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Sample records for accessibility method scam

  1. The substituted-cysteine accessibility method (SCAM) to elucidate membrane protein structure.

    PubMed

    Liapakis, G; Simpson, M M; Javitch, J A

    2001-05-01

    The substituted-cysteine accessibility method (SCAM) provides an approach to identifying the residues in the membrane-spanning segments that line a channel, transporter, or binding-site crevice. SCAM can also be used to determine differences in the structures of the membrane-spanning segments in different functional states of the proteins, to map electrostatic potential in the membrane-spanning domains, and to size a channel or binding-site crevice. The protocol in this unit describes the use of SCAM to map the binding-site crevice of a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) which binds ligand within the transmembrane portion of the receptor.

  2. Obtaining structural and functional information for GPCRs using the substituted-cysteine accessibility method (SCAM).

    PubMed

    Liapakis, George

    2014-01-01

    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are proteins of the plasma membrane, which are characterized by seven membrane-spanning segments (TMs). GPCRs play an important role in almost all of our physiological and pathophysiological conditions by interacting with a large variety of ligands and stimulating different G-proteins and signaling cascades. By playing a key role in the function of our body and being involved in the pathophysiology of many disorders, GPCRs are very important therapeutic targets. Determination of the structure and function of GPCRs could advance the design of novel receptor-specific drugs against various diseases. A powerful method to obtain structural and functional information for GPCRs is the cysteine substituted accessibility method (SCAM). SCAM is used to systematically map the TM residues of GPCRs and determine their functional role. SCAM can also be used to determine differences in the structures of the TMs in different functional states of GPCRs.

  3. Application of SCAM (substituted cysteine accessibility method) to gap junction intercellular channels.

    PubMed

    Skerrett, M; Kasperek, E; Cao, F L; Shin, J H; Aronowitz, J; Ahmed, S; Nicholson, B J

    2001-01-01

    The pore-lining residues of gap junction channels determine their permeability to ions and small cellular metabolites. These residues can be identified through systematic cysteine substitution and accessibility analysis, commonly known as SCAM (Substituted Cysteine Accessibility Method). However, application of this technique to intercellular channels is more complicated than for their transmembrane counterparts. We have utilized a novel dual-oocyte perfusion device to apply cysteine reagents to the cytoplasmic face of paired, voltage-clamped Xenopus oocytes. In this configuration, a large and irreversible cysteine reagent MBB (maliemidobutyryl biocytin, mw 537) was shown to readily traverse the gap junction pore and induce conductance changes upon reaction of accessible sites. Of the 11 reactive sites identified, 6 were located in M3, where they span the bilayer. They display a periodicity characteristic of the tilted helix that lines the pore in the gap junction structure of Unger et al. (1999). Access to several of the other sites was attributed to aqueous crevices between transmembrane helices. Reactive sites were slightly different than those identified for gap junction hemichannels (Zhou et al. 1997), suggesting that conformational changes occur upon docking.

  4. 1-Methylpyridinium-4-(4-phenylmethanethiosulfonate) iodide, MTS-MPP+, a novel scanning cysteine accessibility method (SCAM) reagent for monoamine transporter studies.

    PubMed

    Gallardo-Godoy, Alejandra; Torres-Altoro, Melissa I; White, Kellie J; Barker, Eric L; Nichols, David E

    2007-01-01

    A novel substituted cysteine accessibility method (SCAM) reagent was developed for monoamine uptake transporters. The new reagent, MTS-MPP(+), was a derivative of the neurotoxin and transporter substrate MPP(+). MTS-MPP(+) labeled cysteine residues introduced into the serotonin transporter protein. Although it did not prove to be a substrate, as is MPP(+), it appears to label cysteine residues lining the permeation pore of the transporter more readily than currently available nonspecific SCAM reagents.

  5. Mild Cognitive Impairment and Susceptibility to Scams in Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Han, S. Duke; Boyle, Patricia A.; James, Bryan D.; Yu, Lei; Bennett, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Falling victim to financial scams can have a significant impact upon social and financial wellbeing and independence. A large proportion of scam victims are older adults, but whether older victims with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are at higher risk remains unknown. Objective We tested the hypothesis that older persons with MCI exhibit greater susceptibility to scams compared to those without cognitive impairment. Methods Seven hundred and thirty older adults without dementia were recruited from the Rush Memory and Aging Project, a community-based epidemiologic study of aging. Participants completed a five-item self-report measure of susceptibility to scams, a battery of cognitive measures, and clinical diagnostic evaluations. Results In models adjusted for age, education, and gender, the presence of MCI was associated with greater susceptibility to scams (B = 0.125, SE = 0.063, p-value = 0.047). Further, in analyses of the role of specific cognitive systems in susceptibility to scams among persons with MCI (n = 144), the level of performance in two systems, episodic memory and perceptual speed abilities, were associated with susceptibility. Conclusions Adults with MCI may be more susceptible to scams in old age than older persons with normal cognition. Lower abilities in specific cognitive systems, particularly perceptual speed and episodic memory, may contribute to greater susceptibility to scams in those with MCI. PMID:26519434

  6. SCAM analysis of Panx1 suggests a peculiar pore structure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junjie; Dahl, Gerhard

    2010-11-01

    Vertebrates express two families of gap junction proteins: the well-characterized connexins and the pannexins. In contrast to connexins, pannexins do not appear to form gap junction channels but instead function as unpaired membrane channels. Pannexins have no sequence homology to connexins but are distantly related to the invertebrate gap junction proteins, innexins. Despite the sequence diversity, pannexins and connexins form channels with similar permeability properties and exhibit similar membrane topology, with two extracellular loops, four transmembrane (TM) segments, and cytoplasmic localization of amino and carboxy termini. To test whether the similarities extend to the pore structure of the channels, pannexin 1 (Panx1) was subjected to analysis with the substituted cysteine accessibility method (SCAM). The thiol reagents maleimidobutyryl-biocytin and 2-trimethylammonioethyl-methanethiosulfonate reacted with several cysteines positioned in the external portion of the first TM segment (TM1) and the first extracellular loop. These data suggest that portions of TM1 and the first extracellular loop line the outer part of the pore of Panx1 channels. In this aspect, the pore structures of Panx1 and connexin channels are similar. However, although the inner part of the pore is lined by amino-terminal amino acids in connexin channels, thiol modification was detected in carboxyterminal amino acids in Panx1 channels by SCAM analysis. Thus, it appears that the inner portion of the pores of Panx1 and connexin channels may be distinct.

  7. Academic Scam: A Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alper, Paul

    1991-01-01

    Although "ProfScam: Professors and the Demise of Higher Education," a harshly critical book by Charles J. Sykes, documents a perverse system in which research university faculty do little teaching and are too closely linked to industry, the book gives too little credit to the many institutions where teaching is highly valued. (MSE)

  8. Educators Beware: Avoiding the Scams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuBoff, Leonard D.; King, Christy O.

    2009-01-01

    The technology boom has provided opportunities for practitioners to work more efficiently by making available a host of timesaving, as well as cost-effective, tools. Sadly, modern technology has also provided the less scrupulous segments of society with opportunities to take advantage of others. All too familiar are the Nigerian money scams that…

  9. Roles of transmembrane domain 2 and the first intracellular loop in human noradrenaline transporter function: pharmacological and SCAM analysis.

    PubMed

    Sucic, Sonja; Bryan-Lluka, Lesley J

    2005-09-01

    The aim was to investigate the roles of transmembrane domain 2 and the adjacent region of the first intracellular loop in determining human noradrenaline transporter (hNET) function by pharmacological and substituted-cysteine accessibility method (SCAM) analyses. It was first necessary to establish a suitable background NET for SCAM. Alanine mutants of endogenous hNET cysteines, hC86A, hC131A and hC339A, were examined and showed no marked effects on expression or function. hNET and the mutants were also resistant to methanethiosulfonate (MTS), ethylammonium (MTSEA) and MTStrimethylammonium (MTSET). Hence, wild-type hNET is an appropriate background for production of cysteine mutants for SCAM. Pharmacological investigation showed that all mutants except hT99C and hL109C showed reduced cell-surface expression, while all except hM107C showed a reduction in functional activity. The mutations did not markedly affect the apparent affinities of substrates, but apparent affinities of cocaine were decreased 7-fold for hP97C and 10-fold for hF101C and increased 12-fold for hY98C. [3H]Nisoxetine binding affinities were decreased 13-fold for hP97C and 5-fold for hF101C. SCAM analysis revealed that only hL102C was sensitive to 1.25 mm MTSEA, and this sensitivity was protected by noradrenaline, nisoxetine and cocaine. The results suggest that this region of hNET is important for interactions with antidepressants and cocaine, but it is probably not involved in substrate translocation mechanisms.

  10. A homology model of the pore domain of a voltage-gated calcium channel is consistent with available SCAM data.

    PubMed

    Bruhova, Iva; Zhorov, Boris S

    2010-03-01

    In the absence of x-ray structures of calcium channels, their homology models are used to rationalize experimental data and design new experiments. The modeling relies on sequence alignments between calcium and potassium channels. Zhen et al. (2005. J. Gen. Physiol. doi:10.1085/jgp.200509292) used the substituted cysteine accessibility method (SCAM) to identify pore-lining residues in the Ca(v)2.1 channel and concluded that their data are inconsistent with the symmetric architecture of the pore domain and published sequence alignments between calcium and potassium channels. Here, we have built K(v)1.2-based models of the Ca(v)2.1 channel with 2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl methanethiosulfonate (MTSET)-modified engineered cysteines and used Monte Carlo energy minimizations to predict their energetically optimal orientations. We found that depending on the position of an engineered cysteine in S6 and S5 helices, the ammonium group in the long flexible MTSET-modified side chain can orient into the inner pore, an interface between domains (repeats), or an interface between S5 and S6 helices. Different local environments of equivalent positions in the four repeats can lead to different SCAM results. The reported current inhibition by MTSET generally decreases with the predicted distances between the ammonium nitrogen and the pore axis. A possible explanation for outliers of this correlation is suggested. Our calculations rationalize the SCAM data, validate one of several published sequence alignments between calcium and potassium channels, and suggest similar spatial dispositions of S5 and S6 helices in voltage-gated potassium and calcium channels.

  11. MAGI2/S-SCAM outside brain.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Shunta; Kodaka, Manami; Iwasa, Hiroaki; Hata, Yutaka

    2015-04-01

    Membrane-associated guanylate kinase with an inverted arrangement of protein-protein interaction domains (MAGI)2 (also called synaptic scaffolding molecule (S-SCAM), atrophin-1-interacting protein 1, activin receptor-interacting protein 1) is a scaffold protein that binds a wide variety of receptors, cell adhesion molecules and signalling molecules. It also interacts with other scaffold proteins and adaptors, and forms a protein network that supports cell junctions. As it is highly expressed in brain, the study on its roles in synaptic organization initially preceded. However, mounting evidence indicates that MAGI2/S-SCAM functions as a tumour suppressor and plays essential roles to maintain the integrity of cell structures in non-neuronal tissues. We review the articles regarding to MAGI2/S-SCAM outside brain and discuss future perspectives for the research of MAGI family proteins.

  12. The online romance scam: a serious cybercrime.

    PubMed

    Whitty, Monica T; Buchanan, Tom

    2012-03-01

    The Online Romance Scam is a relatively new form of fraud that became apparent in about 2008. In this crime, criminals pretend to initiate a relationship through online dating sites then defraud their victims of large sums of money. This paper presents some descriptive statistics about knowledge and victimization of the online dating romance scam in Great Britain. Our study found that despite its newness, an estimated 230,000 British citizens may have fallen victim to this crime. We conclude that there needs to be some rethinking about providing avenues for victims to report the crime or at least making them more comfortable when doing so.

  13. The online romance scam: a serious cybercrime.

    PubMed

    Whitty, Monica T; Buchanan, Tom

    2012-03-01

    The Online Romance Scam is a relatively new form of fraud that became apparent in about 2008. In this crime, criminals pretend to initiate a relationship through online dating sites then defraud their victims of large sums of money. This paper presents some descriptive statistics about knowledge and victimization of the online dating romance scam in Great Britain. Our study found that despite its newness, an estimated 230,000 British citizens may have fallen victim to this crime. We conclude that there needs to be some rethinking about providing avenues for victims to report the crime or at least making them more comfortable when doing so. PMID:22304401

  14. The Latest Scams in Literacy Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Alan

    The claims for the huge numbers of students suffering from the "latest scams" in literacy education--learning disability, dyslexia, attention deficit disorder, at risk, and hypoglycemia--are driven by political, economic, and social profits with minimal concern for children. While such problems exist, the phrases used to describe these conditions…

  15. Protecting yourself from cancer scams

    MedlinePlus

    ... at: nccih.nih.gov/sites/nccam.nih.gov/files/CAM_Basics_Cancer_and_CHA_0.pdf . Accessed August 25, 2015. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Beware of Online Cancer Fraud. January 2014. Available ...

  16. Assessment and Evaluation Methods for Access Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Dallas

    2014-01-01

    This article serves as a primer for assessment and evaluation design by describing the range of methods commonly employed in library settings. Quantitative methods, such as counting and benchmarking measures, are useful for investigating the internal operations of an access services department in order to identify workflow inefficiencies or…

  17. Research Investigation of Information Access Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinrichs, John H.; Sharkey, Thomas W.; Lim, Jeen-Su

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the satisfaction of library users at Wayne State University who utilize alternative information access methods. The LibQUAL+[TM] desired and perceived that satisfaction ratings are used to determine the user's "superiority gap." By focusing limited library resources to address "superiority gap" issues identified by each…

  18. Correlates of susceptibility to scams in older adults without dementia.

    PubMed

    James, Bryan D; Boyle, Patricia A; Bennett, David A

    2014-01-01

    This study examined correlates of susceptibility to scams in 639 community-dwelling older adults without dementia from a cohort study of aging. Regression models adjusted for age, sex, education, and income were used to examine associations between susceptibility to scams, measured by a five-item self-report measure, and a number of potential correlates. Susceptibility was positively associated with age and negatively associated with income, cognition, psychological well-being, social support, and literacy. Fully adjusted models indicated that older age and lower levels of cognitive function, decreased psychological well-being, and lower literacy in particular may be markers of susceptibility to financial victimization in old age.

  19. Correlates of Susceptibility to Scams in Older Adults Without Dementia

    PubMed Central

    James, Bryan D.; Boyle, Patricia A.; Bennett, David A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined correlates of susceptibility to scams in 639 community-dwelling older adults without dementia from a cohort study of aging. Regression models adjusted for age, sex, education, and income were used to examine associations between susceptibility to scams, measured by 5-item self-report measure, and a number of potential correlates. Susceptibility was positively associated with age and negatively associated with income, cognition, psychological well being, social support, and literacy. Fully adjusted models indicated that older age and lower levels of cognitive function, decreased psychological well-being, and lower literacy in particular may be markers of susceptibility to financial victimization in old age. PMID:24499279

  20. Transmembrane protein topology mapping by the substituted cysteine accessibility method (SCAM(TM)): application to lipid-specific membrane protein topogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bogdanov, Mikhail; Zhang, Wei; Xie, Jun; Dowhan, William

    2005-06-01

    We provide an overview of lipid-dependent polytopic membrane protein topogenesis, with particular emphasis on Escherichia coli strains genetically altered in their lipid composition and strategies for experimentally determining the transmembrane organization of proteins. A variety of reagents and experimental strategies are described including the use of lipid mutants and thiol-specific chemical reagents to study lipid-dependent and host-specific membrane protein topogenesis by substituted cysteine site-directed chemical labeling. Employing strains in which lipid composition can be controlled temporally during membrane protein synthesis and assembly provides a means to observe dynamic changes in protein topology as a function of membrane lipid composition.

  1. dSCAM: Finding document copies across multiple databases

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Molina, H.; Gravano, L.; Shivakumar, N.

    1996-12-31

    The advent of the Internet has made the illegal dissemination of copyrighted material easy. An important problem is how to automatically detect when a {open_quotes}new{close_quotes} digital document is {open_quote}suspiciously close{close_quotes} to existing ones. The SCAM project at Stanford University has addressed this problem when there is a single registered-document database. However, in practice, text documents may appear in many autonomous databases, and one would like to discover copies without having to exhaustively search in all databases. Our approach, dSCAM, is a distributed version of SCAM that keeps succinct metainformation about the contents of the available document databases. Given a suspicious document S, dSCAM uses its information to prune all databases that cannot contain any document that is close enough to S, and hence the search can focus on the remaining sites. We also study how to query the remaining databases so as to minimize different querying costs. We empirically study the pruning and searching schemes, using a collection of 50 databases and two sets of test documents.

  2. Membrane topology of loop 13-14 of the Na+/glucose cotransporter (SGLT1): a SCAM and fluorescent labelling study.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Dominique G; Holt, Andrea; Bourgeois, Francis; Wallendorff, Bernadette; Coady, Michael J; Lapointe, Jean-Yves

    2005-06-30

    The accessibility of the hydrophilic loop between putative transmembrane segments XIII and XIV of the Na+/glucose cotransporter (SGLT1) was studied in Xenopus oocytes, using the substituted cysteine accessibility method (SCAM) and fluorescent labelling. Fifteen cysteine mutants between positions 565 and 664 yielded cotransport currents of similar amplitude than the wild-type SGLT1 (wtSGLT1). Extracellular, membrane-impermeant MTSES(-) and MTSET(+) had no effect on either cotransport or Na+ leak currents of wtSGLT1 but 9 mutants were affected by MTSES and/or MTSET. We also performed fluorescent labelling on SGLT1 mutants, using tetramethylrhodamine-5-maleimide and showed that positions 586, 588 and 624 were accessible. As amino acids 604 to 610 in SGLT1 have been proposed to form part of a phlorizin (Pz) binding site, we measured the K(i)(Pz) and K(m)(alphaMG) for wtSGLT1 and for cysteine mutants at positions 588, 605-608 and 625. Although mutants A605C, Y606C and D607C had slightly higher K(i)(Pz) values than wtSGLT1 with minimal changes in K(m)((alpha)MG), the effects were modest and do not support the original hypothesis. We conclude that the large, hydrophilic loop near the carboxyl terminus of SGLT1 is thus accessible to the external solution but does not appear to play a major part in the binding of phlorizin.

  3. Single-channel SCAM identifies pore-lining residues in the first extracellular loop and first transmembrane domains of Cx46 hemichannels.

    PubMed

    Kronengold, J; Trexler, E B; Bukauskas, F F; Bargiello, T A; Verselis, V K

    2003-10-01

    Gap junction (GJ) channels provide an important pathway for direct intercellular transmission of signaling molecules. Previously we showed that fixed negative charges in the first extracellular loop domain (E1) strongly influence charge selectivity, conductance, and rectification of channels and hemichannels formed of Cx46. Here, using excised patches containing Cx46 hemichannels, we applied the substituted cysteine accessibility method (SCAM) at the single channel level to residues in E1 to determine if they are pore-lining. We demonstrate residues D51, G46, and E43 at the amino end of E1 are accessible to modification in open hemichannels to positively and negatively charged methanethiosulfonate (MTS) reagents added to cytoplasmic or extracellular sides. Positional effects of modification along the length of the pore and opposing effects of oppositely charged modifying reagents on hemichannel conductance and rectification are consistent with placement in the channel pore and indicate a dominant electrostatic influence of the side chains of accessible residues on ion fluxes. Hemichannels modified by MTS-EA+, MTS-ET+, or MTS-ES- were refractory to further modification and effects of substitutions with positively charged residues that electrostatically mimicked those caused by modification with the positively charged MTS reagents were similar, indicating all six subunits were likely modified. The large reductions in conductance caused by MTS-ET+ were visible as stepwise reductions in single-channel current, indicative of reactions occurring at individual subunits. Extension of single-channel SCAM using MTS-ET+ into the first transmembrane domain, TM1, revealed continued accessibility at the extracellular end at A39 and L35. The topologically complementary region in TM3 showed no evidence of reactivity. Structural models show GJ channels in the extracellular gap to have continuous inner and outer walls of protein. If representative of open channels and hemichannels

  4. SCAM-STMAS: satellite-transition MAS NMR of quadrupolar nuclei with self-compensation for magic-angle misset.

    PubMed

    Ashbrook, Sharon E; Wimperis, Stephen

    2003-06-01

    Several methods are available for the acquisition of high-resolution solid-state NMR spectra of quadrupolar nuclei with half-integer spin quantum number. Satellite-transition MAS (STMAS) offers an approach that employs only conventional MAS hardware and can yield substantial signal enhancements over the widely used multiple-quantum MAS (MQMAS) experiment. However, the presence of the first-order quadrupolar interaction in the satellite transitions imposes the requirement of a high degree of accuracy in the setting of the magic angle on the NMR probehead. The first-order quadrupolar interaction is only fully removed if the sample spinning angle, chi, equals cos(-1)(1/3) exactly and rotor synchronization is performed. The required level of accuracy is difficult to achieve experimentally, particularly when the quadrupolar interaction is large. If the magic angle is not set correctly, the first-order splitting is reintroduced and the spectral resolution is severely compromised. Recently, we have demonstrated a novel STMAS method (SCAM-STMAS) that is self-compensated for angle missets of up to +/-1 degrees via coherence transfer between the two different satellite transitions ST(+)(m(I)=+3/2<-->+1/2) and ST(-)(m(I)=-1/2<-->-3/2) midway through the t(1) period. In this work we describe in more detail the implementation of SCAM-STMAS and demonstrate its wider utility through 23Na (I=3/2), 87 Rb (I=3/2), 27 Al (I=5/2), and 59 Co (I=7/2) NMR. We discuss linewidths in SCAM-STMAS and the limits over which angle-misset compensation is achieved and we demonstrate that SCAM-STMAS is more tolerant of temporary spinning rate fluctuations than STMAS, resulting in less "t(1) noise" in the two-dimensional spectrum. In addition, alternative correlation experiments, for example involving the use of double-quantum coherences, that similarly display self-compensation for angle misset are investigated. The use of SCAM-STMAS is also considered in systems where other high-order interactions

  5. VIEWCACHE: An incremental database access method for autonomous interoperable databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roussopoulos, Nick; Sellis, Timoleon

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to illustrate the concept of incremental access to distributed databases. An experimental database management system, ADMS, which has been developed at the University of Maryland, in College Park, uses VIEWCACHE, a database access method based on incremental search. VIEWCACHE is a pointer-based access method that provides a uniform interface for accessing distributed databases and catalogues. The compactness of the pointer structures formed during database browsing and the incremental access method allow the user to search and do inter-database cross-referencing with no actual data movement between database sites. Once the search is complete, the set of collected pointers pointing to the desired data are dereferenced.

  6. SCAM analysis reveals a discrete region of the pore turret that modulates slow inactivation in Kv1.5.

    PubMed

    Eduljee, Cyrus; Claydon, Thomas W; Viswanathan, Vijay; Fedida, David; Kehl, Steven J

    2007-03-01

    In Kv1.5, protonation of histidine 463 in the S5-P linker (turret) increases the rate of depolarization-induced inactivation and decreases the peak current amplitude. In this study, we examined how amino acid substitutions that altered the physico-chemical properties of the side chain at position 463 affected slow inactivation and then used the substituted cysteine accessibility method (SCAM) to probe the turret region (E456-P468) to determine whether residue 463 was unique in its ability to modulate the macroscopic current. Substitutions at position 463 of small, neutral (H463G and H463A) or large, charged (H463R, H463K, and H463E) side groups accelerated inactivation and induced a dependency of the current amplitude on the external potassium concentration. When cysteine substitutions were made in the distal turret (T462C-P468C), modification with either the positively charged [2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl] methanethiosulfonate bromide (MTSET) or negatively charged sodium (2-sulfonatoethyl) methanethiosulfonate reagent irreversibly inhibited current. This inhibition could be antagonized either by the R487V mutation (homologous to T449V in Shaker) or by raising the external potassium concentration, suggesting that current inhibition by MTS reagents resulted from an enhancement of inactivation. These results imply that protonation of residue 463 does not modulate inactivation solely by an electrostatic interaction with residues near the pore mouth, as proposed by others, and that residue 463 is part of a group of residues within the Kv1.5 turret that can modulate P/C-type inactivation.

  7. Two Improved Access Methods on Compact Binary (CB) Trees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shishibori, Masami; Koyama, Masafumi; Okada, Makoto; Aoe, Jun-ichi

    2000-01-01

    Discusses information retrieval and the use of binary trees as a fast access method for search strategies such as hashing. Proposes new methods based on compact binary trees that provide faster access and more compact storage, explains the theoretical basis, and confirms the validity of the methods through empirical observations. (LRW)

  8. Role of TARP interaction in S-SCAM-mediated regulation of AMPA receptors.

    PubMed

    Danielson, Eric; Metallo, Jacob; Lee, Sang H

    2012-01-01

    Scaffolding proteins are involved in the incorporation, anchoring, maintenance, and removal of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) at synapses, either through a direct interaction with AMPARs or via indirect association through auxiliary subunits of transmembrane AMPAR regulatory proteins (TARPs). Synaptic scaffolding molecule (S-SCAM) is a newly characterized member of the scaffolding proteins critical for the regulation and maintenance of AMPAR levels at synapses, and directly binds to TARPs through a PDZ interaction. However, the functional significance of S-SCAM-TARP interaction in the regulation of AMPARs has not been tested. Here we show that overexpression of the C-terminal peptide of TARP-γ2 fused to EGFP abolished the S-SCAM-mediated enhancement of surface GluA2 expression. Conversely, the deletion of the PDZ-5 domain of S-SCAM that binds TARPs greatly attenuated the S-SCAM-induced increase of surface GluA2 expression. In contrast, the deletion of the guanylate kinase domain of S-SCAM did not show a significant effect on the regulation of AMPARs. Together, these results suggest that S-SCAM is regulating AMPARs through TARPs.

  9. Assessment method of accessibility conditions: how to make public buildings accessible?

    PubMed

    Andrade, Isabela Fernandes; Ely, e Vera Helena Moro Bins

    2012-01-01

    The enforcement of accessibility today has faced several difficulties, such as intervention in historic buildings that now house public services and cultural activities, such as town halls, museums and theaters and should allow access, on equal terms to all people. The paper presents the application of a method for evaluating the spatial accessibility conditions and their results. For this, we sought to support the theoretical foundation about the main issue involved and legislation. From the method used--guided walks--it was possible to identify the main barriers to accessibility in historic buildings. From the identified barriers, possible solutions are presented according to the four components of accessibility: spatial orientation, displacement, use and communication. It is hoped also that the knowledge gained in this research contributes to an improvement of accessibility legislation in relation to the listed items.

  10. Assessment method of accessibility conditions: how to make public buildings accessible?

    PubMed

    Andrade, Isabela Fernandes; Ely, e Vera Helena Moro Bins

    2012-01-01

    The enforcement of accessibility today has faced several difficulties, such as intervention in historic buildings that now house public services and cultural activities, such as town halls, museums and theaters and should allow access, on equal terms to all people. The paper presents the application of a method for evaluating the spatial accessibility conditions and their results. For this, we sought to support the theoretical foundation about the main issue involved and legislation. From the method used--guided walks--it was possible to identify the main barriers to accessibility in historic buildings. From the identified barriers, possible solutions are presented according to the four components of accessibility: spatial orientation, displacement, use and communication. It is hoped also that the knowledge gained in this research contributes to an improvement of accessibility legislation in relation to the listed items. PMID:22317296

  11. Method and apparatus for globally-accessible automated testing

    DOEpatents

    Layne, Scott P.; Beugelsdijk, Tony J.

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for sharing integrated testing services with a plurality of autonomous remote clients is disclosed. In the disclosed method, in response to an access request message, a process controller transmits an access enabling message to the remote client. The access enabling message includes instructions performable by a remote client to generate test equipment commands. A process controller interprets and transforms these commands into automated test instrument suite commands, which are provided to laboratory modules to perform the indicated tests. Test data results are then obtained and transmitted to the remote client.

  12. New Earth Science Data and Access Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, John F.; Weinstein, Beth E.; Farnham, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, working with its domestic and international partners, provides scientific data and analysis to improve life here on Earth. NASA provides science data products that cover a wide range of physical, geophysical, biochemical and other parameters, as well as services for interdisciplinary Earth science studies. Management and distribution of these products is administered through the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs), which all hold data within a different Earth science discipline. This paper will highlight selected EOS datasets and will focus on how these observations contribute to the improvement of essential services such as weather forecasting, climate prediction, air quality, and agricultural efficiency. Emphasis will be placed on new data products derived from instruments on board Terra, Aqua and ICESat as well as new regional data products and field campaigns. A variety of data tools and services are available to the user community. This paper will introduce primary and specialized DAAC-specific methods for finding, ordering and using these data products. Special sections will focus on orienting users unfamiliar with DAAC resources, HDF-EOS formatted data and the use of desktop research and application tools.

  13. Grey matter correlates of susceptibility to scams in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Duke Han, S; Boyle, Patricia A; Yu, Lei; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; James, Bryan D; Fleischman, Debra A; Bennett, David A

    2016-06-01

    Susceptibility to scams is a significant issue among older adults, even among those with intact cognition. Age-related changes in brain macrostructure may be associated with susceptibility to scams; however, this has yet to be explored. Based on previous work implicating frontal and temporal lobe functioning as important in decision making, we tested the hypothesis that susceptibility to scams is associated with smaller grey matter volume in frontal and temporal lobe regions in a large community-dwelling cohort of non-demented older adults. Participants (N = 327, mean age = 81.55, mean education = 15.30, 78.9 % female) completed a self-report measure used to assess susceptibility to scams and an MRI brain scan. Results indicated an inverse association between overall grey matter and susceptibility to scams in models adjusted for age, education, and sex; and in models further adjusted for cognitive function. No significant associations were observed for white matter, cerebrospinal fluid, or total brain volume. Models adjusted for age, education, and sex revealed seven clusters showing smaller grey matter in the right parahippocampal/hippocampal/fusiform, left middle temporal, left orbitofrontal, right ventromedial prefrontal, right middle temporal, right precuneus, and right dorsolateral prefrontal regions. In models further adjusted for cognitive function, results revealed three significant clusters showing smaller grey matter in the right parahippocampal/hippocampal/fusiform, right hippocampal, and right middle temporal regions. Lower grey matter concentration in specific brain regions may be associated with susceptibility to scams, even after adjusting for cognitive ability. Future research is needed to determine whether grey matter reductions in these regions may be a biomarker for susceptibility to scams in old age.

  14. CIN85 is localized at synapses and forms a complex with S-SCAM via dendrin.

    PubMed

    Kawata, Akira; Iida, Junko; Ikeda, Mitsunobu; Sato, Yuji; Mori, Hiroki; Kansaku, Ai; Sumita, Kazutaka; Fujiwara, Naoyuki; Rokukawa, Chiaki; Hamano, Mamiko; Hirabayashi, Susumu; Hata, Yutaka

    2006-05-01

    Membrane-associated guanylate kinase inverted (MAGI)-1 plays a role as a scaffold at cell junctions in non-neuronal cells, while S-SCAM, its neuronal isoform, is involved in the organization of synapses. A search for MAGI-1-interacting proteins by yeast two-hybrid screening of a kidney cDNA library yielded dendrin. As dendrin was originally reported as a brain-specific postsynaptic protein, we tested the interaction between dendrin and S-SCAM and revealed that dendrin binds to the WW domains of S-SCAM. Dendrin is known to be dendritically translated but its function is largely unknown. To gain insights into the physiological meaning of the interaction, we performed a second yeast two-hybrid screening using dendrin as a bait. We identified CIN85, an endocytic scaffold protein, as a putative dendrin-interactor. Immunocytochemistry and subcellular fractionation analysis supported the synaptic localization of CIN85. The first SH3 domain and the C-terminal region of CIN85 bind to the proline-rich region and the N-terminal region of dendrin, respectively. In vitro experiments suggest that dendrin forms a ternary complex with CIN85 and S-SCAM and that this complex formation facilitates the recruitment of dendrin and S-SCAM to vesicle-like structures where CIN85 is accumulated.

  15. Interaction of S-SCAM with neural plakophilin-related Armadillo-repeat protein/delta-catenin.

    PubMed

    Ide, N; Hata, Y; Deguchi, M; Hirao, K; Yao, I; Takai, Y

    1999-03-24

    Synaptic scaffolding molecule (S-SCAM) is a multiple PDZ domain-containing protein, which interacts with neuroligin, a cell adhesion molecule, and the NMDA receptor. In this study, we searched for S-SCAM-interacting proteins and obtained a neuralplakophilin-related armadillo-repeat protein (NPRAP)/delta-catenin. NPRAP/delta-catenin bound to the last PDZ domain of S-SCAM via its carboxyl-terminus in three different cell-free assay systems, was coimmunoprecipitated with S-SCAM from rat crude synaptosomes, and was localized at the excitatory synapses in rat hippocampal neurons. NPRAP/delta-catenin may be implicated in the molecular organization of synaptic junctions through the interaction with S-SCAM.

  16. PKC regulates the delta2 glutamate receptor interaction with S-SCAM/MAGI-2 protein.

    PubMed

    Yap, Chan Choo; Muto, Yuko; Kishida, Haruo; Hashikawa, Tsutomu; Yano, Ryoji

    2003-02-21

    Inside cells, membrane proteins are localized at particular surface domains to perform their precise functions. Various kinds of PDZ domain proteins have been shown to play important roles in the intracellular trafficking and anchoring of membrane proteins. In this study, we show that delta2 glutamate receptor is interacting with S-SCAM/MAGI-2, a PDZ domain protein localized in the perinuclear region and postsynaptic sites of cerebellar Purkinje cells. The binding is regulated by PKC (protein kinase-C) mediated phosphorylation of the receptor with a unique repetitive structure in S-SCAM/MAGI-2. Co-expression of both proteins resulted in drastic changes of the receptor localization in COS7 cells. These results show a novel regulatory mechanism for the binding of PDZ domain proteins and suggest that the interaction between delta2 receptor and S-SCAM/MAGI-2 may be important for intracellular trafficking of the receptor.

  17. Analytical resource assessment method for continuous (unconventional) oil and gas accumulations - The "ACCESS" Method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crovelli, Robert A.; revised by Charpentier, Ronald R.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) periodically assesses petroleum resources of areas within the United States and the world. The purpose of this report is to explain the development of an analytic probabilistic method and spreadsheet software system called Analytic Cell-Based Continuous Energy Spreadsheet System (ACCESS). The ACCESS method is based upon mathematical equations derived from probability theory. The ACCESS spreadsheet can be used to calculate estimates of the undeveloped oil, gas, and NGL (natural gas liquids) resources in a continuous-type assessment unit. An assessment unit is a mappable volume of rock in a total petroleum system. In this report, the geologic assessment model is defined first, the analytic probabilistic method is described second, and the spreadsheet ACCESS is described third. In this revised version of Open-File Report 00-044 , the text has been updated to reflect modifications that were made to the ACCESS program. Two versions of the program are added as appendixes.

  18. An incremental database access method for autonomous interoperable databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roussopoulos, Nicholas; Sellis, Timos

    1994-01-01

    We investigated a number of design and performance issues of interoperable database management systems (DBMS's). The major results of our investigation were obtained in the areas of client-server database architectures for heterogeneous DBMS's, incremental computation models, buffer management techniques, and query optimization. We finished a prototype of an advanced client-server workstation-based DBMS which allows access to multiple heterogeneous commercial DBMS's. Experiments and simulations were then run to compare its performance with the standard client-server architectures. The focus of this research was on adaptive optimization methods of heterogeneous database systems. Adaptive buffer management accounts for the random and object-oriented access methods for which no known characterization of the access patterns exists. Adaptive query optimization means that value distributions and selectives, which play the most significant role in query plan evaluation, are continuously refined to reflect the actual values as opposed to static ones that are computed off-line. Query feedback is a concept that was first introduced to the literature by our group. We employed query feedback for both adaptive buffer management and for computing value distributions and selectivities. For adaptive buffer management, we use the page faults of prior executions to achieve more 'informed' management decisions. For the estimation of the distributions of the selectivities, we use curve-fitting techniques, such as least squares and splines, for regressing on these values.

  19. Using qualitative methods to access the pain experience

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative methods provide us with techniques to access the pain experience of patients in ways that provide explanation for apparent contradictions and idiosyncrasies that are difficult to access. In this article, I review three such strategies and the application of qualitative research to practice: (1) the analysis of the ways participants speak about agonizing pain using narrative inquiry, (2) comparisons of childbirth pain in two cultural groups using ethnography and (3) present a qualitative theory, the Praxis Theory of Suffering. This theory provides a theoretical explanation for behaviours that presently confound the understanding of distress using the Distress Thermometer. An alternative approach, ‘reading’ patients’ behavioural manifestations of distress, is recommended. PMID:26516553

  20. A method to minimize complications in endodontic access cavity preparation.

    PubMed

    Zelikow, Robert; Cozzarelli-Moldauer, Gina; Keiner, Steven; Hardigan, Patrick C

    2008-06-01

    This article presents a method of avoiding some operative errors in endodontic-access cavity preparation. Utilizing the radiograph, a line representing the coronal extension of the image of the coronal two-thirds of the root canal(s) is drawn on the facial surface of the crown (Fig. 1). This line determines the proper angulation of the bur to facilitate entry into the pulp chamber in proper mesio-distal orientation, thereby reducing the likelihood of mesial and distal gouging and perforating. Marking the tooth to be treated prior to rubber-dam placement help in preventing treatment of an incorrect tooth. Two studies utilizing Nova Southeastern University College of Dental Medicine (NSUCDM) second-year dental students (D-2), one utilizing University of Florida, College of Dentistry (UFCD) second year dental students (D2) and one utilizing NSUCDM Advanced Education in General Dentistry (AEGD) faculty and students were undertaken to evaluate the method. Evaluation was by endodontic teachers. Results indicate use of the line-drawing method may facilitate more ideal access cavities than those prepared without the method. Welch's t-test, chi-square test and estimating equations were employed. One study showed significant difference between control and test groups (p less than 045). All studies indicated a difference. Further testing of the method is indicated. This valuable tool should be considered for use in teaching and practice.

  1. Nanotube structures, methods of making nanotube structures, and methods of accessing intracellular space

    DOEpatents

    VanDersarl, Jules J.; Xu, Alexander M.; Melosh, Nicholas A.; Tayebi, Noureddine

    2016-02-23

    In accordance with the purpose(s) of the present disclosure, as embodied and broadly described herein, embodiments of the present disclosure, in one aspect, relate to methods of making a structure including nanotubes, a structure including nanotubes, methods of delivering a fluid to a cell, methods of removing a fluid to a cell, methods of accessing intracellular space, and the like.

  2. Method and apparatus for granting processors access to a resource

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Salapura, Valentina

    2010-03-16

    An apparatus and method for granting one or more requesting entities access to a resource in a predetermined time interval. The apparatus includes a first circuit receiving one or more request signals, and implementing logic for assigning a priority to the one or more request signals, and, generating a set of first_request signals based on the priorities assigned. One or more priority select circuits for receiving the set of first_request signals and generating corresponding one or more fixed grant signals representing one or more highest priority request signals when asserted during the predetermined time interval. A second circuit device receives the one or more fixed grant signals generates one or more grant signals associated with one or more highest priority request signals assigned, the grant signals for enabling one or more respective requesting entities access to the resource in the predetermined time interval, wherein the priority assigned to the one or more request signals changes each successive predetermined time interval. In one embodiment, the assigned priority is based on a numerical pattern, the first circuit changing the numerical pattern with respect to the first_request signals generated at each successive predetermined time interval.

  3. Health information system access control redesign - rationale and method.

    PubMed

    Moselle, Kenneth A

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of why a health service system might find it necessary to re-engineer the access control model that mediates the interaction of clinicians with health information systems. Factors that lead to increasingly complexity of the access control models are delineated, and consequences of that complexity are identified. Strategies are presented to address these factors, and a stepwise procedure is suggested to structure the access control model re-engineering process.

  4. Quantitative methods in electroencephalography to access therapeutic response.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Roseane Costa; Fontenele, Andrea Martins Melo; Carmo, Luiza Helena Araújo do; Ribeiro, Aurea Celeste da Costa; Sales, Fábio Henrique Silva; Monteiro, Sally Cristina Moutinho; Sousa, Ana Karoline Ferreira de Castro

    2016-07-01

    Pharmacometrics or Quantitative Pharmacology aims to quantitatively analyze the interaction between drugs and patients whose tripod: pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and disease monitoring to identify variability in drug response. Being the subject of central interest in the training of pharmacists, this work was out with a view to promoting this idea on methods to access the therapeutic response of drugs with central action. This paper discusses quantitative methods (Fast Fourier Transform, Magnitude Square Coherence, Conditional Entropy, Generalised Linear semi-canonical Correlation Analysis, Statistical Parametric Network and Mutual Information Function) used to evaluate the EEG signals obtained after administration regimen of drugs, the main findings and their clinical relevance, pointing it as a contribution to construction of different pharmaceutical practice. Peter Anderer et. al in 2000 showed the effect of 20mg of buspirone in 20 healthy subjects after 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8h after oral ingestion of the drug. The areas of increased power of the theta frequency occurred mainly in the temporo-occipital - parietal region. It has been shown by Sampaio et al., 2007 that the use of bromazepam, which allows the release of GABA (gamma amino butyric acid), an inhibitory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system could theoretically promote dissociation of cortical functional areas, a decrease of functional connectivity, a decrease of cognitive functions by means of smaller coherence (electrophysiological magnitude measured from the EEG by software) values. Ahmad Khodayari-Rostamabad et al. in 2015 talk that such a measure could be a useful clinical tool potentially to assess adverse effects of opioids and hence give rise to treatment guidelines. There was the relation between changes in pain intensity and brain sources (at maximum activity locations) during remifentanil infusion despite its potent analgesic effect. The statement of mathematical and computational

  5. Quantitative methods in electroencephalography to access therapeutic response.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Roseane Costa; Fontenele, Andrea Martins Melo; Carmo, Luiza Helena Araújo do; Ribeiro, Aurea Celeste da Costa; Sales, Fábio Henrique Silva; Monteiro, Sally Cristina Moutinho; Sousa, Ana Karoline Ferreira de Castro

    2016-07-01

    Pharmacometrics or Quantitative Pharmacology aims to quantitatively analyze the interaction between drugs and patients whose tripod: pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and disease monitoring to identify variability in drug response. Being the subject of central interest in the training of pharmacists, this work was out with a view to promoting this idea on methods to access the therapeutic response of drugs with central action. This paper discusses quantitative methods (Fast Fourier Transform, Magnitude Square Coherence, Conditional Entropy, Generalised Linear semi-canonical Correlation Analysis, Statistical Parametric Network and Mutual Information Function) used to evaluate the EEG signals obtained after administration regimen of drugs, the main findings and their clinical relevance, pointing it as a contribution to construction of different pharmaceutical practice. Peter Anderer et. al in 2000 showed the effect of 20mg of buspirone in 20 healthy subjects after 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8h after oral ingestion of the drug. The areas of increased power of the theta frequency occurred mainly in the temporo-occipital - parietal region. It has been shown by Sampaio et al., 2007 that the use of bromazepam, which allows the release of GABA (gamma amino butyric acid), an inhibitory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system could theoretically promote dissociation of cortical functional areas, a decrease of functional connectivity, a decrease of cognitive functions by means of smaller coherence (electrophysiological magnitude measured from the EEG by software) values. Ahmad Khodayari-Rostamabad et al. in 2015 talk that such a measure could be a useful clinical tool potentially to assess adverse effects of opioids and hence give rise to treatment guidelines. There was the relation between changes in pain intensity and brain sources (at maximum activity locations) during remifentanil infusion despite its potent analgesic effect. The statement of mathematical and computational

  6. Evaluating E-Learning Accessibility by Automated and Student-Centered Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Kari L.; Owston, Ron

    2016-01-01

    The use of learning technologies is becoming ubiquitous in higher education. As a result, there is a pressing need to develop methods to evaluate their accessibility to ensure that students do not encounter barriers to accessibility while engaging in e-learning. In this study, sample online units were evaluated for accessibility by automated tools…

  7. S-SCAM, a rare copy number variation gene, induces schizophrenia-related endophenotypes in transgenic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nanyan; Zhong, Peng; Shin, Seung Min; Metallo, Jacob; Danielson, Eric; Olsen, Christopher M; Liu, Qing-song; Lee, Sang H

    2015-02-01

    Accumulating genetic evidence suggests that schizophrenia (SZ) is associated with individually rare copy number variations (CNVs) of diverse genes, often specific to single cases. However, the causality of these rare mutations remains unknown. One of the rare CNVs found in SZ cohorts is the duplication of Synaptic Scaffolding Molecule (S-SCAM, also called MAGI-2), which encodes a postsynaptic scaffolding protein controlling synaptic AMPA receptor levels, and thus the strength of excitatory synaptic transmission. Here we report that, in a transgenic mouse model simulating the duplication conditions, elevation of S-SCAM levels in excitatory neurons of the forebrain was sufficient to induce multiple SZ-related endophenotypes. S-SCAM transgenic mice showed an increased number of lateral ventricles and a reduced number of parvalbumin-stained neurons. In addition, the mice exhibited SZ-like behavioral abnormalities, including hyperlocomotor activity, deficits in prepulse inhibition, increased anxiety, impaired social interaction, and working memory deficit. Notably, the S-SCAM transgenic mice showed a unique sex difference in showing these behavioral symptoms, which is reminiscent of human conditions. These behavioral abnormalities were accompanied by hyperglutamatergic function associated with increased synaptic AMPA receptor levels and impaired long-term potentiation. Importantly, reducing glutamate release by the group 2 metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist LY379268 ameliorated the working memory deficits in the transgenic mice, suggesting that hyperglutamatergic function underlies the cognitive functional deficits. Together, these results contribute to validate a causal relationship of the rare S-SCAM CNV and provide supporting evidence for the rare CNV hypothesis in SZ pathogenesis. Furthermore, the S-SCAM transgenic mice provide a valuable new animal model for studying SZ pathogenesis.

  8. S-SCAM/MAGI-2 is an essential synaptic scaffolding molecule for the GluA2-containing maintenance pool of AMPA receptors.

