncontrolled asthma recruited from low income urban neighborhoods who are directed to the most convenient internet access and taught to use the portal, with and without home visits from a CHW. The study 1) compares the effects of the 1-year interventions on asthma outcomes (improved asthma control, quality of life; fewer ED visits and hospitalizations for asthma or any cause), 2) evaluates whether communication (portal use) and access (appointments made/kept) mediate the interventions' effects on asthma outcomes, and 3) investigates effect modification by literacy level, primary language, and convenience of internet access. In home visits, CHWs 1) train patients to competency in portal use, 2) enhance care coordination, 3) communicate the complex social circumstances of patients' lives to providers, and 4) compensate for differences in patients' health literacy skills. The practical challenges to design and implementation in the targeted population are presented.

  17. Hemodialysis access procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... returned to your body. Usually the access is put in your arm but it can also go ... A surgeon will put the access in. There are 3 types of access. Fistula: The surgeon joins an artery and vein under the ...

  18. United States Access Board

    MedlinePlus

    ... disabilities through leadership in accessible design and the development of accessibility guidelines and standards for the built environment, transportation, communication, medical diagnostic equipment, and information technology. ...

  19. Critical Access Hospitals (CAH)

    MedlinePlus

    ... use requirements for Critical Access Hospitals related to Electronic Health Records (EHRs)? Critical Access Hospital (CAH) are eligible for Electronic Health Record (EHR) incentive payments and can receive ...

  20. “They just scraped off the calluses”: a mixed methods exploration of foot care access and provision for people with rheumatoid arthritis in south-western Sydney, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is little indication that foot health services in Australia are meeting modern day recommendations for Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) patients. The overall objective of this study was to explore the current state of foot health services for patients with RA with an emphasis on identifying barriers to the receipt of appropriate foot care in South-West Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Methods A mixed (quantitative and qualitative) approach was adopted. Indications for appropriate access to foot care were determined by comparing the foot health, disease and socio-demographic characteristics of patients with unmet foot care demands, foot care users and patients with no demands for foot care. Perceptions of provision of, and access to, foot care were explored by conducting telephone-based interviews using an interpretative phenomenology approach with thematic analysis. Results Twenty-nine participants took part in the cross-sectional quantitative research study design, and 12 participants took part in the interpretative phenomenological approach (qualitative study). Foot care access appeared to be driven predominantly by the presence of rearfoot deformity, which was significantly worse amongst participants in the foot care user group (p = 0.02). Five main themes emerged from the qualitative data: 1) impact of disease-related foot symptoms, 2) footwear difficulties, 3) medical/rheumatology encounters, 4) foot and podiatry care access and experiences, and 5) financial hardship. Conclusions Foot care provision does not appear to be driven by appropriate foot health characteristics such as foot pain or foot-related disability. There may be significant shortfalls in footwear and foot care access and provision in Greater Western Sydney. Several barriers to adequate foot care access and provision were identified and further efforts are required to improve access to and the quality of foot care for people who have RA. Integration of podiatry services within

  1. Estimation of the bio-accessible fraction of Cr, As, Cd and Pb in locally available bread using on-line continuous leaching method coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lamsal, Ram P; Beauchemin, Diane

    2015-03-31

    A previously developed, efficient and simple on-line leaching method was used to assess the maximum bio-accessible fraction (assuming no synergistic effect from other food and beverage) of potentially toxic elements (Cr, As, Cd and Pb) in whole wheat brown and white bread samples. Artificial saliva, gastric juice and intestinal juice were successively pumped into a mini-column, packed with bread (maintained at 37 °C) connected on-line to the nebulizer of an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) instrument equipped with a collision-reaction interface (CRI) using hydrogen as reaction gas to minimize carbon- and chlorine-based polyatomic interferences. In contrast to the conventional batch method to which it was compared, this approach provides real-time monitoring of potentially toxic elements that are continuously released during leaching. Mass balance for both methods was verified at the 95% confidence level. Results obtained from the whole wheat brown and white bread showed that the majority of Cr, Cd and Pb was leached by gastric juice but, in contrast, the majority of As was leached by saliva. While there was higher total content for elements in whole wheat bread than in white bread, a higher percentage of elements were bio-accessible in white bread than in whole wheat bread. Both the on-line and batch methods indicate that 40-98% of toxic elements in bread samples are bio-accessible. While comparison of total analyte concentrations with provisional tolerable daily intake values may indicate some serious health concern for children, when accounting for the bio-accessibility of these elements, bread consumption is found to be safe for all ages.

  2. 10 CFR 1040.74 - Accessibility in historic properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... building alterations or structural changes) before proceeding to subsection (b)(2) (methods to accomplish...) (methods to accomplish accessibility resulting in building alterations) before proceeding to subsection (b... Methods to Accomplish Accessibility without Building Alterations or Structural Changes, subsection...

  3. Solvent accessible surface area-based hot-spot detection methods for protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interfaces.

    PubMed

    Munteanu, Cristian R; Pimenta, António C; Fernandez-Lozano, Carlos; Melo, André; Cordeiro, Maria N D S; Moreira, Irina S

    2015-05-26

    Due to the importance of hot-spots (HS) detection and the efficiency of computational methodologies, several HS detecting approaches have been developed. The current paper presents new models to predict HS for protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions with better statistics compared with the ones currently reported in literature. These models are based on solvent accessible surface area (SASA) and genetic conservation features subjected to simple Bayes networks (protein-protein systems) and a more complex multi-objective genetic algorithm-support vector machine algorithms (protein-nucleic acid systems). The best models for these interactions have been implemented in two free Web tools.

  4. A Theory of Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribot, Jesse C.; Peluso, Nancy Lee

    2003-01-01

    The term "access" is frequently used by property and natural resource analysts without adequate definition. In this paper we develop a concept of access and examine a broad set of factors that differentiate access from property. We define access as "the "ability" to derive benefits from things," broadening from property's classical definition as…

  5. World Wide Access: Accessible Web Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Univ., Seattle.

    This brief paper considers the application of "universal design" principles to Web page design in order to increase accessibility for people with disabilities. Suggestions are based on the World Wide Web Consortium's accessibility initiative, which has proposed guidelines for all Web authors and federal government standards. Seven guidelines for…

  6. Access Nets: Modeling Access to Physical Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frohardt, Robert; Chang, Bor-Yuh Evan; Sankaranarayanan, Sriram

    Electronic, software-managed mechanisms using, for example, radio-frequency identification (RFID) cards, enable great flexibility in specifying access control policies to physical spaces. For example, access rights may vary based on time of day or could differ in normal versus emergency situations. With such fine-grained control, understanding and reasoning about what a policy permits becomes surprisingly difficult requiring knowledge of permission levels, spatial layout, and time. In this paper, we present a formal modeling framework, called AccessNets, suitable for describing a combination of access permissions, physical spaces, and temporal constraints. Furthermore, we provide evidence that model checking techniques are effective in reasoning about physical access control policies. We describe our results from a tool that uses reachability analysis to validate security policies.

  7. Bundling occupational safety with harm reduction information as a feasible method for improving police receptiveness to syringe access programs: evidence from three U.S. cities

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Corey S; Beletsky, Leo

    2009-01-01

    Introduction In light of overwhelming evidence that access to sterile injection equipment reduces incidence of injection-attributable bloodborne disease without encouraging drug use, many localities have authorized sterile syringe access programs (SAPs), including syringe exchange and pharmacy-based initiatives. Even where such interventions are clearly legal, many law enforcement officers are unaware of the public health benefits and legal status of these programs and may continue to treat the possession of injection equipment as illegal and program participation as a marker of illegal behavior. Law enforcement practice can impede SAP utilization and may increase the risk of needlestick injury (NSI) among law enforcement personnel. Many SAPs conduct little or no outreach to law enforcement, in part because they perceive law enforcement actors as unreceptive to health-promotion programs targeting drug users. Case description We report on a brief training intervention for law enforcement personnel designed to increase officer knowledge of and positive attitudes towards SAPs by bundling content that addresses officer concerns about infectious disease and occupational safety with information about the legality and public health benefits of these programs. Pilot trainings using this bundled curriculum were conducted with approximately 600 officers in three US cities. Discussion and evaluation Law enforcement officers were generally receptive to receiving information about SAPs through the bundled curriculum. The trainings led to better communication and collaboration between SAP and law enforcement personnel, providing a valuable platform for better harmonization of law enforcement and public health activities targeting injection drug users. Conclusion The experience in these three cities suggests that a harm reduction training curriculum that bundles strategies for increasing officer occupational safety with information about the legality and public health benefits of

  8. Primary vascular access.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, C P

    2006-05-01

    Primary vascular access is usually achievable by a distal autogenous arterio-venous fistula (AVF). This article describes the approach to vascular access planning, the usual surgical options and the factors affecting patency.

  9. Assay for transposase-accessible chromatin and circularized chromosome conformation capture, two methods to explore the regulatory landscapes of genes in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Miñán, A; Bessa, J; Tena, J J; Gómez-Skarmeta, J L

    2016-01-01

    Accurate transcriptional control of genes is fundamental for the correct functioning of organs and developmental processes. This control depends on the interplay between the promoter of genes and other noncoding sequences, whose interaction is mediated by 3D chromatin arrangements. Thus, the detailed description of transcriptional regulatory landscapes is essential to understand the mechanisms of transcriptional regulation. However, to achieve that, two important challenges have to be faced: (1) the identification of the noncoding sequences that contribute to gene transcription and (2) the association of these sequences to the respective genes they control. In this chapter, we describe two protocols that allow overcoming these important challenges: the assay for transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing (ATAC-seq) and circularized chromosome conformation capture (4C-seq). ATAC-seq is a very efficient technique that, using a very low number of cells as starting material, allows the identification of active chromatin regions genome wide, whereas 4C-seq detects the subset of sequences that interact specifically with the promoter of a given gene. When combined, both techniques provide a comprehensive snapshot of the regulatory landscapes of developmental genes. The protocols we present here have been optimized for teleost fish samples, zebrafish and medaka, allowing the in-depth study of transcriptional regulation in these two emerging animal models. Given the amenability and easy genetic manipulation of these two experimental systems, we anticipate that they will be important in revealing general principles of the vertebrate regulatory genome.

  10. Publishing in Open Access Education Journals: The Authors' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coonin, Bryna; Younce, Leigh M.

    2010-01-01

    Open access publishing is now an accepted method of scholarly communication. However, the greatest traction for open access publishing thus far has been in the sciences. Penetration of open access publishing has been much slower among the social sciences. This study surveys 309 authors from recent issues of open access journals in education to…

  11. [Accessible Rural Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Nick, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This issue of the quarterly newsletter "Rural Exchange" provides information and resources on accessible rural housing for the disabled. "Accessible Manufactured Housing Could Increase Rural Home Supply" (Nick Baker) suggests that incorporation of access features such as lever door handles and no-step entries into manufactured housing could help…

  12. Reflective Database Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lars E.

    2009-01-01

    "Reflective Database Access Control" (RDBAC) is a model in which a database privilege is expressed as a database query itself, rather than as a static privilege contained in an access control list. RDBAC aids the management of database access controls by improving the expressiveness of policies. However, such policies introduce new interactions…

  13. Open Access Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Open access publishing is a hot topic today. But open access publishing can have many different definitions, and pros and cons vary with the definitions. Open access publishing is especially attractive to companies and small colleges or universities that are likely to have many more readers than authors. A downside is that a membership fee sounds…

  14. Demystifying Remote Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Grant

    2009-01-01

    With money tight, more and more districts are considering remote access as a way to reduce expenses and budget information technology costs more effectively. Remote access allows staff members to work with a hosted software application from any school campus without being tied to a specific physical location. Each school can access critical…

  15. Measuring Spatial Accessibility of Health Care Providers – Introduction of a Variable Distance Decay Function within the Floating Catchment Area (FCA) Method

    PubMed Central

    Groneberg, David A.

    2016-01-01

    We integrated recent improvements within the floating catchment area (FCA) method family into an integrated ‘iFCA`method. Within this method we focused on the distance decay function and its parameter. So far only distance decay functions with constant parameters have been applied. Therefore, we developed a variable distance decay function to be used within the FCA method. We were able to replace the impedance coefficient β by readily available distribution parameter (i.e. median and standard deviation (SD)) within a logistic based distance decay function. Hence, the function is shaped individually for every single population location by the median and SD of all population-to-provider distances within a global catchment size. Theoretical application of the variable distance decay function showed conceptually sound results. Furthermore, the existence of effective variable catchment sizes defined by the asymptotic approach to zero of the distance decay function was revealed, satisfying the need for variable catchment sizes. The application of the iFCA method within an urban case study in Berlin (Germany) confirmed the theoretical fit of the suggested method. In summary, we introduced for the first time, a variable distance decay function within an integrated FCA method. This function accounts for individual travel behaviors determined by the distribution of providers. Additionally, the function inherits effective variable catchment sizes and therefore obviates the need for determining variable catchment sizes separately. PMID:27391649

  16. A patient advocate to facilitate access and improve communication, care, and outcomes in adults with moderate or severe asthma: Rationale, design, and methods of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Apter, Andrea J; Morales, Knashawn H; Han, Xiaoyan; Perez, Luzmercy; Huang, Jingru; Ndicu, Grace; Localio, Anna; Nardi, Alyssa; Klusaritz, Heather; Rogers, Marisa; Phillips, Alexis; Cidav, Zuleyha; Schwartz, J Sanford

    2017-03-14

    Few interventions to improve asthma outcomes have targeted low-income minority adults. Even fewer have focused on the real-world practice where care is delivered. We adapted a patient navigator, here called a Patient Advocate (PA), a term preferred by patients, to facilitate and maintain access to chronic care for adults with moderate or severe asthma and prevalent co-morbidities recruited from clinics serving low-income urban neighborhoods. We describe the planning, design, methodology (informed by patient and provider focus groups), baseline results, and challenges of an ongoing randomized controlled trial of 312 adults of a PA intervention implemented in a variety of practices. The PA coaches, models, and assists participants with preparations for a visit with the asthma clinician; attends the visit with permission of participant and provider; and confirms participants' understanding of what transpired at the visit. The PA facilitates scheduling, obtaining insurance coverage, overcoming patients' unique social and administrative barriers to carrying out medical advice and transfer of information between providers and patients. PA activities are individualized, take account of comorbidities, and are generalizable to other chronic diseases. PAs are recent college graduates interested in health-related careers, research experience, working with patients, and generally have the same race/ethnicity distribution as potential participants. We test whether the PA intervention, compared to usual care, is associated with improved and sustained asthma control and other asthma outcomes (prednisone bursts, ED visits, hospitalizations, quality of life, FEV1) relative to baseline. Mediators and moderators of the PA-asthma outcome relationship are examined along with the intervention's cost-effectiveness.

  17. The 'SAFARI' Technique Using Retrograde Access Via Peroneal Artery Access

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang, Kun Da; Tan, Seck Guan; Tay, Kiang Hiong

    2012-08-15

    The 'SAFARI' technique or subintimal arterial flossing with antegrade-retrograde intervention is a method for recanalisation of chronic total occlusions (CTOs) when subintimal angioplasty fails. Retrograde access is usually obtained via the popliteal, distal anterior tibial artery (ATA)/dorsalis pedis (DP), or distal posterior tibial artery (PTA). Distal access via the peroneal artery has not been described and has a risk of continued bleeding, leading to compartment syndrome due to its deep location. We describe our experience in two patients with retrograde access via the peroneal artery and the use of balloon-assisted hemostasis for these retrograde punctures. This approach may potentially give more options for endovascular interventions in lower limb CTOs.

  18. Accessible solitons of fractional dimension

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Wei-Ping; Belić, Milivoj; Zhang, Yiqi

    2016-05-15

    We demonstrate that accessible solitons described by an extended Schrödinger equation with the Laplacian of fractional dimension can exist in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media. The soliton solutions of the model are constructed by two special functions, the associated Legendre polynomials and the Laguerre polynomials in the fraction-dimensional space. Our results show that these fractional accessible solitons form a soliton family which includes crescent solitons, and asymmetric single-layer and multi-layer necklace solitons. -- Highlights: •Analytic solutions of a fractional Schrödinger equation are obtained. •The solutions are produced by means of self-similar method applied to the fractional Schrödinger equation with parabolic potential. •The fractional accessible solitons form crescent, asymmetric single-layer and multilayer necklace profiles. •The model applies to the propagation of optical pulses in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media.

  19. Improved hemodialysis access in children.

    PubMed

    Applebaum, H; Shashikumar, V L; Somers, L A; Baluarte, H J; Gruskin, A B; Grossman, M; McGarvey, M J; Weintraub, W H

    1980-12-01

    Vascular access for chronic hemodialysis in children is difficult because of problems that include obtaining vessels of sufficient size, the limited life-span of external shunts, and the multiple painful punctures associated with internal fistulae. Twenty-five expanded polytetraflouroethylene (PTFE) grafts of 6-mm diameter were inserted for dialysis access over a 2-yr period in 23 children. Grafts were placed either in the upper arm or thigh. Each patient was successfully dialyzed from 60 to 370 times. Longterm patency of the PTFE grafts was 88%, with a complication rate of 36%, mostly minor. The same ease of insertion and high flow characteristics were noted in a series of 22 bovine carotid heterograft (BCH) fistulae inserted in the two years immediately preceeding this study. However, the patency rate was only 36% and the complication rate was 69%, mostly major. We consider the PTFE graft fistula to be the preferred method for long-term hemodialysis access in children.

  20. Finding Information in (Very Large) Digital Libraries: A Deep Log Approach to Determining Differences in Use According to Method of Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholas, David; Huntington, Paul; Jamali, Hamid R.; Tenopir, Carol

    2006-01-01

    This report presents the early findings of an exploratory deep log analysis (DLA) of journal usage on OhioLINK, reporting on the information seeking methods of users. Compared to the users who sought information by browsing journals, those who conducted searches to find information and articles tended to record longer session times and viewed more…

  1. Expanding Access to a New, More Affordable Levonorgestrel Intrauterine System in Kenya: Service Delivery Costs Compared With Other Contraceptive Methods and Perspectives of Key Opinion Leaders

    PubMed Central

    Rademacher, Kate H; Solomon, Marsden; Brett, Tracey; Bratt, John H; Pascual, Claire; Njunguru, Jesse; Steiner, Markus J

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG IUS) is one of the most effective forms of contraception and offers important non-contraceptive health benefits. However, it is not widely available in developing countries, largely due to the high price of existing products. Medicines360 plans to introduce its new, more affordable LNG IUS in Kenya. The public‐sector transfer price will vary by volume between US$12 to US$16 per unit; for an order of 100,000 units, the public-sector transfer price will be approximately US$15 per unit. Methods: We calculated the direct service delivery cost per couple-years of protection (CYP) of various family planning methods. The model includes the costs of contraceptive commodities, consumable supplies, instruments per client visit, and direct labor for counseling, insertion, removal, and resupply, if required. The model does not include costs of demand creation or training. We conducted interviews with key opinion leaders in Kenya to identify considerations for scale-up of a new LNG IUS, including strategies to overcome barriers that have contributed to low uptake of the copper intrauterine device. Results: The direct service delivery cost of Medicines360’s LNG IUS per CYP compares favorably with other contraceptive methods commonly procured for public-sector distribution in Kenya. The cost is slightly lower than that of the 3-month contraceptive injectable, which is currently the most popular method in Kenya. Almost all key opinion leaders agreed that introducing a more affordable LNG IUS could increase demand and uptake of the method. They thought that women seeking the product’s non-contraceptive health benefits would be a key market segment, and most agreed that the reduced menstrual bleeding associated with the method would likely be viewed as an advantage. The key opinion leaders indicated that myths and misconceptions among providers and clients about IUDs must be addressed, and that demand creation

  2. Classification of 'Chemlali' accessions according to the geographical area using chemometric methods of phenolic profiles analysed by HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Taamalli, Amani; Arráez Román, David; Zarrouk, Mokhtar; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2012-05-01

    The present work describes a classification method of Tunisian 'Chemlali' olive oils based on their phenolic composition and geographical area. For this purpose, the data obtained by HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS from 13 samples of extra virgin olive oils, obtained from different production area throughout the country, were used for this study focusing in 23 phenolics compounds detected. The quantitative results showed a significant variability among the analysed oil samples. Factor analysis method using principal component was applied to the data in order to reduce the number of factors which explain the variability of the selected compounds. The data matrix constructed was subjected to a canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) in order to classify the oil samples. These results showed that 100% of cross-validated original group cases were correctly classified, which proves the usefulness of the selected variables.

  3. Beyond Admission: The Challenge for Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roger, Angela; Sutherland, Margaret

    1992-01-01

    The Scottish Wider Access Programme (SWAP) aims to increase adults' access to higher education. Interviews with SWAP students and educators revealed that SWAP had been invaluable in preparing nontraditional students for admission to higher education. Issues include improving teaching methods geared toward mature students, providing support…

  4. Librarians and Libraries Supporting Open Access Publishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Jennifer; Koufogiannakis, Denise; Ryan, Pam

    2009-01-01

    As new models of scholarly communication emerge, librarians and libraries have responded by developing and supporting new methods of storing and providing access to information and by creating new publishing support services. This article will examine the roles of libraries and librarians in developing and supporting open access publishing…

  5. Monitoring and Surveillance of Hemodialysis Access.

    PubMed

    Koirala, Nischal; Anvari, Evamaria; McLennan, Gordon

    2016-03-01

    Access surveillance using invasive or noninvasive methods with an objective to improve access patency and decrease hospital admissions for access dysfunction in dialysis population has been promoted, but its success to predict incipient thrombosis and subsequent access failure is a controversial topic. Some studies have shown improvement in access outcomes, while others have failed to demonstrate an ideal method to diagnose access problems. Furthermore, the use of endovascular interventions such as percutaneous transluminal angioplasty to timely correct access problem might itself be a promoter of neointimal hyperplasia and restenosis during balloon angioplasty. There are significant costs and efforts associated with routine dialysis surveillance; therefore, it is necessary to understand whether such programs will help improve access-related problems and guarantee adequate dialysis care. It is generally agreed upon that despite the lack of guaranteed success of surveillance, such strategies have helped improve dialysis management, resulted in decreased costs and hospitalizations, and represented clinically relevant indications of failure prior to planning any radiological or surgical intervention. In this study, the authors review monitoring and surveillance measures in place, and their associated merits and limitations to detect stenosis and prevent incidences of vascular access thrombosis.

  6. Channel Access in Erlang

    SciTech Connect

    Nicklaus, Dennis J.

    2013-10-13

    We have developed an Erlang language implementation of the Channel Access protocol. Included are low-level functions for encoding and decoding Channel Access protocol network packets as well as higher level functions for monitoring or setting EPICS process variables. This provides access to EPICS process variables for the Fermilab Acnet control system via our Erlang-based front-end architecture without having to interface to C/C++ programs and libraries. Erlang is a functional programming language originally developed for real-time telecommunications applications. Its network programming features and list management functions make it particularly well-suited for the task of managing multiple Channel Access circuits and PV monitors.

  7. Web Accessibility and Guidelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Simon; Yesilada, Yeliz

    Access to, and movement around, complex online environments, of which the World Wide Web (Web) is the most popular example, has long been considered an important and major issue in the Web design and usability field. The commonly used slang phrase ‘surfing the Web’ implies rapid and free access, pointing to its importance among designers and users alike. It has also been long established that this potentially complex and difficult access is further complicated, and becomes neither rapid nor free, if the user is disabled. There are millions of people who have disabilities that affect their use of the Web. Web accessibility aims to help these people to perceive, understand, navigate, and interact with, as well as contribute to, the Web, and thereby the society in general. This accessibility is, in part, facilitated by the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) currently moving from version one to two. These guidelines are intended to encourage designers to make sure their sites conform to specifications, and in that conformance enable the assistive technologies of disabled users to better interact with the page content. In this way, it was hoped that accessibility could be supported. While this is in part true, guidelines do not solve all problems and the new WCAG version two guidelines are surrounded by controversy and intrigue. This chapter aims to establish the published literature related to Web accessibility and Web accessibility guidelines, and discuss limitations of the current guidelines and future directions.

  8. Pay More Attention: a national mixed methods study to identify the barriers and facilitators to ensuring equal access to high-quality hospital care and services for children and young people with and without learning disabilities and their families

    PubMed Central

    Oulton, Kate; Wray, Jo; Carr, Lucinda; Hassiotis, Angela; Jewitt, Carey; Kerry, Sam; Gibson, Faith

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite evidence of health inequalities for adults with intellectual disability (ID) there has yet to be a comprehensive review of how well hospital services are meeting the needs of children and young people (CYP) with ID and their families. We do not know how relevant existing recommendations and guidelines are to CYP, whether these are being applied in the paediatric setting or what difference they are making. Evidence of parental dissatisfaction with the quality, safety and accessibility of hospital care for CYP with ID exists. However, the extent to which their experience differs from parents of CYP without ID is not known and the views and experiences of CYP with ID have not been investigated. We will compare how services are delivered to, and experienced by CYP aged 5–15 years with and without ID and their families to see what inequalities exist, for whom, why and under what circumstances. Methods and analysis We will use a transformative, mixed methods case study design to collect data over four consecutive phases. We will involve CYP, parents and hospital staff using a range of methods; interviews, parental electronic diary, hospital and community staff questionnaire, patient and parent satisfaction questionnaire, content analysis of hospital documents and a retrospective mapping of patient hospital activity. Qualitative data will be managed and analysed using NVivo and quantitative data will be analysed using parametric and non-parametric descriptive statistics. Ethics and dissemination The study will run from December 2015 to November 2018. We have Health Authority Approval (IRAS project ID: 193932) for phase 1 involving staff only and ethical and Health Authority Approval for phases 2–4 (IRAS project ID: 178525). We will disseminate widely to relevant stakeholders, using a range of accessible formats, including social media. We will publish in international peer-reviewed journals and present to professional, academic and lay audiences

  9. AccessAbility @ Cleveland Public Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mates, Barbara T.

    2003-01-01

    Describes several programs that were developed by staff at the Cleveland (Ohio) Public Library to be accessible to users with disabilities. Highlights include a Braille reading program; sensory garden; poetry club; book club based on talking books; wheelchair athletics; touching museum artifacts; and a mobile library for users who could not visit…

  10. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-05-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  11. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan; Jersey Inst Ansari, New; Jersey Inst, New

    2005-04-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  12. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-06-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  13. 29 CFR 1615.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION AND IN ACCESSIBILITY OF COMMISSION ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY... existing buildings, shall meet accessibility requirements to the extent compelled by the Architectural... among available methods for meeting the requirements of this section, the Commission shall give...

