Science.gov

Sample records for accessible internal combustion

  1. Schlieren measurements in the round cylinder of an optically accessible internal combustion engine.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Sebastian Arnold; Salazar, Victor Manuel; Hoops, Alexandra A

    2013-05-10

    This paper describes the design and experimental application of an optical system to perform schlieren measurements in the curved geometry of the cylinder of an optically accessible internal combustion engine. Key features of the system are a pair of cylindrical positive meniscus lenses, which keep the beam collimated while passing through the unmodified, thick-walled optical cylinder, and a pulsed, high-power light-emitting diode with narrow spectral width. In combination with a high-speed CMOS camera, the system is used to visualize the fuel jet after injection of hydrogen fuel directly into the cylinder from a high-pressure injector. Residual aberrations, which limit the system's sensitivity, are characterized experimentally and are compared to the predictions of ray-tracing software.

  2. Combustion modeling in internal combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeleznik, F. J.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental assumptions of the Blizard and Keck combustion model for internal combustion engines are examined and a generalization of that model is derived. The most significant feature of the model is that it permits the occurrence of unburned hydrocarbons in the thermodynamic-kinetic modeling of exhaust gases. The general formulas are evaluated in two specific cases that are likely to be significant in the applications of the model.

  3. Low emission internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Karaba, Albert M.

    1979-01-01

    A low emission, internal combustion compression ignition engine having a cylinder, a piston movable in the cylinder and a pre-combustion chamber communicating with the cylinder near the top thereof and in which low emissions of NO.sub.x are achieved by constructing the pre-combustion chamber to have a volume of between 70% and 85% of the combined pre-chamber and main combustion chamber volume when the piston is at top dead center and by variably controlling the initiation of fuel injection into the pre-combustion chamber.

  4. Internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuura, M.; Nakamori, M.; Honda, S.; Ishida, Y.; Nakanishi, T.

    1988-05-03

    An internal combustion engine is described comprising: (a) an engine body having a chamber; (b) a crankshaft rotatably mounted on the engine body; (c) a camshaft rotatably mounted on the engine body; (d) an oil lubricated endless transmission member extended around and operatively engaged with the crankshaft and the camshaft, the endless transmission member being movable along a closed path of travel in the chamber; (e) a tensioner hanger comprising an upper hanger member detachably secured to the engine body and a lower hanger member secured at an upper portion thereof to the upper hanger member, the upper hanger member having oil passage means adapted to receive lubrication oil from the endless transmission member at an inlet and guide the oil downwardly therethrough to an outlet; (f) a hollow mounting member affixed at an upper portion thereof to a lower portion of the lower hanger member of the tensioner hanger; (g) a hydraulic lock mechanism comprising a hollow cylinder and a plunger slidably received in the cylinder to define a hydraulic chamber in the cylinder; (h) a replenishable oil reservoir defined by a funnel-shaped space between the mounting member and the cylinder for receiving oil from the oil passage means and for holding the oil received therein; and (i) a tensioner member movably attached to the engine body and operatively engaged with the plunger.

  5. Asymmetrical internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Barret, P.

    1983-03-08

    An internal combustion engine adapted to be powered by a burnable gaseous fuel includes one cylinder, first and second pistons reciprocally movable in the cylinder substantially in opposite directions, inlet and outlet valves for controlling the flow of the gaseous fuel into the cylinder, and the exhaust of the burnt fuel therefrom, respectively, and a linkage device connected to the pistons for converting the reciprocating movement thereof into a rotary movement. The linkage device includes change-of-rate-of-displacement devices for increasing the rate of velocity in the maximum acceleration range, and for reducing the rate of displacement in the maximum velocity range of one piston with respect to the other piston, first and second piston rods pivotably connected to the first and second pistons, respectively, first and second crankshafts pivotably connected to the first and second piston rods, rotatable about first and second axes disposed substantially parallel to, and displaced by a predetermined angle from one another, respectively, and a gear train coupling the first and second crankshafts to one another. The gear train includes first and second fixedly mounted gearwheels, first and second concentrically mounted gear wheels, and a position-shiftable coupling mechanism for coupling the first gear wheels and the second gear wheels to one another, respectively, and an engaging device for meshing the eccentrically mounted gear wheels with one another.

  6. Internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Quentin A.; Mecredy, Henry E.; O'Neal, Glenn B.

    1991-01-01

    An improved engine is provided that more efficiently consumes difficult fuels such as coal slurries or powdered coal. The engine includes a precombustion chamber having a portion thereof formed by an ignition plug. The precombustion chamber is arranged so that when the piston is proximate the head, the precombustion chamber is sealed from the main cylinder or the main combustion chamber and when the piston is remote from the head, the precombustion chamber and main combustion chamber are in communication. The time for burning of fuel in the precombustion chamber can be regulated by the distance required to move the piston from the top dead center position to the position wherein the precombustion chamber and main combustion chamber are in communication.

  7. Fifth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacksteder, Kurt (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    This conference proceedings document is a compilation of 120 papers presented orally or as poster displays to the Fifth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop held in Cleveland, Ohio on May 18-20, 1999. The purpose of the workshop is to present and exchange research results from theoretical and experimental work in combustion science using the reduced-gravity environment as a research tool. The results are contributed by researchers funded by NASA throughout the United States at universities, industry and government research agencies, and by researchers from at least eight international partner countries that are also participating in the microgravity combustion science research discipline. These research results are intended for use by public and private sector organizations for academic purposes, for the development of technologies needed for the Human Exploration and Development of Space, and to improve Earth-bound combustion and fire-safety related technologies.

  8. Sixth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacksteder, Kurt (Compiler)

    2001-01-01

    This conference proceedings document is a compilation of papers presented orally or as poster displays to the Sixth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop held in Cleveland, Ohio on May 22-24, 2001. The purpose of the workshop is to present and exchange research results from theoretical and experimental work in combustion science using the reduced-gravity environment as a research tool. The results are contributed by researchers funded by NASA throughout the United States at universities, industry and government research agencies, and by researchers from international partner countries that are also participating in the microgravity combustion science research discipline. These research results are intended for use by public and private sector organizations for academic purposes, for the development of technologies needed for Human Exploration and Development of Space, and to improve Earth-bound combustion and fire-safety related technologies.

  9. SOHC type internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, N.; Iwata, T.; Oikawa, T.

    1989-01-10

    An SOHC type internal combustion engine is described comprising a cylinder head which has a combustion chamber defined therein, a camshaft carried thereon, an ignition plug mounting hole opening to a center portion of a top surface of the combustion chamber and a protecting cylinder formed therein with an ignition plug insertion hole. The journal for the camshaft has a diameter larger than a path of rotation of a lobe of a cam on the camshaft and is supported by a bearing hole formed in a camshaft receiving wall which is provided on the cylinder head. The protecting cylinder and the camshaft receiving wall are formed in a single piece.

  10. Plasma igniter for internal-combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breshears, R. R.; Fitzgerald, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    Hot ionized gas (plasma) ignites air/fuel mixture in internal combustion engines more effectively than spark. Electromagnetic forces propel plasma into combustion zone. Combustion rate is not limited by flame-front speed.

  11. Modeling the internal combustion engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeleznik, F. J.; Mcbride, B. J.

    1985-01-01

    A flexible and computationally economical model of the internal combustion engine was developed for use on large digital computer systems. It is based on a system of ordinary differential equations for cylinder-averaged properties. The computer program is capable of multicycle calculations, with some parameters varying from cycle to cycle, and has restart capabilities. It can accommodate a broad spectrum of reactants, permits changes in physical properties, and offers a wide selection of alternative modeling functions without any reprogramming. It readily adapts to the amount of information available in a particular case because the model is in fact a hierarchy of five models. The models range from a simple model requiring only thermodynamic properties to a complex model demanding full combustion kinetics, transport properties, and poppet valve flow characteristics. Among its many features the model includes heat transfer, valve timing, supercharging, motoring, finite burning rates, cycle-to-cycle variations in air-fuel ratio, humid air, residual and recirculated exhaust gas, and full combustion kinetics.

  12. Axial cylinder internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, C.

    1992-03-10

    This patent describes improvement in a barrel type internal combustion engine including an engine block having axial-positioned cylinders with reciprocating pistons arranged in a circular pattern: a drive shaft concentrically positioned within the cylinder block having an offset portion extending outside the cylinder block; a wobble spider rotatably journaled to the offset portion; connecting rods for each cylinder connecting each piston to the wobble spider. The improvement comprising: a first sleeve bearing means supporting the drive shaft in the engine block in a cantilevered manner for radial loads; a second sleeve bearing means rotatably supporting the wobble spider on the offset portion of the drive shaft for radial loads; a first roller bearing means positioned between the offset portion of the drive shaft and the wobble spider carrying thrust loadings only; a second roller bearing means carrying thrust loads only reacting to the first roller bearing located on the opposite end of the driveshaft between the shaft and the engine block.

  13. Injector tip for an internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Shyu, Tsu Pin; Ye, Wen

    2003-05-20

    This invention relates to a the tip structure of a fuel injector as used in a internal combustion engine. Internal combustion engines using Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) technology require a tip structure that directs fuel spray in a downward direction. This requirement necessitates a tip design that is capable of withstanding mechanical stresses associated with the design.

  14. Internal combustion engine and method for control

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, Daniel G

    2013-05-21

    In one exemplary embodiment of the invention an internal combustion engine includes a piston disposed in a cylinder, a valve configured to control flow of air into the cylinder and an actuator coupled to the valve to control a position of the valve. The internal combustion engine also includes a controller coupled to the actuator, wherein the controller is configured to close the valve when an uncontrolled condition for the internal engine is determined.

  15. The 3rd International Microgravity Combustion Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Howard D. (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    This Conference Publication contains 71 papers presented at the Third International Microgravity Combustion Workshop held in Cleveland, Ohio, from April 11 to 13, 1995. The purpose of the workshop was twofold: to exchange information about the progress and promise of combustion science in microgravity and to provide a forum to discuss which areas in microgravity combustion science need to be expanded profitably and which should be included in upcoming NASA Research Announcements (NRA).

  16. The Second International Microgravity Combustion Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This CP contains 40 papers presented at the Second International Microgravity Combustion Workshop held in Cleveland, OH, from September 15 to 17, 1992. The purpose of the workshop was twofold: to exchange information about the progress and promise of combustion science in microgravity and to provide a forum to discuss which areas in microgravity combustion science need to be expanded profitably and which should be included in upcoming NASA Research Announcements (NRA).

  17. Carburetor for internal combustion engines

    DOEpatents

    Csonka, John J.; Csonka, Albert B.

    1978-01-01

    A carburetor for internal combustion engines having a housing including a generally discoidal wall and a hub extending axially from the central portion thereof, an air valve having a relatively flat radially extending surface directed toward and concentric with said discoidal wall and with a central conoidal portion having its apex directed toward the interior of said hub portion. The housing wall and the radially extending surface of the valve define an air passage converging radially inwardly to form an annular valving construction and thence diverge into the interior of said hub. The hub includes an annular fuel passage terminating at its upper end in a circumferential series of micro-passages for directing liquid fuel uniformly distributed into said air passage substantially at said valving constriction at right angles to the direction of air flow. The air valve is adjustable axially toward and away from the discoidal wall of the carburetor housing to regulate the volume of air drawn into the engine with which said carburetor is associated. Fuel is delivered under pressure to the fuel metering valve and from there through said micro-passages and controlled cams simultaneously regulate the axial adjustment of said air valve and the rate of delivery of fuel through said micro-passages according to a predetermined ratio pattern. A third jointly controlled cam simultaneously regulates the ignition timing in accordance with various air and fuel supply settings. The air valve, fuel supply and ignition timing settings are all independent of the existing degree of engine vacuum.

  18. Valve operating mechanism for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Nagahiro, K.; Ajiki, Y.; Katoh, M.; Inoue, K.

    1988-03-01

    A valve operating mechanism for operating a pair of valves of an internal combustion engine is described, comprising: a camshaft rotatable in synchronism with rotation of the internal combustion engine an having cams of different cam profiles; rocker arms held in sliding contact with the cams, respectively, for operating the valves according to the cam profiles of the cams; and means for independently selectively interconnecting and disconnecting selected of the rocker arms to operate the valves at different valve timings in low, medium and high speed ranges of the internal combustion engine.

  19. Valve operating mechanism for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, K.; Nagahiro, K.; Ajiki, Y.; Katoh, M.

    1988-12-27

    A valve operating mechanism for operating a single valve of a particular cylinder of an internal combustion engine is described comprising: a camshaft rotatable in synchronism with rotation of the internal combustion engine; a plurality of cams on the camshaft with each of the cams bearing a different cam profile; a plurality of cam followers, each of which slidably engages one of the cams for selectively operating the valve according to the profile of the selected cam and one of which engages the valve; and means for selectively interconnecting and disconnecting the respective cam followers to operate the valve differently in different speed ranges of the internal combustion engine.

  20. Valve operating mechanism for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, K.; Nagahiro, K.; Ajiki, Y.; Katoh, M.

    1988-12-13

    This patent describes a valve operating mechanism for operating valves of a particular cylinder of an internal combustion engine, comprising: a camshaft rotatable in synchronism with rotation of the internal combustion engine and having at least one cam; cam followers, one of which slidably engages with the cam for selectively operating the valves according to a cam profile of the cam; and means for selectively interconnecting and disconnecting the cam followers to operate the valves differently in different speed ranges of the internal combustion engine, the speed ranges including a range in which all of the valves remain inoperative.

  1. Hydraulic drive supercharger for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Grunig, R.C.

    1986-09-09

    A supercharger is described for an internal combustion engine comprising a housing, a shaft journaled in the housing and supporting on either end an air compressor; a turbine wheel centrally journaled to the shaft and means for directing pressure oil to the turbine wheel and thence from the housing. The compressors comprise vaned compressors with the curvature of the vanes being in opposite directions at opposite ends of the shaft. The supercharger is combined with an internal combustion engine having an inlet header and an exhaust system wherein one of the compressors is connected by a conduit to the internal combustion engine inlet header and the other of the compressors is connected by a conduit to the exhaust system of the internal combustion engine.

  2. Time Resolved FTIR Analysis of Combustion of Ethanol and Gasoline Combustion in AN Internal Combustion Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Allen R.; Sakai, Stephen; Devasher, Rebecca B.

    2011-06-01

    In order to pursue In Situ measurements in an internal combustion engine, a MegaTech Mark III transparent spark ignition engine was modified with a sapphire combustion chamber. This modification will allow the transmission of infrared radiation for time-resolved spectroscopic measurements by an infrared spectrometer. By using a Step-scan equipped Fourier transform spectrometer, temporally resolved infrared spectral data were acquired and compared for combustion in the modified Mark III engine. Measurements performed with the FTIR system provide insight into the energy transfer vectors that precede combustion and also provides an in situ measurement of the progress of combustion. Measurements were performed using ethanol and gasoline.

  3. Two cycle internal combustion hydrocycle engine

    SciTech Connect

    Christenson, H.W.

    1992-05-05

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine. It comprises a hollow cylinder; a compression piston reciprocatably disposed within the cylinder; means, including a rotatable flywheel connected to the compression piston, for storing energy from reciprocation of the compression piston; a power piston reciprocatably disposed within the cylinder and opposing the compression piston; a pump having means for injecting a combustible mixture between the compression piston and the power piston; means for igniting the combustible mixture; whereby ignition of the combustible mixture causes the power piston to move away from the compression piston within the cylinder and the pumping member to move with the power piston to displace fluid from the fluid chamber through the fluid outlet; and means for controlling the injection and ignition of the combustible mixture for self-sustaining reciprocation of the compression piston.

  4. Two phase exhaust for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Vuk, Carl T

    2011-11-29

    An internal combustion engine having a reciprocating multi cylinder internal combustion engine with multiple valves. At least a pair of exhaust valves are provided and each supply a separate power extraction device. The first exhaust valves connect to a power turbine used to provide additional power to the engine either mechanically or electrically. The flow path from these exhaust valves is smaller in area and volume than a second flow path which is used to deliver products of combustion to a turbocharger turbine. The timing of the exhaust valve events is controlled to produce a higher grade of energy to the power turbine and enhance the ability to extract power from the combustion process.

  5. Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines

    DOEpatents

    Oppenheim, A.K.; Maxson, J.A.; Hensinger, D.M.

    1993-12-21

    An improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure. 24 figures.

  6. Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines

    DOEpatents

    Oppenheim, Antoni K.; Maxson, James A.; Hensinger, David M.

    1993-01-01

    An improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure.

  7. 77 FR 37361 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion... Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines.'' The EPA... Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary......

  8. Valve operating mechanism for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, K.; Nagahiro, K.; Ajiki, Y.; Katoh, M.

    1988-12-06

    This patent describes a valve operating mechanism of operating valves of an internal combustion engine, comprising: a camshaft rotatable in synchronism with rotation of the internal combustion engine and having an array of three cams each having a different cam profile and including a high-speed cam position at one end of the array; three cam followers held in sliding contact with the cams, respectively, for operating the valves according to the cam profiles of the cams; and means for selectively interconnecting and disconnecting the cam followers to operate the valves at different valve timings in different speed ranges of the internal combustion engine, the speed ranges including a high-speed range in which all of the valves are controlled by the cam profile of the high-speed cam.

  9. Internal and surface phenomena in metal combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreizin, Edward L.; Molodetsky, Irina E.; Law, Chung K.

    1995-01-01

    liquid fuel droplet combustion studies. In addition, the internal compositions of rapidly quenched metal particles will be analyzed using SEM technique. Such compositions are similar to those existing during the combustion and provide new insight on metal combustion processes. The results of this experimental work will be used to model the fundamental mechanisms of metal combustion. Preliminary experimental results on Al and Zr particle combustion at normal gravity are discussed here.

  10. Internal Combustion Engines as Fluidized Bed Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavich, Zoe; Taie, Zachary; Menon, Shyam; Beckwith, Walter; Daly, Shane; Halliday, Devin; Hagen, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    Using an internal combustion engine as a chemical reactor could provide high throughput, high chemical conversion efficiency, and reactant/product handling benefits. For processes requiring a solid catalyst, the ability to develop a fluidized bed within the engine cylinder would allow efficient processing of large volumes of fluid. This work examines the fluidization behavior of particles in a cylinder of an internal combustion engine at various engine speeds. For 40 micron silica gel particles in a modified Megatech Mark III transparent combustion engine, calculations indicate that a maximum engine speed of about 60.8 RPM would result in fluidization. At higher speeds, the fluidization behavior is expected to deteriorate. Experiments gave qualitative confirmation of the analytical predictions, as a speed of 48 RPM resulted in fluidized behavior, while a speed of 171 RPM did not. The investigation shows that under certain conditions a fluidized bed can be obtained within an engine cylinder. Corresponding Author.

  11. Simulation Of The Internal-Combustion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeleznik, Frank J.; Mcbride, Bonnie J.

    1987-01-01

    Program adapts to available information about particular engine. Mathematical model of internal-combustion engine constructed and implemented as computer program suitable for use on large digital computer systems. ZMOTTO program calculates Otto-cycle performance parameters as well as working-fluid compositions and properties throughout cycle for number of consecutive cycles and for variety of input parameters. Written in standard FORTRAN IV.

  12. Comparing maximum pressures in internal combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparrow, Stanwood W; Lee, Stephen M

    1922-01-01

    Thin metal diaphragms form a satisfactory means for comparing maximum pressures in internal combustion engines. The diaphragm is clamped between two metal washers in a spark plug shell and its thickness is chosen such that, when subjected to explosion pressure, the exposed portion will be sheared from the rim in a short time.

  13. Starting apparatus for internal combustion engines

    DOEpatents

    Dyches, G.M.; Dudar, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    This report is a patent description for a system to start an internal combustion engine. Remote starting and starting by hearing impaired persons are addressed. The system monitors the amount of current being drawn by the starter motor to determine when the engine is started. When the engine is started the system automatically deactivates the starter motor. Five figures are included.

  14. Modeling internal ballistics of gas combustion guns.

    PubMed

    Schorge, Volker; Grossjohann, Rico; Schönekess, Holger C; Herbst, Jörg; Bockholdt, Britta; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Frank, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    Potato guns are popular homemade guns which work on the principle of gas combustion. They are usually constructed for recreational rather than criminal purposes. Yet some serious injuries and fatalities due to these guns are reported. As information on the internal ballistics of homemade gas combustion-powered guns is scarce, it is the aim of this work to provide an experimental model of the internal ballistics of these devices and to investigate their basic physical parameters. A gas combustion gun was constructed with a steel tube as the main component. Gas/air mixtures of acetylene, hydrogen, and ethylene were used as propellants for discharging a 46-mm caliber test projectile. Gas pressure in the combustion chamber was captured with a piezoelectric pressure sensor. Projectile velocity was measured with a ballistic speed measurement system. The maximum gas pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise, the time parameters of the pressure curve, and the velocity and path of the projectile through the barrel as a function of time were determined according to the pressure-time curve. The maximum gas pressure was measured to be between 1.4 bar (ethylene) and 4.5 bar (acetylene). The highest maximum rate of pressure rise was determined for hydrogen at (dp/dt)max = 607 bar/s. The muzzle energy was calculated to be between 67 J (ethylene) and 204 J (acetylene). To conclude, this work provides basic information on the internal ballistics of homemade gas combustion guns. The risk of injury to the operator or bystanders is high, because accidental explosions of the gun due to the high-pressure rise during combustion of the gas/air mixture may occur.

  15. Plasma igniter for internal combustion engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, D. J.; Breshears, R. R. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An igniter for the air/fuel mixture used in the cylinders of an internal combustion engine is described. A conventional spark is used to initiate the discharge of a large amount of energy stored in a capacitor. A high current discharge of the energy in the capacitor switched on by a spark discharge produces a plasma and a magnetic field. The resultant combined electromagnetic current and magnetic field force accelerates the plasma deep into the combustion chamber thereby providing an improved ignition of the air/fuel mixture in the chamber.

  16. CARS measurements in an internal combustion engine.

    PubMed

    Stenhouse, I A; Williams, D R; Cole, J B; Swords, M D

    1979-11-15

    The first reported coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) experiments within the cylinder of a firing internal combustion engine are described. The feasibility of making noninvasive temperature and species measurements, with good spatial and temporal resolution, both before and after ignition has been demonstrated. Temperatures have been derived from the shape of the Q-branch vibrational spectrum of nitrogen since it is present as a major species and does not take part in combustion. Methods of overcoming such problems as were encountered are discussed.

  17. Internal combustion engine fuel supply system

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, J.A.; Custer, D. Jr.

    1992-09-15

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine. It comprises: means defining a combustion chamber, means defining a fuel/air chamber adapted to communicate with a source of air under pressure, means including a moveable wall defining a fuel chamber, selectively operable means for supplying fuel to the fuel chamber at a pressure sufficient to move the wall in the direction increasing the volume of the fuel chamber, means defining a fuel orifice which is spaced from the wall and which communicates between the fuel chamber and the fuel/air chamber, and means for opening the fuel/air chamber to the combustion chamber in response to movement of the wall in the direction increasing the volume of the fuel chamber.

  18. 30 CFR 56.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 56.4103... Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before refueling if the fuel tanks are integral parts...

  19. 30 CFR 77.1105 - Internal combustion engines; fueling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Internal combustion engines; fueling. 77.1105 Section 77.1105 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1105 Internal combustion engines; fueling. Internal combustion...

  20. 30 CFR 77.1105 - Internal combustion engines; fueling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Internal combustion engines; fueling. 77.1105 Section 77.1105 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1105 Internal combustion engines; fueling. Internal combustion...

  1. 30 CFR 77.1105 - Internal combustion engines; fueling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Internal combustion engines; fueling. 77.1105 Section 77.1105 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1105 Internal combustion engines; fueling. Internal combustion...

  2. 30 CFR 77.1105 - Internal combustion engines; fueling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Internal combustion engines; fueling. 77.1105 Section 77.1105 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1105 Internal combustion engines; fueling. Internal combustion...

  3. 30 CFR 56.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 56.4103... Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before refueling if the fuel tanks are integral parts...

  4. 30 CFR 56.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 56.4103... Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before refueling if the fuel tanks are integral parts...

  5. 30 CFR 56.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 56.4103... Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before refueling if the fuel tanks are integral parts...

  6. 30 CFR 57.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 57.4103... Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before refueling if the fuel tanks are integral parts...

  7. 30 CFR 56.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 56.4103... Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before refueling if the fuel tanks are integral parts...

  8. 30 CFR 77.1105 - Internal combustion engines; fueling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Internal combustion engines; fueling. 77.1105 Section 77.1105 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1105 Internal combustion engines; fueling. Internal combustion...

  9. 30 CFR 57.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 57.4103... Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before refueling if the fuel tanks are integral parts...

  10. 30 CFR 57.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 57.4103... Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before refueling if the fuel tanks are integral parts...

  11. 30 CFR 57.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 57.4103... Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before refueling if the fuel tanks are integral parts...

  12. 30 CFR 57.4103 - Fueling internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fueling internal combustion engines. 57.4103... Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4103 Fueling internal combustion engines. Internal combustion engines shall be switched off before refueling if the fuel tanks are integral parts...

  13. 78 FR 54606 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion... emission standards for hazardous air pollutants for stationary reciprocating internal combustion engines and the standards of performance for stationary internal combustion engines. Subsequently, the......

  14. 77 FR 60341 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines to..., ``National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion......

  15. Internal Heterogeneous Processes in Aluminum Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreizin, E. L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the aluminum particle combustion mechanism which has been expanded by inclusion of gas dissolution processes and ensuing internal phase transformations. This mechanism is proposed based on recent normal and microgravity experiments with particles formed and ignited in a pulsed micro-arc. Recent experimental findings on the three stages observed in Al particle combustion in air and shows the burning particle radiation, trajectory (streak), smoke cloud shapes, and quenched particle interiors are summarized. During stage I, the radiation trace is smooth and the particle flame is spherically symmetric. The temperature measured using a three-color pyrometer is close to 3000 K. Because it exceeds the aluminum boiling point (2730 K), this temperature most likely characterizes the vapor phase flame zone rather than the aluminum surface. The dissolved oxygen content within particles quenched during stage I was below the detection sensitivity (about 1 atomic %) for Wavelength Dispersive Spectroscopy (WDS). After an increase in the radiation intensity (and simultaneous decrease in the measured color temperature from about 3000 to 2800 K) indicative of the transition to stage II combustion, the internal compositions of the quenched particles change. Both oxygen-rich (approx. 10 atomic %) and oxygen-lean (< 1 %) regions are identified within the particles using back-scattered electron imaging and WDS. During stage II, oscillations are observed in particle radiation and the flame and smoke cloud are distorted from their original spherically-symmetric shape. In stage III, particle radiation continues to exhibit oscillations, but its radiation intensity drops and remains at a nearly constant level. The measured temperature decreases to about 2300 K. Also, larger changes in particle velocities are observed, and oxide caps are found on quenched particle surfaces. While these results showed the correlation between the aluminum particle combustion behavior and the

  16. Wear aspects of internal combustion engine valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panţuru, M.; Chicet, D.; Paulin, C.; Alexandru, A.; Munteanu, C.

    2016-08-01

    Because the surface engineering is becoming an increasingly viable alternative to the constructive changes made to improve the efficiency of internal combustion engines, have been proposed and tested various types of coatings of some organs of internal combustion engines. One vital organ is the engine valves, which is subjected during operation to combined thermal, mechanical, corrosion and wear solicitations, which are leading to severe corrosion and complete breakdown. In this paper were analyzed aspects of valves wear and the active surfaces were coated using the atmospheric plasma spraying method (APS) with two commercial powders: Ni-Al and YSZ. Microstructural analyzes were made on these layers and also observations regarding the possibility of using them as thermal barrier and anti-oxidant coatings.

  17. Valve train for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Honda, S.; Ishida, Y.; Kanbe, T.

    1988-04-26

    A valve train for an internal combustion engine, the internal combustion engine including a cylinder head having a pair of intake and exhaust ports, the valve train is described comprising: (a) a camshaft housing adapted to be mounted on the cylinder head to define a camshaft chamber; (b) a pair of intake and exhaust valves mounted on the cylinder head so as to be moveable for closing and opening the intake and exhaust ports respectively; (c) mounting means on the cylinder head disposed within the camshaft; (d) a camshaft mounted within the camshaft chamber for rotation about an axis thereof and disposed between the cylinder head and the mounting means; (e) a pair of elongated rocker arms interposed between the camshaft and the mounting means; and (f) a pair of hydraulic tappets mounted on the mounting means.

  18. Multicylinder internal combustion engine with rotation sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, S.; Otsuka, K.

    1988-01-12

    In a rotation sensor for an internal combustion engine having a crankshaft, a camshaft, a drive pulley on the crankshaft, a driven pulley on the camshaft, and an endless belt trained around the driver and driven pulleys, an improvement is described comprising, rotation sensing means on the driven pulley and engine for sensing the rotational position of the driven pulley relative to the engine during rotation of the driven pulley.

  19. Fuel injection apparatus for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, S.; Ishiwata, H.

    1988-03-15

    A fuel injection apparatus for internal combustion engines is described comprising: a fuel injection pump which has a plunger caused to carry out a least reciprocal movement in a predetermined pattern in a bore formed in a plunger barrel to pressurize fuel in the plunge barrel and at least one control sleeve fitted on the plunger, a first actuator for regulating the position of the control sleeve to regulate the fuel injection rate; a second actuator for regulating the position of the plunger to regulate the fuel injection quantity; a first means responsive to at least one condition signal indicating the operating condition of the internal combustion engine for drivingly controlling the first and second actuators in such a way that the optimum fuel injection rate and fuel injection quantity can be obtained at each instant; a detecting means for detecting any trouble occurring in the control system for regulating the position of the control sleeve; and a second means for limiting the control operation by the first means so that an excessive rise in the inner pressure of the cylinders in the internal combustion engine is prevented when the occurrence of trouble is detected by the detecting means.

  20. Chamber construction for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Leydorf, G.F. Jr.; Pulick, M.A.

    1987-10-13

    A method is described of assembling an internal combustion engine, comprising: (a) defining a three piece construction to define the combustion chambers, camshaft case, water jacket, and crankshaft case of the internal combustion engine. The three pieces consist of a cast metal monoblock defining combustion chambers aligned along a central plane. The monoblock contains wear resistant surfaces comprising cylinder bores, valve seats and valve guides, a pair of cast metal complementary clamshell housing sections having margins mateable along the central plane and effective to support and envelope the monoblock in spaced relationship therein to define a water jacket chamber about the combustion chambers. The sections each contain peripheral grooves in the margins about the water jacket perimeter for reception of means to seal the chamber and to join the sections together in a fixed relationship; (b) laying one of the clamshell housing sections in a horizontal position so that the margins of the mating plane is in a horizontal position; (c) inserting functional subassemblies into and onto the monoblock. The subassemblies comprise the camshaft, cam followers, springs and valve trains to constitute a valve train, piston, sealing members, and connecting rod assembly, and a crankshaft assembly; (d) laying the monoblock containing the subassemblies into the horizontally prone clamshell section in a manner so that the facing surfaces on the monoblock oppose the grooves in the margins; (e) interposing sealing means into the groove of the one section; and (f) placing the other clamshell section over and onto the first clamshell section to close the construction in such a manner that the groove and lip surface between the monoblock and second clamshell section are opposing each other; the closed sections then being fixedly joined to complete the engine construction.

  1. Findings of Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine Durability

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett Beauregard

    2010-12-31

    Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine (HICE) technology takes advantage of existing knowledge of combustion engines to provide a means to power passenger vehicle with hydrogen, perhaps as an interim measure while fuel cell technology continues to mature. This project seeks to provide data to determine the reliability of these engines. Data were collected from an engine operated on a dynamometer for 1000 hours of continuous use. Data were also collected from a fleet of eight (8) full-size pickup trucks powered with hydrogen-fueled engines. In this particular application, the data show that HICE technology provided reliable service during the operating period of the project. Analyses of engine components showed little sign of wear or stress except for cylinder head valves and seats. Material analysis showed signs of hydrogen embrittlement in intake valves.

  2. Cylinder head fastening structure for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Futakuchi, Y.; Oshiro, N.

    1988-01-26

    In a construction for an overhead cam internal combustion engine comprising a cylinder head adapted to be affixed to another component of the engine by at least one fastener having a tool receiving portion for tightening thereof and having a bearing cap affixed to the cylinder head and rotatably journaling the overhead camshaft, the improvement is described comprising the bearing cap having a portion overlying the fastener tool receiving portion, and means defining an access opening passing through the bearing cap and adapted to pass a tool for tightening of the fastener without removal of the bearing cap.

  3. History of the internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Somerscales, E.F.C. ); Zagotta, A.A. )

    1989-01-01

    The study of engineering history by the practioners of engineering is not well-developed. This is unfortunate, because if nothing else, it is the culture of our profession, but even more importantly, it provides us with a proper understanding of current and future engineering. Without an adequate historical background the engineer could, for example, respond incorrectly to problems that might arise in some device or make inappropriate changes in the design. History can also suggest the path that might be followed by a new product, and thereby guide the development and marketing. Because of the fuller appreciation of the art and science of engineering that is provided by an awareness of engineering history, it seems appropriate for the ASME to recognize the role in our profession. The papers in this volume, which deal and various aspects of the history of the internal combustion engine, were presented in a session at the Fall Technical Conference of the ASME Internal Combustion Engine Division held in Dearborn, Michigan on October 17, 1989. The session was jointly sponsored and arranged by the Internal Combustion Engine Division and by the History and Heritage Committee of ASME. It is the first in what the latter hopes will be a regular series of sessions at various Society meetings jointly sponsored with the different divisions of the Society. It is hoped in this way to raise the consciousness of the engineering community to its history and to encourage in particular the preparation of historical papers by engineer-historians, who are involved in the practice of engineering. An approximate chronological order has been chosen for the arrangement of the papers, with the first, by H.O. Hardenberg, being on the gunpowder engines, which were experimented with from the sixteenth century to the middle of the nineteenth century.