    PubMed

    Danielson, Eric; Zhang, Nanyan; Metallo, Jacob; Kaleka, Kanwardeep; Shin, Seung Min; Gerges, Nashaat; Lee, Sang H

    2012-05-16

    Synaptic plasticity, the cellular basis of learning and memory, involves the dynamic trafficking of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) into and out of synapses. One of the remaining key unanswered aspects of AMPAR trafficking is the mechanism by which synaptic strength is preserved despite protein turnover. In particular, the identity of AMPAR scaffolding molecule(s) involved in the maintenance of GluA2-containing AMPARs is completely unknown. Here we report that the synaptic scaffolding molecule (S-SCAM; also called membrane-associated guanylate kinase inverted-2 and atrophin interacting protein-1) plays the critical role of maintaining synaptic strength. Increasing S-SCAM levels in rat hippocampal neurons led to specific increases in the surface AMPAR levels, enhanced AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission, and enlargement of dendritic spines, without significantly effecting GluN levels or NMDA receptor (NMDAR) EPSC. Conversely, decreasing S-SCAM levels by RNA interference-mediated knockdown caused the loss of synaptic AMPARs, which was followed by a severe reduction in the dendritic spine density. Importantly, S-SCAM regulated synaptic AMPAR levels in a manner, dependent on GluA2 not GluA1, sensitive to N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein interaction, and independent of activity. Further, S-SCAM increased surface AMPAR levels in the absence of PSD-95, while PSD-95 was dependent on S-SCAM to increase surface AMPAR levels. Finally, S-SCAM overexpression hampered NMDA-induced internalization of AMPARs and prevented the induction of long term-depression, while S-SCAM knockdown did not. Together, these results suggest that S-SCAM is an essential AMPAR scaffolding molecule for the GluA2-containing pool of AMPARs, which are involved in the constitutive pathway of maintaining synaptic strength.

  9. An accessible method for teaching doctors about death certification.

    PubMed

    Walker, Sue; Rampatige, Rasika; Wainiqolo, Iris; Aumua, Audrey

    2012-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that data on mortality in its member countries are collected utilising the Medical Certificate of Cause of Death published in the instruction volume of the ICD-10. However, investment in health information processes necessary to promote the use of this certificate and improve mortality information is lacking in many countries. An appeal for support to make improvements has been launched through the Health Metrics Network's MOVE-IT strategy (Monitoring of Vital Events Information Technology) (WHO 2011). Despite this international spotlight on the need for capture of mortality data and in the use of the ICD-10 to code the data reported on such certificates, there is little cohesion in the way that certifiers of deaths receive instruction in how to complete the death certificate, which is the main source document for mortality statistics. Complete and accurate documentation of the immediate, underlying and contributory causes of death of the decedent on the death certificate is a requirement to produce standardised statistical information and to the ability to produce cause-specific mortality statistics that can be compared between populations and across time. This paper reports on a research project conducted to determine the efficacy and accessibility of the certification module of the WHO's newly-developed web based training tool for coders and certifiers of deaths. Involving a population of medical students from the Fiji School of Medicine and a pre- and post-research design, the study entailed completion of death certificates based on vignettes before and after access to the training tool. The ability of the participants to complete the death certificates and analysis of the completeness and specificity of the ICD-10 coding of the reported causes of death were used to measure the effect of the students' learning from the training tool. The quality of death certificate completion was assessed using a Quality Index

  10. Evaluating Michigan's community hospital access: spatial methods for decision support

    PubMed Central

    Messina, Joseph P; Shortridge, Ashton M; Groop, Richard E; Varnakovida, Pariwate; Finn, Mark J

    2006-01-01

    Background Community hospital placement is dictated by a diverse set of geographical factors and historical contingency. In the summer of 2004, a multi-organizational committee headed by the State of Michigan's Department of Community Health approached the authors of this paper with questions about how spatial analyses might be employed to develop a revised community hospital approval procedure. Three objectives were set. First, the committee needed visualizations of both the spatial pattern of Michigan's population and its 139 community hospitals. Second, the committee required a clear, defensible assessment methodology to quantify access to existing hospitals statewide, taking into account factors such as distance to nearest hospital and road network density to estimate travel time. Third, the committee wanted to contrast the spatial distribution of existing community hospitals with a theoretical configuration that best met statewide demand. This paper presents our efforts to first describe the distribution of Michigan's current community hospital pattern and its people, and second, develop two models, access-based and demand-based, to identify areas with inadequate access to existing hospitals. Results Using the product from the access-based model and contiguity and population criteria, two areas were identified as being "under-served." The lower area, located north/northeast of Detroit, contained the greater total land area and population of the two areas. The upper area was centered north of Grand Rapids. A demand-based model was applied to evaluate the existing facility arrangement by allocating daily bed demand in each ZIP code to the closest facility. We found 1,887 beds per day were demanded by ZIP centroids more than 16.1 kilometers from the nearest existing hospital. This represented 12.7% of the average statewide daily bed demand. If a 32.3 kilometer radius was employed, unmet demand dropped to 160 beds per day (1.1%). Conclusion Both modeling

  11. Economic effects of petroleum-supply shortfalls on the US economy: alternatives to the SCAM methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Anandalingam, G.

    1981-06-01

    The DRI Quarterly Macro Model is used to forecast final demands and simulate the base case for the Supply Constrained Analysis Modeling (SCAM) system. As in other commercially available macroeconomic forecasting models, the only expectations formulation used in the DRI Macro Model is adaptive in nature and is estimated with historical data. This is inadequate in modeling short-term major changes in consumption behavior, for example, panic buying of gasoline, when there is a supply shortfall in petroleum. This report describes alternatives to using the DRI Macro Model to estimate the macroeconomic impacts in the SCAM system. The possibility of using models that incorporate the rational expectations formulation was investigated, as was the possibility of modifying the DRI model to better capture short-run consumption behavior. It is suggested that in the absence a good commercially available rational expectations macroeconomic model, the modification of the DRI Macro Model would have the lowest resource cost in terms of person- and computer-hours spent.

  12. Relation between west coastal rainfall and Nimbus-6 SCAMS liquid water data over the northeastern Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viezee, W.; Shigeishi, H.

    1979-01-01

    The application to rainfall prediction of cloud liquid water data obtained from the SCAMS experiment of Nimbus-6 is explored. The study area is the Pacific Northwest coast of the United States, where rainfall is produced by extratropical storms that approach from across the Pacific Ocean. The SCAMS data related to cloud liquid water over the ocean, and coastal rainfall data, are analyzed for 20 different storm systems in the northeastern Pacific Ocean; these produced significant rainfall from Washington to central California during the period October 1975 through March 1976. Results show that the distribution of storm cloud water analyzed from the SCAMS data over the ocean foreshadows the distribution of coastal rainfall accumulated from the storm at a later time. It is concluded that passive microwave sensor measurements of cloud water over the ocean, when used in conjunction with numerical and other objective guidance, can be used to enhance the accuracy of predictions of coastal rainfall distribution. Limitations in the SCAMS measurements and in the data analysis and interpretation are noted.

  13. Relation between West Coastal rainfall and Nimbus 6 SCAMS liquid water data over the northeastern Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viezee, W.; Shigeishi, H.; Chang, A. T. C.

    1979-01-01

    A research study is described in which the application to rainfall prediction of cloud liquid water data obtained from the SCAMS experiment of Nimbus 6 is explored. The study area is the Pacific Northwest coast of the United States, where rainfall is produced by extratropical storms that approach from across the Pacific Ocean. SCAMS data related to cloud liquid water over the ocean, and coastal rainfall data, are analyzed for 20 different storm systems in the northeastern Pacific Ocean; these produced significant rainfall from Washington to central California during the period October 1975-March 1976. Results show that the distribution of storm-cloud water analyzed from the SCAMS data over the ocean foreshadows the distribution of coastal rainfall accumulated from the storm at a later time. It is concluded that passive microwave sensor measurements of cloud water over the ocean, when used in conjunction with numerical and other objective guidance, can be used to enhance the accuracy of predictions of coastal rainfall distribution. Limitations in the SCAMS measurements and in the data analysis and interpretation are noted.

  14. VIEWCACHE: An incremental pointer-based access method for autonomous interoperable databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roussopoulos, N.; Sellis, Timos

    1992-01-01

    One of biggest problems facing NASA today is to provide scientists efficient access to a large number of distributed databases. Our pointer-based incremental database access method, VIEWCACHE, provides such an interface for accessing distributed data sets and directories. VIEWCACHE allows database browsing and search performing inter-database cross-referencing with no actual data movement between database sites. This organization and processing is especially suitable for managing Astrophysics databases which are physically distributed all over the world. Once the search is complete, the set of collected pointers pointing to the desired data are cached. VIEWCACHE includes spatial access methods for accessing image data sets, which provide much easier query formulation by referring directly to the image and very efficient search for objects contained within a two-dimensional window. We will develop and optimize a VIEWCACHE External Gateway Access to database management systems to facilitate distributed database search.

  15. VIEWCACHE: An incremental pointer-based access method for autonomous interoperable databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roussopoulos, N.; Sellis, Timos

    1993-01-01

    One of the biggest problems facing NASA today is to provide scientists efficient access to a large number of distributed databases. Our pointer-based incremental data base access method, VIEWCACHE, provides such an interface for accessing distributed datasets and directories. VIEWCACHE allows database browsing and search performing inter-database cross-referencing with no actual data movement between database sites. This organization and processing is especially suitable for managing Astrophysics databases which are physically distributed all over the world. Once the search is complete, the set of collected pointers pointing to the desired data are cached. VIEWCACHE includes spatial access methods for accessing image datasets, which provide much easier query formulation by referring directly to the image and very efficient search for objects contained within a two-dimensional window. We will develop and optimize a VIEWCACHE External Gateway Access to database management systems to facilitate database search.

  16. A dynamic access control method based on QoS requirement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunquan; Wang, Yanwei; Yang, Baoye; Hu, Chunyang

    2013-03-01

    A dynamic access control method is put forward to ensure the security of the sharing service in Cloud Manufacturing, according to the application characteristics of cloud manufacturing collaborative task. The role-based access control (RBAC) model is extended according to the characteristics of cloud manufacturing in this method. The constraints are considered, which are from QoS requirement of the task context to access control, based on the traditional static authorization. The fuzzy policy rules are established about the weighted interval value of permissions. The access control authorities of executable service by users are dynamically adjusted through the fuzzy reasoning based on the QoS requirement of task. The main elements of the model are described. The fuzzy reasoning algorithm of weighted interval value based QoS requirement is studied. An effective method is provided to resolve the access control of cloud manufacturing.

  17. Final Report: Advanced Methods for Accessing and Disseminating Nuclear Data, August 13, 1996 - March 15, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Craig A.

    1999-03-15

    Scientific Digital Visions, Inc. developed methods of accessing and dissemination nuclear data contained within the databases of the National Data Center (NNDC) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory supporting a long standing and important DOE Program to provide scientists access to NNDC Databases. The NNDC participated as a partner in this effort.

  18. Action Research to Improve Methods of Delivery and Feedback in an Access Grid Room Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, Lynne C.; Klass, Lara; Eberhard, Andrew; Stacey, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative study which was undertaken to improve the delivery methods and feedback opportunity in honours mathematics lectures which are delivered through Access Grid Rooms. Access Grid Rooms are facilities that provide two-way video and audio interactivity across multiple sites, with the inclusion of smart boards. The…

  19. Suicide prevention by limiting access to methods: a review of theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Florentine, Julia Buus; Crane, Catherine

    2010-05-01

    This review discusses the limitation of access to suicide methods as a way to prevent suicide, an approach which forms a major component of many national suicide prevention strategies. An important distinction is made between efforts that attempt to limit physical access to suicide methods and those that attempt to reduce the cognitive availability of suicide. Physical imitations will be reviewed with reference to restricting access to domestic gas, catalytic converters, firearms, pesticides, jumping, paracetamol and methods used in prisons. Impacts of cognitive availability will be discussed mainly with regard to the media in terms of providing access to technical information and sensational or inaccurate portrayals of suicide. Drawing on psychological models of suicidal ideation and behaviour, this review explores how processes leading to suicidal behaviour and issues around method choice may relate to the effectiveness of limiting access to methods. Potential problems surrounding method limitations are explored, in particular the factors contributing to substitution, the risk that alternative methods of suicide may be used if one is restricted. It is concluded that in appropriate contexts, where substitution is less likely to occur, and in conjunction with psychosocial prevention efforts, limitation of both physical and cognitive access to suicide can be an effective suicide prevention strategy.

  20. Accessing inoculation methods of maize and wheat with Azospirillum brasilense.

    PubMed

    Fukami, Josiane; Nogueira, Marco Antonio; Araujo, Ricardo Silva; Hungria, Mariangela

    2016-03-01

    The utilization of inoculants containing Azospirillum is becoming more popular due to increasing reports of expressive gains in grain yields. However, incompatibility with pesticides used in seed treatments represents a main limitation for a successful inoculation. Therefore, in this study we searched for alternatives methods for seed inoculation of maize and wheat, aiming to avoid the direct contact of bacteria with pesticides. Different doses of inoculants containing Azospirillum brasilense were employed to perform inoculation in-furrow, via soil spray at sowing and via leaf spray after seedlings had emerged, in comparison to seed inoculation. Experiments were conducted first under greenhouse controlled conditions and then confirmed in the field at different locations in Brazil. In the greenhouse, most parameters measured responded positively to the largest inoculant dose used in foliar sprays, but benefits could also be observed from both in-furrow and soil spray inoculation. However, our results present evidence that field inoculation with plant-growth promoting bacteria must consider inoculant doses, and point to the need of fine adjustments to avoid crossing the threshold of growth stimulation and inhibition. All inoculation techniques increased the abundance of diazotrophic bacteria in plant tissues, and foliar spray improved colonization of leaves, while soil inoculations favored root and rhizosphere colonization. In field experiments, inoculation with A. brasilense allowed for a 25 % reduction in the need for N fertilizers. Our results have identified alternative methods of inoculation that were as effective as the standard seed inoculation that may represent an important strategy to avoid the incompatibility between inoculant bacteria and pesticides employed for seed treatment. PMID:26759120

  1. Accessing inoculation methods of maize and wheat with Azospirillum brasilense.

    PubMed

    Fukami, Josiane; Nogueira, Marco Antonio; Araujo, Ricardo Silva; Hungria, Mariangela

    2016-03-01

    The utilization of inoculants containing Azospirillum is becoming more popular due to increasing reports of expressive gains in grain yields. However, incompatibility with pesticides used in seed treatments represents a main limitation for a successful inoculation. Therefore, in this study we searched for alternatives methods for seed inoculation of maize and wheat, aiming to avoid the direct contact of bacteria with pesticides. Different doses of inoculants containing Azospirillum brasilense were employed to perform inoculation in-furrow, via soil spray at sowing and via leaf spray after seedlings had emerged, in comparison to seed inoculation. Experiments were conducted first under greenhouse controlled conditions and then confirmed in the field at different locations in Brazil. In the greenhouse, most parameters measured responded positively to the largest inoculant dose used in foliar sprays, but benefits could also be observed from both in-furrow and soil spray inoculation. However, our results present evidence that field inoculation with plant-growth promoting bacteria must consider inoculant doses, and point to the need of fine adjustments to avoid crossing the threshold of growth stimulation and inhibition. All inoculation techniques increased the abundance of diazotrophic bacteria in plant tissues, and foliar spray improved colonization of leaves, while soil inoculations favored root and rhizosphere colonization. In field experiments, inoculation with A. brasilense allowed for a 25 % reduction in the need for N fertilizers. Our results have identified alternative methods of inoculation that were as effective as the standard seed inoculation that may represent an important strategy to avoid the incompatibility between inoculant bacteria and pesticides employed for seed treatment.

  2. Synaptic scaffolding molecule (S-SCAM) membrane-associated guanylate kinase with inverted organization (MAGI)-2 is associated with cell adhesion molecules at inhibitory synapses in rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Sumita, Kazutaka; Sato, Yuji; Iida, Junko; Kawata, Akira; Hamano, Mamiko; Hirabayashi, Susumu; Ohno, Kikuo; Peles, Elior; Hata, Yutaka

    2007-01-01

    Synaptic scaffolding molecule (S-SCAM) is a synaptic protein, which harbors five or six PSD-95/Discs large/ZO-1 (PDZ), a guanylate kinase and two WW domains. It interacts with NMDA receptor subunits, neuroligin and beta-catenin, and is involved in the accumulation of neuroligin at excitatory synapses. In this study, we have demonstrated S-SCAM is localized at inhibitory synapses in rat primary cultured hippocampal neurons. We have identified beta-dystroglycan (beta-DG) as a binding partner for S-SCAM at inhibitory synapses. WW domains of S-SCAM bind to three sequences of beta-DG. We have also revealed that S-SCAM can interact with neuroligin 2, which is known to be exclusively localized at inhibitory synapses. The WW domains and the second PDZ domain of S-SCAM are involved in the interaction with neuroligin 2. Beta-DG, neuroligin 2 and S-SCAM form a tripartite complex in vitro. Neuroligin 2 is detected in the immunoprecipitates by anti-beta-DG antibody from rat brain. S-SCAM, beta-DG and neuroligin 2 are partially co-localized in rat hippocampal neurons. These data suggest that S-SCAM is associated with beta-DG and neuroligin 2 at inhibitory synapses, and functions as a linker between the dystrophin glycoprotein complex and the neurexin-neuroligin complex.

  3. The effect of alkaline pretreatment methods on cellulose structure and accessibility

    DOE PAGES

    Bali, Garima; Meng, Xianzhi; Deneff, Jacob I.; Sun, Qining; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2014-11-24

    The effects of different alkaline pretreatments on cellulose structural features and accessibility are compared and correlated with the enzymatic hydrolysis of Populus. The pretreatments are shown to modify polysaccharides and lignin content to enhance the accessibility for cellulase enzymes. The highest increase in the cellulose accessibility was observed in dilute sodium hydroxide, followed by methods using ammonia soaking and lime (Ca(OH)2). The biggest increase of cellulose accessibility occurs during the first 10 min of pretreatment, with further increases at a slower rate as severity increases. Low temperature ammonia soaking at longer residence times dissolved a major portion of hemicellulose andmore » exhibited higher cellulose accessibility than high temperature soaking. Moreover, the most significant reduction of degree of polymerization (DP) occurred for dilute sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and ammonia pretreated Populus samples. The study thus identifies important cellulose structural features and relevant parameters related to biomass recalcitrance.« less

  4. The effect of alkaline pretreatment methods on cellulose structure and accessibility

    SciTech Connect

    Bali, Garima; Meng, Xianzhi; Deneff, Jacob I.; Sun, Qining; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2014-11-24

    The effects of different alkaline pretreatments on cellulose structural features and accessibility are compared and correlated with the enzymatic hydrolysis of Populus. The pretreatments are shown to modify polysaccharides and lignin content to enhance the accessibility for cellulase enzymes. The highest increase in the cellulose accessibility was observed in dilute sodium hydroxide, followed by methods using ammonia soaking and lime (Ca(OH)2). The biggest increase of cellulose accessibility occurs during the first 10 min of pretreatment, with further increases at a slower rate as severity increases. Low temperature ammonia soaking at longer residence times dissolved a major portion of hemicellulose and exhibited higher cellulose accessibility than high temperature soaking. Moreover, the most significant reduction of degree of polymerization (DP) occurred for dilute sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and ammonia pretreated Populus samples. The study thus identifies important cellulose structural features and relevant parameters related to biomass recalcitrance.

  5. Insurance scam.

    PubMed

    1999-07-23

    Twenty-eight people with HIV or AIDS were indicted in Dallas for lying about their medical status to obtain life insurance and then selling those policies through a viatical settlement arrangement conducted by an insurance company. Forgery and fraud indictments were obtained against three insurance brokers and agents and Michael Lee Davis, the vice president of Southwest Viatical Inc. People working with [name removed] arranged for the purchase of $12 million in insurance policies for applicants even though the applicants had HIV. One man who has had AIDS for 6 years was issued policies by two insurers who did not require HIV tests or medical exams. After receiving the policies, they were sold for 13 percent of face value. Normally, viatical settlements generate 70 to 80 percent of the face value of the policies.

  6. Prison scam.

    PubMed

    1998-05-01

    An inmate, [name removed], fooled the Texas Board of Pardons and Paroles into granting him an early special needs parole last October. [Name removed] supplied documents indicating that he was dying of AIDS, and the Board granted the parole after finding that he was physically incapacitated. The parole was revoked after he was seen walking. However, further records indicated that [name removed]'s condition had worsened, and after serving two years of a 45-year sentence for theft, he was given a 14-day pass for experimental AIDS treatments in Houston. [Name removed] fled to Florida, where he was arrested and is awaiting extradition to Texas. [Name removed] is a known con man who has falsified records and impersonated a judge in the past. It is unclear if he was HIV-positive or if he used false documents when he entered the prison system.

  7. 47 CFR 51.321 - Methods of obtaining interconnection and access to unbundled elements under section 251 of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... or access to unbundled network elements at a particular point upon a request by a telecommunications carrier. (b) Technically feasible methods of obtaining interconnection or access to unbundled network... method of obtaining interconnection or access to unbundled network elements at a particular premises...

  8. Extra-corporeal blood access, sensing, and radiation methods and apparatuses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, Kent D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The described invention is related to extra-corporeal blood access and radiation methods and apparatuses and, in particular, to subjecting flowing blood to energy in variety of forms, including radiation, electromagnetic force fields or atomic particles. It is directed to methods and apparatuses for accessing flowing blood and for subjecting the blood to electrical conductive, electrostatic or electromagnetic fields or for radiating the blood with some type of radiation, e.g., radio waves, ultrasonic or audio waves, microwaves, IR rays, visible light, UV radiation, x-rays, alpha, beta or gamma rays. An apparatus is employed which includes one or more access ports or windows for radiating blood and/or for sensing/analyzing blood. This invention is useful for killing viruses and bacteria in blood, monitoring blood for medical purposes, genetic modification of blood, and analyzing and/or treating blood components.

  9. Mapping Norway - A Method to Register and Survey the Status of Accessibility.

    PubMed

    Bögelsack, Kathrin; Michaelis, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The Norwegian mapping authority has developed an APP and a standard method for mapping accessibility for people with limited or no walking abilities, the blind and the partially sighted in urban and recreational areas. We choose an object-orientated approach where points, lines and polygons represents objects in the environment. All data are stored in a geospatial database, so they can be presented as web map and analysed using GIS software. To this day, more than 160 municipalities are mapped using that method. The aim of this project is to establish a national standard for mapping and to provide a geodatabase that shows the status of accessibility throughout Norway. The data provide a useful tool for national statistics, local planning authorities and private users. First results show that accessibility is low and Norway still faces many challenges to meet the government's goals for Universal Design. PMID:27534365

  10. Teens' Survey of Stores in the District of Columbia on Accessibility of Family Planning Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.

    Access to and availability of contraceptive methods in stores play an important role in the prevention of AIDS, unwanted pregnancies, and other sexually transmitted diseases. Although teens are generally knowledgable about birth control, many encounter barriers when attempting to obtain contraceptive. Forty-five drug stores and 15 convenience…

  11. Transgressing the Traditional? Teaching and Learning Methods in a Medieval History Access Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Victoria A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a medieval history access course at the University of Glasgow (Scotland) in which non-traditional teaching methods were used, specifically collaborative group work and embedded rhetorical training for essay writing. Questions the idea of discipline-specific pedagogical practice. (Author/DB)

  12. 76 FR 26341 - Medicaid Program; Methods for Assuring Access to Covered Medicaid Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ..., telemedicine and telehealth, nurse help lines, health information technology and other methods for providing... years of research and consulted extensively with key stakeholders to develop a recommendation on how to... standards and are considering future proposals to address access issues under managed care delivery...

  13. The Method behind the Madness: Acquiring Online Journals and a Solution to Provide Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skekel, Donna

    2005-01-01

    Libraries are seeking the best possible solution for integrating online journals into their collections. While exploring the different methods and technology available, many libraries still strive to fulfill the original "library mission" proposed by Charles Cutter in his "Rules for a Dictionary Catalog". Providing comprehensive access to…

  14. Telephone talk: effects of two access methods on phone call success.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Elizabeth K; Goldhammer, Emily; Bethard, Tanya

    2016-09-01

    The slower and unnatural timing of speech inherent to speech-generating devices (SGDs) can be a barrier to successful aided telephone calls. The timing of message delivery when using an SGD may vary depending on the type of access method used. We measured the difference in the success rate of telephone calls made with an SGD either using switch scanning or direct selection with eye gaze. The scripted calls, asking for directions, were placed to 100 randomly selected businesses. Analysis showed a statistically significant difference in the success rate between the two conditions, with eye gaze access resulting in more successful calls. Findings from this study suggest that people who use SGDs for phone calls may improve the timing of message delivery by using eye gaze access compared to switch scanning. PMID:27400281

  15. EAP-Kerberos: A Low Latency EAP Authentication Method for Faster Handoffs in Wireless Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zrelli, Saber; Okabe, Nobuo; Shinoda, Yoichi

    The wireless medium is a key technology for enabling ubiquitous and continuous network connectivity. It is becoming more and more important in our daily life especially with the increasing adoption of networking technologies in many fields such as medical care and transportation systems. Although most wireless technologies nowadays provide satisfying bandwidth and higher speeds, several of these technologies still lack improvements with regard to handoff performance. In this paper, we focus on wireless network technologies that rely on the Extensible Authentication Protocol for mutual authentication between the station and the access network. Such technologies include local area wireless networks (IEEE 802.11) as well as broadband wireless networks (IEEE 802.16). We present a new EAP authentication method based on a three party authentication scheme, namely Kerberos, that considerably shortens handoff delays. Compared to other methods, the proposed method has the advantage of not requiring any changes on the access points, making it readily deployable at reasonable costs.

  16. A Novel Method for Intraoral Access to the Superior Head of the Human Lateral Pterygoid Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Aleli Tôrres; Camilo, Anderson Aparecido; Bahia, Paulo Roberto Valle; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Pires; DosSantos, Marcos Fabio; da Silva, Jorge Vicente Lopes; Monteiro, André Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Background. The uncoordinated activity of the superior and inferior parts of the lateral pterygoid muscle (LPM) has been suggested to be one of the causes of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc displacement. A therapy for this muscle disorder is the injection of botulinum toxin (BTX), of the LPM. However, there is a potential risk of side effects with the injection guide methods currently available. In addition, they do not permit appropriate differentiation between the two bellies of the muscle. Herein, a novel method is presented to provide intraoral access to the superior head of the human LPM with maximal control and minimal hazards. Methods. Computational tomography along with digital imaging software programs and rapid prototyping techniques were used to create a rapid prototyped guide to orient BTX injections in the superior LPM. Results. The method proved to be feasible and reliable. Furthermore, when tested in one volunteer it allowed precise access to the upper head of LPM, without producing side effects. Conclusions. The prototyped guide presented in this paper is a novel tool that provides intraoral access to the superior head of the LPM. Further studies will be necessary to test the efficacy and validate this method in a larger cohort of subjects. PMID:24963484

  17. Spatial access priority mapping (SAPM) with fishers: a quantitative GIS method for participatory planning.

    PubMed

    Yates, Katherine L; Schoeman, David S

    2013-01-01

    Spatial management tools, such as marine spatial planning and marine protected areas, are playing an increasingly important role in attempts to improve marine management and accommodate conflicting needs. Robust data are needed to inform decisions among different planning options, and early inclusion of stakeholder involvement is widely regarded as vital for success. One of the biggest stakeholder groups, and the most likely to be adversely impacted by spatial restrictions, is the fishing community. In order to take their priorities into account, planners need to understand spatial variation in their perceived value of the sea. Here a readily accessible, novel method for quantitatively mapping fishers' spatial access priorities is presented. Spatial access priority mapping, or SAPM, uses only basic functions of standard spreadsheet and GIS software. Unlike the use of remote-sensing data, SAPM actively engages fishers in participatory mapping, documenting rather than inferring their priorities. By so doing, SAPM also facilitates the gathering of other useful data, such as local ecological knowledge. The method was tested and validated in Northern Ireland, where over 100 fishers participated in a semi-structured questionnaire and mapping exercise. The response rate was excellent, 97%, demonstrating fishers' willingness to be involved. The resultant maps are easily accessible and instantly informative, providing a very clear visual indication of which areas are most important for the fishers. The maps also provide quantitative data, which can be used to analyse the relative impact of different management options on the fishing industry and can be incorporated into planning software, such as MARXAN, to ensure that conservation goals can be met at minimum negative impact to the industry. This research shows how spatial access priority mapping can facilitate the early engagement of fishers and the ready incorporation of their priorities into the decision-making process

  18. Action research to improve methods of delivery and feedback in an Access Grid Room environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McArthur, Lynne C.; Klass, Lara; Eberhard, Andrew; Stacey, Andrew

    2011-12-01

    This article describes a qualitative study which was undertaken to improve the delivery methods and feedback opportunity in honours mathematics lectures which are delivered through Access Grid Rooms. Access Grid Rooms are facilities that provide two-way video and audio interactivity across multiple sites, with the inclusion of smart boards. The principal aim was to improve the student learning experience, given the new environment. The specific aspects of the course delivery that the study focused on included presentation of materials and provision of opportunities for interaction between the students and between students and lecturers. The practical considerations in the delivery of distance learning are well documented in the literature, and similar problems arise in the Access Grid Room environment; in particular, those of limited access to face-to-face interaction and the reduction in peer support. The nature of the Access Grid Room classes implies that students studying the same course can be physically situated in different cities, and possibly in different countries. When studying, it is important that students have opportunity to discuss new concepts with others; particularly their peers and their lecturer. The Access Grid Room environment also presents new challenges for the lecturer, who must learn new skills in the delivery of materials. The unique nature of Access Grid Room technology offers unprecedented opportunity for effective course delivery and positive outcomes for students, and was developed in response to a need to be able to interact with complex data, other students and the instructor, in real-time, at a distance and from multiple sites. This is a relatively new technology and as yet there has been little or no studies specifically addressing the use and misuse of the technology. The study found that the correct placement of cameras and the use of printed material and smart boards were all crucial to the student experience. In addition, the

  19. Performance comparison of two input access methods for a multicast switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xing; Hayes, Jeremiah F.; Mehmet-Ali, Mustafa K.

    1994-05-01

    A comparison of the performance of two input access mechanisms for multicast switching is presented. The first of these - A cyclic priority input access method - is a derivative of the ring token reservation method which eliminates the unfairness of the ordinary ring token reservation. It has the advantage of being relatively simple and easy to implement. A second approach employs a neural network to resolve output port conflict. While more difficult to implement, it has a delay-throughput performance advantage over the cyclic priority approach. The primary performance measurements are the switch throughput and the packet delay. A key assumption is that all copies of the same packet must be switched in the same slot.

  20. Simple and accessible analytical methods for the determination of mercury in soil and coal samples.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul Hee; Eom, Yujin; Lee, Lauren Jong-Eun; Lee, Tai Gyu

    2013-09-01

    Simple and accessible analytical methods compared to conventional methods such as US EPA Method 7471B and ASTM-D6414 for the determination of mercury (Hg) in soil and coal samples are proposed. The new methods are consisted of fewer steps without the Hg oxidizing step consequently eliminating a step necessary to reduce excess oxidant. In the proposed methods, a Hg extraction is an inexpensive and accessible step utilizing a disposable test tube and a heating block instead of an expensive autoclave vessel and a specially-designed microwave. Also, a common laboratory vacuum filtration was used for the extracts instead of centrifugation. As for the optimal conditions, first, best acids for extracting Hg from soil and coal samples was investigated using certified reference materials (CRMs). Among common laboratory acids (HCl, HNO3, H2SO4, and aqua regia), aqua regia was most effective for the soil CRM whereas HNO3 was for the coal CRM. Next, the optimal heating temperature and time for Hg extraction were evaluated. The most effective Hg extraction was obtained at 120°C for 30min for soil CRM and at 70°C for 90min for coal CRM. Further tests using selected CRMs showed that all the measured values were within the allowable certification range. Finally, actual soil and coal samples were analyzed using the new methods and the US EPA Method 7473. The relative standard deviation values of 1.71-6.55% for soil and 0.97-12.11% for coal samples were obtained proving that the proposed methods were not only simple and accessible but also accurate.

  1. Evaluation of Mixed-Phase Cloud Microphysics Parameterizations with the NCAR Single Column Climate Model (SCAM) and ARM Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, X; Ghan, SJ; Xie, S

    2007-04-01

    Mixed-phase stratus clouds are ubiquitous in the Arctic and play an important role in climate in this region. However, climate models have generally proven unsuccessful at simulating the partitioning of condensed water into liquid droplets and ice crystals in these Arctic clouds, which affect modeled cloud phase, cloud lifetime and radiative properties. An ice nucleation parameterization and a vapor deposition scheme were developed that together provide a physically-consistent treatment of mixed-phase clouds in global climate models. These schemes have been implemented in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmospheric Model Version 3 (CAM3). This report documents the performance of these schemes against ARM Mixed-phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE) observations using the CAM single column model version (SCAM). SCAM with our new schemes has a more realistic simulation of the cloud phase structure and the partitioning of condensed water into liquid droplets against observations during the M-PACE than the standard CAM simulations.

  2. A stochastic simulation method for the assessment of resistive random access memory retention reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Berco, Dan Tseng, Tseung-Yuen

    2015-12-21

    This study presents an evaluation method for resistive random access memory retention reliability based on the Metropolis Monte Carlo algorithm and Gibbs free energy. The method, which does not rely on a time evolution, provides an extremely efficient way to compare the relative retention properties of metal-insulator-metal structures. It requires a small number of iterations and may be used for statistical analysis. The presented approach is used to compare the relative robustness of a single layer ZrO{sub 2} device with a double layer ZnO/ZrO{sub 2} one, and obtain results which are in good agreement with experimental data.

  3. nRap GEP: a novel neural GDP/GTP exchange protein for rap1 small G protein that interacts with synaptic scaffolding molecule (S-SCAM).

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, T; Hata, Y; Ide, N; Yasuda, T; Inoue, E; Inoue, T; Mizoguchi, A; Takai, Y

    1999-11-01

    Synaptic scaffolding molecule (S-SCAM) has six PDZ domains through which it interacts with N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors and neuroligin at synaptic junctions. We isolated here a novel S-SCAM-binding protein. This protein has one PDZ, one Ras association, one Ras GDP/GTP exchange protein (Ras GEP) domain, and one C-terminal consensus motif for binding to PDZ domains. We named it nRap GEP (neural Rap GEP). nRap GEP moreover has an incomplete cyclic AMP (cAMP)-binding (CAB) domain. The domain organization of nRap GEP is similar to that of Epac/cAMP-guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) I, except that Epac/cAMP-GEFI has complete CAB and Ras GEP domains but lacks the other two domains and the C-terminal motif. nRap GEP showed GEP activity for Rap1 but did not bind cAMP. nRap GEP was specifically expressed in rat brain. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that nRap GEP and S-SCAM were localized at synaptic areas of the cerebellum. These results suggest that nRap GEP is a novel neural Rap1-specific GEP which is associated with S-SCAM.

  4. System and method for integrating and accessing multiple data sources within a data warehouse architecture

    DOEpatents

    Musick, Charles R.; Critchlow, Terence; Ganesh, Madhaven; Slezak, Tom; Fidelis, Krzysztof

    2006-12-19

    A system and method is disclosed for integrating and accessing multiple data sources within a data warehouse architecture. The metadata formed by the present method provide a way to declaratively present domain specific knowledge, obtained by analyzing data sources, in a consistent and useable way. Four types of information are represented by the metadata: abstract concepts, databases, transformations and mappings. A mediator generator automatically generates data management computer code based on the metadata. The resulting code defines a translation library and a mediator class. The translation library provides a data representation for domain specific knowledge represented in a data warehouse, including "get" and "set" methods for attributes that call transformation methods and derive a value of an attribute if it is missing. The mediator class defines methods that take "distinguished" high-level objects as input and traverse their data structures and enter information into the data warehouse.

  5. An Indoor Space Partition Method and its Fingerprint Positioning Optimization Considering Pedestrian Accessibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yue; Shi, Yong; Zheng, Xingyu; Long, Yi

    2016-06-01

    Fingerprint positioning method is generally the first choice in indoor navigation system due to its high accuracy and low cost. The accuracy depends on partition density to the indoor space. The accuracy will be higher with higher grid resolution. But the high grid resolution leads to significantly increasing work of the fingerprint data collection, processing and maintenance. This also might decrease the performance, portability and robustness of the navigation system. Meanwhile, traditional fingerprint positioning method use equational grid to partition the indoor space. While used for pedestrian navigation, sometimes a person can be located at the area where he or she cannot access. This paper studied these two issues, proposed a new indoor space partition method considering pedestrian accessibility, which can increase the accuracy of pedestrian position, and decrease the volume of the fingerprint data. Based on this proposed partition method, an optimized algorithm for fingerprint position was also designed. A across linker structure was used for fingerprint point index and matching. Experiment based on the proposed method and algorithm showed that the workload of fingerprint collection and maintenance were effectively decreased, and poisoning efficiency and accuracy was effectively increased

  6. Perceived Barriers Affecting Access to Preventive Dental Services: Application of DEMATEL Method

    PubMed Central

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Ravangard, Ramin; Asghari, Baratali

    2013-01-01

    Background Identifying perceived access barriers to preventive dental services is one of the basic steps to improve the public health. Objectives This study aimed to determine the perceived barriers affecting access to preventive dental services in one of Tehran dental clinics in 2012. Patients and Methods This research was a cross-sectional descriptive-analytical study conducted in one of Tehran dental clinics in 2012 using decision–making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) method. The study sample included all patients (100 patients) who had referred to the endodontic treatment department from 26 - 31 May, 2012. The required data were collected using a questionnaire. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS 18.0 and MATLAB 7.9.0 SPSSS 18.0, as well as, some descriptive and analytical tests including Mean, Standard Deviation (SD), and Independent T- Test. Results The five determinants of cost, inconvenience, fear, organization, and patient-dentist relationship were determined as barriers to access to dental services among which the cost and patient-dentist relationship were identified as the first and last priorities with the coordinates (1.4 and 1.4) and (1.25 and -0.65), respectively. Conclusions High cost of dental care has led to not referring patients to the clinic. Oral health costs are too high; however insurance organizations have no commitment to support such services. Policymakers, administrators, and insurance organizations have a major role in improving access to dental services. These decision-makers in making their policies can provide the required financial resources, shift the available resources towards preventive care and periodic checkups, and consider providing proper and sufficient places for dental care facilities. PMID:24578831

  7. An Enhanced Variable Two-Step Floating Catchment Area Method for Measuring Spatial Accessibility to Residential Care Facilities in Nanjing.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jianhua; Wang, Jinyin; Rui, Yikang; Qian, Tianlu; Wang, Jiechen

    2015-11-13

    Civil administration departments require reliable measures of accessibility so that residential care facility shortage areas can be accurately identified. Building on previous research, this paper proposes an enhanced variable two-step floating catchment area (EV2SFCA) method that determines facility catchment sizes by dynamically summing the population around the facility until the facility-to-population ratio (FPR) is less than the FPR threshold (FPRT). To minimize the errors from the supply and demand catchments being mismatched, this paper proposes that the facility and population catchment areas must both contain the other location in calculating accessibility. A case study evaluating spatial accessibility to residential care facilities in Nanjing demonstrates that the proposed method is effective in accurately determining catchment sizes and identifying details in the variation of spatial accessibility. The proposed method can be easily applied to assess other public healthcare facilities, and can provide guidance to government departments on issues of spatial planning and identification of shortage and excess areas.

  8. A method for selection of appropriate assistive technology for computer access.

    PubMed

    Jenko, Mojca; Matjacic, Zlatko; Vidmar, Gaj; Bester, Janez; Pogacnikb, Matevz; Zupan, Anton

    2010-12-01

    Assistive technologies (ATs) for computer access enable people with disabilities to be included in the information society. Current methods for assessment and selection of the most appropriate AT for each individual are non standardized, lengthy, subjective, and require substantial clinical experience of a multidisciplinary team.This manuscript presents and evaluates an objective approach to test and select an appropriate AT for computer access for people with disabilities. Six user interfaces(standard keyboard, mini and large joystick, mini and large trackball, and head-operated mouse and keyboard) were tested on the control group of 29 people without disabilities and on 63 people with neuromuscular and muscular diseases, using purpose-built software for testing the speed of sentence typing. Different criteria for selecting the optimal AT were tested and compared with the skilled clinician's choice. The learning curves of the people with disabilities proved to follow those of the healthy controls, but with lower performance. Daily computer use was not associated with AT selection, but corresponded nearly perfectly to the level of functional ability of upper limbs. Agreement between clinician's choice and learning-based AT selection was noteworthy,but far from perfect. If partial agreement was taken into account, that is, AT was considered as an ordinal variable based on the corresponding functional ability level, and the second best learning-based choice was taken into account,the agreement was high for highest median typing speed as AT selection criterion. In conclusion, the developed method for AT assessment and selection seems to be an efficient guide for an unskilled clinician to choose an appropriate AT. PMID:20216223

  9. Method and device for maximizing memory system bandwidth by accessing data in a dynamically determined order

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wulf, William A. (Inventor); McKee, Sally A. (Inventor); Klenke, Robert (Inventor); Schwab, Andrew J. (Inventor); Moyer, Stephen A. (Inventor); Aylor, James (Inventor); Hitchcock, Charles Young (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A data processing system is disclosed which comprises a data processor and memory control device for controlling the access of information from the memory. The memory control device includes temporary storage and decision ability for determining what order to execute the memory accesses. The compiler detects the requirements of the data processor and selects the data to stream to the memory control device which determines a memory access order. The order in which to access said information is selected based on the location of information stored in the memory. The information is repeatedly accessed from memory and stored in the temporary storage until all streamed information is accessed. The information is stored until required by the data processor. The selection of the order in which to access information maximizes bandwidth and decreases the retrieval time.

  10. Early Patient Access to Medicines: Health Technology Assessment Bodies Need to Catch Up with New Marketing Authorization Methods.

    PubMed

    Leyens, Lada; Brand, Angela

    2016-01-01

    National and international medicines agencies have developed innovative methods to expedite promising new medicines to the market and facilitate early patient access. Some of these approval pathways are the conditional approval and the adaptive pathways by the European Medicines Agency (EMA); the Promising Innovative Medicine (PIM) designation and the Early Access to Medicines Scheme (EAMS) by the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA), as well as the Fast Track, Breakthrough or Accelerated Approval methods by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, at least in Europe, these methods cannot achieve the goal of improving timely access for patients to new medicines on their own; the reimbursement process also has to become adaptive and flexible. In the past 2 years, the effective access (national patient access) to newly approved oncology drugs ranged from 1 to 30 months, with an extremely high variability between European countries. The goal of early patient access in Europe can only be achieved if the national health technology assessment bodies, such as NICE (ENG), HAS (FR), G-BA (DE) or AIFA (IT), provide harmonized, transparent, flexible, conditional and adaptive methods that adopt the level of evidence accepted by the medicines agencies. The efforts from medicines agencies are welcome but will be in vain if health technology assessments do not follow with similar initiatives, and the European 'postcode' lottery will continue.

  11. Early Patient Access to Medicines: Health Technology Assessment Bodies Need to Catch Up with New Marketing Authorization Methods.

    PubMed

    Leyens, Lada; Brand, Angela

    2016-01-01

    National and international medicines agencies have developed innovative methods to expedite promising new medicines to the market and facilitate early patient access. Some of these approval pathways are the conditional approval and the adaptive pathways by the European Medicines Agency (EMA); the Promising Innovative Medicine (PIM) designation and the Early Access to Medicines Scheme (EAMS) by the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA), as well as the Fast Track, Breakthrough or Accelerated Approval methods by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, at least in Europe, these methods cannot achieve the goal of improving timely access for patients to new medicines on their own; the reimbursement process also has to become adaptive and flexible. In the past 2 years, the effective access (national patient access) to newly approved oncology drugs ranged from 1 to 30 months, with an extremely high variability between European countries. The goal of early patient access in Europe can only be achieved if the national health technology assessment bodies, such as NICE (ENG), HAS (FR), G-BA (DE) or AIFA (IT), provide harmonized, transparent, flexible, conditional and adaptive methods that adopt the level of evidence accepted by the medicines agencies. The efforts from medicines agencies are welcome but will be in vain if health technology assessments do not follow with similar initiatives, and the European 'postcode' lottery will continue. PMID:27238553

  12. BIOMECHANICAL ACCESS METHOD FOR ANALYZING ISOMETRICITY IN RECONSTRUCTING THE MEDIAL PATELLOFEMORAL LIGAMENT

    PubMed Central

    Sadigursky, David; Gobbi, Riccardo Gomes; Pereira, César Augusto Martins; Pécora, José Ricardo; Camanho, Gilberto Luis

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To present a biomechanical device for evaluating medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction and its isometricity. Methods: An accessible biomechanical method that allowed application of physiological and non-physiological forces to the knee using a mechanical arm and application of weights and counterweights was developed, so as to enable many different evaluations and have a very accurate measurement system for distances between different structures, for analysis on experiments. This article describes the assembly of this system, and suggests some practical applications. Six cadaver knees were studied. The knees were prepared in a testing machine developed at the Biomechanics Laboratory of IOT–HCFMUSP, which allowed dynamic evaluation of patellar behavior, with quantification of patellar lateralization between 0° and 120°. The differences between the distances found with and without load applied to the patella were grouped according to the graft fixation angle (0°, 30°, 60° or 90°) and knee position (intact, damaged or reconstructed). Results: There was a tendency for smaller lateral displacement to occur at fixation angles greater than 30 degrees of flexion, especially between the angles of 45° and 60° degrees of flexion, after the reconstruction. For the other angles, there was no statistical significance. Conclusion: The method developed is a useful tool for studies on the patellofemoral joint and the MPFL, and has a very accurate measurement system for distances between different structures. It can be used in institutions with fewer resources available. PMID:27047872

  13. Numerical method for accessing the universal scaling function for a multiparticle discrete time asymmetric exclusion process.