  14. Standards and Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Tom

    1993-01-01

    Argues that easy claims about the relationship between language mastery and academic or economic access (made by both conservative commentators on education and mainstream writing teachers) are false and obscure real social and political boundaries, such as racism, sexism, elitism, and homophobia, that really do prevent access. (SR)

  15. ACCESS Pointing Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brugarolas, Paul; Alexander, James; Trauger, John; Moody, Dwight; Egerman, Robert; Vallone, Phillip; Elias, Jason; Hejal, Reem; Camelo, Vanessa; Bronowicki, Allen; O'Connor, David; Partrick, Richard; Orzechowski, Pawel; Spitter, Connie; Lillie, Chuck

    2010-01-01

    ACCESS (Actively-Corrected Coronograph for Exoplanet System Studies) was one of four medium-class exoplanet concepts selected for the NASA Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study (ASMCS) program in 2008/2009. The ACCESS study evaluated four major coronograph concepts under a common space observatory. This paper describes the high precision pointing control system (PCS) baselined for this observatory.

  16. The Equal Access Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catron, J. Gregory

    1987-01-01

    Reviews past history of access of religious activities in public schools in relation to the establishment clause of the First Amendment and sets forth the prerequisites in the Equal Access Act of 1984 for creating a well-defined forum for student-initiated free speech including religious groups in public high schools. (MD)

  17. Access to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Felecia; De Oliver, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    This case study researches the degree to which the location and services offered by a multicampus university, geographically situated consistent with the commercial principles of a large mass-market enterprise, facilitate access for educationally underserved groups. First, the necessity of democratizing educational access to an underprivileged…

  18. Granting Each Equal Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walling, Linda Lucas

    1992-01-01

    Summarizes federal legislation regarding equal access for students with disabilities and discusses environmental barriers to accessibility in the library media center. Solutions to these design problems are suggested in the following areas: material formats and space requirements; the physical setting, including furniture, floor coverings,…

  19. MedlinePlus: Accessibility

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tools Español You Are Here: Home → MedlinePlus Accessibility URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/accessibility.html ... or (301) 594-5983 and provide the address (URL) of the page on which you need assistance, ...

  20. Design for Accessibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conn, David R.; McCallum, Barry

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the facets of building design which affect the accessibility of libraries for the physically disabled and presents some basic guidelines for designing accessible libraries. Types of disabilities, questions relating to site design, and specific architectural and physical features of libraries (entranceways, lighting, stairways, and…

  1. Effective access to health care in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Effective access measures are intended to reflect progress toward universal health coverage. This study proposes an operative approach to measuring effective access: in addition to the lack of financial protection, the willingness to make out-of-pocket payments for health care signifies a lack of effective access to pre-paid services. Methods Using data from a nationally representative health survey in Mexico, effective access at the individual level was determined by combining financial protection and effective utilization of pre-paid health services as required. The measure of effective access was estimated overall, by sex, by socioeconomic level, and by federal state for 2006 and 2012. Results In 2012, 48.49% of the Mexican population had no effective access to health services. Though this represents an improvement since 2006, when 65.9% lacked effective access, it still constitutes a major challenge for the health system. Effective access in Mexico presents significant heterogeneity in terms of federal state and socioeconomic level. Conclusions Measuring effective access will contribute to better target strategies toward universal health coverage. The analysis presented here highlights a need to improve quality, availability, and opportuneness (location and time) of health services provision in Mexico. PMID:24758691

  2. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-03-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  3. Including Language Access into Medicaid ACO Design.

    PubMed

    Gershon, Rachel; Morris, Lisa; Ferguson, Warren

    2016-09-01

    Quality health care relies upon communication in a patient's preferred language. Language access in health care occurs when individuals are: (1) Welcomed by providers regardless of language ability; and (2) Offered quality language services as part of their care. Federal law generally requires access to health care and quality language services for deaf and Limited English Proficient (LEP) patients in health care settings, but these patients still find it hard to access health care and quality language services.Meanwhile, several states are implementing Medicaid Accountable Care Organization (ACO) initiatives to reduce health care costs and improve health care quality. Alternative payment methods used in these initiatives can give Accountable Care Organizations more flexibility to design linguistically accessible care, but they can also put ACOs at increased financial risk for the cost of care. If these new payment methods do not account for differences in patient language needs, ACO initiatives could have the unintended consequence of rewarding ACOs who do not reach out to deaf and LEP communities or offer quality language services.We reviewed public documents related to Medicaid ACO initiatives in six states. Some of these documents address language access. More could be done, however, to pay for language access efforts. This article describes Medicaid ACO initiatives and explores how different payment tools could be leveraged to reward ACOs for increased access to care and quality language services. We find that a combination of payment tools might be helpful to encourage both access and quality.

  4. Remote direct memory access

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.

    2012-12-11

    Methods, parallel computers, and computer program products are disclosed for remote direct memory access. Embodiments include transmitting, from an origin DMA engine on an origin compute node to a plurality target DMA engines on target compute nodes, a request to send message, the request to send message specifying a data to be transferred from the origin DMA engine to data storage on each target compute node; receiving, by each target DMA engine on each target compute node, the request to send message; preparing, by each target DMA engine, to store data according to the data storage reference and the data length, including assigning a base storage address for the data storage reference; sending, by one or more of the target DMA engines, an acknowledgment message acknowledging that all the target DMA engines are prepared to receive a data transmission from the origin DMA engine; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, the acknowledgement message from the one or more of the target DMA engines; and transferring, by the origin DMA engine, data to data storage on each of the target compute nodes according to the data storage reference using a single direct put operation.

  5. Facilitating Full-text Access to Biomedical Literature Using Open Access Resources.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hongyu; Hou, Zhen; Li, Jiao

    2015-01-01

    Open access (OA) resources and local libraries often have their own literature databases, especially in the field of biomedicine. We have developed a method of linking a local library to a biomedical OA resource facilitating researchers' full-text article access. The method uses a model based on vector space to measure similarities between two articles in local library and OA resources. The method achieved an F-score of 99.61%. This method of article linkage and mapping between local library and OA resources is available for use. Through this work, we have improved the full-text access of the biomedical OA resources.

  6. NASA Access Mechanism (NAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Judy

    1993-01-01

    A 1991 user survey indicated that NASA users want (1) access to diverse sources of information; (2) an intuitive approach to system use; (3) avoidance of system query languages; (4) access to peers and other informal sources of information; and (5) simplified and enhanced presentation of search results. Based on these requirements and the use of an intelligent gateway processor, the NASA Access Mechanism (NAM) is being developed to provide the users with the semblance of a one stop shopping environment for information management.

  7. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-01-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks

    Guest Editors Jun Zheng, University of Ottawa Nirwan Ansari, New Jersey Institute of Technology

    Submission Deadline: 1 June 2005

    Background

    With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the

  8. Norway's ICT Accessibility Legislation, Methods and Indicators.

    PubMed

    Rygg, Malin; Rømen, Dagfinn; Sterri, Brynhild Runa

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Norwegian legislation on Universal Design of information and communication technology (ICT) and how the Norwegian Authority for Universal Design of ICT works to enforce and achieve the goals behind the legislation. The Authority uses indicators to check websites for compliance with the regulations. This paper describes the rationale and intended use for the indicators and how they are used for both supervision and benchmarks as well as a way of gathering data to give an overview of the current state of Universal Design of websites in Norway.

  9. HRP Data Accessibility 2009

    NASA Video Gallery

    Dr. Clarence Sams spoke at the 2009 Human Research Program's Investigators Workshop on the current status of Data Accessibility. In this presentation he discusses the content of the Human Life Scie...

  10. Access denied; invalid password.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2006-11-01

    Progress addressing access to oral health is difficult to evaluate because it is unclear what access means. Ozar's proposal that access should be defined by dentists as true dental need is criticized. It is proposed that four different types of treatment are currently identifiable in dentistry: 1) traditional oral health care, 2) oral care that has minimal or no health component, 3) episodic care, and 4) oral health outcomes not resulting from dentist interventions such as fluoridation. Each of these models has a different definition of care and of access. The profession is becoming segmented--including growing disparities among dentists in earning potential--to the point where a single model may no longer be able to cover all needs for oral health.

  11. EPA Accessibility Statement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is committed to making its websites and other electronic and information technology (EIT) accessible to the widest possible audience, including people with disabilities, in accordance with Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act.

  12. Equal Access to All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schettler, Joel

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the Section 508 amendment to the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 that directs the use of technology. Describes guidelines for online training accessibility with which vendors hoping for government business must fully comply. (JOW)

  13. Access to Investigational Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... access to investigational drugs being developed by pharmaceutical companies? Are there specific criteria used to determine whether ... laboratory. If the results are promising, the drug company or sponsor must apply for FDA approval to ...

  14. Problems of Accessibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Servedio, William; McLeod, William

    1980-01-01

    Increased participation in recreational programing by persons with handicapping conditions is a right that calls for significant changes in accessibility of facilities. Both interior and exterior building modifications must be made. (CJ)

  15. First Accessible Boat Launch

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a story about how the Northwest Indiana urban waters partnership location supported the process to create and open the first handicap accessible canoe and kayak launch in the state of Indiana.

  16. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-02-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  17. Mobile multiple access study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Multiple access techniques (FDMA, CDMA, TDMA) for the mobile user and attempts to identify the current best technique are discussed. Traffic loading is considered as well as voice and data modulation and spacecraft and system design. Emphasis is placed on developing mobile terminal cost estimates for the selected design. In addition, design examples are presented for the alternative techniques of multiple access in order to compare with the selected technique.

  18. Vascular Access in Children

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamurthy, Ganesh Keller, Marc S.

    2011-02-15

    Establishment of stable vascular access is one of the essential and most challenging procedures in a pediatric hospital. Many clinical specialties provide vascular service in a pediatric hospital. At the top of the 'expert procedural pyramid' is the pediatric interventional radiologist, who is best suited and trained to deliver this service. Growing awareness regarding the safety and high success rate of vascular access using image guidance has led to increased demand from clinicians to provide around-the-clock vascular access service by pediatric interventional radiologists. Hence, the success of a vascular access program, with the pediatric interventional radiologist as the key provider, is challenging, and a coordinated multidisciplinary team effort is essential for success. However, there are few dedicated pediatric interventional radiologists across the globe, and also only a couple of training programs exist for pediatric interventions. This article gives an overview of the technical aspects of pediatric vascular access and provides useful tips for obtaining vascular access in children safely and successfully using image guidance.

  19. Accessing opportunistic resources with Bosco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitzel, D.; Sfiligoi, I.; Bockelman, B.; Frey, J.; Wuerthwein, F.; Fraser, D.; Swanson, D.

    2014-06-01

    Bosco is a software project developed by the Open Science Grid to help scientists better utilize their on-campus computing resources. Instead of submitting jobs through a dedicated gatekeeper, as most remote submission mechanisms use, it uses the built-in SSH protocol to gain access to the cluster. By using a common access method, SSH, we are able to simplify the interaction with the cluster, making the submission process more user friendly. Additionally, it does not add any extra software to be installed on the cluster making Bosco an attractive option for the cluster administrator. In this paper, we will describe Bosco, the personal supercomputing assistant, and how Bosco is used by researchers across the U.S. to manage their computing workflows. In addition, we will also talk about how researchers are using it, including an unique use of Bosco to submit CMS reconstruction jobs to an opportunistic XSEDE resource.

  20. Availability and Accessibility in an Open Access Institutional Repository: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jongwook; Burnett, Gary; Vandegrift, Micah; Baeg, Jung Hoon; Morris, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study explores the extent to which an institutional repository makes papers available and accessible on the open Web by using 170 journal articles housed in DigiNole Commons, the institutional repository at Florida State University. Method: To analyse the repository's impact on availability and accessibility, we conducted…

  1. Caveat Emptor: The Head Start Scam. Policy Analysis No. 187.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, John

    This report questions the efficacy and utility of the Head Start program by challenging the widely accepted belief that early intervention can prevent future dependence and delinquency. This belief assumes that: (1) sweeping conclusions can be drawn from the study of a few unique preschool programs; (2) children's futures are fundamentally…

  2. Seniors' Brain Changes Could Make Them Vulnerable to Scams

    MedlinePlus

    ... that family members are the most common financial abusers of seniors. In Spreng's study, a grandson continued ... Federation for Aging Research, and associate professor, family medicine, neurology, psychology and gerontology, Keck School of Medicine ...

  3. ISDC Data Access Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, D.; Borkowski, J.; Contessi, T.; Lock, T.; Rohlfs, R.; Walter, R.

    The ISDC Data Access Layer (DAL) is an ANSI C and \\fortran 90 compatible library under development in support of the ESA INTEGRAL mission data analysis software. DALs primary purpose is to isolate the analysis software from the specifics of the data formats while at the same time providing new data abstraction and access capabilities. DAL supports the creation and manipulation of hierarchical data sets which may span multiple files and, in theory, multiple computer systems. A number of Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) are supported by DAL that allow software to view and access data at different levels of complexity. DAL also allows data sets to reside on disk, in conventional memory or in shared memory in a way that is transparent to the user/application.

  4. Vascular access for hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Vanholder, R; Ringoir, S

    1994-04-01

    Indwelling central venous catheters were consecutively used as access for acute and chronic hemodialysis, emergency treatment of pulmonary fluid overload, intoxication and electrolyte disturbances, plasmapheresis, and semiacute continuous dialysis strategies, such as continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration (CAVH). Modification in catheter structure also made it possible to use this access for long-term treatment (e.g., surgically insertable catheters [Hickman], soft large-bore catheters for blind insertion). We discuss the remaining open questions in this field: Which is the insertion site of preference (i.e., subclavian, femoral, or deep jugular)? Should we prefer stiff or soft catheters? Should soft catheters be positioned surgically or is blind insertion by nonsurgeons as adequate? Is it necessary to couple catheter insertion to adjuvant techniques, such as echographic guidance, to reduce complications? Is the currently used polymer structure of the catheters acceptable? Should catheter dialysis be used with single or double vascular access?

  5. Restaurant wheelchair accessibility.

    PubMed

    McClain, L; Beringer, D; Kuhnert, H; Priest, J; Wilkes, E; Wilkinson, S; Wyrick, L

    1993-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the compliance of restaurants to the wheelchair accessibility standards set forth in the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards. The standards that were operationalized in this study are also found in Title III of the Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990. The data were collected at 120 sites in three midwestern states. For one who uses a wheelchair, parking the car is often an obstacle to eating out. Only 53% of the restaurants surveyed provide handicapped parking. Entering the building may also be a problem. Of the restaurants that required a ramp, only 66% provided them. Inside the restaurant, the key problems were accessible rest-rooms and the height of tables. The study provided comparisons between restaurants in rural and urban settings, as well as comparisons between conventional restaurants and fast food restaurants. No notable differences emerged for these comparisons.

  6. Central venous access.

    PubMed

    Ganeshan, Arul; Warakaulle, Dinuke R; Uberoi, Raman

    2007-01-01

    Central venous access plays an important role in the management of an ever-increasing population of patients ranging from those that are critically ill to patients with difficult clinical access. Interventional radiologists are key in delivering this service and should be familiar with the wide range of techniques and catheters now available to them. A comprehensive description of these catheters with regard to indications, technical aspects of catheterization, success rates, and associated early and late complications, as well as a review of various published guidelines on central venous catheter insertion are given in this article.

  7. Accessibility | Smokefree 60+

    Cancer.gov

    60plus.smokefree.gov is committed to making its websites accessible to all individuals—disabled or not—who are seeking information. To provide this information, the Smokefree 60+ website has been designed to comply with Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act (as amended). Section 508 requires that all individuals with disabilities (whether they are federal government employees or members of the general public) have access to and use of information and data comparable to that provided to individuals without disabilities, unless an undue burden would be imposed.

  8. Disability access. Open season.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Brian

    2003-04-24

    A disability access audit carried out at a trust operating over 50 sites revealed that a 2.3m Pounds programme of work was needed. The audit took four months, with the team spending a day at each of the premises. The audit has been followed by a staff training programme in disability awareness. The trust's information systems now show if a patient did not attend an appointment because of difficulties with physical access. All letters to patients are produced in a minimum 12-point type.

  9. Empower: access to medicine - working towards early access.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Jennifer Bryant; Turgoose, James; Hargrave, James

    2015-01-01

    Empower: Access to Medicine's contribution will document the founding of Empower: Access to Medicine and tactics used to create a lobbying campaign designed to facilitate the debate around barriers to medical innovation and patient access to medicines. The article will detail the evolution of the campaign's goals and the potential solutions to an expensive and slow system. Specifically the submission will look at the influence that Empower: Access to Medicine had on the Government's thinking and development of an early access scheme.

  10. Removal of phyto-accessible copper from contaminated soils using zero valent iron amendment and magnetic separation methods: Assessment of residual toxicity using plant and MetPLATE™ studies.

    PubMed

    Feng, Nan; Ghoveisi, Hossein; Bitton, Gabriel; Bonzongo, Jean-Claude J

    2016-12-01

    Zero valent iron (ZVI) has been widely tested and used in remediation of both contaminated soils and groundwater, and in general, the in situ amendment of the contaminated media is used as remediation approach. However, concerns remain as to the potential detrimental effects of both the immobilized ZVI and the adsorbed pollutants as the treated system could undergo transformations over time. Accordingly, plans for soil remediation by in situ immobilization of sorbents should include a long-term monitoring of the treated systems. Here, we report on a comparative study in which artificially Cu-contaminated sandy and organic soils characterized by different metal binding capacities were treated by either (i) in situ immobilization of ZVI in the soils, or (ii) by a ZVI amendment followed by magnetic retrieval of formed ZVI-Cu complexes prior to plant growth studies. The latter relies on the combination of the high metal adsorption capacity and magnetism of ZVI. Two plant species, Lactuca sativa (lettuce) and Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) were used to assess the efficiency of the two treatment methods in eliminating the bioavailable fraction of Cu. Overall, the results showed that, if soil remediation by in situ immobilization reduces the bio-accessible fraction of Cu, treatment using ZVI amendment followed by magnetic separation performs better. The latter resulted in less Cu accumulated in the shoots and roots of plants. In parallel to the plant growth study, we used MetPLATE™, a short-term bioassay based on the inhibition of the β-galactosidase enzyme by the bioavailable fraction of heavy metal cations, to predict the efficiency of the two treatment methods with regard to the elimination of Cu phyto-toxicity. The results of the bioassay confirmed the trends of phyto-toxicity results, suggesting that MetPLATE™ could be an adequate alternative to the more expensive, labor intensive, and time consuming plant growth studies.

  11. HRP Data Accessibility Current Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sams, Clarence

    2009-01-01

    Overview of talk: a) Content of Human Life Science data; b) Data archive structure; c) Applicable legal documents and policies; and d) Methods for data access. Life Science Data Archive (LSDA) contains research data from NASA-funded experiments, primarily data from flight experiments and ground analog data collected at NASA facilities. Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH) contains electronic health records (medical data) of all astronauts, including mission data. Data are collected for clinical purposes. Clinical data are analyzed by LSAH epidemiologists to identify trends in crew health and implement changes in pre-, in-, or post-flight medical care.

  12. Managing Information Resources for Accessibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Services Administration, Washington, DC. Clearinghouse on Computer Accommodation.

    This handbook presents guidance for federal managers and other personnel who are unfamiliar with the policy and practice of information accessibility to accommodate users with disabilities and to provide for their effective access to information resources. It addresses federal requirements for accessibility, adopting accessibility as a sound…

  13. Digital Scholarship and Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losoff, Barbara; Pence, Harry E.

    2010-01-01

    Open access publications provide scholars with unrestricted access to the "conversation" that is the basis for the advancement of knowledge. The large number of open access journals, archives, and depositories already in existence demonstrates the technical and economic viability of providing unrestricted access to the literature that is the…

  14. Serving up Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    When low-income students returned to Chicago public schools this fall, many had better access to technology, thanks to a public-private partnership. Chicago families with children enrolled in the National School Lunch Program are eligible for subsidized computers and Internet connections through an agreement between the city and telecom giant…

  15. ACCESS Project: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, Heiko

    2015-04-01

    The ACCESS project addressed the development, testing, and demonstration of the proposed advanced technologies and the associated emission and fuel economy improvement at an engine dynamometer and on a full-scale vehicle. Improve fuel economy by 25% with minimum performance penalties Achieve SULEV level emissions with gasoline Demonstrate multi-mode combustion engine management system

  16. ACCENT ON ACCESS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHATELAIN, LEON, JR.; AND OTHERS

    EMPHASIS IS GIVEN ON ACCESSIBILITY TO PUBLIC BUILDINGS BY THE HANDICAPPED. ATTENTION IS DIRECTED TO THIS SUBJECT INASMUCH AS ARCHITECTS GENERALLY HAVE OVERLOOKED THE PROBLEM. HENCE, PUBLIC BUILDINGS ARE NOT TRULY AVAILABLE TO THE TOTAL PUBLIC. IN RECENT YEARS, HOWEVER, LEGISLATION HAS BECOME INCREASINGLY MORE COMMON TO CORRECT THE SITUATION. THE…

  17. Partners: Promoting Accessible Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Janet; Gravink, Jill

    1995-01-01

    The Promoting Accessible Recreation through Networking, Education, Resources and Services (PARTNERS) Project, a partnership between Northeast Passage, the University of New Hampshire, and Granite State Independent Living Foundation, helps create barrier-free recreation for individuals with physical disabilities. The paper describes PARTNERS and…

  18. College Access Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    College Access Marketing (CAM) is a relatively new phenomenon that seeks to positively influence the college-going rate. This report defines CAM, describes CAM examples, and discusses how CAM seeks to counter barriers to college. It explores four main elements of CAM: information, marketing, advocacy, and social mobilization. Further, it…

  19. Improved Access to Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Sandra; Simkins, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Describes efforts by principal of the Willow Elementary School in the Charter Oak Unified School District (California) to provide students with technology-enhanced access to information and learning resources to improve reading and mathematics skills. Includes list of the Web addresses for the skills software used at the school. (PKP)

  20. Internet 2 Access Grid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simco, Greg

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of the Internet 2 Initiative, which is based on collaboration among universities, businesses, and government, focuses on the Access Grid, a Computational Grid that includes interactive multimedia within high-speed networks to provide resources to enable remote collaboration among the research community. (Author/LRW)

  1. Accessible Theatre Arts Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Curriculum Development.

    Intended to help administrators and theatre teachers provide a theatre arts program accessible to disabled actors, technicians, and audiences, the guide focuses on ways to alleviate limitations in the theatre. The following topics are addressed (sample subtopics in parentheses): awareness (use of improvisations and simulations); acclimatization…

  2. Access to Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Donald S.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how modern library systems can protect collections while not impeding disabled persons' access to facilities. Describes the problem with swinging gates and offers some security alternatives, such as high-tech gateless security, video detection, and voice alarms, that do not impede disabled persons' movements. (RJM)

  3. CAS. Controlled Access Security

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, B.; Pomeroy, G.

    1989-12-01

    The Security Alarm System is a data acquisition and control system which collects data from intrusion sensors and displays the information in a real-time environment for operators. The Access Control System monitors and controls the movement of personnel with the use of card readers and biometrics hand readers.

  4. APS and Open Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-03-01

    The movement toward Open Access continues to gain momentum. A brief review of APS efforts in this area will be presented by APS Editor in Chief, Gene Sprouse. Editors from Physical Review A, B, E, Focus, Letters, and X, Reviews of Modern Physics, and Physics will address your questions about publishing in this evolving environment.

  5. Accessibility Standards, Illustrated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Michael A.

    The book sets forth Illinois environmental accessibility standards for disabled persons based on observation and interview data. Photographs, drawings, and detailed floor plans are included in sections dealing with human data (including space requirements for maneuvering wheelchairs, color blindness, incontinence, and severe auditory or visual…

  6. Computer Accessibility Technology Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This technology information packet includes information about the technical aspects of access to technology, legal obligations concerning technology and individuals with disabilities, and a list of resources for further information and assistance. A question and answer section addresses: barriers to educational technology for students with…

  7. Fixed Access Network Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornaglia, Bruno; Young, Gavin; Marchetta, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Fixed broadband network deployments are moving inexorably to the use of Next Generation Access (NGA) technologies and architectures. These NGA deployments involve building fiber infrastructure increasingly closer to the customer in order to increase the proportion of fiber on the customer's access connection (Fibre-To-The-Home/Building/Door/Cabinet… i.e. FTTx). This increases the speed of services that can be sold and will be increasingly required to meet the demands of new generations of video services as we evolve from HDTV to "Ultra-HD TV" with 4k and 8k lines of video resolution. However, building fiber access networks is a costly endeavor. It requires significant capital in order to cover any significant geographic coverage. Hence many companies are forming partnerships and joint-ventures in order to share the NGA network construction costs. One form of such a partnership involves two companies agreeing to each build to cover a certain geographic area and then "cross-selling" NGA products to each other in order to access customers within their partner's footprint (NGA coverage area). This is tantamount to a bi-lateral wholesale partnership. The concept of Fixed Access Network Sharing (FANS) is to address the possibility of sharing infrastructure with a high degree of flexibility for all network operators involved. By providing greater configuration control over the NGA network infrastructure, the service provider has a greater ability to define the network and hence to define their product capabilities at the active layer. This gives the service provider partners greater product development autonomy plus the ability to differentiate from each other at the active network layer.

  8. Accessibility in Text and Discourse Processing

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Ted J.M.; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2014-01-01

    Accessibility is one of the most important challenges at the intersection of linguistic and psycholinguistic studies of text and discourse processing. Linguists have shown how linguistic indicators of referential coherence show a systematic pattern: Longer linguistic forms (like full lexical NPs) tend to be used when referents are relatively low accessible, shorter forms (pronouns and zero anaphora) are used when referents are highly accessible. This linguistic theory fits in nicely with a dynamic view of text and discourse processing: When a reader proceeds through a text, the activation of concepts as part of the reader’s representation fluctuates constantly. Hypotheses considering activation patterns can be tested with on-line research methods like reading time or eye-movement recording. The articles in this special issue show how accessibility phenomena need to be studied from a linguistic and a psycholinguistic angle, and in the latter case from interpretation as well as production. PMID:25520533

  9. Internet access to ionosondes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, I. A.; Kitrosser, D. F.; Kecic, Z.; Reinisch, B. W.

    1999-01-01

    Connecting ionosondes to the Internet gives easy access to real-time information on ionospheric conditions. Some of the ionosonde sites provide just the ionogram displays, others give in addition the scaled ionospheric characteristics directly usable for frequency management and HF channel assessment. Some sounders also store days or months of station data, which makes it possible remotely to evaluate the time history of geophysical events. The Internet link is also a convenient means for remote system maintenance and control. The paper addresses various aspects of the Internet ionosonde scenario, including data base support, WWW publishing, user interface, security, and data format. A list of Internet accessible ionosonde stations is provided with a brief description.

  10. [Complex vascular access].