  4. Fuel agitating device for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Scouten, D.G.

    1992-09-22

    This patent describes an agitator for fuel being conducted to an internal combustion engine. It comprises: a casing, a chamber within the casing between the fuel inlet conduit and the fuel outlet conduit, flow divider means in the chamber for dividing the chamber into a plurality of fuel flow paths on opposite sides thereof, an inner wall in the casing defining the exit portion, flange means in the casing within the chamber and spaced radially inwardly from the inner wall, and conduit means within the flange means for conducting fuel to the outlet conduit.

  5. Valve operating device for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Konno, T.; Sugai, T.

    1989-07-04

    This patent describes a valve operating device for an internal combustion engine. It has a pair of rocker arms pivotally mounted on a rocker shaft and separately operable by different cams on a camshaft for different modes of operation of an intake or exhaust valve operatively connected to one of the rocker arms, comprising each rocker arm having a portion with a surface substantially parallel to and confronting the surface of the other rocker arm, coupling means in the portions for selectively coupling the rocker arms including a coupling pin movable in a direction substantially perpendicular to the axis of the rocker arm shaft.

  6. Valve control system for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kaptur, S.J.

    1989-10-24

    This patent describes a valve control system for an internal combustion engine. The system comprising a primary control and a secondary control for modifying the operation of the primary control. The primary control comprising: a camshaft journaled for rotation in camshaft brackets, intake and exhaust cylindrical cams including cam channels; valve pin means; and timing belt means. The secondary system comprising: control plate means adjustably mounted between the cylindrical cams, rocker arm means; and at least one driver positioned between the driver leg and one of cylindrical cams.

  7. Internal combustion engine using premixed combustion of stratified charges

    DOEpatents

    Marriott, Craig D.; Reitz, Rolf D. (Madison, WI

    2003-12-30

    During a combustion cycle, a first stoichiometrically lean fuel charge is injected well prior to top dead center, preferably during the intake stroke. This first fuel charge is substantially mixed with the combustion chamber air during subsequent motion of the piston towards top dead center. A subsequent fuel charge is then injected prior to top dead center to create a stratified, locally richer mixture (but still leaner than stoichiometric) within the combustion chamber. The locally rich region within the combustion chamber has sufficient fuel density to autoignite, and its self-ignition serves to activate ignition for the lean mixture existing within the remainder of the combustion chamber. Because the mixture within the combustion chamber is overall premixed and relatively lean, NO.sub.x and soot production are significantly diminished.

  8. Method for controlling an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Krebs, S.; Achleitner, E.

    1993-07-13

    In a method for controlling an internal combustion engine having cylinders operating in cycles and an intake tube for intake air, which includes determining a fuel mass to be injected into each cylinder for each cycle as a function of operating parameters of the internal combustion engine by reading a basic fuel value out of a basic family of characteristics and correcting the basic fuel value as a function of a temperature of the intake air, and multiplying the basic fuel value by a correction factor FK = A/B, wherein the denominator B is a temperature value, the improvement is described which comprises: selecting the variables of the basic family of characteristics as a pressure in the intake tube and an rpm, and reading a correction temperature contained in the temperature value out of a family of temperature characteristics in dependence on a variable dependent on an air flow and of a heating temperature being determinative for heating up the intake air in the intake tube.

  9. Fuel injection apparatus for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Nozaki, S.; Yamada, K.; Kushida, T.

    1986-11-18

    This patent describes a fuel injection apparatus including a fuel injection pump which is adapted to carry out fuel intake, fuel pressurization, fuel injection and draining of cut-off fuel in accordance with the reciprocal movement of a plunger. The plunger is driven in synchronization with the rotational operation of an internal combustion engine. The apparatus comprises: a first storing means for temporarily storing cut-off fuel drained at the same time of the termination of the fuel injection; a second storing means of changeable volume for temporarily storing fuel for intake, the second storing means having a movable member which is movable in response to the quantity of fuel introduced therein; a detecting means for producing a detection signal relating to the amount of fuel stored in the second storing means; a clamping means responsible to an electric signal for clamping the movable member; and a signal producing means for producing at least one condition signal relating to the operating condition of the internal combustion engine.

  10. The FCF Combustion Integrated Rack: Microgravity Combustion Science Onboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OMalley, Terence F.; Weiland, Karen J.

    2002-01-01

    The Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) is one of three facility payload racks being developed for the International Space Station (ISS) Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF). Most microgravity combustion experiments will be performed onboard the Space Station in the Combustion Integrated Rack. Experiment-specific equipment will be installed on orbit in the CIR to customize it to perform many different scientific experiments during the ten or more years that it will operate on orbit. This paper provides an overview of the CIR, including a description of its preliminary design and planned accommodations for microgravity combustion science experiments, and descriptions of the combustion science experiments currently planned for the CIR.

  11. Some Factors Affecting Combustion in an Internal-Combustion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Cohn, Mildred

    1936-01-01

    An investigation of the combustion of gasoline, safety, and diesel fuels was made in the NACA combustion apparatus under conditions of temperature that permitted ignition by spark with direct fuel injection, in spite of the compression ratio of 12.7 employed. The influence of such variables as injection advance angle, jacket temperature, engine speed, and spark position was studied. The most pronounced effect was that an increase in the injection advance angle (beyond a certain minimum value) caused a decrease in the extent and rate of combustion. In almost all cases combustion improved with increased temperature. The results show that at low air temperatures the rates of combustion vary with the volatility of the fuel, but that at high temperatures this relationship does not exist and the rates depend to a greater extent on the chemical nature of the fuel.

  12. Preliminary assessment of combustion modes for internal combustion wave rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalim, M. Razi

    1995-01-01

    Combustion within the channels of a wave rotor is examined as a means of obtaining pressure gain during heat addition in a gas turbine engine. Several modes of combustion are considered and the factors that determine the applicability of three modes are evaluated in detail; premixed autoignition/detonation, premixed deflagration, and non-premixed compression ignition. The last two will require strong turbulence for completion of combustion in a reasonable time in the wave rotor. The compression/autoignition modes will require inlet temperatures in excess of 1500 R for reliable ignition with most hydrocarbon fuels; otherwise, a supplementary ignition method must be provided. Examples of combustion mode selection are presented for two core engine applications that had been previously designed with equivalent 4-port wave rotor topping cycles using external combustion.

  13. 49 CFR 173.220 - Internal combustion engines, self-propelled vehicles, mechanical equipment containing internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... vehicles, mechanical equipment containing internal combustion engines, and battery powered vehicles or equipment. 173.220 Section 173.220 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... equipment containing internal combustion engines, and battery powered vehicles or equipment....

  14. Hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines.

    SciTech Connect

    Verhelst, S.; Wallner, T.; Energy Systems; Ghent Univ.

    2009-12-01

    The threat posed by climate change and the striving for security of energy supply are issues high on the political agenda these days. Governments are putting strategic plans in motion to decrease primary energy use, take carbon out of fuels and facilitate modal shifts. Taking a prominent place in these strategic plans is hydrogen as a future energy carrier. A number of manufacturers are now leasing demonstration vehicles to consumers using hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines (H{sub 2}ICEs) as well as fuel cell vehicles. Developing countries in particular are pushing for H{sub 2}ICEs (powering two- and three-wheelers as well as passenger cars and buses) to decrease local pollution at an affordable cost. This article offers a comprehensive overview of H{sub 2}ICEs. Topics that are discussed include fundamentals of the combustion of hydrogen, details on the different mixture formation strategies and their emissions characteristics, measures to convert existing vehicles, dedicated hydrogen engine features, a state of the art on increasing power output and efficiency while controlling emissions and modeling.

  15. Mechanical fuel injector for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Beaty, K.D.

    1993-08-31

    An apparatus is described for injecting fuel into an internal combustion engine having an air inlet containing an adjustable air throttle valve, comprising: a hollow injector body having a cylindrical bore therein; a compression head closing one end of the bore; a pump head closing an opposite end of the bore; a plunger piston reciprocally moveable within the cylinder bore defining a variable volume fuel pumping chamber formed by the injector body, the compression head, and a first end of the piston, and a variable volume compression chamber formed by the injector body, the pump head and a second end of the piston; fuel supply means connected to the pumping chamber; fuel passage means interconnecting the pumping chamber, the compression chamber and the fuel supply means; air supply means connected to the fuel passage means; fuel/air discharge means connected to the compression chamber; an injection nozzle located in the engine and connected to the fuel/air discharge means for injecting a mixture of fuel and air into the engine for combustion therein; and actuator means operably interconnecting the piston and the engine for reciprocating the piston within the cylinder bore of the injector body.

  16. Valve assembly for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Wakeman, R.J.; Shea, S.F.

    1989-09-05

    This patent describes an improvement in a valve assembly for an internal combustion engine of the type including a valve having a valve stem, a valve guideway for mounting this valve for reciprocal strokes between opened and seated position, and spring means for biasing the valve into the seated position. The improvement comprising a valve spool of greater cross-sectional diameter as compared to the valve stem, and a valve spool guideway within which the valve spool is movable during the strokes of the valve, an upper surface of the valve spool and a portion of the spool guideway collectively establishing a damper chamber which varies in volume during the valve strokes. a feed passage for introducing oil into the damper chamber, and a bleed passage for discharging oil from the damper chamber. The bleed passages each laterally opening into the valve spool guideway.

  17. Fuel supplying device for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, T.; Miki, T.; Nakamura, H.; Takamiya, B.

    1982-07-13

    A fuel supplying device for an internal combustion engine is disclosed which has a fuel supply passage for introducing fuel fed from a fuel pump at a substantially constant pressure to a fuel injector operative at a predetermined constant pressure. The fuel injector is installed at a congregated portion of engine intake manifolds. A metering valve includes a motor so that the pressure drop is maintained substantially constant by a differential regulator. The metering valve is disposed in an intermediate portion of the fuel supply passage. Calculating means including a servo signal generator calculates an injection flow amount causing a predetermined air/fuel ratio on the basis of signals of various engine running factors. An operational signal output from the servo signal generating circuit of the calculating means is applied to the drive motor means for driving said metering valve to thereby inject fuel into the intake manifolds.

  18. Centrifugal governor for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnishi, M.

    1986-09-23

    A centrifugal governor is described for use with an internal combustion engine which consists of: a control rack for regulating the quantity of fuel to be supplied to the engine; flyweights radially displaceable in response to the rotational speed of the engine; a tension lever pivotable through an angle dependent upon the amount of radial displacement of the flyweights; an idling spring for urging the tension lever against radially outward displacement of the flyweights; a torque cam having a cam surface determining a fuel increment to be applied at the start of the engine; a sensor lever having one end engaged by the control rack, and another end adapted to engage with the cam surface of the torque cam; a cancelling spring interposed between the torque cam and the tension lever; a control lever; a floating lever interlocking with the control lever; and spring force adjusting means arranged at one end of the idling spring.

  19. Valve operating mechanism for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, N.; Iwata, T.; Takahara, N.

    1988-12-27

    This patent describes a valve operating mechanism in an internal combustion engine comprising: a single camshaft rotatably disposed above the cylinder head, a single rocker arm shaft rotatably disposed above the cylinder head; an intake-valve rocker arm swingably supported on the rocker arm shaft and operatively engaging the intake valve; an exhaust-valve rocker arm swingably supported on the rocker arm shaft and operatively engaging the exhaust valve, a camshaft holder disposed above the cylinder bore, the camshaft being rotatably supported by the camshaft holder; a rocker arms shaft holder disposed above the cylinder bore, the rocker arm shaft being rotatably supported by the rocker arm shaft holder; and a plug insertion tube having a plug insertion hole for insertion of the spark plug therethrough, the plug insertion tube being integrally formed with the camshaft holder and the rocker arm shaft holder in a holder block means.

  20. Ignition apparatus for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Imoto, K.; Katada, H.

    1986-10-07

    An ignition apparatus is described for an internal combustion engine having a crankshaft and a camshaft coupled to the crankshaft to be rotated thereby, comprising: crankshaft position signal generating means for detecting that the crankshaft has rotated to a predetermined angular position and for generating crankshaft position signals in response to the detection; camshaft position signal generating means for detecting that the camshaft has rotated to a predetermined angular position and for generating camshaft position signals in response to the detection; command signal generating means coupled to receive the crankshaft position signals, for generating ignition command signals in response to the crankshaft position signals; and ignition circuit means for generating a high ignition voltage in response to the ignition command signals.

  1. Internal combustion engine camshaft phaseshift control system

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, M.

    1992-06-02

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine, a hydraulic system for varying the timing of an intake valve camshaft and an exhaust valve camshaft relative to a crankshaft. It comprises a drive flange adapted to be rotatably coupled to a crank shaft for rotation about one the camshaft axis; a driven flange coupled to the camshaft for rotation above the one camshaft axis; a hydraulic coupling including a housing means connected to one of the flanges and a piston means cooperating with the housing means and connected to the other of the flanges; valve means for regulating the flow of fluid in the conduit means in response to a control signal to cause the drive and driven flanges to rotate relative to one another in a direction selected without any external power utilizing the cyclically varying fluid pressure within the fluid chambers.

  2. Valve operating device for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, K.; Hirose, K.; Komatsu, T.; Shimoyama, K.; Tsuji, Y.

    1989-05-16

    A valve operating device is described for an internal combustion engine having cam followers disposed adjacent to each other for valve operation in mutually different modes by cams on a camshaft dependent on engine speed, and a selective coupling mechanism disposed between the cam followers and having at least one switching pin movable in a guide hole in a cam follower between a connecting position in which the cam followers, are interconnected and a disconnecting position in which the cam followers are disconnected. The improvement consists of an oil passage defined in at least one cam follower and passing through the guide hole, and the switching pin having means for controlling the rate of flow of oil through the oil passage and past the guide hole in response to movement of the switching pin between the connecting and disconnecting positions.

  3. Valve actuating mechanism for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kuroda, Y.

    1987-01-20

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine comprising a cylinder having a bore, a cylinder head fixed relative to the cylinder, and three poppet type valves supported by the cylinder head for reciprocation about respective axes all positioned on the same side of a plane containing the axis of the cylinder bore. It also comprises a single camshaft having three respective cam lobes each associated with a respective of the valves, the camshaft being rotatable about an axis extending parallel to the plane and lying on the same side thereof as the valve axes. A rocker arms means is associated with one of the cam lobes for operating its associated valve, and means is included for directly operating the remainder of the valves from the remaining cam lobes.

  4. Automatic decompression device for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Tsumiyama, Y.

    1986-10-07

    A decompression device is described for an internal combustion engine comprising: a holder secured to a camshaft supporting cams for controlling suction and exhaust valves of the engine, the cams having a contour and the holder having secured thereto a first cylindrical pin and a stopper pin; engine speed-responsive means including a first centrifugal weight supported by the holder for pivotal movement about the first pin and a second centrifugal weight supported on the first centrifugal weight for pivotal movement about a second pin having an axis parallel to the camshaft; cam means including a cylindrical pillar disposed on the second weight radially inwardly of the second pin and extending axially of the camshaft toward the cams for engagement with a valve operating member associated with one of the cams; and tension spring means mounted between the first centrifugal weight and the second centrifugal for moving the weights between a first position and a second position.

  5. Starting apparatus for internal combustion engines

    DOEpatents

    Dyches, Gregory M.; Dudar, Aed M.

    1997-01-01

    An internal combustion engine starting apparatus uses a signal from a curt sensor to determine when the engine is energized and the starter motor should be de-energized. One embodiment comprises a transmitter, receiver, computer processing unit, current sensor and relays to energize a starter motor and subsequently de-energize the same when the engine is running. Another embodiment comprises a switch, current transducer, low-pass filter, gain/comparator, relay and a plurality of switches to energize and de-energize a starter motor. Both embodiments contain an indicator lamp or speaker which alerts an operator as to whether a successful engine start has been achieved. Both embodiments also contain circuitry to protect the starter and to de-energize the engine.

  6. Variable compression ratio device for internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Maloney, Ronald P.; Faletti, James J.

    2004-03-23

    An internal combustion engine, particularly suitable for use in a work machine, is provided with a combustion cylinder, a cylinder head at an end of the combustion cylinder and a primary piston reciprocally disposed within the combustion cylinder. The cylinder head includes a secondary cylinder and a secondary piston reciprocally disposed within the secondary cylinder. An actuator is coupled with the secondary piston for controlling the position of the secondary piston dependent upon the position of the primary piston. A communication port establishes fluid flow communication between the combustion cylinder and the secondary cylinder.

  7. ZMOTTO- MODELING THE INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeleznik, F. J.

    1994-01-01

    The ZMOTTO program was developed to model mathematically a spark-ignited internal combustion engine. ZMOTTO is a large, general purpose program whose calculations can be established at five levels of sophistication. These five models range from an ideal cycle requiring only thermodynamic properties, to a very complex representation demanding full combustion kinetics, transport properties, and poppet valve flow characteristics. ZMOTTO is a flexible and computationally economical program based on a system of ordinary differential equations for cylinder-averaged properties. The calculations assume that heat transfer is expressed in terms of a heat transfer coefficient and that the cylinder average of kinetic plus potential energies remains constant. During combustion, the pressures of burned and unburned gases are assumed equal and their heat transfer areas are assumed proportional to their respective mass fractions. Even the simplest ZMOTTO model provides for residual gas effects, spark advance, exhaust gas recirculation, supercharging, and throttling. In the more complex models, 1) finite rate chemistry replaces equilibrium chemistry in descriptions of both the flame and the burned gases, 2) poppet valve formulas represent fluid flow instead of a zero pressure drop flow, and 3) flame propagation is modeled by mass burning equations instead of as an instantaneous process. Input to ZMOTTO is determined by the model chosen. Thermodynamic data is required for all models. Transport properties and chemical kinetics data are required only as the model complexity grows. Other input includes engine geometry, working fluid composition, operating characteristics, and intake/exhaust data. ZMOTTO accommodates a broad spectrum of reactants. The program will calculate many Otto cycle performance parameters for a number of consecutive cycles (a cycle being an interval of 720 crankangle degrees). A typical case will have a number of initial ideal cycles and progress through levels

  8. 75 FR 75937 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of... ignition stationary reciprocating internal combustion engines. Subsequently, the Administrator received two... internal generation, combustion engine. transmission, or distribution. 622110 Medical and...

  9. 76 FR 12923 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... internal combustion engines. The final rule was published on August 20, 2010. This action proposes to amend... internal combustion generation, engine. transmission, or distribution. 622110 Medical and...

  10. Method and device for diagnosing and controlling combustion instabilities in internal combustion engines operating in or transitioning to homogeneous charge combustion ignition mode

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Robert M [Knoxville, TN; Daw, Charles S [Knoxville, TN; Green, Johney B [Knoxville, TN; Edwards, Kevin D [Knoxville, TN

    2008-10-07

    This invention is a method of achieving stable, optimal mixtures of HCCI and SI in practical gasoline internal combustion engines comprising the steps of: characterizing the combustion process based on combustion process measurements, determining the ratio of conventional and HCCI combustion, determining the trajectory (sequence) of states for consecutive combustion processes, and determining subsequent combustion process modifications using said information to steer the engine combustion toward desired behavior.

  11. Centrifugal governor for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnishi, M.

    1986-08-12

    A centrifugal governor is described for use with an internal combustion engine, comprising: a control rack for regulating the quantity of fuel to be supplied to the engine; flyweights radially displaceable in response to the rotational speed of the engine; a tension lever pivotable about a stationary fulcrum in response to the radial displacement of the flyweights; a torque cam having a cam surface determining a fuel increment to be applied at the start of the engine; a sensor lever having one end engaged by the control rack and another end disposed for engagement with the cam surface of the torque cam, the sensor lever being adapted to engage with the cam surface of the torque cam when the engine is in a starting condition, to cause displacement of the control rack into a fuel increasing position for the start of the engine; and spring means interposed between the torque cam and the tension lever and urging the torque cam with a force dependent upon the angularity of the tension lever in a direction of disengaging the sensor lever from the cam surface of the torque cam; the spring means comprising first and second springs, one of the first and second springs being formed of a thermosensitive material having a smaller spring constant at a low temperature below a predetermined value, and a larger spring constant at a temperature above the predetermined value; and the first and second springs of the spring means comprising coiled springs disposed concentrically with each other.

  12. Centrifugal governor for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkoshi, M.

    1987-04-14

    This patent describes a centrifugal governor for use with an internal combustion engine, comprising: a control rack for regulating the quantity of fuel to be supplied to the engine; flyweights radially displaceable in response to the rotational speed of the engine; a tension lever pivotable through an angle dependent upon the amount of radial displacement of the flyweights; a torque cam pivotable about and relative to a fulcrum shaft thereof and having a cam surface including a cam surface portion determining a fuel increment to be applied at the start of the engine; a sensor lever having one end engaged by the control rack; the sensor lever having another end disposed to engage with the cam surface portion of the torque cam when the engine is in a starting condition, to permit displacement of the control rack into a fuel increasing position for the start of the engine; and a cancelling spring interposed between the torque cam and the tension lever and urging the torque cam with a force dependent upon the angularity of the tension lever to cause pivoting of the torque cam about the fulcrum shaft thereof in a direction of disengaging the sensor lever from the cam surface portion of the torque cam. The improvement is described comprising biasing means for forcibly pivotally displacing, immediately before operation of a starter of the engine, the torque cam in one direction against the urging force of the cancelling spring to a predetermined position.

  13. Ignition angle advancer for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Yamazaki, T.

    1986-08-19

    This patent describes a throttle and spark advance control system for an internal combustion engine having a spark advance mechanism and a throttle valve comprising an operator controlled element, a throttle control lever supported for pivotal movement about an axis and directly connected to the operator controlled element for rotation under operator control. It also includes means for positively connecting the throttle control lever to the throttle valve for positioning the throttle valve in response to movement of the throttle control lever. A spark advance control lever supported for pivotal movement about an axis is included as well as motion transmitting means for operatively connecting the spark advance control lever to the throttle control lever for pivotal movement of the spark advance control lever about its axis in response to pivotal movement of the throttle control lever about its axis and the spark control lever to the spark advance mechanism for controlling the position of the spark advance mechanism in response to the position of the throttle control lever.

  14. Fuel injection valve for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Ishibashi, T.

    1987-01-13

    A fuel injection valve is described for an internal combustion engine, comprising: a nozzle holder having a fuel inlet port formed therein and connected to an injection pipe extending from a fuel injection pump; a nozzle body supported by the nozzle holder and having at least one nozzle hole and a pressure chamber formed therein at an end thereof remote from the nozzle holder. The pressure chamber is more remote from the injection pipe than the fuel inlet port. A fuel passage means is formed in the nozzle holder and the nozzle body and extends between the fuel inlet port and the pressure chamber. A nozzle needle is mounted within the nozzle body and liftable and returnable to open and close the nozzle hole, respectively, in response to an increase and a decrease in the pressure of fuel supplied into the pressure chamber. A nozzle spring means urges the nozzle needle in a direction of closing the nozzle hole. A central plunger is disposed in the nozzle holder for displacement in unison with the nozzle needle through a whole lifting stroke thereof. The central plunger has one end remote from the nozzle needle, the one end having an end face thereof disposed to receive pressure within the injection pipe through the fuel inlet port to thereby impart an urging force to the nozzle needle in the direction of closing the nozzle hole.

  15. Fuel injection pump for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Y.; Suzuki, S.; Inoue, A.

    1987-03-24

    A fuel injection pump is described for an internal combustion engine having fuel injection nozzles, comprising: a plunger disposed to be rotated and reciprocated; cam means having a camming surface operatively coupled with the plunger and disposed to be rotatively driven for causing rotation and reciprocation of the plunger to cause same to pressurize drawn fuel and distribute the pressurized fuel, to thereby deliver the pressurized fuel to the engine; the camming surface of the cam means having such a configuration as to include a first angular region for causing the plunger to be lifted for pressurizing drawn fuel during idling of the engine at a first, substantially constant velocity. It has a second angular region subsequent to the first angular region for causing the plunger to be lifted for pressurizing drawn fuel at a second velocity higher than the first velocity; a plurality of delivery valves each disposed such that fuel pressurized by the plunger is supplied to the engine through the delivery valve; and injection pipes connected, respectively, to the delivery valves to feed pressurized fuel discharged from the respective delivery valves; the delivery valves each being adapted to maintain a residual pressure within a corresponding one of the injection pipes at a value that enables to attain injection initiation pressure within an extent of rotation of the cam means corresponding to the first angular region.

  16. Fuel injection system for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, S.

    1986-10-28

    A fuel injection system is described for an internal combustion engine, comprising: (a) a fuel injection pump driven by the engine for fuel injection thereto and including a plunger reciprocably movable at a non-uniform speed and a control sleeve slidably fitted on the plunger; (b) first drive means operatively connected with the plunger for rotating the latter to thereby adjust the effective stroke of the plunger; (c) second drive means operatively connected with the control sleeve for displacing the latter in an axial direction to thereby adjust the pre-stroke of the control sleeve; (d) an operation sensor for detecting operating conditions of the engine; (e) a position sensor for detecting a position of the control sleeve; (f) first arithmetic means responsive to the engine operating conditions detected by the operation sensor, for computing an object injection quantity; (g) second arithmetic means responsive to the position of the control sleeve detected by the position sensor, for computing an object pre-stroke of the plunger; (h) third arithmetic means responsive to the engine operating conditions detected and the position of the control sleeve detected, for computing a correction amount; (i) first control means responsive to the correction amount computed by the third arithmetic means, for correcting the object injection quantity and for delivering a control signal to the first drive means; and (j) second control means responsive to the object injection quantity computed by the second arithmetic means, for delivering a control signal to the second drive means.

  17. Fuel injection pump for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Y.

    1987-08-11

    A fuel injection pump for an internal combustion engine is described which consists of: a plunger disposed to be rotated and reciprocated; and cam means having a camming surface operatively coupled with the plunger and disposed to be rotatively driven for causing rotation and reciprocation of the plunger to cause same to pressurize drawn fuel and distribute the pressurized fuel, to thereby deliver the pressurized fuel to the engine; the camming surface of the cam means having such a configuration as to include a first angular region for causing the plunger to be lifted for pressurizing drawn fuel during idling of the engine at a first, substantially constant velocity, and a second angular region subsequent to the first angular region for causing the plunger to be lifted for pressurizing drawn fuel at a second velocity higher than the first velocity, and a third angular region preceding the first angular region, for causing the plunger to be lifted for pressurizing drawn fuel at a velocity higher than the first velocity, but lower than the second velocity.

  18. Valve actuating mechanism for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuchida, N.

    1986-06-03

    A valve train for an internal combustion engine is described having a cylinder head assembly, a first poppet valve supported by the cylinder head assembly for reciprocation along an axis defined by its stem, a second poppet valve supported by the cylinder head assembly for reciprocation along an axis defined by its stem, a camshaft supported by the cylinder head assembly for rotation about a rotational axis intersected by the first poppet valve stem axis, cam means on the camshaft, a tappet slidably supported by the cylinder head assembly and associated with the cam means and the first valve for opening directly the first valve, a rocker arm supported for pivotal movement and associated with the cam means for pivoting the rocker arm, and means on the rocker arm operative to actuate the second valve upon pivotal movement of the rocker arm. The improvement described here consists of the rocker arm being pivotally supported by a rocker arm shaft carried by the cylinder head assembly and lubricant passage means extending through the cylinder head assembly and through the rocker arm shaft for lubricating the pivotal support for the rocker arm and the sliding support for the tappet.

  19. Camshaft driving device for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ebesu, H.

    1988-06-14

    A camshaft driving device for use in a double overhead cam type internal combustion engine having a cylinder block, an upper deck formed at an upper portion of the cylinder block, a cylinder head disposed on the cylinder block, a driving shaft rotatably mounted at a lower portion of the cylinder block, and a pair of camshafts rotatably mounted at an upper portion of the cylinder head, is described comprising: driving force transmitting endless chain members engaging in the reduction gear means for transmitting a driving force from the driving shaft to the pair of camshaft through the reduction gear means. The camshaft driving device further including chain tensioners for tightening the chain, a nozzle means for supplying a lubricating oil to the driving force chain members on the side of the drive shaft and an oil guide wall formed immediately above the sprocket of the transmitting portion of the reduction gear means at a lower end portion of the journal boss and lapping thereover both in the radial direction and in the axial direction of the driving shaft. A mounting boss for mounting the reduction gear means thereon is formed on the upper deck of the cylinder block.

  20. Variable camshaft timing for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Butterfield, R.P.; Smith, F.R.; Dembosky, S.K.

    1991-09-10

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine. It comprises a rotatable crankshaft; a camshaft, the camshaft being rotatable about its longitudinal central axis and being subject to a unidirectionally acting torque during the rotation thereof; first means mounted on the camshaft, the first means being oscillatable with respect to the camshaft about the longitudinal central axis of the camshaft at least through a limited arc; second means keyed to the camshaft for rotation therewith; rotary movement transmitting means interconnecting the crankshaft and one of the first means and the second means for transmitting rotary movement from the crankshaft to the camshaft; a first hydraulic cylinder having a body end pivotably attached to one of the first means and the second means and a piston end pivotably attached to the other of the first means and the second means; a second hydraulic cylinder having a body end pivotably attached to the one of the first means and the second means and a piston end pivotably attached to the other of the first means and the second means, the second hydraulic cylinder and the first hydraulic cylinder being disposed to act in opposite directions.

  1. Valve actuator for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Uchida, T.

    1987-06-16

    A valve actuating mechanism is described for an overhead valve and overhead cam type internal combustion engine in which the camshaft is positioned above and between the valve and a cam follower seat member in a cylinder head of the engine. The cam follower seat member is threadedly mounted in the cylinder head and has a semi-spherical recess facing upwardly. A cam follower has an adjustable bolt threadedly received in one end of the cam follower. The adjustable bolt has a spherical fulcrum engaging the semispherical recess of the seat member. The cam follower also has a downwardly facing means on the other end for engaging the valve and an upwardly facing slipper face for sliding engagement with a cam on the camshaft. The cam is adapted to rotate across the slipper face in the direction of the valve. The slipper face has a surface shape for engaging the cam at the start of valve-lifting movement of the cam follower at a point through which a line tangent to the slipper face is substantially parallel to a line through contact points between the cam follower. The seat member and valve for minimizing the lateral forces are imposed on the cam follower by the cam at the start of the valve-lifting movement.

  2. Fiber-optic pressure sensors for internal combustion engines.

    PubMed

    Atkins, R A; Gardner, J H; Gibler, W N; Lee, C E; Oakland, M D; Spears, M O; Swenson, V P; Taylor, H F; McCoy, J J; Beshouri, G

    1994-03-01

    Two designs incorporating embedded fiber Fabry-Perot interferometers as strain gauges were used for monitoring gas pressure in internal combustion engines. Measurements on a Diesel engine, a gasoline-fueled engine, and a natural-gas engine are reported.

  3. Chemistry and the Internal Combustion Engine II: Pollution Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, C. B.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses pollution problems which arise from the use of internal combustion (IC) engines in the United Kingdom (UK). The IC engine exhaust emissions, controlling IC engine pollution in the UK, and some future developments are also included. (HM)

  4. Supercharger control system for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Nagase, H.; Hirayama, T.

    1986-01-21

    This patent describes a supercharger control system for an internal combustion engine. The system has a throttle valve with a throttle operating lever, an engine air inlet passage, and a venturi-type carburetor. It consists of: a supercharger located in the engine air inlet passage upstream of the throttle valve, the supercharger being driven by the engine, a bypass within the engine inlet passage around the supercharger, a control valve with a control lever located within the bypass to control air flow, a diaphragm device, a first side of the diaphragm device being in communication with the engine inlet passage at the exit of the supercharger, a second side of the diaphragm being in communication with the venturi carburetor, a valve control linkage being constructed and arranged to open the control valve with increased vacuum in the first side of the diaphragm, spring means biasing the diaphragm to open the control valve, an activation lever with a stopper protrustion, the activation lever being pivotally mounted about the throttle valve, a first stop pin in the intake passage wall, a second stop pin on the throttle operating lever to selectively engage the activation lever, a regulation lever pivotally mounted about the control valve, a third stop pin on the control lever to selectively engage the regulating lever, an activation linkage connecting the activation lever and the regulating lever so as to create reciprocating motion, and spring means biasing both the regulating lever against the third stop pin when the control valve is in the fully open position and the stopper protrusion is against the first stop pin.

  5. Valve operating device for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Shibata, M.; Kumagai, K.; Fukuo, K.; Hiro, T.; Matsumoto, M.

    1989-02-28

    A valve operating mechanism is described for intake or exhaust valves of an internal combustion engine having a low-speed cam formed on a camshaft and suited for an operation mode of the intake or exhaust valves during low-speed operation of the engine, a high-speed cam formed on the camshaft and suited for an operation mode of the intake or exhaust valves during high-speed operation of the engine, a cam follower held in slidable contact with the low-speed cam, a cam follower held in slidable contact with the high-speed cam, and a selective coupling mechanism disposed between the cam followers for selectively connecting and disconnecting the cam followers in order to open and close the intake or exhaust valves dependent on the operating speed of the engine. The improvement comprises a low-speed lubricating oil passage for supplying lubricating oil to sliding surfaces of the low-speed cam and the associated cam follower and a high-speed lubricating oil passage for supplying lubricating oil to sliding surfaces of the high-speed cam and the associate cam follower, the low-speed lubricating oil passage and the high-speed lubricating oil passage being separate of each other. It also includes a control valve connected between and oil supply source and the low-speed lubricating oil passage and the high-speed lubricating oil passage, the control valve being selectively operable for communicating the high-speed lubricating oil passage and the oil pressure supply source throughout a full operating range of the engine while restricting the rate of flow of oil during low-speed operation of the engine and for communicating the low-speed lubricating oil passage and the oil pressure supply source at least during low-speed operation of the engine.

  6. Internal combustion engine for natural gas compressor operation

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen, Christopher; Babbitt, Guy

    2016-12-27

    This application concerns systems and methods for compressing natural gas with an internal combustion engine. In a representative embodiment, a method is featured which includes placing a first cylinder of an internal combustion engine in a compressor mode, and compressing a gas within the first cylinder, using the cylinder as a reciprocating compressor. In some embodiments a compression check valve system is used to regulate pressure and flow within cylinders of the engine during a compression process.