    PubMed

    Chia, Nicholas; Bundschuh, Ralf

    2005-11-01

    In the universality class of the one-dimensional Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) surface growth, Derrida and Lebowitz conjectured the universality of not only the scaling exponents, but of an entire scaling function. Since and Derrida and Lebowitz's original publication [Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 209 (1998)] this universality has been verified for a variety of continuous-time, periodic-boundary systems in the KPZ universality class. Here, we present a numerical method for directly examining the entire particle flux of the asymmetric exclusion process (ASEP), thus providing an alternative to more difficult cumulant ratios studies. Using this method, we find that the Derrida-Lebowitz scaling function (DLSF) properly characterizes the large-system-size limit (N--> infinity) of a single-particle discrete time system, even in the case of very small system sizes (N< or =22). This fact allows us to not only verify that the DLSF properly characterizes multiple-particle discrete-time asymmetric exclusion processes, but also provides a way to numerically solve for quantities of interest, such as the particle hopping flux. This method can thus serve to further increase the ease and accessibility of studies involving even more challenging dynamics, such as the open-boundary ASEP. PMID:16383588

  14. Access to Money and Relation to Women's Use of Family Planning Methods Among Young Married Women in Rural India.

    PubMed

    Reed, Elizabeth; Donta, Balaiah; Dasgupta, Anindita; Ghule, Mohan; Battala, Madhusudana; Nair, Saritha; Silverman, Jay; Jadhav, Arun; Palaye, Prajakta; Saggurti, Niranjan; Raj, Anita

    2016-06-01

    Objectives The social positioning (i.e. social status and autonomy) of women in the household facilitates women's access to and decision-making power related to family planning (FP). Women's access to spending money, which may be an indicator of greater social positioning in the household, may also be greater among women who engage in income generating activities for their families, regardless of women's status in the household. However, in both scenarios, access to money may independently afford greater opportunity to obtain family planning services among women. This study seeks to assess whether access to money is associated with FP outcomes independently of women's social positioning in their households. Methods Using survey data from married couples in rural Maharashtra, India (n = 855), crude and adjusted regression was used to assess women's access to their own spending money in relation to past 3 month use of condoms and other forms of contraceptives (pills, injectables, intrauterine device). Results Access to money (59 %) was associated with condom and other contraceptive use (AORs ranged 1.5-1.8). These findings remained significant after adjusting for women's FP decision-making power in the household and mobility to seek FP services. Conclusion While preliminary, findings suggest that access to money may increase women's ability to obtain FP methods, even in contexts where social norms to support women's power in FP decision-making may not be readily adopted. PMID:26971270

  15. Access to Money and Relation to Women's Use of Family Planning Methods Among Young Married Women in Rural India.

    PubMed

    Reed, Elizabeth; Donta, Balaiah; Dasgupta, Anindita; Ghule, Mohan; Battala, Madhusudana; Nair, Saritha; Silverman, Jay; Jadhav, Arun; Palaye, Prajakta; Saggurti, Niranjan; Raj, Anita

    2016-06-01

    Objectives The social positioning (i.e. social status and autonomy) of women in the household facilitates women's access to and decision-making power related to family planning (FP). Women's access to spending money, which may be an indicator of greater social positioning in the household, may also be greater among women who engage in income generating activities for their families, regardless of women's status in the household. However, in both scenarios, access to money may independently afford greater opportunity to obtain family planning services among women. This study seeks to assess whether access to money is associated with FP outcomes independently of women's social positioning in their households. Methods Using survey data from married couples in rural Maharashtra, India (n = 855), crude and adjusted regression was used to assess women's access to their own spending money in relation to past 3 month use of condoms and other forms of contraceptives (pills, injectables, intrauterine device). Results Access to money (59 %) was associated with condom and other contraceptive use (AORs ranged 1.5-1.8). These findings remained significant after adjusting for women's FP decision-making power in the household and mobility to seek FP services. Conclusion While preliminary, findings suggest that access to money may increase women's ability to obtain FP methods, even in contexts where social norms to support women's power in FP decision-making may not be readily adopted.

  16. A new access density definition and its correlation with crash rates by microscopic traffic simulation method.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bing; Zhang, Yu; Lu, Linjun; Lu, Jian John

    2014-03-01

    Better access management can improve highway safety by reducing potential crashes and conflicts. To make adequate access management decisions, it is essential to understand the impact of different access types on roadway safety, usually represented by the crash rate of a roadway segment. The objective of this paper is to propose a new access density definition reflecting the impact of traffic speed variation of different access types. The traffic speed variation was obtained from a microscopic traffic simulation software package TSIS-CORSIM. A sample roadway Temple Terrace Highway was selected to perform traffic simulation. Access Weight was obtained from traffic speed variation, and access density was obtained from access weight. The proposed access density was then compared with the existing definition by analyzing their correlations with crash rates on one suburban street in Temple Terrace, Florida. The comparison demonstrates that crash rates are more highly correlated with the proposed access density than that in the previous study, which is helpful for Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), United States Department of Transportation (USDOT), and transportation consulting companies to regulate the construction, management and design of roadway segments.

  17. Improving Access to Long-Acting Contraceptive Methods and Reducing Unplanned Pregnancy Among Women with Substance Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Black, Kirsten I; Day, Carolyn A

    2016-01-01

    Much has been written about the consequences of substance use in pregnancy, but there has been far less focus on the prevention of unintended pregnancies in women with substance use disorders (SUDs). We examine the literature on pregnancy incidence for women with SUDs, the clinical and economic benefits of increasing access to long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods in this population, and the current hurdles to increased access and uptake. High rates of unintended pregnancies and poor physical and psychosocial outcomes among women with SUDs underscore the need for increased access to, and uptake of, LARC methods among these women. A small number of studies that focused on improving access to contraception, especially LARC, via integrated contraception services predominantly provided in drug treatment programs were identified. However, a number of barriers remain, highlighting that much more research is needed in this area. PMID:27199563

  18. Improving Access to Long-Acting Contraceptive Methods and Reducing Unplanned Pregnancy Among Women with Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Black, Kirsten I.; Day, Carolyn A.

    2016-01-01

    Much has been written about the consequences of substance use in pregnancy, but there has been far less focus on the prevention of unintended pregnancies in women with substance use disorders (SUDs). We examine the literature on pregnancy incidence for women with SUDs, the clinical and economic benefits of increasing access to long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods in this population, and the current hurdles to increased access and uptake. High rates of unintended pregnancies and poor physical and psychosocial outcomes among women with SUDs underscore the need for increased access to, and uptake of, LARC methods among these women. A small number of studies that focused on improving access to contraception, especially LARC, via integrated contraception services predominantly provided in drug treatment programs were identified. However, a number of barriers remain, highlighting that much more research is needed in this area. PMID:27199563

  19. Chromatin image analysis provides new evidence of the relation of lymphocytes to cytokines and sCAM in the inflammatory nature of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Teplyakov, A I; Pryshchepava, A V; Chegerova, T I

    2001-12-01

    Comparative analysis of cytokines and sCAM secretion within the lymphocyte chromatin state are possible evidence of inflammatory reactions in atherosclerosis. Two types of response were studied: coagulation and fibrinolysis (incubation of blood clot within 6 hours at 37 degrees C) and standardized viscosimetric flow using a rotational viscometer (shear rate 100 l/s, 60 seconds at 37 degrees C, and incubation within 6 hours at 37 degrees C). Cytokines IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 (Immunotech, France), endothelin-1, and soluble cell adhesion molecules (sCAM) sP- and sE-selectin, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1 (R&D, UK) have been determined using ELISA kits (photometer, Biomek-1000, Beckman, USA). The chromatin of lymphocyte nuclei was studied using the computer TV morphodensitometry system DiaMorph (Russia) and smears dyed specifically for DNA. Correlational changes in morphodensitometric (MDM) parameters and cytokine and sCAM levels in two tests were compared to initial levels. After rheologic testing, lymphocyte nuclei as a whole had not changed, but chromatin activity had decreased. Reorganization of nuclei after the coagulation test was observed. Endothelin-1 and sP- and sE-selectin levels were not related to function of lymphocytes (by MDM data) as seen in both tests; it is probable that another cell-cell communication mechanism had been switched on. We established a strong correlation between chromatin activity of lymphocytes and the serum concentration of IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-10, which are the active participants in the pro- and anti-inflammatory program in atherogenesis. Results are evidence of the role of lymphocytes in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine reactions and cytokine-like sCAM activity in atherosclerosis.

  20. Method for automatic escalation of access rights to the electronic health record.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Frode Orbeck; Fensli, Rune

    2006-01-01

    In an emergency situation, it can be vital for rescuing personnel to have access to fragmented parts of patients Electronic Health Record (EHR) shared between patients and health care services. In such situations, can Spatial Role Based Access Control combined with measurements of vital sign parameters recorded from a wireless monitoring system used by the patient and patient's physiological situation be used to facilitate for medical personnel automatic access to parts of the EHR.

  1. Pore-lining residues identified by single channel SCAM studies in Cx46 hemichannels.

    PubMed

    Kronengold, J; Trexler, E B; Bukauskas, F F; Bargiello, T A; Verselis, V K

    2003-01-01

    The substituted cysteine accessibility method was applied to single Cx46 hemichannels to identify residues that participate in lining the aqueous pore of channels formed of connexins. Criteria for assignment to the pore included reactivity to sulfydryl-specific methanethiosulfonate (MTS) reagents from both sides of an open hemichannel and observable effects on open channel properties. We demonstrate reactivity to MTS reagents over a stretch of seventeen amino acids, D51 through L35, that constitute segments of E1 and TM1. Qualitatively, the nature of the effects caused by the Cys substitutions alone and their modification with MTS reagents of either charge indicate side chain valence is most influential in determining single channel properties with D51 and L35 defining the extracellular and intracellular limits, respectively, of the identified pore-lining region. A number of Cys substitutions beyond L35 in TM1 caused severe alterations in hemichannel function and precluded assignment to the pore. Although all six subunits can be modified by smaller MTS reagents, modifications appear limited to fewer subunits with larger reagents.

  2. Finding Food Deserts: A Comparison of Methods Measuring Spatial Access to Food Stores.

    PubMed

    Jaskiewicz, Lara; Block, Daniel; Chavez, Noel

    2016-05-01

    Public health research has increasingly focused on how access to resources affects health behaviors. Mapping environmental factors, such as distance to a supermarket, can identify intervention points toward improving food access in low-income and minority communities. However, the existing literature provides little guidance on choosing the most appropriate measures of spatial access. This study compared the results of different measures of spatial access to large food stores and the locations of high and low access identified by each. The data set included U.S. Census population data and the locations of large food stores in the six-county area around Chicago, Illinois. Six measures of spatial access were calculated at the census block group level and the results compared. The analysis found that there was little agreement in the identified locations of high or low access between measures. This study illustrates the importance of considering the access measure used when conducting research, interpreting results, or comparing studies. Future research should explore the correlation of different measures with health behaviors and health outcomes.

  3. New efficient DNA extraction method to access the microbiome of Ricinus communis seeds.

    PubMed

    Santos, C D; Dias, A C C; Amaral, I M R; Bonetti, A M; Campos, T A

    2013-02-28

    Ricinus communis (castor bean) seeds are used to produce an alcohol-soluble oil that is used in more than 400 industrial processes. Despite its economic importance, there has been little research on the endophytic microbiota of castor bean seeds. This microbiota is important for plant metabolic processes and may have considerable biotechnological potential, such as production of lipases and plant growth promoter agents. We evaluated several DNA extraction methodologies in order to access the microbial diversity of castor bean through a metagenomic approach. Based on our observations, we developed a new methodology that takes advantage of the low solubility of calcium phosphates and the high affinity of these phosphates for proteins and polysaccharides. The extracted DNA quality was evaluated by PCR, using a selective primer pair for bacterial and mitochondrial 16S rDNA genes (799F and 1492R). We found this methodology quantitatively and qualitatively more efficient than the other approaches. In evaluating this new extraction methodology, we found that the difficulties of DNA extraction from castor bean seeds, such as abundant oil, polysaccharides, phenolic compounds, and plant enzymes, could be overcome. The resulting extracts had high concentration and purity, and they were obtained faster than with previous methods. The samples contained virtually all of the DNA, including the microbial DNA; this was validated by PCR analysis.

  4. The Role of Need for Contraception in the Evaluation of Interventions to Improve Access to Family-Planning Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon, Federico R.; Lundgren, Rebecka; Sinai, Irit; Jennings, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    A nonrandomized experiment carried out in Jharkhand, India, shows how the effects of interventions designed to improve access to family-planning methods can be erroneously regarded as trivial when contraceptive use is utilized as dependent variable, ignoring women's need for contraception. Significant effects of the intervention were observed on…

  5. 47 CFR 51.321 - Methods of obtaining interconnection and access to unbundled elements under section 251 of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... to unbundled elements under section 251 of the Act. 51.321 Section 51.321 Telecommunication FEDERAL... of Incumbent Local Exchange Carriers § 51.321 Methods of obtaining interconnection and access to... the area in which space was denied, without charge, within ten days of the receipt of the...

  6. A Sensitivity Analysis of Cloud Properties to CLUBB Parameters in the Single-Column Community Atmosphere Model (SCAM5)

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Zhun; Wang, Minghuai; Qian, Yun; Larson, Vincent E.; Ghan, Steven J.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Bogenschutz, Peter; Zhao, Chun; Lin, Guang; Zhou, Tianjun

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we investigate the sensitivity of simulated shallow cumulus and stratocumulus clouds to selected tunable parameters of Cloud Layers Unified by Binormals (CLUBB) in the single column version of Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (SCAM5). A quasi-Monte Carlo (QMC) sampling approach is adopted to effectively explore the high-dimensional parameter space and a generalized linear model is adopted to study the responses of simulated cloud fields to tunable parameters. One stratocumulus and two shallow convection cases are configured at both coarse and fine vertical resolutions in this study.. Our results show that most of the variance in simulated cloud fields can be explained by a small number of tunable parameters. The parameters related to Newtonian and buoyancy-damping terms of total water flux are found to be the most influential parameters for stratocumulus. For shallow cumulus, the most influential parameters are those related to skewness of vertical velocity, reflecting the strong coupling between cloud properties and dynamics in this regime. The influential parameters in the stratocumulus case are sensitive to the choice of the vertical resolution while little sensitivity is found for the shallow convection cases, as eddy mixing length (or dissipation time scale) plays a more important role and depends more strongly on the vertical resolution in stratocumulus than in shallow convections. The influential parameters remain almost unchanged when the number of tunable parameters increases from 16 to 35. This study improves understanding of the CLUBB behavior associated with parameter uncertainties.

  7. Computer vector multiprocessing control with multiple access memory and priority conflict resolution method

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.S.; Schiffleger, A.J.

    1990-02-13

    This patent describes a multiprocessor memory system. It comprises: a central memory comprised of a plurality of independently addressable memory banks organized into a plurality of sections each accessible through a plurality of access paths; a plurality of processing machines; each of the processing machine including a plurality of ports for generating memory references to any one of the central memory sections; and conflict resolution means interfacing each of the ports to each of the central memory sections through the central memory access paths. The resolution means for receiving references from the ports and coordinating and controlling the procession of the references along to the access paths. The conflict resolution means comprising a plurality of conflict resolution circuits corresponding in number to the memory sections, each of the circuits receiving the references to its corresponding section from any one of the ports and selectively conveying the references to the access paths for the corresponding section. The circuits each including; means for checking the readiness of the memory banks to be referenced and holding a reference to a busy one of the banks until the bank is ready to be referenced; means for detecting when more than one of the references is pending to the same bank simultaneously and holding all but one of the simultaneously pending references; and means communicating with the ports and the other of the conflict resolution circuits to cause one of the ports referencing the memory to suspend generation of further references when a reference from the referencing port is being held.

  8. An Enhanced Variable Two-Step Floating Catchment Area Method for Measuring Spatial Accessibility to Residential Care Facilities in Nanjing

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Jianhua; Wang, Jinyin; Rui, Yikang; Qian, Tianlu; Wang, Jiechen

    2015-01-01

    Civil administration departments require reliable measures of accessibility so that residential care facility shortage areas can be accurately identified. Building on previous research, this paper proposes an enhanced variable two-step floating catchment area (EV2SFCA) method that determines facility catchment sizes by dynamically summing the population around the facility until the facility-to-population ratio (FPR) is less than the FPR threshold (FPRT). To minimize the errors from the supply and demand catchments being mismatched, this paper proposes that the facility and population catchment areas must both contain the other location in calculating accessibility. A case study evaluating spatial accessibility to residential care facilities in Nanjing demonstrates that the proposed method is effective in accurately determining catchment sizes and identifying details in the variation of spatial accessibility. The proposed method can be easily applied to assess other public healthcare facilities, and can provide guidance to government departments on issues of spatial planning and identification of shortage and excess areas. PMID:26580637

  9. An Enhanced Variable Two-Step Floating Catchment Area Method for Measuring Spatial Accessibility to Residential Care Facilities in Nanjing.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jianhua; Wang, Jinyin; Rui, Yikang; Qian, Tianlu; Wang, Jiechen

    2015-11-01

    Civil administration departments require reliable measures of accessibility so that residential care facility shortage areas can be accurately identified. Building on previous research, this paper proposes an enhanced variable two-step floating catchment area (EV2SFCA) method that determines facility catchment sizes by dynamically summing the population around the facility until the facility-to-population ratio (FPR) is less than the FPR threshold (FPRT). To minimize the errors from the supply and demand catchments being mismatched, this paper proposes that the facility and population catchment areas must both contain the other location in calculating accessibility. A case study evaluating spatial accessibility to residential care facilities in Nanjing demonstrates that the proposed method is effective in accurately determining catchment sizes and identifying details in the variation of spatial accessibility. The proposed method can be easily applied to assess other public healthcare facilities, and can provide guidance to government departments on issues of spatial planning and identification of shortage and excess areas. PMID:26580637

  10. Discriminating Between Legitimate and Predatory Open Access Journals: Report from the International Federation for Emergency Medicine Research Committee

    PubMed Central

    Hansoti, Bhakti; Langdorf, Mark I.; Murphy, Linda S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Open access (OA) medical publishing is growing rapidly. While subscription-based publishing does not charge the author, OA does. This opens the door for “predatory” publishers who take authors’ money but provide no substantial peer review or indexing to truly disseminate research findings. Discriminating between predatory and legitimate OA publishers is difficult. Methods We searched a number of library indexing databases that were available to us through the University of California, Irvine Libraries for journals in the field of emergency medicine (EM). Using criteria from Jeffrey Beall, University of Colorado librarian and an expert on predatory publishing, and the Research Committee of the International Federation for EM, we categorized EM journals as legitimate or likely predatory. Results We identified 150 journal titles related to EM from all sources, 55 of which met our criteria for OA (37%, the rest subscription based). Of these 55, 25 (45%) were likely to be predatory. We present lists of clearly legitimate OA journals, and, conversely, likely predatory ones. We present criteria a researcher can use to discriminate between the two. We present the indexing profiles of legitimate EM OA journals, to inform the researcher about degree of dissemination of research findings by journal. Conclusion OA journals are proliferating rapidly. About half in EM are legitimate. The rest take substantial money from unsuspecting, usually junior, researchers and provide no value for true dissemination of findings. Researchers should be educated and aware of scam journals. PMID:27625710

  11. Discriminating Between Legitimate and Predatory Open Access Journals: Report from the International Federation for Emergency Medicine Research Committee

    PubMed Central

    Hansoti, Bhakti; Langdorf, Mark I.; Murphy, Linda S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Open access (OA) medical publishing is growing rapidly. While subscription-based publishing does not charge the author, OA does. This opens the door for “predatory” publishers who take authors’ money but provide no substantial peer review or indexing to truly disseminate research findings. Discriminating between predatory and legitimate OA publishers is difficult. Methods We searched a number of library indexing databases that were available to us through the University of California, Irvine Libraries for journals in the field of emergency medicine (EM). Using criteria from Jeffrey Beall, University of Colorado librarian and an expert on predatory publishing, and the Research Committee of the International Federation for EM, we categorized EM journals as legitimate or likely predatory. Results We identified 150 journal titles related to EM from all sources, 55 of which met our criteria for OA (37%, the rest subscription based). Of these 55, 25 (45%) were likely to be predatory. We present lists of clearly legitimate OA journals, and, conversely, likely predatory ones. We present criteria a researcher can use to discriminate between the two. We present the indexing profiles of legitimate EM OA journals, to inform the researcher about degree of dissemination of research findings by journal. Conclusion OA journals are proliferating rapidly. About half in EM are legitimate. The rest take substantial money from unsuspecting, usually junior, researchers and provide no value for true dissemination of findings. Researchers should be educated and aware of scam journals.

  12. Oxide Defect Engineering Methods for Valence Change (VCM) Resistive Random Access Memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capulong, Jihan O.

    Electrical switching requirements for resistive random access memory (ReRAM) devices are multifaceted, based on device application. Thus, it is important to obtain an understanding of these switching properties and how they relate to the oxygen vacancy concentration and oxygen vacancy defects. Oxygen vacancy defects in the switching oxide of valence-change-based ReRAM (VCM ReRAM) play a significant role in device switching properties. Oxygen vacancies facilitate resistive switching as they form the conductive filament that changes the resistance state of the device. This dissertation will present two methods of modulating the defect concentration in VCM ReRAM composed of Pt/HfOx/Ti stack: 1) rapid thermal annealing (RTA) in Ar using different temperatures, and 2) doping using ion implantation under different dose levels. Metrology techniques such as x-ray diffractometry (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy were utilized to characterize the HfOx switching oxide, which provided insight on the material properties and oxygen vacancy concentration in the oxide that was used to explain the changes in the electrical properties of the ReRAM devices. The resulting impact on the resistive switching characteristics of the devices, such as the forming voltage, set and reset threshold voltages, ON and OFF resistances, resistance ratio, and switching dispersion or uniformity were explored and summarized. Annealing in Ar showed significant impact on the forming voltage, with as much as 45% (from 22V to 12 V) of improvement, as the annealing temperature was increased. However, drawbacks of a higher oxide leakage and worse switching uniformity were seen with increasing annealing temperature. Meanwhile, doping the oxide by ion implantation showed significant effects on the resistive switching characteristics. Ta doping modulated the following switching properties with increasing dose: a) the reduction of the forming voltage, and Vset

  13. Beyond the Test Score: A Mixed Methods Analysis of a College Access Intervention in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treviño, Ernesto; Scheele, Judith; Flores, Stella M.

    2014-01-01

    Using both quantitative and qualitative analyses, we examine the role of a college access intervention in the enrollment and persistence outcomes of low-income students in Chile modeled partially after a Texas admissions program. We find that, although students from the program have a mean cumulative GPA significantly lower than that of their…

  14. Videophone Technology and Students with Deaf-Blindness: A Method for Increasing Access and Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Judith; Bishop, John

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Seeing the Possibilities with Videophone Technology began as research project funded by the National Center for Technology Innovation. The project implemented a face-to-face social networking program for students with deaf-blindness to investigate the potential for increasing access and communication using videophone technology.…

  15. Usability of a Low-Cost Head Tracking Computer Access Method following Stroke.

    PubMed

    Mah, Jasmine; Jutai, Jeffrey W; Finestone, Hillel; Mckee, Hilary; Carter, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Assistive technology devices for computer access can facilitate social reintegration and promote independence for people who have had a stroke. This work describes the exploration of the usefulness and acceptability of a new computer access device called the Nouse™ (Nose-as-mouse). The device uses standard webcam and video recognition algorithms to map the movement of the user's nose to a computer cursor, thereby allowing hands-free computer operation. Ten participants receiving in- or outpatient stroke rehabilitation completed a series of standardized and everyday computer tasks using the Nouse™ and then completed a device usability questionnaire. Task completion rates were high (90%) for computer activities only in the absence of time constraints. Most of the participants were satisfied with ease of use (70%) and liked using the Nouse™ (60%), indicating they could resume most of their usual computer activities apart from word-processing using the device. The findings suggest that hands-free computer access devices like the Nouse™ may be an option for people who experience upper motor impairment caused by stroke and are highly motivated to resume personal computing. More research is necessary to further evaluate the effectiveness of this technology, especially in relation to other computer access assistive technology devices. PMID:26427744

  16. Beyond the Repository: A Mixed Method Approach to Providing Access to Collections Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Brian Wade

    2013-01-01

    After providing access to over 100 video interviews conducted by a professor with notable entertainers and personalities from film through an institutional repository, an experiment was conducted to discover whether a larger audience could be gained by adding a subset of 32 of these videos to YouTube. The results, over 400,000 views, indicate that…

  17. Apparatus, method and system to control accessibility of platform resources based on an integrity level

    DOEpatents

    Jenkins, Chris; Pierson, Lyndon G.

    2016-10-25

    Techniques and mechanism to selectively provide resource access to a functional domain of a platform. In an embodiment, the platform includes both a report domain to monitor the functional domain and a policy domain to identify, based on such monitoring, a transition of the functional domain from a first integrity level to a second integrity level. In response to a change in integrity level, the policy domain may configure the enforcement domain to enforce against the functional domain one or more resource accessibility rules corresponding to the second integrity level. In another embodiment, the policy domain automatically initiates operations in aid of transitioning the platform from the second integrity level to a higher integrity level.

  18. Hong Kong CIE sky classification and prediction by accessible weather data and trees-based methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, S.; Li, D. H. W.; Lam, J. C.

    2016-08-01

    Solar irradiance and daylight illuminance are important for solar energy and daylighting designs. Recently, the International Commission of Illuminance (CIE) adopted a range of sky conditions to represent the possible sky distributions which are crucial to the estimation of solar irradiance and daylight illuminance on vertical building facades. The important issue would be whether the sky conditions are correctly identified by the accessible variables. Previously, a number of climatic parameters including sky luminance distributions, vertical solar irradiance and sky illuminance were proposed for the CIE sky classification. However, such data are not always available. This paper proposes an approach based on the readily accessible data that systematically recorded by the local meteorological station for many years. The performance was evaluated using measured vertical solar irradiance and illuminance. The results show that the proposed approach is reliable for sky classification.

  19. Medicaid Program; Methods for Assuring Access to Covered Medicaid Services. Final rule with comment period.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    This final rule with comment period provides for a transparent data-driven process for states to document whether Medicaid payments are sufficient to enlist providers to assure beneficiary access to covered care and services consistent with section 1902(a)(30)(A) of the Social Security Act (the Act) and to address issues raised by that process. The final rule with comment period also recognizes electronic publication as an optional means of providing public notice of proposed changes in rates or ratesetting methodologies that the state intends to include in a Medicaid state plan amendment (SPA). We are providing an opportunity for comment on whether future adjustments would be warranted to the provisions setting forth requirements for ongoing state reviews of beneficiary access. PMID:26524772

  20. Elevated waterproof access floor system and method of making the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Marc M. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An elevated waterproof access floor system having subfloor channels or compartments for power lines, gas lines or the like is adapted such that it can be opened and subsequently resealed without destroying the waterproofing and without destroying its aesthetic appearance. A multiplicity of tiles are supported on a support grid, and a flooring sheet is supported on the tiles. Attachment means are provided to prevent lateral but not vertical movement of the flooring sheet with respect to the tiles so that the flooring sheet can be lifted off the tiles, but when the flooring sheet is supported on the tiles, no lateral slipping will occur. The flooring sheet is made of a heat resealable material, so that it can be cut away in sections, and the tiles therebelow lifted off, to provide access to subfloor compartments.

  1. Medicaid Program; Methods for Assuring Access to Covered Medicaid Services. Final rule with comment period.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    This final rule with comment period provides for a transparent data-driven process for states to document whether Medicaid payments are sufficient to enlist providers to assure beneficiary access to covered care and services consistent with section 1902(a)(30)(A) of the Social Security Act (the Act) and to address issues raised by that process. The final rule with comment period also recognizes electronic publication as an optional means of providing public notice of proposed changes in rates or ratesetting methodologies that the state intends to include in a Medicaid state plan amendment (SPA). We are providing an opportunity for comment on whether future adjustments would be warranted to the provisions setting forth requirements for ongoing state reviews of beneficiary access.

  2. Selective Access to Heterocyclic Sulfonamides and Sulfonyl Fluorides via a Parallel Medicinal Chemistry Enabled Method.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Joseph W; Chenard, Lois; Young, Joseph M

    2015-11-01

    A sulfur-functionalized aminoacrolein derivative is used for the efficient and selective synthesis of heterocyclic sulfonyl chlorides, sulfonyl fluorides, and sulfonamides. The development of a 3-step parallel medicinal chemistry (PMC) protocol for the synthesis of pyrazole-4-sulfonamides effectively demonstrates the utility of this reagent. This reactivity was expanded to provide rapid access to other heterocyclic sulfonyl fluorides, including pyrimidines and pyridines, whose corresponding sulfonyl chlorides lack suitable chemical stability. PMID:26434694

  3. Water accessibility in a membrane-inserting peptide comparing Overhauser DNP and pulse EPR methods.

    PubMed

    Segawa, Takuya F; Doppelbauer, Maximilian; Garbuio, Luca; Doll, Andrin; Polyhach, Yevhen O; Jeschke, Gunnar

    2016-05-21

    Water accessibility is a key parameter for the understanding of the structure of biomolecules, especially membrane proteins. Several experimental techniques based on the combination of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy with site-directed spin labeling are currently available. Among those, we compare relaxation time measurements and electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) experiments using pulse EPR with Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) at X-band frequency and a magnetic field of 0.33 T. Overhauser DNP transfers the electron spin polarization to nuclear spins via cross-relaxation. The change in the intensity of the (1)H NMR spectrum of H2O at a Larmor frequency of 14 MHz under a continuous-wave microwave irradiation of the nitroxide spin label contains information on the water accessibility of the labeled site. As a model system for a membrane protein, we use the hydrophobic α-helical peptide WALP23 in unilamellar liposomes of DOPC. Water accessibility measurements with all techniques are conducted for eight peptides with different spin label positions and low radical concentrations (10-20 μM). Consistently in all experiments, the water accessibility appears to be very low, even for labels positioned near the end of the helix. The best profile is obtained by Overhauser DNP, which is the only technique that succeeds in discriminating neighboring positions in WALP23. Since the concentration of the spin-labeled peptides varied, we normalized the DNP parameter ϵ, being the relative change of the NMR intensity, by the electron spin concentration, which was determined from a continuous-wave EPR spectrum.

  4. [Venous access and methods of drug application in ACLS (Advanced Cardiac Life Support)].

    PubMed

    Wietlisbach, M; Schüpfer, G

    1996-08-01

    After initiation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation [CPR] with ventilation, chest compression and defibrillation when necessary, venous access, which allows administration of drugs and fluids, is the next measure. A large diameter peripheral vein should be the first choice and should be cannulated with a plastic catheter. If this is delayed or impossible, alternative routes such as central iv lines, intraosseous infusion or endobronchial drug administration should be considered.

  5. Water accessibility in a membrane-inserting peptide comparing Overhauser DNP and pulse EPR methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segawa, Takuya F.; Doppelbauer, Maximilian; Garbuio, Luca; Doll, Andrin; Polyhach, Yevhen O.; Jeschke, Gunnar

    2016-05-01

    Water accessibility is a key parameter for the understanding of the structure of biomolecules, especially membrane proteins. Several experimental techniques based on the combination of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy with site-directed spin labeling are currently available. Among those, we compare relaxation time measurements and electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) experiments using pulse EPR with Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) at X-band frequency and a magnetic field of 0.33 T. Overhauser DNP transfers the electron spin polarization to nuclear spins via cross-relaxation. The change in the intensity of the 1H NMR spectrum of H2O at a Larmor frequency of 14 MHz under a continuous-wave microwave irradiation of the nitroxide spin label contains information on the water accessibility of the labeled site. As a model system for a membrane protein, we use the hydrophobic α-helical peptide WALP23 in unilamellar liposomes of DOPC. Water accessibility measurements with all techniques are conducted for eight peptides with different spin label positions and low radical concentrations (10-20 μM). Consistently in all experiments, the water accessibility appears to be very low, even for labels positioned near the end of the helix. The best profile is obtained by Overhauser DNP, which is the only technique that succeeds in discriminating neighboring positions in WALP23. Since the concentration of the spin-labeled peptides varied, we normalized the DNP parameter ɛ, being the relative change of the NMR intensity, by the electron spin concentration, which was determined from a continuous-wave EPR spectrum.

  6. Selective Access to Heterocyclic Sulfonamides and Sulfonyl Fluorides via a Parallel Medicinal Chemistry Enabled Method.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Joseph W; Chenard, Lois; Young, Joseph M

    2015-11-01

    A sulfur-functionalized aminoacrolein derivative is used for the efficient and selective synthesis of heterocyclic sulfonyl chlorides, sulfonyl fluorides, and sulfonamides. The development of a 3-step parallel medicinal chemistry (PMC) protocol for the synthesis of pyrazole-4-sulfonamides effectively demonstrates the utility of this reagent. This reactivity was expanded to provide rapid access to other heterocyclic sulfonyl fluorides, including pyrimidines and pyridines, whose corresponding sulfonyl chlorides lack suitable chemical stability.

  7. An Adaptive Channel Access Method for Dynamic Super Dense Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Chunyang; Bie, Hongxia; Fang, Gengfa; Zhang, Xuekun

    2015-01-01

    Super dense and distributed wireless sensor networks have become very popular with the development of small cell technology, Internet of Things (IoT), Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications, Vehicular-to-Vehicular (V2V) communications and public safety networks. While densely deployed wireless networks provide one of the most important and sustainable solutions to improve the accuracy of sensing and spectral efficiency, a new channel access scheme needs to be designed to solve the channel congestion problem introduced by the high dynamics of competing nodes accessing the channel simultaneously. In this paper, we firstly analyzed the channel contention problem using a novel normalized channel contention analysis model which provides information on how to tune the contention window according to the state of channel contention. We then proposed an adaptive channel contention window tuning algorithm in which the contention window tuning rate is set dynamically based on the estimated channel contention level. Simulation results show that our proposed adaptive channel access algorithm based on fast contention window tuning can achieve more than 95% of the theoretical optimal throughput and 0.97 of fairness index especially in dynamic and dense networks. PMID:26633421

  8. An Adaptive Channel Access Method for Dynamic Super Dense Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Lei, Chunyang; Bie, Hongxia; Fang, Gengfa; Zhang, Xuekun

    2015-12-03

    Super dense and distributed wireless sensor networks have become very popular with the development of small cell technology, Internet of Things (IoT), Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications, Vehicular-to-Vehicular (V2V) communications and public safety networks. While densely deployed wireless networks provide one of the most important and sustainable solutions to improve the accuracy of sensing and spectral efficiency, a new channel access scheme needs to be designed to solve the channel congestion problem introduced by the high dynamics of competing nodes accessing the channel simultaneously. In this paper, we firstly analyzed the channel contention problem using a novel normalized channel contention analysis model which provides information on how to tune the contention window according to the state of channel contention. We then proposed an adaptive channel contention window tuning algorithm in which the contention window tuning rate is set dynamically based on the estimated channel contention level. Simulation results show that our proposed adaptive channel access algorithm based on fast contention window tuning can achieve more than 95 % of the theoretical optimal throughput and 0 . 97 of fairness index especially in dynamic and dense networks.

  9. An Adaptive Channel Access Method for Dynamic Super Dense Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Lei, Chunyang; Bie, Hongxia; Fang, Gengfa; Zhang, Xuekun

    2015-01-01

    Super dense and distributed wireless sensor networks have become very popular with the development of small cell technology, Internet of Things (IoT), Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications, Vehicular-to-Vehicular (V2V) communications and public safety networks. While densely deployed wireless networks provide one of the most important and sustainable solutions to improve the accuracy of sensing and spectral efficiency, a new channel access scheme needs to be designed to solve the channel congestion problem introduced by the high dynamics of competing nodes accessing the channel simultaneously. In this paper, we firstly analyzed the channel contention problem using a novel normalized channel contention analysis model which provides information on how to tune the contention window according to the state of channel contention. We then proposed an adaptive channel contention window tuning algorithm in which the contention window tuning rate is set dynamically based on the estimated channel contention level. Simulation results show that our proposed adaptive channel access algorithm based on fast contention window tuning can achieve more than 95 % of the theoretical optimal throughput and 0 . 97 of fairness index especially in dynamic and dense networks. PMID:26633421

  10. The adhesion protein IgSF9b is coupled to neuroligin 2 via S-SCAM to promote inhibitory synapse development.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jooyeon; Kwon, Seok-Kyu; Nam, Jungyong; Choi, Seungwon; Takahashi, Hideto; Krueger, Dilja; Park, Joohyun; Lee, Yeunkum; Bae, Jin Young; Lee, Dongmin; Ko, Jaewon; Kim, Hyun; Kim, Myoung-Hwan; Bae, Yong Chul; Chang, Sunghoe; Craig, Ann Marie; Kim, Eunjoon

    2013-06-10

    Synaptic adhesion molecules regulate diverse aspects of synapse formation and maintenance. Many known synaptic adhesion molecules localize at excitatory synapses, whereas relatively little is known about inhibitory synaptic adhesion molecules. Here we report that IgSF9b is a novel, brain-specific, homophilic adhesion molecule that is strongly expressed in GABAergic interneurons. IgSF9b was preferentially localized at inhibitory synapses in cultured rat hippocampal and cortical interneurons and was required for the development of inhibitory synapses onto interneurons. IgSF9b formed a subsynaptic domain distinct from the GABAA receptor- and gephyrin-containing domain, as indicated by super-resolution imaging. IgSF9b was linked to neuroligin 2, an inhibitory synaptic adhesion molecule coupled to gephyrin, via the multi-PDZ protein S-SCAM. IgSF9b and neuroligin 2 could reciprocally cluster each other. These results suggest a novel mode of inhibitory synaptic organization in which two subsynaptic domains, one containing IgSF9b for synaptic adhesion and the other containing gephyrin and GABAA receptors for synaptic transmission, are interconnected through S-SCAM and neuroligin 2.

  11. Pathogen- and NaCl-induced expression of the SCaM-4 promoter is mediated in part by a GT-1 box that interacts with a GT-1-like transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Man Lyang; Kang, Yun Hwan; Jeon, Joo Mi; Yoo, Jae Hyuk; Kim, Min Chul; Park, Chan Young; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Moon, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Ju Huck; Yoon, Hae Won; Lee, Sung-Ho; Chung, Woo Sik; Lim, Chae Oh; Lee, Sang Yeol; Hong, Jong Chan; Cho, Moo Je

    2004-08-01

    The Ca(2+)-binding protein calmodulin mediates cellular Ca(2+) signals in response to a wide array of stimuli in higher eukaryotes. Plants express numerous CaM isoforms. Transcription of one soybean (Glycine max) CaM isoform, SCaM-4, is dramatically induced within 30 min of pathogen or NaCl stresses. To characterize the cis-acting element(s) of this gene, we isolated an approximately 2-kb promoter sequence of the gene. Deletion analysis of the promoter revealed that a 130-bp region located between nucleotide positions -858 and -728 is required for the stressors to induce expression of SCaM-4. A hexameric DNA sequence within this region, GAAAAA (GT-1 cis-element), was identified as a core cis-acting element for the induction of the SCaM-4 gene. The GT-1 cis-element interacts with an Arabidopsis GT-1-like transcription factor, AtGT-3b, in vitro and in a yeast selection system. Transcription of AtGT-3b is also rapidly induced within 30 min after pathogen and NaCl treatment. These results suggest that an interaction between a GT-1 cis-element and a GT-1-like transcription factor plays a role in pathogen- and salt-induced SCaM-4 gene expression in both soybean and Arabidopsis.

  12. Toward safe accessibility of opioid pain medicines in Vietnam and other developing countries: a balanced policy method.

    PubMed

    Krakauer, Eric L; Nguyen, Thi Phuong Cham; Husain, Syeda Asra; Nguyen, Thi Hai Yen; Joranson, David E; Luong, Ngoc Khue; Maurer, Martha A

    2015-05-01

    Moderate or severe pain is common among people with advanced cancer and other life-threatening illnesses. Yet despite agreement that pain relief is a human right, the poorest 80% of the world's population rarely have access to strong opioid analgesics. Excessively restrictive opioid policies, especially in developing countries, both stem from and propagate misguided fears about opioids, so-called opiophobia. Because opiophobia, like any norm, is historically, socially, and culturally situated, efforts to change opiophobic policies will be most effective if guided by awareness of their historical, social, and cultural determinants. We describe some of these determinants in Vietnam and report on results of an ongoing project there to allay opiophobia and improve safe access to opioids for medical uses. We used a method that entails working with committed local partners, including a high-level official from the Ministry of Health, to review all Vietnamese policies governing opioid accessibility to identify the barriers; devising an action plan to safely reduce or circumnavigate the barriers; obtaining buy-in for the plan from all stakeholders, including drug regulators and the police; and assisting the Ministry of Health to implement the plan. Since the start of the project, morphine consumption has increased each year and as of 2010 was ninefold greater than in 2003, and the number of hospitals offering palliative care has increased from three to 15. We conclude that this balanced policy method appears to be helping to reduce barriers to opioid access in Vietnam and should be used in other developing countries. PMID:25523889

  13. Methods for generating year-round access to amphioxus in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Benito-Gutiérrez, Elia; Weber, Hermann; Bryant, Diana Virginia; Arendt, Detlev

    2013-01-01

    Cephalochordates, commonly known as amphioxus, are key to understanding vertebrate origins. However, laboratory work suffers from limited access to adults and embryonic material. Here we report the design and experimental validation of an inland marine facility that allows establishing stable amphioxus colonies in the laboratory and obtaining embryos at any time of day and over almost the entire year, far exceeding natural conditions. This is achieved by mimicking the natural benthic environment, natural day- and moon- light, natural substrate and by providing a strictly controlled and seasonally fluctuating temperature regimen. Moreover, supplemented algae diets allow animals to refill their gonads in consecutive years. Spontaneous spawning, a major problem in previous setups, no longer occurs in our facility; instead, all breeding is induced and fertilization occurs fully in vitro. Our system makes amphioxus a standard laboratory animal model.

  14. ThermoBuild: Online Method Made Available for Accessing NASA Glenn Thermodynamic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McBride, Bonnie; Zehe, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    The new Web site program "ThermoBuild" allows users to easily access and use the NASA Glenn Thermodynamic Database of over 2000 solid, liquid, and gaseous species. A convenient periodic table allows users to "build" the molecules of interest and designate the temperature range over which thermodynamic functions are to be displayed. ThermoBuild also allows users to build custom databases for use with NASA's Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA) program or other programs that require the NASA format for thermodynamic properties. The NASA Glenn Research Center has long been a leader in the compilation and dissemination of up-to-date thermodynamic data, primarily for use with the NASA CEA program, but increasingly for use with other computer programs.

  15. Methods for Generating Year-Round Access to Amphioxus in the Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Benito-Gutiérrez, Èlia; Weber, Hermann; Bryant, Diana Virginia; Arendt, Detlev

    2013-01-01

    Cephalochordates, commonly known as amphioxus, are key to understanding vertebrate origins. However, laboratory work suffers from limited access to adults and embryonic material. Here we report the design and experimental validation of an inland marine facility that allows establishing stable amphioxus colonies in the laboratory and obtaining embryos at any time of day and over almost the entire year, far exceeding natural conditions. This is achieved by mimicking the natural benthic environment, natural day- and moon- light, natural substrate and by providing a strictly controlled and seasonally fluctuating temperature regimen. Moreover, supplemented algae diets allow animals to refill their gonads in consecutive years. Spontaneous spawning, a major problem in previous setups, no longer occurs in our facility; instead, all breeding is induced and fertilization occurs fully in vitro. Our system makes amphioxus a standard laboratory animal model. PMID:23990962

  16. Methods for generating year-round access to amphioxus in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Benito-Gutiérrez, Elia; Weber, Hermann; Bryant, Diana Virginia; Arendt, Detlev

    2013-01-01

    Cephalochordates, commonly known as amphioxus, are key to understanding vertebrate origins. However, laboratory work suffers from limited access to adults and embryonic material. Here we report the design and experimental validation of an inland marine facility that allows establishing stable amphioxus colonies in the laboratory and obtaining embryos at any time of day and over almost the entire year, far exceeding natural conditions. This is achieved by mimicking the natural benthic environment, natural day- and moon- light, natural substrate and by providing a strictly controlled and seasonally fluctuating temperature regimen. Moreover, supplemented algae diets allow animals to refill their gonads in consecutive years. Spontaneous spawning, a major problem in previous setups, no longer occurs in our facility; instead, all breeding is induced and fertilization occurs fully in vitro. Our system makes amphioxus a standard laboratory animal model. PMID:23990962

  17. Method of preliminary localization of the iris in biometric access control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minacova, N.; Petrov, I.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a method of preliminary localization of the iris, based on the stable brightness features of the iris in images of the eye. In tests on images of eyes from publicly available databases method showed good accuracy and speed compared to existing methods preliminary localization.

  18. Variable pump flow-based Doppler ultrasound method: a novel approach to the measurement of access flow in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Ching; Chang, Chao-Fu; Chiou, Hong-Jen; Sun, Ying-Chou; Chiang, Shou-Shan; Lin, Ming-Wei; Lee, Pui-Ching; Yang, Wu-Chang

    2005-01-01

    Decreasing vascular access flow (Qa) is an important predictor of future access thrombosis and malfunction for hemodialysis (HD) patients. Among all of the methods for determining Qa, the variable pump flow (VPF) Doppler method measures Qa according to the change in Doppler signal between the arterial and the venous needles under different pump flow. After this technique was combined with spectral analysis of Duplex Doppler imaging, the variable pump flow-based Doppler ultrasound method (VPFDUM) for Qa measurement was developed. This study compared the reproducibility and correlation of Qa measurements for three different methods-VPFDUM, ultrasound dilution method (UDM), and conventional Doppler ultrasound method (CDUM)-in 55 HD patients. The mean value of Qa by VPFDUM (870.8 +/- 412.0 ml/min) was close to that by UDM (868.6 +/- 417.9 ml/min) but higher than that by CDUM (either of the above values versus 685.1 +/- 303.6 ml/min; P < 0.005). The mean values of coefficient of variation were similar by VPFDUM (1.6%) and UDM (1.4%) but lower than that by CDUM (either of the above values versus 6.8%; P < 0.01). The correlation coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficient of the repeated Qa measurements by VPFDUM (0.985 and 0.993; P < 0.001) were also similar to those by UDM (0.992 and 0.995; P < 0.001) but slightly higher than those by CDUM (0.917 and 0.948; P < 0.005). Either the reproducibility of VPFDUM (r=0.98, P < 0.0001) or the correlation between VPFDUM and UDM (r=0.99, P < 0.0001) in Qa measurements is good. The unassisted patency of vascular access at 6 mo was significantly poorer in patients with Qa <500 ml/min than those with Qa >500 ml/min (13.6% versus 92.2%; P < 0.0001). In conclusion, VPFDUM is a noninvasive, accurate, and reliable procedure for Qa measurement and prediction of the prognosis of vascular access in HD patients.

  19. Charcoal burning and maternal filicide-suicide trends in Taiwan: the impact of accessibility of lethal methods.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yi-Ju; Lee, Ming-Been

    2008-10-01

    Charcoal burning has emerged as a novel suicide method in Taiwan and its impact on maternal filicide-suicide (MFS) remains unexplored. Using official national mortality data and reports of MFS cases from electronic newspaper archives, the authors aimed to examine whether the newly available charcoal burning was associated with an increase in MFS incidents during the period from 1999 to 2006. The trends for changes in age/gender/method-specific suicide rates and MFS incidence were analyzed and then correlated with each other. The results indicated that charcoal burning was the leading method of filicide in reported MFS incidents. The increase in MFS incidents paralleled that of charcoal burning-specific suicide rates in females aged 25-44 years, while suicide rates by other methods did not change significantly. Easy accessibility and perceived painlessness as conveyed by the media might account for the choices of charcoal burning for MFS. Restricting access to charcoal burning should therefore be prioritized for further prevention strategies.