    PubMed

    Mangiarotti, G; Cesano, G; Thea, A; Hamido, D; Pacitti, A; Segoloni, G P

    1998-03-01

    Availability of a proper vascular access is a basic condition for a proper extracorporeal replacement in end-stage chronic renal failure. However, biological factors, management and other problems, may variously condition their middle-long term survival. Therefore, personal experience of over 25 years has been critically reviewed in order to obtain useful information. In particular "hard" situations necessitating complex procedures have been examined but, if possible, preserving the peripherical vascular features.

  11. History of vascular access.

    PubMed

    Dudrick, Stanley J

    2006-01-01

    Milestones in the history of the development of vascular access and the subsequent advances in practical clinical applications of the knowledge, techniques, technology, and experience to the beneficial management of a variety of patients are described. The original achievements are presented and briefly discussed primarily, but not exclusively, in relationship to the successful development of parenteral nutrition (PN). Beginning with the discovery of the circulation of blood, landmark events, resulting from astute observations, experimentation, and ingenious technological advances, are summarized or outlined chronologically over the past 4 centuries, with emphasis on the many recent accomplishments of basic and clinical scientists during the past 6 decades. Brief descriptions of several seminal contributions to safe and effective IV access, management, and therapy acknowledge and recognize the historical highlights that have allowed a complex and potentially hazardous therapeutic modality to evolve into a commonly applied useful adjunct to our current inpatient and outpatient armamentarium. A comprehensive list of references documents the highlights of the development of vascular access for the student of history.

  12. [Utility of intra-access pressure].

    PubMed

    Caro, P; Delgado, R; Dapena, F; Aguilera, A

    2004-01-01

    Monitoring of vascular access is essential for clinical evaluation on hemodialysis patients, detects early disfunction of access, allows adequate dialysis and decreases the morbidity associated. Although is demonstrated that intra-access pressure (IAP) is a good method of screening to evaluate arterial-venous (AV) fistulas, its utility is uncommon because its measurement requires a complex system. We would like to validate the utility of IAP monitoring using a simplified measure of IAP and its relation with other methods of screening in detecting stenoses prior to thromboses of AV grafts. We studied 24 AV grafts of 24 patients during 18 months we measured arterial pressure, mean arterial pressure (MAP), dynamic venous pressure, IAP, Kt/v, URR, recirculation index (RI), access flow and color Doppler flow, dividing the patients in two groups, with stenoses or not, if IAP/MAP > 0.5 and stenoses > 0.50 by Doppler we performed arteriography and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stent if stenoses exits. The values of IAP, MAP, RI were higher significantly in the stenoses group with increase of vascular access in grafts were dilation by angioplasty was made. All stenoses detected with IAP were confirmed by Doppler and arteriography but one. We conclude that IAP is an early, useful, easy, effective method in detecting stenoses of AV grafts prior to thrombosis.

  13. 28 CFR 39.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... persons receive the benefits and services of the program or activity. (b) Methods. The agency may comply... services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery of services..., use of accessible rolling stock, or any other methods that result in making its programs or...

  14. 22 CFR 219.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... program or activity. (b) Methods. The agency may comply with the requirements of this section through such means as redesign of equipment, reassignment of services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to... facilities and construction of new facilities, use of accessible rolling stock, or any other methods...

  15. 6 CFR 15.50 - Program accessibility; existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... make them accessible to and usable by individuals with a disability where other methods are effective... with a disability receive the benefits and services of the program or activity. (b) Methods. The..., reassignment of services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits,...

  16. 36 CFR 406.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Methods. The agency may comply with the requirements of this section through such means as redesign of equipment, reassignment of services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home... construction of new facilities, use of accessible rolling stock, or any other methods that result in making...

  17. 10 CFR 1041.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... benefits and services of the program or activity. (b) Methods. The agency may comply with the requirements... buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery of services at alternate accessible... stock, or any other methods that result in making its programs or activities readily accessible to...

  18. 16 CFR 6.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... receive the benefits and services of the program or activity. (b) Methods. The Commission may comply with... to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery of services at... accessible rolling stock, or any methods that result in making its programs or activities readily...

  19. 36 CFR 1154.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... benefits and services of the program or activity. (b) Methods. The agency may comply with the requirements... buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery of services at alternate accessible... stock, or any other methods that result in making its programs or activities readily accessible to...

  20. 45 CFR 1214.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... program or activity. (b) Methods. The agency may comply with the requirements of this section through such means as redesign of equipment, reassignment of services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to... facilities and construction of new facilities, use of accessible rolling stock, or any other methods...

  1. 49 CFR 807.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... program or activity. (b) Methods. The agency may comply with the requirements of this section through such means as redesign of equipment, reassignment of services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to... facilities and construction of new facilities, use of accessible rolling stock, or any other methods...

  2. After Access: Underrepresented Students' Postmatriculation Perceptions of College Access Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Means, Darris R.; Pyne, Kimberly B.

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the perceived impact of college-going capital gained during participation in a college access program. In three, semistructured interviews spanning the first-year college experience, 10 first-year college students who participated in a college access program articulate the value of access programming and also raise…

  3. Not All Lexical Access Tasks Are Created Equal: Lexical Development between Three and Five

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isacoff, Nora M.; Stromswold, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Lexical access tasks are designed to measure efficiency of lexical access, but task demands and methods vary greatly. Many lexical access tasks do not account for confounding factors including competence in other linguistic abilities. In this study, preschoolers were given two lexical access tasks. In the single-category naming (SCN) task,…

  4. 77 FR 69454 - Emergency Access Advisory Committee; Announcement of Date of Next Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-19

    ... discussion of draft reports from the EAAC subcommittees and other activities needed to ensure access to 911... and efficient technologies and methods by which to enable access to Next Generation 911 (NG 9-1-1... needed to ensure access to 911 by individuals with disabilities. The meeting site is fully accessible...

  5. EPICS: Channel Access security design

    SciTech Connect

    Kraimer, M.; Hill, J.

    1994-05-01

    This document presents the design for implementing the requirements specified in: EPICS -- Channel Access Security -- functional requirements, Ned. D. Arnold, 03/09/92. Use of the access security system is described along with a summary of the functional requirements. The programmer`s interface is given. Security protocol is described and finally aids for reading the access security code are provided.

  6. Access to Emergency Care in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Brendan G.; Branas, Charles C.; Metlay, Joshua P.; Sullivan, Ashley F.; Camargo, Carlos A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Rapid access to emergency services is essential for emergency care sensitive conditions such as acute myocardial infarction, stroke, sepsis, and major trauma. We sought to determine US population access to an emergency department (ED). Methods The National Emergency Department Inventories (NEDI) – USA was used to identify the location, annual visit volume, and teaching status of all EDs in the US. EDs were categorized as 1) any ED, 2) by patient volume, and 3) by teaching status. Driving distances, driving speeds, and prehospital times were estimated using validated models and adjusted for population density. Access was determined by summing the population that could reach an ED within the specified time intervals. Results Overall, 71% of the US population has access to an ED within 30 minutes, and 98% has access within 60 minutes. Access to teaching hospitals was more limited, with 16% having access within 30 minutes and 44% within 60 minutes. Rural states had lower access to all types of EDs. Conclusions Although the majority of the US population has access to an ED, there are regional disparities in ED access, especially by rurality. Future efforts should measure the relationship between access to emergency services and outcomes for emergency care sensitive conditions. The development of a regionalized emergency care delivery system should be explored. PMID:19201059

  7. Preservation Film: Platform for Digital Access Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, C. Lee

    Preservation efforts for an increasingly digitally oriented future have turned to advanced and improved methods of preservation on microfilm, which has a life expectancy of more than 500 years when properly prepared, stored, and managed, and can support a wide range of digital access systems. Computer controlled cameras can provide significantly…

  8. 29 CFR 32.27 - Accessibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Classroom Training and On-the-Job-Training, when each part is viewed in its entirety, is readily accessible... required to make structural changes in existing facilities where other methods are effective in achieving... the effective date of this part except that where structural changes in facilities are necessary,...

  9. 24 CFR 8.32 - Accessibility standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 3-8 of the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) shall be deemed to comply with the... technical and scoping requirements of the UFAS by the use of other methods are permitted where substantially... interested in obtaining a copy of the UFAS are directed to § 40.7 of this title. (b) For purposes of...

  10. 24 CFR 8.32 - Accessibility standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 3-8 of the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) shall be deemed to comply with the... technical and scoping requirements of the UFAS by the use of other methods are permitted where substantially... interested in obtaining a copy of the UFAS are directed to § 40.7 of this title. (b) For purposes of...

  11. 18 CFR 1307.6 - Accessibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... conformance with Sections 3-8 of the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) (41 CFR Subpart 101-19.6... buildings. Departures from particular technical and scoping requirements of UFAS by the use of other methods... provided. (3) For purposes of this section, section 4.1.6(1)(g) of UFAS shall be interpreted to exempt...

  12. 24 CFR 8.32 - Accessibility standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 3-8 of the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) shall be deemed to comply with the... technical and scoping requirements of the UFAS by the use of other methods are permitted where substantially... interested in obtaining a copy of the UFAS are directed to § 40.7 of this title. (b) For purposes of...

  13. 18 CFR 1307.6 - Accessibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... conformance with Sections 3-8 of the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) (41 CFR Subpart 101-19.6... buildings. Departures from particular technical and scoping requirements of UFAS by the use of other methods... provided. (3) For purposes of this section, section 4.1.6(1)(g) of UFAS shall be interpreted to exempt...

  14. 24 CFR 8.32 - Accessibility standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 3-8 of the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) shall be deemed to comply with the... technical and scoping requirements of the UFAS by the use of other methods are permitted where substantially... interested in obtaining a copy of the UFAS are directed to § 40.7 of this title. (b) For purposes of...

  15. 18 CFR 1307.6 - Accessibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... conformance with Sections 3-8 of the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) (41 CFR Subpart 101-19.6... buildings. Departures from particular technical and scoping requirements of UFAS by the use of other methods... provided. (3) For purposes of this section, section 4.1.6(1)(g) of UFAS shall be interpreted to exempt...

  16. 24 CFR 8.32 - Accessibility standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 3-8 of the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) shall be deemed to comply with the... technical and scoping requirements of the UFAS by the use of other methods are permitted where substantially... interested in obtaining a copy of the UFAS are directed to § 40.7 of this title. (b) For purposes of...

  17. 18 CFR 1307.6 - Accessibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... conformance with Sections 3-8 of the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) (41 CFR Subpart 101-19.6... buildings. Departures from particular technical and scoping requirements of UFAS by the use of other methods... provided. (3) For purposes of this section, section 4.1.6(1)(g) of UFAS shall be interpreted to exempt...

  18. 18 CFR 1307.6 - Accessibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... conformance with Sections 3-8 of the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) (41 CFR subpart 101-19.6... buildings. Departures from particular technical and scoping requirements of UFAS by the use of other methods... provided. (3) For purposes of this section, section 4.1.6(1)(g) of UFAS shall be interpreted to exempt...

  19. Macroscopic characterisations of Web accessibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Rui; Carriço, Luis

    2010-12-01

    The Web Science framework poses fundamental questions on the analysis of the Web, by focusing on how microscopic properties (e.g. at the level of a Web page or Web site) emerge into macroscopic properties and phenomena. One research topic on the analysis of the Web is Web accessibility evaluation, which centres on understanding how accessible a Web page is for people with disabilities. However, when framing Web accessibility evaluation on Web Science, we have found that existing research stays at the microscopic level. This article presents an experimental study on framing Web accessibility evaluation into Web Science's goals. This study resulted in novel accessibility properties of the Web not found at microscopic levels, as well as of Web accessibility evaluation processes themselves. We observed at large scale some of the empirical knowledge on how accessibility is perceived by designers and developers, such as the disparity of interpretations of accessibility evaluation tools warnings. We also found a direct relation between accessibility quality and Web page complexity. We provide a set of guidelines for designing Web pages, education on Web accessibility, as well as on the computational limits of large-scale Web accessibility evaluations.

  20. Jejunal access loop cholangiogram and intervention using image guided access.

    PubMed

    Amitha Vikrama, K S; Keshava, S N; Surendrababu, N R S; Moses, V; Joseph, P; Vyas, F; Sitaram, V

    2010-02-01

    Jejunal access loop is fashioned in patients who undergo Roux en Y hepaticojejunostomy and biliary intervention is anticipated on follow up. Post-operative study of the biliary tree through the access loop is usually done under fluoroscopic guidance. We present a series of 20 access loop cholangiograms performed in our institution between August 2004 and November 2008. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the procedure and to highlight the role of CT guidance in procuring access. Access loop was accessed using CT (n = 13), ultrasound (n = 3) or fluoroscopic guidance (n = 4). Fluoroscopy was used for performing cholangiograms and interventions. Twelve studies had balloon plasty of the stricture at anastomotic site or high up in the hepatic ducts. Seven studies showed normal cholangiogram. Plasty was unsuccessful in one study. Technical success in accessing the jejunal access loop was 100%; in cannulation of anastomotic site and balloon plasty it was 95%. One case required two attempts. Procedure-related complications were not seen. All patients who underwent balloon plasty of the stricture were doing well for variable lengths of time. Access loop cholangiogram and interventions are safe and effective. CT guidance in locating/procuring the access loop is a good technique.

  1. RACBVHs: random-accessible compressed bounding volume hierarchies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Joon; Moon, Bochang; Kim, Duksu; Yoon, Sung-Eui

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel compressed bounding volume hierarchy (BVH) representation, random-accessible compressed bounding volume hierarchies (RACBVHs), for various applications requiring random access on BVHs of massive models. Our RACBVH representation is compact and transparently supports random access on the compressed BVHs without decompressing the whole BVH. To support random access on our compressed BVHs, we decompose a BVH into a set of clusters. Each cluster contains consecutive bounding volume (BV) nodes in the original layout of the BVH. Also, each cluster is compressed separately from other clusters and serves as an access point to the RACBVH representation. We provide the general BVH access API to transparently access our RACBVH representation. At runtime, our decompression framework is guaranteed to provide correct BV nodes without decompressing the whole BVH. Also, our method is extended to support parallel random access that can utilize the multicore CPU architecture. Our method can achieve up to a 12:1 compression ratio, and more importantly, can decompress 4.2 M BV nodes ({=}135 {\\rm MB}) per second by using a single CPU-core. To highlight the benefits of our approach, we apply our method to two different applications: ray tracing and collision detection. We can improve the runtime performance by more than a factor of 4 as compared to using the uncompressed original data. This improvement is a result of the fast decompression performance and reduced data access time by selectively fetching and decompressing small regions of the compressed BVHs requested by applications.

  2. Radial access for cerebrovascular procedures: Case report and technical note

    PubMed Central

    Vance, Ansar Z; Sivapatham, Thinesh

    2015-01-01

    Background Advantages of radial access over brachial/axillary or femoral access have been well described for several decades and include decreased cost, patient preference, and decreased major access site complications. Despite these advantages, radial access is rarely employed or even considered for neurointerventional procedures. This attitude should be reconsidered given several recent large, randomized, controlled trials from the cardiovascular literature proving that radial access is associated with statistically lower costs, decreased incidence of myocardial infarctions, strokes, and even decreased mortality. Radial access is now considered the standard of care for percutaneous coronary interventions in most US centers. Although radial access has been described for neurovascular procedures in the past, overall experience is limited. The two major challenges are the unique anatomy required to access the cerebral vasculature given very acute angles between the arm and craniocervical vessels and limitations in available technology. Methods We present a simplified approach to radial access for cerebrovascular procedures and provide a concise step-by-step approach for patient selection, ultrasound-guided single-wall access, recommended catheters/wires, and review of patent hemostasis. Additionally, we present a complex cerebrovascular intervention in which standard femoral access was unsuccessful, while radial access was quickly achieved to highlight the importance of familiarity with the radial approach for all neurointerventionalists. Results We have found that the learning curve is not too steep and that the radial access approach can be adopted smoothly for a large percentage of diagnostic and interventional neuroradiologic procedures. Conclusions Radial access should be considered in all patients undergoing a cerebrovascular procedure. PMID:26659807

  3. Web access to tidal models for TIMED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Forbes, J.; Miyahara, S.; Hagan, M.

    As part of the interdisciplinary investigation "Tides, Planetary Waves, and Eddy Forcing of the Mean MLT Circulation", we provide web-based access to global monthly mean tidal fields from two models: the Kyushu University General Circulation Model, and the NCAR/HAO Global Scale Wave Model. Interactive solutions (Hough functions) to Laplace's Tidal Equation and various animations are also available. Herein, we briefly describe the models and illustrate the various tabular and plot options available. This web site also illustrates web data sharing protocols relevant to wider applications: (1) Balance of public access vs. rights of the investigators - Data sharing agreements, appropriate uses and attribution of the data; (2) Levels of accessibility - Agreement, simple form, application and request for password; (3) Methods of data distribution - Data tables, data files, archived data files, plots; (4) Database management - data dictionary, data recovery, resource lock, security.

  4. Access in crisis.

    PubMed

    1996-09-01

    Recent advances in HIV drug access and affordability have collided with a health care delivery system unequipped to handle the flow equitably and inexpensively. The AIDS Drug Assistance Program (ADAP) concludes that $169 million more in Federal spending is needed in 1997 to maintain an essential core of HIV/AIDS treatments, and presidential and congressional funding proposals are falling far short. ADAP funding also differs from state to state, but it is often inadequate and many programs cannot supply drugs. Several program aspects to be considered to ensure a strong ADAP are discussed and include the need to assure there is enough state funding, the need for programs to achieve better pricing for drugs, a formalized decision process on who decides what drugs ADAP covers, standardized eligibility criteria, and community members and advocates ensuring that ADAP information is adequately distributed to those who can use it.

  5. Vascular access today

    PubMed Central

    Pantelias, Konstantinos; Grapsa, Eirini

    2012-01-01

    The number of patients with chronic kidney disease requiring renal replacement therapy has increased worldwide. The most common replacement therapy is hemodialysis (HD). Vascular access (VA) has a key role for successful treatment. Despite the advances that have taken place in the field of the HD procedure, few things have changed with regards to VA in recent years. Arteriovenous fistula (AVF), polytetrafluoroethylene graft and the cuffed double lumen silicone catheter are the most common used for VA. In the long term, a number of complications may present and more than one VA is needed during the HD life. The most common complications for all of VA types are thrombosis, bleeding and infection, the most common cause of morbidity in these patients. It has been estimated that VA dysfunction is responsible for 20% of all hospitalizations. The annual cost of placing and looking after dialysis VA in the United States exceeds 1 billion dollars per year. A good functional access is also vital in order to deliver adequate HD therapy. It seems that the native AVF that Brescia and Cimino described in 1966 still remains the first choice for VA. The native forearm AVFs have the longest survival and require the fewest interventions. For this reason, the forearm AVF is the first choice, followed by the upper-arm AVF, the arteriovenous graft and the cuffed central venous catheter is the final choice. In conclusion, VA remains the most important issue for patients on HD and despite the technical improvements, a number of problems and complications have to be resolved. PMID:24175244

  6. NESDIS OSPO Data Access Policy and CRM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seybold, M. G.; Donoho, N. A.; McNamara, D.; Paquette, J.; Renkevens, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Office of Satellite and Product Operations (OSPO) is the NESDIS office responsible for satellite operations, product generation, and product distribution. Access to and distribution of OSPO data was formally established in a Data Access Policy dated February, 2011. An extension of the data access policy is the OSPO Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Database, which has been in development since 2008 and is reaching a critical level of maturity. This presentation will provide a summary of the data access policy and standard operating procedure (SOP) for handling data access requests. The tangential CRM database will be highlighted including the incident tracking system, reporting and notification capabilities, and the first comprehensive portfolio of NESDIS satellites, instruments, servers, applications, products, user organizations, and user contacts. Select examples of CRM data exploitation will show how OSPO is utilizing the CRM database to more closely satisfy the user community's satellite data needs with new product promotions, as well as new data and imagery distribution methods in OSPO's Environmental Satellite Processing Center (ESPC). In addition, user services and outreach initiatives from the Satellite Products and Services Division will be highlighted.

  7. Chemists, Access, Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Jon L.

    2000-06-01

    New JCE Internet Feature at JCE Online Biographical Snapshots of Famous Chemists is a new JCE Internet feature on JCE Online. Edited by Barbara Burke, this feature provides biographical information on leading chemists, especially women and minority chemists, fostering the attitude that the practitioners of chemistry are as human as those who endeavor to learn about it. Currently, the column features biographical "snapshots" of 30 chemists. Each snapshot includes keywords and bibliography and several contain links to additional online information about the chemist. More biographical snapshots will appear in future installments. In addition, a database listing over 140 women and minority chemists is being compiled and will be made available online with the snapshots in the near future. The database includes the years of birth and death, gender and ethnicity, major and minor discipline, keywords to facilitate searching, and references to additional biographical information. We welcome your input into what we think is a very worthwhile resource. If you would like to provide additional biographical snapshots, see additional chemists added to the database, or know of additional references for those that are already in the database, please contact JCE Online or the feature editor. Your feedback is welcome and appreciated. You can find Biographical Snapshots of Famous Chemists starting from the JCE Online home page-- click the Features item under JCE Internet and then the Chemist Bios item. Access JCE Online without Name and Password We have recently been swamped by libraries requesting IP-number access to JCE Online. With the great benefit IP-number authentication gives to librarians (no user names and passwords to administer) and to their patrons (no need to remember and enter valid names and passwords) this is not surprising. If you would like access to JCE Online without the need to remember and enter a user name and password, you should tell your librarian about our

  8. Public Access and Open Access: Is There a Difference? | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Robin Meckley, Contributing Writer, and Tracie Frederick, Guest Writer Open access and public access—are they different concepts or are they the same? What do they mean for the researchers at NCI at Frederick? “Open-access (OA) literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. What makes it possible is the Internet and the consent of the author or copyright-holder,” according to an open access website maintained by Peter Suber, director, Harvard Open Access Project.

  9. Accessibility for all: going from theory to practice.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Isabela; Dorneles, Vanessa; Ely, e Vera Helena Moro Bins

    2012-01-01

    The present work demonstrates, through a case study, the importance of theoretical knowledge in practical application of spatial accessibility in order to guarantee equal conditions for all people in the movement and use of space. Initially there was a literature review on the accessibility of space and how design in a accessible way. Next, we show one makeover proposal in one public school that wants to provide access to people with disabilities. This makeover was done and so we could evaluate the buildings changes through the method of accompanied walk with two people. Finally we present the main results and discussions.

  10. Immigration, ethnicity, and accessibility to culturally diverse family physicians.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu

    2007-09-01

    The study concerns ethnicity, spatial equity, and healthcare access in the context of diversity and integration. The paper first explores how Chinese immigrants in the Toronto Census Metropolitan Area choose between ethnic Chinese family physicians and other family physicians, based on a probability survey. It then applies and modifies gravity-type accessibility measures, of which a special type is the so-called floating catchment area (FCA) method, to evaluate three types of geographical accessibility in family physician utilization. The study suggests a certain degree of spatial inequality among Chinese immigrants in accessing culturally sensitive care. The paper yields important methodological and policy implications.

  11. Enhancing Access to Situational Vocabulary by Leveraging Geographic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Rupal; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv

    2007-01-01

    Users of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) aids could benefit from novel methods for accelerating access to contextually relevant vocabulary. This paper describes our initial efforts toward improving access to situational vocabulary through the use of geographic context to predict vocabulary. A corpus of spoken data produced by one…

  12. Thoughts on Access, Differentiation, and Implementation of a Multicultural Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavilla, Derek

    2014-01-01

    Identification of gifted students from diverse and underserved communities is traditionally low; however, there are ways to expand identification methods in order to make access to gifted education programs more equitable. Creation and implementation of multi-faceted and multi-dimensional assessments as well as tiered access into gifted education…

  13. 18 CFR 1313.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... handicapped persons receive the benefits and services of the program or activity. (b) Methods—1) General. The..., reassignment of the services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits... new facilities, use of accessible rolling stock, or any other methods that result in making...

  14. 22 CFR 144.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... persons receive the benefits and services of the program or activity. (b) Methods—(1) General. The agency..., reassignment of services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery... facilities, use of accessible rolling stock, or any other methods that result in making its programs...

  15. 36 CFR 812.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Methods—(1) General. The agency may comply with the requirements of this section through such means as redesign of equipment, reassignment of services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to... facilities and construction of new facilities, use of accessible rolling stock, or any other methods...

  16. 17 CFR 200.650 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... individuals with handicaps receive the benefits and services of the program or activity. (b) Methods—(1... equipment, reassignment of services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home... construction of new facilities, use of accessible rolling stock, or any other methods that result in making...

  17. 36 CFR 909.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Methods—(1) General. The agency may comply with the requirements of this section through such means as redesign of equipment, reassignment of services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to... facilities and construction of new facilities, use of accessible rolling stock, or any other methods...

  18. 45 CFR 2490.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and services of the program or activity. (b) Methods—(1) General. The agency may comply with the... accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery of services at alternate... rolling stock, or any other methods that result in making its programs or activities readily accessible...

  19. 18 CFR 1313.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... handicapped persons receive the benefits and services of the program or activity. (b) Methods—1) General. The..., reassignment of the services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits... new facilities, use of accessible rolling stock, or any other methods that result in making...

  20. 45 CFR 2301.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... program or activity. (b) Methods—(1) General. The agency may comply with the requirements of this section through such means as redesign of equipment, reassignment of services to accessible buildings, assignment... other methods that result in making its programs or activities readily accessible to and usable...

  1. 14 CFR 1251.550 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the benefits and services of the program or activity. (b) Methods—(1) General. The agency may comply... services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery of services..., use of accessible rolling stock, or any other methods that result in making its programs or...

  2. 38 CFR 15.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... activity. (b) Methods—(1) General. The agency may comply with the requirements of this section through such means as redesign of equipment, reassignment of services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to... facilities and construction of new facilities, use of accessible rolling stock, or any other methods...

  3. 5 CFR 1636.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... program or activity. (b) Methods—(1) General. The agency may comply with the requirements of this section through such means as redesign of equipment, reassignment of services to accessible buildings, assignment... other methods that result in making its programs or activities readily accessible to and usable...

  4. 45 CFR 2104.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... handicapped persons receive the benefits and services of the program or activity. (b) Methods—(1) General. The..., reassignment of services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery... facilities, use of accessible rolling stock, or any other methods that result in making its programs...

  5. 5 CFR 1850.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... individuals with handicaps receive the benefits and services of the program or activity. (b) Methods—(1... equipment, reassignment of services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home... construction of new facilities, use of accessible rolling stock, or any other methods that result in making...

  6. Open Access Publishing in Indian Premier Research Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhat, Mohammad Hanief

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Publishing research findings in open access journals is a means of enhancing visibility and consequently increasing the impact of publications. This study provides an overview of open access publishing in premier research institutes of India. Method: The publication output of each institution from 2003 to 2007 was ascertained through…

  7. 36 CFR 9.32 - Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Non-Federal Oil and Gas Rights § 9.32 Access. (a) No access on, across or through lands or waters... access is by foot, pack animal, or designated road. Persons using designated roads for access to such...