  7. Petroleum Dependency: The Case to Replace the Internal Combustion Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-17

    link between the internal combustion engine and oil leads to an inevitable energy security problem. This concern has led President Obama to call for a...promotion of alternative energy fuels. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report (SAR) 18...internal combustion engine and oil leads to an inevitable energy security problem. This concern has led President Obama to call for a promotion of

  8. 8th International symposium on transport phenomena in combustion

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The 8th International Symposium on Transport Phenomena in Combustion will be held in San Francisco, California, U.S.A., July 16-20, 1995, under the auspices of the Pacific Center of Thermal-Fluids Engineering. The purpose of the Symposium is to provide a forum for researchers and practitioners from around the world to present new developments and discuss the state of the art and future directions and priorities in the areas of transport phenomena in combustion. The Symposium is the eighth in a series; previous venues were Honolulu 1985, Tokyo 1987, Taipei 1988, Sydney 1991, Beijing 1992, Seoul 1993 and Acapulco 1994, with emphasis on various aspects of transport phenomena. The current Symposium theme is combustion. The Symposium has assembled a balanced program with topics ranging from fundamental research to contemporary applications of combustion theory. Invited keynote lecturers will provide extensive reviews of topics of great interest in combustion. Colloquia will stress recent advances and innovations in fire spread and suppression, and in low NO{sub x} burners, furnaces, boilers, internal combustion engines, and other practical combustion systems. Finally, numerous papers will contribute to the fundamental understanding of complex processes in combustion. This document contains abstracts of papers to be presented at the Symposium.

  9. Starting procedure for internal combustion vessels

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Harry A.

    1978-09-26

    A vertical vessel, having a low bed of broken material, having included combustible material, is initially ignited by a plurality of ignitors spaced over the surface of the bed, by adding fresh, broken material onto the bed to buildup the bed to its operating depth and then passing a combustible mixture of gas upwardly through the material, at a rate to prevent back-firing of the gas, while air and recycled gas is passed through the bed to thereby heat the material and commence the desired laterally uniform combustion in the bed. The procedure permits precise control of the air and gaseous fuel mixtures and material rates, and permits the use of the process equipment designed for continuous operation of the vessel.

  10. Commercial combustion research aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schowengerdt, F. D.

    1999-01-01

    The Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS) is planning a number of combustion experiments to be done on the International Space Station (ISS). These experiments will be conducted in two ISS facilities, the SpaceDRUMS™ Acoustic Levitation Furnace (ALF) and the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) portion of the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF). The experiments are part of ongoing commercial projects involving flame synthesis of ceramic powders, catalytic combustion, water mist fire suppression, glass-ceramics for fiber and other applications and porous ceramics for bone replacements, filters and catalyst supports. Ground- and parabolic aircraft-based experiments are currently underway to verify the scientific bases and to test prototype flight hardware. The projects have strong external support.

  11. Hydrogen-oxygen powered internal combustion engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, H.; Morgan, N.

    1970-01-01

    Hydrogen at 300 psi and oxygen at 800 psi are injected sequentially into the combustion chamber to form hydrogen-rich mixture. This mode of injection eliminates difficulties of preignition, detonation, etc., encountered with carburated, spark-ignited, hydrogen-air mixtures. Ignition at startup is by means of a palladium catalyst.

  12. Combustion Velocity of Benzine-Benzol-Air Mixtures in High-Speed Internal-Combustion Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnauffer, Kurt

    1932-01-01

    The present paper describes a device whereby rapid flame movement within an internal-combustion engine cylinder may be recorded and determined. By the aid of a simple cylindrical contact and an oscillograph the rate of combustion within the cylinder of an airplane engine during its normal operation may be measured for gas intake velocities of from 30 to 35 m/s and for velocities within the cylinder of from 20 to 25 m/s. With it the influence of mixture ratios, of turbulence, of compression ratio and kind of fuel on combustion velocity may be determined. Besides the determination of the influence of the above factors on combustion velocity, the degree of turbulence may also be determined. As a unit of reference in estimating the degree of turbulence, the intake velocity of the charge is chosen.

  13. High efficiency stoichiometric internal combustion engine system

    DOEpatents

    Winsor, Richard Edward; Chase, Scott Allen

    2009-06-02

    A power system including a stoichiometric compression ignition engine in which a roots blower is positioned in the air intake for the engine to control air flow. Air flow is decreased during part power conditions to maintain the air-fuel ratio in the combustion chamber of the engine at stoichiometric, thus enabling the use of inexpensive three-way catalyst to reduce oxides of nitrogen. The roots blower is connected to a motor generator so that when air flow is reduced, electrical energy is stored which is made available either to the roots blower to temporarily increase air flow or to the system electrical load and thus recapture energy that would otherwise be lost in reducing air flow.

  14. Laser ignition in internal-combustion engines: Sparkless initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronov, A. A.; Gurin, V. A.; Marugin, A. V.; Savikin, A. P.; Svyatoshenko, D. E.; Tukhomirov, A. N.; Utkin, Yu. S.; Khimich, V. L.

    2014-08-01

    Laser ignition has been implemented in a single-cylinder internal combustion engine fueled by gasoline. Indicator diagrams (cylinder pressure versus crank angle) were obtained for laser ignition with nano- and microsecond pulses of an Nd:YAG laser. The maximum power of microsecond pulses was below critical for spark initiation, while the radiation wavelength was outside the spectral range of optical absorption by hydrocarbon fuels. Apparently, the ignition starts due to radiation absorption by the oil residues or carbon deposit in the combustion chamber, so that the ability of engine to operate is retained. This initiation of spark-free ignition shows the possibility of using compact semiconductor quantum-cascade lasers operating at wavelengths of about 3.4 μm (for which the optical absorption by fuel mixtures is high) in ignition systems of internal combustion engines.

  15. Carbon/Carbon Pistons for Internal Combustion Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, A. H.

    1986-01-01

    Carbon/carbon piston performs same function as aluminum pistons in reciprocating internal combustion engines while reducing weight and increasing mechanical and thermal efficiencies of engine. Carbon/carbon piston concept features low piston-to-cylinder wall clearance - so low piston rings and skirts unnecessary. Advantages possible by negligible coefficient of thermal expansion of carbon/carbon.

  16. A sustained-arc ignition system for internal combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, A. G.

    1977-01-01

    A sustained-arc ignition system was developed for internal combustion engines. It produces a very-long-duration ignition pulse with an energy in the order of 100 millijoules. The ignition pulse waveform can be controlled to predetermined actual ignition requirements. The design of the sustained-arc ignition system is presented in the report.

  17. Head structure for OHC type internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Arakawa, T.; Kato, M.; Watanabe, K.

    1987-04-28

    A head structure is described for an OHC type internal combustion engine, comprising, a cam case fixed to a cylinder head for the engine, a bearing portions provided on the cam case for rotatably supporting a valve operating camshaft, a rocker shaft for rockably supporting valve rocker arms, and the rocker shaft being fixed to the bearing portions by bolts.

  18. Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Cavanagh, Mark S.; Urven, Jr., Roger L.; Lawrence, Keith E.

    2011-03-22

    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  19. Fuel Injector Nozzle For An Internal Combustion Engine

    DOEpatents

    Cavanagh, Mark S.; Urven, Jr.; Roger L.; Lawrence, Keith E.

    2006-04-25

    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  20. Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Cavanagh, Mark S.; Urven, Jr., Roger L.; Lawrence, Keith E.

    2008-11-04

    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  1. Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Cavanagh, Mark S.; Urven, Jr., Roger L.; Lawrence, Keith E.

    2007-11-06

    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  2. 75 FR 80761 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of... air pollutants for reciprocating internal combustion engines and requesting public comment on one... the limitations on operation of emergency stationary engines to allow emergency engines to operate...

  3. 78 FR 14457 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines Correction In rule document 2013-01288, appearing on pages 6674-6724 in the issue of...

  4. 29 CFR 1915.136 - Internal combustion engines, other than ship's equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Internal combustion engines, other than ship's equipment... SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Tools and Related Equipment § 1915.136 Internal combustion engines, other than ship's...) When internal combustion engines furnished by the employer are used in a fixed position below...

  5. 46 CFR 32.35-5 - Installation of internal combustion engines-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Installation of internal combustion engines-TB/ALL. 32... EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 32.35-5 Installation of internal combustion engines—TB/ALL. Each internal combustion engine located on the weather deck shall be provided...

  6. 29 CFR 1915.136 - Internal combustion engines, other than ship's equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Internal combustion engines, other than ship's equipment... SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Tools and Related Equipment § 1915.136 Internal combustion engines, other than ship's...) When internal combustion engines furnished by the employer are used in a fixed position below...

  7. 46 CFR 32.35-5 - Installation of internal combustion engines-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Installation of internal combustion engines-TB/ALL. 32... EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 32.35-5 Installation of internal combustion engines—TB/ALL. Each internal combustion engine located on the weather deck shall be provided...

  8. 46 CFR 32.35-5 - Installation of internal combustion engines-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Installation of internal combustion engines-TB/ALL. 32... EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 32.35-5 Installation of internal combustion engines—TB/ALL. Each internal combustion engine located on the weather deck shall be provided...

  9. 29 CFR 1915.136 - Internal combustion engines, other than ship's equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Internal combustion engines, other than ship's equipment... SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Tools and Related Equipment § 1915.136 Internal combustion engines, other than ship's...) When internal combustion engines furnished by the employer are used in a fixed position below...

  10. 46 CFR 32.35-5 - Installation of internal combustion engines-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Installation of internal combustion engines-TB/ALL. 32... EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 32.35-5 Installation of internal combustion engines—TB/ALL. Each internal combustion engine located on the weather deck shall be provided...

  11. 29 CFR 1915.136 - Internal combustion engines, other than ship's equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Internal combustion engines, other than ship's equipment... SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Tools and Related Equipment § 1915.136 Internal combustion engines, other than ship's...) When internal combustion engines furnished by the employer are used in a fixed position below...

  12. 29 CFR 1915.136 - Internal combustion engines, other than ship's equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Internal combustion engines, other than ship's equipment... SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Tools and Related Equipment § 1915.136 Internal combustion engines, other than ship's...) When internal combustion engines furnished by the employer are used in a fixed position below...

  13. 46 CFR 32.35-5 - Installation of internal combustion engines-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Installation of internal combustion engines-TB/ALL. 32... EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 32.35-5 Installation of internal combustion engines—TB/ALL. Each internal combustion engine located on the weather deck shall be provided...

  14. Apparatus for photocatalytic destruction of internal combustion engine emissions during cold start

    DOEpatents

    Janata, Jiri; McVay, Gary L.; Peden, Charles H.; Exarhos, Gregory J.

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the destruction of emissions from an internal combustion engine wherein a substrate coated with TiO.sub.2 is exposed to a light source in the exhaust system of an internal combustion engine thereby catalyzing oxidation/reduction reactions between gaseous hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and oxygen in the exhaust of the internal combustion engine.

  15. Hydro-mechanical overhead for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Meistrick, Z.S.; Price, R.B.

    1987-05-12

    This patent describes a hydro-mechanical overhead for a multi-cylinder four-cycle internal combustion engine having a camshaft, intake valve pushtube means driven by the camshaft, exhaust valve pushtube means driven by the camshaft, at least one intake and exhaust valve for each cylinder of the multi-cylinder internal combustion engines and a piston for each cylinder of the engine. The process comprises an intake valve master piston means for each engine cylinder. Each intake valve master piston means is driven by one of the intake valve pushtube means. There is an exhaust valve master piston means for each engine cylinder, and each exhaust valve master piston means is driven by one of the exhaust valve pushtube means.

  16. A review of internal combustion engine combustion chamber process studies at NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schock, H. J.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of internal combustion stratified-charge engines is highly dependent on the in-cylinder fuel-air mixing processes occurring in these engines. Current research concerning the in-cylinder airflow characteristics of rotary and piston engines is presented. Results showing the output of multidimensional models, laser velocimetry measurements and the application of a holographic optical element are described. Models which simulate the four-stroke cycle and seal dynamics of rotary engines are also discussed.

  17. Enhanced efficiency of internal combustion engines by employing spinning gas.

    PubMed

    Geyko, V I; Fisch, N J

    2014-08-01

    The efficiency of the internal combustion engine might be enhanced by employing spinning gas. A gas spinning at near sonic velocities has an effectively higher heat capacity, which allows practical fuel cycles, which are far from the Carnot efficiency, to approach more closely the Carnot efficiency. A remarkable gain in fuel efficiency is shown to be theoretically possible for the Otto and Diesel cycles. The use of a flywheel, in principle, could produce even greater increases in efficiency.

  18. Enhanced Efficiency of Internal Combustion Engines By Employing Spinning Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Geyko, Vasily; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2014-02-27

    The efficiency of the internal combustion engine might be enhanced by employing spinning gas. A gas spinning at near sonic velocities has an effectively higher heat capacity, which allows practical fuel cycles, which are far from the Carnot efficiency, to approach more closely the Carnot efficiency. A gain in fuel efficiency of several percent is shown to be theoretically possible for the Otto and Diesel cycles. The use of a flywheel, in principle, could produce even greater increases in the efficiency.

  19. Exhaust apparatus for a v-type internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Y.; Deguchi, R.; Matsuoka, H.; Hanafusa, T.

    1988-03-22

    An exhaust apparatus adapted for connection to a V-type internal combustion engine in an automobile having a first cylinder bank away from the passenger compartment of the automobile and a second cylinder bank proximate the passenger compartment of the automobile, is described comprising: a first exhaust manifold connected to the first cylinder bank; a second exhaust manifold connected to the second cylinder bank; a catalytic converter; and means for connecting the first and second exhaust manifolds to the catalytic convertor.

  20. Microwave-Assisted Ignition for Improved Internal Combustion Engine Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeFilippo, Anthony Cesar

    The ever-present need for reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with transportation motivates this investigation of a novel ignition technology for internal combustion engine applications. Advanced engines can achieve higher efficiencies and reduced emissions by operating in regimes with diluted fuel-air mixtures and higher compression ratios, but the range of stable engine operation is constrained by combustion initiation and flame propagation when dilution levels are high. An advanced ignition technology that reliably extends the operating range of internal combustion engines will aid practical implementation of the next generation of high-efficiency engines. This dissertation contributes to next-generation ignition technology advancement by experimentally analyzing a prototype technology as well as developing a numerical model for the chemical processes governing microwave-assisted ignition. The microwave-assisted spark plug under development by Imagineering, Inc. of Japan has previously been shown to expand the stable operating range of gasoline-fueled engines through plasma-assisted combustion, but the factors limiting its operation were not well characterized. The present experimental study has two main goals. The first goal is to investigate the capability of the microwave-assisted spark plug towards expanding the stable operating range of wet-ethanol-fueled engines. The stability range is investigated by examining the coefficient of variation of indicated mean effective pressure as a metric for instability, and indicated specific ethanol consumption as a metric for efficiency. The second goal is to examine the factors affecting the extent to which microwaves enhance ignition processes. The factors impacting microwave enhancement of ignition processes are individually examined, using flame development behavior as a key metric in determining microwave effectiveness. Further development of practical combustion applications implementing microwave

  1. The Combination of Internal-Combustion Engine and Gas Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zinner, K.

    1947-01-01

    While the gas turbine by itself has been applied in particular cases for power generation and is in a state of promising development in this field, it has already met with considerable success in two cases when used as an exhaust turbine in connection with a centrifugal compressor, namely, in the supercharging of combustion engines and in the Velox process, which is of particular application for furnaces. In the present paper the most important possibilities of combining a combustion engine with a gas turbine are considered. These "combination engines " are compared with the simple gas turbine on whose state of development a brief review will first be given. The critical evaluation of the possibilities of development and fields of application of the various combustion engine systems, wherever it is not clearly expressed in the publications referred to, represents the opinion of the author. The state of development of the internal-combustion engine is in its main features generally known. It is used predominantly at the present time for the propulsion of aircraft and road vehicles and, except for certain restrictions due to war conditions, has been used to an increasing extent in ships and rail cars and in some fields applied as stationary power generators. In the Diesel engine a most economical heat engine with a useful efficiency of about 40 percent exists and in the Otto aircraft engine a heat engine of greatest power per unit weight of about 0.5 kilogram per horsepower.

  2. Cargo Assured Access to International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Boeing's Cargo Assured Access logistics delivery system will provide a means to transport cargo to/from the International Space Station, Low Earth Orbit and the moon using Expendable Launch Vehicles. For Space Station, this capability will reduce cargo resupply backlog during nominal operations (e.g., supplement Shuttle, Progress, ATV and HTV) and augment cargo resupply capability during contingency operations (e.g., Shuttle delay and/or unavailability of International Partner launch or transfer vehicles). This capability can also provide an autonomous means to deliver cargo to lunar orbit, a lunar orbit refueling and work platform, and a contingency crew safe haven in support of NASA's new Exploration Initiative.

  3. Virtual Instrument for Emissions Measurement of Internal Combustion Engines

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Armando; Montero, Gisela; Coronado, Marcos; García, Conrado; Pérez, Rubén

    2016-01-01

    The gases emissions measurement systems in internal combustion engines are strict and expensive nowadays. For this reason, a virtual instrument was developed to measure the combustion emissions from an internal combustion diesel engine, running with diesel-biodiesel mixtures. This software is called virtual instrument for emissions measurement (VIEM), and it was developed in the platform of LabVIEW 2010® virtual programming. VIEM works with sensors connected to a signal conditioning system, and a data acquisition system is used as interface for a computer in order to measure and monitor in real time the emissions of O2, NO, CO, SO2, and CO2 gases. This paper shows the results of the VIEM programming, the integrated circuits diagrams used for the signal conditioning of sensors, and the sensors characterization of O2, NO, CO, SO2, and CO2. VIEM is a low-cost instrument and is simple and easy to use. Besides, it is scalable, making it flexible and defined by the user. PMID:27034893

  4. Virtual Instrument for Emissions Measurement of Internal Combustion Engines.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Armando; Ramos, Rogelio; Montero, Gisela; Coronado, Marcos; García, Conrado; Pérez, Rubén

    2016-01-01

    The gases emissions measurement systems in internal combustion engines are strict and expensive nowadays. For this reason, a virtual instrument was developed to measure the combustion emissions from an internal combustion diesel engine, running with diesel-biodiesel mixtures. This software is called virtual instrument for emissions measurement (VIEM), and it was developed in the platform of LabVIEW 2010® virtual programming. VIEM works with sensors connected to a signal conditioning system, and a data acquisition system is used as interface for a computer in order to measure and monitor in real time the emissions of O2, NO, CO, SO2, and CO2 gases. This paper shows the results of the VIEM programming, the integrated circuits diagrams used for the signal conditioning of sensors, and the sensors characterization of O2, NO, CO, SO2, and CO2. VIEM is a low-cost instrument and is simple and easy to use. Besides, it is scalable, making it flexible and defined by the user.

  5. Stratified charge combustion system and method for gaseous fuel internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoades, W.A. Jr.

    1986-03-11

    This patent describes a stratified charge combustion system for use in a gaseous fuel internal combustion engine. This system consists of: (a) a combustion chamber; (b) an ignition; (c) a gaseous fuel injection valve assembly in communication with the combustion chamber and in spaced relationship from the ignition source with a portion of the inside surfaces extending between the fuel injection valve assembly and the ignition source. The fuel valve assembly defines an entry port for the entrance of gaseous fuel, the entry port is recessed outside of a fixed inside surface. (d) means for pressuring the gaseous fuel prior to injection; and (e) a curved transitional surface extending from the entry port toward the portion of the inside surfaces extending between the fuel injection valve assembly and the ignition source. The curved transitional surface curves away from the direction of the entry port. The curved transitional surface has a curvature for the particular direction and configuration of the entry port. The particular configuration of the portion of the inside surfaces extends between the injection valve assembly and the ignition source. The particular arrangment of the fuel injection valve assembly in the combustion chamber, and for the particular pressure of the gaseous fuel is to produce the Coanda Effect in the injected gaseous fuel flow after it passes through the entry port and follows the curved transitional surface under the Coanda Effect. As the curved transitional surface curves away from the direction of the entry port, a flow is produced of the gaseous fuel that clings to and follows the particular configuration of the inside surfaces to the ignition source.

  6. Holographic aids for internal combustion engine flow studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, C.

    1984-01-01

    Worldwide interest in improving the fuel efficiency of internal combustion (I.C.) engines has sparked research efforts designed to learn more about the flow processes of these engines. The flow fields must be understood prior to fuel injection in order to design efficient valves, piston geometries, and fuel injectors. Knowledge of the flow field is also necessary to determine the heat transfer to combustion chamber surfaces. Computational codes can predict velocity and turbulence patterns, but experimental verification is mandatory to justify their basic assumptions. Due to their nonintrusive nature, optical methods are ideally suited to provide the necessary velocity verification data. Optical sytems such as Schlieren photography, laser velocimetry, and illuminated particle visualization are used in I.C. engines, and now their versatility is improved by employing holography. These holographically enhanced optical techniques are described with emphasis on their applications in I.C. engines.

  7. 40 CFR 60.4210 - What are my compliance requirements if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? 60.4210 Section 60.4210 Protection of... CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? (a) Stationary CI internal combustion engine... certified to the standards in 40 CFR part 1039. (b) Stationary CI internal combustion engine...

  8. Nitrogen enriched combustion of a natural gas internal combustion engine to reduce NO.sub.x emissions

    DOEpatents

    Biruduganti, Munidhar S.; Gupta, Sreenath Borra; Sekar, R. Raj; McConnell, Steven S.

    2008-11-25

    A method and system for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from an internal combustion engine. An input gas stream of natural gas includes a nitrogen gas enrichment which reduces nitrous oxide emissions. In addition ignition timing for gas combustion is advanced to improve FCE while maintaining lower nitrous oxide emissions.

  9. A review of internal combustion engine combustion chamber process studies at NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schock, H. J.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of internal combustion stratified-charge engines is highly dependent on the in-cylinder fuel-air mixing processes occurring in these engines. Current research concerning the in-cylinder airflow characteristics of rotary and piston engines is presented. Results showing the output of multidimensional models, laser velocimetry measurements and the application of a holographic optical element are described. Models which simulate the four-stroke cycle and seal dynamics of rotary engines are also discussed. Previously announced in STAR as N84-24999

  10. Influence of intake air temperature on internal combustion engine operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birtok-Băneasă, C.; Raţiu, S.; Hepuţ, T.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents three methods for reduce thermal losses in the intake system with improvement of airflow and thermal protection. In the experiment are involved two patented devices conceived by the author and one PhD theme device: 1- Dynamic device for air transfer, 2-Integrated thermal deflector, and, 3-Advanced thermal protection. The tests were carried on different vehicle running in real traffic and in the Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory, within the specialization “Road vehicle” belonging to the Faculty of Engineering Hunedoara, component of Politehnica University of Timişoara. The results have been processed and compared whit the ones obtained without these devices.

  11. Valve operating and interrupting mechanism for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ajiki, Y.; Kajiwara, S.

    1986-09-23

    A valve operating mechanism is described for an internal combustion engine having a pair of intake or exhaust valves for each engine cylinder, comprising, a camshaft having high speed and low speed cams thereon, a rocker arm shaft having first second and third rocker arms pivotally mounted thereon in mutually adjacent relationship. The first and third rocker arms engage pair of valves, the first and second rocker arms engaging the low speed and high speed cams, respectively. The piston means in the rocker arms is electively shiftable between positions connecting the rocker arms for pivotal movement in unison and disconnecting the rocker arms for independent movement.

  12. Timing transmission device for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Inagaki, T.; Okazaki, K.; Ikeda, T.

    1989-06-06

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine comprising: an engine body; a crankshaft rotatably supported on the engine body; a camshaft rotatably supported on the engine body in spaced, parallel relation to the crankshaft; a drive gear on the crankshaft; a driven gear on the crankshaft; a support plate pivotably mounted at one end to one of the crankshaft and the camshaft; the other end of the support plate being loosely secured to the engine body to accommodate thermal expansion thereof; and an idler gear rotatably mounted on the support plate for drivingly connecting the drive gear to the driven gear.

  13. Coal-water slurry fuel internal combustion engine and method for operating same

    DOEpatents

    McMillian, Michael H.

    1992-01-01

    An internal combustion engine fueled with a coal-water slurry is described. About 90 percent of the coal-water slurry charge utilized in the power cycle of the engine is directly injected into the main combustion chamber where it is ignited by a hot stream of combustion gases discharged from a pilot combustion chamber of a size less than about 10 percent of the total clearance volume of main combustion chamber with the piston at top dead center. The stream of hot combustion gases is provided by injecting less than about 10 percent of the total coal-water slurry charge into the pilot combustion chamber and using a portion of the air from the main combustion chamber that has been heated by the walls defining the pilot combustion chamber as the ignition source for the coal-water slurry injected into the pilot combustion chamber.

  14. The problem of carrying out a diagnosis of an internal combustion engine by vibroacoustical parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lukanin, V. N.; Sidorov, V. I.

    1973-01-01

    The physics of noise formation in an internal combustion engine is discussed. A dependence of the acoustical radiation on the engine operating process, its construction, and operational parameters, as well as on the degree of wear on its parts, has been established. An example of tests conducted on an internal combustion engine is provided. A system for cybernetic diagnostics for internal combustion engines by vibroacoustical parameters is diagrammed.

  15. Apparatus for photocatalytic destruction of internal combustion engine emissions during cold start

    DOEpatents

    Janata, J.; McVay, G.L.; Peden, C.H.; Exarhos, G.J.

    1998-07-14

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the destruction of emissions from an internal combustion engine wherein a substrate coated with TiO{sub 2} is exposed to a light source in the exhaust system of an internal combustion engine thereby catalyzing oxidation/reduction reactions between gaseous hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and oxygen in the exhaust of the internal combustion engine. 4 figs.

  16. Experimental results with hydrogen fueled internal combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Boer, P. C. T.; Mclean, W. J.; Homan, H. S.

    1975-01-01

    The paper focuses on the most important experimental findings for hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines, with particular reference to the application of these findings to the assessment of the potential of hydrogen engines. Emphasis is on the various tradeoffs that can be made, such as between maximum efficiency, maximum power, and minimum NO emissions. The various possibilities for induction and ignition are described. Some projections are made about areas in which hydrogen engines may find their initial application and about optimum ways to design such engines. It is shown that hydrogen-fueled reciprocal internal combustion engines offer important advantages with respect to thermal efficiency and exhaust emissions. Problems arising from preignition can suitably be avoided by restricting the fuel-air equivalence ratio to values below about 0.5. The direct cylinder injection appears to be a very attractive way to operate the engine, because it combines a wide range of possible power outputs with a high thermal efficiency and very low NO emissions at part loads.

  17. Internal combustion engine for natural gas compressor operation

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen, Christopher L.; Babbitt, Guy; Turner, Christopher; Echter, Nick; Weyer-Geigel, Kristina

    2016-04-19

    This application concerns systems and methods for compressing natural gas with an internal combustion engine. In a representative embodiment, a system for compressing a gas comprises a reciprocating internal combustion engine including at least one piston-cylinder assembly comprising a piston configured to travel in a cylinder and to compress gas in the cylinder in multiple compression stages. The system can further comprise a first pressure tank in fluid communication with the piston-cylinder assembly to receive compressed gas from the piston-cylinder assembly until the first pressure tank reaches a predetermined pressure, and a second pressure tank in fluid communication with the piston-cylinder assembly and the first pressure tank. The second pressure tank can be configured to receive compressed gas from the piston-cylinder assembly until the second pressure tank reaches a predetermined pressure. When the first and second pressure tanks have reached the predetermined pressures, the first pressure tank can be configured to supply gas to the piston-cylinder assembly, and the piston can be configured to compress the gas supplied by the first pressure tank such that the compressed gas flows into the second pressure tank.

  18. Automotive fuels and internal combustion engines: a chemical perspective.

    PubMed

    Wallington, T J; Kaiser, E W; Farrell, J T

    2006-04-01

    Commercial transportation fuels are complex mixtures containing hundreds or thousands of chemical components, whose composition has evolved considerably during the past 100 years. In conjunction with concurrent engine advancements, automotive fuel composition has been fine-tuned to balance efficiency and power demands while minimizing emissions. Pollutant emissions from internal combustion engines (ICE), which arise from non-ideal combustion, have been dramatically reduced in the past four decades. Emissions depend both on the engine operating parameters (e.g. engine temperature, speed, load, A/F ratio, and spark timing) and the fuel. These emissions result from complex processes involving interactions between the fuel and engine parameters. Vehicle emissions are comprised of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO, nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), and particulate matter (PM). VOCs and NO(x) form photochemical smog in urban atmospheres, and CO and PM may have adverse health impacts. Engine hardware and operating conditions, after-treatment catalysts, and fuel composition all affect the amount and composition of emissions leaving the vehicle tailpipe. While engine and after-treatment effects are generally larger than fuel effects, engine and after-treatment hardware can require specific fuel properties. Consequently, the best prospects for achieving the highest efficiency and lowest emissions lie with optimizing the entire fuel-engine-after-treatment system. This review provides a chemical perspective on the production, combustion, and environmental aspects of automotive fuels. We hope this review will be of interest to workers in the fields of chemical kinetics, fluid dynamics of reacting flows, atmospheric chemistry, automotive catalysts, fuel science, and governmental regulations.

  19. Symposium /International/ on Combustion, 18th, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, August 17-22, 1980, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Problems related to combustion generated pollution are explored, taking into account the mechanism of NO formation from nitrogen compounds in hydrogen flames studied by laser fluorescence, the structure and similarity of nitric oxide production in turbulent diffusion flames, the effect of steam addition on NO formation, and the formation of NO2 by laminar flames. Other topics considered are concerned with propellant combustion, fluidized bed combustion, the combustion of droplets and sprays, premixed flame studies, fire studies, and flame stabilization. Attention is also given to coal flammability, chemical kinetics, turbulent combustion, soot, coal combustion, the modeling of combustion processes, combustion diagnostics, detonations and explosions, ignition, internal combustion engines, combustion studies, and furnaces.

  20. Internal combustion engine with compressed air collection system

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, P.W.

    1988-08-23

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine comprising cylinders respectively including a pressure port, pistons respectively movable in the cylinders through respective compression strokes, fuel injectors respectively connected to the cylinders and operative to supply, from a fuel source to the respective cylinders, a metered quantity of fuel conveyed by compressed gas in response to fuel injector operation during the compression strokes of the respective cylinders, a storage tank for accumulating and storing compressed gas, means for selectively connecting the pressure ports to the storage tank only during the compression strokes of the respective cylinders, and duct means connecting the storage tank to the fuel injectors for supplying the fuel injectors with compressed gas in response to fuel injector operation.

  1. Engine idle control system for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Yuzawa, H.; Seimiya, Y.

    1989-05-16

    A automotive vehicle is described including: an internal combustion engine having an induction system; a throttle valve disposed in the induction system, the throttle valve being movable in response to a manually derived command signal to move between a closed position and an open position; and a device for controlling the position of the throttle valve when the manually derived command signal is absent and the engine is idling; the device comprising: a control valve which modulates a vacuum pressure signal derived from the induction system in a manner to form a control signal, the control valve having a solenoid; a servo operatively connected with the throttle valve, the servo being responsive to the vacuum pressure signal and the control signal, the servo being arranged to be motivated by the vacuum pressure signal and so that the amount of motivation by the vacuum pressure signal is subject to control by the control signal.

  2. Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-05-21

    An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

  3. Automatic compression adjusting mechanism for internal combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akkerman, J. W. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Means for controlling the compression pressure in an internal combustion engine having one or more cylinders and subject to widely varying power output requirements are provided. Received between each crank pin and connecting rod is an eccentric sleeve selectively capable of rotation about the crank pin and/or inside the rod and for latching with the rod to vary the effective length of the connecting rod and thereby the clearance volume of the engine. The eccentric normally rotates inside the connecting rod during the exhaust and intake strokes but a latching pawl carried by the eccentric is movable radially outwardly to latch the rod and eccentric together during the compression and power strokes. A control valve responds to intake manifold pressure to time the supply of hydraulic fluid to move the latch-pawl outwardly, varying the effective rod length to maintain a substantially optimum firing chamber pressure at all intake manifold pressures.

  4. Engine valve operating system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, S.; Matsumoto, Y.; Matayoshi, Y.

    1986-02-04

    This patent describes an engine valve operating system for an internal combustion engine. The system consists of: a driving cam rotatable in timed relation to engine revolution; a rocker arm having a first end section drivingly connected to an engine valve and a second end section drivably connected to the driving cam; an elongated lever pivoted at a first end section and disposed in fulcrum contact with the rocker arm; an apparatus for biasing the rocker arm and the lever away from each other; and a hydraulic actuator having a movable end section which is in contact with a second end section of the lever and movable to control the pivotal location of the lever in accordance with an engine operating condition.

  5. Multiple fuel supply system for an internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Crothers, William T.

    1977-01-01

    A multiple fuel supply or an internal combustion engine wherein phase separation of components is deliberately induced. The resulting separation permits the use of a single fuel tank to supply components of either or both phases to the engine. Specifically, phase separation of a gasoline/methanol blend is induced by the addition of a minor amount of water sufficient to guarantee separation into an upper gasoline phase and a lower methanol/water phase. A single fuel tank holds the two-phase liquid with separate fuel pickups and separate level indicators for each phase. Either gasoline or methanol, or both, can be supplied to the engine as required by predetermined parameters. A fuel supply system for a phase-separated multiple fuel supply contained in a single fuel tank is described.

  6. Heat storage for a bus petrol internal-combustion engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, Leonard L.; Burak, Victor S.; Kulakov, Andry G.; Mishkinis, Donatas A.; Bohan, Pavel V.