  20. Charcoal burning and maternal filicide-suicide trends in Taiwan: the impact of accessibility of lethal methods.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yi-Ju; Lee, Ming-Been

    2008-10-01

    Charcoal burning has emerged as a novel suicide method in Taiwan and its impact on maternal filicide-suicide (MFS) remains unexplored. Using official national mortality data and reports of MFS cases from electronic newspaper archives, the authors aimed to examine whether the newly available charcoal burning was associated with an increase in MFS incidents during the period from 1999 to 2006. The trends for changes in age/gender/method-specific suicide rates and MFS incidence were analyzed and then correlated with each other. The results indicated that charcoal burning was the leading method of filicide in reported MFS incidents. The increase in MFS incidents paralleled that of charcoal burning-specific suicide rates in females aged 25-44 years, while suicide rates by other methods did not change significantly. Easy accessibility and perceived painlessness as conveyed by the media might account for the choices of charcoal burning for MFS. Restricting access to charcoal burning should therefore be prioritized for further prevention strategies. PMID:18926949

  1. Topology of transmembrane proteins by scanning cysteine accessibility mutagenesis methodology.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Quansheng; Casey, Joseph R

    2007-04-01

    Integral membrane proteins of the plasma membrane span from the inside to the outside of the cell. The primary structural element of integral membrane proteins is their topology: the pattern in which the protein traverses the membrane. A full description of topology, defining which parts of the protein face outside versus inside, goes a long way toward understanding the folding of these proteins. Many approaches have been established to define membrane protein topology. Here, we present the technique of scanning cysteine accessibility mutagenesis (SCAM). This approach uses the unique chemical reactivity of the cysteine sulfhydryl to probe membrane protein structure. Individual cysteine residues are introduced into the target protein by mutagenesis. The ability to chemically react these residues using sulfhydryl-directed reagents (either membrane permeant or impermeant) defines each site as either extracellular or intracellular, thus establishing topology of a location. This analysis performed on many sites in the protein will define the protein's topology. PMID:17367716

  2. Expanding Access to the Intrauterine Device in Public Health Facilities in Ethiopia: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    PubMed

    Tilahun, Yewondwossen; Mehta, Sarah; Zerihun, Habtamu; Lew, Candace; Brooks, Mohamad I; Nigatu, Tariku; Hagos, Kidest Lulu; Asnake, Mengistu; Tasissa, Adeba; Ali, Seid; Desalegn, Ketsela; Adane, Girmay

    2016-03-01

    In Ethiopia, modern contraceptive prevalence among currently married women nearly tripled over the last decade, but the method mix remains skewed toward short-acting methods. Since 2011, the Integrated Family Health Program (IFHP+), jointly implemented by Pathfinder International and John Snow Inc., has supported the Federal Ministry of Health to introduce intrauterine devices (IUDs) in more than 800 health centers across 4 regions to improve access to a wider range of methods. Between March and August 2014, Pathfinder conducted a mixed-methods study in 40 purposively selected health centers to assess shifts in the contraceptive method mix following introduction of IUDs using data from family planning registers; determine the characteristics of IUD users through a cross-sectional survey of 2,943 family planning clients who accepted the IUD; explore reasons for method discontinuation among 165 clients seeking IUD removal services; and identify facilitators and barriers to IUD use through focus group discussions (N = 115 clients) and key informant interviews (N = 36 providers, facility heads, and health office heads). Introduction of IUDs into the 40 health centers participating in the study was correlated with a statistically significant increase in the contribution of all long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs)-both IUDs and implants-to the method mix, from 6.9% in 2011 to 20.5% in 2014 (P<.001). Our study found that latent demand for the IUD was more prevalent than anticipated and that the method was acceptable to a broad cross-section of women. Of the 2,943 women who sought IUDs during the 6-month study period, 18.0% were new contraceptive users (i.e., those using a contraceptive method for the first time ever), 44.7% reported no educational attainment, 62.5% were from rural areas, and 59.3% were younger than 30 years old, with almost 3 in 10 (27.7%) under the age of 25. The most commonly cited reason for seeking IUD removal services was a desire to

  3. Expanding Access to the Intrauterine Device in Public Health Facilities in Ethiopia: A Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Tilahun, Yewondwossen; Mehta, Sarah; Zerihun, Habtamu; Lew, Candace; Brooks, Mohamad I; Nigatu, Tariku; Hagos, Kidest Lulu; Asnake, Mengistu; Tasissa, Adeba; Ali, Seid; Desalegn, Ketsela; Adane, Girmay

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In Ethiopia, modern contraceptive prevalence among currently married women nearly tripled over the last decade, but the method mix remains skewed toward short-acting methods. Since 2011, the Integrated Family Health Program (IFHP+), jointly implemented by Pathfinder International and John Snow Inc., has supported the Federal Ministry of Health to introduce intrauterine devices (IUDs) in more than 800 health centers across 4 regions to improve access to a wider range of methods. Between March and August 2014, Pathfinder conducted a mixed-methods study in 40 purposively selected health centers to assess shifts in the contraceptive method mix following introduction of IUDs using data from family planning registers; determine the characteristics of IUD users through a cross-sectional survey of 2,943 family planning clients who accepted the IUD; explore reasons for method discontinuation among 165 clients seeking IUD removal services; and identify facilitators and barriers to IUD use through focus group discussions (N = 115 clients) and key informant interviews (N = 36 providers, facility heads, and health office heads). Introduction of IUDs into the 40 health centers participating in the study was correlated with a statistically significant increase in the contribution of all long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs)—both IUDs and implants—to the method mix, from 6.9% in 2011 to 20.5% in 2014 (P<.001). Our study found that latent demand for the IUD was more prevalent than anticipated and that the method was acceptable to a broad cross-section of women. Of the 2,943 women who sought IUDs during the 6-month study period, 18.0% were new contraceptive users (i.e., those using a contraceptive method for the first time ever), 44.7% reported no educational attainment, 62.5% were from rural areas, and 59.3% were younger than 30 years old, with almost 3 in 10 (27.7%) under the age of 25. The most commonly cited reason for seeking IUD removal services

  4. Method and Apparatus to Access Optimum Strength During Processing of Precipitation Strengthened Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, John H. (Inventor); Yost, William T. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided which enable the nondestructive testing of strength of a heat treated alloy. An alloy is insonified with an ultrasonic signal. The resulting convoluted signal is detected and the acoustic nonlinearity parameter is determined. The acoustic nonlinearity parameter shows a peak corresponding to a peak in material strength.

  5. Novel Scheme of Carrier Tri-reuse and Distribution Fiber Protection Based on Round Shift Method in Optical Access Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haibin; Gan, Chaoqin; Yin, Maojun; Ni, Cuiping

    2015-06-01

    A novel architecture of optical access network based on round shift method is proposed. Round shift method is composed by round service mode of carriers and cycle characteristic of 2×N arrayed waveguide grating (AWG). By utilizing the round service mode, every carrier is tri-reused to provide service for three different optical network units. Besides, in remote node, the 2×3N AWG can be replaced by three 2×N AWGs and AWGs' channel spacing is increased. So, the demand on RN's AWGs is decreased. Furthermore, based on the cycle characteristic of 2×N AWG, a 1+1 protection scheme is presented to provide independent protection for distribution fibers. Simulation and analysis show the proposed scheme works well.

  6. An Innovative Method of Measuring Changes in Access to Healthful Foods in School Lunch Programs: Findings from a Pilot Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Allison P.; Weinberg, Stacy L.; Janusz, Ruth; Demont-Heinrich, Christine; Vogt, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A large local health department in Colorado partnered with 15 school districts to develop an approach to evaluate changes in access to healthy foods in reimbursable school lunches and a la carte offerings. Materials and Methods School district nutrition managers were engaged at the start of this project. Health department dietitians developed criteria to classify food items as “Lower Fat and less added Sugar” (LFS) and “Higher Fat and more added Sugar” (HFS) based on the percentage of calories from fat and grams of added sugar. Lunch production sheets were obtained for two time periods, food items and the number of planned servings recorded. LFS and HFS planned servings were summed for each time period, and a LFS to HFS ratio calculated by dividing LFS planned servings by HFS planned servings. Additional analyses included calculating LFS: HFS ratios by school district, and for a la carte offerings. Results In 2009, the LFS: HFS ratio was 2.08, in 2011, 3.71 (P<0.0001). The method also detected changes in ratios at the school district level. For a la carte items, in 2009 the ratio of LFS: HFS was 0.53, and in 2011, 0.61 (not statistically significant). Conclusions This method detected an increase in the LFS: HFS ratio over time and demonstrated that the school districts improved access to healthful food/drink by changing the contents of reimbursable school lunches. The evaluation method discussed here can generate information that districts can use in helping sustain and expand their efforts to create healthier environments for children and adults. Although federal regulations now cover all food and beverages served during the school day, there are still opportunities to improve and measure changes in food served in other settings such as child care centers, youth correction facilities, or in schools not participating in the National School Lunch Program. PMID:26800523

  7. Information Accessibility of the Charcoal Burning Suicide Method in Mainland China

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Qijin; Chang, Shu-Sen; Guo, Yingqi; Yip, Paul S. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background There has been a marked rise in suicide by charcoal burning (CB) in some East Asian countries but little is known about its incidence in mainland China. We examined media-reported CB suicides and the availability of online information about the method in mainland China. Methods We extracted and analyzed data for i) the characteristics and trends of fatal and nonfatal CB suicides reported by mainland Chinese newspapers (1998–2014); ii) trends and geographic variations in online searches using keywords relating to CB suicide (2011–2014); and iii) the content of Internet search results. Results 109 CB suicide attempts (89 fatal and 20 nonfatal) were reported by newspapers in 13 out of the 31 provinces or provincial-level-municipalities in mainland China. There were increasing trends in the incidence of reported CB suicides and in online searches using CB-related keywords. The province-level search intensities were correlated with CB suicide rates (Spearman’s correlation coefficient = 0.43 [95% confidence interval: 0.08–0.68]). Two-thirds of the web links retrieved using the search engine contained detailed information about the CB suicide method, of which 15% showed pro-suicide attitudes, and the majority (86%) did not encourage people to seek help. Limitations The incidence of CB suicide was based on newspaper reports and likely to be underestimated. Conclusions Mental health and suicide prevention professionals in mainland China should be alert to the increased use of this highly lethal suicide method. Better surveillance and intervention strategies need to be developed and implemented. PMID:26474297

  8. A Novel, Open Access Method to Assess Sleep Duration Using a Wrist-Worn Accelerometer

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kirstie N.; Denton, Sarah J.; Oliver, James; Catt, Michael; Abell, Jessica G.; Kivimäki, Mika; Trenell, Michael I.; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2015-01-01

    Wrist-worn accelerometers are increasingly being used for the assessment of physical activity in population studies, but little is known about their value for sleep assessment. We developed a novel method of assessing sleep duration using data from 4,094 Whitehall II Study (United Kingdom, 2012–2013) participants aged 60–83 who wore the accelerometer for 9 consecutive days, filled in a sleep log and reported sleep duration via questionnaire. Our sleep detection algorithm defined (nocturnal) sleep as a period of sustained inactivity, itself detected as the absence of change in arm angle greater than 5 degrees for 5 minutes or more, during a period recorded as sleep by the participant in their sleep log. The resulting estimate of sleep duration had a moderate (but similar to previous findings) agreement with questionnaire based measures for time in bed, defined as the difference between sleep onset and waking time (kappa = 0.32, 95%CI:0.29,0.34) and total sleep duration (kappa = 0.39, 0.36,0.42). This estimate was lower for time in bed for women, depressed participants, those reporting more insomnia symptoms, and on weekend days. No such group differences were found for total sleep duration. Our algorithm was validated against data from a polysomnography study on 28 persons which found a longer time window and lower angle threshold to have better sensitivity to wakefulness, while the reverse was true for sensitivity to sleep. The novelty of our method is the use of a generic algorithm that will allow comparison between studies rather than a “count” based, device specific method. PMID:26569414

  9. Guided imagery and music: using the Bonny method to evoke emotion and access the unconscious.

    PubMed

    Beebe, Lora Humphrey; Wyatt, Tami H

    2009-01-01

    The healing power of music has been recognized since ancient times. The use of music has been documented in diverse cultures worldwide, for ailments ranging from pain and cancer to depression and posttraumati stress disorder. The various models of music therapy are based on different theoretical traditions, including behaviorist, humanist, and psychodynamic approache This article describes the music therapy approach known as the Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and Music (GIM) therapy, reviews its research base, and presents a first-person account of the experience of GIM treatment. PMID:19227107

  10. Guided imagery and music: using the Bonny method to evoke emotion and access the unconscious.

    PubMed

    Beebe, Lora Humphrey; Wyatt, Tami H

    2009-01-01

    The healing power of music has been recognized since ancient times. The use of music has been documented in diverse cultures worldwide, for ailments ranging from pain and cancer to depression and posttraumati stress disorder. The various models of music therapy are based on different theoretical traditions, including behaviorist, humanist, and psychodynamic approache This article describes the music therapy approach known as the Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and Music (GIM) therapy, reviews its research base, and presents a first-person account of the experience of GIM treatment.

  11. Remote access methods for exploratory data analysis and statistical modelling: Privacy-Preserving Analytics.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Ross; Carter, Chris; Donnelly, John B; O'Keefe, Christine M; Duncan, Jodie; Keighley, Tim; McAullay, Damien

    2008-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the challenge of enabling the use of confidential or private data for research and policy analysis, while protecting confidentiality and privacy by reducing the risk of disclosure of sensitive information. Traditional solutions to the problem of reducing disclosure risk include releasing de-identified data and modifying data before release. In this paper we discuss the alternative approach of using a remote analysis server which does not enable any data release, but instead is designed to deliver useful results of user-specified statistical analyses with a low risk of disclosure. The techniques described in this paper enable a user to conduct a wide range of methods in exploratory data analysis, regression and survival analysis, while at the same time reducing the risk that the user can read or infer any individual record attribute value. We illustrate our methods with examples from biostatistics using publicly available data. We have implemented our techniques into a software demonstrator called Privacy-Preserving Analytics (PPA), via a web-based interface to the R software. We believe that PPA may provide an effective balance between the competing goals of providing useful information and reducing disclosure risk in some situations.

  12. An EPR spin probe method for characterizing changes in the accessible regions of coal upon oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Sady, W.; Kispert, L.D.; Spears, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    Eight Argonne Premium Coal Samples (APCS) were weathered in air and the structural and chemical changes that upon swelling with toluene and pyridine were, examined by an EPR spin probe method developed in this laboratory. Under mild oxidation conditions and swelling with toluene large structural changes were observed for lignite (Beulah-Zap) which suggested the collapse of the coal structure. This did not occur for higher rank coal. Upon oxidation and swelling with toluene and pyridine an increase occurred in the amino substituted spin probe concentration for coals with the carbon percent above 80%. A maximum was found for the creation of 5 {Angstrom} diameter pores upon swelling with pyridine at 85% C.

  13. An EPR spin probe method for characterizing changes in the accessible regions of coal upon oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Sady, W.; Kispert, L.D.; Spears, D.R.

    1992-09-01

    Eight Argonne Premium Coal Samples (APCS) were weathered in air and the structural and chemical changes that upon swelling with toluene and pyridine were, examined by an EPR spin probe method developed in this laboratory. Under mild oxidation conditions and swelling with toluene large structural changes were observed for lignite (Beulah-Zap) which suggested the collapse of the coal structure. This did not occur for higher rank coal. Upon oxidation and swelling with toluene and pyridine an increase occurred in the amino substituted spin probe concentration for coals with the carbon percent above 80%. A maximum was found for the creation of 5 {Angstrom} diameter pores upon swelling with pyridine at 85% C.

  14. Research on Quantum Authentication Methods for the Secure Access Control Among Three Elements of Cloud Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yumin; Xiao, Shufen; Ma, Hongyang; Chen, Libo

    2016-08-01

    Cloud computing and big data have become the developing engine of current information technology (IT) as a result of the rapid development of IT. However, security protection has become increasingly important for cloud computing and big data, and has become a problem that must be solved to develop cloud computing. The theft of identity authentication information remains a serious threat to the security of cloud computing. In this process, attackers intrude into cloud computing services through identity authentication information, thereby threatening the security of data from multiple perspectives. Therefore, this study proposes a model for cloud computing protection and management based on quantum authentication, introduces the principle of quantum authentication, and deduces the quantum authentication process. In theory, quantum authentication technology can be applied in cloud computing for security protection. This technology cannot be cloned; thus, it is more secure and reliable than classical methods.

  15. A Method for Manipulating Blood Glucose and Measuring Resulting Changes in Cognitive Accessibility of Target Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Prokosch, Marjorie L; Hill, Sarah E

    2016-01-01

    Much research in social psychology has investigated the impact of bodily energy need on cognition and decision-making. As such, blood glucose, the body's primary energy source, has been of special interest to researchers for years. Fluctuations in blood glucose have been linked to a variety of changes in cognitive and behavioral processes, such as self-control, political attitudes, and eating behavior. To help meet growing interest in the links between bodily energy need and these processes, this manuscript offers a simple methodology to experimentally manipulate blood glucose using a fasting procedure followed by administration of a sugar-sweetened, unsweetened, or artificially-sweetened beverage. This is followed by presentation of a method for measuring resulting changes in implicit cognition using a lexical decision-task. In this task, participants are asked to identify whether strings of letters are words or non-words and response latencies are recorded. Sample results from a recent publication are presented as an example of the applications for the experimental manipulation of blood glucose and the lexical decision task measures. PMID:27585282

  16. Avoiding the SCAMs.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Thomas; Condron, Barry

    2007-05-01

    Dendrites from the same neuron usually avoid contact with one another, a behavior known as self-avoidance. In this issue of Neuron and in the upcoming May 4, 2007 issue of Cell, a pair of studies by Soba et al. and Hughes et al. and a study by Matthews et al., respectively, identify products from the highly alternatively spliced Dscam gene as central to this behavior in Drosophila. Signaling induced by adhesion between identical isoforms triggers repulsion between sister dendrites.

  17. Guarding against purchase scams

    SciTech Connect

    Arkin, J.

    1986-05-01

    Every business owner who sells a credit, e.g., the sale by the manufacturer, jobber, or wholesaler to a retail outlet, faces some risk. In recent years the FBI has had occasion to investigate a form of fraud being perpetrated upon those who sell on credit. However, the risk can be lessened if the firm making the sales on credit takes precautionary measures. Some of these measures are listed and discussed.

  18. Cancer Treatment Scams

    MedlinePlus

    ... Updates Blog Feed Facebook YouTube Twitter The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is the nation’s consumer protection agency. The FTC works to prevent fraudulent, deceptive and unfair business practices in the marketplace. Privacy Policy About Us Contact Us Share Our Resources. Here's ...

  19. Access to a polymerase chain reaction assay method targeting 13 respiratory viruses can reduce antibiotics: a randomised, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Viral respiratory infections are common worldwide and range from completely benign disease to life-threatening illness. Symptoms can be unspecific, and an etiologic diagnosis is rarely established because of a lack of suitable diagnostic tools. Improper use of antibiotics is common in this setting, which is detrimental in light of the development of bacterial resistance. It has been suggested that the use of diagnostic tests could reduce antibiotic prescription rates. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether access to a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay panel for etiologic diagnosis of acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) would have an impact on antibiotic prescription rate in primary care clinical settings. Methods Adult patients with symptoms of ARTI were prospectively included. Nasopharyngeal and throat swabs were analysed by using a multiplex real-time PCR method targeting thirteen viruses and two bacteria. Patients were recruited at 12 outpatient units from October 2006 through April 2009, and samples were collected on the day of inclusion (initial visit) and after 10 days (follow-up visit). Patients were randomised in an open-label treatment protocol to receive a rapid or delayed result (on the following day or after eight to twelve days). The primary outcome measure was the antibiotic prescription rate at the initial visit, and the secondary outcome was the total antibiotic prescription rate during the study period. Results A total sample of 447 patients was randomised. Forty-one were excluded, leaving 406 patients for analysis. In the group of patients randomised for a rapid result, 4.5% (9 of 202) of patients received antibiotics at the initial visit, compared to 12.3% (25 of 204) (P = 0.005) of patients in the delayed result group. At follow-up, there was no significant difference between the groups: 13.9% (28 of 202) in the rapid result group and 17.2% (35 of 204) in the delayed result group (P = 0

  20. Genetic relationships among wild and cultivated accessions of curry leaf plant (Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng.), as revealed by DNA fingerprinting methods.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sushma; Rana, T S

    2013-02-01

    Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. (Rutaceae), is an aromatic plant and much valued for its flavor, nutritive and medicinal properties. In this study, three DNA fingerprinting methods viz., random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD), directed amplification of minisatellite DNA (DAMD), and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), were used to unravel the genetic variability and relationships across 92 wild and cultivated M. koenigii accessions. A total of 310, 102, and 184, DNA fragments were amplified using 20 RAPD, 5 DAMD, and 13 ISSR primers, revealing 95.80, 96.07, and 96.73% polymorphism, respectively, across all accessions. The average polymorphic information content value obtained with RAPD, DAMD, and ISSR markers was 0.244, 0.250, and 0.281, respectively. The UPGMA tree, based on Jaccard's similarity coefficient generated from the cumulative (RAPD, DAMD, and ISSR) band data showed two distinct clusters, clearly separating wild and cultivated accessions in the dendrogram. Percentage polymorphism, gene diversity (H), and Shannon information index (I) estimates were higher in cultivated accessions compared to wild accessions. The overall high level of polymorphism and varied range of genetic distances revealed a wide genetic base in M. koenigii accessions. The study suggests that RAPD, DAMD, and ISSR markers are highly useful to unravel the genetic variability in wild and cultivated accessions of M. koenigii.

  1. Assessing Impacts on Unplanned Hospitalisations of Care Quality and Access Using a Structural Equation Method: With a Case Study of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Congdon, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background: Enhanced quality of care and improved access are central to effective primary care management of long term conditions. However, research evidence is inconclusive in establishing a link between quality of primary care, or access, and adverse outcomes, such as unplanned hospitalisation. Methods: This paper proposes a structural equation model for quality and access as latent variables affecting adverse outcomes, such as unplanned hospitalisations. In a case study application, quality of care (QOC) is defined in relation to diabetes, and the aim is to assess impacts of care quality and access on unplanned hospital admissions for diabetes, while allowing also for socio-economic deprivation, diabetes morbidity, and supply effects. The study involves 90 general practitioner (GP) practices in two London Clinical Commissioning Groups, using clinical quality of care indicators, and patient survey data on perceived access. Results: As a single predictor, quality of care has a significant negative impact on emergency admissions, and this significant effect remains when socio-economic deprivation and morbidity are allowed. In a full structural equation model including access, the probability that QOC negatively impacts on unplanned admissions exceeds 0.9. Furthermore, poor access is linked to deprivation, diminished QOC, and larger list sizes. Conclusions: Using a Bayesian inference methodology, the evidence from the analysis is weighted towards negative impacts of higher primary care quality and improved access on unplanned admissions. The methodology of the paper is potentially applicable to other long term conditions, and relevant when care quality and access cannot be measured directly and are better regarded as latent variables. PMID:27598184

  2. Clean access, measurement, and sampling of Ellsworth Subglacial Lake: A method for exploring deep Antarctic subglacial lake environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegert, Martin J.; Clarke, Rachel J.; Mowlem, Matt; Ross, Neil; Hill, Christopher S.; Tait, Andrew; Hodgson, Dominic; Parnell, John; Tranter, Martyn; Pearce, David; Bentley, Michael J.; Cockell, Charles; Tsaloglou, Maria-Nefeli; Smith, Andy; Woodward, John; Brito, Mario P.; Waugh, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Antarctic subglacial lakes are thought to be extreme habitats for microbial life and may contain important records of ice sheet history and climate change within their lake floor sediments. To find whether or not this is true, and to answer the science questions that would follow, direct measurement and sampling of these environments are required. Ever since the water depth of Vostok Subglacial Lake was shown to be >500 m, attention has been given to how these unique, ancient, and pristine environments may be entered without contamination and adverse disturbance. Several organizations have offered guidelines on the desirable cleanliness and sterility requirements for direct sampling experiments, including the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research. Here we summarize the scientific protocols and methods being developed for the exploration of Ellsworth Subglacial Lake in West Antarctica, planned for 2012-2013, which we offer as a guide to future subglacial environment research missions. The proposed exploration involves accessing the lake using a hot-water drill and deploying a sampling probe and sediment corer to allow sample collection. We focus here on how this can be undertaken with minimal environmental impact while maximizing scientific return without compromising the environment for future experiments.

  3. Open Access and beyond.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Shawn; Schmidt, Christian; Das, Chhaya; Tucker, Philip W

    2006-01-01

    Uncensored exchange of scientific results hastens progress. Open Access does not stop at the removal of price and permission barriers; still, censorship and reading disabilities, to name a few, hamper access to information. Here, we invite the scientific community and the public to discuss new methods to distribute, store and manage literature in order to achieve unfettered access to literature. PMID:16956402

  4. Early assessment of medical technologies to inform product development and market access: a review of methods and applications.

    PubMed

    Ijzerman, Maarten J; Steuten, Lotte M G

    2011-09-01

    Worldwide, billions of dollars are invested in medical product development and there is an increasing pressure to maximize the revenues of these investments. That is, governments need to be informed about the benefits of spending public resources, companies need more information to manage their product development portfolios and even universities may need to direct their research programmes in order to maximize societal benefits. Assuming that all medical products need to be adopted by the heavily regulated healthcare market at one point in time, it is worthwhile to look at the logic behind healthcare decision making, specifically, decisions on the coverage of medical products and decisions on the use of these products under competing and uncertain conditions. With the growing tension between leveraging economic growth through R&D spending on the one hand and stricter control of healthcare budgets on the other, several attempts have been made to apply the health technology assessment (HTA) methodology to earlier stages of technology development and implementation. For instance, horizon scanning was introduced to systematically assess emerging technologies in order to inform health policy. Others have introduced iterative economic evaluation, e.g. economic evaluations in earlier stages of clinical research. However, most of these methods are primarily intended to support governments in making decisions regarding potentially expensive new medical products. They do not really inform biomedical product developers on the probability of return on investment, nor do they inform about the market needs and specific requirements of technologies in development. It is precisely this aspect that increasingly receives attention, i.e. is it possible to use HTA tools and methods to inform biomedical product development and to anticipate further development and market access. Several methods have been used in previous decades, but have never been compiled in a comprehensive review

  5. Determinants of access to chronic illness care: a mixed-methods evaluation of a national multifaceted chronic disease package for Indigenous Australians

    PubMed Central

    Bailie, Jodie; Schierhout, Gill; Laycock, Alison; Kelaher, Margaret; Percival, Nikki; O'Donoghue, Lynette; McNeair, Tracy; Bailie, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Indigenous Australians have a disproportionately high burden of chronic illness, and relatively poor access to healthcare. This paper examines how a national multicomponent programme aimed at improving prevention and management of chronic disease among Australian Indigenous people addressed various dimensions of access. Design Data from a place-based, mixed-methods formative evaluation were analysed against a framework that defines supply and demand-side dimensions to access. The evaluation included 24 geographically bounded ‘sentinel sites’ that included a range of primary care service organisations. It drew on administrative data on service utilisation, focus group and interview data on community members’ and service providers’ perceptions of chronic illness care between 2010 and 2013. Setting Urban, regional and remote areas of Australia that have relatively large Indigenous populations. Participants 670 community members participated in focus groups; 374 practitioners and representatives of regional primary care support organisations participated in in-depth interviews. Results The programme largely addressed supply-side dimensions of access with less focus or impact on demand-side dimensions. Application of the access framework highlighted the complex inter-relationships between dimensions of access. Key ongoing challenges are achieving population coverage through a national programme, reaching high-need groups and ensuring provision of ongoing care. Conclusions Strategies to improve access to chronic illness care for this population need to be tailored to local circumstances and address the range of dimensions of access on both the demand and supply sides. These findings highlight the importance of flexibility in national programme guidelines to support locally determined strategies. PMID:26614617

  6. BPO crude oil analysis data base user`s guide: Methods, publications, computer access correlations, uses, availability

    SciTech Connect

    Sellers, C.; Fox, B.; Paulz, J.

    1996-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has one of the largest and most complete collections of information on crude oil composition that is available to the public. The computer program that manages this database of crude oil analyses has recently been rewritten to allow easier access to this information. This report describes how the new system can be accessed and how the information contained in the Crude Oil Analysis Data Bank can be obtained.

  7. A method to implement fine-grained access control for personal health records through standard relational database queries.

    PubMed

    Sujansky, Walter V; Faus, Sam A; Stone, Ethan; Brennan, Patricia Flatley

    2010-10-01

    Online personal health records (PHRs) enable patients to access, manage, and share certain of their own health information electronically. This capability creates the need for precise access-controls mechanisms that restrict the sharing of data to that intended by the patient. The authors describe the design and implementation of an access-control mechanism for PHR repositories that is modeled on the eXtensible Access Control Markup Language (XACML) standard, but intended to reduce the cognitive and computational complexity of XACML. The authors implemented the mechanism entirely in a relational database system using ANSI-standard SQL statements. Based on a set of access-control rules encoded as relational table rows, the mechanism determines via a single SQL query whether a user who accesses patient data from a specific application is authorized to perform a requested operation on a specified data object. Testing of this query on a moderately large database has demonstrated execution times consistently below 100ms. The authors include the details of the implementation, including algorithms, examples, and a test database as Supplementary materials.

  8. Accessibility Videos.

    PubMed

    Kurppa, Ari; Nordlund, Marika

    2016-01-01

    It can be difficult to understand accessibility, if you do not have the personal experience. The Accessibility Centre ESKE produced short videos which demonstrate the meaning of accessibility in different situations. Videos will raise accessibility awareness of architects, other planners and professionals in the construction field and maintenance. PMID:27534282

  9. Accessing Sexual and Reproductive Health Information and Services: A Mixed Methods Study of Young Women's Needs and Experiences in Soweto, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lince-Deroche, Naomi; Hargey, Adila; Holt, Kelsey; Shochet, Tara

    2015-03-01

    Young women and girls in South Africa are at high risk of unintended pregnancy and HIV. Previous studies have reported barriers to contraceptive and other sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services among young women in this context. We aimed to assess young women's SRH knowledge and experiences and to determine how they get SRH information and services in Soweto, South Africa using quantitative and qualitative methods. Young women, aged 18-24, recruited from primary health clinics and a shopping mall, reported that they have access to SRH information and know where to obtain services. However there are challenges to accessing and utilizing information and services including providers' unsupportive attitudes, uneven power dynamics in relationships and communication issues with parents and community members. There is a need to assist young women in understanding the significance of SRH information. They need access to age-appropriate, youth-friendly services in order to have healthy sexual experiences.

  10. Accessing Sexual and Reproductive Health Information and Services: A Mixed Methods Study of Young Women's Needs and Experiences in Soweto, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lince-Deroche, Naomi; Hargey, Adila; Holt, Kelsey; Shochet, Tara

    2015-03-01

    Young women and girls in South Africa are at high risk of unintended pregnancy and HIV. Previous studies have reported barriers to contraceptive and other sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services among young women in this context. We aimed to assess young women's SRH knowledge and experiences and to determine how they get SRH information and services in Soweto, South Africa using quantitative and qualitative methods. Young women, aged 18-24, recruited from primary health clinics and a shopping mall, reported that they have access to SRH information and know where to obtain services. However there are challenges to accessing and utilizing information and services including providers' unsupportive attitudes, uneven power dynamics in relationships and communication issues with parents and community members. There is a need to assist young women in understanding the significance of SRH information. They need access to age-appropriate, youth-friendly services in order to have healthy sexual experiences. PMID:26103697

  11. Using Geographic Information Systems and Spatial Analysis Methods to Assess Household Water Access and Sanitation Coverage in the SHINE Trial.

    PubMed

    Ntozini, Robert; Marks, Sara J; Mangwadu, Goldberg; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Gerema, Grace; Mutasa, Batsirai; Julian, Timothy R; Schwab, Kellogg J; Humphrey, Jean H; Zungu, Lindiwe I

    2015-12-15

    Access to water and sanitation are important determinants of behavioral responses to hygiene and sanitation interventions. We estimated cluster-specific water access and sanitation coverage to inform a constrained randomization technique in the SHINE trial. Technicians and engineers inspected all public access water sources to ascertain seasonality, function, and geospatial coordinates. Households and water sources were mapped using open-source geospatial software. The distance from each household to the nearest perennial, functional, protected water source was calculated, and for each cluster, the median distance and the proportion of households within <500 m and >1500 m of such a water source. Cluster-specific sanitation coverage was ascertained using a random sample of 13 households per cluster. These parameters were included as covariates in randomization to optimize balance in water and sanitation access across treatment arms at the start of the trial. The observed high variability between clusters in both parameters suggests that constraining on these factors was needed to reduce risk of bias.

  12. Using Geographic Information Systems and Spatial Analysis Methods to Assess Household Water Access and Sanitation Coverage in the SHINE Trial.

    PubMed

    Ntozini, Robert; Marks, Sara J; Mangwadu, Goldberg; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Gerema, Grace; Mutasa, Batsirai; Julian, Timothy R; Schwab, Kellogg J; Humphrey, Jean H; Zungu, Lindiwe I

    2015-12-15

    Access to water and sanitation are important determinants of behavioral responses to hygiene and sanitation interventions. We estimated cluster-specific water access and sanitation coverage to inform a constrained randomization technique in the SHINE trial. Technicians and engineers inspected all public access water sources to ascertain seasonality, function, and geospatial coordinates. Households and water sources were mapped using open-source geospatial software. The distance from each household to the nearest perennial, functional, protected water source was calculated, and for each cluster, the median distance and the proportion of households within <500 m and >1500 m of such a water source. Cluster-specific sanitation coverage was ascertained using a random sample of 13 households per cluster. These parameters were included as covariates in randomization to optimize balance in water and sanitation access across treatment arms at the start of the trial. The observed high variability between clusters in both parameters suggests that constraining on these factors was needed to reduce risk of bias. PMID:26602299

  13. Using Geographic Information Systems and Spatial Analysis Methods to Assess Household Water Access and Sanitation Coverage in the SHINE Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ntozini, Robert; Marks, Sara J.; Mangwadu, Goldberg; Mbuya, Mduduzi N. N.; Gerema, Grace; Mutasa, Batsirai; Julian, Timothy R.; Schwab, Kellogg J.; Humphrey, Jean H.; Zungu, Lindiwe I.

    2015-01-01

    Access to water and sanitation are important determinants of behavioral responses to hygiene and sanitation interventions. We estimated cluster-specific water access and sanitation coverage to inform a constrained randomization technique in the SHINE trial. Technicians and engineers inspected all public access water sources to ascertain seasonality, function, and geospatial coordinates. Households and water sources were mapped using open-source geospatial software. The distance from each household to the nearest perennial, functional, protected water source was calculated, and for each cluster, the median distance and the proportion of households within <500 m and >1500 m of such a water source. Cluster-specific sanitation coverage was ascertained using a random sample of 13 households per cluster. These parameters were included as covariates in randomization to optimize balance in water and sanitation access across treatment arms at the start of the trial. The observed high variability between clusters in both parameters suggests that constraining on these factors was needed to reduce risk of bias. PMID:26602299

  14. Piloting the use of indigenous methods to prevent Nipah virus infection by interrupting bats' access to date palm sap in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Nazmun; Mondal, Utpal Kumar; Sultana, Rebeca; Hossain, M Jahangir; Khan, M Salah Uddin; Gurley, Emily S; Oliveras, Elizabeth; Luby, Stephen P

    2013-09-01

    People in Bangladesh frequently drink fresh date palm sap. Fruit bats (Pteropus giganteus) also drink raw sap and may contaminate the sap by shedding Nipah virus through saliva and urine. In a previous study we identified two indigenous methods to prevent bats accessing the sap, bamboo skirts and lime (calcium carbonate). We conducted a pilot study to assess the acceptability of these two methods among sap harvesters. We used interactive community meetings and group discussions to encourage all the sap harvesters (n = 12) from a village to use either bamboo skirts or lime smear that some of them (n = 4) prepared and applied. We measured the preparation and application time and calculated the cost of bamboo skirts. We conducted interviews after the use of each method. The sap harvesters found skirts effective in preventing bats from accessing sap. They were sceptical that lime would be effective as the lime was washed away by the sap flow. Preparation of the skirt took ∼105 min. The application of each method took ∼1 min. The cost of the bamboo skirt is minimal because bamboo is widely available and they made the skirts with pieces of used bamboo. The bamboo skirt method appeared practical and affordable to the sap harvesters. Further studies should explore its ability to prevent bats from accessing date palm sap and assess if its use produces more or better quality sap, which would provide further incentives to make it more acceptable for its regular use.

  15. Facilitators and barriers to accessing reproductive health care for migrant beer promoters in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam: A mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of the research was to assess access to sexual and reproductive health services for migrant women who work as beer promoters. This mixed methods research was conducted in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, Bangkok, Thailand, Vientiane, Laos, and Hanoi, Vietnam during 2010 to 2011. Methods Focus groups were held with beer promoters and separate focus groups or interviews with key informants to explore the factors affecting beer promoters’ access to health care institutions for reproductive health care. The findings of the focus groups were used to develop a survey for beer promoters. This survey was conducted in popular health institutions for these women in each of the four Asian cities. Results Several common themes were evident. Work demands prevented beer promoters from accessing health care. Institutional factors affecting care included cost, location, environmental factors (e.g. waiting times, cleanliness and confidentiality) and service factors (e.g. staff attitudes, clinic hours, and availability of medications). Personal factors affecting access were shyness and fear, lack of knowledge, and support from family and friends. The survey of the beer promoters confirmed that cost, location and both environmental and service factors impact on access to health care services for beer promoters. Many beer promoters are sexually active, and a significant proportion of those surveyed rely on sex work to supplement their income. Many also drink with their clients. Despite a few differences amongst the surveyed population, the findings were remarkably similar across the four research sites. Conclusions Recommendations from the research include the provision of evening and weekend clinic hours to facilitate access, free or low cost clinics, and health insurance through employer or government plans which are easy to access for migrants. Other improvements that would facilitate the access of beer promoters to these services include increased funding to hire

  16. Web Accessibility and Accessibility Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Ravonne A.; Huprich, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Section 508 of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) mandates that programs and services be accessible to people with disabilities. While schools of library and information science (SLIS*) and university libraries should model accessible Web sites, this may not be the case. This article examines previous studies about the Web accessibility of…

  17. High temperature adhesive silicone foam composition, foam generating system and method of generating foam. [For access denial

    DOEpatents

    Mead, J.W.; Montoya, O.J.; Rand, P.B.; Willan, V.O.

    1983-12-21

    Access to a space is impeded by generation of a sticky foam from a silicone polymer and a low boiling solvent such as a halogenated hydrocarbon. In a preferred aspect, the formulation is polydimethylsiloxane gel mixed with F502 Freon as a solvent and blowing agent, and pressurized with CO/sub 2/ in a vessel to about 250 PSI, whereby when the vessel is opened, a sticky and solvent resistant foam is deployed. The foam is deployable, over a wide range of temperatures, adhering to wet surfaces as well as dry, is stable over long periods of time and does not propagate flame or lose adhesive properties during an externally supported burn.

  18. Access Interface Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Fager, Susan; Beukelman, David R.; Fried-Oken, Melanie; Jakobs, Tom; Baker, John

    2013-01-01

    Individuals who rely on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices to support their communication often have physical movement challenges that require alternative methods of access. Technology that supports access, particularly for those with the most severe movement deficits, have expanded substantially over the years. The purposes of this article are to review the state of the science of access technologies that interface with augmentative and alternative communication devices and to propose a future research and development agenda that will enhance access options for people with limited movement capability due to developmental and acquired conditions. PMID:22590797

  19. Apparatus and method for servicing an elongated suspended pump motor in an electric power plant with limited access

    DOEpatents

    Chavez, Rossemary V.; Ekeroth, Douglas E.; Johnson, F. Thomas; Matusz, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Elongated coolant pumps suspended under steam generators within containment in a power plant with limited access space, are removed and replaced by an elongated maintenance cart with an elongated opening along one side in which the motor is received. Rollers support the cart for conveying the elongated motor in an upright position out from under the steam generator and onto an elevator. The elevator is lowered to transfer support of the cart and motor through trunnions to saddles straddling the elevator for rotation of the cart to a generally horizontal position. The elevator then raises the horizontally disposed cart carrying the motor to a higher floor where it is rolled off the elevator and out through the auxiliary equipment hatch.

  20. Apparatus and method for servicing an elongated suspended pump motor in an electric power plant with limited access

    DOEpatents

    Chavez, R.V.; Ekeroth, D.E.; Johnson, F.T.; Matusz, J.M.

    1994-04-26

    Elongated coolant pumps suspended under steam generators within containment in a power plant with limited access space, are removed and replaced by an elongated maintenance cart with an elongated opening along one side in which the motor is received. Rollers support the cart for conveying the elongated motor in an upright position out from under the steam generator and onto an elevator. The elevator is lowered to transfer support of the cart and motor through trunnions to saddles straddling the elevator for rotation of the cart to a generally horizontal position. The elevator then raises the horizontally disposed cart carrying the motor to a higher floor where it is rolled off the elevator and out through the auxiliary equipment hatch. 14 figures.

  1. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Building access control (BAC)--a catchall phrase to describe the systems that control access to facilities across campus--has traditionally been handled with remarkably low-tech solutions: (1) manual locks; (2) electronic locks; and (3) ID cards with magnetic strips. Recent improvements have included smart cards and keyless solutions that make use…

  2. Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  3. Restricting Access to Health Care to Immigrants in Barcelona: A Mixed-Methods Study With Immigrants Who Have Experienced an Infectious Disease.

    PubMed

    Castano, Jenny; Ospina, Jesús E; Caylà, Joan A; Greer, Scott L

    2016-01-01

    Austerity policies implemented in Spain in response to the ongoing economic crisis may have detrimental consequences for the health of immigrant populations and for public health in general. A mixed-methods study by the Public Health Agency of Barcelona and the University of Michigan indicates that the Real Decreto-ley 16/2012 (RDL) threatens the health of individuals and the population, especially in the case of infectious diseases. The study sought to determine the percentage of foreign-born persons with an infectious disease who had an Individual Health Card (IHC) prior to the RDL and to determine whether foreign-born persons with an infectious disease in Barcelona encountered problems accessing health care after the RDL. Results indicate that immigrants used the IHC to seek medical attention for infectious diseases and chronic conditions. Results also show that 66% of respondents, including 54% of unemployed respondents, 3% of respondents working without contracts, and those in informal employment (9%), may be at risk of losing at least part of their health coverage. Universal health care access in Spain has been crucial for the control of communicable diseases among immigrant populations. Reducing access to a significant percentage of the total population may have deleterious effects on public health. PMID:27076652

  4. Restricting Access to Health Care to Immigrants in Barcelona: A Mixed-Methods Study With Immigrants Who Have Experienced an Infectious Disease.

    PubMed

    Castano, Jenny; Ospina, Jesús E; Caylà, Joan A; Greer, Scott L

    2016-01-01

    Austerity policies implemented in Spain in response to the ongoing economic crisis may have detrimental consequences for the health of immigrant populations and for public health in general. A mixed-methods study by the Public Health Agency of Barcelona and the University of Michigan indicates that the Real Decreto-ley 16/2012 (RDL) threatens the health of individuals and the population, especially in the case of infectious diseases. The study sought to determine the percentage of foreign-born persons with an infectious disease who had an Individual Health Card (IHC) prior to the RDL and to determine whether foreign-born persons with an infectious disease in Barcelona encountered problems accessing health care after the RDL. Results indicate that immigrants used the IHC to seek medical attention for infectious diseases and chronic conditions. Results also show that 66% of respondents, including 54% of unemployed respondents, 3% of respondents working without contracts, and those in informal employment (9%), may be at risk of losing at least part of their health coverage. Universal health care access in Spain has been crucial for the control of communicable diseases among immigrant populations. Reducing access to a significant percentage of the total population may have deleterious effects on public health.

  5. An improved analysis/synthesis capability based on dual methods - ACCESS 3. [for minimum weight design of structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmit, L. A.; Fleury, C.

    1979-01-01

    Approximation concepts and dual method algorithms are combined to create a new method for minimum weight design of structural systems. Approximation concepts convert the basic mathematical programming statement of the structural synthesis problem into a sequence of explicit primal problems of separable form. These problems are solved by constructing explicit dual functions, which are maximized subject to nonnegativity constraints. The dual method is successfully extended to deal with pure discrete and mixed continuous-discrete design variable problems. The power of the method presented is illustrated with numerical results for example problems, including a thin delta wing with fiber composite skins.

  6. Exam Scams and Classroom Flimflams: Urban Legends as an Alternative Lens for Viewing the College Classroom Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Claire Howell; Bray, Nathaniel

    2008-01-01

    Campus-based urban legends have the potential to convey and construct student culture in higher education. Basic qualitative and humanistic research methods were used to collect, analyze, and interpret legends related to the academic experience of collegiate life.

  7. The new efficient multi-beamforming method based on multiple-access register block on a post-fractional filtering architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jeeun; Kim, Giduck; Yoon, Changhan; Yoo, Yangmo; Song, Tai-Kyong

    2011-03-01

    In medical ultrasound imaging, a multi-beamforming (MBF) method is used for supporting high frame rate imaging or functional imaging where multiple scanlines are reconstructed from a single excitation event. For efficient MBF, a time-sharing technique (i.e., MBF-TS) can be applied. However, the MBF-TS could degrade image quality due to the decreased beamforming frequency. In this paper, the multi-access register-based MBF (MBF-MAR) method running on the post-fractional filtering (PFF) architecture is presented. In PFF-MBF-MAR, instead of lowering beamforming frequency, a multi-access register at each channel is utilized for generating multiple scanlines simultaneously. To evaluate the performance of the proposed PFF-MBF-MAR method, the phantom experiment was conducted where 64- channel pre-beamformed radio-frequency (RF) data were captured from a tissue mimicking phantom by using a modified commercial ultrasound system (SONOLINE G40, Siemens Inc., USA) using a 3-MHz phased array probe. From the phantom experiment, the PFF-MBF-MAR method showed 4.7 dB and 0.6 improvements in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), respectively, compared to the PFF-MBF-TS method, while slightly increasing the hardware complexity (<5.2%). The similar results were achieved with the in vivo thyroid data. These results indicate that the proposed PFF-MBF-MAR method can be used for high frame rate imaging or functional imaging without sacrificing image quality while slightly increasing the hardware complexity.