  8. Remote Data Access with IDL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloy, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A tool based on IDL (Interactive Data Language) and DAP (Data Access Protocol) has been developed for user-friendly remote data access. A difficulty for many NASA researchers using IDL is that often the data to analyze are located remotely and are too large to transfer for local analysis. Researchers have developed a protocol for accessing remote data, DAP, which is used for both SOHO and STEREO data sets. Server-side side analysis via IDL routine is available through DAP.

  9. Vehicle barrier with access delay

    DOEpatents

    Swahlan, David J; Wilke, Jason

    2013-09-03

    An access delay vehicle barrier for stopping unauthorized entry into secure areas by a vehicle ramming attack includes access delay features for preventing and/or delaying an adversary from defeating or compromising the barrier. A horizontally deployed barrier member can include an exterior steel casing, an interior steel reinforcing member and access delay members disposed within the casing and between the casing and the interior reinforcing member. Access delay members can include wooden structural lumber, concrete and/or polymeric members that in combination with the exterior casing and interior reinforcing member act cooperatively to impair an adversarial attach by thermal, mechanical and/or explosive tools.

  10. Performance metrics for advanced access.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Diwakar; Potthoff, Sandra; Blowers, Donald; Corlett, John

    2006-01-01

    Advanced access is an outpatient scheduling technique that aims to provide sameday appointment access. It is designed to reduce the time patients must wait for a scheduled appointment and to improve continuity of care by matching daily appointment supply and demand. Factors that make it difficult to sustain initial success in achieving supply-demand balance include different practice styles of doctors, differences in panel compositions and patient preferences, and time-varying demand patterns. This article proposes several performance measures that can help clinic directors monitor and evaluate their advanced access implementation. We also discuss strategies for sustaining advanced access in the long run.

  11. Access to Public Educational Facilities under the Equal Access Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, R. Craig; Goldblatt, Steven M.

    1988-01-01

    Discussion centers on the legal bases by which school administrators permit access to public educational facilities by religiously and politically oriented student organizations. It concludes that access should be granted to students whose purposes do not disrupt teaching and learning. (JAM)

  12. Mobile access control vestibule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DePoy, Jennifer M.

    1998-12-01

    The mobile access control vestibule (MACV) is an adaptation of techniques developed for mobile military command centers. The overall configuration of modules acts as an entry control/screening facility or transportable command center. The system would provide the following capabilities: (1) A key element for force protection, rapid deployment units sent to areas having no prepositioned equipment or where there has been a degradation of that equipment as a result of natural disasters or civil unrest. (2) A rapidly deployable security control center to upgrade the security at nonmilitary sites (e.g., diplomatic or humanitarian organizations). (3) Personnel screening, package screening, badge/identification card production for authorized personnel, centralized monitoring of deployed perimeter sensors, and centralized communications for law enforcement personnel. (4) Self-contained screening and threat detection systems, including explosives detection using the system developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the FAA. When coupled with transportable electric generators, the system is self-sufficient. The communication system for the MACV would be a combination of physically wired and wireless communication units that supports by ad hoc networking.

  13. Access to space study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a comprehensive NASA in-house study to identify and assess alternate approaches to access to space through the year 2030, and to select and recommend a preferred cause of action. The goals of the study were to identify the best vehicles and transportation architectures to make major reductions in the cost of space transportation (at least 50%), while at the same time increasing safety for flight crews by at least an order of magnitude. In addition, vehicle reliability was to exceed 0.98 percent, and, as important, the robustness, pad time, turnaround time, and other aspects of operability were to be vastly improved. This study examined three major optional architectures: (1) retain and upgrade the Space Shuttle and expendable launch vehicles; (2) develop new expendable vehicles using conventional technologies and transition from current vehicles beginning in 2005; and (3) develop new reusable vehicles using advanced technology, and transition from current vehicles beginning in 2008. The launch-needs, mission model utilized for for the study was based upon today's projection of civil, defense, and commercial mission payload requirements.

  14. Nonvolatile random access memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jiin-Chuan (Inventor); Stadler, Henry L. (Inventor); Katti, Romney R. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A nonvolatile magnetic random access memory can be achieved by an array of magnet-Hall effect (M-H) elements. The storage function is realized with a rectangular thin-film ferromagnetic material having an in-plane, uniaxial anisotropy and inplane bipolar remanent magnetization states. The thin-film magnetic element is magnetized by a local applied field, whose direction is used to form either a 0 or 1 state. The element remains in the 0 or 1 state until a switching field is applied to change its state. The stored information is detcted by a Hall-effect sensor which senses the fringing field from the magnetic storage element. The circuit design for addressing each cell includes transistor switches for providing a current of selected polarity to store a binary digit through a separate conductor overlying the magnetic element of the cell. To read out a stored binary digit, transistor switches are employed to provide a current through a row of Hall-effect sensors connected in series and enabling a differential voltage amplifier connected to all Hall-effect sensors of a column in series. To avoid read-out voltage errors due to shunt currents through resistive loads of the Hall-effect sensors of other cells in the same column, at least one transistor switch is provided between every pair of adjacent cells in every row which are not turned on except in the row of the selected cell.

  15. Making Astronomy Accessible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grice, Noreen A.

    2011-05-01

    A new semester begins, and your students enter the classroom for the first time. You notice a student sitting in a wheelchair or walking with assistance from a cane. Maybe you see a student with a guide dog or carrying a Braille computer. Another student gestures "hello” but then continues hand motions, and you realize the person is actually signing. You wonder why another student is using an electronic device to speak. Think this can't happen in your class? According to the U.S. Census, one out of every five Americans has a disability. And some disabilities, such as autism, dyslexia and arthritis, are considered "invisible” disabilities. This means you have a high probability that one of your students will have a disability. As an astronomy instructor, you have the opportunity to reach a wide variety of learners by using creative teaching strategies. I will share some suggestions on how to make astronomy and your part of the universe more accessible for everyone.

  16. History of peritoneal access development.

    PubMed

    Twardowski, Zbylut J

    2006-01-01

    The first peritoneal accesses were devices that had been used in other fields (general surgery, urology, or gynecology): trocars, rubber catheters, and sump drains. In the period after World War II, numerous papers were published with various modifications of peritoneal dialysis. The majority of cases were treated with the continuous flow technique; rubber catheters for inflow and sump drains for outflow were commonly used. At the end of the 1940s, intermittent peritoneal dialysis started to be more frequently used. Severe complications of peritoneal accesses created incentive to design accesses specifically for peritoneal dialysis. The initial three, in the late 1940s, were modified sump drains; however, Ferris and Odel for the first time designed a soft, polyvinyl intraperitoneal tube with metal weights to keep the catheter tip in the pelvic gutter where the conditions for drain are the best. In the 1950s, intermittent peritoneal dialysis was established as the preferred technique; polyethylene and nylon catheters became commercially available and peritoneal dialysis was established as a valuable method for treatment of acute renal failure. The major breakthrough came in the 1960s. First of all, it was discovered that the silicone rubber was less irritating to the peritoneal membrane than other plastics. Then, it was found that polyester velour allowed an excellent tissue ingrowth creating a firm bond with the tissue. When a polyester cuff was glued to the catheter, it restricted catheter movement and created a closed tunnel between the integument and the peritoneal cavity. In 1968, Tenckhoff and Schechter combined these two features and designed a silicone rubber catheter with a polyester cuff for treatment of acute renal failure and two cuffs for treatment of chronic renal failure. This was the most important development in peritoneal access. Technological evolution never ends. Multiple attempts have been made to eliminate remaining complications of the

  17. Direct access: how is it working?

    PubMed

    Turner, S; Ross, M

    2017-02-10

    Aim The aim of this study was to identify and survey dental hygienists and therapists working in direct access practices in the UK, obtain their views on its benefits and disadvantages, establish which treatments they provided, and what barriers they had encountered.Method The study used a purposive sample of GDC-registered hygienists and therapists working in practices offering direct access, identified through a 'Google' search. An online survey was set up through the University of Edinburgh, and non-responses followed up by post.Results The initial search identified 243 individuals working in direct access practices. Where a practice listed more than one hygienist/therapist, one was randomly selected. This gave a total of 179 potential respondents. Eighty-six responses were received, representing a response rate of 48%. A large majority of respondents (58, 73%) were favourable in their view of the GDC decision to allow direct access, and most thought advantages outnumbered disadvantages for patients, hygienists, therapists and dentists. There were no statistically significant differences in views between hygienists and therapists. Although direct access patients formed a small minority of their caseload for most respondents, it is estimated that on average respondents saw approximately 13 per month. Treatment was mainly restricted to periodontal work, irrespective of whether the respondent was singly or dually qualified. One third of respondents reported encountering barriers to successful practice, including issues relating to teamwork and dentists' unfavourable attitudes. However, almost two thirds (64%) felt that direct access had enhanced their job satisfaction, and 45% felt their clinical skills had increased.Discussion Comments were mainly positive, but sometimes raised worrying issues, for example in respect to training, lack of dental nurse support and the limited availability of periodontal treatment under NHS regulations.

  18. Success with Web-based image access.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Sean W

    2003-01-01

    The University of Mississippi Medical Center in Jackson, Miss., is the only medical school in the state. We performed 235,000 procedures in the 2001-02 fiscal year. All imaging services within the radiology department are networked to a PACS and are filmless. The elimination of film required that we decentralize our traditional file room to allow easy access to our radiology network across the campus. In our facility, there are three levels of image access: Diagnostic Quality, Review Quality and Web Access. Diagnostic Quality requires top-of-the-line workstations and monitors and is the most expensive. Review Quality workstations represent some savings over Diagnostic and are used in the ICU, orthopedics and surgery. Web Access appears to satisfy most areas outside the main diagnostic department. The account set-up procedure is simple because it uses our intranet email system. Images are easily pasted into presentation applications for articles and conferences. However, the main advantage of Web Access is the low cost. The downside of Web Access is that the images are for review only and are limited by the quality of the monitor in use. It is also somewhat cumbersome to retrieve old or comparison images via this method. The Web only holds approximately 45 days of the most recent images, therefore older studies may not be available. The deployment of this Web-based service has aided in our efforts to reduce the amount of film we print and has also been beneficial in improving patient care through faster service.

  19. Accessing primary care: a simulated patient study

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, John L; Carter, Mary; Davey, Antoinette; Roberts, Martin J; Elliott, Marc N; Roland, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Background Simulated patient, or so-called ‘mystery-shopper’, studies are a controversial, but potentially useful, approach to take when conducting health services research. Aim To investigate the construct validity of survey questions relating to access to primary care included in the English GP Patient Survey. Design and setting Observational study in 41 general practices in rural, urban, and inner-city settings in the UK. Method Between May 2010 and March 2011, researchers telephoned practices at monthly intervals, simulating patients requesting routine, but prompt, appointments. Seven measures of access and appointment availability, measured from the mystery-shopper contacts, were related to seven measures of practice performance from the GP Patient Survey. Results Practices with lower access scores in the GP Patient Survey had poorer access and appointment availability for five out of seven items measured directly, when compared with practices that had higher scores. Scores on items from the national survey that related to appointment availability were significantly associated with direct measures of appointment availability. Patient-satisfaction levels and the likelihood that patients would recommend their practice were related to the availability of appointments. Patients’ reports of ease of telephone access in the national survey were unrelated to three out of four measures of practice call handling, but were related to the time taken to resolve an appointment request, suggesting responders’ possible confusion in answering this question. Conclusion Items relating to the accessibility of care in a the English GP patient survey have construct validity. Patients’ satisfaction with their practice is not related to practice call handling, but is related to appointment availability. PMID:23561783

  20. Hepatic radioembolization from transradial access: initial experience and comparison to transfemoral access

    PubMed Central

    Kis, Bela; Mills, Matthew; Hoffe, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Despite the growing evidence in the cardiology literature that transradial approach has substantial benefits over transfemoral access, this technique is rarely used during interventions in the systemic circulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of transradial approach for hepatic radioembolization and to compare it with transfemoral approach. METHODS Sixty-four hepatic radioembolizations performed in 50 patients were included in the study. Thirty-three procedures were performed via radial access in 27 patients, and 31 procedures were performed via femoral access in 23 patients. RESULTS There was 100% technical success in performing hepatic radioembolization in both groups. The majority (97%) of the patients who underwent transradial radioembolization reported preference for radial artery access. The fluoroscopy time was significantly longer (9.45±5.09 min vs. 5.72±3.67 min, P < 0.01) and the radiation dose was significantly higher (597.8±585.2 mGy vs. 302.8±208.3 mGy, P < 0.01) in the radial group compared with the femoral group. The direct cost savings using radial access versus femoral access is approximately $100/procedure. In addition, there was a one hour (50%) shorter postprocedural stay for patients who underwent the transradial procedure. CONCLUSION Transradial access is feasible for hepatic radioembolization. The transradial approach is cheaper and offers improved patient comfort. However, it is technically challenging, with longer fluoroscopy times and higher radiation doses. Transradial approach should be considered as a primary choice in patients with low platelet count and/or morbid obesity. Transradial access should be in the procedural repertoire of every interventional radiologist. PMID:27353460

  1. Internet Access to Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James; Parise, Ron; Hogie, Keith; Criscuolo, Ed; Langston, Jim; Jackson, Chris; Price, Harold; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Operating Missions as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) project at NASA's Goddard Space flight Center (GSFC), is demonstrating the use of standard Internet protocols for spacecraft communication systems. This year, demonstrations of Internet access to a flying spacecraft have been performed with the UoSAT-12 spacecraft owned and operated by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. (SSTL). Previously, demonstrations were performed using a ground satellite simulator and NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). These activities are part of NASA's Space Operations Management Office (SOMO) Technology Program, The work is focused on defining the communication architecture for future NASA missions to support both NASA's "faster, better, cheaper" concept and to enable new types of collaborative science. The use of standard Internet communication technology for spacecraft simplifies design, supports initial integration and test across an IP based network, and enables direct communication between scientists and instruments as well as between different spacecraft, The most recent demonstrations consisted of uploading an Internet Protocol (IP) software stack to the UoSAT- 12 spacecraft, simple modifications to the SSTL ground station, and a series of tests to measure performance of various Internet applications. The spacecraft was reconfigured on orbit at very low cost. The total period between concept and the first tests was only 3 months. The tests included basic network connectivity (PING), automated clock synchronization (NTP), and reliable file transfers (FTP). Future tests are planned to include additional protocols such as Mobile IP, e-mail, and virtual private networks (VPN) to enable automated, operational spacecraft communication networks. The work performed and results of the initial phase of tests are summarized in this paper. This work is funded and directed by NASA/GSFC with technical leadership by CSC in arrangement with SSTL, and Vytek Wireless.

  2. ERIC Data Access System (EDAS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Pal V.

    The ERIC Data Access System (EDAS) is an information retrieval system developed at Eastern Illinois University to access the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) database and make it available to Eastern faculty and students in a convenient and timely fashion. This paper describes briefly why and how Eastern developed and implemented…

  3. Minority Access to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Nathaniel

    2012-01-01

    Blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans, and Asian Americans are entitled to equal access to all institutions of higher education. Ensuring greater access and participation by minorities in higher education is one of the most practical ways of moving America closer to the ideal of equal opportunity, which is the actualization of the American dream.…

  4. Accessible Multimedia for the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaparyniuk, Nicholas; Code, Jillianne

    With the Internet taking a dominant role in corporate training, education, retail, and customer based product exploration, authors of Web-based information need to ensure that the media they deliver is accessible to the widest possible audience. Whether users have a visual, auditory, physical, or developmental disability, accessible multimedia can…

  5. Automatically Producing Accessible Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Iorio, Angelo; Feliziani, Antonio Angelo; Mirri, Silvia; Salomoni, Paola; Vitali, Fabio

    2006-01-01

    The "Anywhere, Anytime, Anyway" slogan is frequently associated to e-learning with the aim to emphasize the wide access offered by on-line education. Otherwise, learning materials are currently created to be used with a specific technology or configuration, leaving out from the virtual classroom students who have limited access capabilities and,…

  6. Editorial: Next Generation Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffini, Marco; Cincotti, Gabriella; Pizzinat, Anna; Vetter, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade we have seen an increasing number of operators deploying Fibre-to-the-home (FTTH) solutions in access networks, in order to provide home users with a much needed network access upgrade, to support higher peak rates, higher sustained rates and a better and more uniform broadband coverage of the territory.

  7. "Accessions": Researching, Designing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    This brief viewpoint piece depicts educational (dis)engagements apparent in researching and (re)designing higher education in and through "Accessions". "Accessions", a collaborative research-design project, probed at how cultures, climates and conditions of higher education may be reproducing or reshaping social inequalities…

  8. Equity of access: adaptive technology.

    PubMed

    Grodzinsky, F S

    2000-04-01

    In this age of information technology, it is morally imperative that equal access to information via computer systems be afforded to people with disabilities. This paper addresses the problems that computer technology poses for students with disabilities and discusses what is needed to ensure equity of access, particularly in a university environment.

  9. Electronic Information: Options for Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesch, Oliver

    1994-01-01

    Discusses three electronic information formats: CD-ROM, tape loads, and online hosts; reviews some of the hardware platforms used for accessing information in these formats; and discusses some of the issues involved in interconnecting computer systems to increase access to electronic collections. (Author)

  10. Accessibility on the Hudson River

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how Beverly and Martin Ryfa, working with an architect who specializes in accessible design, were able to build a house that is handicap accessible for their 9-year-old daughter, Danielle, who suffered an intraventricular hemorrhage when she was three days old. The article describes the features of their house that make…

  11. Accessibility in E-Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Simon

    2009-01-01

    E-assessment offers many opportunities to broaden the range of tools at the assessor's disposal and thereby improve the overall accessibility of the assessment experience. In 2006, TechDis commissioned a report, produced by Edexcel, on the state of guidance on accessibility at the various stages of the assessment process--question design,…

  12. Hybrid haemodialysis vascular access salvage.

    PubMed

    Potisek, Maja; Ključevšek, Tomaž; Leskovar, Boštjan

    2017-03-01

    A well-functioning vascular access is essential for successful haemodialysis in patients with end-stage kidney failure. Sometimes, when we have exploited all conventional ways of vascular access salvage, we have to find a unique solution to preserve it.

  13. Guidelines for Outsourcing Remote Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassler, Ardoth; Neuman, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing remote access to campus computer networks and the Internet, focusing on improved service, cost-sharing, partnerships with vendors, supported protocols, bandwidth, scope of access, implementation, support, network security, and pricing. Includes a checklist for a request for proposals on…

  14. Bibliographic Access and Control System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Betsy; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Presents a brief summary of the functions of the Bibliographic Access & Control System (BACS) implemented at the Washington University School of Medicine Library, and outlines the design, development, and uses of the system. Bibliographic control of books and serials and user access to the system are also discussed. (Author/JL)

  15. Vascular Access Procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood vessel to provide an effective method of drawing blood or delivering medications and nutrients into a ... term intravenous (IV) feeding for nutritional support. repeated drawing of blood samples. hemodialysis , a process used to ...

  16. External access to ALICE controls conditions data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadlovský, J.; Jadlovská, A.; Sarnovský, J.; Jajčišin, Š.; Čopík, M.; Jadlovská, S.; Papcun, P.; Bielek, R.; Čerkala, J.; Kopčík, M.; Chochula, P.; Augustinus, A.

    2014-06-01

    ALICE Controls data produced by commercial SCADA system WINCCOA is stored in ORACLE database on the private experiment network. The SCADA system allows for basic access and processing of the historical data. More advanced analysis requires tools like ROOT and needs therefore a separate access method to the archives. The present scenario expects that detector experts create simple WINCCOA scripts, which retrieves and stores data in a form usable for further studies. This relatively simple procedure generates a lot of administrative overhead - users have to request the data, experts needed to run the script, the results have to be exported outside of the experiment network. The new mechanism profits from database replica, which is running on the CERN campus network. Access to this database is not restricted and there is no risk of generating a heavy load affecting the operation of the experiment. The developed tools presented in this paper allow for access to this data. The users can use web-based tools to generate the requests, consisting of the data identifiers and period of time of interest. The administrators maintain full control over the data - an authorization and authentication mechanism helps to assign privileges to selected users and restrict access to certain groups of data. Advanced caching mechanism allows the user to profit from the presence of already processed data sets. This feature significantly reduces the time required for debugging as the retrieval of raw data can last tens of minutes. A highly configurable client allows for information retrieval bypassing the interactive interface. This method is for example used by ALICE Offline to extract operational conditions after a run is completed. Last but not least, the software can be easily adopted to any underlying database structure and is therefore not limited to WINCCOA.

  17. Regional Webgis User Access Patterns Based on a Weighted Bipartite Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R.; Shen, Y.; Huang, W.; Wu, H.

    2015-07-01

    With the rapid development of geographic information services, Web Geographic Information Systems (WebGIS) have become an indispensable part of everyday life; correspondingly, map search engines have become extremely popular with users and WebGIS sites receive a massive volume of requests for access. These WebGIS users and the content accessed have regional characteristics; to understand regional patterns, we mined regional WebGIS user access patterns based on a weighted bipartite network. We first established a weighted bipartite network model for regional user access to a WebGIS. Then, based on the massive user WebGIS access logs, we clustered geographic information accessed and thereby identified hot access areas. Finally we quantitatively analyzed the access interests of regional users and the visitation volume characteristics of regional user access to these hot access areas in terms of user access permeability, user usage rate, and user access viscosity. Our research results show that regional user access to WebGIS is spatially aggregated, and the hot access areas that regional users accessed are associated with specific periods of time. Most regional user contact with hot accessed areas is variable and intermittent but for some users, their access to certain areas is continuous as it is associated with ongoing or recurrent objectives. The weighted bipartite network model for regional user WebGIS access provides a valid analysis method for studying user behaviour in WebGIS and the proposed access pattern exhibits access interest of regional user is spatiotemporal aggregated and presents a heavy-tailed distribution. Understanding user access patterns is good for WebGIS providers and supports better operational decision-making, and helpful for developers when optimizing WebGIS system architecture and deployment, so as to improve the user experience and to expand the popularity of WebGIS.

  18. Modeling spatial accessibility to parks: a national study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Parks provide ideal open spaces for leisure-time physical activity and important venues to promote physical activity. The spatial configuration of parks, the number of parks and their spatial distribution across neighborhood areas or local regions, represents the basic park access potential for their residential populations. A new measure of spatial access to parks, population-weighted distance (PWD) to parks, combines the advantages of current park access approaches and incorporates the information processing theory and probability access surface model to more accurately quantify residential population's potential spatial access to parks. Results The PWD was constructed at the basic level of US census geography - blocks - using US park and population data. This new measure of population park accessibility was aggregated to census tract, county, state and national levels. On average, US residential populations are expected to travel 6.7 miles to access their local neighborhood parks. There are significant differences in the PWD to local parks among states. The District of Columbia and Connecticut have the best access to local neighborhood parks with PWD of 0.6 miles and 1.8 miles, respectively. Alaska, Montana, and Wyoming have the largest PWDs of 62.0, 37.4, and 32.8 miles, respectively. Rural states in the western and Midwestern US have lower neighborhood park access, while urban states have relatively higher park access. Conclusions The PWD to parks provides a consistent platform for evaluating spatial equity of park access and linking with population health outcomes. It could be an informative evaluation tool for health professionals and policy makers. This new method could be applied to quantify geographic accessibility of other types of services or destinations, such as food, alcohol, and tobacco outlets. PMID:21554690

  19. Studying "exposure" to firearms: household ownership v access

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, R; Dahlberg, L; Kresnow, M; Sacks, J; Mercy, J

    2003-01-01

    Background: Firearm ownership has often been used to measure access to weapons. However, persons who own a firearm may not have access to it and conversely, persons who do not own a firearm may be able to access one quickly. Objectives: To examine whether using firearm ownership is a reasonable proxy for access by describing the demographic characteristics associated with ownership and access. Methods: Data are from the 1994 Injury Control and Risk Survey, a national, random digit dial survey. Information about household firearm ownership and ready access to a loaded firearm were collected and weighted to provide national estimates. Adjusted odds ratios for three separate models were calculated using logistic regression. Results: A total of 1353 (27.9%) respondents reported both having a firearm in the household and ready access to one. An additional 313 respondents (8.1%) reported having a firearm, but were not able to access these weapons. Another 421 respondents (7.2%) did not have a firearm in or around their home, yet reported being able to retrieve and fire one within 10 minutes. Based on the logistic regression findings, the demographic characteristics of this latter group are quite different from those who report ownership. Those who do not have a firearm, but report ready access to one, are more likely to be ethnic minorities, single, and living in attached homes. Conclusions: Asking only about the presence of a firearm in a household may miss some respondents with ready access to a loaded firearm. More importantly, those who do not own a firearm, but report ready access to one, appear to be qualitatively different from those who report ownership. Caution should be exercised when using measures of ownership as a proxy for access. PMID:12642560

  20. User-Centered Indexing for Adaptive Information Access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, James R.; Mathe, Nathalie

    1996-01-01

    We are focusing on information access tasks characterized by large volume of hypermedia connected technical documents, a need for rapid and effective access to familiar information, and long-term interaction with evolving information. The problem for technical users is to build and maintain a personalized task-oriented model of the information to quickly access relevant information. We propose a solution which provides user-centered adaptive information retrieval and navigation. This solution supports users in customizing information access over time. It is complementary to information discovery methods which provide access to new information, since it lets users customize future access to previously found information. It relies on a technique, called Adaptive Relevance Network, which creates and maintains a complex indexing structure to represent personal user's information access maps organized by concepts. This technique is integrated within the Adaptive HyperMan system, which helps NASA Space Shuttle flight controllers organize and access large amount of information. It allows users to select and mark any part of a document as interesting, and to index that part with user-defined concepts. Users can then do subsequent retrieval of marked portions of documents. This functionality allows users to define and access personal collections of information, which are dynamically computed. The system also supports collaborative review by letting users share group access maps. The adaptive relevance network provides long-term adaptation based both on usage and on explicit user input. The indexing structure is dynamic and evolves over time. Leading and generalization support flexible retrieval of information under similar concepts. The network is geared towards more recent information access, and automatically manages its size in order to maintain rapid access when scaling up to large hypermedia space. We present results of simulated learning experiments.