    The heat storage (HS) system for pre-heating a bus petrol internal combustion engine to starting was mathematically modelled and experimentally investigated. The development of such devices is an extremely urgent problem especially for regions with a cold climate. We discuss how HS works on the effect of absorption and rejection of heat energy at a solid-liquid phase change of a HS substance. In the first part of the paper a numerical method to calculate the HS mass-dimensional parameters and their characteristics are described. In the experimental part of the paper results are given of experiments on the pre-heating device aiding to start a carburettor engine under operational conditions and analysis of data received. Practical confirmation of the theoretical development of HS devices for a bus engine for starting by pre-heating is given.

  7. Crank angle detecting system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, S.

    1988-11-29

    This patent describes a crank angle detecting system for an internal combustion engine having a plurality of cylinders, comprising: a pulse generator disk secured to a crankshaft of the engine and having notches each correponding to a compression top dead center of the cylinders, a first magnetic pickup for producing a first output signal in accordance with the notch; a rotary member secured to a camshaft of the engine and having projections provided at positions corresponding to respective cylinders. The projections at each position being set to represent a corresponding cylinder, a second magnetic pickup for producing a second output signal in accordance with the projections; first means responsive to the first output signal for producing a crank angle signal; second means for detecting production of an erroneous first output signal and for producing a trouble signal; third means responsive to the trouble signal for producing a crank angle signal in accordance with the second output signal.

  8. Internal combustion engine camshaft phase shift control system

    SciTech Connect

    Simko, A.O.; Schechter, M.M.

    1992-06-16

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine, a rotary coupling for varying the timing of at least one camshaft relative to a crankshaft, the rotary coupling. It comprises a drive flange adapted to be coupled to the crankshaft for rotation about an axis; a driven flange adapted to be coupled to the at least one camshaft for rotation about the axis; a hydraulic coupling including a housing means connected to one of the flanges and a piston means cooperating with the housing means and connected to the other of the flanges, valve means for regulating the flow of fluid in the conduit means in response to a control signal; each the shuttle plunger member storing a predetermined volume of fluid under pressure to be selectively transferred to a respective one of the fluid chambers in response to a control signal; and control valve means within the conduit means.

  9. Valve operating apparatus for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ajiki, Y.; Ishida, A.

    1988-11-29

    This patent describes an operating apparatus for an valve for an internal combustion engine including a camshaft rotatable driven by the engine, a cam on the camshaft and a cam followed operably interconnecting the cam and the valve and means for biasing the cam follower against the cam, the means comprising: a stationary base subjacent the can follower; an abutment member movable in a direction between the base and the cam follower, spring means extending between the base and the abutment member for biasing the abutment member against the cam follower including a first spring of relatively small spring constant and a second spring of relatively large spring constant series-connected to the first spring.

  10. Hydraulic valve control system for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, T.J.; LoRusso, J.A.; Kaufman, W.F.

    1992-07-07

    This patent describes a hydraulic engine valve actuating assembly for use in an internal combustion engine cylinder head having a poppet valve which is axially shiftable therein by a rotary camshaft, the hydraulic engine valve actuating assembly. It comprises a housing having a mounted surface to attach to the cylinder head immediately above the poppet valve, a master piston cooperating with the camshaft and sealingly engaging the first cavity; a slave piston cooperating with the poppet valve and sealingly engaging the housing second cavity; a hydraulic energy and fluid storage accumulator assembly affixed and sealingly engaged relative to the housing and being provided with a fluid port coupled with the housing fluid passageway; valve means; the housing including a third cavity coaxially aligned with the poppet valve; and the valve means including a reciprocal valve piston sealingly engaged within the third cavity.

  11. Operating mechanism for dual valves in an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Nagahiro, K.; Ishida, A.; Kajiwara, S.

    1987-04-14

    A valve operating mechanism is described for an internal combustion engine having a camshaft, a pair of intake or exhaust valves for each engine cylinder and a rocker shaft, comprising: first and second rocker arms pivotally mounted on the rocker shaft in adjacent relationship and engaging the pair of valves. The first rocker arm engages the camshaft; and piston means in the rocker arms selectively shiftable between positions connecting the rocker arms for pivotal movement in unison and disconnecting the rocker arms for independent movement. The piston means includes two pistons slidably mounted in the first rocker arm with one piston slidable into the second rocker arm for connecting the first and second rocker arms.

  12. Actuating mechanism for multiple valve internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Aoi, K.; Tsuchida, N.

    1986-10-21

    A valve train is described for an internal combustion engine. The valve train has cylinder bore having a bore axis, a first poppet valve supported for reciprocation along a valve axis defined by its stem, and a second poppet valve supported for reciprocation about a valve axis defined by its stem. The valve train also has a camshaft supported for rotation about a rotational axis intersected by the first poppet valve stem axis and extending parallel to a plane containing the bore axis. A cam means of the camshaft is for opening directly the first valve and a rocker arm is supported for pivotal movement. The cam means of the camshaft is for pivoting the rocker arm, and means on the rocker arm is operative to actuate the second valve upon pivotal movement of the rocker arm. The valve axes lies on the same side of the plane as the rotational axis.

  13. 46 CFR 62.35-35 - Starting systems for internal-combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Starting systems for internal-combustion engines. 62.35-35 Section 62.35-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE... Starting systems for internal-combustion engines. The starting systems for propulsion engines and for...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - State Regulation of Nonroad Internal Combustion Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Nonroad Internal Combustion Engines This appendix sets forth the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State Regulation of Nonroad Internal Combustion Engines A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - State Regulation of Nonroad Internal Combustion Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Nonroad Internal Combustion Engines This appendix sets forth the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State Regulation of Nonroad Internal Combustion Engines A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  16. 46 CFR 62.35-35 - Starting systems for internal-combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Starting systems for internal-combustion engines. 62.35-35 Section 62.35-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE... Starting systems for internal-combustion engines. The starting systems for propulsion engines and for...

  17. 46 CFR 62.35-35 - Starting systems for internal-combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Starting systems for internal-combustion engines. 62.35-35 Section 62.35-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE... Starting systems for internal-combustion engines. The starting systems for propulsion engines and for...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - State Regulation of Nonroad Internal Combustion Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Nonroad Internal Combustion Engines This appendix sets forth the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true State Regulation of Nonroad Internal Combustion Engines A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  19. 46 CFR 62.35-35 - Starting systems for internal-combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Starting systems for internal-combustion engines. 62.35-35 Section 62.35-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE... Starting systems for internal-combustion engines. The starting systems for propulsion engines and for...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - State Regulation of Nonroad Internal Combustion Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Nonroad Internal Combustion Engines This appendix sets forth the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State Regulation of Nonroad Internal Combustion Engines A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  1. 46 CFR 62.35-35 - Starting systems for internal-combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Starting systems for internal-combustion engines. 62.35-35 Section 62.35-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE... Starting systems for internal-combustion engines. The starting systems for propulsion engines and for...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - State Regulation of Nonroad Internal Combustion Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Nonroad Internal Combustion Engines This appendix sets forth the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State Regulation of Nonroad Internal Combustion Engines A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  3. 49 CFR 176.905 - Motor vehicles or mechanical equipment powered by internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicles or mechanical equipment powered by... Vehicles, and Asbestos § 176.905 Motor vehicles or mechanical equipment powered by internal combustion engines. (a) A motor vehicle or any mechanized equipment powered by an internal combustion engine...

  4. Dynamic estimator for determining operating conditions in an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hellstrom, Erik; Stefanopoulou, Anna; Jiang, Li; Larimore, Jacob

    2016-01-05

    Methods and systems are provided for estimating engine performance information for a combustion cycle of an internal combustion engine. Estimated performance information for a previous combustion cycle is retrieved from memory. The estimated performance information includes an estimated value of at least one engine performance variable. Actuator settings applied to engine actuators are also received. The performance information for the current combustion cycle is then estimated based, at least in part, on the estimated performance information for the previous combustion cycle and the actuator settings applied during the previous combustion cycle. The estimated performance information for the current combustion cycle is then stored to the memory to be used in estimating performance information for a subsequent combustion cycle.

  5. Mitigating the effect of siloxanes on internal combustion engines using landfill gasses

    SciTech Connect

    Besmann, Theodore M

    2014-01-21

    A waste gas combustion method that includes providing a combustible fuel source, in which the combustible fuel source is composed of at least methane and siloxane gas. A sodium source or magnesium source is mixed with the combustible fuel source. Combustion of the siloxane gas of the combustible fuel source produces a silicon containing product. The sodium source or magnesium source reacts with the silicon containing product to provide a sodium containing glass or sodium containing silicate, or a magnesium containing silicate. By producing the sodium containing glass or sodium containing silicate, or the magnesium containing silicate, or magnesium source for precipitating particulate silica instead of hard coating, the method may reduce or eliminate the formation of silica deposits within the combustion chamber and the exhaust components of the internal combustion engine.

  6. Mitigating the effect of siloxanes on internal combustion engines using landfill gasses

    DOEpatents

    Besmann, Theodore M

    2015-01-06

    A waste gas combustion method that includes providing a combustible fuel source, in which the combustible fuel source is composed of at least methane and siloxane gas. A sodium source or magnesium source is mixed with the combustible fuel source. Combustion of the siloxane gas of the combustible fuel source produces a silicon containing product. The sodium source or magnesium source reacts with the silicon containing product to provide a sodium containing glass or sodium containing silicate, or a magnesium containing silicate. By producing the sodium containing glass or sodium containing silicate, or the magnesium containing silicate, or magnesium source for precipitating particulate silica instead of hard coating, the method may reduce or eliminate the formation of silica deposits within the combustion chamber and the exhaust components of the internal combustion engine.

  7. Traveling-Wave Thermoacoustic Engines With Internal Combustion

    DOEpatents

    Weiland, Nathan Thomas; Zinn, Ben T.; Swift, Gregory William

    2004-05-11

    Thermoacoustic devices are disclosed wherein, for some embodiments, a combustion zone provides heat to a regenerator using a mean flow of compressible fluid. In other embodiments, burning of a combustible mixture within the combustion zone is pulsed in phase with the acoustic pressure oscillations to increase acoustic power output. In an example embodiment, the combustion zone and the regenerator are thermally insulated from other components within the thermoacoustic device.

  8. Tracer-based laser-induced fluorescence measurement technique for quantitative fuel/air-ratio measurements in a hydrogen internal combustion engine.

    PubMed

    Blotevogel, Thomas; Hartmann, Matthias; Rottengruber, Hermann; Leipertz, Alfred

    2008-12-10

    A measurement technique for the quantitative investigation of mixture formation processes in hydrogen internal combustion engines (ICEs) has been developed using tracer-based laser-induced fluorescence (TLIF). This technique can be employed to fired and motored engine operation. The quantitative TLIF fuel/air-ratio results have been verified by means of linear Raman scattering measurements. Exemplary results of the simultaneous investigation of mixture formation and combustion obtained at an optical accessible hydrogen ICE are shown.

  9. Droplet Combustion Experiments Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Daniel L.; Nayagam, Vedha; Hicks, Michael C.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Dryer, Frederick L.; Farouk, Tanvir; Shaw, Benjamin D.; Suh, Hyun Kyu; Choi, Mun Y.; Liu, Yu Cheng; Avedisian, C. Thomas; Williams, Forman A.

    2014-10-01

    This paper summarizes the first results from isolated droplet combustion experiments performed on the International Space Station (ISS). The long durations of microgravity provided in the ISS enable the measurement of droplet and flame histories over an unprecedented range of conditions. The first experiments were with heptane and methanol as fuels, initial droplet droplet diameters between 1.5 and 5.0 m m, ambient oxygen mole fractions between 0.1 and 0.4, ambient pressures between 0.7 and 3.0 a t m and ambient environments containing oxygen and nitrogen diluted with both carbon dioxide and helium. The experiments show both radiative and diffusive extinction. For both fuels, the flames exhibited pre-extinction flame oscillations during radiative extinction with a frequency of approximately 1 H z. The results revealed that as the ambient oxygen mole fraction was reduced, the diffusive-extinction droplet diameter increased and the radiative-extinction droplet diameter decreased. In between these two limiting extinction conditions, quasi-steady combustion was observed. Another important measurement that is related to spacecraft fire safety is the limiting oxygen index (LOI), the oxygen concentration below which quasi-steady combustion cannot be supported. This is also the ambient oxygen mole fraction for which the radiative and diffusive extinction diameters become equal. For oxygen/nitrogen mixtures, the LOI is 0.12 and 0.15 for methanol and heptane, respectively. The LOI increases to approximately 0.14 (0.14 O 2/0.56 N 2/0.30 C O 2) and 0.17 (0.17 O 2/0.63 N 2/0.20 C O 2) for methanol and heptane, respectively, for ambient environments that simulated dispersing an inert-gas suppressant (carbon dioxide) into a nominally air (1.0 a t m) ambient environment. The LOI is approximately 0.14 and 0.15 for methanol and heptane, respectively, when helium is dispersed into air at 1 atm. The experiments also showed unique burning behavior for large heptane droplets. After the

  10. Cold flow simulation of an internal combustion engine with vertical valves using layering approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinas, G.; Cupsa, O. S.; Stan, L. C.; Arsenie, A.

    2015-11-01

    Complying with emission requirements and fuel consumption efficiency are the points which drive any development of internal combustion engine. Refinement of the process of combustion and mixture formation, together with in-cylinder flow refinement, is a requirement, valves and piston bowl and intake exhaust port design optimization is essential. In order to reduce the time for design optimization cycle it is used Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Being time consuming and highly costly caring out of experiment using flow bench testing this methods start to become less utilized. Air motion inside the intake manifold is one of the important factors, which govern the engine performance and emission of multi-cylinder diesel engines. Any cold flow study on IC is targeting the process of identifying and improving the fluid flow inside the ports and the combustion chamber. This is only the base for an optimization process targeting to increase the volume of air accessing the combustion space and to increase the turbulence of the air at the end of the compression stage. One of the first conclusions will be that the valve diameter is a fine tradeoff between the need for a bigger diameter involving a greater mass of air filling the cylinder, and the need of a smaller diameter in order to reduce the blind zone. Here there is room for optimization studies. The relative pressure indicates a suction effect coming from the moving piston. The more the shape of the inlet port is smoother and the diameter of the piston is bigger, the aerodynamic resistance of the geometry will be smaller so that the difference of inlet port pressure and the pressure near to piston face will be smaller. Here again there is enough room for more optimization studies.

  11. Internal combustion engine valve lift and cam duration control system

    SciTech Connect

    Bledsoe, P.G.

    1987-02-17

    A mechanism is described for varying the lift, timing and duration of a valve member associated with an internal combustion engine having a camshaft, a cam on the camshaft, and a rectilinear reciprocatable valve member for opening and closing a valve port in communication with a combustion chamber of the engine. The mechanism comprises an elongated rocker arm having a first pivot end and a second end forming a valve member actuating free end and an intermediate portion extending therebetween. The free end has a shaped valve member contact formation projecting therefrom and the pivot end has a circular opening therethrough receiving a pivotal mounting assembly therethrough having an exterior cylindrical surface within and corresponding substantially to the diameter of the circular opening forming the surface about which the rocker arm pivots. A pair of eccentric means form a first eccentric member and a second eccentric member collectively defines a pivot axis within the circular opening for the rocker arm, the first eccentric member comprising a shaft having cylindrical end portions journaled for rotation about a shaft axis and an eccentric cylindrical portion located within the opening of the rocker arm. The eccentric cylindrical portion is concentric with a first eccentric axis spaced from the shaft axis, and the second eccentric member comprises a tubular sleeve defining the exterior cylindrical surface and having a cylindrical bore having an inner diameter corresponding to the eccentric cylindrical portion of the shaft rotatably supported on the surface of the latter and concentric with a second eccentric axis spaced from the shaft axis and the first eccentric axis, a first means for rotating the shaft.

  12. Development of High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Marriott, Craig; Gonzalez, Manual; Russell, Durrett

    2011-06-30

    This report summarizes activities related to the revised STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated June 2010 for the Development of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines (COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-05NT42415) project. In both the spark- (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) development activities covered in this program, the goal was to develop potential production-viable internal combustion engine system technologies that both reduce fuel consumption and simultaneously met exhaust emission targets. To be production-viable, engine technologies were also evaluated to determine if they would meet customer expectations of refinement in terms of noise, vibration, performance, driveability, etc. in addition to having an attractive business case and value. Prior to this activity, only proprietary theoretical / laboratory knowledge existed on the combustion technologies explored The research reported here expands and develops this knowledge to determine series-production viability. Significant SI and CI engine development occurred during this program within General Motors, LLC over more than five years. In the SI program, several engines were designed and developed that used both a relatively simple multi-lift valve train system and a Fully Flexible Valve Actuation (FFVA) system to enable a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion process. Many technical challenges, which were unknown at the start of this program, were identified and systematically resolved through analysis, test and development. This report documents the challenges and solutions for each SOPO deliverable. As a result of the project activities, the production viability of the developed clean combustion technologies has been determined. At this time, HCCI combustion for SI engines is not considered production-viable for several reasons. HCCI combustion is excessively sensitive to control variables

  13. 40 CFR 60.4238 - What are my compliance requirements if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines â¤19 KW (25 HP) or a manufacturer... Standards of Performance for Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Compliance Requirements... SI internal combustion engines ≤19 KW (25 HP) or a manufacturer of equipment containing such...

  14. 40 CFR 60.4239 - What are my compliance requirements if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines >19 KW (25 HP) that use gasoline or... manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines >19 KW (25 HP) that use gasoline or a manufacturer of equipment containing such engines? Stationary SI internal combustion engine manufacturers who are subject......

  15. 40 CFR 60.4239 - What are my compliance requirements if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines >19 KW (25 HP) that use gasoline or... manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines >19 KW (25 HP) that use gasoline or a manufacturer of equipment containing such engines? Stationary SI internal combustion engine manufacturers who are subject......

  16. 40 CFR 60.4241 - What are my compliance requirements if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines participating in the voluntary... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines participating in the voluntary... internal combustion engines with a maximum engine power greater than 19 KW (25 HP) that do not use...

  17. 40 CFR 60.4240 - What are my compliance requirements if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines >19 KW (25 HP) that are rich burn... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines >19 KW (25 HP) that are rich burn..., and must test their engines as specified in that part. Stationary SI internal combustion...

  18. 40 CFR 60.4241 - What are my compliance requirements if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines participating in the voluntary... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines participating in the voluntary... internal combustion engines with a maximum engine power greater than 19 KW (25 HP) that do not use...

  19. 40 CFR 60.4241 - What are my compliance requirements if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines participating in the voluntary... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines participating in the voluntary... internal combustion engines with a maximum engine power greater than 19 KW (25 HP) that do not use...

  20. 40 CFR 60.4238 - What are my compliance requirements if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines â¤19 KW (25 HP) or a manufacturer... Standards of Performance for Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Compliance Requirements... SI internal combustion engines ≤19 KW (25 HP) or a manufacturer of equipment containing such...

  1. 40 CFR 60.4238 - What are my compliance requirements if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines â¤19 KW (25 HP) or a manufacturer... Standards of Performance for Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Compliance Requirements... SI internal combustion engines ≤19 KW (25 HP) or a manufacturer of equipment containing such...

  2. 40 CFR 60.4239 - What are my compliance requirements if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines >19 KW (25 HP) that use gasoline or... manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines >19 KW (25 HP) that use gasoline or a manufacturer of equipment containing such engines? Stationary SI internal combustion engine manufacturers who are subject......

  3. 40 CFR 60.4239 - What are my compliance requirements if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines >19 KW (25 HP) that use gasoline or... manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines >19 KW (25 HP) that use gasoline or a manufacturer of equipment containing such engines? Stationary SI internal combustion engine manufacturers who are subject......

  4. 40 CFR 60.4241 - What are my compliance requirements if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines participating in the voluntary... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines participating in the voluntary... internal combustion engines with a maximum engine power greater than 19 KW (25 HP) that do not use...

  5. 40 CFR 60.4239 - What are my compliance requirements if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines >19 KW (25 HP) that use gasoline or... manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines >19 KW (25 HP) that use gasoline or a manufacturer of equipment containing such engines? Stationary SI internal combustion engine manufacturers who are subject......

  6. 40 CFR 60.4238 - What are my compliance requirements if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines â¤19 KW (25 HP) or a manufacturer... Standards of Performance for Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Compliance Requirements... SI internal combustion engines ≤19 KW (25 HP) or a manufacturer of equipment containing such...

  7. 40 CFR 60.4240 - What are my compliance requirements if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines >19 KW (25 HP) that are rich burn... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines >19 KW (25 HP) that are rich burn..., and must test their engines as specified in that part. Stationary SI internal combustion...

  8. 40 CFR 60.4238 - What are my compliance requirements if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines â¤19 KW (25 HP) or a manufacturer... Standards of Performance for Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Compliance Requirements... SI internal combustion engines ≤19 KW (25 HP) or a manufacturer of equipment containing such...

  9. 40 CFR 60.4241 - What are my compliance requirements if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines participating in the voluntary... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines participating in the voluntary... internal combustion engines with a maximum engine power greater than 19 KW (25 HP) that do not use...

  10. 40 CFR 60.4240 - What are my compliance requirements if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines >19 KW (25 HP) that are rich burn... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines >19 KW (25 HP) that are rich burn..., and must test their engines as specified in that part. Stationary SI internal combustion...

  11. 40 CFR 60.4240 - What are my compliance requirements if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines >19 KW (25 HP) that are rich burn... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines >19 KW (25 HP) that are rich burn..., and must test their engines as specified in that part. Stationary SI internal combustion...

  12. 40 CFR 60.4240 - What are my compliance requirements if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines >19 KW (25 HP) that are rich burn... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines >19 KW (25 HP) that are rich burn..., and must test their engines as specified in that part. Stationary SI internal combustion...

  13. Internal combustion engine cylinder-to-cylinder balancing with balanced air-fuel ratios

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Ralph E.; Bourn, Gary D.; Smalley, Anthony J.

    2006-01-03

    A method of balancing combustion among cylinders of an internal combustion engine. For each cylinder, a normalized peak firing pressure is calculated as the ratio of its peak firing pressure to its combustion pressure. Each cylinder's normalized peak firing pressure is compared to a target value for normalized peak firing pressure. The fuel flow is adjusted to any cylinder whose normalized peak firing pressure is not substantially equal to the target value.

  14. Real time identification of the internal combustion engine combustion parameters based on the vibration velocity signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiuliang; Cheng, Yong; Wang, Limei; Ji, Shaobo

    2017-03-01

    Accurate combustion parameters are the foundations of effective closed-loop control of engine combustion process. Some combustion parameters, including the start of combustion, the location of peak pressure, the maximum pressure rise rate and its location, can be identified from the engine block vibration signals. These signals often include non-combustion related contributions, which limit the prompt acquisition of the combustion parameters computationally. The main component in these non-combustion related contributions is considered to be caused by the reciprocating inertia force excitation (RIFE) of engine crank train. A mathematical model is established to describe the response of the RIFE. The parameters of the model are recognized with a pattern recognition algorithm, and the response of the RIFE is predicted and then the related contributions are removed from the measured vibration velocity signals. The combustion parameters are extracted from the feature points of the renovated vibration velocity signals. There are angle deviations between the feature points in the vibration velocity signals and those in the cylinder pressure signals. For the start of combustion, a system bias is adopted to correct the deviation and the error bound of the predicted parameters is within 1.1°. To predict the location of the maximum pressure rise rate and the location of the peak pressure, algorithms based on the proportion of high frequency components in the vibration velocity signals are introduced. Tests results show that the two parameters are able to be predicted within 0.7° and 0.8° error bound respectively. The increase from the knee point preceding the peak value point to the peak value in the vibration velocity signals is used to predict the value of the maximum pressure rise rate. Finally, a monitoring frame work is inferred to realize the combustion parameters prediction. Satisfactory prediction for combustion parameters in successive cycles is achieved, which

  15. Self adjusting camshaft gear for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Bosch, H.G.K.; Pouliot, T.W.

    1986-03-25

    A camshaft gear for an internal combustion engine is described which consists of: a hub member having an axial bore for receiving a camshaft and having a circular periphery coaxial with the camshaft bore; a toroidal gear member coaxial with the hub member bore and having an inner surface in slideable contact with the periphery of the hub member, the periphery of the gear member being circular and having timing gear teeth thereon; at least three centrifugal weights coupled to a side face of the gear member for pivotal movement in a plane parallel with the side face, each of the plurality being slideable coupled to a first post extending from a corresponding side face of the hub member for rotating the hub member with respect to the gear member upon pivotal movement of the plurality of weights; stop means including a plurality of discs, each disc adjustably connected by a screw through an off-center hole in the disc to the side face of the gear member and at a location overlying a portion of the hub member and adjacent the pivotal end of one of the weights for locking the hub against removal from the gear member and for adjusting the position of the weights when the camshaft is stationary; and resilient means coupled between the hub member and each of the plurality of weights for preventing the pivotal movement of the plurality of weights below a predetermined rotational velocity of the camshaft.

  16. Recurrence plot for parameters analysing of internal combustion engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexa, O.; Ilie, C. O.; Marinescu, M.; Vilau, R.; Grosu, D.

    2015-11-01

    In many technical disciplines modem data analysis techniques has been successfully applied to understand the complexity of the system. The growing volume of theoretical knowledge about systems dynamic's offered researchers the opportunity to look for non-linear dynamics in data whose evolution linear models are unable to explain in a satisfactory manner. One approach in this respect is Recurrence Analysis - RA which is a graphical method designed to locate hidden recurring patterns, nonstationarity and structural changes. RA approach arose in natural sciences like physics and biology but quickly was adopted in economics and engineering. Meanwhile. The fast development of computer resources has provided powerful tools to perform this new and complex model. One free software which was used to perform our analysis is Visual Recurrence Analysis - VRA developed by Eugene Kononov. As is presented in this paper, the recurrence plot investigation for the analyzing of the internal combustion engine shows some of the RPA capabilities in this domain. We chose two specific engine parameters measured in two different tests to perform the RPA. These parameters are injection impulse width and engine angular speed and the tests are I11n and I51n. There were computed graphs for each of them. Graphs were analyzed and compared to obtain a conclusion. This work is an incipient research, being one of the first attempts of using recurrence plot for analyzing automotive dynamics. It opens a wide field of action for future research programs.

  17. Lever-type two-cycle internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, E.C.; Wenzel, S.T.

    1991-06-25

    This patent describes a lever type internal combustion engine. It comprises power cylinders arranged in side-by-side opposed pairs and disposed in a first horizontal plane, each provided with a piston and a piston rod pivotally connected at an inner end with the piston, a crankshaft supported for rotation about an axis lying in a second horizontal plane disposed in spaced parallel relationship with and below the first horizontal plane, and a lever system whereby the power cylinder pistons drive the crankshaft, the lever system, one for each pair of opposed power cylinders, comprising an elongate level arm pivotally interconnected at a first end with the outer ends of the piston rods, means including guide members disposed below the crankshaft for constraining a second end of the lever arm for up and down movement in a direction perpendicular to the first and second horizontal planes, and means for operatively connecting the lever arm at a point intermediate its first and second ends to the crankshaft, whereby the lever arm functions as a lever of the second class between the piston rods and the crankshaft the constrained second end thereof functioning as the fulcrum therefor.

  18. Centrifugal governor for injection type internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, M

    1989-05-23

    A centrifugal governor for an injection type internal combustion engine, comprising: a housing in which a cam shaft is rotatably supported at its lower section and a fuel injection pump is disposed above the cam shaft; a flyweight disposed at an end of the cam shaft so as to be displaced in accordance with a rotational speed of the engine; a tension lever rotatable upon a driving force of the flyweight with an intermediate fixed shaft as a pivot; a governor spring assembly supported so as not to exert any supporting load between a housing side spring seat and another spring seat provided to the tension lever, and so as to be compressed upon rotation of the tension lever; a guide lever and a floating lever, both rotatable with a pin provided at a lower end of the tension lever as a pivot, and normally connected to each other as an integrated element by a cancellation spring surrounding the pin; the speed lever have a shaped like bell crank, rotatably supported at one end with a shaft connecting the control lever as a pivot, and engaged with an intermediated guide of the guide lever at the other end.

  19. Exhaust gas recirculation method for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kawanabe, T.; Kimura, K.; Asakura, M.; Shiina, T.

    1988-07-19

    This patent describes a method of controlling exhaust gas recirculation in an internal combustion engine having an exhaust passage, an intake passage, an exhaust gas recirculating passage communicating the exhaust passage with the intake passage, and exhaust gas recirculating valve; and a transmission having a shift lever. The valve opening of the exhaust gas recirculating valve is controlled in response to operating conditions of the engine so as to regulate the amount of exhaust gas recirculation to values appropriate to the operating conditions of the engine. The method comprising the steps of (1) determining whether or not the engine is in at least one of a predetermined accelerating condition and a predetermined decelerating condition; (2) varying the valve opening of the exhaust gas recirculating valve by a predetermined value when the engine is determined to be in at least one of the predetermined accelerating condition and the predetermined decelerating condition; (3) detecting a position of the shift lever of the transmission; and (4) correcting the predetermined value in accordance with the detected position of the shift lever so as to increase the valve opening of the exhaust gas recirculating valve as the shift lever of the transmission is set to a higher speed position.

  20. Boost compensator for use with internal combustion engine with supercharger

    SciTech Connect

    Asami, T.

    1988-04-12

    A boost compensator for controlling the position of a control rack of a fuel injection pump to supply fuel to an internal combustion with a supercharger in response to a boost pressure to be applied to the engine is described. The control rack is movable in a first direction increasing an amount of fuel to be supplied by the fuel injection pump to the engine and in a second direction, opposite to the first direction, decreasing the amount of fuel. The boost compensator comprises: a push rod disposed for forward and rearward movement in response to the boost pressure; a main lever disposed for angular movement about a first pivot; an auxiliary lever disposed for angular movement about a second pivot; return spring means associated with the first portion of the auxiliary lever for resiliently biasing same in one direction about the second pivot; and abutment means mounted on the second portion of the auxiliary lever and engageable with the second portion of the main lever.

  1. Fuel injection pump for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshinaga, T.; Igashira, T.; Sakakibara, Y.; Abe, S.; Natsuyama, Y.

    1988-12-27

    This patent describes a fuel injection pump for an internal combustion engine comprising: a body having a cylinder bore, low pressure chamber, an overflow passage coupled to the cylinder bore and communicating with the low pressure chamber, and a feed passage formed in the cylinder bore and open to the cylinder bore; a plunger slidably housed in the cylinder bore to define a high pressure chamber therein; valve means for opening and closing the overflow passage to the cylinder bore according to a fuel pressure acting thereon, the valve means opening to cause undischarged surplus fuel to spill from the high pressure chamber through the overflow passage; a piezoelectric actuator attached to the body to expand and contract according to a voltage applied thereto to vary the fuel pressure in the control chamber and thereby open and close the valve means to control a fuel supply; and means for opening and closing the feed passage, the opening and closing means opening the feed passage to feed the low pressure fuel in the low pressure chamber to the control chamber through the overflow passage, the high pressure chamber and the feed passage on an intake action of the plunger and then closing the feed passage on an intake action of the plunger, and then closing the feed passage to hold the pressure in the control chamber at a desired value.

  2. Crank angle detecting system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, S.

    1989-05-09

    A crank angle detecting system for an internal combustion engine is described, comprising: means secured to the crankshaft having crankshaft marks, each mark representing a compression top dead center of a cylinder; means provided adjacent to the first decision means for detecting the crankshaft marks for producing a crankshaft signal when each crankshaft mark is detected; means secured to the camshaft having camshaft marks representing the cylinders, respectively; means provided adjacent to the second decision means for detecting the camshaft marks and for producing a cylinder signal when each respective camshaft mark is detected; means for detecting the number of the cylinder detected responsive to the cylinder signal and for producing a corresponding signal corresponding with the number of the cylinder; and means for discriminating a compression top dead center of the detected cylinder responsive to the crankshaft signal occurring after the corresponding signal so as to accurately detect the crank angle corresponding to the number of the cylinder of the plurality of cylinders.

  3. Valve operating apparatus for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Konno, T.

    1988-10-18

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine having a cylinder, intake and exhaust valves operable in the cylinder, selective valve operating means, comprising: a plurality of pivotally mounted rocker arms, including at least one driver rocker arm having an end operably connecting the valves and/a free rocker arm selectively connectable with an adjacent driver rocker arm; a camshaft rotatably driven by the engine; a plurality of cams mounted for rotation on the engine, the cam engaging a follower surface on the rocker arm; hydraulically operated, selectively actuable coupling means carried by respective of the rocker arms for selectively connecting or disconnecting adjacent rocker arms; fluid passages in the rocker arms for supplying operating fluid to the coupling means; and means for supplying operating fluid independently to the fluid passage, including: a rocker shaft having an axial opening mounting the rocker arms for pivotal movement; partition means in the rocker shaft opening defining a plurality of independent fluid supply lines; and means for independently connecting respective of the fluid supply lines to respective of the rocker arms passages.

  4. Valve timing control system for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Masuda, S.; Morita, Y.; Oda, H.

    1986-04-15

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine having a camshaft, having an axis of rotation, bearing thereon a cam and a tappet member which transmits the movement of the cam to the stem of a valve to open and close the valve in a timed relation, a valve timing control system comprising a swinging member which is mounted for pivotal movement about the axis of rotation of the camshaft and is provided with a tappet receiving hole for receiving the tappet member to permit sliding movement of the tappet member therein to transmit the movement of the cam to the valve stem, and a control device which swings the swinging member together with the tappet member received in the tappet receiving hole according to the operating condition of the engine so that the relative position of the tappet member to the cam at a given angular position of the camshaft is changed. The tappet member has a cam abutting surface at one end and a valve stem abutting surface at the other end. The valve stem abutting surface is arcuately convex toward the valve, the center of curvature thereof being on the axis of rotation of the camshaft.