  8. Gaining Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Discusses issues schools and universities have encountered in complying with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and making their facilities more accessible to the disabled. The ADA's vagueness and the architect's need for understanding the regulations is highlighted. (GR)

  9. Equal Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Patta, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Presents an interview with Stephen McCarthy, co-partner and president of Equal Access ADA Consulting Architects of San Diego, California, about designing schools to naturally integrate compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). (EV)

  10. Capital access.

    PubMed

    Towne, Jennifer

    2004-06-01

    To maintain their viability, hospitals are being compelled to invest in big capital projects such as information technology and renovation and construction. This gatefold examines the trends in credit and capital, and how they affect hospitals' access to money.

  11. Biomass accessibility analysis using electron tomography

    DOE PAGES

    Hinkle, Jacob D.; Ciesielski, Peter N.; Gruchalla, Kenny; Munch, Kristin R.; Donohoe, Bryon S.

    2015-12-25

    Substrate accessibility to catalysts has been a dominant theme in theories of biomass deconstruction. Furthermore, current methods of quantifying accessibility do not elucidate mechanisms for increased accessibility due to changes in microstructure following pretreatment.

  12. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous 'push-introducer' gastrostomy is a valuable method for accessing the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Klek, Stanislaw; Hermanowicz, Adam; Salowka, Jerzy; Cegielny, Tomasz; Matysiak, Konrad; Chourdakis, Michael; Szybinski, Piotr

    2014-02-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is the most effective and least invasive method for enteral nutrition (EN). The most common system for PEG is the 'pull' technique, which . It is not available in case endoscopy cannot be performed. The 'push' technique may be an option if effective identification of the abdominal structures can be achieved. X-ray or ultrasonography can be used for that purpose. The aim was to assess the clinical value of ultrasound-guided 'push' gastrostomy. A retrospective analysis of eleven patients (6 F, 5 M, mean age 65.1) including the procedure itself, complication rate, and cost was conducted. In all eleven patients the surgery was successful, and EN was introduced 4-6 hours afterwards. Complications included pain requiring removal of a supporting stitch (n = 1) and balloon deflation (n = 1). All patients were successfully fed enterally. Ultrasound-guided 'push' technique gastrostomy should become a method of choice if the 'pull' method is unavailable.

  13. Apparatus and method supporting wireless access to multiple security layers in an industrial control and automation system or other system

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Yu-Gene T.

    2013-04-16

    A method includes receiving a message at a first wireless node. The first wireless node is associated with a first wired network, and the first wired network is associated with a first security layer. The method also includes transmitting the message over the first wired network when at least one destination of the message is located in the first security layer. The method further includes wirelessly transmitting the message for delivery to a second wireless node when at least one destination of the message is located in a second security layer. The second wireless node is associated with a second wired network, and the second wired network is associated with the second security layer. The first and second security layers may be associated with different security paradigms and/or different security domains. Also, the message could be associated with destinations in the first and second security layers.

  14. 5 CFR 2606.203 - Granting access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Granting access. 2606.203 Section 2606... Access to Records and Accounting of Disclosures § 2606.203 Granting access. (a) The methods for allowing access to records, when such access has been granted by OGE or the other agency concerned are:...

  15. Macromolecular competition titration method accessing thermodynamics of the unmodified macromolecule-ligand interactions through spectroscopic titrations of fluorescent analogs.

    PubMed

    Bujalowski, Wlodzimierz; Jezewska, Maria J

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of thermodynamically rigorous binding isotherms provides fundamental information about the energetics of the ligand-macromolecule interactions and often an invaluable insight about the structure of the formed complexes. The Macromolecular Competition Titration (MCT) method enables one to quantitatively obtain interaction parameters of protein-nucleic acid interactions, which may not be available by other methods, particularly for the unmodified long polymer lattices and specific nucleic acid substrates, if the binding is not accompanied by adequate spectroscopic signal changes. The method can be applied using different fluorescent nucleic acids or fluorophores, although the etheno-derivatives of nucleic acid are especially suitable as they are relatively easy to prepare, have significant blue fluorescence, their excitation band lies far from the protein absorption spectrum, and the modification eliminates the possibility of base pairing with other nucleic acids. The MCT method is not limited to the specific size of the reference nucleic acid. Particularly, a simple analysis of the competition titration experiments is described in which the fluorescent, short fragment of nucleic acid, spanning the exact site-size of the protein-nucleic acid complex, and binding with only a 1:1 stoichiometry to the protein, is used as a reference macromolecule. Although the MCT method is predominantly discussed as applied to studying protein-nucleic acid interactions, it can generally be applied to any ligand-macromolecule system by monitoring the association reaction using the spectroscopic signal originating from the reference macromolecule in the presence of the competing macromolecule, whose interaction parameters with the ligand are to be determined.

  16. Multiple Access Trade Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motamedi, Masoud

    1990-01-01

    The Personal Access Satellite System (PASS) strawman design uses a hybrid Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)/Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) implementation. TDMA is used for the forward direction (from Suppliers to Users), and FDMA for the return direction (from Users to Suppliers). An alternative architecture is proposed that will require minimal real time coordination and yet provide a fast access method by using random access Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). The CDMA system issues are addressed such as connecting suppliers and users, both of whom may be located anywhere in the CONUS, when the user terminals are constrained in size and weight; and providing efficient traffic routing under highly variable traffic requirements. It is assumed that bandwidth efficiency is not of paramount importance. CDMA or Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (SSMA) communication is a method in which a group of carriers operate at the same nominal center frequency but are separable from each other by the low cross correlation of the spreading codes used. Interference and multipath rejection capability, ease of selective addressing and message screening, low density power spectra for signal hiding and security, and high resolution ranging are among the benefits of spread spectrum communications.

  17. Physical-layer energy-efficient receiving method based on selective sampling in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing access passive optical network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; He, Hao; Bi, Meihua; Hu, Weisheng

    2014-05-01

    We propose a physical-layer energy-efficient receiving method based on selective sampling in an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing access passive optical network (OFDMA-PON). By using the special designed frame head, the receiver within an optical network unit (ONU) can identify the destination of the incoming frame. The receiver only samples at the time when the destination is in agreement with the ONU, while it stays in standby during the rest of the time. We clarify its feasibility through an experiment and analyze the downstream traffic delay by simulation. The results indicate that under limited delay conditions, ˜60% energy can be saved compared with the traditional receiving method in the OFDMA-PON system with 512 ONUs.

  18. In ... and out: open access publishing in scientific journals.

    PubMed

    Boumil, Marcia M; Salem, Deeb N

    2014-01-01

    Open access (OA) journals are a growing phenomenon largely of the past decade wherein readers can access the content of scientific journals without paying for a subscription. The costs are borne by authors (or their institutions) who pay a fee to be published, thus allowing readers to access, search, print, and cite the journals without cost. Although the OA model, in and of itself, need not diminish scientific rigor, selectivity, or peer review, the "author pays" model creates an inherent conflict of interest: it operates with the incentive on the part of the journal to publish more and reject less. This is coupled with cost containment measures that affect the journals' ability to engage experienced editors and professional staff to scrutinize data, data analyses, and author conflicts of interest. While some OA journals appear to be comparable to their print competitors, others are "predatory" and have no legitimacy at all. Two recent "scams"--one recently published in Science--highlight the urgency of addressing the issues raised by OA publication so that OA does not lose its credibility just as it begins to gather substantial momentum. High-quality journals develop their reputations over time, and OA outlets will be no exception. For this to occur, however, the OA audience will need to be satisfied that OA can deliver high-quality publications utilizing rigorous peer review, editing, and conflict of interest scrutiny. Academic tenure and promotion committees that review scholarly credentials are understandably skeptical of publications in unrecognized journals, and the large number of new OA outlets contributes to this urgency from their perspective as well.

  19. Hemodialysis access - self care

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency - hemodialysis access; Chronic kidney failure - hemodialysis access; Chronic renal failure - hemodialysis access; dialysis - hemodialysis access

  20. Prospective randomized comparison of gastrotomy closure associating tunnel access and over-the-scope clip (OTSC) with two other methods in an experimental ex vivo setting

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Jean-Michel; Saito, Kayoko; Kang, Changdon; Gromski, Mark; Sawhney, Mandeep; Chuttani, Ram; Matthes, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Background: Safe transgastric natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) procedures require a reliable closure of the gastrotomy. Recently a novel peritoneal access method via a submucosal tunnel has been described with encouraging preliminary results. Aim: The aim is to compare a submucosal tunnel access plus over-the-scope clip (OTSC) system for closure with two other closure modalities. Patients and methods: This is a prospective ex vivo study conducted on 42 porcine stomach models equally randomized into three groups in an academic medical center. The procedures performed in each group included: (1) Tunnel (6 cm) + endoclips; (2) Knife + balloon dilation access + OTSC; and (3) Tunnel + OTSC. A pressurized air-leak test was performed to evaluate the strength of the closure. Stomach volumes, procedure times, number of clips, and incision sizes were also registered. Results: The mean air-leak pressure was statistically higher in Group 3 than in Groups 1 and 2–95.2 ± 19.3 mmHg versus 72.5 ± 35.2 and 79.0 ± 24.5 mmHg (P < 0.05). The gastrotomy creation times for Groups 1, 2, and 3 were 28.0 ± 10.1, 4.3 ± 1.4, and 20.1 ± 10.6 minutes, respectively, with significantly lower time in Group 2 (P < 0.001). The closure times were 16.1 ± 6.1, 6.5 ± 1.2, and 5.3 ± 3.0 minutes, respectively, and significantly longer in the endoclip group (P < 0.001). There were no differences in the volumes and the incision sizes among the three groups. Conclusion: The combination of a submucosal tunnel access and OTSC offers a stronger closure than the other methods studied. PMID:26134780

  1. Easy Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettelman, Alan

    2009-01-01

    School and university restrooms, locker and shower rooms have specific ADA accessibility requirements that serve the needs of staff, students and campus visitors who are disabled as a result of injury, illness or age. Taking good care of them is good for the reputation of a sensitive community institution, and fosters positive public relations.…

  2. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2012-01-01

    As faculty members add online and multimedia elements to their courses, colleges and universities across the country are realizing that there is a lot of work to be done to ensure that disabled students (and employees) have equal access to course material and university websites. Unfortunately, far too few schools consider the task a top priority.…

  3. Expanding Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    There is no question that the United States lags behind most industrialized nations in consumer access to broadband Internet service. For many policy makers and activists, this shortfall marks the latest phase in the struggle to overcome the digital divide. To remedy this lack of broadband affordability and availability, one start-up firm--with…

  4. Beverage consumption in an Alaska Native village: a mixed-methods study of behaviour, attitudes and access

    PubMed Central

    de Schweinitz, Peter; Wojcicki, Janet M.

    2016-01-01

    Background American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) have the highest prevalence of obesity for any racial/ethnic group. Previous studies examining risk factors for obesity have identified excessive sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) and inadequate water consumption as major risk factors for this population group. The historical scarcity of water in rural Alaska may explain consumption patterns including reliance on SSBs and other packaged drinks. Methods Our study was designed to assess SSB, water and other beverage consumption and attitudes towards consumption in Alaska Native children and adults residing in rural Alaska. During summer 2014, 2 focus groups were conducted employing community members in a small rural village more than 200 air miles west of Fairbanks, Alaska. Interviews were completed with shop owners, Early Head Start and Head Start program instructors (n=7). SSB and total beverage intakes were measured using a modified version of the BEVQ-15, (n=69). Results High rates of SSB consumption (defined as sweetened juice beverages, soda, sweet tea, energy drink or sports drinks) and low rates of water consumption were reported for all age groups in the village. All adolescents and 81% of children reported drinking SSBs at least once per week in the last month, and 48% of adolescents and 29% of younger children reported daily consumption. Fifty-two per cent of adults reported consuming SSBs at least once per week and 20% reported daily consumption. Twenty-five per cent of adolescents reported never drinking water in the past month, and 19% of younger children and 21% of adults did not consume water daily. Conclusion Alaska Native children and adults living in the Interior Alaska consume high amounts of SSBs including energy drinks and insufficient amounts of water. Interventions targeting beverage consumption are urgently needed for the Alaska Native population in rural Alaska. PMID:26928369

  5. Quantifying data retention of perpendicular spin-transfer-torque magnetic random access memory chips using an effective thermal stability factor method

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Luc Jan, Guenole; Le, Son; Wang, Po-Kang

    2015-04-20

    The thermal stability of perpendicular Spin-Transfer-Torque Magnetic Random Access Memory (STT-MRAM) devices is investigated at chip level. Experimental data are analyzed in the framework of the Néel-Brown model including distributions of the thermal stability factor Δ. We show that in the low error rate regime important for applications, the effect of distributions of Δ can be described by a single quantity, the effective thermal stability factor Δ{sub eff}, which encompasses both the median and the standard deviation of the distributions. Data retention of memory chips can be assessed accurately by measuring Δ{sub eff} as a function of device diameter and temperature. We apply this method to show that 54 nm devices based on our perpendicular STT-MRAM design meet our 10 year data retention target up to 120 °C.

  6. A Wide Dynamics and Fast Scan Interrogating Method for a Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor Network Implemented Using Code Division Multiple Access

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngbok; Jeon, Sie-Wook; Kwon, Won-Bae; Park, Chang-Soo

    2012-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor network employing the code division multiple access (CDMA) technique to identify information from individual sensors. To detect information without considering time delays between sensors, a sliding correlation method is applied, in which two different signals with the same pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) pattern, but slightly different frequencies, are applied to the source and detector sides. Moreover, for time domain detection, a wavelength-to-time conversion technique using a wavelength dispersive medium is introduced. The experimental results show that the proposed sensor network has a wide strain dynamic range of 2,400 με and a low crosstalk of 950:1. PMID:22778619

  7. A wide dynamics and fast scan interrogating method for a fiber Bragg grating sensor network implemented using code division multiple access.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngbok; Jeon, Sie-Wook; Kwon, Won-Bae; Park, Chang-Soo

    2012-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor network employing the code division multiple access (CDMA) technique to identify information from individual sensors. To detect information without considering time delays between sensors, a sliding correlation method is applied, in which two different signals with the same pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) pattern, but slightly different frequencies, are applied to the source and detector sides. Moreover, for time domain detection, a wavelength-to-time conversion technique using a wavelength dispersive medium is introduced. The experimental results show that the proposed sensor network has a wide strain dynamic range of 2,400 με and a low crosstalk of 950:1.

  8. Accessibility and assistive products

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Porrero, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Accessibility and assistive products and technologies are needed to ensure the rights of persons with disabilities and older persons. Many developments have been implemented in laws, standards, markets and from the consumers perspective, at international, European and national levels. The real issue is that not all the potential users benefit from the use of assistive products or accessible measures. Discussion Innovative methods are needed to allow all potential users to have real advantage of assistive technologies and accessible and design for all facilities. Best practices will be presented and existing gaps and recommendations will be discussed. Cost-benefits aspects will also be presented. Conclusion In order to get advantages from opportunities of globalization, hard work and responsibilities of all stakeholders are needed, so that assistive products and accessibility reach a whole range of situations and environments and contribute to ensure quality of life in a society for all.

  9. Rationale, design and methods for a randomised and controlled trial to investigate whether home access to electronic games decreases children's physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Straker, Leon M; Abbott, Rebecca A; Piek, Jan P; Pollock, Clare M; Davies, Peter S; Smith, Anne J

    2009-01-01

    Background Many children are reported to have insufficient physical activity (PA) placing them at greater risk of poor health outcomes. Participating in sedentary activities such as playing electronic games is widely believed to contribute to less PA. However there is no experimental evidence that playing electronic games reduces PA. There is also no evidence regarding the effect of different types of electronic games (traditional sedentary electronic games versus new active input electronic games) on PA. Further, there is a poor understanding about how characteristics of children may moderate the impact of electronic game access on PA and about what leisure activities are displaced when children play electronic games. Given that many children play electronic games, a better understanding of the effect of electronic game use on PA is critical to inform child health policy and intervention. Methods This randomised and controlled trial will examine whether PA is decreased by access to electronic games and whether any effect is dependent on the type of game input or the child's characteristics. Children aged 10–12 years (N = 72, 36 females) will be recruited and randomised to a balanced ordering of 'no electronic games', 'traditional' electronic games and 'active' electronic games. Each child will participate in each condition for 8 weeks, and be assessed prior to participation and at the end of each condition. The primary outcome is PA, assessed by Actical accelerometers worn for 7 days on the wrist and hip. Energy expenditure will be assessed by the doubly labelled water technique and motor coordination, adiposity, self-confidence, attitudes to technology and PA and leisure activities will also be assessed. A sample of 72 will provide a power of > 0.9 for detecting a 15 mins difference in PA (sd = 30 mins). Discussion This is the first such trial and will provide critical information to understand whether access to electronic games affects children's PA. Given the

  10. Access to health care

    PubMed Central

    Fortin, Martin; Maltais, Danielle; Hudon, Catherine; Lapointe, Lise; Ntetu, Antoine Lutumba

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore access to health care for patients presenting with multiple chronic conditions and to identify barriers and factors conducive to access. DESIGN Qualitative study with focus groups. SETTING Family practice unit in Chicoutimi (Saguenay), Que. PARTICIPANTS Twenty-five male and female adult patients with at least four chronic conditions but no cognitive disorders or decompensating conditions. METHODS For this pilot study, only three focus group discussions were held. MAIN FINDINGS The main barriers to accessing follow-up appointments included long waits on the telephone, automated telephone-answering systems, and needing to attend at specific times to obtain appointments. The main barriers to specialized care were long waiting times and the need to get prescriptions and referrals from family physicians. Factors reported conducive to access included systematic callbacks and the personal involvement of family physicians. Good communication between family physicians and specialists was also perceived to be an important factor in access. CONCLUSION Systematic callbacks, family physicians’ personal efforts to obtain follow-up visits, and better physician-specialist communication were all suggested as ways to improve access to care for patients with multiple chronic conditions. PMID:16926944

  11. Hemodialysis access procedures

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic-dialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-dialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency-dialysis access; Chronic kidney failure-dialysis access; Chronic renal failure-dialysis access

  12. Selecting the optimal geoid computational method based on tests done in regions with access to high quality GNSS/leveling data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solheim, D.; Omang, O. C.; Lysaker, D. I.

    2008-12-01

    At the Norwegian Mapping and Cadastre Authority development of Height Reference Surface Models have been ongoing for more than a decade. Utilizing an iterative approach new models are generated by adjusting the previous model to GNSS/leveling data in areas where improvements are needed. The initial model used in the adjustment procedure is the currently best available geoid model. The derived models allow GNSS users to determine heights in the National Height System better than 2 cm for most parts of Noway. Comparison with GNSS/leveling data has showed the importance of having access to high quality GNSS/leveling data in order to validate the computed geoid models and to intercompare different geoid computation methods. These data will assist in deciding which method to use when computing new geoid models. This is of particular importance for areas where no adjustment data are available like marine areas. A reliable estimate of the mean dynamic topography from satellite altimetry requires a high precision geoid model.

  13. Genes galore: a summary of methods for accessing results from large-scale partial sequencing of anonymous Arabidopsis cDNA clones.

    PubMed Central

    Newman, T; de Bruijn, F J; Green, P; Keegstra, K; Kende, H; McIntosh, L; Ohlrogge, J; Raikhel, N; Somerville, S; Thomashow, M

    1994-01-01

    High-throughput automated partial sequencing of anonymous cDNA clones provides a method to survey the repertoire of expressed genes from an organism. Comparison of the coding capacity of these expressed sequence tags (ESTs) with the sequences in the public data bases results in assignment of putative function to a significant proportion of the ESTs. Thus, the more than 13,400 plant ESTs that are currently available provide a new resource that will facilitate progress in many areas of plant biology. These opportunities are illustrated by a description of the results obtained from analysis of 1500 Arabidopsis ESTs from a cDNA library prepared from equal portions of poly(A+) mRNA from etiolated seedlings, roots, leaves, and flowering inflorescences. More than 900 different sequences were represented, 32% of which showed significant nucleotide or deduced amino acid sequences similarity to previously characterized genes or proteins from a wide range of organisms. At least 165 of the clones had significant deduced amino acid sequence homology to proteins or gene products that have not been previously characterized from higher plants. A summary of methods for accessing the information and materials generated by the Arabidopsis cDNA sequencing project is provided. PMID:7846151

  14. 5 CFR 2606.203 - Granting access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... operational control over the records in a system of records determines that an individual seeking access has... Access to Records and Accounting of Disclosures § 2606.203 Granting access. (a) The methods for allowing... employees. Current or former employees requesting access to records pertaining to them in a system...

  15. 5 CFR 2606.203 - Granting access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... operational control over the records in a system of records determines that an individual seeking access has... Access to Records and Accounting of Disclosures § 2606.203 Granting access. (a) The methods for allowing... employees. Current or former employees requesting access to records pertaining to them in a system...

  16. Atomic memory access hardware implementations

    DOEpatents

    Ahn, Jung Ho; Erez, Mattan; Dally, William J

    2015-02-17

    Atomic memory access requests are handled using a variety of systems and methods. According to one example method, a data-processing circuit having an address-request generator that issues requests to a common memory implements a method of processing the requests using a memory-access intervention circuit coupled between the generator and the common memory. The method identifies a current atomic-memory access request from a plurality of memory access requests. A data set is stored that corresponds to the current atomic-memory access request in a data storage circuit within the intervention circuit. It is determined whether the current atomic-memory access request corresponds to at least one previously-stored atomic-memory access request. In response to determining correspondence, the current request is implemented by retrieving data from the common memory. The data is modified in response to the current request and at least one other access request in the memory-access intervention circuit.

  17. Unique Access to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goble, Don

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the many learning opportunities that broadcast technology students at Ladue Horton Watkins High School in St. Louis, Missouri, experience because of their unique access to technology and methods of learning. Through scaffolding, stepladder techniques, and trial by fire, students learn to produce multiple television programs,…

  18. Using shared goal setting to improve access and equity: a mixed methods study of the Good Goals intervention in children’s occupational therapy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Access and equity in children’s therapy services may be improved by directing clinicians’ use of resources toward specific goals that are important to patients. A practice-change intervention (titled ‘Good Goals’) was designed to achieve this. This study investigated uptake, adoption, and possible effects of that intervention in children’s occupational therapy services. Methods Mixed methods case studies (n = 3 services, including 46 therapists and 558 children) were conducted. The intervention was delivered over 25 weeks through face-to-face training, team workbooks, and ‘tools for change’. Data were collected before, during, and after the intervention on a range of factors using interviews, a focus group, case note analysis, routine data, document analysis, and researchers’ observations. Results Factors related to uptake and adoptions were: mode of intervention delivery, competing demands on therapists’ time, and leadership by service manager. Service managers and therapists reported that the intervention: helped therapists establish a shared rationale for clinical decisions; increased clarity in service provision; and improved interactions with families and schools. During the study period, therapists’ behaviours changed: identifying goals, odds ratio 2.4 (95% CI 1.5 to 3.8); agreeing goals, 3.5 (2.4 to 5.1); evaluating progress, 2.0 (1.1 to 3.5). Children’s LoT decreased by two months [95% CI −8 to +4 months] across the services. Cost per therapist trained ranged from £1,003 to £1,277, depending upon service size and therapists’ salary bands. Conclusions Good Goals is a promising quality improvement intervention that can be delivered and adopted in practice and may have benefits. Further research is required to evaluate its: (i) impact on patient outcomes, effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and (ii) transferability to other clinical contexts. PMID:22898191

  19. Selective access and editing in a database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maluf, David A. (Inventor); Gawdiak, Yuri O. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Method and system for providing selective access to different portions of a database by different subgroups of database users. Where N users are involved, up to 2.sup.N-1 distinguishable access subgroups in a group space can be formed, where no two access subgroups have the same members. Two or more members of a given access subgroup can edit, substantially simultaneously, a document accessible to each member.

  20. Communication Access to Conversational Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Annalu

    2006-01-01

    This article describes methods that have been developed to provide augmentative and alternative communication communicators with better access to narrative conversation. It begins by highlighting the need to provide access to conversational narrative for people with complex communication needs, arguing that this type of conversation plays an…

  1. Internet Access and Pricing: Sorting Out the Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Thomas B.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses Internet access and pricing options. Highlights include restructuring of the telecommunications industry; current methods of access; economics of high-speed access; the impact of cheap Internet access; long-term possibilities; and a table that provides a comparison of Internet access methods. (LRW)

  2. 43 CFR 17.550 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., reassignment of services to accessible locations, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery... section. The agency, in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet accessibility requirements to...) of this section, alternative, methods of achieving program accessibility include— (i) Using...

  3. 43 CFR 17.550 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., reassignment of services to accessible locations, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery... section. The agency, in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet accessibility requirements to...) of this section, alternative, methods of achieving program accessibility include— (i) Using...

  4. 43 CFR 17.550 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., reassignment of services to accessible locations, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery... section. The agency, in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet accessibility requirements to...) of this section, alternative, methods of achieving program accessibility include— (i) Using...

  5. Accessibility of Special Education Program Home Pages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Claudia P.; Bray, Marty; Algozzine, Robert F.

    1999-01-01

    Eighty-nine special education Web sites were evaluated for accessibility errors. Most (73 percent) special education home pages had accessibility problems, and the majority of these errors severely limited access for individuals with disabilities. The majority of the errors can be easily corrected. Recommendations and methods for improving…

  6. United States Access Board

    MedlinePlus

    ... Communications & IT Access to information and communication technology (ICT) is addressed by Board standards and guidelines issued ... Engineer (November 3) Access Board Approves Rules on ICT Refresh and Medical Diagnostic Equipment (September 14) Access ...

  7. “They just scraped off the calluses”: a mixed methods exploration of foot care access and provision for people with rheumatoid arthritis in south-western Sydney, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is little indication that foot health services in Australia are meeting modern day recommendations for Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) patients. The overall objective of this study was to explore the current state of foot health services for patients with RA with an emphasis on identifying barriers to the receipt of appropriate foot care in South-West Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Methods A mixed (quantitative and qualitative) approach was adopted. Indications for appropriate access to foot care were determined by comparing the foot health, disease and socio-demographic characteristics of patients with unmet foot care demands, foot care users and patients with no demands for foot care. Perceptions of provision of, and access to, foot care were explored by conducting telephone-based interviews using an interpretative phenomenology approach with thematic analysis. Results Twenty-nine participants took part in the cross-sectional quantitative research study design, and 12 participants took part in the interpretative phenomenological approach (qualitative study). Foot care access appeared to be driven predominantly by the presence of rearfoot deformity, which was significantly worse amongst participants in the foot care user group (p = 0.02). Five main themes emerged from the qualitative data: 1) impact of disease-related foot symptoms, 2) footwear difficulties, 3) medical/rheumatology encounters, 4) foot and podiatry care access and experiences, and 5) financial hardship. Conclusions Foot care provision does not appear to be driven by appropriate foot health characteristics such as foot pain or foot-related disability. There may be significant shortfalls in footwear and foot care access and provision in Greater Western Sydney. Several barriers to adequate foot care access and provision were identified and further efforts are required to improve access to and the quality of foot care for people who have RA. Integration of podiatry services within

  8. Estimation of the bio-accessible fraction of Cr, As, Cd and Pb in locally available bread using on-line continuous leaching method coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lamsal, Ram P; Beauchemin, Diane

    2015-03-31

    A previously developed, efficient and simple on-line leaching method was used to assess the maximum bio-accessible fraction (assuming no synergistic effect from other food and beverage) of potentially toxic elements (Cr, As, Cd and Pb) in whole wheat brown and white bread samples. Artificial saliva, gastric juice and intestinal juice were successively pumped into a mini-column, packed with bread (maintained at 37 °C) connected on-line to the nebulizer of an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) instrument equipped with a collision-reaction interface (CRI) using hydrogen as reaction gas to minimize carbon- and chlorine-based polyatomic interferences. In contrast to the conventional batch method to which it was compared, this approach provides real-time monitoring of potentially toxic elements that are continuously released during leaching. Mass balance for both methods was verified at the 95% confidence level. Results obtained from the whole wheat brown and white bread showed that the majority of Cr, Cd and Pb was leached by gastric juice but, in contrast, the majority of As was leached by saliva. While there was higher total content for elements in whole wheat bread than in white bread, a higher percentage of elements were bio-accessible in white bread than in whole wheat bread. Both the on-line and batch methods indicate that 40-98% of toxic elements in bread samples are bio-accessible. While comparison of total analyte concentrations with provisional tolerable daily intake values may indicate some serious health concern for children, when accounting for the bio-accessibility of these elements, bread consumption is found to be safe for all ages.

  9. A Theory of Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribot, Jesse C.; Peluso, Nancy Lee

    2003-01-01

    The term "access" is frequently used by property and natural resource analysts without adequate definition. In this paper we develop a concept of access and examine a broad set of factors that differentiate access from property. We define access as "the "ability" to derive benefits from things," broadening from property's classical definition as…

  10. World Wide Access: Accessible Web Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Univ., Seattle.

    This brief paper considers the application of "universal design" principles to Web page design in order to increase accessibility for people with disabilities. Suggestions are based on the World Wide Web Consortium's accessibility initiative, which has proposed guidelines for all Web authors and federal government standards. Seven guidelines for…

  11. Open Access Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Open access publishing is a hot topic today. But open access publishing can have many different definitions, and pros and cons vary with the definitions. Open access publishing is especially attractive to companies and small colleges or universities that are likely to have many more readers than authors. A downside is that a membership fee sounds…

  12. [Accessible Rural Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Nick, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This issue of the quarterly newsletter "Rural Exchange" provides information and resources on accessible rural housing for the disabled. "Accessible Manufactured Housing Could Increase Rural Home Supply" (Nick Baker) suggests that incorporation of access features such as lever door handles and no-step entries into manufactured housing could help…

  13. Demystifying Remote Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Grant

    2009-01-01

    With money tight, more and more districts are considering remote access as a way to reduce expenses and budget information technology costs more effectively. Remote access allows staff members to work with a hosted software application from any school campus without being tied to a specific physical location. Each school can access critical…

  14. Reflective Database Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lars E.

    2009-01-01

    "Reflective Database Access Control" (RDBAC) is a model in which a database privilege is expressed as a database query itself, rather than as a static privilege contained in an access control list. RDBAC aids the management of database access controls by improving the expressiveness of policies. However, such policies introduce new interactions…

  15. Measuring Spatial Accessibility of Health Care Providers – Introduction of a Variable Distance Decay Function within the Floating Catchment Area (FCA) Method

    PubMed Central

    Groneberg, David A.

    2016-01-01

    We integrated recent improvements within the floating catchment area (FCA) method family into an integrated ‘iFCA`method. Within this method we focused on the distance decay function and its parameter. So far only distance decay functions with constant parameters have been applied. Therefore, we developed a variable distance decay function to be used within the FCA method. We were able to replace the impedance coefficient β by readily available distribution parameter (i.e. median and standard deviation (SD)) within a logistic based distance decay function. Hence, the function is shaped individually for every single population location by the median and SD of all population-to-provider distances within a global catchment size. Theoretical application of the variable distance decay function showed conceptually sound results. Furthermore, the existence of effective variable catchment sizes defined by the asymptotic approach to zero of the distance decay function was revealed, satisfying the need for variable catchment sizes. The application of the iFCA method within an urban case study in Berlin (Germany) confirmed the theoretical fit of the suggested method. In summary, we introduced for the first time, a variable distance decay function within an integrated FCA method. This function accounts for individual travel behaviors determined by the distribution of providers. Additionally, the function inherits effective variable catchment sizes and therefore obviates the need for determining variable catchment sizes separately. PMID:27391649

  16. Measuring Spatial Accessibility of Health Care Providers - Introduction of a Variable Distance Decay Function within the Floating Catchment Area (FCA) Method.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Jan; Groneberg, David A

    2016-01-01

    We integrated recent improvements within the floating catchment area (FCA) method family into an integrated 'iFCA`method. Within this method we focused on the distance decay function and its parameter. So far only distance decay functions with constant parameters have been applied. Therefore, we developed a variable distance decay function to be used within the FCA method. We were able to replace the impedance coefficient β by readily available distribution parameter (i.e. median and standard deviation (SD)) within a logistic based distance decay function. Hence, the function is shaped individually for every single population location by the median and SD of all population-to-provider distances within a global catchment size. Theoretical application of the variable distance decay function showed conceptually sound results. Furthermore, the existence of effective variable catchment sizes defined by the asymptotic approach to zero of the distance decay function was revealed, satisfying the need for variable catchment sizes. The application of the iFCA method within an urban case study in Berlin (Germany) confirmed the theoretical fit of the suggested method. In summary, we introduced for the first time, a variable distance decay function within an integrated FCA method. This function accounts for individual travel behaviors determined by the distribution of providers. Additionally, the function inherits effective variable catchment sizes and therefore obviates the need for determining variable catchment sizes separately. PMID:27391649

  17. Publishing in Open Access Education Journals: The Authors' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coonin, Bryna; Younce, Leigh M.

    2010-01-01

    Open access publishing is now an accepted method of scholarly communication. However, the greatest traction for open access publishing thus far has been in the sciences. Penetration of open access publishing has been much slower among the social sciences. This study surveys 309 authors from recent issues of open access journals in education to…

  18. Accessing remote data bases using microcomputers

    PubMed Central

    Saul, Peter D.

    1985-01-01

    General practitioners' access to remote data bases using microcomputers is increasing, making even the most obscure information readily available. Some of the systems available to general practitioners in the UK are described and the methods of access are outlined. General practitioners should be aware of the advances in technology; data bases are increasing in size, the cost of access is falling and their use is becoming easier. PMID:4020756

  19. Controlling Access to Suicide Means

    PubMed Central

    Sarchiapone, Marco; Mandelli, Laura; Iosue, Miriam; Andrisano, Costanza; Roy, Alec

    2011-01-01

    Background: Restricting access to common means of suicide, such as firearms, toxic gas, pesticides and other, has been shown to be effective in reducing rates of death in suicide. In the present review we aimed to summarize the empirical and clinical literature on controlling the access to means of suicide. Methods: This review made use of both MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science and the Cochrane library databases, identifying all English articles with the keywords “suicide means”, “suicide method”, “suicide prediction” or “suicide prevention” and other relevant keywords. Results: A number of factors may influence an individual’s decision regarding method in a suicide act, but there is substantial support that easy access influences the choice of method. In many countries, restrictions of access to common means of suicide has lead to lower overall suicide rates, particularly regarding suicide by firearms in USA, detoxification of domestic and motor vehicle gas in England and other countries, toxic pesticides in rural areas, barriers at jumping sites and hanging, by introducing “safe rooms” in prisons and hospitals. Moreover, decline in prescription of barbiturates and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), as well as limitation of drugs pack size for paracetamol and salicylate has reduced suicides by overdose, while increased prescription of SSRIs seems to have lowered suicidal rates. Conclusions: Restriction to means of suicide may be particularly effective in contexts where the method is popular, highly lethal, widely available, and/or not easily substituted by other similar methods. However, since there is some risk of means substitution, restriction of access should be implemented in conjunction with other suicide prevention strategies. PMID:22408588

  20. Finding Information in (Very Large) Digital Libraries: A Deep Log Approach to Determining Differences in Use According to Method of Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholas, David; Huntington, Paul; Jamali, Hamid R.; Tenopir, Carol

    2006-01-01

    This report presents the early findings of an exploratory deep log analysis (DLA) of journal usage on OhioLINK, reporting on the information seeking methods of users. Compared to the users who sought information by browsing journals, those who conducted searches to find information and articles tended to record longer session times and viewed more…

  1. Expanding Access to a New, More Affordable Levonorgestrel Intrauterine System in Kenya: Service Delivery Costs Compared With Other Contraceptive Methods and Perspectives of Key Opinion Leaders

    PubMed Central

    Rademacher, Kate H; Solomon, Marsden; Brett, Tracey; Bratt, John H; Pascual, Claire; Njunguru, Jesse; Steiner, Markus J

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG IUS) is one of the most effective forms of contraception and offers important non-contraceptive health benefits. However, it is not widely available in developing countries, largely due to the high price of existing products. Medicines360 plans to introduce its new, more affordable LNG IUS in Kenya. The public‐sector transfer price will vary by volume between US$12 to US$16 per unit; for an order of 100,000 units, the public-sector transfer price will be approximately US$15 per unit. Methods: We calculated the direct service delivery cost per couple-years of protection (CYP) of various family planning methods. The model includes the costs of contraceptive commodities, consumable supplies, instruments per client visit, and direct labor for counseling, insertion, removal, and resupply, if required. The model does not include costs of demand creation or training. We conducted interviews with key opinion leaders in Kenya to identify considerations for scale-up of a new LNG IUS, including strategies to overcome barriers that have contributed to low uptake of the copper intrauterine device. Results: The direct service delivery cost of Medicines360’s LNG IUS per CYP compares favorably with other contraceptive methods commonly procured for public-sector distribution in Kenya. The cost is slightly lower than that of the 3-month contraceptive injectable, which is currently the most popular method in Kenya. Almost all key opinion leaders agreed that introducing a more affordable LNG IUS could increase demand and uptake of the method. They thought that women seeking the product’s non-contraceptive health benefits would be a key market segment, and most agreed that the reduced menstrual bleeding associated with the method would likely be viewed as an advantage. The key opinion leaders indicated that myths and misconceptions among providers and clients about IUDs must be addressed, and that demand creation

  2. Librarians and Libraries Supporting Open Access Publishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Jennifer; Koufogiannakis, Denise; Ryan, Pam

    2009-01-01

    As new models of scholarly communication emerge, librarians and libraries have responded by developing and supporting new methods of storing and providing access to information and by creating new publishing support services. This article will examine the roles of libraries and librarians in developing and supporting open access publishing…

  3. Access to modern contraception.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Michael J; Stanback, John; Shelton, James

    2006-06-01

    Access to modern contraception has become a recognized human right, improving the health and well-being of women, families and societies worldwide. However, contraceptive access remains uneven. Irregular contraceptive supply, limited numbers of service delivery points and specific geographic, economic, informational, psychosocial and administrative barriers (including medical barriers) undermine access in many settings. Widening the range of providers enabled to offer contraception can improve contraceptive access, particularly where resources are most scarce. International efforts to remove medical barriers include the World Health Organization's Medical Eligibility Criteria. Based on the best available evidence, these criteria provide guidance for weighing the risks and benefits of contraceptive choice among women with specific clinical conditions. Clinical job aids can also improve access. More research is needed to further elucidate the pathways for expanding contraceptive access. Further progress in removing medical barriers will depend on systems for improving provider education and promoting evidence-based contraceptive service delivery. PMID:16443395

  4. Web Accessibility and Guidelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Simon; Yesilada, Yeliz

    Access to, and movement around, complex online environments, of which the World Wide Web (Web) is the most popular example, has long been considered an important and major issue in the Web design and usability field. The commonly used slang phrase ‘surfing the Web’ implies rapid and free access, pointing to its importance among designers and users alike. It has also been long established that this potentially complex and difficult access is further complicated, and becomes neither rapid nor free, if the user is disabled. There are millions of people who have disabilities that affect their use of the Web. Web accessibility aims to help these people to perceive, understand, navigate, and interact with, as well as contribute to, the Web, and thereby the society in general. This accessibility is, in part, facilitated by the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) currently moving from version one to two. These guidelines are intended to encourage designers to make sure their sites conform to specifications, and in that conformance enable the assistive technologies of disabled users to better interact with the page content. In this way, it was hoped that accessibility could be supported. While this is in part true, guidelines do not solve all problems and the new WCAG version two guidelines are surrounded by controversy and intrigue. This chapter aims to establish the published literature related to Web accessibility and Web accessibility guidelines, and discuss limitations of the current guidelines and future directions.

  5. Reoperative venous access.

    PubMed

    Juno, Russell J; Knott, Andrew W; Racadio, John; Warner, Brad W

    2003-05-01

    The maintenance of long-term venous access is critical to the livelihood of children in a variety of clinical situations, especially those who are dependent on parenteral nutrition. Whereas the traditional routes of either peripheral or central venous access are initially adequate, most of these sites eventually succumb to the pitfalls associated with long-term venous access. This review provides a comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach to the management of reoperative venous access with regard to preoperative planning and imaging and specific techniques in interventional radiology and surgery.

  6. Channel Access in Erlang

    SciTech Connect

    Nicklaus, Dennis J.

    2013-10-13

    We have developed an Erlang language implementation of the Channel Access protocol. Included are low-level functions for encoding and decoding Channel Access protocol network packets as well as higher level functions for monitoring or setting EPICS process variables. This provides access to EPICS process variables for the Fermilab Acnet control system via our Erlang-based front-end architecture without having to interface to C/C++ programs and libraries. Erlang is a functional programming language originally developed for real-time telecommunications applications. Its network programming features and list management functions make it particularly well-suited for the task of managing multiple Channel Access circuits and PV monitors.

  7. Updating realistic access.

    PubMed

    Rossner, Mike

    2010-05-01

    Nearly six years ago Ira Mellman, then Editor-in-Chief of the JCB, published an editorial entitled "Providing realistic access" (1). It described the Journal's efforts to reconcile its subscription-based business model with the goal of providing public access to scholarly journal content. Since then, developments in the public-access movement are bringing us closer to the ideal of universal public access. But will there still be a place for selective journals like the JCB when we achieve that objective? PMID:20375430

  8. AccessAbility @ Cleveland Public Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mates, Barbara T.

    2003-01-01

    Describes several programs that were developed by staff at the Cleveland (Ohio) Public Library to be accessible to users with disabilities. Highlights include a Braille reading program; sensory garden; poetry club; book club based on talking books; wheelchair athletics; touching museum artifacts; and a mobile library for users who could not visit…

  9. 18 CFR 1313.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., reassignment of the services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits... compliance with this section. The agency, in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet... (a)(3), alternative methods of achieving program accessibility include— (i) Using...

  10. 18 CFR 1313.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., reassignment of the services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits... compliance with this section. The agency, in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet... (a)(3), alternative methods of achieving program accessibility include— (i) Using...

  11. 18 CFR 1313.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., reassignment of the services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits... compliance with this section. The agency, in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet... (a)(3), alternative methods of achieving program accessibility include— (i) Using...

  12. 18 CFR 1313.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., reassignment of the services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits... compliance with this section. The agency, in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet... (a)(3), alternative methods of achieving program accessibility include— (i) Using...

  13. Access to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Felecia; De Oliver, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    This case study researches the degree to which the location and services offered by a multicampus university, geographically situated consistent with the commercial principles of a large mass-market enterprise, facilitate access for educationally underserved groups. First, the necessity of democratizing educational access to an underprivileged…

  14. Accessing the Microform Publication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schindler, Stan

    1985-01-01

    Characterizes types of indexing programs used by Research Publications, Inc. and describes provision of access to four major projects: "The Official Washington Post Index" (provides access to newspaper and microfilm edition); "The Eighteenth Century"; "The Declassified Documents Reference System" (ongoing fiche project abstracted and indexed…

  15. Planning for Accessibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassell, Marianne Kotch

    This practical manual provides useful, concrete ideas and suggestions to help public libraries make libraries more accessible to persons with disabilities. Most suggestions are for persons who have difficulty with mobility. Reviews of pertinent laws and regulations are followed by concrete, step-by step suggestions for planning for accessibility,…

  16. Intellectual Access to Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsin-Liang; Rasmussen, Edie M.

    1999-01-01

    The increased availability of digital images is accompanied by a need for solutions to the problems inherent in indexing them for retrieval. Problems in image description and access are discussed, with a perspective on traditional and new solutions. Recent developments in intellectual access to images are surveyed and contrasted with…

  17. Granting Each Equal Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walling, Linda Lucas

    1992-01-01

    Summarizes federal legislation regarding equal access for students with disabilities and discusses environmental barriers to accessibility in the library media center. Solutions to these design problems are suggested in the following areas: material formats and space requirements; the physical setting, including furniture, floor coverings,…

  18. Improving School Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Few things are more important for school safety and security than controlling access to buildings and grounds. It is relatively easy to incorporate effective access control measures in new school designs but more difficult in existing schools, where most building and site features cannot be readily altered or reconfigured. The National…

  19. Access to Scientific Publications: The Scientist's Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Voronin, Yegor; Myrzahmetov, Askar; Bernstein, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Background Scientific publishing is undergoing significant changes due to the growth of online publications, increases in the number of open access journals, and policies of funders and universities requiring authors to ensure that their publications become publicly accessible. Most studies of the impact of these changes have focused on the growth of articles available through open access or the number of open-access journals. Here, we investigated access to publications at a number of institutes and universities around the world, focusing on publications in HIV vaccine research – an area of biomedical research with special importance to the developing world. Methods and Findings We selected research papers in HIV vaccine research field, creating: 1) a first set of 50 most recently published papers with keywords “HIV vaccine” and 2) a second set of 200 articles randomly selected from those cited in the first set. Access to the majority (80%) of the recently published articles required subscription, while cited literature was much more accessible (67% freely available online). Subscriptions at a number of institutions around the world were assessed for providing access to subscription-only articles from the two sets. The access levels varied widely, ranging among institutions from 20% to 90%. Through the WHO-supported HINARI program, institutes in low-income countries had access comparable to that of institutes in the North. Finally, we examined the response rates for reprint requests sent to corresponding authors, a method commonly used before internet access became widespread. Contacting corresponding authors with requests for electronic copies of articles by email resulted in a 55-60% success rate, although in some cases it took up to 1.5 months to get a response. Conclusions While research articles are increasingly available on the internet in open access format, institutional subscriptions continue to play an important role. However, subscriptions do not

  20. RNA Accessibility in cubic time

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The accessibility of RNA binding motifs controls the efficacy of many biological processes. Examples are the binding of miRNA, siRNA or bacterial sRNA to their respective targets. Similarly, the accessibility of the Shine-Dalgarno sequence is essential for translation to start in prokaryotes. Furthermore, many classes of RNA binding proteins require the binding site to be single-stranded. Results We introduce a way to compute the accessibility of all intervals within an RNA sequence in (n3) time. This improves on previous implementations where only intervals of one defined length were computed in the same time. While the algorithm is in the same efficiency class as sampling approaches, the results, especially if the probabilities get small, are much more exact. Conclusions Our algorithm significantly speeds up methods for the prediction of RNA-RNA interactions and other applications that require the accessibility of RNA molecules. The algorithm is already available in the program RNAplfold of the ViennaRNA package. PMID:21388531

  1. A quantum access network.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Bernd; Dynes, James F; Lucamarini, Marco; Sharpe, Andrew W; Yuan, Zhiliang; Shields, Andrew J

    2013-09-01

    The theoretically proven security of quantum key distribution (QKD) could revolutionize the way in which information exchange is protected in the future. Several field tests of QKD have proven it to be a reliable technology for cryptographic key exchange and have demonstrated nodal networks of point-to-point links. However, until now no convincing answer has been given to the question of how to extend the scope of QKD beyond niche applications in dedicated high security networks. Here we introduce and experimentally demonstrate the concept of a 'quantum access network': based on simple and cost-effective telecommunication technologies, the scheme can greatly expand the number of users in quantum networks and therefore vastly broaden their appeal. We show that a high-speed single-photon detector positioned at a network node can be shared between up to 64 users for exchanging secret keys with the node, thereby significantly reducing the hardware requirements for each user added to the network. This point-to-multipoint architecture removes one of the main obstacles restricting the widespread application of QKD. It presents a viable method for realizing multi-user QKD networks with efficient use of resources, and brings QKD closer to becoming a widespread technology. PMID:24005413

  2. Remote direct memory access

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.