  1. Modes of Access: The Influence of Dissemination Channels on the Use of Open Access Monographs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snijder, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper studies the effects of several dissemination channels in an open access environment by analysing the download data of the OAPEN Library. Method: Download data were obtained containing the number of downloads and the name of the Internet provider. Based on public information, each Internet provider was categorised. The…

  2. Is Open Access Right for Astronomy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahoney, T. J.

    2010-10-01

    The underlying ethos of Open Access is that the public should have the right to free access to the published results of all publicly funded academic and scientific research. Such has been the political success of OA campaigners that some funding agencies (e.g. Wellcome) now make OA publication of funded research a necessary condition for the award of grants. Learned societies and publishers in astronomy are now looking at ways of best implementing OA in varying degrees of rigour. However, OA does not mean costless access: somewhere down the line, somebody has to pay for the added value (professional copyediting and typesetting, presentation, anonymous peer review, etc.) supplied to author manuscripts by learned-society and commercial publishers in the better journals. I take a critical look at the methods of finance employed within astronomical publishing and review the different flavours of OA. I also raise the question of whether it might make more sense to ensure free access to authors rather than to readers.

  3. Success factors for open access.

    PubMed

    Till, James E

    2003-01-01

    Open access to the peer-reviewed primary research literature would greatly facilitate knowledge transfer between the creators and the users of the results of research and scholarship. Criteria are needed to assess the impact of recent initiatives, such as the Budapest Open Access Initiative. For example, how many open-access research journals exist within a given field, and what is the reputation of each one? And, how many openly-accessible institutional e-print archives have been created and how many are actually are being used by researchers and scholars? A simple approach to an assessment of the open-access portion of the medical literature is described, and some preliminary results are summarized. These preliminary results point to the need for incentives to foster the implementation of initiatives such as the Budapest Open Access Initiative. An example of an incentive model is proposed, where an agency or foundation that provides peer-reviewed grants-in-aid to researchers establishes an e-print archive. Only current grantees of the agency would be eligible to post reports about the results of research projects or programs that have been supported by the agency. Some advantages and implications of this particular model are outlined. It is suggested that incentive models of this kind are needed to increase the likelihood that open access to the primary medical research literature will soon reach a "tipping point" and move quickly toward wide acceptance.

  4. Pharmacy services in rural areas: is the problem geographic access or financial access?

    PubMed

    Casey, Michelle M; Klingner, Jill; Moscovice, Ira

    2002-01-01

    Access to pharmacy services is an important rural health policy issue but limited research has been conducted on it. This article describes rural retail pharmacies in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota, including their organizational characteristics, staffing, services provided, and planned future changes; examines the availability of pharmacy services and pharmacy closures in rural areas of these three states; and briefly discusses policy issues that affect the delivery of pharmacy services in rural areas. Study data came from a phone survey of 537 rural pharmacies, an analysis of pharmacy licensure data, and phone interviews with clinic, public health, and social services staff in rural communities with potential pharmacy access problems. Using a standard of 20 miles to the nearest pharmacy, most rural residents of these three states currently have adequate geographic access to pharmacy services. However, rural pharmacists and clinic, public health, and social services staff rate financial access to pharmacy services for the elderly and the uninsured as a major problem. Key policy issues that will affect future access to pharmacy services in rural areas include pharmacy staffing and relief coverage; alternative methods of providing pharmacy services; thefinancial viability of rural pharmacies; and the potential impact of a Medicare prescription benefit on rural consumers and rural pharmacies.

  5. 10 CFR 1017.21 - Limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limited access. 1017.21 Section 1017.21 Energy DEPARTMENT... INFORMATION Access to Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.21 Limited access. (a) A person who is not eligible for routine access to specific UCNI under § 1017.20 may request limited access...

  6. 10 CFR 1017.19 - Access limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Access limitations. 1017.19 Section 1017.19 Energy... INFORMATION Access to Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.19 Access limitations. A person may only have access to UCNI if he or she has been granted routine access by an Authorized Individual...

  7. 32 CFR 154.49 - Granting access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Granting access. 154.49 Section 154.49 National... SECURITY PROGRAM REGULATION Issuing Clearance and Granting Access § 154.49 Granting access. (a) Access to classified information shall be granted to persons whose official duties require such access and who have...

  8. 32 CFR 154.49 - Granting access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Granting access. 154.49 Section 154.49 National... SECURITY PROGRAM REGULATION Issuing Clearance and Granting Access § 154.49 Granting access. (a) Access to classified information shall be granted to persons whose official duties require such access and who have...

  9. 32 CFR 154.49 - Granting access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Granting access. 154.49 Section 154.49 National... SECURITY PROGRAM REGULATION Issuing Clearance and Granting Access § 154.49 Granting access. (a) Access to classified information shall be granted to persons whose official duties require such access and who have...

  10. 32 CFR 154.49 - Granting access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Granting access. 154.49 Section 154.49 National... SECURITY PROGRAM REGULATION Issuing Clearance and Granting Access § 154.49 Granting access. (a) Access to classified information shall be granted to persons whose official duties require such access and who have...

  11. Ultrasound guidance for vascular access.

    PubMed

    Abboud, Paul-André C; Kendall, John L

    2004-08-01

    The evidence that supports the general application of US guidance for venous access in the ED has reached a critical mass. The increasing familiarity of emergency physicians with US and the recent focus on patient safety and clinical outcomes has intensified attention on the capacity for US to improve patient care in the ED. US guidance can increase the safety and efficiency of venous access procedures and offers improved outcomes. The potential for these improvements is compelling, especially among certain types of ED patients such as those with difficult or complicated access. Varying levels of evidence support the use of US guidance over the traditional landmark approach for venous access in adult and pediatric populations and for central and peripheral veins. Many different techniques may be applied, depending on the clinical situation and equipment available.

  12. Accessible Electronic and Information Technology

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Policy establishes EPA's responsibilities and procedures for making its Electronic and Information Technology (EIT) products accessible to all people, including people with disabilities, in accordance with Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act.

  13. UK to support open access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2012-08-01

    The UK government has "widely accepted" the recommendations of a major report into open-access publishing that was released in June by a 15-strong working group led by the British sociologist Janet Finch.

  14. Web Access to RSIG Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Remote Sensing Information Gateway, a tool that allows scientists, researchers and decision makers to access a variety of multi-terabyte, environmental datasets and to subset the data and obtain only needed variables, greatly improving the download time.

  15. Astronauts Access Web from Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    Aboard the International Space Station, Expedition 22 Commander Jeff Williams and Flight Engineers Soichi Noguchi and T.J. Creamer share their thoughts about Internet access from space and post a r...

  16. VPAT - Voluntary Product Accessibility Template

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Intended to assist federal contracting officials and other buyers in making preliminary assessments regarding the availability of commercial “Electronic and Information Technology” (EIT) products and services with features that support accessibility.

  17. Computer access security code system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A security code system for controlling access to computer and computer-controlled entry situations comprises a plurality of subsets of alpha-numeric characters disposed in random order in matrices of at least two dimensions forming theoretical rectangles, cubes, etc., such that when access is desired, at least one pair of previously unused character subsets not found in the same row or column of the matrix is chosen at random and transmitted by the computer. The proper response to gain access is transmittal of subsets which complete the rectangle, and/or a parallelepiped whose opposite corners were defined by first groups of code. Once used, subsets are not used again to absolutely defeat unauthorized access by eavesdropping, and the like.

  18. Memory availability and referential access

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Clinton L.; Gordon, Peter C.; Long, Debra L.; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2013-01-01

    Most theories of coreference specify linguistic factors that modulate antecedent accessibility in memory; however, whether non-linguistic factors also affect coreferential access is unknown. Here we examined the impact of a non-linguistic generation task (letter transposition) on the repeated-name penalty, a processing difficulty observed when coreferential repeated names refer to syntactically prominent (and thus more accessible) antecedents. In Experiment 1, generation improved online (event-related potentials) and offline (recognition memory) accessibility of names in word lists. In Experiment 2, we manipulated generation and syntactic prominence of antecedent names in sentences; both improved online and offline accessibility, but only syntactic prominence elicited a repeated-name penalty. Our results have three important implications: first, the form of a referential expression interacts with an antecedent’s status in the discourse model during coreference; second, availability in memory and referential accessibility are separable; and finally, theories of coreference must better integrate known properties of the human memory system. PMID:24443621

  19. Neurological complications of vascular access.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Christopher P

    2015-01-01

    Neurological problems are common in patients undergoing haemodialysis. Over 60% of patients will suffer from symptoms of underlying polyneuropathy due to uraemia or diabetes. Others will have subclinical disease demonstrable by nerve conduction studies. Nerve injury following haemodialysis access surgery is underreported. However, sensory nerve lesions are probably common after most vascular access procedures but are rarely debilitating. Nerve compression syndromes such as carpal tunnel and ulnar compression syndromes are common, especially in patients who have been on dialysis for some years and at least some of these are related to or exacerbated by the access. Recognition is essential as they are eminently treatable by decompression surgery. Tourniquet use appears to be safe for carpal tunnel or ulnar nerve decompression surgery. Ischaemic monomelic neuropathy (IMN) is rare but follows a period of ischaemia during or as a result of access surgery, most commonly to construct a brachial arteriovenous fistula or graft. It is characterised by intense pain, out of proportion to any ischaemia, involves all of the upper limb nerves and may progress to involve the motor nerves eventually resulting in a useless clawed hand. It requires prompt treatment of any residual ischaemia after access creation, if necessary by access ligation, as in the established syndrome, like the even rarer complication of reflex sympathetic dystrophy, it is very difficult to offer any useful treatment other than symptomatic relief and physiotherapy.

  20. [The concepts of health access].

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Raquel Maia; Ciconelli, Rozana Mesquita

    2012-03-01

    This article describes four dimensions of health access-availability, acceptability, ability to pay and information-correlating these dimensions to indicators and discussing the complexity of the concept of access. For a study of these four dimensions, searches were conducted using the PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO, and World Health Organization Library & Information Networks for Knowledge (WHOLIS) databases. Large-circulation media vehicles, such as The Economist, The Washington Post, and the BBC network were also searched. The concept of health access has become more complex with time. The first analyses, carried out in the 1970s, suggested a strong emphasis on geographical (availability) and financial (ability to pay) aspects. More recently, the literature has focused on less tangible aspects, such as cultural, educational, and socioeconomic issues, incorporating the element of acceptability into the notion of health access. The literature also shows that information provides the starting point for access to health, in association with health empowerment and literacy for health care decision-making. The study concludes that improvements in access to health and the guarantee of equity will not be achieved by initiatives focusing on health care systems alone, but rather will depend on intersectoral actions and social and economic policies aimed at eliminating income and education differences.

  1. Vascular access in oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Gallieni, Maurizio; Pittiruti, Mauro; Biffi, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Adequate vascular access is of paramount importance in oncology patients. It is important in the initial phase of surgical treatment or chemotherapy, as well as in the chronic management of advanced cancer and in the palliative care setting. We present an overview of the available vascular access devices and of the most relevant issues regarding insertion and management of vascular access. Particular emphasis is given to the use of ultrasound guidance as the preferred technique of insertion, which has dramatically decreased insertion-related complications. Vascular access management has considerably improved after the publication of effective guidelines for the appropriate nursing of the vascular device, which has reduced the risk of late complications, such as catheter-related bloodstream infection. However, many areas of clinical practice are still lacking an evidence-based background, such as the choice of the most appropriate vascular access device in each clinical situation, as well as prevention and treatment of thrombosis. We suggest an approach to the choice of the most appropriate vascular access device for the oncology patient, based on the literature available to date.

  2. Vascular access for hemodialysis: arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Malovrh, Marko

    2005-06-01

    The long-term survival and quality of life of patients on hemodialysis (HD) is dependant on the adequacy of dialysis via an appropriately placed vascular access. The optimal vascular access is unquestionably the autologous arteriovenous fistula (AVF), with the most common method being the conventional radio-cephalic fistula at the wrist. Recent clinical practice guidelines recommend the creation of native fistula or synthetic graft before the start of chronic HD therapy to prevent the need for complication-prone dialysis catheters. This could also have a beneficial effect on the rapidity of worsening kidney failure. A multidisciplinary approach (nephrologists, surgeons, radiologists and nurses) should improve the HD outcome by promoting the use of AVF. An important additional component of this program is the Doppler ultrasound for preoperative vascular mapping. Such an approach may be realized without unsuccessful surgical explorations, with a minimal early failure rate and a high maturation, even in patients with diabetes mellitus.

  3. The Biology of Hemodialysis Vascular Access Failure

    PubMed Central

    Brahmbhatt, Akshaar; Misra, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are essential for patients and clinicians faced with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). While this method of vascular access for hemodialysis is preferred to others due to its reduced rate of infection and complications, they are plagued by intimal hyperplasia. The pathogenesis of intimal hyperplasia and subsequent thrombosis is brought on by uremia, hypoxia, and shear stress. These forces upregulate inflammatory and proliferative cytokines acting on leukocytes, fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, and platelets. This activation begins initially with the progression of uremia, which induces platelet dysfunction and primes the body for an inflammatory response. The vasculature subsequently undergoes changes in oxygenation and shear stress during AVF creation. This propagates a strong inflammatory response in the vessel leading to cellular proliferation. This combined response is then further subjected to the stressors of cannulation and dialysis, eventually leading to stenosis and thrombosis. This review aims to help interventional radiologists understand the biological changes and pathogenesis of access failure. PMID:27011423

  4. Non-volatile magnetic random access memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R. (Inventor); Stadler, Henry L. (Inventor); Wu, Jiin-Chuan (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Improvements are made in a non-volatile magnetic random access memory. Such a memory is comprised of an array of unit cells, each having a Hall-effect sensor and a thin-film magnetic element made of material having an in-plane, uniaxial anisotropy and in-plane, bipolar remanent magnetization states. The Hall-effect sensor is made more sensitive by using a 1 m thick molecular beam epitaxy grown InAs layer on a silicon substrate by employing a GaAs/AlGaAs/InAlAs superlattice buffering layer. One improvement avoids current shunting problems of matrix architecture. Another improvement reduces the required magnetizing current for the micromagnets. Another improvement relates to the use of GaAs technology wherein high electron-mobility GaAs MESFETs provide faster switching times. Still another improvement relates to a method for configuring the invention as a three-dimensional random access memory.

  5. Making Diabetes Education Accessible For People With Visual Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Ann S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to identify changes needed to make the diabetes education materials and programs of the Diabetes Association of Greater Cleveland (DAGC) accessible for people who have visual impairment and diabetes (PVID). Methods Using the principles and techniques of participatory action research (PAR), five PVID and four staff members of a local diabetes association met once a month for a year to plan, implement, and evaluate progress towards full accessibility of all diabetes education materials and programs. The researcher served as facilitator. Results Four “transformational moments” are presented through which the PAR process enabled PVID and diabetes professionals to learn to understand and trust each other. Changes made to increase accessibility included: production of two recordings for providing access to print information about diabetes; planning public education program publicity and locations for access; development of guidelines to help speakers make their diabetes education presentations accessible for people who cannot see slides and gestures. and presentation of an inservice for the entire staff of the diabetes association, including information about how they live with visual impairment, and common courtesies that make communication with PVID more effective Implications Diabetes education programs should include planning for full accessibility for PVID. Diabetes organizations should publish teaching materials in accessible format. PMID:19417119

  6. Single-cell chromatin accessibility reveals principles of regulatory variation.

    PubMed

    Buenrostro, Jason D; Wu, Beijing; Litzenburger, Ulrike M; Ruff, Dave; Gonzales, Michael L; Snyder, Michael P; Chang, Howard Y; Greenleaf, William J

    2015-07-23

    Cell-to-cell variation is a universal feature of life that affects a wide range of biological phenomena, from developmental plasticity to tumour heterogeneity. Although recent advances have improved our ability to document cellular phenotypic variation, the fundamental mechanisms that generate variability from identical DNA sequences remain elusive. Here we reveal the landscape and principles of mammalian DNA regulatory variation by developing a robust method for mapping the accessible genome of individual cells by assay for transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing (ATAC-seq) integrated into a programmable microfluidics platform. Single-cell ATAC-seq (scATAC-seq) maps from hundreds of single cells in aggregate closely resemble accessibility profiles from tens of millions of cells and provide insights into cell-to-cell variation. Accessibility variance is systematically associated with specific trans-factors and cis-elements, and we discover combinations of trans-factors associated with either induction or suppression of cell-to-cell variability. We further identify sets of trans-factors associated with cell-type-specific accessibility variance across eight cell types. Targeted perturbations of cell cycle or transcription factor signalling evoke stimulus-specific changes in this observed variability. The pattern of accessibility variation in cis across the genome recapitulates chromosome compartments de novo, linking single-cell accessibility variation to three-dimensional genome organization. Single-cell analysis of DNA accessibility provides new insight into cellular variation of the 'regulome'.

  7. A Bibliometric Study of Scholarly Articles Published by Library and Information Science Authors about Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grandbois, Jennifer; Beheshti, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study aims to gain a greater understanding of the development of open access practices amongst library and information science authors, since their role is integral to the success of the broader open access movement. Method: Data were collected from scholarly articles about open access by library and information science authors…

  8. 77 FR 70777 - Emergency Access Advisory Committee; Announcement of Date of Next Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ... discussion of draft reports from the subcommittees and other activities needed to ensure access to 911 by... technologies and methods by which to enable access to Next Generation 911 (NG 9-1-1) emergency services by... discussion of draft reports from the subcommittees and other activities needed to ensure access to 911...

  9. 78 FR 97 - Emergency Access Advisory Committee; Announcement of Date of Next Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... discussion of final reports from the subcommittees and other activities needed to ensure access to 911 by... technologies and methods by which to enable access to Next Generation 911 (NG 9-1-1) emergency services by... discussion of final reports from the subcommittees and other activities needed to ensure access to 911...

  10. 78 FR 9914 - Emergency Access Advisory Committee; Announcement of Date of Next Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... discussion of reports from the subcommittees and other activities needed to ensure access to 911 by... technologies and methods by which to enable access to Next Generation 911 (NG 9-1-1) emergency services by... discussion of reports from the subcommittees and other activities needed to ensure access to 911...

  11. Open Access Theses in Institutional Repositories: An Exploratory Study of the Perceptions of Doctoral Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Kate Valentine; Liew, Chern Li

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: We examine doctoral students' awareness of and attitudes to open access forms of publication. Levels of awareness of open access and the concept of institutional repositories, publishing behaviour and perceptions of benefits and risks of open access publishing were explored. Method: Qualitative and quantitative data were collected…

  12. Implementation of Flexible Access System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chen-Hsiang; Peng, Jan-Wen; Shao, Shou-Kuo; Chen, Tzooming E.; Chen, Shih Chang; Lee, Meng-Shu; Yen, K.-Y.; Chen, Tsung-Mao; Wang, Ching Sheu; Tu, Yuan-Kuang

    1998-06-01

    In this paper we present the architecture, operation, and the implementation of a prototype system, flexible access system (FAS), developed by CHT T.L. for FITL applications. FAS adopts fiber to the curb (FTTC) topology and provides POTS, ISDN BRA, and T1 services. The system consists of three main parts, namely, fiber central office terminal (FCOT) at switch side, fiber nodes (FN) at customer side, and a monitor station. FCOT and FNs are connected through an STM-1 fiber distribution ring. The hardware structure and the operation principle for each module are described. FAS contains the mux-demux module, POTS, ISDN, and T1 central office/customer service modules, operation modules, and power module. In the design, each central office service module in FCOT simulates as a CPE to terminate signals from switch, and will separate the data and signaling and map them into DS1 format. Mux/demux module will add/drop these DS1, put the operation information in data communication channel (DCC), and convert them to STM-1 optical link. Each customer service module in FN simulates switch line cart to regenerate the signal for customers. The prototype system implementation confirms the benefits of introducing SDH add/drop technologies to FITL system to provide basic telecommunication services. The design experience reveals that the clock synchronization method and noise reduction technique can significantly influence the performance in such a system. The test results that demonstrate and verify the designed functionality and the service quality of the prototype system will be presented.

  13. Access of primary and secondary literature by health personnel in an academic health center: implications for open access*

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Ryan M.; Moorhead, Laura; O'Brien, Bridget; Willinsky, John

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The research sought to ascertain the types and quantity of research evidence accessed by health personnel through PubMed and UpToDate in a university medical center over the course of a year in order to better estimate the impact that increasing levels of open access to biomedical research can be expected to have on clinical practice in the years ahead. Methods: Web log data were gathered from the 5,042 health personnel working in the Stanford University Hospitals (SUH) during 2011. Data were analyzed for access to the primary literature (abstracts and full-text) through PubMed and UpToDate and to the secondary literature, represented by UpToDate (research summaries), to establish the frequency and nature of literature consulted. Results: In 2011, SUH health personnel accessed 81,851 primary literature articles and visited UpToDate 110,336 times. Almost a third of the articles (24,529) accessed were reviews. Twenty percent (16,187) of the articles viewed were published in 2011. Conclusion: When it is available, health personnel in a clinical care setting frequently access the primary literature. While further studies are needed, this preliminary finding speaks to the value of the National Institutes of Health public access policy and the need for medical librarians and educators to prepare health personnel for increasing public access to medical research. PMID:23930091

  14. Access to the Commonwealth electoral roll for medical research.

    PubMed

    Loff, Bebe; Campbell, Elissa A; Glass, Deborah C; Kelsall, Helen L; Slegers, Claudia; Zion, Deborah R; Brown, Ngaire J; Fritschi, Lin

    2013-07-22

    In the 2010-11 financial 2013, there was a dramatic reduction in the approvals granted by the Australian Electoral Commission for access to samples of the adult population derived from the electoral roll for the purposes of public health research. Much time and effort has been expended in making applications without success. Researchers refused access to electoral roll samples must rely on sampling methods that are not as robust and that may produce less reliable data. We outline a set of recommendations that, if adopted, will result in a fairer system for obtaining access to the electoral roll for public health research.

  15. Decarboxylative Fluorination Strategies for Accessing Medicinally-relevant Products

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Yupu; Zhu, Lingui; Ambler, Brett R.

    2014-01-01

    Fluorinated organic compounds have a long history in medicinal chemistry, and synthetic methods to access target fluorinated compounds are undergoing a revolution. One powerful strategy for the installation of fluorine-containing functional groups includes decarboxylative reactions. Benefits of decarboxylative approaches potentially include: 1) readily available substrates or reagents 2) mild reaction conditions; 3) simplified purification. This focus review highlights the applications of decarboxylation strategies for fluorination reactions to access compounds with biomedical potential. The manuscript highlights on two general strategies, fluorination by decarboxylative reagents and by decarboxylation of substrates. Where relevant, examples of medicinally useful compounds that can be accessed using these strategies are highlighted. PMID:24484421

  16. A selection system for identifying accessible sites in target RNAs.

    PubMed

    Pan, W H; Devlin, H F; Kelley, C; Isom, H C; Clawson, G A

    2001-04-01

    Although ribozymes offer tremendous potential for posttranscriptionally controlling expression of targeted genes, their utility is often limited by the accessibility of the targeted regions within the RNA transcripts. Here we describe a method that identifies RNA regions that are accessible to oligonucleotides. Based on this selection protocol, we show that construction of hammerhead ribozymes targeted to the identified regions results in catalytic activities that are consistently and substantially greater than those of ribozymes designed on the basis of computer modeling. Identification of accessible sites should also be widely applicable to design of antisense oligonucleotides and DNAzymes.

  17. Open Access Publishing in the Field of Medical Informatics.

    PubMed

    Kuballa, Stefanie

    2017-05-01

    The open access paradigm has become an important approach in today's information and communication society. Funders and governments in different countries stipulate open access publications of funded research results. Medical informatics as part of the science, technology and medicine disciplines benefits from many research funds, such as National Institutes of Health in the US, Wellcome Trust in UK, German Research Foundation in Germany and many more. In this study an overview of the current open access programs and conditions of major journals in the field of medical informatics is presented. It was investigated whether there are suitable options and how they are shaped. Therefore all journals in Thomson Reuters Web of Science that were listed in the subject category "Medical Informatics" in 2014 were examined. An Internet research was conducted by investigating the journals' websites. It was reviewed whether journals offer an open access option with a subsequent check of conditions as for example the type of open access, the fees and the licensing. As a result all journals in the field of medical informatics that had an impact factor in 2014 offer an open access option. A predominantly consistent pricing range was determined with an average fee of 2.248 € and a median fee of 2.207 €. The height of a journals' open access fee did not correlate with the height of its Impact Factor. Hence, medical informatics journals have recognized the trend of open access publishing, though the vast majority of them are working with the hybrid method. Hybrid open access may however lead to problems in questions of double dipping and the often stipulated gold open access.

  18. NOAA Climate Data Records Access for Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachniewicz, J. S.; Cecil, D.; Hollingshead, A.; Newport, B. J.; Wunder, D.

    2015-12-01

    There are many potential uses of NOAA Climate Data Records (CDRs) for decision-making and catastrophic risk management assessment activities in the federal, state, and local government and private sectors, in addition to their traditional uses by the academic/scientific community. There is growing interest in using NOAA CDRs for such applications and straightforward access to the data is essential if these applications are to be successful. User engagement activities determine the types of data that users need, as well as the spatial and temporal subsets. This talk will present the access methods currently available and in development. Alternate representations and sources of some CDRs will also be discussed. Recent improvements include: 1. CDR information web page 2. Dataset types, sizes, growth, latency, grid/swath 3. Dataset discovery, data access, and sub-setting. 4. Knowing our users and their needs. 5. Known uses of some CDRs. 6. Migration to CLASS. 7. Other representations - GeoTIFF, Obs4MIPS 8. Cloud applications - Google, Microsoft

  19. Negotiating boundaries: Accessing donor gametes in India

    PubMed Central

    Widge, A.; Cleland, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This paper documents how couples and providers access donor materials for conception in the Indian context and perceptions about using them. The objective is to facilitate understanding of critical issues and relevant concerns. Methods: A postal survey was conducted with a sample of 6000 gynaecologists and in-depth interviews were conducted with 39 gynaecologists in four cities. Results: Donor gametes are relatively more acceptable than a few years ago, especially if confidentiality can be maintained, though lack of availability of donor materials is sometimes an impediment to infertility treatment. Donor sperms are usually accessed from in-house or commercial sperm banks, pathology laboratories, IVF centres, professional donors, relatives or friends. There is scepticism about screening procedures of sperm banks. Donor eggs are usually accessed from voluntary donors, friends, relatives, egg sharing programmes, donation from other patients, advertising and commercial donors. There are several concerns regarding informed consent for using donated gametes, using relatives and friends gametes, the unregulated use of gametes and embryos, record keeping and documentation, unethical and corrupt practices and commercialisation. Conclusion: These issues need to be addressed by patients, providers and regulatory authorities by providing information, counselling, ensuring informed consent, addressing exploitation and commercialisation, ensuring monitoring, proper documentation and transparency. PMID:24753849

  20. Three essays on access pricing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sydee, Ahmed Nasim

    In the first essay, a theoretical model is developed to determine the time path of optimal access price in the telecommunications industry. Determining the optimal access price is an important issue in the economics of telecommunications. Setting a high access price discourages potential entrants; a low access price, on the other hand, amounts to confiscation of private property because the infrastructure already built by the incumbent is sunk. Furthermore, a low access price does not give the incumbent incentives to maintain the current network and to invest in new infrastructures. Much of the existing literature on access pricing suffers either from the limitations of a static framework or from the assumption that all costs are avoidable. The telecommunications industry is subject to high stranded costs and, therefore, to address this issue a dynamic model is imperative. This essay presents a dynamic model of one-way access pricing in which the compensation involved in deregulatory taking is formalized and then analyzed. The short run adjustment after deregulatory taking has occurred is carried out and discussed. The long run equilibrium is also analyzed. A time path for the Ramsey price is shown as the correct dynamic price of access. In the second essay, a theoretical model is developed to determine the time path of optimal access price for an infrastructure that is characterized by congestion and lumpy investment. Much of the theoretical literature on access pricing of infrastructure prescribes that the access price be set at the marginal cost of the infrastructure. In proposing this rule of access pricing, the conventional analysis assumes that infrastructure investments are infinitely divisible so that it makes sense to talk about the marginal cost of investment. Often it is the case that investments in infrastructure are lumpy and can only be made in large chunks, and this renders the marginal cost concept meaningless. In this essay, we formalize a model of

  1. [Drug access in poor countries].