  5. Apparatus for driving camshafts in an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Y.

    1986-10-21

    A camshaft driving apparatus is described for a multicylinder internal combustion engine. The apparatus comprises at least one cam gear mounted on at least one camshaft rotatably supported by an engine body, a timing gear mounted on a crankshaft rotatably supported by the engine body, and a gear train having at least two intermediate gears cooperatively engaged for cooperatively engine the timing gear with the cam gear therethrough. The two intermediate gears are rotatably mounted to holding means to thereby form an independent unit before mounting the intermediate gears to the engine body. The independent unit is fixedly mounted to the engine body by clamping the holding means to the engine body by bolts and other clamping members. The independent unit is mounted to the engine body so as to be detachable therefrom and the engine body includes an opening provided between adjacent cylinders of sufficient dimensions to allow the independent unit to pass therethrough so that it can be fixedly mounted to the engine body.

  6. Modeling reacting gases and aftertreatment devices for internal combustion engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depcik, Christopher David

    As more emphasis is placed worldwide on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, automobile manufacturers have to create more efficient engines. Simultaneously, legislative agencies want these engines to produce fewer problematic emissions such as nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. In response, newer combustion methods, like homogeneous charge compression ignition and fuel cells, are being researched alongside the old standard of efficiency, the compression ignition or diesel engine. These newer technologies present a number of benefits but still have significant challenges to overcome. As a result, renewed interest has risen in making diesel engines cleaner. The key to cleaning up the diesel engine is the placement of aftertreatment devices in the exhaust. These devices have shown great potential in reducing emission levels below regulatory levels while still allowing for increased fuel economy versus a gasoline engine. However, these devices are subject to many flow control issues. While experimental evaluation of these devices helps to understand these issues better, it is impossible to solve the problem through experimentation alone because of time and cost constraints. Because of this, accurate models are needed in conjunction with the experimental work. In this dissertation, the author examines the entire exhaust system including reacting gas dynamics and aftertreatment devices, and develops a complete numerical model for it. The author begins by analyzing the current one-dimensional gas-dynamics simulation models used for internal combustion engine simulations. It appears that more accurate and faster numerical method is available, in particular, those developed in aeronautical engineering, and the author successfully implements one for the exhaust system. The author then develops a comprehensive literature search to better understand the aftertreatment devices. A number of these devices require a secondary injection of fuel or reductant in the exhaust stream

  7. Evaluation of toluene LIF thermometry detection strategies applied in an internal combustion engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Brian; Baum, Elias; Böhm, Benjamin; Sick, Volker; Dreizler, Andreas

    2014-10-01

    In the context of toluene laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) thermometry, the two common LIF detection strategies, namely one-color and two-color detection, have been simultaneously applied to compare each strategy's ability to accurately resolve thermal gradients during an engine cycle within an optically accessible internal combustion (IC) engine. Temperature images are obtained from high-speed toluene LIF measurements and are combined with high-speed particle image velocimetry. The combination with flow data and Mie scattering images facilitates the interpretation of differences between the toluene LIF detection strategies. Two-color temperature images are limited in their ability to detect thermal gradients near the end of compression due to larger precision uncertainties. Local regions of cold gases in the two-color images are better identified with the guidance of the one-color images when homogeneous toluene mixtures preside. During expansion, large differences exist between one- and two-color temperature images and likely caused by local mixture fraction heterogeneities that bias the one-color detection strategy. Toluene condensation occurs during the expansion and exhaust stroke and causes local mixture fraction heterogeneities in the combustion chamber. Liquid toluene is in contact with solid surfaces and crevices of the combustion chamber and can evaporate during compression or expansion causing both local temperature and mixture stratification. This work demonstrates the advantage of high-speed imaging and use of multiple image diagnostics to reveal the development of natural temperature and mixture stratification in a motored IC engine. This work also suggests that natural temperature stratification typically regarded from gas-wall heat transfer may also be caused by liquid droplet evaporation on solid surfaces. Such phenomenon, however, is expected to be pertinent for all modern-day engine operating systems.

  8. Campshaft for actuating valve tappets in internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Matt, L.

    1988-10-04

    This patent describes camshaft for actuating valve tappets in internal combustion engines, comprising a shaft, at least one cam member defining a bore having a size essentially corresponding to the cross-sectional shape of the shaft, the cam member being slid onto and connected to the shaft, an undulating annular spring steel strip placed between the shaft and the inwardly facing surface of the bore of the cam member, the annular strip defining an axially extending slot, the slot being formed by axially extending edges of the annular strip facing each other, means for bracing the edges of the strip in circumferential direction of the strip when the strip is in the unloaded state onto the shaft or placed in the bore of the cam member prior to assembly of the shaft with the cam member, the means for bracing the edges of the strip comprising an inwardly facing projection formed on the inner surface of the bore of the cam member, the projection having essentially radially extending sides and a cylindrically shaped inwardly facing surface, the curvature of the surface of the projection essentially corresponding to curvature of the shaft surface, wherein the surface of the projection rests against the shaft surface and the edges of the strip forming the slot rest against the sides of the projection, wherein the cam member defines an axis of symmetry, the projection being located relative to the axis of symmetry within the angular range in which the rotating cam during operation is in contract with the tappet to be actuated.

  9. Internal combustion engine and cam drive mechanism therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, T.T.

    1986-03-25

    This patent describes a cam mechanism for driving the camshaft of a four-stroke internal combustion engine having one or more sets of n number of cylinders where n is a positive integer, a piston connected to a crankshaft and reciprocable in each cylinder and is either in phase or out of phase with any other piston in the set to which it belongs by a phase angle A/sup 0/, or an integral multiple thereof. A camshaft carries rotatable cams for actuating inlet and/or exhaust valves for each cylinder in the set. Characterized in the cam drive mechanism consist of means for rotating the camshaft with a rotational movement which is a combination of a circular motion about its axis of rotation which has a predetermined phase relationship with the circular movement of the crankshaft and an oscillatory motion about its axis of rotation to advance and retard the angular position of the cams relative to the valves with which they are associated. The oscillatory motion has a predetermined phase relationship with the crankshaft, and means for varying the amplitude of the oscillatory motion whereby the timing of the opening and closing of the valves may be varied, characterized in that the speed of the circular movement of the camshaft is half the speed of the crankshaft. The frequency of oscillations of the camshaft is f times the frequency of rotation of the crankshaft. The cam drive mechanism consists of a rotatable drive member drivable by the crankshaft. A connection is between the drive member and camshaft for transmitting the rotary motion of the drive member thereto. The connection including a sleeve element rotatable by the drive element and axially slidable relative thereto and having a helically splined connection with the camshaft whereby axial movement of the sleeve element effects a rotation of the camshaft relative to the drive member.

  10. New type of microengine using internal combustion of hydrogen and oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svetovoy, Vitaly B.; Sanders, Remco G. P.; Ma, Kechun; Elwenspoek, Miko C.

    2014-03-01

    Microsystems become part of everyday life but their application is restricted by lack of strong and fast motors (actuators) converting energy into motion. For example, widespread internal combustion engines cannot be scaled down because combustion reactions are quenched in a small space. Here we present an actuator with the dimensions 100 × 100 × 5 μm3 that is using internal combustion of hydrogen and oxygen as part of its working cycle. Water electrolysis driven by short voltage pulses creates an extra pressure of 0.5-4 bar for a time of 100-400 μs in a chamber closed by a flexible membrane. When the pulses are switched off this pressure is released even faster allowing production of mechanical work in short cycles. We provide arguments that this unexpectedly fast pressure decrease is due to spontaneous combustion of the gases in the chamber. This actuator is the first step to truly microscopic combustion engines.

  11. List of Publicly Accessible Internet Sites Hosting Compliance Data and Information Required by the Disposal of Coal Combustion Residuals Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page is to make accessible a list of the websites coal-fired power plants have created to post for the public to view with respect to their compliance with the disposal of coal combustion residuals final rule.

  12. Internal combustion engine report: Spark ignited ICE GenSet optimization and novel concept development

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.; Blarigan, P. Van

    1998-08-01

    In this manuscript the authors report on two projects each of which the goal is to produce cost effective hydrogen utilization technologies. These projects are: (1) the development of an electrical generation system using a conventional four-stroke spark-ignited internal combustion engine generator combination (SI-GenSet) optimized for maximum efficiency and minimum emissions, and (2) the development of a novel internal combustion engine concept. The SI-GenSet will be optimized to run on either hydrogen or hydrogen-blends. The novel concept seeks to develop an engine that optimizes the Otto cycle in a free piston configuration while minimizing all emissions. To this end the authors are developing a rapid combustion homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine using a linear alternator for both power take-off and engine control. Targeted applications include stationary electrical power generation, stationary shaft power generation, hybrid vehicles, and nearly any other application now being accomplished with internal combustion engines.

  13. Disturbing effect of free hydrogen on fuel combustion in internal combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riedler, A

    1923-01-01

    Experiments with fuel mixtures of varying composition, have recently been conducted by the Motor Vehicle and Airplane Engine Testing Laboratories of the Royal Technical High School in Berlin and at Fort Hahneberg, as well as at numerous private engine works. The behavior of hydrogen during combustion in engines and its harmful effect under certain conditions, on the combustion in the engine cylinder are of general interest. Some of the results of these experiments are given here, in order to elucidate the main facts and explain much that is already a matter of experience with chauffeurs and pilots.

  14. International Access to American Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academe, 2003

    2003-01-01

    In the wake of September 11, 2001, and in light of heightened concerns about terrorism and the proliferation of biological, chemical, and nuclear weapons, the U.S. government has implemented a series of measures to regulate and monitor the flow of international students and scholars into the United States. Some of these measures are designed to…

  15. The dynamic interaction between combustible renewables and waste consumption and international tourism: the case of Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ben Jebli, Mehdi; Ben Youssef, Slim; Apergis, Nicholas

    2015-08-01

    This paper employs the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds methodological approach to investigate the relationship between economic growth, combustible renewables and waste consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and international tourism for the case of Tunisia spanning the period 1990-2010. The results from the Fisher statistic of both the Wald test and the Johansen test confirm the presence of a long-run relationship among the variables under investigation. The stability of estimated parameters has been tested, while Granger causality tests recommend a short-run unidirectional causality running from economic growth and combustible renewables and waste consumption to CO2 emissions, a bidirectional causality between economic growth and combustible renewables and waste consumption and unidirectional causality running from economic growth and combustible renewables and waste consumption to international tourism. In the long-run, the error correction terms confirm the presence of bidirectional causality relationships between economic growth, CO2 emissions, combustible renewables and waste consumption, and international tourism. Our long-run estimates show that combustible renewables and waste consumption increases international tourism, and both renewables and waste consumption and international tourism increase CO2 emissions and output. We recommend that (i) Tunisia should use more combustible renewables and waste energy as this eliminates wastes from touristic zones and increases the number of tourist arrivals, leading to economic growth, and (ii) a fraction of this economic growth generated by the increase in combustible renewables and waste consumption should be invested in clean renewable energy production (i.e., solar, wind, geothermal) and energy efficiency projects.

  16. Thermal Loss Determination for a Small Internal Combustion Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    Combustion Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.1.1 Engine Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.1.2 Ignition Types...Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.2.1 Otto Cycle ...Figure Page 2.1 Pressure-Volume diagram of ideal four-stroke Otto cycle [12] . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.2 Ideal Otto thermal efficiency for range of

  17. Facebook: Facilitating Social Access and Language Acquisition for International Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kent; Ranta, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Many international students come to Canada to improve their English language proficiency and develop friendships with Canadians and other international students. However, gaining access to host nationals (i.e., Canadians) is not an easy task for most English as a second language (ESL) learners. Factors such as language proficiency may hamper…

  18. Experimental apparatus with full optical access for combustion experiments with laminar flames from a single circular nozzle at elevated pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Peter H.; Gao, Jinlong; Li, Zhongshan; Aldén, Marcus

    2015-03-01

    The design and features of a high pressure chamber and burner that is suitable for combustion experiments at elevated pressures are presented. The high pressure combustion apparatus utilizes a high pressure burner that is comprised of a chamber burner module and an easily accessible interchangeable burner module to add to its flexibility. The burner is well suited to study both premixed and non-premixed flames. The optical access to the chamber is provided through four viewports for direct visual observations and optical-based diagnostic techniques. Auxiliary features include numerous access ports and electrical connections and as a result, the combustion apparatus is also suitable to work with plasmas and liquid fuels. Images of methane flames at elevated pressures up to 25 atm and preliminary results of optical-based measurements demonstrate the suitability of the high pressure experimental apparatus for combustion experiments.

  19. 76 FR 45878 - Alticor, Inc., Including Access Business Group International LLC and Amway Corporation, Buena...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... Employment and Training Administration Alticor, Inc., Including Access Business Group International LLC and Amway Corporation, Buena Park, CA; Alticor, Inc., Including Access Business Group International LLC and..., Ada, MI; Alticor, Inc., Including Access Business Group International LLC and Amway...

  20. 75 FR 32221 - Alticor, Inc., Including Access Business Group International, LLC, and Amway Corporation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... Employment and Training Administration Alticor, Inc., Including Access Business Group International, LLC, and..., applicable to workers of Alticor, Inc., including Access Business Group International, LLC and Amway... location of Alticor, Inc., including Access Business Group International, LLC and Amway Corporation....

  1. PROCEEDINGS: 1989 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION - VOLUME 1: SESSIONS 0, 1, 2, AND 3

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document presentations at the International Conference on Municipal Waste Combustion (MWC), held on April 11-14, 1989, in Hollywood, Florida. The objective of the Conference was to provide an effective international forum for the exchange and transfer of informati...

  2. PROCEEDINGS: 1989 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION - VOLUME 4: SESSIONS 9, 10, 11, AND 12

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document presentations at the International Conference on Municipal Waste Combustion (MWC), held on April 11-14, 1989, in Hollywood, Florida. The objective of the Conference was to provide an effective international forum for the exchange and transfer of informati...

  3. PROCEEDINGS: 1989 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION - VOLUME 3: SESSIONS 7 AND 8

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document presentations at the International Conference on Municipal Waste Combustion (MWC), held on April 11-14, 1989, in Hollywood, Florida. The objective of the Conference was to provide an effective international forum for the exchange and transfer of informati...

  4. PROCEEDINGS: 1989 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION - VOLUME 2: SESSIONS 4, 5, AND 6

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document presentations at the International Conference on Municipal Waste Combustion (MWC), held on April 11-14, 1989, in Hollywood, Florida. The objective of the Conference was to provide an effective international forum for the exchange and transfer of informati...

  5. Seventh International Workshop on Microgravity Combustion and Chemically Reacting Systems. Rev. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacksteder, Kurt (Compiler)

    2003-01-01

    The Seventh International Workshop on Microgravity Combustion and Chemically Reacting Systems was planned for June 3-6, 2003, in Cleveland, Ohio, near the NASA John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. The new name for the workshop is based on the decision to broaden our scope to encompass support for future space exploration through basic and applied research in reacting systems that in some cases may not look like combustion. The workshop has been lengthened to 4 days with focus sessions on spacecraft fire safety and exploration-related research. We believe that the microgravity combustion science community is almost uniquely positioned to make substantial contributions to this new effort.

  6. Biomass downdraft gasifier with internal cyclonic combustion chamber: design, construction, and experimental results.

    PubMed

    Patil, Krushna; Bhoi, Prakash; Huhnke, Raymond; Bellmer, Danielle

    2011-05-01

    An exploratory downdraft gasifier design with unique biomass pyrolysis and tar cracking mechanism is evolved at Oklahoma State University. This design has an internal separate combustion section where turbulent, swirling high-temperature combustion flows are generated. A series of research trials were conducted using wood shavings as the gasifier feedstock. Maximum tar cracking temperatures were above 1100°C. Average volumetric concentration levels of major combustible components in the product gas were 22% CO and 11% H(2). Hot and cold gas efficiencies were 72% and 66%, respectively.

  7. Co-Optimization of Internal Combustion Engines and Biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, Robert L.

    2016-03-08

    The development of advanced engines has significant potential advantages in reduced aftertreatment costs for air pollutant emission control, and just as importantly for efficiency improvements and associated greenhouse gas emission reductions. There are significant opportunities to leverage fuel properties to create more optimal engine designs for both advanced spark-ignition and compression-ignition combustion strategies. The fact that biofuel blendstocks offer a potentially low-carbon approach to fuel production, leads to the idea of optimizing the entire fuel production-utilization value chain as a system from the standpoint of life cycle greenhouse gas emissions. This is a difficult challenge that has yet to be realized. This presentation will discuss the relationship between chemical structure and critical fuel properties for more efficient combustion, survey the properties of a range of biofuels that may be produced in the future, and describe the ongoing challenges of fuel-engine co-optimization.

  8. Transient Plasma Ignition for Small Internal Combustion Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    Engines Gundersen, M . and Romney , P. University of Southern California FEBRUARY 2013 Final Report DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public...so that heat release and combustion efficiency can be measured. References 1. Cathey, C., T. Tang, T. Shiraishi, T. Urushihara, A. Kuthi, and M . A...1, 1664-1668. 2. J.B. Liu, F. Wang, G. Li, A. Kuthi, E . J. Gutmark, P.D. Ronney, and M.A. Gundersen, “Transient Plasma Ignition,” IEEE

  9. Velocity measurement inside a motored internal combustion engine using three-component laser Doppler anemometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, V. S. S.; Turner, J. T.

    2000-10-01

    A three-component laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) system has been employed to investigate the structure of the flow inside the cylinder of a motored internal combustion engine. This model engine was reasonably representative of a typical, single cylinder, spark ignition engine although it did not permit firing. It was equipped with overhead valve gear and optical access was provided in the top and side walls of the cylinder. A principal objective was to study the influence of the inlet port design on the flow within the cylinder during the induction and compression strokes of the engine. Here, it can be noted that results obtained in an unfired engine are believed to be representative of the flow behaviour before combustion occurs in a fired engine (see P.O. Witze, Measurements of the spatial distribution and engine speed dependence of turbulent air motion in an i.c. engine, SAE Paper No. 770220, 1977; Witze, Sandia Laboratory Energy Report, SAND 79-8685, Sandia Laboratories, USA, 1979). Experimental data presented for an inclined inlet port configuration reveal the complex three-dimensional nature of the flow inside the model engine cylinder. Not surprisingly, the results also show that the inclined inlet port created flow conditions more favourable to mixing in the cylinder. Specifically, the inclined inlet flow was found to generate a region with a relatively high shear and strong recirculation zones in the cylinder. Inclining the inlet port also produced a more nearly homogeneous flow structure at top dead centre during the compression stroke. The paper identifies the special difficulties encountered in making the LDA measurements. The experimental findings are examined and the problems that arise in presenting time-varying three-dimensional data of this type are discussed. Finally, the future potential of this experimental approach is explored.

  10. Researches on direct injection in internal-combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuscher, Jean E

    1941-01-01

    These researches present a solution for reducing the fatigue of the Diesel engine by permitting the preservation of its components and, at the same time, raising its specific horsepower to a par with that of carburetor engines, while maintaining for the Diesel engine its perogative of burning heavy fuel under optimum economical conditions. The feeding of Diesel engines by injection pumps actuated by engine compression achieves the required high speeds of injection readily and permits rigorous control of the combustible charge introduced into each cylinder and of the peak pressure in the resultant cycle.

  11. Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    displacement speed remains quasi equal to the lam- S = 5.10 minar burning velocity, within the precision range.2XN. • u’/L =5.10 0.8 u/SL =Then, on the...intrinsic value, and some of the material contains hazards such as asbestos and chlorine. Typically this material is disposed of through open burning...aluminum combustion behavior, and the fate of asbestos . Although they have lower traditional heating values than typical boiler fuels due to their

  12. Investigation of a Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engine via IR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Stephen; White, Allen R.; Gross, Kevin; Devasher, Rebecca B.

    2010-06-01

    Previous work has shown that the automotive fuel components of isopropanoland ethanol can be excited by a 10.2 um and 9.3 um CO2 lasers, respectively. Through the use of a monochromator and an indium antimonide detector, the decay time of the excited molecules was measured and found to be significantly long enough to allow for the possibility of experimentation in an internal combustion (IC) engine. In order to pursue In Situ measurements in an internal combustion engine, a MegaTech Mark III transparent engine was modified with a sapphire combustion chamber. This modification will allow the transmission of infrared radiation for time-resolved spectroscopic measurements by an infrared spectrometer. By using a Telops FIRST-MWE imaging Fourier transform spectrometer, temporally and spatially resolved infrared spectral data can be acquired and compared for combustion in the engine both with and without laser excitation. Measurements performed with system provide insight into the energy transfer vectors that precede combustion as well as provide an in situ measurement of the progress of combustion.

  13. Investigation of a rotary valving system with variable valve timing for internal combustion engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Paul C.; Hansen, Craig N.

    1994-11-01

    The objective of the program was to provide a functional demonstration of the Hansen Rotary Valving System with Variable Valve Timing (HRVS/VVT), capable of throttleless inlet charge control, as an alternative to conventional poppet-valves for use in spark ignited internal combustion engines. The goal of this new technology is to secure benefits in fuel economy, broadened torque band, vibration reduction, and overhaul accessibility. Additionally, use of the variable valve timing capability to vary the effective compression ratio is expected to improve multifuel tolerance and efficiency. Efforts directed at the design of HRVS components proved to be far more extensive than had been anticipated, ultimately requiring that proof-trial design/development work be performed. Although both time and funds were exhausted before optical or ion-probe types of in-cylinder investigation could be undertaken, a great deal of laboratory data was acquired during the course of the design/development work. This laboratory data is the basis for the information presented in this final report.

  14. International energy technology assessment: Atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, R. P.; Johnsson, K. O.

    1982-04-01

    A survey was made of atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) research and development and commercial activities in foreign countries. These activities indicate a broad interest in the process largely because of its flexibility in burning a wide range of coals and low grade fuels. The conclusion is made that AFBC is a viable system and is in the process of being confirmed on a commercial scale for industrial heat and power generation. A number of organizations in the United States and western Europe are offering fluidized bed package boilers, with some form of commercial guarantees. The major uncertainties of the process lie in the areas of coal and sorbent handling systems, availability of reliable construction materials; the system's ability to meet varying load demands; reduced sorbent requirements; and improved carbon utilization. Research and development programs in these areas are being pursued.

  15. Applications of Combustion Research on the International Space Station to Industrial Processes on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schowengerdt, F.

    2002-01-01

    The mission of the Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS) at the Colorado School of Mines is to conduct research and educate students in scientific areas related to combustion. The center focuses on those areas where results can be applied to the development of commercial products and processes and where the research can benefit from the unique properties of space. The center is planning combustion-related research aboard the International Space Station (ISS) that will further this mission. The research will be conducted in the two ISS facilities designed for combustion experiments, Space-DRUMSTM and the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) of the Fluids and Combustion Facility. Space-DRUMSTM is a containerless processing facility employing dynamic acoustic positioning. Guigne International, Ltd. of St. John's, Newfoundland, a CCACS member, is developing the facility in partnership with Astrium Space- Infrastructure and Teledyne Brown Engineering. This universal processing facility can handle large samples with virtually complete vibration isolation from the space station and no contamination from the experimental processing chamber. The CCACS research to be done in Space-DRUMSTM includes combustion synthesis of glass-ceramics and porous materials, nanoparticle synthesis, catalytic combustion, fluid physics and granular materials. The launch of Space-DRUMSTM to the ISS is currently scheduled for ULF-1 in January of 2003. The CIR is being developed by NASA-Glenn Research Center, and is a general-purpose combustion furnace designed to accommodate a wide range of scientific experiments. The CCACS research to be done in the CIR includes water mist fire suppression, flame synthesis of ceramic powders, nanoparticle synthesis and catalytic combustion. The CIR is currently under development, with an expected launch date in the 2005 timeframe. The applications of this combustion research in manufacturing and processing industries are far

  16. Apparatus for controlling the air fuel mixture of an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, H.; Kimata, K.; Nakazeki, T.

    1980-06-03

    A fuel feeding apparatus for internal combustion engines comprises an area type air flow rate measuring section in which the air flow rate is dependent on the displacement of an air flow rate detecting valve, and a fuel flow rate measuring and distributing section in which a variable orifice defined by a rotor and a stator determines the fuel flow rate proportional to the air flow rate. This apparatus is characterized by the provision of an exhaust gas sensor disposed in the exhaust pipe for the detection of the oxygen concentration of the exhaust gas in order to achieve the complete combustion of fuel in the internal combustion engine, the output signal from the exhaust gas sensor being used to compensate the fuel feeding pressure and a spring force which acts on the pressure difference setting diaphragm of a servo-mechanism.

  17. Adults in Higher Education: International Perspectives in Access and Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Pat, Ed.

    This book presents international perspectives on access and participation of adults in higher education in selected European countries. The book begins with an introduction by Pat Davies and includes papers detailing and providing examples of practices and policies of higher educational institutions regarding adult students in the following…

  18. Side branch absorber for exhaust manifold of two-stroke internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Ralph E; Broerman, III, Eugene L.; Bourn, Gary D

    2011-01-11

    A method of improving scavenging operation of a two-stroke internal combustion engine. The exhaust pressure of the engine is analyzed to determine if there is a pulsation frequency. Acoustic modeling is used to design an absorber. An appropriately designed side branch absorber may be attached to the exhaust manifold.

  19. CRITERIA POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes emission factors for criteria pollutants (NOx, CO, CH4, C2H6, THC, NMHC, and NMEHC) from stationary internal combustion engines and gas turbines used in the natural gas industry. The emission factors were calculated from test results from five test campaigns...

  20. Ionization in the Knock Zone of an Internal-combustion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasting, Charles E

    1940-01-01

    The ionization in the knock zone of an internal-combustion engine was investigated. A suspected correlation between the intensity of knock and the degree of ionization was verified and an oscillation in the degree of ionization corresponding in frequency to the knock vibrations in the cylinder pressure was observed.

  1. Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, Dan

    2007-01-01

    An overview of the emissions related research being conducted as part of the Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonics Fixed Wing Project is presented. The overview includes project metrics, milestones, and descriptions of major research areas. The overview also includes information on some of the emissions research being conducted under NASA Research Announcements. Objective: Development of comprehensive detailed and reduced kinetic mechanisms of jet fuels for chemically-reacting flow modeling. Scientific Challenges: 1) Developing experimental facilities capable of handling higher hydrocarbons and providing benchmark combustion data. 2) Determining and understanding ignition and combustion characteristics, such as laminar flame speeds, extinction stretch rates, and autoignition delays, of jet fuels and hydrocarbons relevant to jet surrogates. 3) Developing comprehensive kinetic models for jet fuels.

  2. New type of microengine using internal combustion of hydrogen and oxygen.

    PubMed

    Svetovoy, Vitaly B; Sanders, Remco G P; Ma, Kechun; Elwenspoek, Miko C

    2014-03-06

    Microsystems become part of everyday life but their application is restricted by lack of strong and fast motors (actuators) converting energy into motion. For example, widespread internal combustion engines cannot be scaled down because combustion reactions are quenched in a small space. Here we present an actuator with the dimensions 100 × 100 × 5 μm(3) that is using internal combustion of hydrogen and oxygen as part of its working cycle. Water electrolysis driven by short voltage pulses creates an extra pressure of 0.5-4 bar for a time of 100-400 μs in a chamber closed by a flexible membrane. When the pulses are switched off this pressure is released even faster allowing production of mechanical work in short cycles. We provide arguments that this unexpectedly fast pressure decrease is due to spontaneous combustion of the gases in the chamber. This actuator is the first step to truly microscopic combustion engines.

  3. New type of microengine using internal combustion of hydrogen and oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Svetovoy, Vitaly B.; Sanders, Remco G. P.; Ma, Kechun; Elwenspoek, Miko C.

    2014-01-01

    Microsystems become part of everyday life but their application is restricted by lack of strong and fast motors (actuators) converting energy into motion. For example, widespread internal combustion engines cannot be scaled down because combustion reactions are quenched in a small space. Here we present an actuator with the dimensions 100 × 100 × 5 μm3 that is using internal combustion of hydrogen and oxygen as part of its working cycle. Water electrolysis driven by short voltage pulses creates an extra pressure of 0.5–4 bar for a time of 100–400 μs in a chamber closed by a flexible membrane. When the pulses are switched off this pressure is released even faster allowing production of mechanical work in short cycles. We provide arguments that this unexpectedly fast pressure decrease is due to spontaneous combustion of the gases in the chamber. This actuator is the first step to truly microscopic combustion engines. PMID:24599052

  4. Combustion research in the Internal Fluid Mechanics Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mularz, Edward J.

    1986-01-01

    The goal of this research is to bring computational fluid dynamics to a state of practical application for the aircraft engine industry. The approach is to have a strongly integrated computational and experimental program for all the disciplines associated with the gas turbine and other aeropropulsion systems by advancing the understanding of flow physics, heat transfer, and combustion processes. The computational and experimental research is integrated in the following way: the experiments that are performed provide an empirical data set so that physical models can be formulated to describe the processes that are occurring - for example, turbulence or chemical reaction. These experiments also form a data base for those who are doing code development by providing experimental data against which the codes can be verified and assesed. Models are generated as closure to some of the numerical codes, and they also provide physical insight for experiments. At the same time, codes which solve the complete Navier-Stokes equations can be used as a kind of numerical experiment from which far more extensive data can be obtained than ever could be obtained experimentally. This could provide physical insight into the complex processes that are taking place. These codes are also exercised against experimental data to assess the accuracy and applicability of models.

  5. POD-based analysis of combustion images in optically accessible engines

    SciTech Connect

    Bizon, K.; Continillo, G.; Mancaruso, E.; Merola, S.S.; Vaglieco, B.M.

    2010-04-15

    This paper reports on 2D images of combustion-related luminosity taken in two optically accessible automobile engines of the most recent generation. The results are discussed to elucidate physical phenomena in the combustion chambers. Then, proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is applied to the acquired images. The coefficients of the orthogonal modes are then used for the analysis of cycle variability, along with data of dynamic in-cylinder pressure and rate of heat release. The advantage is that statistical analysis can be run on a small number of scalar coefficients rather than on the full data set of pixel luminosity values. Statistics of the POD coefficients provide information on cycle variations of the luminosity field. POD modes are then discriminated by means of normality tests, to separate the mean from the coherent and the incoherent parts of the fluctuation of the luminosity field, in a non-truncated representation of the data. The morphology of the fluctuation components can finally be reconstructed by grouping coherent and incoherent modes. The structure of the incoherent component of the fluctuation is consistent with the underlying turbulent field. (author)

  6. Blind separation of internal combustion engine vibration signals by a deflation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianhua; Randall, Robert B.; Antoni, Jérôme

    2008-07-01

    Internal combustion engines have several vibration sources, such as combustion, fuel injection, piston slap and valve operation. It is necessary to separate the different vibration sources and then analyze each of them individually. This paper attempts to separate the vibration sources by blind source separation techniques and proposes a combination of the Blind Least Mean Square algorithm with a deflation method to separate several sources. The combined methods are first verified on simulated sources and then applied to engine signals. Separation results show that cylinder pressure consists of two sources—one is a smooth low frequency part due to compression and expansion caused by piston movement; the other is the high frequency part due to combustion.

  7. Internal combustion engine system having a power turbine with a broad efficiency range

    DOEpatents

    Whiting, Todd Mathew; Vuk, Carl Thomas

    2010-04-13

    An engine system incorporating an air breathing, reciprocating internal combustion engine having an inlet for air and an exhaust for products of combustion. A centripetal turbine receives products of the combustion and has a housing in which a turbine wheel is rotatable. The housing has first and second passages leading from the inlet to discrete, approximately 180.degree., portions of the circumference of the turbine wheel. The passages have fixed vanes adjacent the periphery of the turbine wheel and the angle of the vanes in one of the passages is different than those in the other so as to accommodate different power levels providing optimum approach angles between the gases passing the vanes and the blades of the turbine wheel. Flow through the passages is controlled by a flapper valve to direct it to one or the other or both passages depending upon the load factor for the engine.

  8. Proceedings of the sixth international conference on fluidized bed combustion. Volume II. Technical sessions

    SciTech Connect

    1980-08-01

    The Sixth International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion was held April 9-11, 1980, at the Atlanta Hilton, Atlanta, Georgia. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Electric Power Research Institute, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. The papers covered recent developments in atmospheric and pressurized fluidized-bed combustion, especially the design, operation and control of pilot and demonstration plants. The cleanup of combustion products and the erosion, corrosion and fouling of gas turbines was emphasized also. Fifty-five papers from Volume 2 of the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; five papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  9. Method of reducing pumping losses and improving brake specific fuel consumption for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, M.T.; Elrod, A.C.

    1990-04-17

    This patent describes a valve operation control system in an internal combustion engine. It comprises: an engine valve openably and closably disposed between the atmosphere and at least two combustion chambers, at least one intake valve disposed between each combustion chamber and the induction manifold, at least one of the valves beginning to open to start an induction process when the angular position of the crankshaft is at an opening angular position for the valve and the induction process being ended when the crankshaft is at a closing angular position and the last one of the intake valves closes, and a variable valve timing system for changing the timing of the induction process via control of at least one of the valves in compliance with predetermined operating conditions of the engine, the variable valve timing system including a camshaft having at least one splittable cam member with camlobe members for actuating the at least one intake valve.