    2012-12-11

    Methods, parallel computers, and computer program products are disclosed for remote direct memory access. Embodiments include transmitting, from an origin DMA engine on an origin compute node to a plurality target DMA engines on target compute nodes, a request to send message, the request to send message specifying a data to be transferred from the origin DMA engine to data storage on each target compute node; receiving, by each target DMA engine on each target compute node, the request to send message; preparing, by each target DMA engine, to store data according to the data storage reference and the data length, including assigning a base storage address for the data storage reference; sending, by one or more of the target DMA engines, an acknowledgment message acknowledging that all the target DMA engines are prepared to receive a data transmission from the origin DMA engine; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, the acknowledgement message from the one or more of the target DMA engines; and transferring, by the origin DMA engine, data to data storage on each of the target compute nodes according to the data storage reference using a single direct put operation.

  3. Access to postacute rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Buntin, Melinda Beeuwkes

    2007-11-01

    Each year, more than 10 million Medicare beneficiaries are discharged from acute care hospitals into postacute care (PAC) settings, including inpatient rehabilitation facilities, skilled nursing facilities, and homes with services from home health agencies. These beneficiaries include very frail and vulnerable elders, many of whom have suffered from an acute event such as a stroke or a fall resulting in hip fracture, all of whom are judged unable to return to their homes without further care. Whether beneficiaries receive PAC and the type and intensity of care they receive is influenced not only by clinical factors, but by nonclinical factors including provider supply and financing, especially Medicare's methods of payment. This article provides a definition of PAC and discusses the wide cross-sectional variation in the use of postacute rehabilitation. It then discusses recent changes to PAC provider payment that have raised concerns about access to postacute rehabilitation, trends in the use of PAC, and what these trends imply about the appropriateness of PAC as it is now delivered. It concludes by identifying issues about the policy and research implications of recent developments and the PAC literature reviewed.

  4. Phone Scam Prevention Act of 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Nelson, Bill [D-FL

    2014-11-20

    11/20/2014 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (text of measure as introduced: CR S6208-6209) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. Stop Online Booking Scams Act of 2016

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Daines, Steve [R-MT

    2016-09-27

    09/27/2016 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (text of measure as introduced: CR S6141-6142) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Stop Online Booking Scams Act of 2016

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Daines, Steve [R-MT

    2016-09-27

    09/27/2016 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (Sponsor introductory remarks on measure: CR S6141-6142; text of measure as introduced: CR S6141-6142) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Privacy Act FOIA Reading Rooms FOIA Request Fee Regulations Freedom of Information Act Contacts Frequently Asked ... Informal Interpretations Early Termination Notices Current Thresholds Filing Fee Information Post-Consummation Filings (HSR Violations) Medicare Act ...

  8. Marketing scam spoils hep C treatment.

    PubMed

    1998-12-01

    Tandem packaging of the drugs Ribavirin (Rebetol) and interferon-alfa (Intron A), used to treat hepatitis C, limits patients' choice of which brand of interferon-alfa they can select. Marketed collectively as Rebetron, by their sponsor Schering-Plough, this combination is expensive and may restrict reimbursement from third party insurers if an alternate brand of interferon-alfa is needed. Currently, Ribavirin, which is more effective with interferon-alfa, is only available in this pairing.

  9. Including Language Access into Medicaid ACO Design.

    PubMed

    Gershon, Rachel; Morris, Lisa; Ferguson, Warren

    2016-09-01

    Quality health care relies upon communication in a patient's preferred language. Language access in health care occurs when individuals are: (1) Welcomed by providers regardless of language ability; and (2) Offered quality language services as part of their care. Federal law generally requires access to health care and quality language services for deaf and Limited English Proficient (LEP) patients in health care settings, but these patients still find it hard to access health care and quality language services.Meanwhile, several states are implementing Medicaid Accountable Care Organization (ACO) initiatives to reduce health care costs and improve health care quality. Alternative payment methods used in these initiatives can give Accountable Care Organizations more flexibility to design linguistically accessible care, but they can also put ACOs at increased financial risk for the cost of care. If these new payment methods do not account for differences in patient language needs, ACO initiatives could have the unintended consequence of rewarding ACOs who do not reach out to deaf and LEP communities or offer quality language services.We reviewed public documents related to Medicaid ACO initiatives in six states. Some of these documents address language access. More could be done, however, to pay for language access efforts. This article describes Medicaid ACO initiatives and explores how different payment tools could be leveraged to reward ACOs for increased access to care and quality language services. We find that a combination of payment tools might be helpful to encourage both access and quality. PMID:27587453

  10. Facilitating Full-text Access to Biomedical Literature Using Open Access Resources.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hongyu; Hou, Zhen; Li, Jiao

    2015-01-01

    Open access (OA) resources and local libraries often have their own literature databases, especially in the field of biomedicine. We have developed a method of linking a local library to a biomedical OA resource facilitating researchers' full-text article access. The method uses a model based on vector space to measure similarities between two articles in local library and OA resources. The method achieved an F-score of 99.61%. This method of article linkage and mapping between local library and OA resources is available for use. Through this work, we have improved the full-text access of the biomedical OA resources.

  11. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-01-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks

    Guest Editors Jun Zheng, University of Ottawa Nirwan Ansari, New Jersey Institute of Technology

    Submission Deadline: 1 June 2005

    Background

    With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the

  12. Internet opens access to contraceptive methods.

    PubMed

    1998-09-01

    US women are able to import contraceptive agents not available in the US from two Canadian companies who advertise their products on the World Wide Web. US regulations permit importation of small quantities of drugs for personal use even if the drugs have not received US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval. Most US women order the Protectaid contraceptive sponge, which is sold over-the-counter in Canada, because contraceptive sponges are no longer available in the US. One of the companies also exports the levonorgestrel-releasing IUD, but, in this case, the company only ships the product to physicians. The legal liabilities of inserting an IUD that has not received FDA approval are the same as for any sanctioned product. While manufacturers of a product not distributed in the US may have protection from liability, the distributor may be liable. PMID:12348705

  13. Norway's ICT Accessibility Legislation, Methods and Indicators.

    PubMed

    Rygg, Malin; Rømen, Dagfinn; Sterri, Brynhild Runa

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Norwegian legislation on Universal Design of information and communication technology (ICT) and how the Norwegian Authority for Universal Design of ICT works to enforce and achieve the goals behind the legislation. The Authority uses indicators to check websites for compliance with the regulations. This paper describes the rationale and intended use for the indicators and how they are used for both supervision and benchmarks as well as a way of gathering data to give an overview of the current state of Universal Design of websites in Norway. PMID:27534342

  14. Critical Access Hospitals (CAH)

    MedlinePlus

    ... CAH Conditions of Participation . What are the location requirements for CAH status? Critical Access Hospitals must be ... clinic that does not meet the CAH distance requirements? As of January 1, 2008, all CAHs, including ...

  15. HRP Data Accessibility 2009

    NASA Video Gallery

    Dr. Clarence Sams spoke at the 2009 Human Research Program's Investigators Workshop on the current status of Data Accessibility. In this presentation he discusses the content of the Human Life Scie...

  16. Extra- and intrathoracic access.

    PubMed

    Lazarides, Miltos K; Georgakarakos, Efstratios I; Schoretsanitis, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    The most complex patients requiring vascular access are those with bilateral central vein occlusions. Endovascular repair of the central lesions when feasible allow upper extremity use for access. When endovascular repair is not feasible, femoral vein transposition should be the next choice. When lower limb access sites have been exhausted or are contraindicated as in obese patients and in patients with peripheral arterial obstructive disease, a range of extrathoracic "exotic" extra-anatomic access procedures as the necklace cross-chest arteriovenous (AV) grafts, the ipsilateral axillo-axillary loops, the brachial-jugular AV grafts, the axillo-femoral AV grafts or even intra-thoracic ones as the right atrial AV bypasses represent the vascular surgeon's last resort. The selection among those extra-anatomical chest-wall procedures should be based upon each patient's anatomy or patient-specific factors. PMID:24817469

  17. Access cavity preparation.

    PubMed

    Adams, N; Tomson, P L

    2014-03-01

    Each stage of root canal treatment should be carried out to the highest possible standard. The access cavity is arguably the most important technical stage, as subsequent preparation of the root canal(s) can be severely comprised if this is not well executed. Inadequate access can lead to canals being left untreated, poorly disinfected, difficult to shape and obturate, and may ultimately lead to the failure of the treatment. This paper highlights common features in root canal anatomy and outlines basic principles for locating root canals and producing a good access cavity. It also explores each phase of the preparation in detail and offers suggestions of instruments that have been specifically designed to overcome potential difficulties in the process. Good access design and preparation will result in an operative environment which will facilitate cleaning, shaping and obturation of the root canal system in order to maximise success.

  18. Remote Access Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Erin

    1994-01-01

    Describes the Remote Access Astronomy Project, a computerized optical telescope and dial-in data distribution system that places high-quality images and image processing techniques into computer workstations in junior and high school classrooms. (PR)

  19. Adapting Web Browsers for Accessibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Paul; Birkmire, Mike

    This paper examines ways to make World Wide Web browsers accessible for individuals with disabilities, and through them, gain access to the information on the Web. It discusses which browsers can be made more accessible and evaluates different types of input. Mouse access, keyboard access, and voice input are reviewed. Processing aids, such as…

  20. Mobile multiple access study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Multiple access techniques (FDMA, CDMA, TDMA) for the mobile user and attempts to identify the current best technique are discussed. Traffic loading is considered as well as voice and data modulation and spacecraft and system design. Emphasis is placed on developing mobile terminal cost estimates for the selected design. In addition, design examples are presented for the alternative techniques of multiple access in order to compare with the selected technique.

  1. Vascular Access in Children

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamurthy, Ganesh Keller, Marc S.

    2011-02-15

    Establishment of stable vascular access is one of the essential and most challenging procedures in a pediatric hospital. Many clinical specialties provide vascular service in a pediatric hospital. At the top of the 'expert procedural pyramid' is the pediatric interventional radiologist, who is best suited and trained to deliver this service. Growing awareness regarding the safety and high success rate of vascular access using image guidance has led to increased demand from clinicians to provide around-the-clock vascular access service by pediatric interventional radiologists. Hence, the success of a vascular access program, with the pediatric interventional radiologist as the key provider, is challenging, and a coordinated multidisciplinary team effort is essential for success. However, there are few dedicated pediatric interventional radiologists across the globe, and also only a couple of training programs exist for pediatric interventions. This article gives an overview of the technical aspects of pediatric vascular access and provides useful tips for obtaining vascular access in children safely and successfully using image guidance.

  2. Availability and Accessibility in an Open Access Institutional Repository: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jongwook; Burnett, Gary; Vandegrift, Micah; Baeg, Jung Hoon; Morris, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study explores the extent to which an institutional repository makes papers available and accessible on the open Web by using 170 journal articles housed in DigiNole Commons, the institutional repository at Florida State University. Method: To analyse the repository's impact on availability and accessibility, we conducted…

  3. 10 CFR 1040.74 - Accessibility in historic properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... L. 89-665, 80 Stat 915, 16 U.S.C. 470; 11593, 3 CFR 1971 Comp., p. 154; 36 CFR part 800) ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessibility in historic properties. 1040.74 Section 1040... 1973, as Amended Accessibility § 1040.74 Accessibility in historic properties. (a) Methods...

  4. 10 CFR 1040.74 - Accessibility in historic properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... L. 89-665, 80 Stat 915, 16 U.S.C. 470; 11593, 3 CFR 1971 Comp., p. 154; 36 CFR part 800) ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accessibility in historic properties. 1040.74 Section 1040... 1973, as Amended Accessibility § 1040.74 Accessibility in historic properties. (a) Methods...

  5. 44 CFR 16.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery of services... section. The agency, in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet accessibility requirements to...), alternative methods of achieving program accessibility include— (i) Using audio-visual materials and...

  6. 10 CFR 4.550 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery of services at alternate accessible... alterations to existing buildings, shall meet accessibility requirements to the extent compelled by the... required because of § 4.550(a)(2) or (a)(3), alternative methods of achieving program accessibility...

  7. 10 CFR 4.550 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery of services at alternate accessible... alterations to existing buildings, shall meet accessibility requirements to the extent compelled by the... required because of § 4.550(a)(2) or (a)(3), alternative methods of achieving program accessibility...

  8. 44 CFR 16.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery of services... section. The agency, in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet accessibility requirements to...), alternative methods of achieving program accessibility include— (i) Using audio-visual materials and...

  9. 45 CFR 1153.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., reassignment of services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery... section. The agency, in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet accessibility requirements to...), alternative methods of achieving program accessibility include— (i) Using audio-visual materials and...

  10. 44 CFR 16.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery of services... section. The agency, in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet accessibility requirements to...), alternative methods of achieving program accessibility include— (i) Using audio-visual materials and...

  11. 45 CFR 1153.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., reassignment of services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery... section. The agency, in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet accessibility requirements to...), alternative methods of achieving program accessibility include— (i) Using audio-visual materials and...

  12. 45 CFR 1153.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., reassignment of services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery... section. The agency, in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet accessibility requirements to...), alternative methods of achieving program accessibility include— (i) Using audio-visual materials and...

  13. Concurrency and Time in Role-Based Access Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Chia-Chu; Bayrak, Coskun

    Role-based access control (RBAC) has been proposed as an alternative solution for expressing access control policies. The generalized temporal RBAC (GTRBAC) extends RBAC by adding time in order to support timed based access control policies. However, GTRBAC does not address certain issues of concurrency such as, synchronization. We propose an approach to the expressions of time and concurrency in RBAC based on timed Petri nets. A formal verification method for access control policies is also proposed.

  14. Current topics on vascular access for hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Tordoir, J H M; Van Der Sande, F M; De Haan, M W

    2004-09-01

    Vascular access remains the lifeline for end-stage renal failure patients, which have been treated by chronic intermittent hemodialysis. Due to the steady increase in the number of patients with difficulties to create access, in particular in elderly with various comorbidities, the need for more insight and regulations have evolved into the publications of the American and European guidelines. From the latter it may be obvious that an adequate preoperative assessment followed by the creation of autogenous arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) is far better and preferred to the implantation of grafts. Vascular access maintenance by monitoring and elective percutanuous or surgical revision is of utmost importance to keep the access site functional. Despite up-to-date measures for vascular access maintenance, various complications may treaten not only the access site but also quality and expectance of life. Thrombotic occlusion remains a major event, leading to permanent failure in 10% of AVFs and 20% of grafts each year. Interventional (percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and/or stent implantation) or surgical revision of thrombosed accesses have similar outcomes with a high rate of reinterventions. The elderly diabetic population with peripheral arteriosclerotic obstructive disease is in particular prone to angio-access induced handischemia. When not timely and properly treated this may lead to minor or major amputation, further hampering quality of life. Also, the enormous application in the past 2 decades of acute central venous lines has lead to a significant increase of central venous obstruction with concomittent morbidity and problems creating vascular access in the upper extremities. Radiological intervention in these cases is a primary option, leaving surgical reconstruction as a second best method. It may be obvious that creation and maintenance of hemodialysis vascular access has become an important and time-consuming speciality. Only an up

  15. Access to space studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James A.

    1993-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is currently considering possible directions in Earth-to-orbit vehicle development under a study called 'Access to Space.' This agency-wide study is considering commercial launch vehicles, human transportation, space station logistics, and other space transportation requirements over the next 40 years. Three options are being considered for human transportation: continued use of the Space Shuttle; development of a small personnel carrier (personnel logistics system (PLS)); or development of an advanced vehicle such as a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO). Several studies related to the overall Access to Space study are reported in this document.

  16. HRP Data Accessibility Current Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sams, Clarence

    2009-01-01

    Overview of talk: a) Content of Human Life Science data; b) Data archive structure; c) Applicable legal documents and policies; and d) Methods for data access. Life Science Data Archive (LSDA) contains research data from NASA-funded experiments, primarily data from flight experiments and ground analog data collected at NASA facilities. Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH) contains electronic health records (medical data) of all astronauts, including mission data. Data are collected for clinical purposes. Clinical data are analyzed by LSAH epidemiologists to identify trends in crew health and implement changes in pre-, in-, or post-flight medical care.

  17. Managing Information Resources for Accessibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Services Administration, Washington, DC. Clearinghouse on Computer Accommodation.

    This handbook presents guidance for federal managers and other personnel who are unfamiliar with the policy and practice of information accessibility to accommodate users with disabilities and to provide for their effective access to information resources. It addresses federal requirements for accessibility, adopting accessibility as a sound…

  18. Digital Scholarship and Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losoff, Barbara; Pence, Harry E.

    2010-01-01

    Open access publications provide scholars with unrestricted access to the "conversation" that is the basis for the advancement of knowledge. The large number of open access journals, archives, and depositories already in existence demonstrates the technical and economic viability of providing unrestricted access to the literature that is the…

  19. Steps Toward Campus Accessibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Physical Plant Administrators of Universities and Colleges, Washington, DC.

    Photo-essays focus on the progress colleges and universities have made in achieving program accessibility for handicapped persons in compliance with Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Both common problems and innovative solutions to unique problems are included. "People We Never See" introduces the challenge higher education faces to…

  20. ACCESS Project: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, Heiko

    2015-04-01

    The ACCESS project addressed the development, testing, and demonstration of the proposed advanced technologies and the associated emission and fuel economy improvement at an engine dynamometer and on a full-scale vehicle. Improve fuel economy by 25% with minimum performance penalties Achieve SULEV level emissions with gasoline Demonstrate multi-mode combustion engine management system

  1. Managing access block.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Peter; Scown, Paul; Campbell, Donald

    2002-01-01

    There is pessimism regarding the ability of the Acute Health Sector to manage access block for emergency and elective patients. Melbourne Health suffered an acute bed crisis in 2001 resulting in record ambulance diversions and emergency department (ED) delays. We conducted an observational study to reduce access block for emergency patients whilst maintaining elective throughput at Melbourne Health. This involved a clinician-led taskforce using previously proven principles for organisational change to implement 51 actions to improve patient access over a three-month period. The primary outcome measures were ambulance diversion, emergency patients waiting more than 12 hours for an inpatient bed, elective throughput and theatre cancellations. Despite a reduction in multi-day bed numbers all primary objectives were met, ambulance diversion decreased to minimal levels, 12-hour waits decreased by 40% and elective throughput was maintained. Theatre cancellations were also minimised. We conclude that access block can be improved by clinician-led implementation of proven process improvements over a short time frame. The ability to sustain change over the longer term requires further study.

  2. Partners: Promoting Accessible Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Janet; Gravink, Jill

    1995-01-01

    The Promoting Accessible Recreation through Networking, Education, Resources and Services (PARTNERS) Project, a partnership between Northeast Passage, the University of New Hampshire, and Granite State Independent Living Foundation, helps create barrier-free recreation for individuals with physical disabilities. The paper describes PARTNERS and…

  3. Internet 2 Access Grid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simco, Greg

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of the Internet 2 Initiative, which is based on collaboration among universities, businesses, and government, focuses on the Access Grid, a Computational Grid that includes interactive multimedia within high-speed networks to provide resources to enable remote collaboration among the research community. (Author/LRW)

  4. Accessibility Standards, Illustrated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Michael A.

    The book sets forth Illinois environmental accessibility standards for disabled persons based on observation and interview data. Photographs, drawings, and detailed floor plans are included in sections dealing with human data (including space requirements for maneuvering wheelchairs, color blindness, incontinence, and severe auditory or visual…

  5. College Access Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    College Access Marketing (CAM) is a relatively new phenomenon that seeks to positively influence the college-going rate. This report defines CAM, describes CAM examples, and discusses how CAM seeks to counter barriers to college. It explores four main elements of CAM: information, marketing, advocacy, and social mobilization. Further, it…

  6. Serving up Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    When low-income students returned to Chicago public schools this fall, many had better access to technology, thanks to a public-private partnership. Chicago families with children enrolled in the National School Lunch Program are eligible for subsidized computers and Internet connections through an agreement between the city and telecom giant…

  7. CAS. Controlled Access Security

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, B.; Pomeroy, G.

    1989-12-01

    The Security Alarm System is a data acquisition and control system which collects data from intrusion sensors and displays the information in a real-time environment for operators. The Access Control System monitors and controls the movement of personnel with the use of card readers and biometrics hand readers.

  8. Fixed Access Network Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornaglia, Bruno; Young, Gavin; Marchetta, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Fixed broadband network deployments are moving inexorably to the use of Next Generation Access (NGA) technologies and architectures. These NGA deployments involve building fiber infrastructure increasingly closer to the customer in order to increase the proportion of fiber on the customer's access connection (Fibre-To-The-Home/Building/Door/Cabinet… i.e. FTTx). This increases the speed of services that can be sold and will be increasingly required to meet the demands of new generations of video services as we evolve from HDTV to "Ultra-HD TV" with 4k and 8k lines of video resolution. However, building fiber access networks is a costly endeavor. It requires significant capital in order to cover any significant geographic coverage. Hence many companies are forming partnerships and joint-ventures in order to share the NGA network construction costs. One form of such a partnership involves two companies agreeing to each build to cover a certain geographic area and then "cross-selling" NGA products to each other in order to access customers within their partner's footprint (NGA coverage area). This is tantamount to a bi-lateral wholesale partnership. The concept of Fixed Access Network Sharing (FANS) is to address the possibility of sharing infrastructure with a high degree of flexibility for all network operators involved. By providing greater configuration control over the NGA network infrastructure, the service provider has a greater ability to define the network and hence to define their product capabilities at the active layer. This gives the service provider partners greater product development autonomy plus the ability to differentiate from each other at the active network layer.

  9. Optimal coding schemes for conflict-free channel access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, Douglas W.; Thomas, John B.

    1989-10-01

    A method is proposed for conflict-free access of a broadcast channel. The method uses a variable-length coding scheme to determine which user gains access to the channel. For an idle channel, an equation for optimal expected overhead is derived and a coding scheme that produces optimal codes is presented. Algorithms for generating optimal codes for access on a busy channel are discussed. Suboptimal schemes are found that perform in a nearly optimal fashion. The method is shown to be superior in performance to previously developed conflict-free channel access schemes.

  10. Remote access thyroid surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Parisha; Mohamed, Hossam Eldin; Kadi, Abida; Walvekar, Rohan R.

    2015-01-01

    Robot assisted thyroid surgery has been the latest advance in the evolution of thyroid surgery after endoscopy assisted procedures. The advantage of a superior field vision and technical advancements of robotic technology have permitted novel remote access (trans-axillary and retro-auricular) surgical approaches. Interestingly, several remote access surgical ports using robot surgical system and endoscopic technique have been customized to avoid the social stigma of a visible scar. Current literature has displayed their various advantages in terms of post-operative outcomes; however, the associated financial burden and also additional training and expertise necessary hinder its widespread adoption into endocrine surgery practices. These approaches offer excellent cosmesis, with a shorter learning curve and reduce discomfort to surgeons operating ergonomically through a robotic console. This review aims to provide details of various remote access techniques that are being offered for thyroid resection. Though these have been reported to be safe and feasible approaches for thyroid surgery, further evaluation for their efficacy still remains. PMID:26425450

  11. Program Retrieval/Dissemination: A Solid State Random Access System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Walter O., Jr.

    The trend toward greater flexibility in educational methods has led to a need for better and more rapid access to a variety of aural and audiovisual resource materials. This in turn has demanded the development of a flexible, reliable system of hardware designed to aid existing distribution methods in providing such access. The system must be…

  12. After Access: Underrepresented Students' Postmatriculation Perceptions of College Access Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Means, Darris R.; Pyne, Kimberly B.

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the perceived impact of college-going capital gained during participation in a college access program. In three, semistructured interviews spanning the first-year college experience, 10 first-year college students who participated in a college access program articulate the value of access programming and also raise…

  13. Preservation Film: Platform for Digital Access Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, C. Lee

    Preservation efforts for an increasingly digitally oriented future have turned to advanced and improved methods of preservation on microfilm, which has a life expectancy of more than 500 years when properly prepared, stored, and managed, and can support a wide range of digital access systems. Computer controlled cameras can provide significantly…

  14. Detecting Inappropriate Access to Electronic Health Records Using Collaborative Filtering

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Aditya Krishna; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Kim, Jihoon; Vaidya, Jaideep; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

    2013-01-01

    Many healthcare facilities enforce security on their electronic health records (EHRs) through a corrective mechanism: some staff nominally have almost unrestricted access to the records, but there is a strict ex post facto audit process for inappropriate accesses, i.e., accesses that violate the facility’s security and privacy policies. This process is inefficient, as each suspicious access has to be reviewed by a security expert, and is purely retrospective, as it occurs after damage may have been incurred. This motivates automated approaches based on machine learning using historical data. Previous attempts at such a system have successfully applied supervised learning models to this end, such as SVMs and logistic regression. While providing benefits over manual auditing, these approaches ignore the identity of the users and patients involved in a record access. Therefore, they cannot exploit the fact that a patient whose record was previously involved in a violation has an increased risk of being involved in a future violation. Motivated by this, in this paper, we propose a collaborative filtering inspired approach to predicting inappropriate accesses. Our solution integrates both explicit and latent features for staff and patients, the latter acting as a personalized “finger-print” based on historical access patterns. The proposed method, when applied to real EHR access data from two tertiary hospitals and a file-access dataset from Amazon, shows not only significantly improved performance compared to existing methods, but also provides insights as to what indicates an inappropriate access. PMID:24683293

  15. Macroscopic characterisations of Web accessibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Rui; Carriço, Luis

    2010-12-01

    The Web Science framework poses fundamental questions on the analysis of the Web, by focusing on how microscopic properties (e.g. at the level of a Web page or Web site) emerge into macroscopic properties and phenomena. One research topic on the analysis of the Web is Web accessibility evaluation, which centres on understanding how accessible a Web page is for people with disabilities. However, when framing Web accessibility evaluation on Web Science, we have found that existing research stays at the microscopic level. This article presents an experimental study on framing Web accessibility evaluation into Web Science's goals. This study resulted in novel accessibility properties of the Web not found at microscopic levels, as well as of Web accessibility evaluation processes themselves. We observed at large scale some of the empirical knowledge on how accessibility is perceived by designers and developers, such as the disparity of interpretations of accessibility evaluation tools warnings. We also found a direct relation between accessibility quality and Web page complexity. We provide a set of guidelines for designing Web pages, education on Web accessibility, as well as on the computational limits of large-scale Web accessibility evaluations.

  16. Access to water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Robyn; Niklaas, Lindie

    This paper will examine the legal implications of the South African Constitutional judgement of Government of the Republic of South Africa and others vs Grootboom and others (2001(1) SA 46 (CC)) in view of the developing debate on socio-economic rights under the constitution on the constitutional right of access to sufficient water. It will look at the manner in which effect is being given to this right at municipal level through the provision of free water and the constitutional implications of an adequate basic minimum level set by the State and local authorities. The paper will also explore the implications of relevant legislation, which enables local authorities to cut off water supplies as well as the implications of the Grootboom decision for communities facing water cut-offs.

  17. Chemists, Access, Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Jon L.

    2000-06-01

    New JCE Internet Feature at JCE Online Biographical Snapshots of Famous Chemists is a new JCE Internet feature on JCE Online. Edited by Barbara Burke, this feature provides biographical information on leading chemists, especially women and minority chemists, fostering the attitude that the practitioners of chemistry are as human as those who endeavor to learn about it. Currently, the column features biographical "snapshots" of 30 chemists. Each snapshot includes keywords and bibliography and several contain links to additional online information about the chemist. More biographical snapshots will appear in future installments. In addition, a database listing over 140 women and minority chemists is being compiled and will be made available online with the snapshots in the near future. The database includes the years of birth and death, gender and ethnicity, major and minor discipline, keywords to facilitate searching, and references to additional biographical information. We welcome your input into what we think is a very worthwhile resource. If you would like to provide additional biographical snapshots, see additional chemists added to the database, or know of additional references for those that are already in the database, please contact JCE Online or the feature editor. Your feedback is welcome and appreciated. You can find Biographical Snapshots of Famous Chemists starting from the JCE Online home page-- click the Features item under JCE Internet and then the Chemist Bios item. Access JCE Online without Name and Password We have recently been swamped by libraries requesting IP-number access to JCE Online. With the great benefit IP-number authentication gives to librarians (no user names and passwords to administer) and to their patrons (no need to remember and enter valid names and passwords) this is not surprising. If you would like access to JCE Online without the need to remember and enter a user name and password, you should tell your librarian about our

  18. A modified method using a two-port approach for accessing the hilar vasculature without transferring an endostapler from camera port to utility port during thoracoscopic right upper lobectomy.

    PubMed

    Jiao, W; Zhao, Y; Xuan, Y; Wang, M

    2015-02-01

    For thoracoscopic upper lobectomies, most cutting endostaplers must be inserted through the camera port when using a two-port approach. Access to the hilar vasculature through only the utility port remains a challenge. In this study, we describe a procedure to access the hilar vasculature without transferring the endostapler site during a thoracoscopic right upper lobectomy. A 2.5-cm utility anterior incision was made in the fourth intercostal space. The posterior mediastinal visceral pleura were dissected to expose the posterior portion of the right upper bronchus and the anterior trunk of the right pulmonary artery. The pleura over the right hilar vasculature were then peeled with an electrocoagulation hook. The anterior trunk of the right pulmonary artery was then transected with a cutting endostapler through the utility port firstly. This crucial maneuver allowed the endostapler access to the right upper lobe pulmonary vein. The hilar structures were then easily handled in turn. This novel technique was performed successfully in 32 patients, with no perioperative deaths. The average operation time was 120.6 min (range 75-180 min). This novel technique permits effective control of the hilar vessels through the utility port, enabling simple, safe, quick and effective resection.

  19. Disparities in Accessibility of Certified Primary Stroke Centers

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, Michael T.; Wiebe, Doug; Bowman, Ariel; Wolff, Catherine S.; Albright, Karen C.; Roy, Jason; Balcer, Laura; Branas, Charles C.; Carr, Brendan G.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose We examine whether the proportion of the US population with ≤ 60 minute access to PSCs varies based on geographic and demographic factors. Methods Population level access to PSCs within 60 minutes was estimated using validated models of prehospital time accounting for critical prehospital time intervals and existing road networks. We examined the association between geographic factors, demographic factors, and access to care. Multivariable models quantified the association between demographics and PSC access for the entire US and then stratified by urbanicity. Results Of the 309 million people in the US, 65.8% had ≤ 60 minute PSC access by ground ambulance (87% major cities, 59% minor cities, 9% suburbs, and 1% rural). PSC access was lower in stroke belt states (44% vs. 69%). Non-Whites were more likely to have access than Whites (77% vs. 62%) and Hispanics were more likely to have access than non-Hispanics (78% vs. 64%). Demographics were not meaningfully associated with access in major cities or suburbs. In smaller cities there was less access in areas with lower income, less education, more uninsured, more Medicare and/or Medicaid eligibles, lower healthcare utilization and healthcare resources... Conclusions There are significant geographic disparities in access to PSCs. Access is limited in non-urban areas. Despite the higher burden of cerebrovascular disease in stroke belt states, access to care is lower in these areas. Select demographic and healthcare factors are strongly associated with access to care in smaller cities, but not in other areas, including major cities. PMID:25300972

  20. NESDIS OSPO Data Access Policy and CRM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seybold, M. G.; Donoho, N. A.; McNamara, D.; Paquette, J.; Renkevens, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Office of Satellite and Product Operations (OSPO) is the NESDIS office responsible for satellite operations, product generation, and product distribution. Access to and distribution of OSPO data was formally established in a Data Access Policy dated February, 2011. An extension of the data access policy is the OSPO Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Database, which has been in development since 2008 and is reaching a critical level of maturity. This presentation will provide a summary of the data access policy and standard operating procedure (SOP) for handling data access requests. The tangential CRM database will be highlighted including the incident tracking system, reporting and notification capabilities, and the first comprehensive portfolio of NESDIS satellites, instruments, servers, applications, products, user organizations, and user contacts. Select examples of CRM data exploitation will show how OSPO is utilizing the CRM database to more closely satisfy the user community's satellite data needs with new product promotions, as well as new data and imagery distribution methods in OSPO's Environmental Satellite Processing Center (ESPC). In addition, user services and outreach initiatives from the Satellite Products and Services Division will be highlighted.

  1. Public Access and Open Access: Is There a Difference? | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Robin Meckley, Contributing Writer, and Tracie Frederick, Guest Writer Open access and public access—are they different concepts or are they the same? What do they mean for the researchers at NCI at Frederick? “Open-access (OA) literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. What makes it possible is the Internet and the consent of the author or copyright-holder,” according to an open access website maintained by Peter Suber, director, Harvard Open Access Project.

  2. Open access intrapartum CTG database

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiotocography (CTG) is a monitoring of fetal heart rate and uterine contractions. Since 1960 it is routinely used by obstetricians to assess fetal well-being. Many attempts to introduce methods of automatic signal processing and evaluation have appeared during the last 20 years, however still no significant progress similar to that in the domain of adult heart rate variability, where open access databases are available (e.g. MIT-BIH), is visible. Based on a thorough review of the relevant publications, presented in this paper, the shortcomings of the current state are obvious. A lack of common ground for clinicians and technicians in the field hinders clinically usable progress. Our open access database of digital intrapartum cardiotocographic recordings aims to change that. Description The intrapartum CTG database consists in total of 552 intrapartum recordings, which were acquired between April 2010 and August 2012 at the obstetrics ward of the University Hospital in Brno, Czech Republic. All recordings were stored in electronic form in the OB TraceVue®;system. The recordings were selected from 9164 intrapartum recordings with clinical as well as technical considerations in mind. All recordings are at most 90 minutes long and start a maximum of 90 minutes before delivery. The time relation of CTG to delivery is known as well as the length of the second stage of labor which does not exceed 30 minutes. The majority of recordings (all but 46 cesarean sections) is – on purpose – from vaginal deliveries. All recordings have available biochemical markers as well as some more general clinical features. Full description of the database and reasoning behind selection of the parameters is presented in the paper. Conclusion A new open-access CTG database is introduced which should give the research community common ground for comparison of results on reasonably large database. We anticipate that after reading the paper, the reader will understand the

  3. 5 CFR 2416.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery of services at alternate accessible..., in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet accessibility requirements to the extent... historic property is not required because of § 2416.150(a) (2) or (3), alternative methods of...

  4. 34 CFR 105.32 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... services to accessible buildings, assignments of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery of services... with this section. (iii) The Department, in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet... because of § 105.32 (a)(2) or (a)(3), alternative methods of achieving program accessibility include—...

  5. 22 CFR 1510.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... equipment, reassignment of services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home... compliance with this section. The agency, in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet....150(a) (2) or (3), alternative methods of achieving program accessibility include— (i) Using...

  6. 5 CFR 1850.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... equipment, reassignment of services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home... compliance with this section. The agency, in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet....150(a) (2) or (3), alternative methods of achieving program accessibility include— (i) Using...

  7. 22 CFR 1510.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... equipment, reassignment of services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home... compliance with this section. The agency, in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet....150(a) (2) or (3), alternative methods of achieving program accessibility include— (i) Using...

  8. 22 CFR 530.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery of services.... The Board, in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet accessibility requirements to the... historic property is not required because of § 530.150(a)(2) or (a)(3), alternative methods of...

  9. 29 CFR 100.550 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... equipment, reassignment of services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home... compliance with this section. The agency, in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet...(a) (2) or (3), alternative methods of achieving program accessibility include— (i) Using...

  10. 45 CFR 2490.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery of services at alternate..., in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet accessibility requirements to the extent... property is not required because of § 2490.150(a)(2) or (a)(3), alternative methods of achieving...

  11. 12 CFR 794.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery of services at alternate... alterations to existing buildings, shall meet accessibility requirements to the extent compelled by the... required because of § 794.150(a)(2) or (a)(3), alternative methods of achieving program...

  12. 12 CFR 794.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery of services at alternate... alterations to existing buildings, shall meet accessibility requirements to the extent compelled by the... required because of § 794.150(a)(2) or (a)(3), alternative methods of achieving program...

  13. 3 CFR 102.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... equipment, reassignment of services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home... compliance with this section. The agency, in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet...(a) (2) or (3), alternative methods of achieving program accessibility include— (i) Using...

  14. 3 CFR 102.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... equipment, reassignment of services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home... compliance with this section. The agency, in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet...(a) (2) or (3), alternative methods of achieving program accessibility include— (i) Using...

  15. 5 CFR 1207.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery of services at alternate accessible..., in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet accessibility requirements to the extent... historic property is not required because of § 1207.150(a)(2) or (3), alternative methods of...

  16. 22 CFR 530.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery of services.... The Board, in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet accessibility requirements to the... historic property is not required because of § 530.150(a)(2) or (a)(3), alternative methods of...

  17. 5 CFR 1850.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... equipment, reassignment of services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home... compliance with this section. The agency, in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet....150(a) (2) or (3), alternative methods of achieving program accessibility include— (i) Using...

  18. 34 CFR 105.32 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... services to accessible buildings, assignments of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery of services... with this section. (iii) The Department, in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet... because of § 105.32 (a)(2) or (a)(3), alternative methods of achieving program accessibility include—...

  19. 7 CFR 15e.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... equipment, reassignment of services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home... compliance with this section. The agency, in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet...(a)(2) or (a)(3), alternative methods of achieving program accessibility include— (i) Using...

  20. 1 CFR 457.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery of services at alternate... alterations to existing buildings, shall meet accessibility requirements to the extent compelled by the... required because of § 457.150(a)(2) or (a)(3), alternative methods of achieving program...

  1. 5 CFR 2416.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery of services at alternate accessible..., in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet accessibility requirements to the extent... historic property is not required because of § 2416.150(a) (2) or (3), alternative methods of...

  2. 5 CFR 1850.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... equipment, reassignment of services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home... compliance with this section. The agency, in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet....150(a) (2) or (3), alternative methods of achieving program accessibility include— (i) Using...

  3. 5 CFR 1207.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery of services at alternate accessible..., in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet accessibility requirements to the extent... historic property is not required because of § 1207.150(a)(2) or (3), alternative methods of...

  4. 22 CFR 530.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery of services.... The Board, in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet accessibility requirements to the... historic property is not required because of § 530.150(a)(2) or (a)(3), alternative methods of...

  5. 29 CFR 4907.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery of services at alternate... alterations to existing buildings, shall meet accessibility requirements to the extent compelled by the... required because of § 4907.150 (a)(2) or (a)(3), alternative methods of achieving program...

  6. 5 CFR 2416.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery of services at alternate accessible..., in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet accessibility requirements to the extent... historic property is not required because of § 2416.150(a) (2) or (3), alternative methods of...

  7. 17 CFR 200.650 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... equipment, reassignment of services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home... compliance with this section. The agency, in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet...(a) (2) or (3), alternative methods of achieving program accessibility include— (i) Using...

  8. 22 CFR 1005.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery of services at alternate... alterations to existing buildings, shall meet accessibility requirements to the extent compelled by the... required because of § 1005.150(a)(2) or (a)(3), alternative methods of achieving program...

  9. 22 CFR 1005.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery of services at alternate... alterations to existing buildings, shall meet accessibility requirements to the extent compelled by the... required because of § 1005.150(a)(2) or (a)(3), alternative methods of achieving program...

  10. 22 CFR 1701.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... equipment, reassignment of services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home... compliance with this section. The agency, in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet....150(a)(2) or (a)(3), alternative methods of achieving program accessibility include— (i) Using...

  11. 22 CFR 1701.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... equipment, reassignment of services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home... compliance with this section. The agency, in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet....150(a)(2) or (a)(3), alternative methods of achieving program accessibility include— (i) Using...

  12. 22 CFR 1510.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... equipment, reassignment of services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home... compliance with this section. The agency, in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet....150(a) (2) or (3), alternative methods of achieving program accessibility include— (i) Using...

  13. 45 CFR 2490.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery of services at alternate..., in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet accessibility requirements to the extent... property is not required because of § 2490.150(a)(2) or (a)(3), alternative methods of achieving...

  14. 22 CFR 1701.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... equipment, reassignment of services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home... compliance with this section. The agency, in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet....150(a)(2) or (a)(3), alternative methods of achieving program accessibility include— (i) Using...

  15. 12 CFR 794.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery of services at alternate... alterations to existing buildings, shall meet accessibility requirements to the extent compelled by the... required because of § 794.150(a)(2) or (a)(3), alternative methods of achieving program...

  16. 34 CFR 105.32 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... services to accessible buildings, assignments of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery of services... with this section. (iii) The Department, in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet... because of § 105.32 (a)(2) or (a)(3), alternative methods of achieving program accessibility include—...

  17. 5 CFR 1207.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery of services at alternate accessible..., in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet accessibility requirements to the extent... historic property is not required because of § 1207.150(a)(2) or (3), alternative methods of...

  18. 5 CFR 2416.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery of services at alternate accessible..., in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet accessibility requirements to the extent... historic property is not required because of § 2416.150(a) (2) or (3), alternative methods of...

  19. 29 CFR 4907.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery of services at alternate... alterations to existing buildings, shall meet accessibility requirements to the extent compelled by the... required because of § 4907.150 (a)(2) or (a)(3), alternative methods of achieving program...

  20. 22 CFR 1005.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery of services at alternate... alterations to existing buildings, shall meet accessibility requirements to the extent compelled by the... required because of § 1005.150(a)(2) or (a)(3), alternative methods of achieving program...

  1. 34 CFR 1200.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... equipment, reassignment of services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home... compliance with this section. The agency, in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet....150(a)(2) or (a)(3), alternative methods of achieving program accessibility include— (i) Using...

  2. 7 CFR 15e.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... equipment, reassignment of services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home... compliance with this section. The agency, in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet...(a)(2) or (a)(3), alternative methods of achieving program accessibility include— (i) Using...

  3. 29 CFR 4907.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery of services at alternate... alterations to existing buildings, shall meet accessibility requirements to the extent compelled by the... required because of § 4907.150 (a)(2) or (a)(3), alternative methods of achieving program...

  4. 5 CFR 2416.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery of services at alternate accessible..., in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet accessibility requirements to the extent... historic property is not required because of § 2416.150(a) (2) or (3), alternative methods of...

  5. 5 CFR 1207.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery of services at alternate accessible..., in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet accessibility requirements to the extent... historic property is not required because of § 1207.150(a)(2) or (3), alternative methods of...

  6. 5 CFR 1850.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... equipment, reassignment of services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home... compliance with this section. The agency, in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet....150(a) (2) or (3), alternative methods of achieving program accessibility include— (i) Using...

  7. 22 CFR 1510.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... equipment, reassignment of services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home... compliance with this section. The agency, in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet....150(a) (2) or (3), alternative methods of achieving program accessibility include— (i) Using...

  8. 22 CFR 1701.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... equipment, reassignment of services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home... compliance with this section. The agency, in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet....150(a)(2) or (a)(3), alternative methods of achieving program accessibility include— (i) Using...

  9. 22 CFR 1005.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery of services at alternate... alterations to existing buildings, shall meet accessibility requirements to the extent compelled by the... required because of § 1005.150(a)(2) or (a)(3), alternative methods of achieving program...

  10. 5 CFR 1207.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery of services at alternate accessible..., in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet accessibility requirements to the extent... historic property is not required because of § 1207.150(a)(2) or (3), alternative methods of...

  11. 22 CFR 530.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery of services.... The Board, in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet accessibility requirements to the... historic property is not required because of § 530.150(a)(2) or (a)(3), alternative methods of...

  12. Thoughts on Access, Differentiation, and Implementation of a Multicultural Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavilla, Derek

    2014-01-01

    Identification of gifted students from diverse and underserved communities is traditionally low; however, there are ways to expand identification methods in order to make access to gifted education programs more equitable. Creation and implementation of multi-faceted and multi-dimensional assessments as well as tiered access into gifted education…

  13. 12 CFR 606.650 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... decision that compliance would result in such alteration or burdens must be made by the agency head or his..., reassignment of services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery... facilities, or any other methods that result in making its programs or activities readily accessible to...

  14. 16 CFR 6.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... such alteration or burdens. The decision that compliance would result in such alteration or burdens... to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery of services at... accessible rolling stock, or any methods that result in making its programs or activities readily...

  15. 43 CFR 17.550 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... proving that compliance with § 17.550(a) would result in such an alteration or burdens. The decision that..., reassignment of services to accessible locations, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery... facilities, use of accessible rolling stock, or any other methods that result in making its programs...

  16. Open Access Publishing in Indian Premier Research Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhat, Mohammad Hanief

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Publishing research findings in open access journals is a means of enhancing visibility and consequently increasing the impact of publications. This study provides an overview of open access publishing in premier research institutes of India. Method: The publication output of each institution from 2003 to 2007 was ascertained through…

  17. Tri-Party Agreement databases, access mechanism and procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Brulotte, P.J.; Christensen, K.C.

    1993-10-01

    This document contains the information required for the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to access databases related to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order [also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA)] (Ecology et al. 1992). It identifies the procedure required to obtain access to the Hanford computer networks and the TPA related databases. It addresses security requirements, access methods, database availability dates, database access procedures, and the minimum computer hardware and software configurations required to operate within the Hanford networks.

  18. Accessibility for all: going from theory to practice.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Isabela; Dorneles, Vanessa; Ely, e Vera Helena Moro Bins

    2012-01-01

    The present work demonstrates, through a case study, the importance of theoretical knowledge in practical application of spatial accessibility in order to guarantee equal conditions for all people in the movement and use of space. Initially there was a literature review on the accessibility of space and how design in a accessible way. Next, we show one makeover proposal in one public school that wants to provide access to people with disabilities. This makeover was done and so we could evaluate the buildings changes through the method of accompanied walk with two people. Finally we present the main results and discussions.

  19. Remote Data Access with IDL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloy, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A tool based on IDL (Interactive Data Language) and DAP (Data Access Protocol) has been developed for user-friendly remote data access. A difficulty for many NASA researchers using IDL is that often the data to analyze are located remotely and are too large to transfer for local analysis. Researchers have developed a protocol for accessing remote data, DAP, which is used for both SOHO and STEREO data sets. Server-side side analysis via IDL routine is available through DAP.