    PubMed

    Sebbag, Robert

    2007-11-01

    As a responsible player in the global pharmaceutical industry, Sanofi-Aventis recognizes its special responsibility to provide poor countries with access to drugs and vaccines. This is a key component of the Group's approach to sustainable development. As such, the Access to Medicines department draws on Sanofi-Aventis' expertise in order to address major public health issues, starting with the treatment of malaria, tuberculosis, sleeping sickness, leishmaniasis and epilepsy, as well as access to vaccines. The department has four main activities: research and development of new drugs; improvement of existing treatments; information, communication and education of patients and healthcare professionals; and development of a differential pricing and distribution policy adapted to patients' income, with a "no profit-no loss" equilibrium.

  2. [Medical journals and open access].

    PubMed

    Sember, Marijan

    2008-01-01

    The open access (OA) or the idea of a free access to scholarly literature published in electronic form has been already well established in the field of medicine. Medline has already been free for a decade, PubMed Central has been growing steadily. The global crisis of the scientific publishing, becoming increasingly dominated by multinational companies and constant increase of journal prices have moved to action not only individuals and institutions but governments and research charities too. The aim of this article is to give an overview of the main open access initiatives and resources in biomedicine (PubMed, PubMed Central, BioMed Central, PLoS). The OA pros and cons are briefly discussed emphasizing the benefits of OA to medical research and practice.

  3. Transient ulnar artery compression facilitates transradial access

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhi-ming; Yan, Zhen-xian; Nie, Bin; Guo, Yong-he; Zhou, Yu-jie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Unsuccessful radial artery puncture is one of the important causes of transradial procedure failure. Ulnar artery compression made the radial artery pulse stronger. Whether it would make transradial access easier, however, is uncertain. Methods: A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted among 446 patients who planned for transradial cardiac catheterization. Patients were randomized to receiving either transient ulnar artery compression (UC) or standard treatment (standard) for half an hour prior to needle insertion (217 UC, 229 standard). The diameters of right radial artery and ulnar artery were measured by ultrasound on admission and before artery puncture. Primary endpoints included the number of attempts to access, the rate of first-pass success, and time for a successful access. Secondary endpoints were the number of difficult procedures, and the incidence of puncture failure. Results: The diameters of radial artery were larger after half an hour's ulnar artery compression, but there were no obvious changes in that of ulnar artery. As compared with standard group, the number of attempts was significantly decreased (1.42 ± 1.10 vs 2.97 ± 2.38, P <0.001), and the rate of first-pass success was greatly enhanced (73.27% vs 57.64%, P <0.001) in UC group. Meanwhile, the time for access was decreased (59 ± 15 seconds vs 71 ± 18 seconds, P <0.001) with UC. In addition, the proportion of difficult procedures of UC group was less than that of standard group (4.61% vs 10.92%, P = 0.013). No significant differences were found in failure rates of sheath insertion and puncture between the 2 groups. Conclusion: Transient ulnar artery compression enhances the efficacy and feasibility of radial artery intubatton in transradial catheterization. PMID:27902608

  4. Venous Access Devices: Clinical Rounds

    PubMed Central

    Matey, Laurl; Camp-Sorrell, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Nursing management of venous access devices (VADs) requires knowledge of current evidence, as well as knowledge of when evidence is limited. Do you know which practices we do based on evidence and those that we do based on institutional history or preference? This article will present complex VAD infection and occlusion complications and some of the controversies associated with them. Important strategies for identifying these complications, troubleshooting, and evaluating the evidence related to lack of blood return, malposition, infection, access and maintenance protocols, and scope of practice issues are presented. PMID:28083553

  5. Patient access to medical records.

    PubMed

    Mair, J L

    1996-01-01

    The issue of, and access to, medical records has been a contentious matter for some years in Australia. The recent High Court decision of Breen v Williams has clarified the law nationwide. The High Court confirmed that the ownership of medical records is vested in the creator of the records. The High Court further held that a patient has no right at law to access his or her medical records in the absence of any statute granting such a right, or other legal process.

  6. Community Access to Atmospheric Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durbin, P. B.; Tilmes, C. A.; Parris, F. E.; Martin, A. T.; Soika, V.; Bichali, L.; Higgins, P. H.

    2006-12-01

    This paper provides an overview of the computer application that provides community access to atmosphere measurements derived from backscatter ultraviolet sources. It is funded by NASA's Advance Collaborative Connections for Earth-Sun System Science (ACCESS), and is devoted to Measurements of Atmospheric Chemistry in the Ultraviolet (MACUV). The purpose is to provide "one-stop shopping" for data and information of interest to the Backscattered Ultraviolet (BUV) community. It is built from the well-used, highly successful Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) website and is being evolved into a broader focus for the BUV community. This application supports NASA's evolutionary step toward science measurement processing and analysis systems and enables the BUV community to easily access information and expertise from multiple sources over a nearly 30 year history of space based remote sensing of the atmosphere. It facilitates finding and comparing data, algorithms, and scientific results from different parts of the BUV science community as well as from different instruments and missions. It provides the means to manage and access the products of the Ozone Community Oriented Measurement-based Processing System (ComPS). The MACUV application contains components that store and manage data, manage user access to that data, provide multi-dimensional views of the data and other information, serve data based on user criteria, and facilitate on-line collaboration. The web site hosts Algorithm Theoretical Basis documents for each data product, quality assessment of those products, published papers, instrument descriptions, access to mission information, reports and assessments of events and issues, problem reporting and tracking, a moderated forum, and a user collaboration area. Visitors to the MACUV web site fall into several categories: the general public; students, educators and researchers outside the BUV community; members of the BUV community who validate the

  7. Quantitative real-time PCR as a sensitive protein-protein interaction quantification method and a partial solution for non-accessible autoactivator and false-negative molecule analysis in the yeast two-hybrid system.

    PubMed

    Maier, Richard H; Maier, Christina J; Hintner, Helmut; Bauer, Johann W; Onder, Kamil

    2012-12-01

    Many functional proteomic experiments make use of high-throughput technologies such as mass spectrometry combined with two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system. Currently there are even automated versions of the Y2H system available that can be used for proteome-wide research. The Y2H system has the capacity to deliver a profusion of Y2H positive colonies from a single library screen. However, subsequent analysis of these numerous primary candidates with complementary methods can be overwhelming. Therefore, a method to select the most promising candidates with strong interaction properties might be useful to reduce the number of candidates requiring further analysis. The method described here offers a new way of quantifying and rating the performance of positive Y2H candidates. The novelty lies in the detection and measurement of mRNA expression instead of proteins or conventional Y2H genetic reporters. This method correlates well with the direct genetic reporter readouts usually used in the Y2H system, and has greater sensitivity for detecting and quantifying protein-protein interactions (PPIs) than the conventional Y2H system, as demonstrated by detection of the Y2H false-negative PPI of RXR/PPARG. Approximately 20% of all proteins are not suitable for the Y2H system, the so-called autoactivators. A further advantage of this method is the possibility to evaluate molecules that usually cannot be analyzed in the Y2H system, exemplified by a VDR-LXXLL motif peptide interaction.

  8. Severe venous neointimal hyperplasia prior to dialysis access surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Timmy; Chauhan, Vibha; Krishnamoorthy, Mahesh; Wang, Yang; Arend, Lois; Mistry, Meenakshi J.; El-Khatib, Mahmoud; Banerjee, Rupak; Munda, Rino; Roy-Chaudhury, Prabir

    2011-01-01

    Background. Venous neointimal hyperplasia is the most common cause of arteriovenous (AV) fistula and graft dysfunction following dialysis access surgery. However, the pathogenetic impact of pre-existing venous neointimal hyperplasia at the time of AV access creation on final clinical success is currently unknown in the setting of advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. The aim of this study was to perform a detailed histological, morphometric, and immunohistochemical analysis of vein specimens in advanced CKD and ESRD patients collected at the time of new vascular access placement. Methods. Vein samples from 12 patients were collected at the time of AV access creation near the site of AV anastomosis. Histological, immunohistochemistry and morphometric studies were performed on these vein samples. Results. Examination of the tissue specimens obtained at the time of surgery showed neointimal hyperplasia in 10 of 12 specimens, ranging from minimal to very severe. The majority of cells within the neointima were myofibroblasts with a minority of contractile smooth muscle cells present. Conclusion. Our work represents a detailed description of the morphometric and cellular phenotypic lesions present in the veins of CKD and ESRD patients, prior to dialysis access placement. These studies (i) suggest the future possibility of a new predictive marker (pre-existing venous neointimal hyperplasia) for AV dialysis access dysfunction and (ii) open the door for the future development of novel local therapies for optimization of the venous substrate on which the dialysis access is created. PMID:21220751

  9. EU accession: A policy window opportunity for nursing?

    PubMed

    De Raeve, Paul; Rafferty, Anne-Marie; Bariball, Louise; Young, Ruth; Boiko, Olga

    2017-03-01

    European enlargement has been studied in a wide range of policy areas within and beyond health. Yet the impact of EU enlargement upon one of the largest health professions, nursing, has been largely neglected. This paper aims to explore nurse leadership using a comparative case study method in two former Communist countries, Romania and Croatia. Specifically, it considers the extent to which engagement in the EU accession policy-making process provided a policy window for the leaders to formulate and implement a professional agenda while negotiating EU accession. Findings of qualitative interviews and documentary analysis indicate that the mechanisms used to facilitate the accession process were not successful in achieving compliance with the education standards in the Community Acquis, as highlighted in the criteria on the mutual recognition of professional qualifications set out in Directive 2005/36/EC. EU accession capacity building and accession funds were not deployed efficiently to upgrade Romanian and Croatian nursing education towards meeting EU standards. Conflicting views on accession held by the various nursing stakeholders (nursing regulator, nursing union, governmental chief nurse and the professional association) inhibited the setting of a common policy agenda to achieve compliance with EU standards. The study findings suggest a need to critically review EU accession mechanisms and better align leadership at all governance levels.

  10. Household food insecurity access scale (HFIAS).

    PubMed

    Salvador Castell, Gemma; Pérez Rodrigo, Carmen; Ngo de la Cruz, Joy; Aranceta Bartrina, Javier

    2015-02-26

    In 1996, the World Food Summit reaffirmed the inalienable right that each person across the globe has to access safe, adequate and nutritious food. At that time a goal was established to reduce by half the number of undernourished persons worldwide by 2015, in other words the year that we are now commencing. Different countries and organisations considered the necessity of reaching consensus and developing indicators for measuring household food insecurity. The availability of a simple but evidence-based measurement method to identify nutritionally at-risk population groups constitutes an essential instrument for implementing strategies that effectively address relevant key issues.

  11. Arteriovenous Access: Infection, Neuropathy, and Other Complications.

    PubMed

    MacRae, Jennifer M; Dipchand, Christine; Oliver, Matthew; Moist, Louise; Yilmaz, Serdar; Lok, Charmaine; Leung, Kelvin; Clark, Edward; Hiremath, Swapnil; Kappel, Joanne; Kiaii, Mercedeh; Luscombe, Rick; Miller, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    Complications of vascular access lead to morbidity and may reduce quality of life. In this module, we review both infectious and noninfectious arteriovenous access complications including neuropathy, aneurysm, and high-output access. For the challenging patients who have developed many complications and are now nearing their last vascular access, we highlight some potentially novel approaches.

  12. Educational Access in Ghana. Country Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyeampong, K.; Djangmah, J.; Oduro, A.; Seidu, A.; Hunt, F.

    2008-01-01

    This Policy Brief describes and explains patterns of access to schools in Ghana. It outlines policy and legislation on access to education and provides an analysis of access, vulnerability and exclusion. It is based on findings from the Country Analytic Report on Access to Basic Education in Ghana (Akyeampong et al, 2007) [ED508809] which can be…

  13. 48 CFR 252.239-7002 - Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access. 252.239-7002... Clauses 252.239-7002 Access. As prescribed in 239.7411(a), use the following clause: Access (DEC 1991) (a) Subject to military security regulations, the Government shall permit the Contractor access at...

  14. 43 CFR 36.12 - Temporary access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary access. 36.12 Section 36.12... ACROSS, AND ACCESS INTO, CONSERVATION SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA § 36.12 Temporary access. (a) For the... the National Petroleum Reserve—Alaska. (2) Temporary access means limited, short-term (i.e., up to...

  15. Educational Access in India. Country Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This Policy Brief describes and explains patterns of access to schools in India. It outlines policy and legislation on access to education and provides an analysis of access, vulnerability and exclusion. The quantitative data is supported by a review of research which explains the patterns of access and exclusion. It is based on findings from the…

  16. 28 CFR 17.44 - Access eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Access eligibility. 17.44 Section 17.44 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Access to Classified Information § 17.44 Access eligibility. (a) Determinations...

  17. 10 CFR 1017.20 - Routine access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Routine access. 1017.20 Section 1017.20 Energy DEPARTMENT... INFORMATION Access to Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.20 Routine access. (a) Authorized... access to the UCNI, subject to limitations in paragraph (b) of this section, and who may...

  18. 46 CFR 153.330 - Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access. 153.330 Section 153.330 Shipping COAST GUARD..., LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Pumprooms § 153.330 Access. (a) The access door to a cargo pump-room must open on the weatheredeck. (b) The access way to a...

  19. Standardized Definitions for Hemodialysis Vascular Access

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Timmy; Mokrzycki, Michele; Moist, Louise; Maya, Ivan; Vazquez, Miguel; Lok, Charmaine

    2014-01-01

    Vascular access dysfunction is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among end-stage renal disease patients 1,2. Vascular access dysfunction exists in all 3 types of available accesses: arteriovenous fistulas, arteriovenous grafts, and tunneled catheters. In order to improve clinical research and outcomes in hemodialysis access dysfunction, the development of a multidisciplinary network of collaborative investigators with various areas of expertise, and common standards for terminology and classification in all vascular access types is required. The North American Vascular Access Consortium (NAVAC) is a newly formed multidisciplinary and multicenter network of experts in the area of hemodialysis vascular access, who include nephrologists and interventional nephrologists from the United States and Canada with: (1) a primary clinical and research focus in hemodialysis vascular access dysfunction, (2) national and internationally recognized experts in vascular access, and (3) a history of productivity measured by peer-reviewed publications and funding among members of this consortium. The consortium’s mission is to improve the quality and efficiency in vascular access research, and impact the research in the area of hemodialysis vascular access by conducting observational studies and randomized controlled trials. The purpose of the consortium’s initial manuscript is to provide working and standard vascular access definitions relating to (1) epidemiology, (2) vascular access function, (3) vascular access patency, and (4) complications in vascular accesses relating to each of the vascular access types. PMID:21906166

  20. 77 FR 37553 - Access Authorization Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 11 and 25 RIN 3150-AJ00 Access Authorization Fees AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... access authorization fees charged to licensees for work performed under the Material Access Authorization... Authorization.'' The NRC amended its access authorization fees charged to licensees for work performed under...

  1. File Access Optimization with the Lustre Filesystem at Florida CMS T2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avery, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Fu, Y.; Kim, B.

    2015-12-01

    The Florida CMS Tier2 center, one of the CMS Tier2 centers, has been using the Lustre filesystem for its data storage backend system since 2004. Recently, the data access pattern at our site has changed greatly due to various new access methods that include file transfers through the GridFTP servers, read access from the worker nodes, and the remote read access through the xrootd servers. In order to optimize the file access performance, we have to consider all the possible access patterns and each pattern needs to be studied separately. In this presentation, we report on our work to optimize file access with the Lustre filesystem at the Florida CMS T2 using an approach based on analyzing these access patterns.

  2. OSSI-PET: Open-Access Database of Simulated [(11)C]Raclopride Scans for the Inveon Preclinical PET Scanner: Application to the Optimization of Reconstruction Methods for Dynamic Studies.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Marie-Paule; Charil, Arnaud; Callaghan, Paul; Wimberley, Catriona; Busso, Florian; Gregoire, Marie-Claude; Bardies, Manuel; Reilhac, Anthonin

    2016-07-01

    A wide range of medical imaging applications benefits from the availability of realistic ground truth data. In the case of positron emission tomography (PET), ground truth data is crucial to validate processing algorithms and assessing their performances. The design of such ground truth data often relies on Monte-Carlo simulation techniques. Since the creation of a large dataset is not trivial both in terms of computing time and realism, we propose the OSSI-PET database containing 350 simulated [(11)C]Raclopride dynamic scans for rats, created specifically for the Inveon pre-clinical PET scanner. The originality of this database lies on the availability of several groups of scans with controlled biological variations in the striata. Besides, each group consists of a large number of realizations (i.e., noise replicates). We present the construction methodology of this database using rat pharmacokinetic and anatomical models. A first application using the OSSI-PET database is presented. Several commonly used reconstruction techniques were compared in terms of image quality, accuracy and variability of the activity estimates and of the computed kinetic parameters. The results showed that OP-OSEM3D iterative reconstruction method outperformed the other tested methods. Analytical methods such as FBP2D and 3DRP also produced satisfactory results. However, FORE followed by OSEM2D reconstructions should be avoided. Beyond the illustration of the potential of the database, this application will help scientists to understand the different sources of noise and bias that can occur at the different steps in the processing and will be very useful for choosing appropriate reconstruction methods and parameters.

  3. Registered access: a 'Triple-A' approach.

    PubMed

    Dyke, Stephanie O M; Kirby, Emily; Shabani, Mahsa; Thorogood, Adrian; Kato, Kazuto; Knoppers, Bartha M

    2016-12-01

    We propose a standard model for a novel data access tier - registered access - to facilitate access to data that cannot be published in open access archives owing to ethical and legal risk. Based on an analysis of applicable research ethics and other legal and administrative frameworks, we discuss the general characteristics of this Registered Access Model, which would comprise a three-stage approval process: Authentication, Attestation and Authorization. We are piloting registered access with the Demonstration Projects of the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health for which it may provide a suitable mechanism for access to certain data types and to different types of data users.

  4. Access, Intellectual Freedom and Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Richard L.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews attitudes toward censorship in the United States throughout its history in relation to the nation and its institutions. The library is recognized as an institution in which censorship has no place, due to its creed of information access and intellectual freedom for all. (MBR)

  5. Remotely Accessible Management System (RAMS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Rex

    Oakland Schools, an Intermediate School District for Administration, operates a Remotely Accessible Management System (RAMS). RAMS is composed of over 100 computer programs, each of which performs procedures on the files of the 28 local school districts comprising the constituency of Oakland Schools. This regional service agency covers 900 square…

  6. Minorities Access to Research Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, Washington, DC.

    The Minorities Access to Research Careers (MARC) program at Hunter College, New York is designed to provide an in-depth 2-year research training experience for minority students in order to prepare them for graduate school and eventual research careers in alcohol, drug abuse, and mental health fields. The target groups include Blacks, Hispanics,…

  7. Accessibility: Maximum Mobility and Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyser, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Describes how to design school and university labs to comply with Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) standards, focusing on counter height for students in wheelchairs; appropriate knee space and sink height in sink areas; ADA-compliant fume hoods; accessible laboratory doors and entryways; and safety concerns (e.g., emergency eyewash stations…

  8. Digital Imagery, Preservation and Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesk, Michael; Lynn, M. Stuart

    1990-01-01

    These two reports published by the Commission on Preservation and Access (CPA) include a comparison of digital and microfilm imagery, as well as discussions of chemical deacidification; ASCII (nonimage) files; and storage, conversion, and transmission considerations. A structured glossary of terms relating to media conversion and digital computer…

  9. Plated wire random access memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gouldin, L. D.

    1975-01-01

    A program was conducted to construct 4096-work by 18-bit random access, NDRO-plated wire memory units. The memory units were subjected to comprehensive functional and environmental tests at the end-item level to verify comformance with the specified requirements. A technical description of the unit is given, along with acceptance test data sheets.

  10. Ballistic representation for kinematic access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfano, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    This work uses simple two-body orbital dynamics to initially determine the kinematic access for a ballistic vehicle. Primarily this analysis was developed to assess when a rocket body might conjunct with an orbiting satellite platform. A family of access opportunities can be represented as a volume for a specific rocket relative to its launch platform. Alternately, the opportunities can be represented as a geographical footprint relative to aircraft or satellite position that encompasses all possible launcher locations for a specific rocket. A thrusting rocket is treated as a ballistic vehicle that receives all its energy at launch and follows a coasting trajectory. To do so, the rocket's burnout energy is used to find its equivalent initial velocity for a given launcher's altitude. Three kinematic access solutions are then found that account for spherical Earth rotation. One solution finds the maximum range for an ascent-only trajectory while another solution accommodates a descending trajectory. In addition, the ascent engagement for the descending trajectory is used to depict a rapid access scenario. These preliminary solutions are formulated to address ground-, sea-, or air-launched vehicles.

  11. The Simple Spectral Access protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolensky, Markus; Tody, Doug

    2004-09-01

    The goal of the Simple Spectral Access (SSA) specification is to define a uniform interface to spectral data including spectral energy distributions (SEDs), 1D spectra, and time series data. In contrast to 2D images, spectra are stored in a wide variety of formats and there is no widely used standard in astronomy for representing spectral data, hence part of the challenge of specifying SSA was defining a general spectrophotometric data model as well as definitions of standard serializations in a variety of data formats including XML and FITS. Access is provided to both atlas (pre-computed) data and to virtual data which is computed on demand. The term simple in Simple Spectrum Access refers to the design goal of simplicity in both implementing spectral data services and in retrieving spectroscopic data from distributed data collections. SSA is a product of the data access layer (DAL) working group of the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA). The requirements were derived from a survey among spectral data providers and data consumers and were further refined in a broad discussion in meetings and electronic forums as well as by prototyping efforts within the European Astrophysical Virtual Observatory (AVO) and the US National Virtual Observatory (NVO).

  12. LANSCE personnel access control system

    SciTech Connect

    Sturrock, J.C.; Gallegos, F.R.; Hall, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. The Personnel Access Control System (PACS) is a component of the RSS that is designed to prevent personnel access to areas where prompt radiation is a hazard. PACS was designed to replace several older personnel safety systems (PSS) with a single modem unified design. Lessons learned from the operation over the last 20 years were incorporated into a redundant sensor, single-point failure safe, fault tolerant, and tamper-resistant system that prevents access to the beam areas by controlling the access keys and beam stoppers. PACS uses a layered philosophy to the physical and electronic design. The most critical assemblies are battery backed up, relay logic circuits; less critical devices use Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) for timing functions and communications. Outside reviewers have reviewed the operational safety of the design. The design philosophy, lessons learned, hardware design, software design, operation, and limitations of the device are described.

  13. Arts Accessibility for the Deaf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Eugene

    The booklet provides information and resources for cultural organizations and institutions interested in making the arts accessible to deaf citizens. Preliminary information includes a discussion of deafness in America and the deaf in the history of the arts and notes that the era of silent films was the golden age of cinema. Listed are 36…

  14. Access inequalities addressed by audit.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajiv; Pentland, Brian

    2005-08-01

    The Disability Discrimination Act (1995) protects disabled people from discrimination in access to services, facilities and goods as well as in education and employment. All hospitals have an inherent duty to enable access to services but this will now be enshrined in law. As the health sector has most contact with disability, it may be expected that most hospitals would already be in a good position to comply with the Act, especially one treating many patients with disability. However we identified many problems in a rehabilitation hospital setting by means of a simple access audit in March 2004. Recommendations were set out and by March 2005 considerable improvements had been made costing Pound 100,000. Although many necessary changes will be expensive, not all problems identified require costly correction. Many simply involve a change in staff attitudes and practices. We recommend that all hospitals start to identify the changes needed under the Act by means of a simple access audit that can be carried out by hospital staff with no specialist equipment.

  15. The Inevitability of Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Open access (OA) is an alternative business model for the publication of scholarly journals. It makes articles freely available to readers on the Internet and covers the costs associated with publication through means other than subscriptions. This article argues that Gold OA, where all of the articles of a journal are available at the time of…

  16. Proximity Displays for Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaniea, Kami

    2012-01-01

    Managing access to shared digital information, such as photographs and documents. is difficult for end users who are accumulating an increasingly large and diverse collection of data that they want to share with others. Current policy-management solutions require a user to proactively seek out and open a separate policy-management interface when…

  17. 12 CFR 1072.109 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... usable by individuals with disabilities where other methods are effective in achieving compliance with... individuals with disabilities receive the benefits and services of the program or activity. (b) Methods. The..., reassignment of services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits,...

  18. Creating a Shared Formulary in 7 Critical Access Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, Douglas S.; Ward, Marcia M.; Loes, Jean L.; O'Brien, John; Abbas, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper reports a case study of 7 Critical Access Hospitals' (CAH) and 1 rural referral hospital's successful collaboration to develop a shared formulary. Methods: Study methods included document reviews, interviews with key informants, and use of descriptive statistics. Findings: Through a systematic review and decision process, CAH…

  19. Community Access to Atmospheric Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J. J.; Batluck, G. R.; Durbin, P. B.; Gerard, R.; Larko, D. E.; Martin, A.; Tilmes, C. A.