  10. Report: Combustion Byproducts and Their Health Effects: Summary of the 10th International Congress

    PubMed Central

    Dellinger, Barry; D'Alessio, Antonio; D'Anna, Andrea; Ciajolo, Anna; Gullett, Brian; Henry, Heather; Keener, Mel; Lighty, JoAnn; Lomnicki, Slawomir; Lucas, Donald; Oberdörster, Günter; Pitea, Demetrio; Suk, William; Sarofim, Adel; Smith, Kirk R.; Stoeger, Tobias; Tolbert, Paige; Wyzga, Ron; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The 10th International Congress on Combustion Byproducts and their Health Effects was held in Ischia, Italy, from June 17–20, 2007. It is sponsored by the US NIEHS, NSF, Coalition for Responsible Waste Incineration (CRWI), and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The congress focused on: the origin, characterization, and health impacts of combustion-generated fine and ultrafine particles; emissions of mercury and dioxins, and the development/application of novel analytical/diagnostic tools. The consensus of the discussion was that particle-associated organics, metals, and persistent free radicals (PFRs) produced by combustion sources are the likely source of the observed health impacts of airborne PM rather than simple physical irritation of the particles. Ultrafine particle-induced oxidative stress is a likely progenitor of the observed health impacts, but important biological and chemical details and possible catalytic cycles remain unresolved. Other key conclusions were: (1) In urban settings, 70% of airborne fine particles are a result of combustion emissions and 50% are due to primary emissions from combustion sources, (2) In addition to soot, combustion produces one, possibly two, classes of nanoparticles with mean diameters of ~10 nm and ~1 nm. (3) The most common metrics used to describe particle toxicity, viz. surface area, sulfate concentration, total carbon, and organic carbon, cannot fully explain observed health impacts, (4) Metals contained in combustion-generated ultrafine and fine particles mediate formation of toxic air pollutants such as PCDD/F and PFRs. (5) The combination of metal-containing nanoparticles, organic carbon compounds, and PFRs can lead to a cycle generating oxidative stress in exposed organisms. PMID:22476005

  11. The scaling of performance and losses in miniature internal combustion engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Shyam Kumar

    Miniature glow ignition internal combustion (IC) piston engines are an off--the--shelf technology that could dramatically increase the endurance of miniature electric power supplies and the range and endurance of small unmanned air vehicles provided their overall thermodynamic efficiencies can be increased to 15% or better. This thesis presents the first comprehensive analysis of small (<500 g) piston engine performance. A unique dynamometer system is developed that is capable of making reliable measurements of engine performance and losses in these small engines. Methodologies are also developed for measuring volumetric, heat transfer, exhaust, mechanical, and combustion losses. These instruments and techniques are used to investigate the performance of seven single-cylinder, two-stroke, glow fueled engines ranging in size from 15 to 450 g (0.16 to 7.5 cm3 displacement). Scaling rules for power output, overall efficiency, and normalized power are developed from the data. These will be useful to developers of micro-air vehicles and miniature power systems. The data show that the minimum length scale of a thermodynamically viable piston engine based on present technology is approximately 3 mm. Incomplete combustion is the most important challenge as it accounts for 60-70% of total energy losses. Combustion losses are followed in order of importance by heat transfer, sensible enthalpy, and friction. A net heat release analysis based on in-cylinder pressure measurements suggest that a two--stage combustion process occurs at low engine speeds and equivalence ratios close to 1. Different theories based on burning mode and reaction kinetics are proposed to explain the observed results. High speed imaging of the combustion chamber suggests that a turbulent premixed flame with its origin in the vicinity of the glow plug is the primary driver of combustion. Placing miniature IC engines on a turbulent combustion regime diagram shows that they operate in the 'flamelet in eddy

  12. 40 CFR 60.4231 - What emission standards must I meet if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines or equipment containing such... Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers § 60.4231 What emission standards must I meet if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines...

  13. 46 CFR 32.50-35 - Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine driven cargo pump on tank vessels-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine... for Cargo Handling § 32.50-35 Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine driven cargo pump on tank vessels—TB/ALL. (a) Any tank vessel which is equipped with an internal combustion...

  14. 40 CFR 60.4231 - What emission standards must I meet if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines or equipment containing such... Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers § 60.4231 What emission standards must I meet if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines...

  15. 40 CFR 60.4242 - What other requirements must I meet if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines or equipment containing stationary SI internal combustion engines or a manufacturer of equipment containing such engines? 60.4242... Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Compliance Requirements for Manufacturers § 60.4242 What...

  16. 46 CFR 32.50-35 - Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine driven cargo pump on tank vessels-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine... for Cargo Handling § 32.50-35 Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine driven cargo pump on tank vessels—TB/ALL. (a) Any tank vessel which is equipped with an internal combustion...

  17. 40 CFR 60.4231 - What emission standards must I meet if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines or equipment containing such... Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers § 60.4231 What emission standards must I meet if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines...

  18. 40 CFR 60.4242 - What other requirements must I meet if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines or equipment containing stationary SI internal combustion engines or a manufacturer of equipment containing such engines? 60.4242... Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Compliance Requirements for Manufacturers § 60.4242 What...

  19. 40 CFR 60.4231 - What emission standards must I meet if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines or equipment containing such... Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers § 60.4231 What emission standards must I meet if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines...

  20. 46 CFR 32.50-35 - Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine driven cargo pump on tank vessels-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine... for Cargo Handling § 32.50-35 Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine driven cargo pump on tank vessels—TB/ALL. (a) Any tank vessel which is equipped with an internal combustion...

  1. 40 CFR 60.4203 - How long must my engines meet the emission standards if I am a stationary CI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... emission standards if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? 60.4203 Section 60.4203... standards if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? Engines manufactured by stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturers must meet the emission standards as required in §§...

  2. 46 CFR 32.50-35 - Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine driven cargo pump on tank vessels-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine... for Cargo Handling § 32.50-35 Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine driven cargo pump on tank vessels—TB/ALL. (a) Any tank vessel which is equipped with an internal combustion...

  3. 40 CFR 60.4203 - How long must my engines meet the emission standards if I am a stationary CI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... emission standards if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? 60.4203 Section 60.4203... standards if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? Engines manufactured by stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturers must meet the emission standards as required in §§...

  4. 46 CFR 32.50-35 - Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine driven cargo pump on tank vessels-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine... for Cargo Handling § 32.50-35 Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine driven cargo pump on tank vessels—TB/ALL. (a) Any tank vessel which is equipped with an internal combustion...

  5. 40 CFR 60.4242 - What other requirements must I meet if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines or equipment containing stationary SI internal combustion engines or a manufacturer of equipment containing such engines? 60.4242... Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Compliance Requirements for Manufacturers § 60.4242 What...

  6. 40 CFR 60.4242 - What other requirements must I meet if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines or equipment containing stationary SI internal combustion engines or a manufacturer of equipment containing such engines? 60.4242... Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Compliance Requirements for Manufacturers § 60.4242 What...

  7. 40 CFR 60.4242 - What other requirements must I meet if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines or equipment containing stationary SI internal combustion engines or a manufacturer of equipment containing such engines? 60.4242... Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Compliance Requirements for Manufacturers § 60.4242 What...

  8. 40 CFR 60.4231 - What emission standards must I meet if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines or equipment containing such... Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers § 60.4231 What emission standards must I meet if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines...

  9. Method for reducing peak phase current and decreasing staring time for an internal combustion engine having an induction machine

    DOEpatents

    Amey, David L.; Degner, Michael W.

    2002-01-01

    A method for reducing the starting time and reducing the peak phase currents for an internal combustion engine that is started using an induction machine starter/alternator. The starting time is reduced by pre-fluxing the induction machine and the peak phase currents are reduced by reducing the flux current command after a predetermined period of time has elapsed and concurrent to the application of the torque current command. The method of the present invention also provides a strategy for anticipating the start command for an internal combustion engine and determines a start strategy based on the start command and the operating state of the internal combustion engine.

  10. Gasdynamic modeling and parametric study of mesoscale internal combustion swing engine/generator systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yongxian

    The demand of portable power generation systems for both domestic and military applications has driven the advances of mesoscale internal combustion engine systems. This dissertation was devoted to the gasdynamic modeling and parametric study of the mesoscale internal combustion swing engine/generator systems. First, the system-level thermodynamic modeling for the swing engine/generator systems has been developed. The system performance as well as the potentials of both two- and four-stroke swing engine systems has been investigated based on this model. Then through parameterc studies, the parameters that have significant impacts on the system performance have been identified, among which, the burn time and spark advance time are the critical factors related to combustion process. It is found that the shorter burn time leads to higher system efficiency and power output and the optimal spark advance time is about half of the burn time. Secondly, the turbulent combustion modeling based on levelset method (G-equation) has been implemented into the commercial software FLUENT. Thereafter, the turbulent flame propagation in a generic mesoscale combustion chamber and realistic swing engine chambers has been studied. It is found that, in mesoscale combustion engines, the burn time is dominated by the mean turbulent kinetic energy in the chamber. It is also shown that in a generic mesoscale combustion chamber, the burn time depends on the longest distance between the initial ignition kernel to its walls and by changing the ignition and injection locations, the burn time can be reduced by a factor of two. Furthermore, the studies of turbulent flame propagation in real swing engine chambers show that the combustion can be enhanced through in-chamber turbulence augmentation and with higher engine frequency, the burn time is shorter, which indicates that the in-chamber turbulence can be induced by the motion of moving components as well as the intake gas jet flow. The burn time

  11. The history and evolution of optically accessible research engines and their impact on our understanding of engine combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, Paul C.

    2015-03-01

    The development and application of optically accessible engines to further our understanding of in-cylinder combustion processes is reviewed, spanning early efforts in simplified engines to the more recent development of high-pressure, high-speed engines that retain the geometric complexities of modern production engines. Limitations of these engines with respect to the reproduction of realistic metal test engine characteristics and performance are identified, as well as methods that have been used to overcome these limitations. Finally, the role of the work performed in these engines on clarifying the fundamental physical processes governing the combustion process and on laying the foundation for predictive engine simulation is summarized.

  12. Proceedings of the sixth international conference on fluidized bed combustion. Volume III. Technical sessions

    SciTech Connect

    1980-08-01

    The Sixth International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion was held April 9-11, 1980, at the Atlanta Hilton, Atlanta, Georgia. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Electric Power Research Institute, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. Forty-five papers from Vol. III of the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Two papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  13. Mechanical and thermal analysis of the internal combustion engine piston using Ansys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cioată, V. G.; Kiss, I.; Alexa, V.; Raţiu, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    The piston is one of the most important components of the internal combustion engine. Piston fail mainly due to mechanical stresses and thermal stresses. In this paper is determined by using the finite element method, stress and displacement distribution due the flue gas pressure and temperature, separately and combined. The FEA is performed by CAD and CAE software. The results are compared with those obtained by the analytical method and conclusions have been drawn.

  14. Thermodynamic efficiency of present types of internal combustion engines for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucke, Charles E

    1917-01-01

    Report presents requirements of internal combustion engines suitable for aircraft. Topics include: (1) service requirements for aeronautic engines - power versus weight, reliability, and adaptability factors, (2) general characteristics of present aero engines, (3) aero engine processes and functions of parts versus power-weight ratio, reliability, and adaptability factors, and (4) general arrangement, form, proportions, and materials of aero parts - power-weight ratio, reliability, and adaptability.

  15. Broadband single-pulse CARS spectra in a fired internal combustion engine.

    PubMed

    Klick, D; Marko, K A; Rimai, L

    1981-04-01

    The first known broadband single-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) measurements within the cylinder of a firing internal combustion engine are reported. Postcombustion temperature and carbon monoxide concentration are probed with 1-mm(3) spatial resolution and 10-nsec temporal resolution. Space- and time-resolved measurements, as presented here, are shown to be necessary for the study of fluctuating systems such as engines.

  16. Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion. Volume 1. Plenary sessions

    SciTech Connect

    1980-08-01

    The Sixth International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion was held at the Atlanta Hilton, Atlanta, Georgia, April 9-11, 1980. The papers in this volume involved presentation of the research and development programs of the US (US DOE, TVA, EPRI and US EPA), United Kingdom, Federal Republic of Germany and the People's Republic of China. Eight papers from Vol. 1 (Plenary Sessions) of the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  17. Method for operating a spark-ignition, direct-injection internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Koch, Calvin K.; Najt, Paul M.; Szekely, Jr., Gerald A.; Toner, Joel G.

    2015-06-02

    A spark-ignition, direct-injection internal combustion engine is coupled to an exhaust aftertreatment system including a three-way catalytic converter upstream of an NH3-SCR catalyst. A method for operating the engine includes operating the engine in a fuel cutoff mode and coincidentally executing a second fuel injection control scheme upon detecting an engine load that permits operation in the fuel cutoff mode.

  18. Internal combustion engine with rotary valve assembly having variable intake valve timing

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, Craig N.; Cross, Paul C.

    1995-01-01

    An internal combustion engine has rotary valves associated with movable shutters operable to vary the closing of intake air/fuel port sections to obtain peak volumetric efficiency over the entire range of speed of the engine. The shutters are moved automatically by a control mechanism that is responsive to the RPM of the engine. A foot-operated lever associated with the control mechanism is also used to move the shutters between their open and closed positions.

  19. Reciprocating balance weight mechanism for a piston type internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Nivi, H.; Field, N.L. III

    1987-08-25

    A balancing mechanism is described for reducing the vibration of a piston type internal combustion engine having a crankshaft and a camshaft, the balancing mechanisms comprising one or more reciprocating balance weights, with each weight comprising an elongate body having a cam follower mounted at either end and with each weight being driven by two rotating cams with at least one of the cams being driven by either the crankshaft or the camshaft.

  20. Relation of Hydrogen and Methane to Carbon Monoxide in Exhaust Gases from Internal-Combustion Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold C; Tessmann, Arthur M

    1935-01-01

    The relation of hydrogen and methane to carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases from internal-combustion engines operating on standard-grade aviation gasoline, fighting-grade aviation gasoline, hydrogenated safety fuel, laboratory diesel fuel, and auto diesel fuel was determined by analysis of the exhaust gases. Two liquid-cooled single-cylinder spark-ignition, one 9-cylinder radial air-cooled spark-ignition, and two liquid-cooled single-cylinder compression-ignition engines were used.

  1. The Scaling of Performance and Losses in Miniature Internal Combustion Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    pre– mixed flame to propagate through a series of tubes with progressively smaller internal diameters. The tube ID where the flame can no longer...glow plug assisted compression ignition” (GACI). Figure 1–25 is a series of chemiluminescence images showing the combustion process when the engine is...1. Quantify the level of performance available from a series of small engines ranging in size from 15 to 500 g. 2. Identify and quantify the

  2. A new modeling approach of pressure waves at the inlet of internal combustion engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalet, David; Mahé, Alexandre; Hétet, Jean-François; Migaud, Jérôme

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a new model used to describe the propagation of pressure waves at the inlet systems of internal combustion engine. In the first part, an analogy is made between the compressible air in a pipe and a mechanical ideal mass damper spring system. A new model is then presented and the parameters of this model are determined by the use of an experimental setup (shock tube test bench). With this model, a transfer function is defined in order to link directly the pressure and the air mass flow rate. In the second part, the model is included into an internal combustion engine simulation code. The results obtained with this code are compared to experimental ones which are measured on a one-cylinder engine test bench. This last one is driven by an electric motor in order to study only the effect of the pressure waves on the engine behavior. A good agreement is obtained between the experimental results and the numerical ones and the new approach is an alternative method for modeling the pressure wave phenomena in an internal combustion engine manifold.

  3. 75 FR 78238 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Science Applications International Corporation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ... AGENCY Access to Confidential Business Information by Science Applications International Corporation and...: EPA has authorized its contractor, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) of San Diego... determined to be Confidential Business Information (CBI). DATES: Access to the confidential data...

  4. ESA's Planetary Science Archive: International collaborations towards transparent data access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heather, David

    The European Space Agency's (ESA) Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the central repository for science data returned by all ESA planetary missions. Current holdings include data from Giotto, SMART-1, Cassini-Huygens, Mars Express, Venus Express, and Rosetta. In addition to the basic management and distribution of these data to the community through our own interfaces, ESA has been working very closely with international partners to globalize the archiving standards used and the access to our data. Part of this ongoing effort is channelled through our participation in the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA), whose focus is on allowing transparent and interoperable access to data holdings from participating Agencies around the globe. One major focus of this work has been the development of the Planetary Data Access Protocol (PDAP) that will allow for the interoperability of archives and sharing of data. This is already used for transparent access to data from Venus Express, and ESA are currently working with ISRO and NASA to provide interoperable access to ISRO's Chandrayaan-1 data through our systems using this protocol. Close interactions are ongoing with NASA's Planetary Data System as the standards used for planetary data archiving evolve, and two of our upcoming missions are to be the first to implement the new 'PDS4' standards in ESA: BepiColombo and ExoMars. Projects have been established within the IPDA framework to guide these implementations to try and ensure interoperability and maximise the usability of the data by the community. BepiColombo and ExoMars are both international missions, in collaboration with JAXA and IKI respectively, and a strong focus has been placed on close interaction and collaboration throughout the development of each archive. For both of these missions there is a requirement to share data between the Agencies prior to public access, as well as providing complete open access globally once the proprietary periods have

  5. First imaging Fourier-transform spectral measurements of detonation in an internal combustion engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Kevin C.; Borel, Chris; White, Allen; Sakai, Stephen; DeVasher, Rebecca; Perram, Glen P.

    2010-08-01

    The Telops Hyper-Cam midwave (InSb 1.5-5.5μm) imaging Fourier-transformspectrometer (IFTS) observed repeated detonations in an ethanol-powered internal combustion (IC) engine. The IC engine is aMegatech Corporation MEG 150 with a 1in. bore, 4in. stroke, and a compression ratio of 3 : 1. The IC combustion cylinder is made from sapphire permitting observation in the visible and infrared. From a distance of 3m, the IFTS imaged the combustion cylinder on a 64×32 pixel array with each pixel covering a 0.1×0.1cm2 area. More than 14,000 interferograms were collected at a rate of 16Hz. The maximum optical path difference of the interferograms was 0.017cm corresponding to an unapodized spectral resolution of 36cm-1. Engine speed was varied between 600-1200RPM to de-correlate the observation time scale from the occurrence of detonations. A method is devised to process the ensemble of interferograms which takes advantage of the DC component so that the time history of the combustion spectrum can be recovered at each pixel location. Preliminary results of this analysis will be presented.

  6. Comparisons between measurement and analysis of fluid motion in internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Witze, P.O.

    1981-10-01

    The Engine Combustion Technology Project was created for the purpose of promoting the development of advanced piston engine concepts by the development of techniques to measure, analyze, and understand the combustion process. The technologies emphasized in the project include laser-based measurement techniques and large-scale computer simulations. Considerable progress has already been achieved by project participants in modeling engine air motion, fuel sprays, and engine combustion phenomena. This milestone report covers one part of that progress, summarizing the current capabilities of multi-dimensional computer codes being developed by the project to predict the behavior of turbulent air motion in an engine environment. Computed results are compared directly with experimental data in six different areas of importance to internal combustion engines: (1) Induction-generated ring-vortex structures; (2) Piston-induced vortex roll-up; (3) Behavior of turbulence during compression; (4) Decay of swirling flow during compression; (5) Decay of swirling flow in a constant volume engine simulator; (6) Exhaust-pipe flow. The computational procedures used include vortex dynamics, rapid distortion theory, and finite difference models employing two-equation and subgrid-scale turbulence models. Although the capability does not yet exist to predict the air motion in an engine from its geometric configuration alone, the results presented show that many flowfield sub-processes can be predicted given well-specified initial and boundary conditions.

  7. A comparison between direct spark ignition and prechamber ignition in an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Cloutman, L.D.

    1993-12-03

    We simulated the flow field and flame propagation near top dead center in a generic large-bore internal combustion engine using the COYOTE computer program, which is based on the full Navier-Stokes equations for a fluid mixture. The combustion chamber is a right circular cylinder, and the main charge is uniformly premixed. The calculations are axisymmetric. The results illustrate the differences in flow patterns, flame propagation, and thermal NO production between ignition with a spark plug and with a small prechamber. In the spark-ignited case, the flame propagates away from the spark plug approximately as a segment of a spherical surface, just as expected. With the prechamber, a high speed jet of hot combustion products shoots into the main chamber, quickly producing a large flame sheet that spreads along the piston face. The prechamber run consumes all of the fuel in half the time required by the spark-ignited case. The two cases produce comparable amounts of thermal NO at the end of fuel combustion.

  8. 75 FR 26794 - Alticor, Inc., Including Access Business Group International LLC and Amway Corporation, Buena...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ...-73,420A] Alticor, Inc., Including Access Business Group International LLC and Amway Corporation, Buena Park, CA; Alticor, Inc., Including Access Business Group International LLC, and Amway Corporation..., applicable to workers of Alticor, Inc., including Access Business Group International LLC and...

  9. Role of lubrication oil in particulate emissions from a hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine.

    PubMed

    Miller, Arthur L; Stipe, Christopher B; Habjan, Matthew C; Ahlstrand, Gilbert G

    2007-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that trace metals emitted by internal combustion engines are derived mainly from combustion of lubrication oil. This hypothesis was examined by investigation of the formation of particulate matter emitted from an internal combustion engine in the absence of fuel-derived soot. Emissions from a modified CAT 3304 diesel engine fueled with hydrogen gas were characterized. The role of organic carbon and metals from lubrication oil on particle formation was investigated under selected engine conditions. The engine produced exhaust aerosol with log normal-size distributions and particle concentrations between 10(5) and 10(7) cm(-3) with geometric mean diameters from 18 to 31 nm. The particles contained organic carbon, little or no elemental carbon, and a much larger percentage of metals than particles from diesel engines. The maximum total carbon emission rate was estimated at 1.08 g h(-1), which is much lower than the emission rate of the original diesel engine. There was also evidence that less volatile elements, such as iron, self-nucleated to form nanoparticles, some of which survive the coagulation process.

  10. Internal combustion engines for alcohol motor fuels: a compilation of background technical information

    SciTech Connect

    Blaser, Richard

    1980-11-01

    This compilation, a draft training manual containing technical background information on internal combustion engines and alcohol motor fuel technologies, is presented in 3 parts. The first is a compilation of facts from the state of the art on internal combustion engine fuels and their characteristics and requisites and provides an overview of fuel sources, fuels technology and future projections for availability and alternatives. Part two compiles facts about alcohol chemistry, alcohol identification, production, and use, examines ethanol as spirit and as fuel, and provides an overview of modern evaluation of alcohols as motor fuels and of the characteristics of alcohol fuels. The final section compiles cross references on the handling and combustion of fuels for I.C. engines, presents basic evaluations of events leading to the use of alcohols as motor fuels, reviews current applications of alcohols as motor fuels, describes the formulation of alcohol fuels for engines and engine and fuel handling hardware modifications for using alcohol fuels, and introduces the multifuel engines concept. (LCL)

  11. A Study of the Theoretical Potential of Thermochemical Exhaust Heat Recuperation for Internal Combustion Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Chakravarthy, Veerathu K; Daw, C Stuart; Pihl, Josh A; Conklin, Jim

    2010-01-01

    We present a detailed thermodynamic analysis of thermochemical recuperation (TCR) applied to an idealized internal combustion engine with single-stage work extraction. Results for several different fuels are included. For a stoichiometric mixture of methanol and air, TCR can increase the estimated ideal engine Second Law efficiency by about 3% for constant pressure reforming and over 5% for constant volume reforming. For ethanol and isooctane the estimated Second Law efficiency increases for constant volume reforming are 9% and 11%, respectively. The Second Law efficiency improvements from TCR result primarily from the higher intrinsic exergy of the reformed fuel and pressure boost associated with gas mole increase. Reduced combustion irreversibility may also yield benefits for future implementations of combined cycle work extraction.

  12. A Study of the Theoretical Potential of Thermochemical Exhaust Heat Recuperation in Internal Combustion Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, C Stuart; Pihl, Josh A; Chakravarthy, Veerathu K; Conklin, Jim

    2010-01-01

    A detailed thermodynamic analysis of thermochemical recuperation (TCR) applied to an idealized internal combustion engine with single-stage work extraction is presented. Results for several different fuels are included. For a stoichiometric mixture of methanol and air, TCR can increase the estimated ideal engine second law efficiency by about 3% for constant pressure reforming and over 5% for constant volume reforming. For ethanol and isooctane, the estimated second law efficiency increases for constant volume reforming are 9 and 11%, respectively. The second law efficiency improvements from TCR result primarily from the higher intrinsic exergy of the reformed fuel and pressure boost associated with the gas mole increase. Reduced combustion irreversibility may also yield benefits for future implementations of combined cycle work extraction.

  13. Concept Defined for the International Space Station's Fluids and Combustion Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winsa, Edward A.

    2000-01-01

    The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) will occupy three powered racks and one stowage rack on the International Space Station (ISS). It will be a permanent modular, multiuser facility to accommodate microgravity science experiments onboard the ISS s U.S. Laboratory Module. FCF will support NASA Human Exploration and Development of Space program objectives requiring sustained, systematic research in the disciplines of fluid physics and combustion science. The two disciplines share racks and mutually necessary hardware within FCF to dramatically reduce costs and effectively use ISS resources. Even with the cost of FCF development included, experimentation using FCF on the space station will cost only half of what it did on the space shuttles.

  14. Fast on-line identification of instantaneous mechanical losses in internal combustion engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Peragón, F.; Palomar, J. M.; Díaz, F. A.; Jiménez-Espadafor, F. J.

    2010-01-01

    A fast and easy procedure to evaluate instantaneous mechanical losses in internal combustion engines (appropriate to any multi-cylinder engine) has been developed. First, a performance measurement procedure to obtain losses in one cycle is conducted. Subsequently, they must be proportionally divided into all cylinders, even considering those with no combustion. Finally, a non-linear identification procedure is applied to determine the coefficients of the P- ω method for each cylinder. The methodology has been applied to a single-cylinder compression ignition engine, and to a three-cylinder spark ignition engine. The first engine allows the procedure to be validated by comparing results with those obtained using other established methodology. The second engine makes it possible to analyze the robustness of the method when it is applied to a multi-cylinder engine.

  15. Computational fluid dynamics applied to flows in an internal combustion engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, M. D.; Diwakar, R.; Anderson, J. D., Jr.; Jones, E.

    1978-01-01

    The reported investigation is a continuation of studies conducted by Diwakar et al. (1976) and Griffin et al. (1976), who reported the first computational fluid dynamic results for the two-dimensional flowfield for all four strokes of a reciprocating internal combustion (IC) engine cycle. An analysis of rectangular and cylindrical three-dimensional engine models is performed. The working fluid is assumed to be inviscid air of constant specific heats. Calculations are carried out of a four-stroke IC engine flowfield wherein detailed finite-rate chemical combustion of a gasoline-air mixture is included. The calculations remain basically inviscid, except that in some instances thermal conduction is included to allow a more realistic model of the localized sparking of the mixture. All the results of the investigation are obtained by means of an explicity time-dependent finite-difference technique, using a high-speed digital computer.

  16. Apparatus and method for operating internal combustion engines from variable mixtures of gaseous fuels

    DOEpatents

    Heffel, James W.; Scott, Paul B.; Park, Chan Seung

    2011-11-01

    An apparatus and method for utilizing any arbitrary mixture ratio of multiple fuel gases having differing combustion characteristics, such as natural gas and hydrogen gas, within an internal combustion engine. The gaseous fuel composition ratio is first sensed, such as by thermal conductivity, infrared signature, sound propagation speed, or equivalent mixture differentiation mechanisms and combinations thereof which are utilized as input(s) to a "multiple map" engine control module which modulates selected operating parameters of the engine, such as fuel injection and ignition timing, in response to the proportions of fuel gases available so that the engine operates correctly and at high efficiency irrespective of the gas mixture ratio being utilized. As a result, an engine configured according to the teachings of the present invention may be fueled from at least two different fuel sources without admixing constraints.

  17. Apparatus and method for operating internal combustion engines from variable mixtures of gaseous fuels

    DOEpatents

    Heffel, James W.; Scott, Paul B.

    2003-09-02

    An apparatus and method for utilizing any arbitrary mixture ratio of multiple fuel gases having differing combustion characteristics, such as natural gas and hydrogen gas, within an internal combustion engine. The gaseous fuel composition ratio is first sensed, such as by thermal conductivity, infrared signature, sound propagation speed, or equivalent mixture differentiation mechanisms and combinations thereof which are utilized as input(s) to a "multiple map" engine control module which modulates selected operating parameters of the engine, such as fuel injection and ignition timing, in response to the proportions of fuel gases available so that the engine operates correctly and at high efficiency irrespective of the gas mixture ratio being utilized. As a result, an engine configured according to the teachings of the present invention may be fueled from at least two different fuel sources without admixing constraints.

  18. Invited papers from the International Symposium on Nonequilibrium Processes, Plasma, Combustion and Atmospheric Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starik, Alexander M.

    2013-11-01

    The International Symposium on Nonequilibrium Processes, Plasma, Combustion and Atmospheric Phenomena is a forum of international experts in such fundamental areas as physical and chemical kinetics, physics of low temperature and cluster plasmas, physics of shock and detonation waves, physics and chemistry of aerosols and nanoparticles, combustion and atmospheric chemistry, physics and chemistry of high speed flows, plasma and laser chemistry, plasma, laser and combustion assisted technologies. This symposium has already become a notable biannual event attracting a growing attendance of scientists from all over the world. The first symposium was organizing in St Petersburg, Russia, 8-11 July 2003, and was dedicated to the memory of N N Semenov, a founder of the chain-branching reaction theory and a Nobel prizewinner. The second, third and fourth symposia were held in Sochi, Russia, 3-7 October 2005; 25-29 June 2007; and 5-9 October 2009. The last (fifth) symposium was also organized in Sochi, Russia, 1-6 October 2012. Here we present selected proceedings of the last symposium, comprised of four invited papers on the topics of ab initio studies of some elementary processes important for atmospheric plasma and combustion, kinetics of low temperature plasma and physics of clusters. The papers have been written by the symposium participants and are based on their reports at the meeting. They are: 'Thermochemistry of small iodine species' by Šulková et al ; 'Analysis of the reaction and quenching channels in a H + O2(a 1Δg ) system' by Sharipov and Starik; 'Kinetics of plasmachemical processes in the expanding flow of nitrogen plasma' by Kadochnikov et al ; and 'Theoretical study of structure and physical properties of (Al2O3)n clusters' by Sharipov et al.

  19. An Optical and Computational Investigation on the Effects of Transient Fuel Injections in Internal Combustion Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, Nicholas

    The effects of transient rate-of-injection profiles on high-pressure fuel jets have been studied in an optically accessible internal combustion engine. High-speed optical imaging measurements were applied over a range of ambient conditions, fuel types, and injection parameters. The optical data demonstrate that during the early part of the injection, while the liquid core of the jet is disintegrating, penetration is functionally linked to the orifice exit velocity up until a downstream distance hypothesized to be the jet breakup length. The jets then transition to a mixing dominated penetration behavior further downstream. Therefore, for cases that exhibit transient rate-of-injection (ROI) profiles, quasi-steady correlations for penetration have poor agreement with the empirical data. The lack of agreement between models using quasi-steady approximations and the high-speed experimental data, and the experimental evidence of liquid core physics impacting the transient jet penetration, motivated the development of a new 1-D model that integrates liquid core penetration physics and eliminates quasi-steady approximations. The new 1-D modeling methodology couples the transport equations for the evolution of the liquid core of the jet and the surrounding sheath of droplets resulting from breakup. The results of the model are validated against the aforementioned optical transient jet measurements. Finally, experimental results for two jet fuels and a diesel fuel are studied with the aid of the model. Differences in fuel properties cause the diesel fuel jet to transition from an incomplete spray to a complete spray later than the jet fuels during the transient injection process. Increasing ambient density causes the transition to happen earlier during the injection transient for all three fuels. The ignition delay and liftoff length appeared to be relatively unaffected by the late transition from incomplete to complete spray at low ambient density and low injection

  20. Research Needs and Impacts in Predictive Simulation for Internal Combustion Engines (PreSICE)

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerle, Wayne; Rutland, Chris; Rohlfing, Eric; Singh, Gurpreet; McIlroy, Andrew

    2011-03-03

    This report is based on a SC/EERE Workshop to Identify Research Needs and Impacts in Predictive Simulation for Internal Combustion Engines (PreSICE), held March 3, 2011, to determine strategic focus areas that will accelerate innovation in engine design to meet national goals in transportation efficiency. The U.S. has reached a pivotal moment when pressures of energy security, climate change, and economic competitiveness converge. Oil prices remain volatile and have exceeded $100 per barrel twice in five years. At these prices, the U.S. spends $1 billion per day on imported oil to meet our energy demands. Because the transportation sector accounts for two-thirds of our petroleum use, energy security is deeply entangled with our transportation needs. At the same time, transportation produces one-quarter of the nation’s carbon dioxide output. Increasing the efficiency of internal combustion engines is a technologically proven and cost-effective approach to dramatically improving the fuel economy of the nation’s fleet of vehicles in the near- to mid-term, with the corresponding benefits of reducing our dependence on foreign oil and reducing carbon emissions. Because of their relatively low cost, high performance, and ability to utilize renewable fuels, internal combustion engines—including those in hybrid vehicles—will continue to be critical to our transportation infrastructure for decades. Achievable advances in engine technology can improve the fuel economy of automobiles by over 50% and trucks by over 30%. Achieving these goals will require the transportation sector to compress its product development cycle for cleaner, more efficient engine technologies by 50% while simultaneously exploring innovative design space. Concurrently, fuels will also be evolving, adding another layer of complexity and further highlighting the need for efficient product development cycles. Current design processes, using “build and test” prototype engineering, will not

  1. An Analysis of the Impact of Selected Fuel Thermochemical Properties on Internal Combustion Engine Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Szybist, James P; Chakravathy, Kalyana; Daw, C Stuart

    2012-01-01

    In this study we model the effects of 23 different fuels on First and Second Law thermodynamic efficiency of an adiabatic internal combustion engine. First Law efficiency is calculated using lower heating value (LHV) while Second Law efficiency is calculated with exergy, which represents the inherent chemical energy available to produce propulsion. We find that First Law efficiency can deviate by as much as nine percentage points between fuels while Second Law efficiency exhibits a much smaller degree of variability. We also find that First and Second Law efficiency can be nearly the same for some fuels (methane and ethane) but differ substantially for other fuels (hydrogen and ethanol). The differences in First and Second Law efficiency are due to differences in LHV and exergy for a given fuel. In order to explain First Law efficiency differences between fuels as well as the differences between LHV and exergy, we introduce a new term: the molar expansion ratio (MER), defined as the ratio of product moles to reactant moles for complete stoichiometric combustion. We find that the MER is a useful expression for providing a physical explanation for fuel-specific efficiency differences as well as differences between First and Second Law efficiency. First and Second Law efficiency are affected by a number of other fuel-specific thermochemical properties, such as the ratio of specific heat and dissociation of combustion products.