  20. Vehicle barrier with access delay

    DOEpatents

    Swahlan, David J; Wilke, Jason

    2013-09-03

    An access delay vehicle barrier for stopping unauthorized entry into secure areas by a vehicle ramming attack includes access delay features for preventing and/or delaying an adversary from defeating or compromising the barrier. A horizontally deployed barrier member can include an exterior steel casing, an interior steel reinforcing member and access delay members disposed within the casing and between the casing and the interior reinforcing member. Access delay members can include wooden structural lumber, concrete and/or polymeric members that in combination with the exterior casing and interior reinforcing member act cooperatively to impair an adversarial attach by thermal, mechanical and/or explosive tools.

  1. File access prediction using neural networks.

    PubMed

    Patra, Prashanta Kumar; Sahu, Muktikanta; Mohapatra, Subasish; Samantray, Ronak Kumar

    2010-06-01

    One of the most vexing issues in design of a high-speed computer is the wide gap of access times between the memory and the disk. To solve this problem, static file access predictors have been used. In this paper, we propose dynamic file access predictors using neural networks to significantly improve upon the accuracy, success-per-reference, and effective-success-rate-per-reference by using neural-network-based file access predictor with proper tuning. In particular, we verified that the incorrect prediction has been reduced from 53.11% to 43.63% for the proposed neural network prediction method with a standard configuration than the recent popularity (RP) method. With manual tuning for each trace, we are able to improve upon the misprediction rate and effective-success-rate-per-reference using a standard configuration. Simulations on distributed file system (DFS) traces reveal that exact fit radial basis function (RBF) gives better prediction in high end system whereas multilayer perceptron (MLP) trained with Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) backpropagation outperforms in system having good computational capability. Probabilistic and competitive predictors are the most suitable for work stations having limited resources to deal with and the former predictor is more efficient than the latter for servers having maximum system calls. Finally, we conclude that MLP with LM backpropagation algorithm has better success rate of file prediction than those of simple perceptron, last successor, stable successor, and best k out of m predictors.

  2. Nonvolatile random access memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jiin-Chuan (Inventor); Stadler, Henry L. (Inventor); Katti, Romney R. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A nonvolatile magnetic random access memory can be achieved by an array of magnet-Hall effect (M-H) elements. The storage function is realized with a rectangular thin-film ferromagnetic material having an in-plane, uniaxial anisotropy and inplane bipolar remanent magnetization states. The thin-film magnetic element is magnetized by a local applied field, whose direction is used to form either a 0 or 1 state. The element remains in the 0 or 1 state until a switching field is applied to change its state. The stored information is detcted by a Hall-effect sensor which senses the fringing field from the magnetic storage element. The circuit design for addressing each cell includes transistor switches for providing a current of selected polarity to store a binary digit through a separate conductor overlying the magnetic element of the cell. To read out a stored binary digit, transistor switches are employed to provide a current through a row of Hall-effect sensors connected in series and enabling a differential voltage amplifier connected to all Hall-effect sensors of a column in series. To avoid read-out voltage errors due to shunt currents through resistive loads of the Hall-effect sensors of other cells in the same column, at least one transistor switch is provided between every pair of adjacent cells in every row which are not turned on except in the row of the selected cell.

  3. ACCESS: Detector Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Matthew J.; Kaiser, M.; Rauscher, B. J.; Kimble, R. A.; Kruk, J. W.; Mott, D. B.; Wen, Y.; Foltz, R.; McCandliss, S. R.; Pelton, R. S.; Wright, E. L.; Feldman, P. D.; Moos, H. W.; Riess, A. G.; Benford, D. J.; Gardner, J. P.; Woodgate, B. E.; Bohlin, R.; Deustua, S. E.; Dixon, W. V.; Sahnow, D. J.; Kurucz, R. L.; Lampton, M.; Perlmutter, S.

    2013-01-01

    ACCESS, Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars, is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments that will enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of absolute laboratory detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35 to 1.7 micron bandpass (overview Kaiser et al.). The flight detector and detector spare have been integrated with their electronics and flight mount. The controller electronics have been flight qualified. Vibration testing to launch loads and thermal vacuum testing of the detector, mount, and housing have been performed. The flight detector controller boards have been installed into a ruggedized flight housing. They have been successfully vacuum tested for periods significantly longer than the flight length, and components have been heat-sunk and reinforced as necessary. Thermal stability tests have been performed, and results will be presented. Goddard Space Flight Center’s Detector Characterization Lab (DCL) executed initial characterization tests for the flight detector in 2007. These were repeated in 2012, to ensure and establish baseline performance. Current lab characterization tests at Johns Hopkins are ongoing, and results will be presented. NASA sounding rocket grant NNX08AI65G supports this work.

  4. Access to space study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a comprehensive NASA in-house study to identify and assess alternate approaches to access to space through the year 2030, and to select and recommend a preferred cause of action. The goals of the study were to identify the best vehicles and transportation architectures to make major reductions in the cost of space transportation (at least 50%), while at the same time increasing safety for flight crews by at least an order of magnitude. In addition, vehicle reliability was to exceed 0.98 percent, and, as important, the robustness, pad time, turnaround time, and other aspects of operability were to be vastly improved. This study examined three major optional architectures: (1) retain and upgrade the Space Shuttle and expendable launch vehicles; (2) develop new expendable vehicles using conventional technologies and transition from current vehicles beginning in 2005; and (3) develop new reusable vehicles using advanced technology, and transition from current vehicles beginning in 2008. The launch-needs, mission model utilized for for the study was based upon today's projection of civil, defense, and commercial mission payload requirements.

  5. Making Astronomy Accessible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grice, Noreen A.

    2011-05-01

    A new semester begins, and your students enter the classroom for the first time. You notice a student sitting in a wheelchair or walking with assistance from a cane. Maybe you see a student with a guide dog or carrying a Braille computer. Another student gestures "hello” but then continues hand motions, and you realize the person is actually signing. You wonder why another student is using an electronic device to speak. Think this can't happen in your class? According to the U.S. Census, one out of every five Americans has a disability. And some disabilities, such as autism, dyslexia and arthritis, are considered "invisible” disabilities. This means you have a high probability that one of your students will have a disability. As an astronomy instructor, you have the opportunity to reach a wide variety of learners by using creative teaching strategies. I will share some suggestions on how to make astronomy and your part of the universe more accessible for everyone.

  6. Mobile access control vestibule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DePoy, Jennifer M.

    1998-12-01

    The mobile access control vestibule (MACV) is an adaptation of techniques developed for mobile military command centers. The overall configuration of modules acts as an entry control/screening facility or transportable command center. The system would provide the following capabilities: (1) A key element for force protection, rapid deployment units sent to areas having no prepositioned equipment or where there has been a degradation of that equipment as a result of natural disasters or civil unrest. (2) A rapidly deployable security control center to upgrade the security at nonmilitary sites (e.g., diplomatic or humanitarian organizations). (3) Personnel screening, package screening, badge/identification card production for authorized personnel, centralized monitoring of deployed perimeter sensors, and centralized communications for law enforcement personnel. (4) Self-contained screening and threat detection systems, including explosives detection using the system developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the FAA. When coupled with transportable electric generators, the system is self-sufficient. The communication system for the MACV would be a combination of physically wired and wireless communication units that supports by ad hoc networking.

  7. Is Your Church Accessible? Houses of Worship: Physical Accessibility Checklist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensign, Arselia, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This checklist is intended to help churches evaluate the accessibility of their facilities to those with physical disabilities. Categories covered are: basic accessibility, parking lots, walks, ramps, entrances/exits, doors and doorways, stairs and steps, floors, worship space, rest rooms, controls, water fountains, identification, warning…

  8. Global access to surgical care: a modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Alkire, Blake C; Raykar, Nakul P; Shrime, Mark G; Weiser, Thomas G; Bickler, Stephen W; Rose, John A; Nutt, Cameron T; Greenberg, Sarah L M; Kotagal, Meera; Riesel, Johanna N; Esquivel, Micaela; Uribe-Leitz, Tarsicio; Molina, George; Roy, Nobhojit; Meara, John G; Farmer, Paul E

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background More than 2 billion people are unable to receive surgical care based on operating theatre density alone. The vision of the Lancet Commission on Global Surgery is universal access to safe, affordable surgical and anaesthesia care when needed. We aimed to estimate the number of individuals worldwide without access to surgical services as defined by the Commission’s vision. Methods We modelled access to surgical services in 196 countries with respect to four dimensions: timeliness, surgical capacity, safety, and affordability. We built a chance tree for each country to model the probability of surgical access with respect to each dimension, and from this we constructed a statistical model to estimate the proportion of the population in each country that does not have access to surgical services. We accounted for uncertainty with one-way sensitivity analyses, multiple imputation for missing data, and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Findings At least 4·8 billion people (95% posterior credible interval 4·6–5·0 [67%, 64–70]) of the world’s population do not have access to surgery. The proportion of the population without access varied widely when stratified by epidemiological region: greater than 95% of the population in south Asia and central, eastern, and western sub-Saharan Africa do not have access to care, whereas less than 5% of the population in Australasia, high-income North America, and western Europe lack access. Interpretation Most of the world’s population does not have access to surgical care, and access is inequitably distributed. The near absence of access in many low-income and middle-income countries represents a crisis, and as the global health community continues to support the advancement of universal health coverage, increasing access to surgical services will play a central role in ensuring health care for all. Funding None. PMID:25926087

  9. Success with Web-based image access.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Sean W

    2003-01-01

    The University of Mississippi Medical Center in Jackson, Miss., is the only medical school in the state. We performed 235,000 procedures in the 2001-02 fiscal year. All imaging services within the radiology department are networked to a PACS and are filmless. The elimination of film required that we decentralize our traditional file room to allow easy access to our radiology network across the campus. In our facility, there are three levels of image access: Diagnostic Quality, Review Quality and Web Access. Diagnostic Quality requires top-of-the-line workstations and monitors and is the most expensive. Review Quality workstations represent some savings over Diagnostic and are used in the ICU, orthopedics and surgery. Web Access appears to satisfy most areas outside the main diagnostic department. The account set-up procedure is simple because it uses our intranet email system. Images are easily pasted into presentation applications for articles and conferences. However, the main advantage of Web Access is the low cost. The downside of Web Access is that the images are for review only and are limited by the quality of the monitor in use. It is also somewhat cumbersome to retrieve old or comparison images via this method. The Web only holds approximately 45 days of the most recent images, therefore older studies may not be available. The deployment of this Web-based service has aided in our efforts to reduce the amount of film we print and has also been beneficial in improving patient care through faster service. PMID:12800563

  10. Hepatic radioembolization from transradial access: initial experience and comparison to transfemoral access

    PubMed Central

    Kis, Bela; Mills, Matthew; Hoffe, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Despite the growing evidence in the cardiology literature that transradial approach has substantial benefits over transfemoral access, this technique is rarely used during interventions in the systemic circulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of transradial approach for hepatic radioembolization and to compare it with transfemoral approach. METHODS Sixty-four hepatic radioembolizations performed in 50 patients were included in the study. Thirty-three procedures were performed via radial access in 27 patients, and 31 procedures were performed via femoral access in 23 patients. RESULTS There was 100% technical success in performing hepatic radioembolization in both groups. The majority (97%) of the patients who underwent transradial radioembolization reported preference for radial artery access. The fluoroscopy time was significantly longer (9.45±5.09 min vs. 5.72±3.67 min, P < 0.01) and the radiation dose was significantly higher (597.8±585.2 mGy vs. 302.8±208.3 mGy, P < 0.01) in the radial group compared with the femoral group. The direct cost savings using radial access versus femoral access is approximately $100/procedure. In addition, there was a one hour (50%) shorter postprocedural stay for patients who underwent the transradial procedure. CONCLUSION Transradial access is feasible for hepatic radioembolization. The transradial approach is cheaper and offers improved patient comfort. However, it is technically challenging, with longer fluoroscopy times and higher radiation doses. Transradial approach should be considered as a primary choice in patients with low platelet count and/or morbid obesity. Transradial access should be in the procedural repertoire of every interventional radiologist. PMID:27353460

  11. Internet Access to Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James; Parise, Ron; Hogie, Keith; Criscuolo, Ed; Langston, Jim; Jackson, Chris; Price, Harold; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Operating Missions as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) project at NASA's Goddard Space flight Center (GSFC), is demonstrating the use of standard Internet protocols for spacecraft communication systems. This year, demonstrations of Internet access to a flying spacecraft have been performed with the UoSAT-12 spacecraft owned and operated by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. (SSTL). Previously, demonstrations were performed using a ground satellite simulator and NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). These activities are part of NASA's Space Operations Management Office (SOMO) Technology Program, The work is focused on defining the communication architecture for future NASA missions to support both NASA's "faster, better, cheaper" concept and to enable new types of collaborative science. The use of standard Internet communication technology for spacecraft simplifies design, supports initial integration and test across an IP based network, and enables direct communication between scientists and instruments as well as between different spacecraft, The most recent demonstrations consisted of uploading an Internet Protocol (IP) software stack to the UoSAT- 12 spacecraft, simple modifications to the SSTL ground station, and a series of tests to measure performance of various Internet applications. The spacecraft was reconfigured on orbit at very low cost. The total period between concept and the first tests was only 3 months. The tests included basic network connectivity (PING), automated clock synchronization (NTP), and reliable file transfers (FTP). Future tests are planned to include additional protocols such as Mobile IP, e-mail, and virtual private networks (VPN) to enable automated, operational spacecraft communication networks. The work performed and results of the initial phase of tests are summarized in this paper. This work is funded and directed by NASA/GSFC with technical leadership by CSC in arrangement with SSTL, and Vytek Wireless.

  12. Accessibility in E-Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Simon

    2009-01-01

    E-assessment offers many opportunities to broaden the range of tools at the assessor's disposal and thereby improve the overall accessibility of the assessment experience. In 2006, TechDis commissioned a report, produced by Edexcel, on the state of guidance on accessibility at the various stages of the assessment process--question design,…

  13. Distributed Access to Administrative Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Eugene

    1987-01-01

    Administrators, faculty, and staff should have electronic access to records needed to perform their jobs, and students should have access to their own records--course registration and addresses. User-directed analysis and reporting are discussed and the security and audit issues are examined. (Author/MLW)

  14. "Accessions": Researching, Designing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    This brief viewpoint piece depicts educational (dis)engagements apparent in researching and (re)designing higher education in and through "Accessions". "Accessions", a collaborative research-design project, probed at how cultures, climates and conditions of higher education may be reproducing or reshaping social inequalities and divisions. Here,…

  15. Communication Access to the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duchan, Judith; Jennings, Marian; Barrett, Ray; Butler, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Art galleries, theaters, and museums are often communicatively inaccessible to people with aphasia. This article describes how a group of people with aphasia and a group of health and arts service providers worked together to develop an arts access initiative that involved people with aphasia in accessing museums and arts courses in the community…

  16. Automatically Producing Accessible Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Iorio, Angelo; Feliziani, Antonio Angelo; Mirri, Silvia; Salomoni, Paola; Vitali, Fabio

    2006-01-01

    The "Anywhere, Anytime, Anyway" slogan is frequently associated to e-learning with the aim to emphasize the wide access offered by on-line education. Otherwise, learning materials are currently created to be used with a specific technology or configuration, leaving out from the virtual classroom students who have limited access capabilities and,…

  17. Editorial: Next Generation Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffini, Marco; Cincotti, Gabriella; Pizzinat, Anna; Vetter, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade we have seen an increasing number of operators deploying Fibre-to-the-home (FTTH) solutions in access networks, in order to provide home users with a much needed network access upgrade, to support higher peak rates, higher sustained rates and a better and more uniform broadband coverage of the territory.

  18. Accessible Multimedia for the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaparyniuk, Nicholas; Code, Jillianne

    With the Internet taking a dominant role in corporate training, education, retail, and customer based product exploration, authors of Web-based information need to ensure that the media they deliver is accessible to the widest possible audience. Whether users have a visual, auditory, physical, or developmental disability, accessible multimedia can…

  19. Teaching for Our Times: Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassara, Shirley, Ed.; Bernard, Jean M., Ed.

    This volume of Bunker Hill Community College's (Massachusetts) series, "Teaching for Our Times," focuses on issues of access. The original concept for community colleges included access as an open door to learning, where anyone, even without a high school diploma, could begin a new academic life in an institution free from the barriers imposed by…

  20. Digital Image Representation and Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostafa, Javed

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the literature relating to the development and application of modern imaging technology between 1987 and 1993. Highlights include image representation, including image data, compression, and image formats; and image access, including indexing and modeling, user interface design, and distributed access. (143 references) (LRW)

  1. Accessibility on the Hudson River

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how Beverly and Martin Ryfa, working with an architect who specializes in accessible design, were able to build a house that is handicap accessible for their 9-year-old daughter, Danielle, who suffered an intraventricular hemorrhage when she was three days old. The article describes the features of their house that make…

  2. Minority Access to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Nathaniel

    2012-01-01

    Blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans, and Asian Americans are entitled to equal access to all institutions of higher education. Ensuring greater access and participation by minorities in higher education is one of the most practical ways of moving America closer to the ideal of equal opportunity, which is the actualization of the American dream.…

  3. External access to ALICE controls conditions data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadlovský, J.; Jadlovská, A.; Sarnovský, J.; Jajčišin, Š.; Čopík, M.; Jadlovská, S.; Papcun, P.; Bielek, R.; Čerkala, J.; Kopčík, M.; Chochula, P.; Augustinus, A.

    2014-06-01

    ALICE Controls data produced by commercial SCADA system WINCCOA is stored in ORACLE database on the private experiment network. The SCADA system allows for basic access and processing of the historical data. More advanced analysis requires tools like ROOT and needs therefore a separate access method to the archives. The present scenario expects that detector experts create simple WINCCOA scripts, which retrieves and stores data in a form usable for further studies. This relatively simple procedure generates a lot of administrative overhead - users have to request the data, experts needed to run the script, the results have to be exported outside of the experiment network. The new mechanism profits from database replica, which is running on the CERN campus network. Access to this database is not restricted and there is no risk of generating a heavy load affecting the operation of the experiment. The developed tools presented in this paper allow for access to this data. The users can use web-based tools to generate the requests, consisting of the data identifiers and period of time of interest. The administrators maintain full control over the data - an authorization and authentication mechanism helps to assign privileges to selected users and restrict access to certain groups of data. Advanced caching mechanism allows the user to profit from the presence of already processed data sets. This feature significantly reduces the time required for debugging as the retrieval of raw data can last tens of minutes. A highly configurable client allows for information retrieval bypassing the interactive interface. This method is for example used by ALICE Offline to extract operational conditions after a run is completed. Last but not least, the software can be easily adopted to any underlying database structure and is therefore not limited to WINCCOA.

  4. 48 CFR 315.7000 - Section 508 accessibility standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Acquisition of Electronic Information Technology 315.7000 Section 508 accessibility standards. EIT products and services, including EIT deliverables such as electronic documents and reports, acquired using negotiated procedures shall comply...

  5. Modes of Access: The Influence of Dissemination Channels on the Use of Open Access Monographs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snijder, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper studies the effects of several dissemination channels in an open access environment by analysing the download data of the OAPEN Library. Method: Download data were obtained containing the number of downloads and the name of the Internet provider. Based on public information, each Internet provider was categorised. The…

  6. Scientific meeting abstracts: significance, access, and trends.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, J A

    1998-01-01

    Abstracts of scientific papers and posters that are presented at annual scientific meetings of professional societies are part of the broader category of conference literature. They are an important avenue for the dissemination of current data. While timely and succinct, these abstracts present problems such as an abbreviated peer review and incomplete bibliographic access. METHODS: Seventy societies of health sciences professionals were surveyed about the publication of abstracts from their annual meetings. Nineteen frequently cited journals also were contacted about their policies on the citation of meeting abstracts. Ten databases were searched for the presence of meetings abstracts. RESULTS: Ninety percent of the seventy societies publish their abstracts, with nearly half appearing in the society's journal. Seventy-seven percent of the societies supply meeting attendees with a copy of each abstract, and 43% make their abstracts available in an electronic format. Most of the journals surveyed allow meeting abstracts to be cited. Bibliographic access to these abstracts does not appear to be widespread. CONCLUSIONS: Meeting abstracts play an important role in the dissemination of scientific knowledge. Bibliographic access to meeting abstracts is very limited. The trend toward making meeting abstracts available via the Internet has the potential to give a broader audience access to the information they contain. PMID:9549015

  7. Studying "exposure" to firearms: household ownership v access

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, R; Dahlberg, L; Kresnow, M; Sacks, J; Mercy, J

    2003-01-01

    Background: Firearm ownership has often been used to measure access to weapons. However, persons who own a firearm may not have access to it and conversely, persons who do not own a firearm may be able to access one quickly. Objectives: To examine whether using firearm ownership is a reasonable proxy for access by describing the demographic characteristics associated with ownership and access. Methods: Data are from the 1994 Injury Control and Risk Survey, a national, random digit dial survey. Information about household firearm ownership and ready access to a loaded firearm were collected and weighted to provide national estimates. Adjusted odds ratios for three separate models were calculated using logistic regression. Results: A total of 1353 (27.9%) respondents reported both having a firearm in the household and ready access to one. An additional 313 respondents (8.1%) reported having a firearm, but were not able to access these weapons. Another 421 respondents (7.2%) did not have a firearm in or around their home, yet reported being able to retrieve and fire one within 10 minutes. Based on the logistic regression findings, the demographic characteristics of this latter group are quite different from those who report ownership. Those who do not have a firearm, but report ready access to one, are more likely to be ethnic minorities, single, and living in attached homes. Conclusions: Asking only about the presence of a firearm in a household may miss some respondents with ready access to a loaded firearm. More importantly, those who do not own a firearm, but report ready access to one, appear to be qualitatively different from those who report ownership. Caution should be exercised when using measures of ownership as a proxy for access. PMID:12642560

  8. User-Centered Indexing for Adaptive Information Access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, James R.; Mathe, Nathalie

    1996-01-01

    We are focusing on information access tasks characterized by large volume of hypermedia connected technical documents, a need for rapid and effective access to familiar information, and long-term interaction with evolving information. The problem for technical users is to build and maintain a personalized task-oriented model of the information to quickly access relevant information. We propose a solution which provides user-centered adaptive information retrieval and navigation. This solution supports users in customizing information access over time. It is complementary to information discovery methods which provide access to new information, since it lets users customize future access to previously found information. It relies on a technique, called Adaptive Relevance Network, which creates and maintains a complex indexing structure to represent personal user's information access maps organized by concepts. This technique is integrated within the Adaptive HyperMan system, which helps NASA Space Shuttle flight controllers organize and access large amount of information. It allows users to select and mark any part of a document as interesting, and to index that part with user-defined concepts. Users can then do subsequent retrieval of marked portions of documents. This functionality allows users to define and access personal collections of information, which are dynamically computed. The system also supports collaborative review by letting users share group access maps. The adaptive relevance network provides long-term adaptation based both on usage and on explicit user input. The indexing structure is dynamic and evolves over time. Leading and generalization support flexible retrieval of information under similar concepts. The network is geared towards more recent information access, and automatically manages its size in order to maintain rapid access when scaling up to large hypermedia space. We present results of simulated learning experiments.

  9. Rapid genome-scale mapping of chromatin accessibility in tissue

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The challenge in extracting genome-wide chromatin features from limiting clinical samples poses a significant hurdle in identification of regulatory marks that impact the physiological or pathological state. Current methods that identify nuclease accessible chromatin are reliant on large amounts of purified nuclei as starting material. This complicates analysis of trace clinical tissue samples that are often stored frozen. We have developed an alternative nuclease based procedure to bypass nuclear preparation to interrogate nuclease accessible regions in frozen tissue samples. Results Here we introduce a novel technique that specifically identifies Tissue Accessible Chromatin (TACh). The TACh method uses pulverized frozen tissue as starting material and employs one of the two robust endonucleases, Benzonase or Cyansase, which are fully active under a range of stringent conditions such as high levels of detergent and DTT. As a proof of principle we applied TACh to frozen mouse liver tissue. Combined with massive parallel sequencing TACh identifies accessible regions that are associated with euchromatic features and accessibility at transcriptional start sites correlates positively with levels of gene transcription. Accessible chromatin identified by TACh overlaps to a large extend with accessible chromatin identified by DNase I using nuclei purified from freshly isolated liver tissue as starting material. The similarities are most pronounced at highly accessible regions, whereas identification of less accessible regions tends to be more divergence between nucleases. Interestingly, we show that some of the differences between DNase I and Benzonase relate to their intrinsic sequence biases and accordingly accessibility of CpG islands is probed more efficiently using TACh. Conclusion The TACh methodology identifies accessible chromatin derived from frozen tissue samples. We propose that this simple, robust approach can be applied across a broad range of

  10. Regional Webgis User Access Patterns Based on a Weighted Bipartite Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R.; Shen, Y.; Huang, W.; Wu, H.

    2015-07-01

    With the rapid development of geographic information services, Web Geographic Information Systems (WebGIS) have become an indispensable part of everyday life; correspondingly, map search engines have become extremely popular with users and WebGIS sites receive a massive volume of requests for access. These WebGIS users and the content accessed have regional characteristics; to understand regional patterns, we mined regional WebGIS user access patterns based on a weighted bipartite network. We first established a weighted bipartite network model for regional user access to a WebGIS. Then, based on the massive user WebGIS access logs, we clustered geographic information accessed and thereby identified hot access areas. Finally we quantitatively analyzed the access interests of regional users and the visitation volume characteristics of regional user access to these hot access areas in terms of user access permeability, user usage rate, and user access viscosity. Our research results show that regional user access to WebGIS is spatially aggregated, and the hot access areas that regional users accessed are associated with specific periods of time. Most regional user contact with hot accessed areas is variable and intermittent but for some users, their access to certain areas is continuous as it is associated with ongoing or recurrent objectives. The weighted bipartite network model for regional user WebGIS access provides a valid analysis method for studying user behaviour in WebGIS and the proposed access pattern exhibits access interest of regional user is spatiotemporal aggregated and presents a heavy-tailed distribution. Understanding user access patterns is good for WebGIS providers and supports better operational decision-making, and helpful for developers when optimizing WebGIS system architecture and deployment, so as to improve the user experience and to expand the popularity of WebGIS.

  11. Data Access Performance Through Parallelization and Vectored Access: Some Results

    SciTech Connect

    Furano, Fabrizio; Hanushevsky, Andrew; /SLAC

    2011-11-10

    High Energy Physics data processing and analysis applications typically deal with the problem of accessing and processing data at high speed. Recent studies, development and test work have shown that the latencies due to data access can often be hidden by parallelizing them with the data processing, thus giving the ability to have applications which process remote data with a high level of efficiency. Techniques and algorithms able to reach this result have been implemented in the client side of the Scalla/xrootd system, and in this contribution we describe the results of some tests done in order to compare their performance and characteristics. These techniques, if used together with multiple streams data access, can also be effective in allowing to efficiently and transparently deal with data repositories accessible via a Wide Area Network.

  12. Perceived accessibility versus actual physical accessibility of healthcare facilities.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, J; Byfield, G; Brown, T T; LaFavor, K; Murphy, D; Laud, P

    2000-01-01

    This study addressed how healthcare clinics perceive themselves in regard to accessibility for persons with spinal cord injuries (SCI). All 40 of the clinics surveyed reported that they were wheelchair accessible; however, there was significant variability in the number of sites that actually met the guidelines of the Americans with Disability Act. In general, a person using a wheelchair could enter the building, the examination room, and the bathroom. The majority of sites did not have an examination table that could be lowered to wheelchair level. Most reported limited experience in working with persons with (SCI), yet they claimed to be able to assist with difficult transfers. Only one site knew about autonomic dysreflexia. Problems of accessibility appeared to be seriously compounded by the clinics' perception of how they met physical accessibility guidelines without consideration of the actual needs of persons with SCI. This study addressed the perception of accessibility as reported by clinic managers versus actual accessibility in healthcare clinics in a Midwestern metropolitan area for persons using wheelchairs. PMID:10754921

  13. Open Access Publishing in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grothkopf, U.; Meakins, S.

    2012-08-01

    Open Access (OA) in scholarly literature means the "immediate, free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search or link to the full text of these articles". The Open Access movement has been made possible thanks to the wide-spread availability of internet access and has received increasing interest since the 1990s, mostly due to the fast rising journal subscription prices. This presentation will review the current situation of Open Access in astronomy. It will answer the question why it makes sense to publish in an OA journal and will provide criteria to judge the quality of OA journals and publishers, along with suggestions how to identify so-called predatory publishers.

  14. Computer access security code system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A security code system for controlling access to computer and computer-controlled entry situations comprises a plurality of subsets of alpha-numeric characters disposed in random order in matrices of at least two dimensions forming theoretical rectangles, cubes, etc., such that when access is desired, at least one pair of previously unused character subsets not found in the same row or column of the matrix is chosen at random and transmitted by the computer. The proper response to gain access is transmittal of subsets which complete the rectangle, and/or a parallelepiped whose opposite corners were defined by first groups of code. Once used, subsets are not used again to absolutely defeat unauthorized access by eavesdropping, and the like.

  15. Astronauts Access Web from Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    Aboard the International Space Station, Expedition 22 Commander Jeff Williams and Flight Engineers Soichi Noguchi and T.J. Creamer share their thoughts about Internet access from space and post a r...

  16. Just the Facts: Vascular Access

    MedlinePlus

    ... vein thicker so it can be used for dialysis. A fistula is often the longest-lasting access. ... Artery Graft Illustration from Core Curriculum for the Dialysis Technician , 1998 Vein A catheter is a plastic ...

  17. Computer Security Systems Enable Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggen, Gary

    1989-01-01

    A good security system enables access and protects information from damage or tampering, but the most important aspects of a security system aren't technical. A security procedures manual addresses the human element of computer security. (MLW)

  18. Preparing for the New Remote Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, William E.

    1997-01-01

    Integrated remote access servers support many different types of access. Remote access has been integrated as a strategic tool as application developers build remote access capabilities into their software. Discusses demands of using remote access as a strategic component and management matters. (AEF)

  19. 36 CFR 9.32 - Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Non-Federal Oil and Gas Rights § 9.32 Access. (a) No access on, across or through lands or waters... CFR 2.17. (d) No access to a site outside a unit will be permitted across unit lands unless such access is by foot, pack animal, or designated road. Persons using designated roads for access to such...

  20. 32 CFR 154.49 - Granting access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Granting access. 154.49 Section 154.49 National... SECURITY PROGRAM REGULATION Issuing Clearance and Granting Access § 154.49 Granting access. (a) Access to classified information shall be granted to persons whose official duties require such access and who have...

  1. 32 CFR 154.49 - Granting access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Granting access. 154.49 Section 154.49 National... SECURITY PROGRAM REGULATION Issuing Clearance and Granting Access § 154.49 Granting access. (a) Access to classified information shall be granted to persons whose official duties require such access and who have...

  2. 32 CFR 154.49 - Granting access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Granting access. 154.49 Section 154.49 National... SECURITY PROGRAM REGULATION Issuing Clearance and Granting Access § 154.49 Granting access. (a) Access to classified information shall be granted to persons whose official duties require such access and who have...

  3. 32 CFR 154.49 - Granting access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Granting access. 154.49 Section 154.49 National... SECURITY PROGRAM REGULATION Issuing Clearance and Granting Access § 154.49 Granting access. (a) Access to classified information shall be granted to persons whose official duties require such access and who have...

  4. 36 CFR 9.32 - Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Non-Federal Oil and Gas Rights § 9.32 Access. (a) No access on, across or through lands or waters... CFR 2.17. (d) No access to a site outside a unit will be permitted across unit lands unless such access is by foot, pack animal, or designated road. Persons using designated roads for access to such...

  5. 36 CFR 9.32 - Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Non-Federal Oil and Gas Rights § 9.32 Access. (a) No access on, across or through lands or waters... CFR 2.17. (d) No access to a site outside a unit will be permitted across unit lands unless such access is by foot, pack animal, or designated road. Persons using designated roads for access to such...

  6. Memory availability and referential access

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Clinton L.; Gordon, Peter C.; Long, Debra L.; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2013-01-01

    Most theories of coreference specify linguistic factors that modulate antecedent accessibility in memory; however, whether non-linguistic factors also affect coreferential access is unknown. Here we examined the impact of a non-linguistic generation task (letter transposition) on the repeated-name penalty, a processing difficulty observed when coreferential repeated names refer to syntactically prominent (and thus more accessible) antecedents. In Experiment 1, generation improved online (event-related potentials) and offline (recognition memory) accessibility of names in word lists. In Experiment 2, we manipulated generation and syntactic prominence of antecedent names in sentences; both improved online and offline accessibility, but only syntactic prominence elicited a repeated-name penalty. Our results have three important implications: first, the form of a referential expression interacts with an antecedent’s status in the discourse model during coreference; second, availability in memory and referential accessibility are separable; and finally, theories of coreference must better integrate known properties of the human memory system. PMID:24443621

  7. [The concepts of health access].

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Raquel Maia; Ciconelli, Rozana Mesquita

    2012-03-01

    This article describes four dimensions of health access-availability, acceptability, ability to pay and information-correlating these dimensions to indicators and discussing the complexity of the concept of access. For a study of these four dimensions, searches were conducted using the PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO, and World Health Organization Library & Information Networks for Knowledge (WHOLIS) databases. Large-circulation media vehicles, such as The Economist, The Washington Post, and the BBC network were also searched. The concept of health access has become more complex with time. The first analyses, carried out in the 1970s, suggested a strong emphasis on geographical (availability) and financial (ability to pay) aspects. More recently, the literature has focused on less tangible aspects, such as cultural, educational, and socioeconomic issues, incorporating the element of acceptability into the notion of health access. The literature also shows that information provides the starting point for access to health, in association with health empowerment and literacy for health care decision-making. The study concludes that improvements in access to health and the guarantee of equity will not be achieved by initiatives focusing on health care systems alone, but rather will depend on intersectoral actions and social and economic policies aimed at eliminating income and education differences.

  8. Optimization modeling to maximize population access to comprehensive stroke centers

    PubMed Central

    Branas, Charles C.; Kasner, Scott E.; Wolff, Catherine; Williams, Justin C.; Albright, Karen C.; Carr, Brendan G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The location of comprehensive stroke centers (CSCs) is critical to ensuring rapid access to acute stroke therapies; we conducted a population-level virtual trial simulating change in access to CSCs using optimization modeling to selectively convert primary stroke centers (PSCs) to CSCs. Methods: Up to 20 certified PSCs per state were selected for conversion to maximize the population with 60-minute CSC access by ground and air. Access was compared across states based on region and the presence of state-level emergency medical service policies preferentially routing patients to stroke centers. Results: In 2010, there were 811 Joint Commission PSCs and 0 CSCs in the United States. Of the US population, 65.8% had 60-minute ground access to PSCs. After adding up to 20 optimally located CSCs per state, 63.1% of the US population had 60-minute ground access and 86.0% had 60-minute ground/air access to a CSC. Across states, median CSC access was 55.7% by ground (interquartile range 35.7%–71.5%) and 85.3% by ground/air (interquartile range 59.8%–92.1%). Ground access was lower in Stroke Belt states compared with non–Stroke Belt states (32.0% vs 58.6%, p = 0.02) and lower in states without emergency medical service routing policies (52.7% vs 68.3%, p = 0.04). Conclusion: Optimal system simulation can be used to develop efficient care systems that maximize accessibility. Under optimal conditions, a large proportion of the US population will be unable to access a CSC within 60 minutes. PMID:25740858

  9. Intravascular access in pediatric cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Brunette, D D; Fischer, R

    1988-11-01

    All cases of patients aged less than 48 months who presented in cardiac arrest to the Hennepin County Medical Center's emergency department (ED) during the years 1984 to 1986 were reviewed retrospectively. The ED record, initial and subsequent chest radiographs, hospital charts, and autopsy reports were analyzed. A total of 33 cases were reviewed. The average patient age was 5 months. The average time needed to establish intravascular access was 7.9 +/- 4.2 minutes. Success rates were 77% for central venous catheterization, 81% for surgical vein cutdown, 83% for intraosseous infusion, and 17% for percutaneous peripheral catheterization. Percutaneous peripheral catheterization, when successful, and bone marrow needle placement were the fastest methods of obtaining intravascular access. There were no major immediate complications, and delayed complications were minimal. Attempts at peripheral intravenous catheter placement should be brief, with rapid progression to intraosseous infusion if peripheral attempts are not successful. PMID:3178949

  10. Accessible haptic technology for drug design applications.

    PubMed

    Zonta, Nicola; Grimstead, Ian J; Avis, Nick J; Brancale, Andrea

    2009-02-01

    Structure-based drug design is a creative process that displays several features that make it closer to human reasoning than to machine automation. However, very often the user intervention is limited to the preparation of the input and analysis of the output of a computer simulation. In some cases, allowing human intervention directly in the process could improve the quality of the results by applying the researcher intuition directly into the simulation. Haptic technology has been previously explored as a useful method to interact with a chemical system. However, the need of expensive hardware and the lack of accessible software have limited the use of this technology to date. Here we are reporting the implementation of a haptic-based molecular mechanics environment aimed for interactive drug design and ligand optimization, using an easily accessible software/hardware combination. PMID:19048316

  11. Non-volatile magnetic random access memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R. (Inventor); Stadler, Henry L. (Inventor); Wu, Jiin-Chuan (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Improvements are made in a non-volatile magnetic random access memory. Such a memory is comprised of an array of unit cells, each having a Hall-effect sensor and a thin-film magnetic element made of material having an in-plane, uniaxial anisotropy and in-plane, bipolar remanent magnetization states. The Hall-effect sensor is made more sensitive by using a 1 m thick molecular beam epitaxy grown InAs layer on a silicon substrate by employing a GaAs/AlGaAs/InAlAs superlattice buffering layer. One improvement avoids current shunting problems of matrix architecture. Another improvement reduces the required magnetizing current for the micromagnets. Another improvement relates to the use of GaAs technology wherein high electron-mobility GaAs MESFETs provide faster switching times. Still another improvement relates to a method for configuring the invention as a three-dimensional random access memory.

  12. Single-cell chromatin accessibility reveals principles of regulatory variation

    PubMed Central

    Buenrostro, Jason D.; Wu, Beijing; Litzenburger, Ulrike M.; Ruff, Dave; Gonzales, Michael L.; Snyder, Michael P.; Chang, Howard Y.; Greenleaf, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Cell-to-cell variation is a universal feature of life that impacts a wide range of biological phenomena, from developmental plasticity1,2 to tumor heterogeneity3. While recent advances have improved our ability to document cellular phenotypic variation4–8 the fundamental mechanisms that generate variability from identical DNA sequences remain elusive. Here we reveal the landscape and principles of cellular DNA regulatory variation by developing a robust method for mapping the accessible genome of individual cells via assay for transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing (ATAC-seq). Single-cell ATAC-seq (scATAC-seq) maps from hundreds of single-cells in aggregate closely resemble accessibility profiles from tens of millions of cells and provides insights into cell-to-cell variation. Accessibility variance is systematically associated with specific trans-factors and cis-elements, and we discover combinations of trans-factors associated with either induction or suppression of cell-to-cell variability. We further identify sets of trans-factors associated with cell-type specific accessibility variance across 8 cell types. Targeted perturbations of cell cycle or transcription factor signaling evoke stimulus-specific changes in this observed variability. The pattern of accessibility variation in cis across the genome recapitulates chromosome topological domains9 de novo, linking single-cell accessibility variation to three-dimensional genome organization. All together, single-cell analysis of DNA accessibility provides new insight into cellular variation of the “regulome.” PMID:26083756

  13. Single-cell chromatin accessibility reveals principles of regulatory variation.

    PubMed

    Buenrostro, Jason D; Wu, Beijing; Litzenburger, Ulrike M; Ruff, Dave; Gonzales, Michael L; Snyder, Michael P; Chang, Howard Y; Greenleaf, William J

    2015-07-23

    Cell-to-cell variation is a universal feature of life that affects a wide range of biological phenomena, from developmental plasticity to tumour heterogeneity. Although recent advances have improved our ability to document cellular phenotypic variation, the fundamental mechanisms that generate variability from identical DNA sequences remain elusive. Here we reveal the landscape and principles of mammalian DNA regulatory variation by developing a robust method for mapping the accessible genome of individual cells by assay for transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing (ATAC-seq) integrated into a programmable microfluidics platform. Single-cell ATAC-seq (scATAC-seq) maps from hundreds of single cells in aggregate closely resemble accessibility profiles from tens of millions of cells and provide insights into cell-to-cell variation. Accessibility variance is systematically associated with specific trans-factors and cis-elements, and we discover combinations of trans-factors associated with either induction or suppression of cell-to-cell variability. We further identify sets of trans-factors associated with cell-type-specific accessibility variance across eight cell types. Targeted perturbations of cell cycle or transcription factor signalling evoke stimulus-specific changes in this observed variability. The pattern of accessibility variation in cis across the genome recapitulates chromosome compartments de novo, linking single-cell accessibility variation to three-dimensional genome organization. Single-cell analysis of DNA accessibility provides new insight into cellular variation of the 'regulome'.

  14. 47 CFR 54.621 - Access to advanced telecommunications and information services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... monthly cost of eligible Internet access shall be eligible for universal support. Health care providers shall certify that the Internet access selected is the most cost-effective method for their health care needs as defined in § 54.615(c)(7), and that purchase of the Internet access is reasonably related...

  15. A Bibliometric Study of Scholarly Articles Published by Library and Information Science Authors about Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grandbois, Jennifer; Beheshti, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study aims to gain a greater understanding of the development of open access practices amongst library and information science authors, since their role is integral to the success of the broader open access movement. Method: Data were collected from scholarly articles about open access by library and information science authors…

  16. Open Access Theses in Institutional Repositories: An Exploratory Study of the Perceptions of Doctoral Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Kate Valentine; Liew, Chern Li

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: We examine doctoral students' awareness of and attitudes to open access forms of publication. Levels of awareness of open access and the concept of institutional repositories, publishing behaviour and perceptions of benefits and risks of open access publishing were explored. Method: Qualitative and quantitative data were collected…

  17. 36 CFR 228.12 - Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... other means of access, including but not limited to off-road vehicles, be used until the operator has... Minerals § 228.12 Access. An operator is entitled to access in connection with operations, but no...

  18. GEWEX-RFA Web Access Data

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-06-26

    ... access is restricted to assessment participants Maps and time series data products Details:  GEWEX-RFA Web Access Data Screenshot:  ... GEWEX Category:  FTP and Web Access for Select Products Screenshot 2:  ...

  19. Patient-centred access to health care: conceptualising access at the interface of health systems and populations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Access is central to the performance of health care systems around the world. However, access to health care remains a complex notion as exemplified in the variety of interpretations of the concept across authors. The aim of this paper is to suggest a conceptualisation of access to health care describing broad dimensions and determinants that integrate demand and supply-side-factors and enabling the operationalisation of access to health care all along the process of obtaining care and benefiting from the services. Methods A synthesis of the published literature on the conceptualisation of access has been performed. The most cited frameworks served as a basis to develop a revised conceptual framework. Results Here, we view access as the opportunity to identify healthcare needs, to seek healthcare services, to reach, to obtain or use health care services, and to actually have a need for services fulfilled. We conceptualise five dimensions of accessibility: 1) Approachability; 2) Acceptability; 3) Availability and accommodation; 4) Affordability; 5) Appropriateness. In this framework, five corresponding abilities of populations interact with the dimensions of accessibility to generate access. Five corollary dimensions of abilities include: 1) Ability to perceive; 2) Ability to seek; 3) Ability to reach; 4) Ability to pay; and 5) Ability to engage. Conclusions This paper explains the comprehensiveness and dynamic nature of this conceptualisation of access to care and identifies relevant determinants that can have an impact on access from a multilevel perspective where factors related to health systems, institutions, organisations and providers are considered with factors at the individual, household, community, and population levels. PMID:23496984

  20. A selection system for identifying accessible sites in target RNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Pan, W H; Devlin, H F; Kelley, C; Isom, H C; Clawson, G A

    2001-01-01

    Although ribozymes offer tremendous potential for posttranscriptionally controlling expression of targeted genes, their utility is often limited by the accessibility of the targeted regions within the RNA transcripts. Here we describe a method that identifies RNA regions that are accessible to oligonucleotides. Based on this selection protocol, we show that construction of hammerhead ribozymes targeted to the identified regions results in catalytic activities that are consistently and substantially greater than those of ribozymes designed on the basis of computer modeling. Identification of accessible sites should also be widely applicable to design of antisense oligonucleotides and DNAzymes. PMID:11345439

  1. Decarboxylative Fluorination Strategies for Accessing Medicinally-relevant Products

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Yupu; Zhu, Lingui; Ambler, Brett R.

    2014-01-01

    Fluorinated organic compounds have a long history in medicinal chemistry, and synthetic methods to access target fluorinated compounds are undergoing a revolution. One powerful strategy for the installation of fluorine-containing functional groups includes decarboxylative reactions. Benefits of decarboxylative approaches potentially include: 1) readily available substrates or reagents 2) mild reaction conditions; 3) simplified purification. This focus review highlights the applications of decarboxylation strategies for fluorination reactions to access compounds with biomedical potential. The manuscript highlights on two general strategies, fluorination by decarboxylative reagents and by decarboxylation of substrates. Where relevant, examples of medicinally useful compounds that can be accessed using these strategies are highlighted. PMID:24484421

  2. Accessing the Lunar Poles for Human Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joosten, B. Kent

    2004-01-01

    The National Vision for Space Exploration calls for an American return to the Moon in preparation for the human exploration of Mars and other destinations. The surface environment of the Moon is a challenge for human operations, but recent findings from robotic and Earth-based studies have indicated that the polar regions of the Moon may offer advantages in terms of thermal conditions, availability of solar energy, and access to local resources. While accessing these regions represents a challenge due to orbital dynamics and propulsive performance, methods for accessing the regions with humans are being actively pursued, and environmental data gathering is planned through future robotic missions.