    2007-05-01

    This poster provides an overview of the computer system that provides community access to atmosphere measurements derived from backscatter ultraviolet sources. It is funded by NASA's Advancing Collaborative Connections for Earth-Sun System Science (ACCESS), and is devoted to Measurements of Atmospheric Composition in the Ultraviolet. The purpose is to provide "one-stop shopping" for data and information of interested to the Backscattered Ultraviolet (BUV) community. It is built from the well-used, highly successful Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) web site, and is being evolved into a broader focus for the BUV community. This effort supports NASA's evolutionary step toward science measurement processing and analysis systems, and enables the BUV community to easily access information and expertise from multiple sources over a nearly 30 year history of space-based remote sensing of the atmosphere. It facilitates finding algorithms and scientific results from different parts of the BUV science community as well as from different instruments and missions. It provides the means to access the products of the Ozone Community Oriented Measurement-based Processing System (ComPS). The system contains components that store and manage data, manage user access to that data, provide multi-dimensional views of the data and other information, serve data based on user criteria, and facilitate on-line collaboration. The web site hosts Algorithm Theoretical Basis documents, quality assessment of data products, published papers, instrument descriptions, access to mission information, reports and assessments of events and issues, problem reporting and tracking, a moderated forum, and a user collaboration area. Visitors to the web site fall into several categories: the general public; students, educators, and researchers outside the BUV community; members of the BUV community who validate the measurements; members of the community who develop algorithms and software. Access to

  20. Arteriovenous Vascular Access Selection and Evaluation.

    PubMed

    MacRae, Jennifer M; Oliver, Matthew; Clark, Edward; Dipchand, Christine; Hiremath, Swapnil; Kappel, Joanne; Kiaii, Mercedeh; Lok, Charmaine; Luscombe, Rick; Miller, Lisa M; Moist, Louise

    2016-01-01

    When making decisions regarding vascular access creation, the clinician and vascular access team must evaluate each patient individually with consideration of life expectancy, timelines for dialysis start, risks and benefits of access creation, referral wait times, as well as the risk for access complications. The role of the multidisciplinary team in facilitating access choice is reviewed, as well as the clinical evaluation of the patient.

  1. Arteriovenous Vascular Access Selection and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    MacRae, Jennifer M.; Oliver, Matthew; Clark, Edward; Dipchand, Christine; Hiremath, Swapnil; Kappel, Joanne; Kiaii, Mercedeh; Lok, Charmaine; Luscombe, Rick; Miller, Lisa M.; Moist, Louise

    2016-01-01

    When making decisions regarding vascular access creation, the clinician and vascular access team must evaluate each patient individually with consideration of life expectancy, timelines for dialysis start, risks and benefits of access creation, referral wait times, as well as the risk for access complications. The role of the multidisciplinary team in facilitating access choice is reviewed, as well as the clinical evaluation of the patient. PMID:28270917

  2. DOD Common Access Card Information Brief

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    12 July, 2001 DoD Common Access Card Information Brief Smart Card Project Managers Group REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188...statistics of DoD’s Common Access Card. 15. SUBJECT TERMS IATAC COLLECTION; smart card ; common access card; issuance; infrastructure 16. SECURITY...and statistics of DoD’s Common Access Card. 14. SUBJECT TERMS IATAC Collection, smart card , common access card, issuance infrastructure, 15. NUMBER OF

  3. Access to emergency number services.

    PubMed

    Harkins, Judith E; Strauss, Karen Peltz

    2008-01-01

    Access to emergency services is mandated by Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The Department of Justice oversees the accessibility of public safety answering points (PSAPs), popularly called 9-1-1 centers. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has at least two roles in emergency number access: (1) as regulator of the ADA's Title IV on telecommunications access, and (2) as regulator of communications companies with regard to support of and interconnection with PSAPs. The rules of both agencies contributed significantly to the improvement during the 1990s of access to 9-1-1 for people who are deaf, hard of hearing, or speech disabled. However, as new technologies for text wireless communications and relay services have moved quickly to Internet protocol (IP)-based technologies over the past 5-8 years, the use of traditional wireline telephones and text telephones among deaf, hard of hearing, and speech-disabled people has declined. PSAPs cannot be contacted via the newer forms of telecommunications, such as e-mail, instant messaging, and IP-based forms of relay services, including video relay services. The gap between the technology supported by policy and the technologies currently being used by deaf and hard of hearing people has become a serious problem that is difficult to solve because of the separate jurisdictions of the two agencies, the need for coordination within the FCC, technological challenges, and funding issues. In this article, the key policy and technology challenges will be analyzed and recommendations made for short-and long-term solutions to this dilemma.

  4. Automated Computer Access Request System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snook, Bryan E.

    2010-01-01

    The Automated Computer Access Request (AutoCAR) system is a Web-based account provisioning application that replaces the time-consuming paper-based computer-access request process at Johnson Space Center (JSC). Auto- CAR combines rules-based and role-based functionality in one application to provide a centralized system that is easily and widely accessible. The system features a work-flow engine that facilitates request routing, a user registration directory containing contact information and user metadata, an access request submission and tracking process, and a system administrator account management component. This provides full, end-to-end disposition approval chain accountability from the moment a request is submitted. By blending both rules-based and rolebased functionality, AutoCAR has the flexibility to route requests based on a user s nationality, JSC affiliation status, and other export-control requirements, while ensuring a user s request is addressed by either a primary or backup approver. All user accounts that are tracked in AutoCAR are recorded and mapped to the native operating system schema on the target platform where user accounts reside. This allows for future extensibility for supporting creation, deletion, and account management directly on the target platforms by way of AutoCAR. The system s directory-based lookup and day-today change analysis of directory information determines personnel moves, deletions, and additions, and automatically notifies a user via e-mail to revalidate his/her account access as a result of such changes. AutoCAR is a Microsoft classic active server page (ASP) application hosted on a Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS).

  5. [Vascular access for hemodialysis: recommendations of the Vascular Access Study Group of the Italian Society of Nephrology].

    PubMed

    Tazza, Luigi; Mandolfo, Salvatore; Carbonari, Luciano; Forneris, Giacomo; Di Dio, Michele; Palumbo, Roberto; Gallieni, Maurizio; Bonforte, Giuseppe; Carnabuci, Antonio; Cavatorta, Fosco; Aloisi, Mauro; Galli, Franco

    2010-01-01

    The Vascular Access Study Group of the Italian Society of Nephrology has scheduled four national studies regarding the choice, implantation and use of vascular access. Study topics will include 1) utilization of vascular grafts for hemodialysis; 2) indications and use of venous catheters; 3) tunneled central venous catheter infection; 4) organization of the implantation and repair of vascular access. After examining the difficulties in implementing international guidelines on vascular access in Italy and the differences in practice patterns between our and other countries (where the most important studies were published), the Study Group set out to prepare four position papers based on discussion of controversial aspects of the international guidelines by nephrologists and surgeons experienced in the Italian practice. An innovative operative method for verifying the consensus on vascular access practice patterns was used. The final aim was to write a document addressed to vascular access operators (surgeons and nephrologists) based on the consensus of experts on controversial vascular-access- related issues. The project will include yearly updates of the documents.

  6. A secure network access system for mobile IPv6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong; Yuan, Man; He, Rui; Jiang, Luliang; Ma, Jian; Qian, Hualin

    2004-03-01

    With the fast development of Internet and wireless and mobile communication technology, the Mobile Internet Age is upcoming. For those providing Mobile Internet services, especially from the view of ISP (Internet Service Provider), current mobile IP protocol is insufficient. Since the Mobile IPv6 protocol will be popular in near future, how to provide a secure mobile IPv6 service is important. A secure mobile IPv6 network access system is highly needed for mobile IPv6 deployment. Current methods and systems are still inadequate, including EAP, PANA, 802.1X, RADIUS, Diameter, etc. In this paper, we describe main security goals for a secure mobile IPv6 access system, and propose a secure network access system to achieve them. This access system consists of access router, attendant and authentication servers. The access procedure is divided into three phases, which are initial phase, authentication and registration phase and termination phase. This system has many advantages, including layer two independent, flexible and extensible, no need to modify current IPv6 address autoconfiguration protocols, binding update optimization, etc. Finally, the security of the protocol in this system is analyzed and proved with Extended BAN logic method, and a brief introduction of system implementation is given.

  7. Autonomy and Housing Accessibility Among Powered Mobility Device Users

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Åse; Lexell, Eva Månsson; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To describe environmental barriers, accessibility problems, and powered mobility device (PMD) users’ autonomy indoors and outdoors; to determine the home environmental barriers that generated the most housing accessibility problems indoors, at entrances, and in the close exterior surroundings; and to examine personal factors and environmental components and their association with indoor and outdoor autonomy. METHOD. This cross-sectional study was based on data collected from a sample of 48 PMD users with a spinal cord injury (SCI) using the Impact of Participation and Autonomy and the Housing Enabler instruments. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used. RESULTS. More years living with SCI predicted less restriction in autonomy indoors, whereas more functional limitations and accessibility problems related to entrance doors predicted more restriction in autonomy outdoors. CONCLUSION. To enable optimized PMD use, practitioners must pay attention to the relationship between client autonomy and housing accessibility problems. PMID:26356666

  8. Investigating impacts of positional error on potential health care accessibility.

    PubMed

    Bell, Scott; Wilson, Kathi; Shah, Tayyab Ikram; Gersher, Sarina; Elliott, Tina

    2012-04-01

    Accessibility to health services at the local or community level is an effective approach to measuring health care delivery in various constituencies in Canada and the United States. GIS and spatial methods play an important role in measuring potential access to health services. The Three-Step Floating Catchment Area (3SFCA) method is a GIS based procedure developed to calculate potential (spatial) accessibility as a ratio of primary health care (PHC) providers to the surrounding population in urban settings. This method uses PHC provider locations in textual/address format supplied by local, regional, or national health authorities. An automated geocoding procedure is normally used to convert such addresses to a pair of geographic coordinates. The accuracy of geocoding depends on the type of reference data and the amount of value-added effort applied. This research investigates the success and accuracy of six geocoding methods as well as how geocoding error affects the 3SFCA method. ArcGIS software is used for geocoding and spatial accessibility estimation. Results will focus on two implications of geocoding: (1) the success and accuracy of different automated and value-added geocoding; and (2) the implications of these geocoding methods for GIS-based methods that generalise results based on location data.

  9. Choice of FDMA/SCPC access technique for aeronautical satellite voice system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. K.

    1989-01-01

    A worldwide aeronautical mobile satellite system is about to become operational. The system architecture and access methods have been debated extensively, resulting in the selection of Time Division Multiplexing/Time Division Multiple Access (TDM/TDMA) access for packet data, and Single Channel Per Carrier (SCPC) for voice. These have become standards for airline use, and also satisfy the known requirements of ICAO for safety related communications. Voice communications are expected to absorb a high proportion of satellite bandwidth and power in the future. Here, it is explained why INMARSAT selected Frequency Division Multiple Access/SCPC satellite access for this application.

  10. Mechanisms that improve referential access*

    PubMed Central

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2015-01-01

    Two mechanisms, suppression and enhancement, are proposed to improve referential access. Enhancement improves the accessibility of previously mentioned concepts by increasing or boosting their activation; suppression improves concepts’ accessibility by decreasing or dampening the activation of other concepts. Presumably, these mechanisms are triggered by the informational content of anaphors. Six experiments investigated this proposal by manipulating whether an anaphoric reference was made with a very explicit, repeated name anaphor or a less explicit pronoun. Subjects read sentences that introduced two participants in their first clauses, for example, “Ann predicted that Pam would lose the track race,” and the sentences referred to one of the two participants in their second clauses, “but Pam/she came in first very easily.” While subjects read each sentence, the activation level of the two participants was measured by a probe verification task. The first two experiments demonstrated that explicit, repeated name anaphors immediately trigger the enhancement of their own antecedents and immediately trigger the suppression of other (nonantecedent) participants. The third experiment demonstrated that less explicit, pronoun anaphors also trigger the suppression of other nonantecedents, but they do so less quickly—even when, as in the fourth experiment, the semantic information to identify their antecedents occurs prior to the pronouns (e.g., “Ann predicted that Pam would lose the track race. But after winning the race, she …”). The fifth experiment demonstrated that more explicit pronouns – pronouns that match the gender of only one participant—trigger suppression more powerfully. A final experiment demonstrated that it is not only rementioned participants who improve their referential access by triggering the suppression of other participants; newly introduced participants do so too (e.g., “Ann predicted that Pam would lose the track race, but

  11. A new easy accessible and low-cost method for screening olfactory sensitivity in mice: behavioural and nociceptive response in male and female CD-1 mice upon exposure to millipede aversive odour.

    PubMed

    Capone, Francesca; Puopolo, Maria; Branchi, Igor; Alleva, Enrico

    2002-06-01

    In a previous study, mice were found to be repelled by the odour emitted by the millipede (Ommatoiulus sabulosus) as a defensive strategy against predators [Physiol. Behav. 74 (2001) 305-311]. To develop a standardised test for screening olfactory capabilities in rodents, we have characterised the behavioural response displayed by adult male and female CD-1 mice when exposed to a Stimulus Object (SO) consisting of a millipede-shaped sponge previously soaked either in a Toluquinone (TQ) solution (5g/100ml; Fluka), a chemical component of the exudate secreted by the millipede, or in distilled water. In Experiment 1, behaviours performed when exposed to the SO were scored (15min for 5 consecutive days). TQ exposure suppressed nearly completely Catching and Eating the SO, and increased general activity in a sex-dependent fashion. In Experiment 2, performances in a hot-plate test (50+/-0.5 degrees C, cut-off 60s) were assessed immediately after a 15-min exposure to the SO. Toluquinone-exposed mice showed a subtle yet significant decrease of pain threshold. TQ exposure assay is a new, easily testable, and low-cost method for measuring rodents olfactory sensitivity relevant for the analysis of the pharmacological agents, lesions and transgenesis.

  12. Securing America's access to space

    SciTech Connect

    Rendine, M.; Wood, L.

    1990-05-23

    We review pertinent aspects of the history of the space launch capabilities of the United States and survey its present status and near-term outlook. Steps which must be taken, pitfalls which much be avoided, and a core set of National options for re-acquiring in the near term the capability to access the space environment with large payloads are discussed. We devote considerable attention to the prospect of creating an interim heavy-lift space launch vehicle of at least 100,000 pound payload-orbiting capacity to serve National needs during the next dozen years, suggesting that such a capability can be demonstrated within 5 years for less than $1 B. Such capability will apparently be essential for meeting the first-phase goals of the President's Space Exploration Initiative. Some other high-leverage aspects of securing American access to space are also noted briefly, emphasizing unconventional technological approaches of presently high promise.

  13. Accessing SDO Data : The Poster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hourcle, Joseph; Addison, K.; Bogart, R.; Chamberlin, P.; Freeland, S.; Hughitt, V. K.; Ireland, J.; Maddox, M.; Mueller, D.; Somani, A.; Sommers, J.; Thompson, B.; solar physics data community, The

    2011-05-01

    As the data from SDO are useful for a variety of purposes, including solar physics, helioseismology, atmospheric science, space weather forecasting, education and public outreach, a wide variety of tools have been development to cater to the different needs of the various groups. Systems have been developed for pipeline processing, searching, browsing, subsetting, or simply just moving around large volumes of data. We present a quick overview of the different systems that can be used to access SDO data including (J)Helioviewer, the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK), the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO), the Integrated Space Weather Analysis System (iSWA), the Data Record Management System (DRMS), and various websites. We cover web-based applications, application programming interfaces (APIs), and IDL command line tools. This poster serves as a supplement to the oral presentation as a place to distribute information about the various interfaces and to collect feedback about any unmet needs for data access.

  14. Accessing the VO with Python

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plante, R.; Fitzpatrick, M.; Graham, M.; Tody, D.; Young, W.

    2014-05-01

    We introduce two products for accessing the VO from Python: PyVO and VOClient. PyVO is built on the widely-used Astropy package and is well suited for integrating automated access to astronomical data into highly customizable scripts and applications for data analysis in Python. VOClient is built on a collection of C-libraries and is well suited for integrating with multi-language analysis packages. It also provides a framework for integrating legacy software into the Python environment. In this demo, we will run through several examples demonstrate basic data discovery and retrieval of data. This includes finding archives containing data of interest (VO registry), retrieving datasets (SIA, SSA), and exploring (Cone Search, SLAP). VOClient features some extended capabilities including the ability to communicate to other desktop applications from a script using the SAMP protocol.

  15. An Optically Accessible Pyrolysis Microreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraban, Joshua H.; David, Donald E.; Ellison, Barney; Daily, John W.

    2016-06-01

    We report an optically accessible pyrolysis micro-reactor suitable for in situ laser spectroscopic measurements. A radiative heating design allows for completely unobstructed views of the micro-reactor along two axes. The maximum temperature demonstrated here is only 1300 K (as opposed to 1700 K for the usual SiC micro-reactor) because of the melting point of fused silica, but alternative transparent materials will allow for higher temperatures. Laser induced fluorescence measurements on nitric oxide are presented as a proof of principle for spectroscopic characterization of pyrolysis conditions. (This work has been published in J. H. Baraban, D. E. David, G. B. Ellison, and J. W. Daily. An Optically Accessible Pyrolysis Micro-Reactor. Review of Scientific Instruments, 87(1):014101, 2016.)

  16. Enhancing Ocean Research Data Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Cynthia; Groman, Robert; Shepherd, Adam; Allison, Molly; Arko, Robert; Chen, Yu; Fox, Peter; Glover, David; Hitzler, Pascal; Leadbetter, Adam; Narock, Thomas; West, Patrick; Wiebe, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) works in partnership with ocean science investigators to publish data from research projects funded by the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections and the Office of Polar Programs Antarctic Organisms & Ecosystems Program at the U.S. National Science Foundation. Since 2006, researchers have been contributing data to the BCO-DMO data system, and it has developed into a rich repository of data from ocean, coastal and Great Lakes research programs. While the ultimate goal of the BCO-DMO is to ensure preservation of NSF funded project data and to provide open access to those data, achievement of those goals is attained through a series of related phases that benefits from active collaboration and cooperation with a large community of research scientists as well as curators of data and information at complementary data repositories. The BCO-DMO is just one of many intermediate data management centers created to facilitate long-term preservation of data and improve access to ocean research data. Through partnerships with other data management professionals and active involvement in local and global initiatives, BCO-DMO staff members are working to enhance access to ocean research data available from the online BCO-DMO data system. Continuing efforts in use of controlled vocabulary terms, development of ontology design patterns and publication of content as Linked Open Data are contributing to improved discovery and availability of BCO-DMO curated data and increased interoperability of related content available from distributed repositories. We will demonstrate how Semantic Web technologies (e.g. RDF/XML, SKOS, OWL and SPARQL) have been integrated into BCO-DMO data access and delivery systems to better serve the ocean research community and to contribute to an expanding global knowledge network.

  17. Regulating access via economic principles

    SciTech Connect

    Hinton, P.J.; Zona, J.D.

    1999-09-01

    The right policy to balance the benefits of allowing the distco to fully utilize the efficiency advantage of vertical integration against the risks of anticompetitive conduct, is neither to split up the distco not to compel that it share all its facilities. This article shows that the general policy of compelling access to essential facilities, accompanied by effective monitoring and imputation rules, will strike the right balance: maximizing the benefits of competition, while preventing anticompetitive conduct.

  18. Clean access platform for orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, H.; Harris, J.

    1990-01-01

    The design of the Clean Access Platform at the Kennedy Space Center, beginning with the design requirements and tracing the effort throughout development and manufacturing is described. Also examined are: (1) A system description; (2) Testing requirements and conclusions; (3) Safety and reliability features; (4) Major problems experienced during the project; and (5) Lessons learned, including features necessary for the effective design of mechanisms used in clean systems.

  19. Computer-Access-Code Matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Authorized users respond to changing challenges with changing passwords. Scheme for controlling access to computers defeats eavesdroppers and "hackers". Based on password system of challenge and password or sign, challenge, and countersign correlated with random alphanumeric codes in matrices of two or more dimensions. Codes stored on floppy disk or plug-in card and changed frequently. For even higher security, matrices of four or more dimensions used, just as cubes compounded into hypercubes in concurrent processing.

  20. [Personalized medicine: equity and access].

    PubMed

    Joly, Yann; Knoppers, Bartha M

    2014-11-01

    Personalized medicine has seen a recent increase in popularity amongst medical researchers and policymakers. Nevertheless, there are persistent legal, ethical, and social questions that need to be explored, particularly related to the criticism that personalized medicine constitutes an elitist model of healthcare. Investigating this critique the current manuscript argues that personalized medicine has the potential to become a positive force for equitable access to better healthcare at a national and international level.

  1. Access to hepatitis C medicines

    PubMed Central

    Coppens, Delphi GM; Prasad, Tara L; Rook, Laurien A; Iyer, Jayasree K

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Hepatitis C is a global epidemic. Worldwide, 185 million people are estimated to be infected, most of whom live in low- and middle-income countries. Recent advances in the development of antiviral drugs have produced therapies that are more effective, safer and better tolerated than existing treatments for the disease. These therapies present an opportunity to curb the epidemic, provided that they are affordable, that generic production of these medicines is scaled up and that awareness and screening programmes are strengthened. Pharmaceutical companies have a central role to play. We examined the marketed products, pipelines and access to medicine strategies of 20 of the world’s largest pharmaceutical companies. Six of these companies are developing medicines for hepatitis C: AbbVie, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Gilead, Johnson & Johnson, Merck & Co. and Roche. These companies employ a range of approaches to supporting hepatitis C treatment, including pricing strategies, voluntary licensing, capacity building and drug donations. We give an overview of the engagement of these companies in addressing access to hepatitis C products. We suggest actions companies can take to play a greater role in curbing this epidemic: (i) prioritizing affordability assessments; (ii) developing access strategies early in the product lifecycle; and (iii) licensing to manufacturers of generic medicines. PMID:26549908

  2. Access to hepatitis C medicines.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Danny J; Coppens, Delphi Gm; Prasad, Tara L; Rook, Laurien A; Iyer, Jayasree K

    2015-11-01

    Hepatitis C is a global epidemic. Worldwide, 185 million people are estimated to be infected, most of whom live in low- and middle-income countries. Recent advances in the development of antiviral drugs have produced therapies that are more effective, safer and better tolerated than existing treatments for the disease. These therapies present an opportunity to curb the epidemic, provided that they are affordable, that generic production of these medicines is scaled up and that awareness and screening programmes are strengthened. Pharmaceutical companies have a central role to play. We examined the marketed products, pipelines and access to medicine strategies of 20 of the world's largest pharmaceutical companies. Six of these companies are developing medicines for hepatitis C: AbbVie, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Gilead, Johnson & Johnson, Merck & Co. and Roche. These companies employ a range of approaches to supporting hepatitis C treatment, including pricing strategies, voluntary licensing, capacity building and drug donations. We give an overview of the engagement of these companies in addressing access to hepatitis C products. We suggest actions companies can take to play a greater role in curbing this epidemic: (i) prioritizing affordability assessments; (ii) developing access strategies early in the product lifecycle; and (iii) licensing to manufacturers of generic medicines.

  3. [Vascular access guidelines for hemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Hernández, J A; González Parra, E; Julián Gutiérrez, J M; Segarra Medrano, A; Almirante, B; Martínez, M T; Arrieta, J; Fernández Rivera, C; Galera, A; Gallego Beuter, J; Górriz, J L; Herrero, J A; López Menchero, R; Ochando, A; Pérez Bañasco, V; Polo, J R; Pueyo, J; Ruiz, Camps I; Segura Iglesias, R

    2005-01-01

    Quality of vascular access (VA) has a remarkable influence in hemodialysis patients outcomes. Dysfunction of VA represents a capital cause of morbi-mortality of these patients as well an increase in economical. Spanish Society of Neprhology, aware of the problem, has decided to carry out a revision of the issue with the aim of providing help in comprehensión and treatment related with VA problems, and achieving an homogenization of practices in three mayor aspects: to increase arteriovenous fistula utilization as first vascular access, to increment vascular access monitoring practice and rationalise central catheters use. We present a consensus document elaborated by a multidisciplinar group composed by nephrologists, vascular surgeons, interventional radiologysts, infectious diseases specialists and nephrological nurses. Along six chapters that cover patient education, creation of VA, care, monitoring, complications and central catheters, we present the state of the art and propose guidelines for the best practice, according different evidence based degrees, with the intention to provide help at the professionals in order to make aproppiate decissions. Several quality standars are also included.

  4. UK organisation of access care.

    PubMed

    Wilmink, Teun; Powers, Sarah; Baharani, Jyoti

    2015-01-01

    National UK audits show that 73% of patients start renal replacement therapy (RRT) with haemodialysis (HD). However, 59% of those start HD on non-permanent access in the form of a tunnelled line (TL) or a non-tunnelled line (NTL), 40% on an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and 1% on an arteriovenous graft (AVG). After 3 months, the number of patients dialysing on AVF was only 41%. Late referrals, within 90 days of starting dialysis to the renal service, occur in one-fifth of all incident HD patients. Referral to a surgeon was an important determinant of mode of access at first dialysis. However, referral to a surgeon occurred in 67% of patients who were known to the nephrologist for over a year and in 46% of patients who were known to nephrology less than a year but more than 90 days. Best practice tariffs of the National Health Service (NHS) payment by results program have set a target of 75% of prevalent HD occurring via an AVF or AVG in 2011/2012, rising to 85% in 2013/2014. We suggest that this target is best achieved by increasing timely referral to a surgeon for creation of access before HD is needed.

  5. LERU roadmap towards Open Access.

    PubMed

    Ayris, Paul; Björnshauge, Lars; Collier, Mel; Ferwerda, Eelco; Jacobs, Neil; Sinikara, Kaisa; Swan, Alma; de Bries, Saskia; van Wesenbeeck, Astrid

    2015-09-01

    Money which is not directly spent on research and education, even though it is largely taxpayers´ money. As Harvard University already denounced in 2012, many large journal publishers have rendered the situation "fiscally unsustainable and academically restrictive", with some journals costing as much as $40,000 per year (and publishers drawing profits of 35% or more). If one of the wealthiest universities in the world can no longer afford it, who can? It is easy to picture the struggle of European universities with tighter budgets. In addition to subscription costs, academic research funding is also largely affected by "Article Processing Charges" (APC), which come at an additional cost of €2000/article, on average, when making individual articles Gold Open Access. Some publishers are in this way even being paid twice for the same content ("double dipping"). In the era of Open Science, Open Access to publications is one of the cornerstones of the new research paradigm and business models must support this transition. It should be one of the principal objectives of Commissioner Carlos Moedas and the Dutch EU Presidency (January-June 2016) to ensure that this transition happens. Further developing the EU´s leadership in research and innovation largely depends on it. With this statement "Moving Forwards on Open Access", LERU calls upon all universities, research institutes, research funders and researchers to sign this statement and give a clear signal towards the European Commission and the Dutch EU Presidency.