  2. Mechanism utilizing a single rocker arm for controlling an internal combustion engine valve

    SciTech Connect

    Burandt, C.O.

    1988-02-09

    This patent describes in combination with an internal combustion engine having a rotatable camshaft, a cam on the camshaft, a combustion chamber and a reciprocable valve member for opening and closing a valve port in communication with the combustion chamber, a mechanism for operating the valve member comprising a rocker arm having first and second angularly disposed and integrally connected legs. The first leg having a cam follower suface thereon having a first section thereof extending in the same general direction that the valve member reciprocates and having a second section thereof curving toward the valve member and toward the direction in which the valve member reciprocates, means mounting the rocker arm for rocking movement about a first axis, and means for shifting the first axis relative to the camshaft in also the same general direction the valve member reciprocates so that various portions of the first and second sections of the cam follower surface on the first leg are relatively engageable with the cam, sufficient shifting of the first axis in the same general direction producing a desmodromic action, and the second leg including a single portion thereof engaging the valve member so that only the single portion acts on the valve member.

  3. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Carbon Composites Rotary Valves for Internal Combustion Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite rotary, sleeve, and disc valves for internal combustion engines and the like are disclosed. The valves are formed from knitted or braided or warp-locked carbon fiber shapes. Also disclosed are valves fabricated from woven carbon fibers and from molded carbon matrix material. The valves of the present invention with their very low coefficient of thermal expansion and excellent thermal and self-lubrication properties, do not present the sealing and lubrication problems that have prevented rotary, sleeve, and disc valves from operating efficiently and reliably in the past. Also disclosed are a sealing tang to further improve sealing capabilities and anti-oxidation treatments.

  4. A Completely New Type of Actuator -or- This Ain't Your Grandfather's Internal Combustion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gore, Brian W.; Hawkins, Gary F.; Hess, Peter A.; Moore, Teresa A.; Fournier, Eric W.

    2010-01-01

    A completely new type of actuator - one that is proposed for use in a variety of environments from sea to land to air to space - has been designed, patented, built, and tested. The actuator is loosely based on the principle of the internal combustion engine, except that it is a completely closed system, only requiring electrical input, and the working fuel is water. This paper outlines the theory behind the electrolysis- and ignition-based cycle upon which the actuator operates and describes the performance capability test apparatus and results for the actuator. A mechanism application that harnessed the unit s power to twist a scaled rotor blade is also highlighted.

  5. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Carbon Composite Rotary Valve for an Internal Combustion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Northam, G.Burton (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite rotary sleeve, and disc valves for internal combustion engines and the like are disclosed. The valves are formed from knitted or braided or wrap-locked carbon fiber shapes. Also disclosed are valves fabricated from woven carbon fibers and from molded carbon matrix material. The valves of the present invention with their very low coefficient of thermal expansion and excellent thermal and self-lubrication properties do not present the sealing and lubrication problems that have prevented rotary sleeve and disc valves from operating efficiently and reliably in the past. Also disclosed are a sealing tang to further improve sealing capabilities and anti-oxidation treatments.

  6. The railplug: Development of a new ignitor for internal combustion engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, R. D.; Nichols, S. P.; Weldon, W. F.

    1994-11-01

    A three year investigation of a new type of ignitor for internal combustion engines has been performed using funds from the Advanced Energy Projects Program of The Basic Energy Sciences Division of the U.S. Department of Energy and with matching funding from Research Applications, Inc. This project was a spin-off of 'Star Wars' defense technology, specifically the railgun. The 'railplug' is a miniaturized railgun which produces a high velocity plume of plasma that is injected into the combustion chamber of an engine. Unlike other types of alternative ignitors, such as plasma jet ignitors, electromagnetic forces enhance the acceleration of the plasma generated by a railplug. Thus, for a railplug, the combined effects of electromagnetic and thermodynamic forces drive the plasma into the combustion chamber. Several engine operating conditions or configurations can be identified that traditionally present ignition problems, and might benefit from enhanced ignition systems. One of these is ultra-lean combustion in spark ignition (SI) engines. This concept has the potential for lowering emissions of NO(x) while simultaneously improving thermal efficiency. Unfortunately, current lean burn engines cannot be operated sufficiently lean before ignition related problems are encountered to offer any benefits. High EGR engines have similar potential for emissions improvement, but also experience similar ignition problems, particularly at idle. Other potential applications include diesel cold start, alcohol and dual fuel engines, and high altitude relight of gas turbines. The railplug may find application for any of the above. This project focused on three of these potential applications: lean burn SI engines, high EGR SI engines, and diesel cold start.

  7. Design, calibration and error analysis of instrumentation for heat transfer measurements in internal combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, C. R.; Tree, D. R.; Dewitt, D. P.; Wahiduzzaman, S. A. H.

    1987-01-01

    The paper reports the methodology and uncertainty analyses of instrumentation for heat transfer measurements in internal combustion engines. Results are presented for determining the local wall heat flux in an internal combustion engine (using a surface thermocouple-type heat flux gage) and the apparent flame-temperature and soot volume fraction path length product in a diesel engine (using two-color pyrometry). It is shown that a surface thermocouple heat transfer gage suitably constructed and calibrated will have an accuracy of 5 to 10 percent. It is also shown that, when applying two-color pyrometry to measure the apparent flame temperature and soot volume fraction-path length, it is important to choose at least one of the two wavelengths to lie in the range of 1.3 to 2.3 micrometers. Carefully calibrated two-color pyrometer can ensure that random errors in the apparent flame temperature and in the soot volume fraction path length will remain small (within about 1 percent and 10-percent, respectively).

  8. Tool for installing and aligning camshaft bushings in internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Ohannesian, M.J.

    1986-10-28

    This patent describes a tool for installing and aligning camshaft bushings in internal combustion engines such that the oil supply bore extending through the wall of each camshaft bushing is aligned with a corresponding oil delivery passage in the engine block. The tool comprises: a shaft and a working head removably attached to one end of the shaft for holding a camshaft bushing. The working head is insertable into the central passage of a cylindrical camshaft bushing and includes positioning means for positioning and securing a camshaft bushing on the working head. The positioning means includes spring-loaded engaging means for engaging the oil supply bore of the camshaft bushing to position and rotationally orient the camshaft bushing on the working head, guide means slidably mounted on the shaft. The guide means includes a cylindrical part for closely fitting in a bushing receiving bore of an internal combustion engine, a positioning shoulder for limiting the penetration of the cylindrical part of the guide means into the bushing receiving bore, and spring-loaded engaging means on the guide means cylindrical part for engaging the oil delivery passage of the engine which extends through the engine block to the bushing receiving bore.

  9. Proceedings: 13. international symposium on use and management of coal combustion products (CCPs). Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the 1999 International Symposium on the Management and Use of Coal Combustion Products (CCPs), the thirteenth in a series since 1967, is to publicize innovations in coal ash use technology. These symposia support the mission of the American Coal Ash Association (established originally as the National Ash Association after the first symposium) to promote coal ash technology transfer and commercial utilization. The three-volume publication contains 91 papers, presented in 15 sessions during the January 1999 event. Volume 1 contains papers related to waste aggregates, agricultural uses, beneficiation/quality, and building products. Volume 2 covers the growing market in concrete, environmental performance, FGD material, filler applications, flowable fill, and international perspectives. Volume 3 contains papers on mining applications, regional and State perspectives, stabilized road bases, structural fills, and vitrification/solidification.

  10. Method and apparatus for advanced staged combustion utilizing forced internal recirculation

    SciTech Connect

    Rabovitser, Iosif K.; Knight, Richard A.; Cygan, David F.; Nester, Serguei; Abbasi, Hamid A.

    2003-12-16

    A method and apparatus for combustion of a fuel in which a first-stage fuel and a first-stage oxidant are introduced into a combustion chamber and ignited, forming a primary combustion zone. At least about 5% of the total heat output produced by combustion of the first-stage fuel and the first-stage oxidant is removed from the primary combustion zone, forming cooled first-stage combustion products. A portion of the cooled first-stage combustion products from a downstream region of the primary combustion zone is recirculated to an upstream region of primary combustion zone. A second-stage fuel is introduced into the combustion chamber downstream of the primary combustion zone and ignited, forming a secondary combustion zone. At least about 5% of the heat from the secondary combustion zone is removed. In accordance with one embodiment, a third-stage oxidant is introduced into the combustion chamber downstream of the secondary combustion zone, forming a tertiary combustion zone.

  11. 49 CFR 173.220 - Internal combustion engines, self-propelled vehicles, mechanical equipment containing internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... machinery, fuel cell-powered equipment or machinery. 173.220 Section 173.220 Transportation Other...-powered equipment or machinery, fuel cell-powered equipment or machinery. (a) Applicability. An internal... battery-powered vehicle or equipment, or a fuel cell-powered vehicle or equipment, or any...

  12. 49 CFR 173.220 - Internal combustion engines, self-propelled vehicles, mechanical equipment containing internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... machinery, fuel cell-powered equipment or machinery. 173.220 Section 173.220 Transportation Other...-powered equipment or machinery, fuel cell-powered equipment or machinery. (a) Applicability. An internal... battery-powered vehicle or equipment, or a fuel cell-powered vehicle or equipment, or any...

  13. 49 CFR 173.220 - Internal combustion engines, self-propelled vehicles, mechanical equipment containing internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... machinery, fuel cell-powered equipment or machinery. 173.220 Section 173.220 Transportation Other...-powered equipment or machinery, fuel cell-powered equipment or machinery. (a) Applicability. An internal... battery-powered vehicle or equipment, or a fuel cell-powered vehicle or equipment, or any...

  14. 49 CFR 173.220 - Internal combustion engines, self-propelled vehicles, mechanical equipment containing internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... machinery, fuel cell-powered equipment or machinery. 173.220 Section 173.220 Transportation Other...-powered equipment or machinery, fuel cell-powered equipment or machinery. (a) Applicability. An internal... battery-powered vehicle or equipment, or a fuel cell-powered vehicle or equipment, or any...

  15. Cylinder head temperature determination using high-speed phosphor thermometry in a fired internal combustion engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, N.; Litterscheid, C.; Ding, C.-P.; Brübach, J.; Albert, B.; Dreizler, A.

    2014-08-01

    This paper documents the application of high-speed phosphor thermometry to measure cylinder head temperatures under fired engine conditions. The thermographic phosphor Gd3Ga5O12:Cr,Ce was synthesized with a special composition to meet the requirements of the measurement technique and the device under test. Calibration measurements are given in the first section, providing the temperature lifetime characteristic and temporal standard deviations in order to quantify single-shot precision. Accuracy was investigated for laser-induced heating. Measurements inside an optically accessible combustion engine are presented in the second section. Measurement locations at the cylinder head were determined, as well as temperature evolutions for variations in spark timing and air-fuel ratio.

  16. Large-eddy simulations of turbulent flows in internal combustion engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banaeizadeh, Araz

    The two-phase compressible scalar filtered mass density function (FMDF) model is further developed and employed for large-eddy simulations (LES) of turbulent spray combustion in internal combustion (IC) engines. In this model, the filtered compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved in a generalized curvilinear coordinate system with high-order, multi-block, compact differencing schemes for the turbulent velocity and pressure. However, turbulent mixing and combustion are computed with a new two-phase compressible scalar FMDF model. The spray and droplet dispersion/evaporation are modeled with a Lagrangian method. A new Lagrangian-Eulerian-Lagrangian computational method is employed for solving the flow, spray and scalar equation. The pressure effect in the energy equation, as needed in compressible flows, is included in the FMDF formulation. The performance of the new compressible LES/FMDF model is assessed by simulating the flow field and scalar mixing in a rapid compression machine (RCM), in a shock tube and in a supersonic co-axial jet. Consistency of temperatures predicted by the Eulerian finite-difference (FD) and Lagrangian Monte Carlo (MC) parts of the LES/FMDF model are established by including the pressure on the FMDF. It is shown that the LES/FMDF model is able to correctly capture the scalar mixing in both compressible subsonic and supersonic flows. Using the new two-phase LES/FMDF model, fluid dynamics, heat transfer, spray and combustion in the RCM with flat and crevice piston are studied. It is shown that the temperature distribution in the RCM with crevice piston is more uniform than the RCM with flat piston. The fuel spray characteristics and the spray parameters affecting the fuel mixing inside the RCM in reacting and non-reacting flows are also studied. The predicted liquid penetration and flame lift-off lengths for respectively non-reacting and reacting sprays are found to compare well with the available experimental data. Temperatures and

  17. From orbital debris capture systems through internal combustion engines on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The investigation and conceptualization of an orbital debris collector was the primary area of design. In addition, an alternate structural design for Space Station Freedom and systems supporting resource utilization at Mars and the moon were studied. Hardware for production of oxygen from simulate Mars atmosphere was modified to permit more reliable operation at low pressures (down to 10 mb). An internal combustion engine was altered to study how Mars atmosphere could be used as a diluent to control combustion temperatures and avoid excess Mars propellant production requirements that would result from either methane-rich or oxygen-rich, methane-oxygen combustion. An elastic loop traction system that could be used for lunar construction vehicles was refined to permit testing. A parabolic heat rejection radiator system was designed and built to determine whether it was capable of increasing heat rejection rates during lunar daytime operation. In addition, an alternate space station truss design, utilizing a pre-integrated concept, was studied and found to reduce estimate extravehicular activity (EVA) time and increase the structural integrity when compared to the original Warren truss concept. An orbital-debris-capturing spacecraft design which could be mated with the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle was studied. The design identified Soviet C-1B boosters as the best targets of opportunity in Earth orbits between an altitude of 900 km and 1100 km and at an inclination of 82.9 deg. A dual robot pallet, which could be spun to match the tumbling rate of the C-1B booster, was developed as the conceptual design.

  18. Invited Review: A review of deterministic effects in cyclic variability of internal combustion engines

    DOE PAGES

    Finney, Charles E.; Kaul, Brian C.; Daw, C. Stuart; ...

    2015-02-18

    Here we review developments in the understanding of cycle to cycle variability in internal combustion engines, with a focus on spark-ignited and premixed combustion conditions. Much of the research on cyclic variability has focused on stochastic aspects, that is, features that can be modeled as inherently random with no short term predictability. In some cases, models of this type appear to work very well at describing experimental observations, but the lack of predictability limits control options. Also, even when the statistical properties of the stochastic variations are known, it can be very difficult to discern their underlying physical causes andmore » thus mitigate them. Some recent studies have demonstrated that under some conditions, cyclic combustion variations can have a relatively high degree of low dimensional deterministic structure, which implies some degree of predictability and potential for real time control. These deterministic effects are typically more pronounced near critical stability limits (e.g. near tipping points associated with ignition or flame propagation) such during highly dilute fueling or near the onset of homogeneous charge compression ignition. We review recent progress in experimental and analytical characterization of cyclic variability where low dimensional, deterministic effects have been observed. We describe some theories about the sources of these dynamical features and discuss prospects for interactive control and improved engine designs. In conclusion, taken as a whole, the research summarized here implies that the deterministic component of cyclic variability will become a pivotal issue (and potential opportunity) as engine manufacturers strive to meet aggressive emissions and fuel economy regulations in the coming decades.« less

  19. Invited Review: A review of deterministic effects in cyclic variability of internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Finney, Charles E.; Kaul, Brian C.; Daw, C. Stuart; Wagner, Robert M.; Edwards, K. Dean; Green, Johney B.

    2015-02-18

    Here we review developments in the understanding of cycle to cycle variability in internal combustion engines, with a focus on spark-ignited and premixed combustion conditions. Much of the research on cyclic variability has focused on stochastic aspects, that is, features that can be modeled as inherently random with no short term predictability. In some cases, models of this type appear to work very well at describing experimental observations, but the lack of predictability limits control options. Also, even when the statistical properties of the stochastic variations are known, it can be very difficult to discern their underlying physical causes and thus mitigate them. Some recent studies have demonstrated that under some conditions, cyclic combustion variations can have a relatively high degree of low dimensional deterministic structure, which implies some degree of predictability and potential for real time control. These deterministic effects are typically more pronounced near critical stability limits (e.g. near tipping points associated with ignition or flame propagation) such during highly dilute fueling or near the onset of homogeneous charge compression ignition. We review recent progress in experimental and analytical characterization of cyclic variability where low dimensional, deterministic effects have been observed. We describe some theories about the sources of these dynamical features and discuss prospects for interactive control and improved engine designs. In conclusion, taken as a whole, the research summarized here implies that the deterministic component of cyclic variability will become a pivotal issue (and potential opportunity) as engine manufacturers strive to meet aggressive emissions and fuel economy regulations in the coming decades.

  20. Simulation of Internal Combustion Engines with High-Performance Computing Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Som, Sibendu

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Lagrangian spray modeling approaches for internal combustion engines are highly griddependent due to insufficient resolution in the near nozzle region. This is primarily because of inherent restrictions of volume fraction with the Lagrangian assumption together with high computational costs associated with small grid sizes. A state-of-the-art grid-convergent spray modeling approach was developed and implemented by Senecal et al. (ASME-ICEF2012-92043) in the CONVERGE software. The key features of the methodology include Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR), advanced liquid-gas momentum coupling, and improved distribution of the liquid phase, which enables use of cell sizes smaller than the nozzle diameter. This modeling approach was rigorously validated against nonevaporating, evaporating, and reacting data from the literature. The current numerical study focusses on further demonstration of the grid-convergent modeling approach for simulating a single-cylinder Cat® compression ignition engine. The simulated injector is characterized with a nominal nozzle exit diameter of 259 μm. Simulations using various minimum grid sizes (ranging from 125 μm to 1000 μm) are compared for engine performance and emissions parameters of interest such as pressure, heat release rate, ignition delay, NOx, HC, and soot emissions. The peak cell-count for the highest resolution simulation was on the order of 34 million. These computationally expensive simulations were facilitated at a high-performance computing facility at Argonne National Laboratory. METIS load-balancing algorithm was developed and implemented in Converge code for the simulations. Scaling studies were also performed. The validity of previously recommended grid settings (ASME-ICEF2012-92043) for accuracy/runtime trade-off is further assessed. Efficacy of a simplified combustion model is also compared against a detailed chemical kinetics based combustion model.

  1. Floating-point coprocessor for fault detection and isolation in electronically controlled internal combustion engines. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, T.L.; Ribbens, W.B.

    1991-09-01

    The report details the design of a floating-point coprocessor intended for real-time fault detection in electronically controlled internal combustion engines. The fault detection strategies are based on dynamic models of various engine subsystems and require the use of state estimators. The coprocessor can be operated at a clock rate of 24 MHz, and is capable of operating up to sixteen state estimators in real time. The design is suitable for application to internal combustion engines used for vehicle propulsion or power generation, whether diesel or spark ignited.

  2. Investigation of a rotary valving system with variable valve timing for internal combustion engines: Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, P.C.; Hansen, C.N.

    1994-11-18

    The objective of the program was to provide a functional demonstration of the Hansen Rotary Valving System with Variable Valve timing (HRVS/VVT), capable of throttleless inlet charge control, as an alternative to conventional poppet-valves for use in spark ignited internal combustion engines. The goal of this new technology is to secure benefits in fuel economy, broadened torque band, vibration reduction, and overhaul accessibility. Additionally, use of the variable valve timing capability to vary the effective compression ratio is expected to improve multi-fuel tolerance and efficiency. Efforts directed at the design of HRVS components proved to be far more extensive than had been anticipated, ultimately requiring that proof-trial design/development work be performed. Although both time and funds were exhausted before optical or ion-probe types of in-cylinder investigation could be undertaken, a great deal of laboratory data was acquired during the course of the design/development work. This laboratory data is the basis for the information presented in this Final Report.

  3. Construction of combustion models for rapeseed methyl ester bio-diesel fuel for internal combustion engine applications.

    PubMed

    Golovitchev, Valeri I; Yang, Junfeng

    2009-01-01

    Bio-diesel fuels are non-petroleum-based diesel fuels consisting of long chain alkyl esters produced by the transesterification of vegetable oils, that are intended for use (neat or blended with conventional fuels) in unmodified diesel engines. There have been few reports of studies proposing theoretical models for bio-diesel combustion simulations. In this study, we developed combustion models based on ones developed previously. We compiled the liquid fuel properties, and the existing detailed mechanism of methyl butanoate ester (MB, C(5)H(10)O(2)) oxidation was supplemented by sub-mechanisms for two proposed fuel constituent components, C(7)H(16) and C(7)H(8)O (and then, by mp2d, C(4)H(6)O(2) and propyne, C(3)H(4)) to represent the combustion model for rapeseed methyl ester described by the chemical formula, C(19)H(34)O(2) (or C(19)H(36)O(2)). The main fuel vapor thermal properties were taken as those of methyl palmitate C(19)H(36)O(2) in the NASA polynomial form of the Burcat database. The special global reaction was introduced to "crack" the main fuel into its constituent components. This general reaction included 309 species and 1472 reactions, including soot and NO(x) formation processes. The detailed combustion mechanism was validated using shock-tube ignition-delay data under diesel engine conditions. For constant volume and diesel engine (Volvo D12C) combustion modeling, this mechanism could be reduced to 88 species participating in 363 reactions.

  4. Multi-point laser spark generation for internal combustion engines using a spatial light modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, Elliott; Kuang, Zheng; Cheng, Hua; Page, Vincent; Shenton, Tom; Dearden, Geoff

    2014-11-01

    This paper reports on a technique demonstrating for the first time successful multi-point laser-induced spark generation, which is variable in three dimensions and derived from a single laser beam. Previous work on laser ignition of internal combustion engines found that simultaneously igniting in more than one location resulted in more stable and faster combustion - a key potential advantage over conventional spark ignition. However, previous approaches could only generate secondary foci at fixed locations. The work reported here is an experimental technique for multi-point laser ignition, in which several sparks with arbitrary spatial location in three dimensions are created by variable diffraction of a pulsed single laser beam source and transmission through an optical plug. The diffractive multi-beam arrays and patterns are generated using a spatial light modulator on which computer generated holograms are displayed. A gratings and lenses algorithm is used to accurately modulate the phase of the input laser beam and create multi-beam output. The underpinning theory, experimental arrangement and results obtained are presented and discussed.

  5. Solutions for VOC and HAPS control on natural gas fired internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, J.Z.; Sleigh, S.; Cotherman, R.

    1996-12-31

    Natural gas fired stationary internal combustion engines (IC engines) emit volatile organic compounds (VOC) and hazardous air pollutants (HAP) as part of their normal operations. VOC and HAP emissions are coming under increased scrutiny with the advent of such Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 regulations as Title I`s Reasonably Available Control Technology (RACT), Title III`s Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) and Title V`s Operating Permit Program (Title V). In addition, many states are imposing more stringent emission limits on these sources. These emissions may also contribute to the reportable chemicals from the total facility under SARA Title III. Numerous facilities nationwide are interested in reducing these emissions in order to comply with current requirements, to opt out of requirements or to reduce reportable chemicals. This paper will examine the source of these emissions, and discuss combustion control technologies and system operating flexibility, end-of-pipe control technologies, and system tuning opportunities which have the potential to reduce VOC and HAP emissions from IC engines. Data will be presented on potential emission reduction efficiencies achievable using the various control options. 7 refs., 4 tabs.

  6. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Carbon Composite Valve for an Internal Combustion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Northam, G. Burton (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite valve for internal combustion engines and the like formed of continuous carbon fibers throughout the valve's stem and head is disclosed. The valve includes braided carbon fiber material over axially aligned unidirectional carbon fibers forming a valve stem; the braided and unidirectional carbon fibers being broomed out at one end of the valve stem forming the shape of the valve head; the valve-shaped structure being densified and rigidized with a matrix of carbon containing discontinuous carbon fibers: and the finished valve being treated to resist oxidation. Also disclosed is a carbon matrix plug containing continuous and discontinuous carbon fibers and forming a net-shape valve head acting as a mandrel over which the unidirectional and braided carbon fibers are formed according to textile processes. Also disclosed are various preform valves and processes for making finished and preform carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite valves.

  7. Fluid dynamic modeling of junctions in internal combustion engine inlet and exhaust systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalet, David; Chesse, Pascal

    2010-10-01

    The modeling of inlet and exhaust systems of internal combustion engine is very important in order to evaluate the engine performance. This paper presents new pressure losses models which can be included in a one dimensional engine simulation code. In a first part, a CFD analysis is made in order to show the importance of the density in the modeling approach. Then, the CFD code is used, as a numerical test bench, for the pressure losses models development. These coefficients depend on the geometrical characteristics of the junction and an experimental validation is made with the use of a shock tube test bench. All the models are then included in the engine simulation code of the laboratory. The numerical calculation of unsteady compressible flow, in each pipe of the inlet and exhaust systems, is made and the calculated engine torque is compared with experimental measurements.

  8. Lightweight Exhaust Manifold and Exhaust Pipe Ducting for Internal Combustion Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An improved exhaust system for an internal combustion gasoline-and/or diesel-fueled engine includes an engine exhaust manifold which has been fabricated from carbon- carbon composite materials in operative association with an exhaust pipe ducting which has been fabricated from carbon-carbon composite materials. When compared to conventional steel. cast iron. or ceramic-lined iron paris. the use of carbon-carbon composite exhaust-gas manifolds and exhaust pipe ducting reduces the overall weight of the engine. which allows for improved acceleration and fuel efficiency: permits operation at higher temperatures without a loss of strength: reduces the "through-the wall" heat loss, which increases engine cycle and turbocharger efficiency and ensures faster "light-off" of catalytic converters: and, with an optional thermal reactor, reduces emission of major pollutants, i.e. hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide.

  9. Modeling of reciprocating internal combustion engines for power generation and heat recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Kyung Tae; Cho, Heejin; Luck, Rogelio; Mago, Pedro J.

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents a power generation and heat recovery model for reciprocating internal combustion engines (ICEs). The purpose of the proposed model is to provide realistic estimates of performance/efficiency maps for both electrical power output and useful thermal output for various capacities of engines for use in a preliminary CHP design/simulation process. The proposed model will serve as an alternative to constant engine efficiencies or empirical efficiency curves commonly used in the current literature for simulations of CHP systems. The engine performance/efficiency calculation algorithm has been coded to a publicly distributed FORTRAN Dynamic Link Library (DLL), and a user friendly tool has been developed using Visual Basic programming. Simulation results using the proposed model are validated against manufacturer’s technical data.

  10. Start up system for hydrogen generator used with an internal combustion engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, J.; Cerini, D. J. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A hydrogen generator provides hydrogen rich product gases which are mixed with the fuel being supplied to an internal combustion engine for the purpose of enabling a very lean mixture of that fuel to be used, whereby nitrous oxides emitted by the engine are minimized. The hydrogen generator contains a catalyst which must be heated to a pre-determined temperature before it can react properly. To simplify the process of heating up the catalyst at start-up time, either some of the energy produced by the engine such as engine exhaust gas, or electrical energy produced by the engine, or the engine exhaust gas may be used to heat up air which is then used to heat the catalyst.

  11. System and method for conditioning intake air to an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Sellnau, Mark C.

    2015-08-04

    A system for conditioning the intake air to an internal combustion engine includes a means to boost the pressure of the intake air to the engine and a liquid cooled charge air cooler disposed between the output of the boost means and the charge air intake of the engine. Valves in the coolant system can be actuated so as to define a first configuration in which engine cooling is performed by coolant circulating in a first coolant loop at one temperature, and charge air cooling is performed by coolant flowing in a second coolant loop at a lower temperature. The valves can be actuated so as to define a second configuration in which coolant that has flowed through the engine can be routed through the charge air cooler. The temperature of intake air to the engine can be controlled over a wide range of engine operation.

  12. Throttle control linkage for internal combustion engines and method of set-up

    SciTech Connect

    Hendron, S.S.; Williams, N.E.

    1992-10-06

    This patent describes throttle control linkage for an internal combustion engine having a pivotally-mounted injector lever for movement between a first predetermined position and a second predetermined position to control a fuel injector pump; It comprises: a throttle control lever mounted for movement between a first predetermined position and a second predetermined position; a pivotally-mounted bellcrank having an arcuate slot formed therein; first linkage means operatively connected between the arcuate slot and the pivotally-mounted injector lever; the arcuate slot formed along a predetermined radius from the connection of the second linkage means on the pivotally-mounted injector lever when the throttle control lever and the pivotally-mounted injector lever are positioned in the first predetermined position.

  13. Research of Data Acquisition and Analysis System for Internal Combustion Engine Based on DSP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y. H.; Tian, X. L.; Cheng, P.; Chang, X.; Dou, W. J.

    2006-10-01

    In the paper, the structure, working principle, functions and characteristics of an data acquisition and analysis system for internal combustion engines (I.C. engine) based on DSP is introduced. The DSP can not only acquire and analyze the data alone, also can work with the PC together to form data acquisition and analysis system with high speed and large memory. The system takes advantages of TMS320F2812's plenty of peripherals on chip, becomes small and easy for installation. USB technique is used to translate data between DSP and PC in high speed, so the system's real time processing is proved very much. It is proved that the designed system can acquire and analyze the steady and transient parameters of the I.C. engine very well.

  14. Oil supply system for a valve operating mechanism in internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Sonoda, T.; Hiro, T.; Matsubara, T.

    1988-03-08

    A system for supplying oil to a camshaft and hydraulic lash adjusters of a valve operating mechanism in an internal combustion engine having an engine body is described comprising: a supply passage in the engine body for supplying oil under pressure; a distribution passage in the engine body connected to the supply passage for distributing oil from the supply passage as working oil to the hydraulic lash adjusters; a lubricating oil passage connected the distribution passage for supplying oil from the distribution passage as lubricating oil to lubricate journals and cams of the camshaft; and a relief passage communicating between the distribution passage and one of the journals and having a relief valve openable when the pressure of oil in the distribution passage rises beyond a predetermined level.

  15. Intake system for an electronic control fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Okuno, T.; Okabayashi, K.; Takahashi, K.; Sugimoto, K.

    1988-02-02

    An intake system for an internal combustion engine provided with a first camshaft for operating intake valves and a second camshaft for operating exhaust valves, the camshafts being covered by respective covers which form a recess therebetween is described comprising: a tubular throttle body; a throttle valve arranged in the throttle body for controlling an amount of air introduced into the engine; a surge tank having intake pipes extending therefrom and connected to respective cylinders of the engine; one end of a connection pipe being connected to the throttle body to receive air from the throttle body, the other end of the connection pipe being connected to the surge tank; at least one attachment member connected to the throttle valve; the throttle body together with at least one attachment member being bounded by a region formed between opposite longitudinal side portions of the respective covers and at least partially arranged in the recess between the covers of the respective camshafts.

  16. Rocker arm spring for a valve actuating mechanism of an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Nouno, Y.

    1987-06-30

    A rocker arm spring is described for use in a valve actuating mechanism of an internal combustion engine having a cylinder head, an overhead camshaft mounted on the cylinder head, and a valve stem extending through the cylinder head. The valve actuating mechanism includes a rocker arm having a first end and a second end, a universal pivot swingably supporting the first end of the rocker arm on the cylinder head of the engine, the second end of the rocker arm in contact with the valve stem, and a cam on the overhead camshaft engaging from above a portion of the rocker arm intermediate the first and second ends to cause the rocker arm to swing about.

  17. NREL Showcases Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine Bus, Helps DOE Set Standards for Outreach (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-11-01

    This fact sheet describes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) accomplishments in showcasing a Ford hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine (H2ICE) bus at The Taste of Colorado festival in Denver. NREL started using its U.S. Department of Energy-funded H2ICE bus in May 2010 as the primary shuttle vehicle for VIP visitors, members of the media, and new employees. In September 2010, NREL featured the bus at The Taste of Colorado. This was the first major outreach event for the bus. NREL's educational brochure, vehicle wrap designs, and outreach efforts serve as a model for other organizations with DOE-funded H2ICE buses. Work was performed by the Hydrogen Education Group and Market Transformation Group in the Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center.

  18. Data Discovery and Access to The International Surface Pressure Databank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cram, T. A.; Compo, G. P.; McColl, C.; Schuster, D.; Worley, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    The International Surface Pressure Databank (ISPD) is the world's largest collection of atmospheric surface and sea level pressure observations. Comprised of sub-daily station, marine, and tropical cyclone best track pressure observations, the ISPD is a blend of many national and international data collections and currently spans the period 1755-2010. The motivation for its development is to facilitate the study of both the variations and gradients in surface air pressure which characterize the thermal and dynamic structures of the atmosphere. Version 2.0 of the ISPD was assimilated into the 20th Century Reanalysis Project (Compo et al. 2011, Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.) and is considered a valuable dataset to be used in future reanalysis and climate studies. Data access and discovery to the ISPDv2 is provided by the Research Data Archive (RDA) at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and presents data users with various options in exploring and retrieving the data. A file content metadata harvesting system used in the archival of RDA data allows users to easily search and discover the ISPD. Each data file is interrogated by the system at the time of archival, and metadata databases are populated with the descriptive information gathered from the data file. The populated metadata databases are then used to drive dynamic web interfaces, data search tools, and data subsetting services. Within the ISPD dataset, users have the options to search across available data by parameter, examine the contents of individual data files, and browse summaries of the metadata gathered throughout a dataset. Included in the ISPD data is the quality control feedback information from the 20th Century Reanalysis, which informs users on the quality and estimated uncertainty in the observed values. Each record in the ISPD is assigned a unique identifier in the dataset and thus produces a traceable record for each observation. The data are archived in both the native HDF5 and

  19. Effect of Atmospheric Pressure and Temperature on a Small Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engine’s Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-24

    Inevitability of Engine-Out NOx Emissions from Spark-Ignition and Diesel Engines, 28th International Symposium on Combustion, Edinburgh, Scotland , 11 Jan 2000...Ltd., 28 Nov 2007. 17) Bertola, A., Stadler, J., Walter, T., Wolfer, P., Gossweiler, C., Rothe , M., Spicher, U., Pressure Indication During Knocking

  20. CRITERIA POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME II. APPENDICES A-I

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes emission factors for criteria pollutants (NOx, CO, CH4, C2H6, THC, NMHC, and NMEHC) from stationary internal combustion engines and gas turbines used in the natural gas industry. The emission factors were calculated from test results from five test campaigns...