  3. Development of a Concise Synthetic Approach to Access Oroxin A

    PubMed Central

    He, Guihua; Li, Cailong; Dong, Longrong; Xie, Xiaobo; Wu, Jianlei; Gao, Yu

    2014-01-01

    A novel environment-friendly method to access bioactive oroxin A through a one-pot/two-step process from naturally abundant and inexpensive baicalin is described. The procedure presented here has several advantages including clean, one-pot, synthetic ease, and large-scale feasibility. This work also provides a model strategy for rapid and diverse access to natural molecules sharing the common skeleton of this family. PMID:25431654

  4. Patients’ perceptions on losing access to FPs

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Tom; Brown, Judith Belle; Reid, Graham; Stewart, Moira; Thind, Amardeep; Vingilis, Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine the health care–related experiences of individuals who have lost their FPs. Design A qualitative design using phenomenology. Setting Southwestern Ontario. Participants Eighteen participants (9 women and 9 men, with a mean age of 48.9 years) from urban or rural areas who had lost their FPs. Methods Semistructured interviews were conducted, which were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. An iterative approach using immersion and crystallization was employed for analysis. Main findings Participants reported having lost their FPs because of reasons specific to their physicians (eg, illness, retirement, career change) or system issues (eg, poor remuneration for FPs, cutbacks in health care leading to physician emigration). Participants described feelings of loss, abandonment, frustration, and anger related to losing their physicians. They expressed concerns about the difficulty of getting prescription medications, lack of continuity of care related to medical records, and preventive care. They faced considerable hurdles in accessing primary health care, turning to walk-in clinics and emergency departments despite concerns about quality and fragmentation of care. Some of those with chronic medical conditions prevailed upon specialists to help meet primary health care needs. Conclusion Losing access to FPs evoked a variety of strong feelings among these participants. They engaged in a number of strategies to meet their primary care needs but not without reservations. In a health care system appropriately built on primary health care, the lack of access to FPs is regarded as the loss of a basic right to care. PMID:23585623

  5. Quantifying Access Disparities in Response Plans

    PubMed Central

    Indrakanti, Saratchandra; Mikler, Armin R.; O’Neill, Martin; Tiwari, Chetan

    2016-01-01

    Effective response planning and preparedness are critical to the health and well-being of communities in the face of biological emergencies. Response plans involving mass prophylaxis may seem feasible when considering the choice of dispensing points within a region, overall population density, and estimated traffic demands. However, the plan may fail to serve particular vulnerable subpopulations, resulting in access disparities during emergency response. For a response plan to be effective, sufficient mitigation resources must be made accessible to target populations within short, federally-mandated time frames. A major challenge in response plan design is to establish a balance between the allocation of available resources and the provision of equal access to PODs for all individuals in a given geographic region. Limitations on the availability, granularity, and currency of data to identify vulnerable populations further complicate the planning process. To address these challenges and limitations, data driven methods to quantify vulnerabilities in the context of response plans have been developed and are explored in this article. PMID:26771551

  6. NOAA Climate Data Records Access for Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachniewicz, J. S.; Cecil, D.; Hollingshead, A.; Newport, B. J.; Wunder, D.

    2015-12-01

    There are many potential uses of NOAA Climate Data Records (CDRs) for decision-making and catastrophic risk management assessment activities in the federal, state, and local government and private sectors, in addition to their traditional uses by the academic/scientific community. There is growing interest in using NOAA CDRs for such applications and straightforward access to the data is essential if these applications are to be successful. User engagement activities determine the types of data that users need, as well as the spatial and temporal subsets. This talk will present the access methods currently available and in development. Alternate representations and sources of some CDRs will also be discussed. Recent improvements include: 1. CDR information web page 2. Dataset types, sizes, growth, latency, grid/swath 3. Dataset discovery, data access, and sub-setting. 4. Knowing our users and their needs. 5. Known uses of some CDRs. 6. Migration to CLASS. 7. Other representations - GeoTIFF, Obs4MIPS 8. Cloud applications - Google, Microsoft

  7. [Medical journals and open access].

    PubMed

    Sember, Marijan

    2008-01-01

    The open access (OA) or the idea of a free access to scholarly literature published in electronic form has been already well established in the field of medicine. Medline has already been free for a decade, PubMed Central has been growing steadily. The global crisis of the scientific publishing, becoming increasingly dominated by multinational companies and constant increase of journal prices have moved to action not only individuals and institutions but governments and research charities too. The aim of this article is to give an overview of the main open access initiatives and resources in biomedicine (PubMed, PubMed Central, BioMed Central, PLoS). The OA pros and cons are briefly discussed emphasizing the benefits of OA to medical research and practice. PMID:18792564

  8. Interlibrary loan in primary access libraries: challenging the traditional view

    PubMed Central

    Dudden, Rosalind Farnam; Coldren, Sue; Condon, Joyce Elizabeth; Katsh, Sara; Reiter, Catherine Morton; Roth, Pamela Lynn

    2000-01-01

    Introduction: Primary access libraries serve as the foundation of the National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NN/LM) interlibrary loan (ILL) hierarchy, yet few published reports directly address the important role these libraries play in the ILL system. This may reflect the traditional view that small, primary access libraries are largely users of ILL, rather than important contributors to the effectiveness and efficiency of the national ILL system. Objective: This study was undertaken to test several commonly held beliefs regarding ILL system use by primary access libraries. Hypotheses: Three hypotheses were developed. H1: Colorado and Wyoming primary access libraries comply with the recommended ILL guideline of adhering to a hierarchical structure, emphasizing local borrowing. H2: The closures of two Colorado Council of Medical Librarians (CCML) primary access libraries in 1996 resulted in twenty-three Colorado primary access libraries' borrowing more from their state resource library in 1997. H3: The number of subscriptions held by Colorado and Wyoming primary access libraries is positively correlated with the number of items they loan and negatively correlated with the number of items they borrow. Methods: The hypotheses were tested using the 1992 and 1997 DOCLINE and OCLC data of fifty-four health sciences libraries, including fifty primary access libraries, two state resource libraries, and two general academic libraries in Colorado and Wyoming. The ILL data were obtained electronically and analyzed using Microsoft Word 98, Microsoft Excel 98, and JMP 3.2.2. Results: CCML primary access libraries comply with the recommended guideline to emphasize local borrowing by supplying each other with the majority of their ILLs, instead of overburdening libraries located at higher levels in the ILL hierarchy (H1). The closures of two CCML primary access libraries appear to have affected the entire ILL system, resulting in a greater volume of ILL activity for the

  9. Quantitative real-time PCR as a sensitive protein-protein interaction quantification method and a partial solution for non-accessible autoactivator and false-negative molecule analysis in the yeast two-hybrid system.

    PubMed

    Maier, Richard H; Maier, Christina J; Hintner, Helmut; Bauer, Johann W; Onder, Kamil

    2012-12-01

    Many functional proteomic experiments make use of high-throughput technologies such as mass spectrometry combined with two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system. Currently there are even automated versions of the Y2H system available that can be used for proteome-wide research. The Y2H system has the capacity to deliver a profusion of Y2H positive colonies from a single library screen. However, subsequent analysis of these numerous primary candidates with complementary methods can be overwhelming. Therefore, a method to select the most promising candidates with strong interaction properties might be useful to reduce the number of candidates requiring further analysis. The method described here offers a new way of quantifying and rating the performance of positive Y2H candidates. The novelty lies in the detection and measurement of mRNA expression instead of proteins or conventional Y2H genetic reporters. This method correlates well with the direct genetic reporter readouts usually used in the Y2H system, and has greater sensitivity for detecting and quantifying protein-protein interactions (PPIs) than the conventional Y2H system, as demonstrated by detection of the Y2H false-negative PPI of RXR/PPARG. Approximately 20% of all proteins are not suitable for the Y2H system, the so-called autoactivators. A further advantage of this method is the possibility to evaluate molecules that usually cannot be analyzed in the Y2H system, exemplified by a VDR-LXXLL motif peptide interaction. PMID:22982175

  10. Making family planning accessible in resource-poor settings.

    PubMed

    Prata, Ndola

    2009-10-27

    It is imperative to make family planning more accessible in low resource settings. The poorest couples have the highest fertility, the lowest contraceptive use and the highest unmet need for contraception. It is also in the low resource settings where maternal and child mortality is the highest. Family planning can contribute to improvements in maternal and child health, especially in low resource settings where overall access to health services is limited. Four critical steps should be taken to increase access to family planning in resource-poor settings: (i) increase knowledge about the safety of family planning methods; (ii) ensure contraception is genuinely affordable to the poorest families; (iii) ensure supply of contraceptives by making family planning a permanent line item in healthcare system's budgets and (iv) take immediate action to remove barriers hindering access to family planning methods. In Africa, there are more women with an unmet need for family planning than women currently using modern methods. Making family planning accessible in low resource settings will help decrease the existing inequities in achieving desired fertility at individual and country level. In addition, it could help slow population growth within a human rights framework. The United Nations Population Division projections for the year 2050 vary between a high of 10.6 and a low of 7.4 billion. Given that most of the growth is expected to come from today's resource-poor settings, easy access to family planning could make a difference of billions in the world in 2050. PMID:19770158

  11. OSSI-PET: Open-Access Database of Simulated [(11)C]Raclopride Scans for the Inveon Preclinical PET Scanner: Application to the Optimization of Reconstruction Methods for Dynamic Studies.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Marie-Paule; Charil, Arnaud; Callaghan, Paul; Wimberley, Catriona; Busso, Florian; Gregoire, Marie-Claude; Bardies, Manuel; Reilhac, Anthonin

    2016-07-01

    A wide range of medical imaging applications benefits from the availability of realistic ground truth data. In the case of positron emission tomography (PET), ground truth data is crucial to validate processing algorithms and assessing their performances. The design of such ground truth data often relies on Monte-Carlo simulation techniques. Since the creation of a large dataset is not trivial both in terms of computing time and realism, we propose the OSSI-PET database containing 350 simulated [(11)C]Raclopride dynamic scans for rats, created specifically for the Inveon pre-clinical PET scanner. The originality of this database lies on the availability of several groups of scans with controlled biological variations in the striata. Besides, each group consists of a large number of realizations (i.e., noise replicates). We present the construction methodology of this database using rat pharmacokinetic and anatomical models. A first application using the OSSI-PET database is presented. Several commonly used reconstruction techniques were compared in terms of image quality, accuracy and variability of the activity estimates and of the computed kinetic parameters. The results showed that OP-OSEM3D iterative reconstruction method outperformed the other tested methods. Analytical methods such as FBP2D and 3DRP also produced satisfactory results. However, FORE followed by OSEM2D reconstructions should be avoided. Beyond the illustration of the potential of the database, this application will help scientists to understand the different sources of noise and bias that can occur at the different steps in the processing and will be very useful for choosing appropriate reconstruction methods and parameters. PMID:26863655

  12. OSSI-PET: Open-Access Database of Simulated [(11)C]Raclopride Scans for the Inveon Preclinical PET Scanner: Application to the Optimization of Reconstruction Methods for Dynamic Studies.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Marie-Paule; Charil, Arnaud; Callaghan, Paul; Wimberley, Catriona; Busso, Florian; Gregoire, Marie-Claude; Bardies, Manuel; Reilhac, Anthonin

    2016-07-01

    A wide range of medical imaging applications benefits from the availability of realistic ground truth data. In the case of positron emission tomography (PET), ground truth data is crucial to validate processing algorithms and assessing their performances. The design of such ground truth data often relies on Monte-Carlo simulation techniques. Since the creation of a large dataset is not trivial both in terms of computing time and realism, we propose the OSSI-PET database containing 350 simulated [(11)C]Raclopride dynamic scans for rats, created specifically for the Inveon pre-clinical PET scanner. The originality of this database lies on the availability of several groups of scans with controlled biological variations in the striata. Besides, each group consists of a large number of realizations (i.e., noise replicates). We present the construction methodology of this database using rat pharmacokinetic and anatomical models. A first application using the OSSI-PET database is presented. Several commonly used reconstruction techniques were compared in terms of image quality, accuracy and variability of the activity estimates and of the computed kinetic parameters. The results showed that OP-OSEM3D iterative reconstruction method outperformed the other tested methods. Analytical methods such as FBP2D and 3DRP also produced satisfactory results. However, FORE followed by OSEM2D reconstructions should be avoided. Beyond the illustration of the potential of the database, this application will help scientists to understand the different sources of noise and bias that can occur at the different steps in the processing and will be very useful for choosing appropriate reconstruction methods and parameters.

  13. Molecular accessibility in solvent swelled coal

    SciTech Connect

    Kispert, L.D.

    1990-11-01

    Research continued on the swelling of coal. Changes in the size and number distribution of the accessible regions in five Argonne Premium Coal Samples (APCS No.3, No.4, No.5, No.6, and No.8) upon swelling with the solvents, cyclohexane, toluene, nitrobenzene and pyridine were examined by an EPR spin probe method. It was found that as the basicity of the solvent increased the number and length of the cylindrical pores increased with decreasing rank. The number of cylindrical pores also increased with oxygen content (with decreasing rank) suggesting a destruction of the hydrogen-bond network upon swelling with pyridine. 6 refs.

  14. [Enteral nutrition: ways of access and formulas].

    PubMed

    Sauret, C; Humanes, A; Trallero, R

    1999-03-01

    Enteral nutrition is a very adequate method to feed those patients who can not receive food by oral means, to be used only when their gastrointestinal functions are preserved and carry out a proper assimilation of nutrients. Starting from these facts, this article analyzes the various access ways which can be used in enteral nutrition, and the most commonly used enteral nutrition formulas, noting their possible classifications. The nutritional modules and the material necessary to employ this form of feeding, as well as the administrative guidelines, are also presented in this article.

  15. Household food insecurity access scale (HFIAS).

    PubMed

    Salvador Castell, Gemma; Pérez Rodrigo, Carmen; Ngo de la Cruz, Joy; Aranceta Bartrina, Javier

    2015-02-26

    In 1996, the World Food Summit reaffirmed the inalienable right that each person across the globe has to access safe, adequate and nutritious food. At that time a goal was established to reduce by half the number of undernourished persons worldwide by 2015, in other words the year that we are now commencing. Different countries and organisations considered the necessity of reaching consensus and developing indicators for measuring household food insecurity. The availability of a simple but evidence-based measurement method to identify nutritionally at-risk population groups constitutes an essential instrument for implementing strategies that effectively address relevant key issues.

  16. An access alternative for mobile satellite networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, W. W.

    1988-01-01

    Conceptually, this paper discusses strategies of digital satellite communication networks for a very large number of low density traffic stations. These stations can be either aeronautical, land mobile, or maritime. The techniques can be applied to international, domestic, regional, and special purpose satellite networks. The applications can be commercial, scientific, military, emergency, navigational or educational. The key strategy is the use of a non-orthogonal access method, which tolerates overlapping signals. With n being either time or frequency partitions, and with a single overlapping signal allowed, a low cost mobile satellite system can be designed with n squared (n squared + n + 1) number of terminals.

  17. Molecular accessibility in solvent swelled coals

    SciTech Connect

    Kispert, L.D.

    1993-02-01

    An EPR technique developed in this lab is being used to determine the pore size and number distribution changes after swelling the coal samples with various solvents. Stable nitroxide radical spin probes of different sizes, shapes and reactivity are dissolved in an appropriate solvent, the coal sample is added to the resulting solution, stirred over night at elevated temperature, filtered, washed with a non swelling solvent to eliminate any spin probes that are not trapped in the pores and the spin concentration is measured. Comparing these spin probe measurements to DRIFT data have shown that the relative number distribution of acidic functionalities can be accurately predicted by the spin probe method. The spin probe method had also been used to predict the increase in elongated voids in Pittsburgh No. 8 (APCS No. 4) upon swelling with pyridine in agreement with independent SANS data. NMR relaxation data show that it is possible to deduce the pore (accessibility) distribution as a function of size (up to 6 mn). It has also been possible by variable temperature and ENDOR measurements to determine the presence of hydrogen bonding as a function of pore shape and size. The advantage of the EPR method is that it permits molecules of selected shape and size to be used as probes of accessible regions of coal, thus providing information on the importance of molecular shape.

  18. Molecular accessibility in solvent swelled coal

    SciTech Connect

    Kispert, L.D.

    1992-05-29

    An EPR technique developed in this lab is being used to determine the pore size and number distribution changes after swelling the coal samples with various solvents. Stable nitroxide radical spin probes of different sizes, shapes and reactivity are dissolved in an appropriate solvent, the coal sample is added to the resulting solution, stirred over night at elevated temperature, filtered, washed with a nonswelling solvent to eliminate any spin probes that are not trapped in the pores and the spin concentration measured. Comparing these spin probe measurements to DRIFT data have shown that the relative number distribution of acidic functionalities can be accurately predicted by the spin probe method. The spin probe method has also been used to predict the increase in elongated voids in Pittsburgh No. 8 (APCS No. 4) upon swelling with pyridine in agreement with independent SANS data. NMR relaxation data show that it is possible to deduce the pore (accessibility) distribution as a function of size (up to 6 nm). It has also been possible by variable temperature and ENDOR measurements to determine the presence of hydrogen bonding as a function of pore shape and size. The advantage of EPR method is that it permits molecules of selected shape and size to be used as probes of accessible regions of the coal, thus providing information on the importance of molecular shape.

  19. Molecular accessibility in solvent swelled coal

    SciTech Connect

    Kispert, L.D.

    1992-08-01

    An EPR technique developed in this lab is being used to determine the pore size and number distribution changes after swelling the coal samples with various solvents. Stable nitroxide radical spin probes of different sizes, shapes and reactivity are dissolved in an appropriate solvent, the coal sample is added to the resulting solution, stirred over night at elevated temperature, filtered, washed with a nonswelling solvent to eliminate any spin probes that are not trapped in the pores and the spin concentration measured. Comparing these spin probe measurements to DRIFT data have shown that the relative number distribution of acidic functionalities can be accurately predicted by the spin probe method. The spin probe method has also been used to predict the increase in elongated voids in Pittsburgh No. 8 (APCS No. 4) upon swelling with pyridine in agreement with independent SANS data. NMR relaxation data shows that it is possible to deduce the pore (accessibility) distribution as a function of size (up to 6 nm). It has also been possible by variable temperature and ENDOR measurements to determine the presence of hydrogen bonding as a function of pore shape and size. The advantage of the EPR method is that it permits molecules of selected shape and size to be used as probes of accessible regions of the coal, thus providing information on the importance of molecular shape.

  20. Equity for open-access journal publishing.

    PubMed

    Shieber, Stuart M

    2009-08-01

    Open-access journals, which provide access to their scholarly articles freely and without limitations, are at a systematic disadvantage relative to traditional closed-access journal publishing and its subscription-based business model. A simple, cost-effective remedy to this inequity could put open-access publishing on a path to become a sustainable, efficient system. PMID:19652697

  1. Educational Access in Bangladesh. Country Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Manzoor

    2008-01-01

    This Policy Brief describes and explains patterns of access to schooling in Bangladesh. It outlines types of educational provision and provides some basic statistics on access, vulnerability and exclusion, as well as insights into the characteristics of those denied access. It is based on findings from the "Country Analytic Review on Access to…

  2. Educational Access in India. Country Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This Policy Brief describes and explains patterns of access to schools in India. It outlines policy and legislation on access to education and provides an analysis of access, vulnerability and exclusion. The quantitative data is supported by a review of research which explains the patterns of access and exclusion. It is based on findings from the…

  3. 77 FR 26149 - Access Authorization Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... Access and Management System (ADAMS): You may access publicly available documents online in the NRC... 11--CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO OR CONTROL OVER SPECIAL NUCLEAR... RIN 3150-AJ00 Access Authorization Fees AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Direct...

  4. Educational Access in Ghana. Country Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyeampong, K.; Djangmah, J.; Oduro, A.; Seidu, A.; Hunt, F.

    2008-01-01

    This Policy Brief describes and explains patterns of access to schools in Ghana. It outlines policy and legislation on access to education and provides an analysis of access, vulnerability and exclusion. It is based on findings from the Country Analytic Report on Access to Basic Education in Ghana (Akyeampong et al, 2007) [ED508809] which can be…

  5. Productivity Measures Associated With a Patient Access Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Gable, William H.; Pappas, Theodore N.; Jacobs, Danny O.; Cutler, Desmond A.; Kuo, Paul C.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess financial performance associated with a patient 7-day access initiative. Background Data: Patient access to clinical services is frequently an obstacle at academic medical centers. Conflicting surgeon priorities among academic, clinical, educational, and leadership duties often create difficulties for patient entry into the “system.” Methods: The scope and objectives were identified to be: design of a standard, simple new patient appointment process, design of a standard process in cases where an appointment is not available in 7 days, use subspecialty team search capabilities, minimize/eliminate prescheduling requirements, centralize appointment scheduling, and creation and reporting of 7-day access metrics. Following maturation of the process, the 7-day access metrics from the period July 2004 to December 2004 and January 2005 to June 2005 were compared with corresponding time periods from calendar years 2001, 2002, and 2003. Results: Payor mix was unaltered. The median waiting time for a new patient appointment decreased from 21 days to 10 days. When compared with calendar years 2001, 2002, and 2003, respectively, the 2 periods of the 7-day access initiative in calendar years 2004 and 2005 were associated with significantly increased visits, new patients, operative procedures, hospital charges, and physician charges. Conclusions: Implementation of a 7-day access initiative can significantly increase financial productivity of general surgery groups in academic medical centers. We conclude that simplifying access to services can benefit academic surgical practices. Sustaining this level of productivity will continue to prove challenging. PMID:16632994

  6. Arts Accessibility for the Deaf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Eugene

    The booklet provides information and resources for cultural organizations and institutions interested in making the arts accessible to deaf citizens. Preliminary information includes a discussion of deafness in America and the deaf in the history of the arts and notes that the era of silent films was the golden age of cinema. Listed are 36…

  7. Garnet Random-Access Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R.

    1995-01-01

    Random-access memory (RAM) devices of proposed type exploit magneto-optical properties of magnetic garnets exhibiting perpendicular anisotropy. Magnetic writing and optical readout used. Provides nonvolatile storage and resists damage by ionizing radiation. Because of basic architecture and pinout requirements, most likely useful as small-capacity memory devices.

  8. Proximity Displays for Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaniea, Kami

    2012-01-01

    Managing access to shared digital information, such as photographs and documents. is difficult for end users who are accumulating an increasingly large and diverse collection of data that they want to share with others. Current policy-management solutions require a user to proactively seek out and open a separate policy-management interface when…

  9. Ballistic representation for kinematic access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfano, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    This work uses simple two-body orbital dynamics to initially determine the kinematic access for a ballistic vehicle. Primarily this analysis was developed to assess when a rocket body might conjunct with an orbiting satellite platform. A family of access opportunities can be represented as a volume for a specific rocket relative to its launch platform. Alternately, the opportunities can be represented as a geographical footprint relative to aircraft or satellite position that encompasses all possible launcher locations for a specific rocket. A thrusting rocket is treated as a ballistic vehicle that receives all its energy at launch and follows a coasting trajectory. To do so, the rocket's burnout energy is used to find its equivalent initial velocity for a given launcher's altitude. Three kinematic access solutions are then found that account for spherical Earth rotation. One solution finds the maximum range for an ascent-only trajectory while another solution accommodates a descending trajectory. In addition, the ascent engagement for the descending trajectory is used to depict a rapid access scenario. These preliminary solutions are formulated to address ground-, sea-, or air-launched vehicles.

  10. Academic Access and New Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandell, Alan; Herman, Lee

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 30+ years, many colleges have made themselves more accessible for adult students. These innovations include flexible scheduling, online learning, professionally-oriented degrees, and credit for what students already know. However, there is more work to be done, particularly in the areas of financial aid for the very large number of…

  11. Access & Equity Newsletter. Volume 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Included in this edition of the "In-the-Know" Access & Equity Newsletter are: (1) State Losing Black Instructors (Gina Smith); (2) Time to Join Together to Seek "Economic Rights" (Darla Moore); and (3) "Advancing Diversity in Higher Education--Diversity Digest" (Mark Giles, Ed.), which is a reprint of an article originally published in…

  12. AccessSTEM: Building Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DO-IT, 2009

    2009-01-01

    A series of activities were undertaken to understand the underrepresentation of people with disabilities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers and increase their participation in these fields. "AccessSTEM" collaborated with key stakeholders to conduct a "Capacity-Building Institute" ("CBI") in April 2009; share…

  13. The Inevitability of Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Open access (OA) is an alternative business model for the publication of scholarly journals. It makes articles freely available to readers on the Internet and covers the costs associated with publication through means other than subscriptions. This article argues that Gold OA, where all of the articles of a journal are available at the time of…

  14. Accessibility: Maximum Mobility and Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyser, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Describes how to design school and university labs to comply with Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) standards, focusing on counter height for students in wheelchairs; appropriate knee space and sink height in sink areas; ADA-compliant fume hoods; accessible laboratory doors and entryways; and safety concerns (e.g., emergency eyewash stations…

  15. LANSCE personnel access control system

    SciTech Connect

    Sturrock, J.C.; Gallegos, F.R.; Hall, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. The Personnel Access Control System (PACS) is a component of the RSS that is designed to prevent personnel access to areas where prompt radiation is a hazard. PACS was designed to replace several older personnel safety systems (PSS) with a single modem unified design. Lessons learned from the operation over the last 20 years were incorporated into a redundant sensor, single-point failure safe, fault tolerant, and tamper-resistant system that prevents access to the beam areas by controlling the access keys and beam stoppers. PACS uses a layered philosophy to the physical and electronic design. The most critical assemblies are battery backed up, relay logic circuits; less critical devices use Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) for timing functions and communications. Outside reviewers have reviewed the operational safety of the design. The design philosophy, lessons learned, hardware design, software design, operation, and limitations of the device are described.

  16. Accessing ITP: Accommodating the Disabled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, R. Wayne

    The Information Technology Project (ITP) at Clayton College & State University (CCSU) (Georgia) focuses on information technology as a central part of teaching and learning, primarily through Universal Personal Information Technology Access (UPITA). UPITA equips each student and faculty member with a powerful multimedia notebook computer with…

  17. Minorities Access to Research Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, Washington, DC.

    The Minorities Access to Research Careers (MARC) program at Hunter College, New York is designed to provide an in-depth 2-year research training experience for minority students in order to prepare them for graduate school and eventual research careers in alcohol, drug abuse, and mental health fields. The target groups include Blacks, Hispanics,…

  18. Plated wire random access memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gouldin, L. D.

    1975-01-01

    A program was conducted to construct 4096-work by 18-bit random access, NDRO-plated wire memory units. The memory units were subjected to comprehensive functional and environmental tests at the end-item level to verify comformance with the specified requirements. A technical description of the unit is given, along with acceptance test data sheets.

  19. Accessible Computers from the Box.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderheiden, Gregg C.

    The paper briefly discusses the design of computers to allow their use by the 20% of the American population who have reduced abilities in such areas as manipulation, vision, hearing, and cognition. The role of manufacturers of standard computers in increasing computer accessibility is one of providing computers that can be used by an increasing…

  20. Remotely Accessible Management System (RAMS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Rex

    Oakland Schools, an Intermediate School District for Administration, operates a Remotely Accessible Management System (RAMS). RAMS is composed of over 100 computer programs, each of which performs procedures on the files of the 28 local school districts comprising the constituency of Oakland Schools. This regional service agency covers 900 square…

  1. Card Access Know-How.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Provides tips for expanding a school's card access system and making it more productive for all concerned. Tips include the use of electronic locks for better security; the need for state-of-the-art card reader system to save money in the long run; selecting vendors to one that manufactures, installs, and supports the card system; and having…

  2. Fully automated method for the liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric determination of cyproterone acetate in human plasma using restricted access material for on-line sample clean-up.

    PubMed

    Christiaens, B; Fillet, M; Chiap, P; Rbeida, O; Ceccato, A; Streel, B; De Graeve, J; Crommen, J; Hubert, Ph

    2004-11-12

    A new automated method for the quantitative analysis of cyproterone acetate (CPA) in human plasma has been developed using on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) prior to the LC-MS/MS determination. The method was based on the use of a pre-column packed with internal-surface reversed-phase material (LiChrospher RP-4 ADS, 25 mm x 2 mm) for sample clean-up coupled to LC separation on an octadecyl silica stationary phase by means of a column switching system. A 30 microl plasma sample volume was injected directly onto the pre-column using a mixture of water, acetonitrile and formic acid (90:10:0.1 (v/v/v)) adjusted to pH 4.0 with diluted ammonia as washing liquid. The analyte was then eluted in the back-flush mode with the LC mobile phase consisting of water, methanol and formic acid (10:90:0.1 (v/v/v)). The dispensing flow rates of the washing liquid and the LC mobile phase were 300 microl min(-1). Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) was used as internal standard. The MS ionization of the analytes was achieved using electrospray (ESI) in the positive ion mode. The pseudomolecular ionic species of CPA and MPA (417.4 and 387.5) were selected to generate daughter ions at 357.4 and 327.5, respectively. Finally, the developed method was validated according to a new approach using accuracy profiles as a decision tool. Very good results with respect to accuracy, detectability, repeatability, intermediate precision and selectivity were obtained. The LOQ of cyproterone acetate was 300 pg ml(-1).

  3. Access and Reproduction Policies of University Digital Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koulouris, Alexandros; Kapidakis, Sarantos

    2005-01-01

    The access and reproduction policies of the digital collections of 10 leading university digital libraries worldwide are classified according to factors such as the creation type of the material, acquisition method, copyright ownership etc. The relationship of these factors is analysed, showing how acquisition methods and copyright ownership…

  4. Creating a Shared Formulary in 7 Critical Access Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, Douglas S.; Ward, Marcia M.; Loes, Jean L.; O'Brien, John; Abbas, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper reports a case study of 7 Critical Access Hospitals' (CAH) and 1 rural referral hospital's successful collaboration to develop a shared formulary. Methods: Study methods included document reviews, interviews with key informants, and use of descriptive statistics. Findings: Through a systematic review and decision process, CAH…

  5. File Access Optimization with the Lustre Filesystem at Florida CMS T2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avery, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Fu, Y.; Kim, B.

    2015-12-01

    The Florida CMS Tier2 center, one of the CMS Tier2 centers, has been using the Lustre filesystem for its data storage backend system since 2004. Recently, the data access pattern at our site has changed greatly due to various new access methods that include file transfers through the GridFTP servers, read access from the worker nodes, and the remote read access through the xrootd servers. In order to optimize the file access performance, we have to consider all the possible access patterns and each pattern needs to be studied separately. In this presentation, we report on our work to optimize file access with the Lustre filesystem at the Florida CMS T2 using an approach based on analyzing these access patterns.

  6. Automated Computer Access Request System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snook, Bryan E.

    2010-01-01

    The Automated Computer Access Request (AutoCAR) system is a Web-based account provisioning application that replaces the time-consuming paper-based computer-access request process at Johnson Space Center (JSC). Auto- CAR combines rules-based and role-based functionality in one application to provide a centralized system that is easily and widely accessible. The system features a work-flow engine that facilitates request routing, a user registration directory containing contact information and user metadata, an access request submission and tracking process, and a system administrator account management component. This provides full, end-to-end disposition approval chain accountability from the moment a request is submitted. By blending both rules-based and rolebased functionality, AutoCAR has the flexibility to route requests based on a user s nationality, JSC affiliation status, and other export-control requirements, while ensuring a user s request is addressed by either a primary or backup approver. All user accounts that are tracked in AutoCAR are recorded and mapped to the native operating system schema on the target platform where user accounts reside. This allows for future extensibility for supporting creation, deletion, and account management directly on the target platforms by way of AutoCAR. The system s directory-based lookup and day-today change analysis of directory information determines personnel moves, deletions, and additions, and automatically notifies a user via e-mail to revalidate his/her account access as a result of such changes. AutoCAR is a Microsoft classic active server page (ASP) application hosted on a Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS).

  7. [Monitoring protocol of native vascular accesses for haemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Armada, E; Trillo, M; Pérez Melón, C; Molina Herrero, J; Gayoso, P; Camba, M; Morcillo Esteban, J; Otero, A

    2005-01-01

    Vascular access failure is an important cause of morbidity and mortality for patients on haemodialysis. We have prospectively studied, with a 5 years follow up, a monitoring protocol of native vascular accesses, using the available methods in every haemodialysis unit. All the native vascular accesses, created from 1- 1998 to XII-2001, with a posterior follow up until XII-2002, were monitored. Monitoring was based on physical examination, dificulty for blood flow greater than 300 ml/min, and in a monthly basis: dynamic venous pressure, urea recirculation and urea kinetic model. Abnormalities suggestive of fistulogram were a priori defined. During the recruitment period, a total of 164 accesses were created in 144 patients. Of these only 3 were grafts, 28 native vascular accesses were never functioning (primary failure rate 17. 1%), and 127 native accesses created in 113 patients (age 63.3 +/- 12.4 years; 18 % diabetics), were monitored (83% cephalic vein). Monitoring findings indicated realization of fistulogram in 35% and percutaneus angioplasty in 25% of the accesses. In order to maintain patency, the surgical intervention rate was 0.03 procedures/patient/year, the radiological 0.10 and the total 0.13. During the 5 years of the study occurred 41 thrombosis episodes in 40 accesses (0.07 thrombosis/patient/year), with percutaneus repermeabilization in 30%. Primary (unassisted) survival was 30.3 months (Confidence Interval 95% 25.6, 35.0) and secondary (assisted) survival 42.8 months (Confidence Interval 95%: 38.7, 46.9). Logistic regression analysis showed that presence of a central catheter at the time of creating the vascular access posses a greater risk for thrombosis (Relative Risk 5.6 if in subclavian vein), whereas age, diabetes, time to canulation, number of previous accesses and anatomic type do not increase that risk. In conclusion, in an old haemodialysis population, with an important diabetes prevalence, it is possible to create functioning native

  8. A secure network access system for mobile IPv6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong; Yuan, Man; He, Rui; Jiang, Luliang; Ma, Jian; Qian, Hualin

    2004-03-01

    With the fast development of Internet and wireless and mobile communication technology, the Mobile Internet Age is upcoming. For those providing Mobile Internet services, especially from the view of ISP (Internet Service Provider), current mobile IP protocol is insufficient. Since the Mobile IPv6 protocol will be popular in near future, how to provide a secure mobile IPv6 service is important. A secure mobile IPv6 network access system is highly needed for mobile IPv6 deployment. Current methods and systems are still inadequate, including EAP, PANA, 802.1X, RADIUS, Diameter, etc. In this paper, we describe main security goals for a secure mobile IPv6 access system, and propose a secure network access system to achieve them. This access system consists of access router, attendant and authentication servers. The access procedure is divided into three phases, which are initial phase, authentication and registration phase and termination phase. This system has many advantages, including layer two independent, flexible and extensible, no need to modify current IPv6 address autoconfiguration protocols, binding update optimization, etc. Finally, the security of the protocol in this system is analyzed and proved with Extended BAN logic method, and a brief introduction of system implementation is given.

  9. Intraosseous approach to vascular access in adult resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, Rob

    2010-07-01

    Establishing vascular access is vital to maximise resuscitation in critically ill children and adults (LaRocco and Wang 2003), and failure can result in delays in life-saving treatment (Nutbeam and Daniels 2010). The traditional intravenous access method can be difficult to achieve in patients with circulatory collapse (LaRocco and Wang 2003) and failure rates in emergency situations vary between 10 and 40 per cent (Lewis 1986). Other routes, such as endotracheal and intramuscular, do not provide controlled and reliable administration rates (Leidel et al 2009). This article focuses on the increased use of intraosseous (IO) access in adult resuscitation. The IO route is described and the indications and contraindications considered. Common insertion sites and devices of IO access are discussed. PMID:20662405

  10. Autonomy and Housing Accessibility Among Powered Mobility Device Users

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Åse; Lexell, Eva Månsson; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To describe environmental barriers, accessibility problems, and powered mobility device (PMD) users’ autonomy indoors and outdoors; to determine the home environmental barriers that generated the most housing accessibility problems indoors, at entrances, and in the close exterior surroundings; and to examine personal factors and environmental components and their association with indoor and outdoor autonomy. METHOD. This cross-sectional study was based on data collected from a sample of 48 PMD users with a spinal cord injury (SCI) using the Impact of Participation and Autonomy and the Housing Enabler instruments. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used. RESULTS. More years living with SCI predicted less restriction in autonomy indoors, whereas more functional limitations and accessibility problems related to entrance doors predicted more restriction in autonomy outdoors. CONCLUSION. To enable optimized PMD use, practitioners must pay attention to the relationship between client autonomy and housing accessibility problems. PMID:26356666

  11. Role-based access control model for GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yuqing; Sheng, Yehua; Zhou, Jieyu

    2007-06-01

    Access control of Geographical Information System (GIS) has more complex spatial constraints than the general MIS system, it makes the classic role-based access control model(RBAC) can't be used in GIS. To achieve an effective Access Control Model for GIS, an extension model of the RBAC is presented in the paper. Firstly, this paper introduce the three kinds spatial constraints that included layer constraints, region constraints and spatial object constraints; Then the paper expanded the basic RBAC model, added regional class, layers class and so on; Finally, the paper has given the system RABC control model as well as the realization method in view of GIS. An extension model of the RBAC is applicable to mobile computing, wireless access and system about location is concluded by analyzing.

  12. Brachial Artery Access for Percutaneous Renal Artery Interventions

    SciTech Connect

    Kaukanen, Erkki T.; Manninen, Hannu I.; Matsi, Pekka J.; Soeder, Heini K.

    1997-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the suitability of transbrachial access for endovascular renal artery interventions. Methods: During 37 consecutive endovascular renal artery interventions, the transbrachial approach was used on nine patients (mean age 63 years; range 41-76 years) for 11 renal artery procedures on native kidneys and one percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) on a transplanted kidney. The reason for using transbrachial access was a steep aorta-renal angle in five, and severe aorta-iliac atherosclerosis in the remaining patients. In addition to the intervention catheter in the left brachial artery, an additional nonselective catheter for controlling the procedure was inserted transfemorally (six patients) or via the contralateral brachial artery. Results: Eleven interventions (six PTAs, five stents) were successfully completed. The one failure resulted from impenetrable subclavian artery stenosis. The only major complication was a brachial artery pseudoaneurysm requiring surgical treatment. Conclusion: Transbrachial access is an effective and relatively safe technique for renal artery interventions when transfemoral access is not possible.

  13. Open Access on a Zero Budget: A Case Study of "Postcolonial Text": Case Studies in Open Access Publishing. Number Three

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willinsky, John; Mendis, Ranjini

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The founding of a new open access journal is described in terms of its use of the open source software Open Journal Systems, its contribution to a new field of inquiry and its ability to operate on a zero budget in terms of regular expenses. Method: A case study method is deployed describing the circumstances of the journal's…

  14. Exhausting Multiple Hemodialysis Access Failures

    PubMed Central

    Bolleke, Erjola; Seferi, Saimir; Rroji, Merita; Idrizi, Alma; Barbullushi, Myftar; Thereska, Nestor

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Vascular access is often considered the Achilles heel the of hemodialysis because of its impact on morbidity, all cause mortality and finally costs of these patients. The most common complication of permanent hemodialysis (HD) vascular access is thrombosis, with some cases being related to hypercoagulability states. Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APAS) is a cause of increased thrombotic tendency, and this may complicate the management of such patients on HD. Case report: We describe a 41-year-old woman with end stage renal disease (ESRD) from Adult Polycystic Kidney Disease who was referred to our tertiary care center for treatment and selection of renal replacement therapy form. It was thought to initiate with peritoneal dialysis considering her actual conditions. She was putted on hemodialysis for several sessions, and a subclavian cathether was her first vascular access. The surgeon created an arterio-venous fistula which did not mature. After the implantation of the peritoneal cathether she started peritoneal dialysis and continued living with that for 2 years. She felt exhausted and because of a grave peritonitis episode accompanied with procedure failure and a long hospitalization she was transferred to hemodialysis. Renal transplantation was not possible because she didn’t have a kidney donation. She was maintained on regular HD, but her dialysis care was complicated by recurrent vascular access failures. She had multiple interventions for arterio-venous fistulas and grafts but almost all of them failed due to thrombosis to the extent that only one access site was available for her routine renal replacement treatment. A thorough thrombophilia screen confirmed the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. A diagnosis of APAS was made and she was anticoagulated with warfarin. The AVG made in this last available site is still working from 18 months. If it fails we have no answers and solutions for her. Conclusion: The presence of

  15. Mechanisms that improve referential access*

    PubMed Central

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2015-01-01

    Two mechanisms, suppression and enhancement, are proposed to improve referential access. Enhancement improves the accessibility of previously mentioned concepts by increasing or boosting their activation; suppression improves concepts’ accessibility by decreasing or dampening the activation of other concepts. Presumably, these mechanisms are triggered by the informational content of anaphors. Six experiments investigated this proposal by manipulating whether an anaphoric reference was made with a very explicit, repeated name anaphor or a less explicit pronoun. Subjects read sentences that introduced two participants in their first clauses, for example, “Ann predicted that Pam would lose the track race,” and the sentences referred to one of the two participants in their second clauses, “but Pam/she came in first very easily.” While subjects read each sentence, the activation level of the two participants was measured by a probe verification task. The first two experiments demonstrated that explicit, repeated name anaphors immediately trigger the enhancement of their own antecedents and immediately trigger the suppression of other (nonantecedent) participants. The third experiment demonstrated that less explicit, pronoun anaphors also trigger the suppression of other nonantecedents, but they do so less quickly—even when, as in the fourth experiment, the semantic information to identify their antecedents occurs prior to the pronouns (e.g., “Ann predicted that Pam would lose the track race. But after winning the race, she …”). The fifth experiment demonstrated that more explicit pronouns – pronouns that match the gender of only one participant—trigger suppression more powerfully. A final experiment demonstrated that it is not only rementioned participants who improve their referential access by triggering the suppression of other participants; newly introduced participants do so too (e.g., “Ann predicted that Pam would lose the track race, but

  16. A new easy accessible and low-cost method for screening olfactory sensitivity in mice: behavioural and nociceptive response in male and female CD-1 mice upon exposure to millipede aversive odour.

    PubMed

    Capone, Francesca; Puopolo, Maria; Branchi, Igor; Alleva, Enrico

    2002-06-01

    In a previous study, mice were found to be repelled by the odour emitted by the millipede (Ommatoiulus sabulosus) as a defensive strategy against predators [Physiol. Behav. 74 (2001) 305-311]. To develop a standardised test for screening olfactory capabilities in rodents, we have characterised the behavioural response displayed by adult male and female CD-1 mice when exposed to a Stimulus Object (SO) consisting of a millipede-shaped sponge previously soaked either in a Toluquinone (TQ) solution (5g/100ml; Fluka), a chemical component of the exudate secreted by the millipede, or in distilled water. In Experiment 1, behaviours performed when exposed to the SO were scored (15min for 5 consecutive days). TQ exposure suppressed nearly completely Catching and Eating the SO, and increased general activity in a sex-dependent fashion. In Experiment 2, performances in a hot-plate test (50+/-0.5 degrees C, cut-off 60s) were assessed immediately after a 15-min exposure to the SO. Toluquinone-exposed mice showed a subtle yet significant decrease of pain threshold. TQ exposure assay is a new, easily testable, and low-cost method for measuring rodents olfactory sensitivity relevant for the analysis of the pharmacological agents, lesions and transgenesis.

  17. A spatial analysis of variations in health access: linking geography, socio-economic status and access perceptions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This paper analyses the relationship between public perceptions of access to general practitioners (GPs) surgeries and hospitals against health status, car ownership and geographic distance. In so doing it explores the different dimensions associated with facility access and accessibility. Methods Data on difficulties experienced in accessing health services, respondent health status and car ownership were collected through an attitudes survey. Road distances to the nearest service were calculated for each respondent using a GIS. Difficulty was related to geographic distance, health status and car ownership using logistic generalized linear models. A Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) was used to explore the spatial non-stationarity in the results. Results Respondent long term illness, reported bad health and non-car ownership were found to be significant predictors of difficulty in accessing GPs and hospitals. Geographic distance was not a significant predictor of difficulty in accessing hospitals but was for GPs. GWR identified the spatial (local) variation in these global relationships indicating locations where the predictive strength of the independent variables was higher or lower than the global trend. The impacts of bad health and non-car ownership on the difficulties experienced in accessing health services varied spatially across the study area, whilst the impacts of geographic distance did not. Conclusions Difficulty in accessing different health facilities was found to be significantly related to health status and car ownership, whilst the impact of geographic distance depends on the service in question. GWR showed how these relationships were varied across the study area. This study demonstrates that the notion of access is a multi-dimensional concept, whose composition varies with location, according to the facility being considered and the health and socio-economic status of the individual concerned. PMID:21787394

  18. Accessing SDO Data : The Poster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hourcle, Joseph; Addison, K.; Bogart, R.; Chamberlin, P.; Freeland, S.; Hughitt, V. K.; Ireland, J.; Maddox, M.; Mueller, D.; Somani, A.; Sommers, J.; Thompson, B.; solar physics data community, The

    2011-05-01

    As the data from SDO are useful for a variety of purposes, including solar physics, helioseismology, atmospheric science, space weather forecasting, education and public outreach, a wide variety of tools have been development to cater to the different needs of the various groups. Systems have been developed for pipeline processing, searching, browsing, subsetting, or simply just moving around large volumes of data. We present a quick overview of the different systems that can be used to access SDO data including (J)Helioviewer, the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK), the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO), the Integrated Space Weather Analysis System (iSWA), the Data Record Management System (DRMS), and various websites. We cover web-based applications, application programming interfaces (APIs), and IDL command line tools. This poster serves as a supplement to the oral presentation as a place to distribute information about the various interfaces and to collect feedback about any unmet needs for data access.

  19. Securing America's access to space

    SciTech Connect

    Rendine, M.; Wood, L.

    1990-05-23

    We review pertinent aspects of the history of the space launch capabilities of the United States and survey its present status and near-term outlook. Steps which must be taken, pitfalls which much be avoided, and a core set of National options for re-acquiring in the near term the capability to access the space environment with large payloads are discussed. We devote considerable attention to the prospect of creating an interim heavy-lift space launch vehicle of at least 100,000 pound payload-orbiting capacity to serve National needs during the next dozen years, suggesting that such a capability can be demonstrated within 5 years for less than $1 B. Such capability will apparently be essential for meeting the first-phase goals of the President's Space Exploration Initiative. Some other high-leverage aspects of securing American access to space are also noted briefly, emphasizing unconventional technological approaches of presently high promise.

  20. Accessing the VO with Python

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plante, R.; Fitzpatrick, M.; Graham, M.; Tody, D.; Young, W.

    2014-05-01

    We introduce two products for accessing the VO from Python: PyVO and VOClient. PyVO is built on the widely-used Astropy package and is well suited for integrating automated access to astronomical data into highly customizable scripts and applications for data analysis in Python. VOClient is built on a collection of C-libraries and is well suited for integrating with multi-language analysis packages. It also provides a framework for integrating legacy software into the Python environment. In this demo, we will run through several examples demonstrate basic data discovery and retrieval of data. This includes finding archives containing data of interest (VO registry), retrieving datasets (SIA, SSA), and exploring (Cone Search, SLAP). VOClient features some extended capabilities including the ability to communicate to other desktop applications from a script using the SAMP protocol.