  6. Predatory Open Access in Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Manca, Andrea; Martinez, Gianluca; Cugusi, Lucia; Dragone, Daniele; Mercuro, Giuseppe; Deriu, Franca

    2017-01-20

    Increasingly scholars and researchers are being solicited by predatory open access journals seeking manuscript submissions and abusing the author-pays model by charging authors with publishing fees without any or proper peer review. Such questionable editorial practices are threatening the reputation and credibility of scholarly publishing. To date, no investigation has been conducted on this phenomenon in the field of rehabilitation. This study attempts to identify specific predatory journals operating in this field to quantify the phenomenon and its geographic distribution. Beall's List has been used to this end which, although not perfect, is a comprehensive and up-to-date report of predatory publishers. Of the 1113 publishers on the list, 59 journals were identified, for a total of 5610 published articles. The median number of articles published by each journal was 21, and the median amount of article processing charges was $499. Only 1 out of 59 journals was included in the Directory of Open Access Journals, whereas 7 (12%) were indexed by PubMed. Most of the publishers were based in India (36%) followed by the United States (25%) and Pakistan (5%), and 25% were without a verifiable address. The data indicate that the threat of predatory publishing in rehabilitation is real. Physiatrists, physiotherapists, researchers, and academics operating in this field are advised to use the tools available to recognize predatory practices before considering publishing in open access journals.

  7. Does Accessibility of Positive and Negative Schema Vary by Child Physical Abuse Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crouch, Julie L.; Risser, Heather J.; Skowronski, John J.; Milner, Joel S.; Farc, Magdalena M.; Irwin, Lauren M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine differences in accessibility of positive and negative schema in parents with high and low risk for child physical abuse (CPA). Methods: This study combined picture priming and lexical decision making methods to assess the accessibility of positive and negative words following presentation of child and adult faces. The child…

  8. NASA's UAS NAS Access Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Charles W.

    2011-01-01

    The vision of the Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project is "A global transportation system which allows routine access for all classes of UAS." The goal of the UAS Integration in the NAS Project is to "contribute capabilities that reduce technical barriers related to the safety and operational challenges associated with enabling routine UAS access to the NAS." This goal will be accomplished through a two-phased approach based on development of system-level integration of key concepts, technologies and/or procedures, and demonstrations of integrated capabilities in an operationally relevant environment. Phase 1 will take place the first two years of the Project and Phase 2 will take place the following three years. The Phase 1 and 2 technical objectives are: Phase 1: Developing a gap analysis between current state of the art and the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) UAS Concept of Operations . Validating the key technical areas identified by this Project . Conducting initial modeling, simulation, and flight testing activities . Completing Sub-project Phase 1 deliverables (spectrum requirements, comparative analysis of certification methodologies, etc.) and continue Phase 2 preparation (infrastructure, tools, etc.) Phase 2: Providing regulators with a methodology for developing airworthiness requirements for UAS, and data to support development of certifications standards and regulatory guidance . Providing systems-level, integrated testing of concepts and/or capabilities that address barriers to routine access to the NAS. Through simulation and flight testing, address issues including separation assurance, communications requirements, and human systems integration in operationally relevant environments. The UAS in the NAS Project will demonstrate solutions in specific technology areas, which will address operational/safety issues related to UAS access to the NAS. Since the resource allocation for

  9. Accessibility, reliability, and usability of neurosurgical resources.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Nitin; Kommana, Sumana S; Hansberry, David R; Kashkoush, Ahmed I; Friedlander, Robert M; Lunsford, L Dade

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Closing the knowledge gap that exists between patients and health care providers is essential and is facilitated by easy access to patient education materials. Although such information has the potential to be an effective resource, it must be written in a user-friendly and understandable manner, especially when such material pertains to specialized and highly technical fields such as neurological surgery. The authors evaluated the accessibility, usability, and reliability of current educational resources provided by the American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS), Healthwise, and the National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). METHODS Online neurosurgical patient education information provided by AANS, Healthwise, and NINDS was evaluated using the LIDA scale, a website quality assessment tool, by medical professionals and nonmedical professionals. A high achieving score is regarded as 90% or greater using the LIDA scale. RESULTS Accessibility scores were 76.7% (AANS), 83.3% (Healthwise), and 75.0% (NINDS). Average usability scores for the AANS, Healthwise, and NINDS were 73.3%, 82.6%, and 82.9%, respectively, when evaluated by medical professionals and 78.5%, 80.7%, and 75.9%, respectively, for nonmedical professionals, respectively. Average reliability scores were 58.5%, 53.3%, 72.6%, respectively, for medical professionals and 70.4%, 66.7%, and 78.5%, respectively, for nonmedical professionals when evaluating the AANS, Healthwise, and NINDS websites. CONCLUSIONS Although organizations like AANS, Healthwise, and NINDS should be commended for their ongoing commitment to provide health care-oriented materials, modification of this material is suggested to improve the patient education value.

  10. A synergistic DNA logic predicts genome-wide chromatin accessibility

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Tatsunori; Sherwood, Richard I.; Kang, Daniel D.; Rajagopal, Nisha; Barkal, Amira A.; Zeng, Haoyang; Emons, Bart J.M.; Srinivasan, Sharanya; Jaakkola, Tommi; Gifford, David K.

    2016-01-01

    Enhancers and promoters commonly occur in accessible chromatin characterized by depleted nucleosome contact; however, it is unclear how chromatin accessibility is governed. We show that log-additive cis-acting DNA sequence features can predict chromatin accessibility at high spatial resolution. We develop a new type of high-dimensional machine learning model, the Synergistic Chromatin Model (SCM), which when trained with DNase-seq data for a cell type is capable of predicting expected read counts of genome-wide chromatin accessibility at every base from DNA sequence alone, with the highest accuracy at hypersensitive sites shared across cell types. We confirm that a SCM accurately predicts chromatin accessibility for thousands of synthetic DNA sequences using a novel CRISPR-based method of highly efficient site-specific DNA library integration. SCMs are directly interpretable and reveal that a logic based on local, nonspecific synergistic effects, largely among pioneer TFs, is sufficient to predict a large fraction of cellular chromatin accessibility in a wide variety of cell types. PMID:27456004

  11. Tool independence for the Web Accessibility Quantitative Metric.

    PubMed

    Vigo, Markel; Brajnik, Giorgio; Arrue, Myriam; Abascal, Julio

    2009-07-01

    The Web Accessibility Quantitative Metric (WAQM) aims at accurately measuring the accessibility of web pages. One of the main features of WAQM among others is that it is evaluation tool independent for ranking and accessibility monitoring scenarios. This article proposes a method to attain evaluation tool independence for all foreseeable scenarios. After demonstrating that homepages have a more similar error profile than any other web page in a given web site, 15 homepages were measured with 10,000 different values of WAQM parameters using EvalAccess and LIFT, two automatic evaluation tools for accessibility. A similar procedure was followed with random pages and with several test files obtaining several tuples that minimise the difference between both tools. One thousand four hundred forty-nine web pages from 15 web sites were measured with these tuples and those values that minimised the difference between the tools were selected. Once the WAQM was tuned, the accessibility of 15 web sites was measured with two metrics for web sites, concluding that even if similar values can be produced, obtaining the same scores is undesirable since evaluation tools behave in a different way.

  12. Random access with adaptive packet aggregation in LTE/LTE-A.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kaijie; Nikaein, Navid

    While random access presents a promising solution for efficient uplink channel access, the preamble collision rate can significantly increase when massive number of devices simultaneously access the channel. To address this issue and improve the reliability of the random access, an adaptive packet aggregation method is proposed. With the proposed method, a device does not trigger a random access for every single packet. Instead, it starts a random access when the number of aggregated packets reaches a given threshold. This method reduces the packet collision rate at the expense of an extra latency, which is used to accumulate multiple packets into a single transmission unit. Therefore, the tradeoff between packet loss rate and channel access latency has to be carefully selected. We use semi-Markov model to derive the packet loss rate and channel access latency as functions of packet aggregation number. Hence, the optimal amount of aggregated packets can be found, which keeps the loss rate below the desired value while minimizing the access latency. We also apply for the idea of packet aggregation for power saving, where a device aggregates as many packets as possible until the latency constraint is reached. Simulations are carried out to evaluate our methods. We find that the packet loss rate and/or power consumption are significantly reduced with the proposed method.

  13. Accessible engineering drawings for visually impaired machine operators.

    PubMed

    Ramteke, Deepak; Kansal, Gayatri; Madhab, Benu

    2014-01-01

    An engineering drawing provides manufacturing information to a machine operator. An operator plans and executes machining operations based on this information. A visually impaired (VI) operator does not have direct access to the drawings. Drawing information is provided to them verbally or by using sample parts. Both methods have limitations that affect the quality of output. Use of engineering drawings is a standard practice for every industry; this hampers employment of a VI operator. Accessible engineering drawings are required to increase both independence, as well as, employability of VI operators. Today, Computer Aided Design (CAD) software is used for making engineering drawings, which are saved in CAD files. Required information is extracted from the CAD files and converted into Braille or voice. The authors of this article propose a method to make engineering drawings information directly accessible to a VI operator.

  14. A Usability and Accessibility Design and Evaluation Framework for ICT Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subasi, Özge; Leitner, Michael; Tscheligi, Manfred

    This paper introduces a step by step framework for practitioners for combining accessibility and usability engineering processes. Following the discussions towards the needs of more user centeredness in the design of accessible solutions, there is a need for such a practical framework. In general, accessibility has been considered as a topic dealing with "hard facts". But lately terms like semantic and procedural accessibility have been introduced. In the following pages we propose a first sketch of a framework, which shows how to merge both usability and accessibility evaluation methods in the same process in order to guarantee a unified solution for both hard and soft facts of accessibility. We argue that by enhancing the user centered design process as the ISO DIS 9241-210 (revised DIN ISO 13407) describes it, accessibility and usability issues may be covered in one process.

  15. 36 CFR 9.3 - Access permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Mining and Mining Claims § 9.3 Access permits. (a) All special use or other permits dealing with... permits in accordance with these regulations, unless access to a mining claim is by pack animal or...

  16. 36 CFR 9.3 - Access permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Mining and Mining Claims § 9.3 Access permits. (a) All special use or other permits dealing with... permits in accordance with these regulations, unless access to a mining claim is by pack animal or...

  17. Arteriovenous Access Failure, Stenosis, and Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    MacRae, Jennifer M; Dipchand, Christine; Oliver, Matthew; Moist, Louise; Lok, Charmaine; Clark, Edward; Hiremath, Swapnil; Kappel, Joanne; Kiaii, Mercedeh; Luscombe, Rick; Miller, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    Vascular access-related complications can lead to patient morbidity and reduced patient quality of life. Some of the common arteriovenous access complications include failure to mature, stenosis formation, and thrombosis.

  18. 77 FR 66025 - Program Access Rules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... basis in response to program access complaints. The Commission also affirms its expanded discovery... No. 07-29, we (i) affirm the expanded discovery procedures for program access complaints adopted...

  19. Tibiopedal Access for Crossing of Infrainguinal Artery Occlusions

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Craig M.; Mustapha, Jihad; Zeller, Thomas; Schmidt, Andrej; Montero-Baker, Miguel; Nanjundappa, Aravinda; Manzi, Marco; Palena, Luis Mariano; Bernardo, Nelson; Khatib, Yazan; Beasley, Robert; Leon, Luis; Saab, Fadi A.; Shields, Adam R.; Adams, George L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To report a prospective, multicenter, observational study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01609621) of the safety and effectiveness of tibiopedal access and retrograde crossing in the treatment of infrainguinal chronic total occlusions (CTOs). Methods: Twelve sites around the world prospectively enrolled 197 patients (mean age 71±11 years, range 41-93; 129 men) from May 2012 to July 2013 who met the inclusion criterion of at least one CTO for which a retrograde crossing procedure was planned or became necessary. The population consisted of 64 (32.5%) claudicants (Rutherford categories 2/3) and 133 (67.5%) patients with critical limb ischemia (Rutherford category ≥4). A primary antegrade attempt to cross had been made prior to the tibiopedal attempt in 132 (67.0%) cases. Techniques used for access, retrograde lesion crossing, and treatment were at the operator’s discretion. Follow-up data were obtained 30 days after the procedure. Results: Technical tibiopedal access success was achieved in 184 (93.4%) of 197 patients and technical occlusion crossing success in 157 (85.3%) of the 184 successful tibial accesses. Failed access attempts were more common in women (9 of 13 failures). The rate of successful crossing was roughly equivalent between sexes [84.7% (50/59) women compared to 85.6% (107/125) men]. Technical success did not differ significantly based on a prior failed antegrade attempt: the access success rate was 92.4% (122/132) after a failed antegrade access vs 95.4% (62/65) in those with a primary tibiopedal attempt (p=0.55). Similarly, crossing success was achieved in 82.8% (101/122) after a failed antegrade access vs 90.3% (56/62) for patients with no prior antegrade attempt (p=0.19). Minor complications related to the access site occurred in 11 (5.6%) cases; no patient had access vessel thrombosis, compartment syndrome, or surgical revascularization. Conclusion: Tibiopedal access appears to be safe and can be used effectively for the

  20. Mobile App to Assess Universal Access Compliance.

    PubMed

    Fransolet, Colette

    2016-01-01

    terms of compliance with National Building Regulations, within a tight budget as well as within minimal timeframes, an innovative mobile application was developed by Universal Design Africa. This App heralds the dawn of a new method to measure universal access compliance. The operation and format of this technology and its application could be adapted to meet all forms of compliance and information gathering, including international regulations and best practice.

  1. NASA thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The access vocabulary, which is essentially a permuted index, provides access to any word or number in authorized postable and nonpostable terms. Additional entries include postable and nonpostable terms, other word entries and pseudo-multiword terms that are permutations of words that contain words within words. The access vocabulary contains almost 42,000 entries that give increased access to the hierarchies in Volume 1 - Hierarchical Listing.

  2. NASA Thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Access Vocabulary, which is essentially a permuted index, provides access to any word or number in authorized postable and nonpostable terms. Additional entries include postable and nonpostable terms, other word entries, and pseudo-multiword terms that are permutations of words that contain words within words. The Access Vocabulary contains, 40,661 entries that give increased access to he hierarchies in Volume 1 - Hierarchical Listing.

  3. NASA thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Access Vocabulary, which is essentially a permuted index, provides access to any word or number in authorized postable and nonpostable terms. Additional entries include postable and nonpostable terms, other word entries, and pseudo-multiword terms that are permutations of words that contain words within words. The Access Vocabulary contains 40,738 entries that give increased access to the hierarchies in Volume 1 - Hierarchical Listing.

  4. Vaccine production, distribution, access and uptake

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jon; Lipsitch, Marc; Almond, Jeffrey W.

    2011-01-01

    Making human vaccines available on a global scale requires the use of complex production methods, meticulous quality control and reliable distribution channels that ensure the products are potent and effective at their point of use. The technologies involved in manufacturing different types of vaccines may strongly influence vaccine cost, ease of industrial scale-up, stability and ultimately world-wide availability. Manufacturing complexity is compounded by the need for different formulations for different countries and age groups. Reliable vaccine production in appropriate quantities and at affordable prices is the cornerstone of developing global vaccination policies. However, ensuring optimal access and uptake also requires strong partnerships between private manufacturers, regulatory authorities and national and international public health services. For vaccines whose supplies are limited, either due to rapidly emerging diseases or longer-term mismatch of supply and demand, prioritizing target groups can increase vaccine impact. Focusing on influenza vaccines as an example that well illustrates many of the relevant points, this article considers current production, distribution, access and other factors that ultimately impact on vaccine uptake and population-level effectiveness. PMID:21664680

  5. Vaccine production, distribution, access, and uptake.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jon; Lipsitch, Marc; Almond, Jeffrey W

    2011-07-30

    For human vaccines to be available on a global scale, complex production methods, meticulous quality control, and reliable distribution channels are needed to ensure that the products are potent and effective at the point of use. The technologies used to manufacture different types of vaccines can strongly affect vaccine cost, ease of industrial scale-up, stability, and, ultimately, worldwide availability. The complexity of manufacturing is compounded by the need for different formulations in different countries and age-groups. Reliable vaccine production in appropriate quantities and at affordable prices is the cornerstone of developing global vaccination policies. However, to ensure optimum access and uptake, strong partnerships are needed between private manufacturers, regulatory authorities, and national and international public health services. For vaccines whose supply is insufficient to meet demand, prioritisation of target groups can increase the effect of these vaccines. In this report, we draw from our experience of vaccine development and focus on influenza vaccines as an example to consider production, distribution, access, and other factors that affect vaccine uptake and population-level effectiveness.

  6. [Vascular access in elderly: AVF versus CVC].

    PubMed

    Forneris, G

    2008-01-01

    The characteristics of patients on dialysis have changed significantly in the last years. Aging and comorbidity are the most important aspects of this change. Vascular access problems are frequent in elderly people and contribute to the increased morbidity and mortality. Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) remains the preferred method but may be difficult or unadvisable in older patients because of a short life expectancy, poor vasculature or poor cardiac function. In fact, increasing use of CVC has been reported in recent studies. Psychological and quality of life-related aspects should also be taken into account when scheduling vascular access in older patients: from this point of view CVC may be a good alternative to an aggressive surgical policy. Decreasing CVC-related complications is feasible through the consistent application of basic rules; the center effect may be relevant in this context. However, the use of CVC remains a kind of double-edged sword: even in older people preferring it over AVF is justified only if good results can be guaranteed. The final choice will have to be based on a multidisciplinary approach and careful assessment of resources.

  7. Managed Access by Controlled Sensing (MACS)

    SciTech Connect

    Curtiss, J.A.; Indusi, J.P.

    1994-08-01

    During chemical weapons challenge inspections, the CWC treaty allows ``alternate means`` of access to be proposed by the nation challenged. BNL`s Safeguards, Safety and Nonproliferation Division is funded by the Defense Nuclear Agency to develop a system to provide the challenge inspection team with a ``virtual presence`` within the facility while denying personal access. A general purpose configuration of a mobile station manned by site personnel and a base station manned by the challenge inspector, supported by a flexible communication system, will allow facility personnel to tailor the basic model to their site. Design of the MACS system is based on maximum use of commercial equipment that is available on the international market. Design requirements for the MACS system include methods of establishing geographical position, distance measuring equipment for use in verifying dimensions on floor plans, video and two-way audio links between the mobile unit and the base station, and portability and versatility of the equipment. The MACS platform will also support deployment of selected instrumentation which the site may offer to the challenge inspection team. This paper describes the design and construction of the prototype MACS system.

  8. NOAA Enterprise Archive Access Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rank, R. H.; McCormick, S.; Cremidis, C.

    2010-12-01

    A challenge for any consumer of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) environmental data archives is that the disparate nature of these archives makes it difficult for consumers to access data in a unified manner. If it were possible for consumers to have seamless access to these archives, they would be able to better utilize the data and thus maximize the return on investment for NOAA’s archival program. When unified data access is coupled with sophisticated data querying and discovery techniques, it will be possible to provide consumers with access to richer data sets and services that extend the use of key NOAA data. Theoretically, there are two ways that unified archive access may be achieved. The first approach is to develop a single archive or archiving standard that would replace the current NOAA archives. However, the development of such an archive would pose significant technical and administrative challenges. The second approach is to develop a middleware application that would provide seamless access to all existing archives, in effect allowing each archive to exist “as is” but providing a translation service for the consumer. This approach is deemed more feasible from an administrative and technical standpoint; however, it still presents unique technical challenges due to the disparate architectures that exist across NOAA archives. NOAA has begun developing the NEAAT. The purpose of NEAAT is to provide a middleware and a simple standardized API between NOAA archives and data consumers. It is important to note that NEAAT serves two main purposes: 1) To provide a single application programming interface (API) that enables designated consumers to write their own custom applications capable of searching and acquiring data seamlessly from multiple NOAA archives. 2) To allow archive managers to expose their data to consumers in conjunction with other NOAA resources without modifying their archiving systems or way of presenting data

  9. Interact - Access to the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, M.; Callaghan, T. V.

    2013-12-01

    INTERACT is currently a network of 50 terrestrial research stations from all Arctic countries, but is still growing. The network was inaugurated in January 2011 when it received an EU 7th Framework award. INTERACT's main objective is to build capacity for identifying, understanding, predicting and responding to diverse environmental changes throughout the wide environmental and land-use envelopes of the Arctic. Implicit in this objective is the task to build capacity for monitoring, research, education and outreach. INTERACT is increasing access to the Arctic: 20 INTERACT research stations in Europe and Russia are offering Transnational Access and so far, 5600 person-days of access have been granted from the total of 10,000 offered. An INTERACT Station Managers' Forum facilitates a dialogue among station managers on subjects such as best practice in station management and standardised monitoring. The Station Managers' Forum has produced a unique 'one-stop-shop' for information from 45 research stations in an informative and attractive Station Catalogue that is available in hard copy and on the INTERACT web site (www.eu-interact.org). INTERACT also includes three joint research activities that are improving monitoring in remote, harsh environments and are making data capture and dissemination more efficient. Already, new equipment for measuring feedbacks from the land surface to the climate system has been installed at several locations, while best practices for sensor networking have been established. INTERACT networks with most of the high-level Arctic organisations: it includes AMAP and WWF as partners, is endorsed by IASC and CBMP, has signed MoUs with ISAC and the University of the Arctic, is a task within SAON, and contributes to the Cold Region community within GEO/GEOSS. INTERACT welcomes other interactions.

  10. Access to bird population data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, E.; Peterjohn, B.G.; Koneff, M.D.

    2001-01-01

    Access to bird population data is critical for effective conservation planning and implementation. Although a tremendous volume of baseline data exists, it is often diffusely distributed and inaccessible to the resource manager and decision maker. A mechanism that facilitates assembly, documentation and delivery of avian data in a user-friendly manner is needed in order to integrate bird-related information resources across agencies and organizations. To address this fundamental need, the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII), in partnership with the U.S. Geological Survey's Patuxent Wildlife Research Center and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, is developing a web-based interactive system that will focus on access to bird population and habitat data used in bird management and conservation. This system, known as the NBII Bird Conservation Node, will support planning and evaluation of bird conservation activities within the context of the North American Bird Conservation Initiative (NABCI), a framework for collaboration among organizations interested in bird conservation across North America. Initial development of the NBII Bird Conservation Node will focus on creating a prototype mapping application that will provide interactive access to data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey, the Colonial Waterbird Survey, the Breeding Waterfowl Population and Habitat Survey, and the Atlantic Flyway Mid-winter Waterfowl Survey. This prototype mapping application, to be available on-line at http://www.nbii.gov by Sep 2001, will lay the foundation for establishment of a Migratory Bird Data Center at Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, and will provide an opportunity for linking to and establishing partnerships with other sources of bird population and habitat data available over the Internet.

  11. Injury mortality and accessibility to emergency care in Japan: an observational epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Takashi; Okayama, Masanobu; Aihara, Masakazu; Kajii, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    Background Unintentional injury is a major cause of death across the globe. The accessibility to emergency medical services may affect the rate of preventable trauma deaths. The purpose of this study was to analyze the accessibility to emergency medical hospitals in municipalities in Japan and to clarify whether accessibility was associated with the mortality rate attributed to unintentional injuries. Methods An observational epidemiological study was conducted in all 1,742 municipalities in Japan. Measurements assessed were population size, accessibility to emergency hospitals, and mortality rates attributed to unintentional injuries. Accessibility of each municipality to their nearest emergency hospital was calculated with a computer simulation using a geographic information system. After calculating demographic statistics and the Gini coefficient of accessibility, multivariate analyses were used to examine the correlation between accessibility time and mortality. Municipalities were divided into six groups according to accessibility time, and we then performed a correlation analysis between accessibility time and mortality using analysis of covariance. Results The median time of accessibility to emergency hospitals was 34.5 minutes. The Gini coefficient of accessibility time was 0.410. A total of 385 municipalities (23.4%) had an accessibility time of over 60 minutes. Accessibility was significantly related to mortality (beta coefficient =0.006; P<0.001). The mortality rate in municipalities with an accessibility time of <15 minutes was lower than that in all other groups. The mortality rate in municipalities with an accessibility time of 15–30 minutes was lower than that in municipalities with an accessibility time of >30 minutes, and the mortality rate in municipalities with an accessibility time of 30–45 minutes was lower than that in municipalities with an accessibility time of 60–90 minutes (P<0.001). Conclusion The geographical disparities for

  12. Development of an integrated staircase lift for home access

    PubMed Central

    Mattie, Johanne L.; Borisoff, Jaimie F.; Leland, Danny; Miller, William C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Stairways into buildings present a significant environmental barrier for those with mobility impairments, including older adults. A number of home access solutions that allow users to safely enter and exit the home exist, however these all have some limitations. The purpose of this work was to develop a novel, inclusive home access solution that integrates a staircase and a lift into one device. Method The development of an integrated staircase lift followed a structured protocol with stakeholders providing feedback at various stages in the design process, consistent with rehabilitation engineering design methods. Results A novel home access device was developed. The integrated staircase-lift has the following features: inclusivity, by a universal design that provides an option for either use of stairs or a lift; constant availability, with a lift platform always ready for use on either level; and potential aesthetic advantages when integrating the device into an existing home. The potential also exists for emergency descent during a power outage, and self-powered versions. Conclusions By engaging stakeholders in a user centred design process, insight on the limitations of existing home access solutions and specific feedback on our design guided development of a novel home access device. PMID:26793318

  13. 76 FR 67440 - Market Access Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... Market Access Agreement AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration. ACTION: Notice of Draft Second Amended and Restated Market Access Agreement; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Farm Credit Administration (FCA or we) is publishing for comment the Draft Second Amended and Restated Market Access Agreement (Draft...

  14. 76 FR 77998 - Market Access Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... Market Access Agreement AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration. ACTION: Notice of approval of the Draft Second Amended and Restated Market Access Agreement. SUMMARY: The Farm Credit Administration (FCA) announces that it has approved the Draft Second Amended and Restated Market Access Agreement (Draft...

  15. 30 CFR 57.11001 - Safe access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safe access. 57.11001 Section 57.11001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Travelways-Surface and Underground § 57.11001 Safe access. Safe means of access shall be provided...

  16. 30 CFR 56.11001 - Safe access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safe access. 56.11001 Section 56.11001 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Travelways § 56.11001 Safe access. Safe means of access shall be provided and maintained to all working places....

  17. 37 CFR 251.22 - Public access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public access. 251.22 Section... ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Public Access to and Inspection of Records § 251.22 Public access. (a) Location of records. All of the...

  18. 28 CFR 68.51 - Restricted access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restricted access. 68.51 Section 68.51... ALIENS, UNFAIR IMMIGRATION-RELATED EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES, AND DOCUMENT FRAUD § 68.51 Restricted access. On... be a restricted access portion of the record to contain any material in the record to which...

  19. 36 CFR 13.120 - Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Access. 13.120 Section 13.120... SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Cabins General Provisions § 13.120 Access. (a) A permittee under this subpart who...) When issuing a permit under this subpart, the Superintendent shall provide for reasonable access...

  20. 47 CFR 32.6540 - Access expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access expense. 32.6540 Section 32.6540... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6540 Access expense. (a) This... exchange carrier for the provision of carrier's carrier access. (b) Subsidiary record categories shall...