  1. Miniature Internal Combustion Engine-Generator for High Energy Density Portable Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    operative combustion mechanism. We note that for most conditions, glow plug assist is currently necessary to sustain combustion during starting and warmup ...very effective at maintaining a constant voltage and stroke as the HCCI combustion pressure varies during engine warmup . The current is modulated by the

  2. Combustion characteristics of paper mill sludge in a lab-scale combustor with internally cycloned circulating fluidized bed.

    PubMed

    Shin, D; Jang, S; Hwang, J

    2005-01-01

    After performing a series of batch type experiments using a lab-scale combustor, consideration was given to the use of an internally cycloned circulating fluidized bed combustor (ICCFBC) for a paper mill sludge. Operation parameters including water content, feeding mass of the sludge, and secondary air injection ratio were varied to understand their effects on combustion performance, which was examined in terms of carbon conversion rate (CCR) and the emission rates of CO, C(x)H(y) and NO(x). The combustion of paper mill sludge in the ICCFBC was compared to the reaction mechanisms of a conventional solid fuel combustion, characterized by kinetics limited reaction zone, diffusion limited reaction zone, and transition zone. The results of the parametric study showed that a 35% water content and 60 g feeding mass generated the best condition for combustion. Meanwhile, areal mass burning rate, which is an important design and operation parameter at an industrial scale plant, was estimated by a conceptual equation. The areal mass burning rate corresponding to the best combustion condition was approximately 400 kg/hm(2) for 35% water content. The secondary air injection generating swirling flow enhanced the mixing between the gas phase components as well as the solid phase components, and improved the combustion efficiency by increasing the carbon conversion rate and reducing pollutant emissions.

  3. Application of high performance computing for studying cyclic variability in dilute internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    FINNEY, Charles E A; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Stoyanov, Miroslav K; Wagner, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Combustion instabilities in dilute internal combustion engines are manifest in cyclic variability (CV) in engine performance measures such as integrated heat release or shaft work. Understanding the factors leading to CV is important in model-based control, especially with high dilution where experimental studies have demonstrated that deterministic effects can become more prominent. Observation of enough consecutive engine cycles for significant statistical analysis is standard in experimental studies but is largely wanting in numerical simulations because of the computational time required to compute hundreds or thousands of consecutive cycles. We have proposed and begun implementation of an alternative approach to allow rapid simulation of long series of engine dynamics based on a low-dimensional mapping of ensembles of single-cycle simulations which map input parameters to output engine performance. This paper details the use Titan at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility to investigate CV in a gasoline direct-injected spark-ignited engine with a moderately high rate of dilution achieved through external exhaust gas recirculation. The CONVERGE CFD software was used to perform single-cycle simulations with imposed variations of operating parameters and boundary conditions selected according to a sparse grid sampling of the parameter space. Using an uncertainty quantification technique, the sampling scheme is chosen similar to a design of experiments grid but uses functions designed to minimize the number of samples required to achieve a desired degree of accuracy. The simulations map input parameters to output metrics of engine performance for a single cycle, and by mapping over a large parameter space, results can be interpolated from within that space. This interpolation scheme forms the basis for a low-dimensional metamodel which can be used to mimic the dynamical behavior of corresponding high-dimensional simulations. Simulations of high-EGR spark

  4. On the thermodynamics of waste heat recovery from internal combustion engine exhaust gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisner, G. P.

    2013-03-01

    The ideal internal combustion (IC) engine (Otto Cycle) efficiency ηIC = 1-(1/r)(γ - 1) is only a function of engine compression ratio r =Vmax/Vmin and exhaust gas specific heat ratio γ = cP/cV. Typically r = 8, γ = 1.4, and ηIC = 56%. Unlike the Carnot Cycle where ηCarnot = 1-(TC/TH) for a heat engine operating between hot and cold heat reservoirs at TH and TC, respectively, ηIC is not a function of the exhaust gas temperature. Instead, the exhaust gas temperature depends only on the intake gas temperature (ambient), r, γ, cV, and the combustion energy. The ejected exhaust gas heat is thermally decoupled from the IC engine and conveyed via the exhaust system (manifold, pipe, muffler, etc.) to ambient, and the exhaust system is simply a heat engine that does no useful work. The maximum fraction of fuel energy that can be extracted from the exhaust gas stream as useful work is (1-ηIC) × ηCarnot = 32% for TH = 850 K (exhaust) and TC = 370 K (coolant). This waste heat can be recovered using a heat engine such as a thermoelectric generator (TEG) with ηTEG> 0 in the exhaust system. A combined IC engine and TEG system can generate net useful work from the exhaust gas waste heat with efficiency ηWH = (1-ηIC) × ηCarnot ×ηTEG , and this will increase the overall fuel efficiency of the total system. Recent improvements in TEGs yield ηTEG values approaching 15% giving a potential total waste heat conversion efficiency of ηWH = 4.6%, which translates into a fuel economy improvement approaching 5%. This work is supported by the US DOE under DE-EE0005432.

  5. Fluorescence imaging inside an internal combustion engine using tunable excimer lasers.

    PubMed

    Andresen, P; Meijer, G; Schlüter, H; Voges, H; Koch, A; Hentschel, W; Oppermann, W; Rothe, E

    1990-06-01

    Tunable excimer lasers are used to obtain 2-D images of molecular (and some state-specific) density distributions inside a cylinder of a modified four-cylinder in-line engine that has optical access. Natural fluorescence (i.e., without a laser) is used for some OH pictures, normal laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) for those of NO and of the isooctane fuel, and laser-induced predissociative fluorescence (LIPF) for other OH pictures and for those of O(2). Relevant spectroscopy is done to find the laser and fluorescence frequencies needed to measure isolated species. LIPF works well at high pressures, is state specific, and is ideally suited to follow turbulent processes. No similar measurements in engines have been previously reported. Pictures are taken in succeeding engine cycles. Their sequence is either at a particular point of the engine's cycle to show cyclic fluctuations, or at succeeding portions of the cycle to illustrate the progress of the gasdynamics or of the combustion.

  6. Catheter-related bacteremia from femoral and central internal jugular venous access.

    PubMed

    Lorente, L; Jiménez, A; García, C; Galván, R; Castedo, J; Martín, M M; Mora, M L

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this prospective observational study was to determine the influence of femoral and central internal jugular venous catheters on the incidence of catheter-related bacteremia (CRB). We included patients admitted to a 12-bed polyvalent medico-surgical intensive care unit over 4 years who received one or more femoral or central internal jugular venous catheters. We diagnosed 16 cases of CRB in 208 femoral catheters and 22 in 515 central internal jugular venous catheters. We found a higher incidence of CRB with femoral (9.52 per 1,000 catheter days) than with central internal jugular venous access (4.83 per 1,000 catheter days; risk ratio = 1.93; 95% confidence interval: 1.03-3.73; P = 0.04). Central internal jugular venous access could be considered a safer route of venous access than femoral access in minimizing the risk of central venous catheter-related bacteremia.

  7. Symposium /International/ on Combustion, 17th, Leeds University, Leeds, England, August 20-25, 1978, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The Symposium focused on deflagration to detonation transition, coal combustion, turbulent-combustion interactions, kinetics, furnace combustion, inhibition and ignition, flame structure and chemistry, combustion studies, measurement techniques, fire and explosion, engine combustion, soot, and propellants and explosives. Papers were presented on numerical modeling of the deflagration-to-detonation transition, the interaction between turbulence and combustion, turbulent flame propagation in premixed gases, spray evaporation in recirculating flow, dissociation of nitric oxide in shock waves, pollutant emissions from partially mixed turbulent flames, energy transfer and quenching rates of laser-pumped electronically excited alkalis in flames, a study of flammability limits using counterflow flames, the unified theory of explosions with fuel consumption, and the dynamics and radiant intensity of large hydrogen flames.

  8. Improved automated diagnosis of misfire in internal combustion engines based on simulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian; Bond Randall, Robert

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a new advance in the application of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to the automated diagnosis of misfires in Internal Combustion engines(IC engines) is detailed. The automated diagnostic system comprises three stages: fault detection, fault localization and fault severity identification. Particularly, in the severity identification stage, separate Multi-Layer Perceptron networks (MLPs) with saturating linear transfer functions were designed for individual speed conditions, so they could achieve finer classification. In order to obtain sufficient data for the network training, numerical simulation was used to simulate different ranges of misfires in the engine. The simulation models need to be updated and evaluated using experimental data, so a series of experiments were first carried out on the engine test rig to capture the vibration signals for both normal condition and with a range of misfires. Two methods were used for the misfire diagnosis: one is based on the torsional vibration signals of the crankshaft and the other on the angular acceleration signals (rotational motion) of the engine block. Following the signal processing of the experimental and simulation signals, the best features were selected as the inputs to ANN networks. The ANN systems were trained using only the simulated data and tested using real experimental cases, indicating that the simulation model can be used for a wider range of faults for which it can still be considered valid. The final results have shown that the diagnostic system based on simulation can efficiently diagnose misfire, including location and severity.

  9. Parameters of a Steady State Model for In-Cylinder Flow of an Internal Combustion Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortner, Elizabeth; Puzinauskas, Paul; Bolus, Nicholas

    2013-11-01

    Flow structures in an internal combustion engine are critical to engine performance and fuel consumption. Experiments are often conducted to explore how intake port geometry can be modified to induce desired tumble and swirl flow structures within the cylinder. To make these experiments cost-effective, they are often first conducted using a model cylinder on a steady flow bench prior to, or in lieu of, performing full unsteady engine tests. This research examines how model characteristics and experimental configuration choices affect results on these steady-flow tests. The experimental set-up uses DPIV to visualize the flow and a horizontally extracting swirl meter to measure the strength of the tumble structure. The configurations and characteristics examined included model geometry, seeding particle type and location of flow induction. The symmetric geometry experiment investigates how extraction affects the flow structures inside the cylinder. Three different seeding particles were used to see how particle properties affect DPIV results. Reversing the direction of flow through the system causes set-up challenges with removing leaks and introducing seeding particles, but is safer as it directs particles away from the flow bench. Deviation of results from the different test set-ups may indicate that cylinder model experiments need to be carefully designed to ensure high quality results accurate enough for use in designing full scale engine tests. Support from NSF REU Grant #1062611 is gratefully acknowledged.

  10. Dynamic Oil Consumption Measurement of Internal Combustion Engines using Laser Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sellmeier, Stefan; Alonso, Eduardo; Boesl, Ulrich

    2014-01-07

    A new approach has been developed to measure dynamic consumption of lubricant oil in an internal combustion engine. It is based on the already known technique where sulfur is used as a natural tracer of the engine oil. Since ejection of motor oil in gaseous form into the exhaust is by far the main source of engine oil consumption, detection of sulfur in the exhaust emission is a valuable way to measure engine oil consumption in a dynamic way. In earlier approaches, this is done by converting all sulfur containing chemical components into SO2 by thermal pyrolysis in a high temperature furnace at atmospheric pressure. The so-formed SO2 then is detected by broadband-UV-induced fluorescence or mass spectrometric methods. The challenge is to reach the necessary detection limit of 50 ppb. The new approach presented here includes sulfur conversion in a low-pressure discharge cell and laser-induced fluorescence with wavelength and fluorescence lifetime selection. A limit of detection down to 10 ppb at a temporal resolution in the time scale of few seconds is reached. Extensive, promising studies have been performed at a real engine test bench. Future developments of a compact, mobile device based on these improvements are discussed.

  11. Internal combustion engine with thermochemical recuperation fed by ethanol steam reforming products - feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesana, O.; Gutman, M.; Shapiro, M.; Tartakovsky, L.

    2016-08-01

    This research analyses the performance of a spark ignition engine fueled by ethanol steam reforming products. The basic concept involves the use of the internal combustion engine's (ICE) waste heat to promote onboard reforming of ethanol. The reformer and the engine performance were simulated and analyzed using GT-Suite, Chem CAD and Matlab software. The engine performance with different compositions of ethanol reforming products was analyzed, in order to find the optimal working conditions of the ICE - reformer system. The analysis performed demonstrated the capability to sustain the endothermic reactions in the reformer and to reform the liquid ethanol to hydrogen-rich gaseous fuel using the heat of the exhaust gases. However, the required reformer's size is quite large: 39 x 89 x 73 cm, which makes a feasibility of its mounting on board a vehicle questionable. A comparison with ICE fed by gasoline or liquid ethanol doesn't show a potential of efficiency improvement, but can be considered as a tool of additional emissions reduction.

  12. Raman line imaging for spatially and temporally resolved mole fraction measurements in internal combustion engines.

    PubMed

    Miles, P C

    1999-03-20

    An optical diagnostic system based on line imaging of Raman-scattered light has been developed to study the mixing processes in internal combustion engines. The system permits multipoint, single laser-shot measurements of CO(2), O(2), N(2), C(3)H(8), and H(2)O mole fractions with submillimeter spatial resolution. Selection of appropriate system hardware is discussed, as are subsequent data reduction and analysis procedures. Results are reported for data obtained at multiple crank angles and in two different engine flow fields. Measurements are made at 12 locations simultaneously, each location having measurement volume dimensions of 0.5 mm x 0.5 mm x 0.9 mm. The data are analyzed to obtain statistics of species mole fractions: mean, rms, histograms, and both spatial and cross-species covariance functions. The covariance functions are used to quantify the accuracy of the measured rms mole fraction fluctuations, to determine the integral length scales of the mixture inhomogeneities, and to quantify the cycle-to-cycle fluctuations in bulk mixture composition under well-mixed conditions.

  13. Valve for apportioning preheated and non-preheated air to an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Eriksson, S.

    1986-12-30

    A valve is described for apportioning preheated and non-preheated air to an internal combustion engine, comprising a valve body having an inlet for preheated air, an inlet for non-preheated air, and a common outlet from the valve leading to an intake conduit for the engine. It also comprises a thermostatically controlled flap valve mounted for pivotal movement about an axis that passes through the valve body, between extreme end positions in one of which a first flap portion on one side of the axis closes the inlet for preheated air and in the other extreme end position of which the first flap portion closes the inlet for non-preheated air. The valve flap has a second flap portion on the side of the axis opposite the first flap portion, the valve body having a balancing chamber which communicates on both sides of the axis with the portion of the interior of the valve body in which the first flap portion moves. The second flap portion is disposed in the balancing chamber and divides the balancing chamber into two portions separated from each other by the second flap portion. The flap portions are of such dimensions and are so arranged that the forces exerted on the flap valve as a result of the air flow through the valve body give rise to oppositely directed torques of substantially the same magnitude.

  14. Sealing device for an oil pan adapter in an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, Y.

    1987-06-02

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine having a cylinder, an oil pan under the cylinder block, and a fly-wheel housing mounted to one end of the cylinder block. The improvement comprises: an oil pan adapter mounted between the cylinder block and the oil pan and having an end face held against the fly-wheel housing; there being a generally U shaped groove in the end face of the oil pan adapter, the U shaped groove including a pair of vertical limbs each having a horizontal limb joined to its top end. Each horizontal limb is open both toward the cylinder block and the fly-wheel housing; and a generally U shaped sealing strip including a pair of vertical limbs each having a horizontal limb joined to its top end. The sealing strip is engaged in the U shaped groove in the end face of the oil pan adapter and fluid is tightly held against the fly-wheel housing and the cylinder block.

  15. Distributor-type fuel injection pump having injection rate control function for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Taira, S.; Ishibashi, T.

    1987-04-07

    This patent describes a distributor-type fuel injection pump for an internal combustion engine having a plurality of cylinders and a plurality of fuel injection valves for injecting fuel into respective ones of the cylinders. The fuel injection pump includes a plunger arranged for concurrent reciprocating and rotative motion in response to rotation of the engine to perform pressure delivery and distribution of fuel into the cylinders of the engine. The plunger has a first portion and a second portion having different diameters from each other, a first pump working chamber defined by the first portion, and a second pump working chamber defined by the second portion. Fuel delivery passageways are arranged for communication with the first pump working chamber and lead to respective ones of the fuel injection valves of the engine. A communication passageway is arranged for communicating the second pump working chamber with the fuel delivery passageways and a drain passageway is arranged for communicating the communication passageway with a zone under a lower pressure of the pump.

  16. Pump for supplying pressurized fuel to fuel injector of internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Igashira, T.; Sakakibara, Y.; Yoshinaga, T.; Abe, S.

    1987-03-17

    This patent describes a pump for supplying pressurized fuel to a fuel injector of an internal combustion engine comprising: a pump body having a bore; a plunger slidably disposed in the bore, the plunger and the bore forming a pump chamber enlarging and contracting according to displacement of the plunger in the bore. The pump chamber is connected to the fuel injector and holds fuel to be supplied to the fuel injector, the pump chamber sucking fuel from a reservoir when increasing in volume thereof and discharging the fuel when reducing in volume thereof so that pressurized fuel is supplied to the fuel injector. The plunger is provided with a transmitting member; means for urging the plunger in a direction that the plunger reduces the volume of the pump chamber, the urging means having means for applying a substantially constant force. The urging means is a pressure supply mechanism supplying highly pressurized air into the pump body; and a cam rotating in synchronization with rotation of the engine, the cam engaging with the transmitting member for part of the cycle of rotation of the engine so that the plunger increases the volume of the pump chamber. The cam releases the plunger in the remaining cycle of rotation of the engine to allow the urging means to urge the plunger so that the plunger displaces in a direction to reduce the volume of the pump chamber.

  17. System for detecting an engine speed in a multi-cylinder internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kinugasa, Y.

    1988-10-18

    This patent describes a system for detecting engine speed in a multi-cylinder internal combustion engine which has N cylinders provided with n sets of camshafts where n is at least two, each of the sets of camshafts being mechanically connected to a crank shaft of the engine, each of the sets of camshafts for separately operating respective valves of respective cylinders in the engine, and system comprising: timing means, cooperating with one of the camshafts, for issuing timing signals representing a rotational speed of the one camshaft; angle determining means for determining a determined angle substantially equal to (720/N) x n degrees; engine state detecting means for detecting whether the engine is in a state which the engine requires a shortened period for detection of the engine speed; modifying means for modifying a time of calculating the engine speed when the engine is in the state, by changing the determined angle; time detecting means, responsive to the timing signals from the timing means, for detecting a time required for a rotation of the camshaft by the determined angle and means for calculating an engine speed from the detected time.

  18. Evaluation and silicon nitride internal combustion engine components. Final report, Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Voldrich, W.

    1992-04-01

    The feasibility of silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) use in internal combustion engines was studied by testing three different components for wear resistance and lower reciprocating mass. The information obtained from these preliminary spin rig and engine tests indicates several design changes are necessary to survive high-stress engine applications. The three silicon nitride components tested were valve spring retainers, tappet rollers, and fuel pump push rod ends. Garrett Ceramic Components` gas-pressure sinterable Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} (GS-44) was used to fabricate the above components. Components were final machined from densified blanks that had been green formed by isostatic pressing of GS-44 granules. Spin rig testing of the valve spring retainers indicated that these Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} components could survive at high RPM levels (9,500) when teamed with silicon nitride valves and lower spring tension than standard titanium components. Silicon nitride tappet rollers showed no wear on roller O.D. or I.D. surfaces, steel axles and lifters; however, due to the uncrowned design of these particular rollers the cam lobes indicated wear after spin rig testing. Fuel pump push rod ends were successful at reducing wear on the cam lobe and rod end when tested on spin rigs and in real-world race applications.

  19. Development of an Organic Rankine Cycle system for exhaust energy recovery in internal combustion engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipollone, Roberto; Bianchi, Giuseppe; Gualtieri, Angelo; Di Battista, Davide; Mauriello, Marco; Fatigati, Fabio

    2015-11-01

    Road transportation is currently one of the most influencing sectors for global energy consumptions and CO2 emissions. Nevertheless, more than one third of the fuel energy supplied to internal combustion engines is still rejected to the environment as thermal waste at the exhaust. Therefore, a greater fuel economy might be achieved recovering the energy from exhaust gases and converting it into useful power on board. In the current research activity, an ORC-based energy recovery system was developed and coupled with a diesel engine. The innovative feature of the recovery power unit relies upon the usage of sliding vane rotary machines as pump and expander. After a preliminary exhaust gas mapping, which allowed to assess the magnitude of the thermal power to be recovered, a thermodynamic analysis was carried out to design the ORC system and the sliding vane machines using R236fa as working fluid. An experimental campaign was eventually performed at different operating regimes according to the ESC procedure and investigated the recovery potential of the power unit at design and off-design conditions. Mechanical power recovered ranged from 0.7 kW up to 1.9 kW, with an overall cycle efficiency from 3.8% up to 4.8% respectively. These results candidate sliding vane machines as efficient and reliable devices for waste heat recovery applications.

  20. Variable oxygen/nitrogen enriched intake air system for internal combustion engine applications

    DOEpatents

    Poola, Ramesh B.; Sekar, Ramanujam R.; Cole, Roger L.

    1997-01-01

    An air supply control system for selectively supplying ambient air, oxygen enriched air and nitrogen enriched air to an intake of an internal combustion engine includes an air mixing chamber that is in fluid communication with the air intake. At least a portion of the ambient air flowing to the mixing chamber is selectively diverted through a secondary path that includes a selectively permeable air separating membrane device due a differential pressure established across the air separating membrane. The permeable membrane device separates a portion of the nitrogen in the ambient air so that oxygen enriched air (permeate) and nitrogen enriched air (retentate) are produced. The oxygen enriched air and the nitrogen enriched air can be selectively supplied to the mixing chamber or expelled to atmosphere. Alternatively, a portion of the nitrogen enriched air can be supplied through another control valve to a monatomic-nitrogen plasma generator device so that atomic nitrogen produced from the nitrogen enriched air can be then injected into the exhaust of the engine. The oxygen enriched air or the nitrogen enriched air becomes mixed with the ambient air in the mixing chamber and then the mixed air is supplied to the intake of the engine. As a result, the air being supplied to the intake of the engine can be regulated with respect to the concentration of oxygen and/or nitrogen.

  1. Secure Payload Access to the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, R. Lee; Reid, Chris

    2002-01-01

    The ISS finally reached an operational state and exists for local and remote users. Onboard payload systems are managed by the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC). Users access HOSC systems by internet protocols in support of daily operations, preflight simulation, and test. In support of this diverse user community, a modem security architecture has been implemented. The architecture has evolved over time from an isolated but open system to a system which supports local and remote access to the ISS over broad geographic regions. This has been accomplished through the use of an evolved security strategy, PKI, and custom design. Through this paper, descriptions of the migration process and the lessons learned are presented. This will include product decision criteria, rationale, and the use of commodity products in the end architecture. This paper will also stress the need for interoperability of various products and the effects of seemingly insignificant details.

  2. International Symposium on Combustion, 15th, Tokyo, Japan, August 25-31, 1974, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental studies concerned with detonation and pressure wave combustion interaction, fire and explosion research and safety, heterogeneous combustion, flame-flow interactions, kinetics of elementary reactions, pollution control in and by combustion systems, and ignition are presented. Some of the topics covered include critical power density for direct initiation of unconfined gaseous detonations, extinction of laminar diffusion flames for liquid fuels, combustion of bulk titanium in oxygen, flame propagation in small spheres of unconfined and slightly confined flammable mixtures, kinetics of the reaction of nitric oxide with hydrogen, production of chemi-ions and formation of CH and CH2 radicals in methane-oxygen and ethylene-oxygen flames, NOx emission characteristics in two-stage combustion, and spherical ignition of oxyhydrogen behind a reflected shock wave. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  3. Ensuring Rights: Improving Access to Sexual and Reproductive Health Services for Female International Students in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poljski, Carolyn; Quiazon, Regina; Tran, Chau

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on the research and advocacy work being conducted by the Multicultural Centre for Women's Health (MCWH), a national community-based organization in Victoria, Australia, the paper analyzes female international students' experiences with accessing sexual and reproductive health information and services. Accessibility of sexual and…

  4. Expanding Access, Participation, and Success in International Baccalaureate Programmes: Year 1 Documentation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Thomas B.; Gerry, Gail B.

    2010-01-01

    In fall 2009, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation funded a three-year project (IB Access Project) with International Baccalaureate (IB) to increase participation of minority students and students in poverty in the Middle Years Programme (MYP) and Diploma Programme (DP). The IB Access Project seeks to do four things: (1) Improve teacher practice…

  5. Online access to international aerospace science and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lahr, Thomas F.; Harrison, Laurie K.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Aerospace Database contains over 625,000 foreign R&D documents from 1962 to the present from over 60 countries worldwide. In 1991 over 26,000 new non-U.S. entries were added from a variety of innovative exchange programs. An active international acquisitions effort by the NASA STI Program seeks to increase the percentage of foreign data in the coming years, focusing on Japan, the Commonwealth of Independent States, Western Europe, Australia, and Canada. It also has plans to target China, India, Brazil, and Eastern Europe in the future. The authors detail the resources the NASA Aerospace Database offers in the international arena, the methods used to gather this information, and the STI Program's initiatives for maintaining and expanding the percentage of international information in this database.

  6. Multispecies in situ monitoring of a static internal combustion engine by near-infrared diode laser sensors.

    PubMed

    Gérard, Yvan; Holdsworth, Robert J; Martin, Philip A

    2007-07-01

    A multispecies near-infrared diode laser spectrometer has been constructed for measurements of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and methane directly in the exhaust of a static internal combustion engine. A wavelength modulation-division multiplexing scheme was implemented for the two distributed feedback diode lasers. Gas concentration variations were observed for changes in operating conditions such as increasing and decreasing the throttle, adjusting the air-fuel ratio, and engine start-up.

  7. International Education Programs: Access to the World and Its Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The International Education Programs Service (IEPS) administers 14 education programs. These programs are complementary in nature and designed to benefit a variety of audiences through training programs, research, start-up or enhancement projects, and fellowships. This paper provides brief descriptions of these programs.

  8. The International Politics of Spanish Accession to NATO.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    acceptance of Spain’s deci- sion to join the Atlantic Alliance. In an interview with tne Madrid daily ABC, the current Foreign Minister, Jose Pedro Perez...analyst Alvaro Vasconcelo : The accession of Spain to the Alliance is, from the Portu- guese point of view, both desirable and necessary. First, because...As Jose Pedro Perez Llorca, Spain’s Foreign Minis- ter, has said, We’ve got to help those Armed Forces find a role whicn they haven’t had since the

  9. Rocker arm spring for a valve actuating mechanism of an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Nono, Y.; Sasaki, Y.

    1986-07-08

    A rocker arm spring is described for use in a valve actuating mechanism of an internal combustion engine having a cylinder head, an overhead camshaft mounted on the cylinder head and a valve having a valve stem extending through the cylinder head, the valve actuating mechanism including a rocker arm having a first end and a second end, a universal pivot swingably supporting the first end of the rocker arm on the cylinder head of the engine. The second end of the rocker arm is in contact with the valve stem, and a cam on the overhead camshaft engaging from above a portion of the rocker arm intermediate the first and second ends to cause the rocker arm to swing about the universal pivot, the universal pivot including a support socket mounted on the cylinder head. The support socket has a part-spherical concave bearing surface and a circumferential groove with a fixed predetermined groove width, and a pivotable shaft mounted on the first end of the rocker arm, the pivotable shaft having a part-spherical convex lower end mating with and received in the concave bearing surface, and the rocker arm spring being in the form of a leaf spring made of an elongated strip of resilient material thinner than the predetermined groove width, the strip being bent to a substantially U-shape having an upper arm and a lower arm, the lower arm having a forked end engageable within the circumferential groove in the support socket. The upper arm is engageable with the rocker arm for urging the lower end of the pivotable shaft into contact with the bearing surface of the support socket as well as for biasing the second end of the rocker arm into contact with the valve stem.

  10. Fuel supply control method for internal combustion engines after starting in hot state

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimura, A.; Wazaki, Y.

    1988-08-23

    This patent describes a method of controlling the supply of fuel to an internal combustion engine, including the steps of effecting after-start fuel increasing control wherein an initial value of a fuel increment is set to a value dependent upon a temperature of the engine upon generation of a predetermined control signal immediately after the start of the engine, the fuel increment is progressively decreased from the set initial value in synchronism with subsequent generation of the predetermined control signal, and a fuel quantity corrected by the progressively decreased fuel increment is supplied to the engine, and effecting air-fuel ratio feedback control, which is executed on condition that a predetermined feedback control condition is fulfilled after the start of the engine, wherein a correction coefficient has a value thereof set to a value dependent upon the concentration of an ingredient in exhaust gases emitted from the engine, sensed by sensor means arranged in an exhaust system of the engine, and a fuel quantity corrected by the set correction coefficient is supplied to the engine, the improvement comprising the steps of: (a) setting the initial value of the fuel increment to smaller values as the temperature of the engine is higher; (b) setting the initial value of the fuel increment to a predetermined lower limit if the initial value set depending upon the temperature of the engine is smaller than the predetermined lower limit; and (c) effecting the air-fuel ratio feedback control by correcting a fuel quantity to be supplied to the engine by the fuel increment together with the correction coefficient insofar as the predetermined feedback control condition is fulfilled, when the temperature of the engine is higher than a predetermined value at the start of the engine.

  11. On the identification of piston slap events in internal combustion engines using tribodynamic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolatabadi, N.; Theodossiades, S.; Rothberg, S. J.

    2015-06-01

    Piston slap is a major source of vibration and noise in internal combustion engines. Therefore, better understanding of the conditions favouring piston slap can be beneficial for the reduction of engine Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH). Past research has attempted to determine the exact position of piston slap events during the engine cycle and correlate them to the engine block vibration response. Validated numerical/analytical models of the piston assembly can be very useful towards this aim, since extracting the relevant information from experimental measurements can be a tedious and complicated process. In the present work, a coupled simulation of piston dynamics and engine tribology (tribodynamics) has been performed using quasi-static and transient numerical codes. Thus, the inertia and reaction forces developed in the piston are calculated. The occurrence of piston slap events in the engine cycle is monitored by introducing six alternative concepts: (i) the quasi-static lateral force, (ii) the transient lateral force, (iii) the minimum film thickness occurrence, (iv) the maximum energy transfer, (v) the lubricant squeeze velocity and (vi) the piston-impact angular duration. The validation of the proposed methods is achieved using experimental measurements taken from a single cylinder petrol engine in laboratory conditions. The surface acceleration of the engine block is measured at the thrust- and anti-thrust side locations. The correlation between the theoretically predicted events and the measured acceleration signals has been satisfactory in determining piston slap incidents, using the aforementioned concepts. The results also exhibit good repeatability throughout the set of measurements obtained in terms of the number of events occurring and their locations during the engine cycle.

  12. Electronically controlled distributor type fuel injection pump for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, T.; Nozaki, S.; Yamada, K.

    1986-08-12

    A distributor type fuel injection pump is described for an internal combustion engine, comprising: a suction space filled with fuel under pressure variable as a function of the rotational speed of the engine; a plunger driven by the engine for concurrent reciprocating and rotative motion to effect suction of fuel from the suction space into a pump working chamber defined by the plunger at one end thereof, pressure delivery of fuel from the pump working chamber and distribution of the fuel into cylinders of the engine; suction ports formed in the plunger and identical in number with the cylinders of the engine. The suction ports with the pump working chamber; a first communication passageway communicating the suction space with the pump working chamber; a second communication passageway having a restriction therein. The second communication passageway is disposed to sequentially register with the suction ports as the plunger rotates for communicating the suction space with each of the suction ports that registers with the second communication passageway; a solenoid valve disposed to selectively open and close the first communication passageway; a selector valve operable to assume, independently of the opening and closing action of the solenoid valve, a first valve position wherein the first communication passageway is closed and simultaneously the second communication passageway is opened, at the start of the engine, and a second valve position wherein the second communication passageway is closed and simultaneously the first communication passageway is is opened, during operation of the engine other than at the start of the engine; and control means operable in response to operating conditions of the engine to control the solenoid valve to alternately open and close so as to achieve required fuel injection quantity and required injection timing.

  13. Constant speed control of four-stroke micro internal combustion swing engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Dedong; Lei, Yong; Zhu, Honghai; Ni, Jun

    2015-09-01

    The increasing demands on safety, emission and fuel consumption require more accurate control models of micro internal combustion swing engine (MICSE). The objective of this paper is to investigate the constant speed control models of four-stroke MICSE. The operation principle of the four-stroke MICSE is presented based on the description of MICSE prototype. A two-level Petri net based hybrid model is proposed to model the four-stroke MICSE engine cycle. The Petri net subsystem at the upper level controls and synchronizes the four Petri net subsystems at the lower level. The continuous sub-models, including breathing dynamics of intake manifold, thermodynamics of the chamber and dynamics of the torque generation, are investigated and integrated with the discrete model in MATLAB Simulink. Through the comparison of experimental data and simulated DC voltage output, it is demonstrated that the hybrid model is valid for the four-stroke MICSE system. A nonlinear model is obtained from the cycle average data via the regression method, and it is linearized around a given nominal equilibrium point for the controller design. The feedback controller of the spark timing and valve duration timing is designed with a sequential loop closing design approach. The simulation of the sequential loop closure control design applied to the hybrid model is implemented in MATLAB. The simulation results show that the system is able to reach its desired operating point within 0.2 s, and the designed controller shows good MICSE engine performance with a constant speed. This paper presents the constant speed control models of four-stroke MICSE and carries out the simulation tests, the models and the simulation results can be used for further study on the precision control of four-stroke MICSE.

  14. Expanding Access, Participation, and Success in International Baccalaureate Programmes (IB Access Project): Evaluation Report Year Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerry, Gail; Corcoran, Tom

    2011-01-01

    In the fall of 2009, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation funded a three-year project proposed by the International Baccalaureate (IB) to demonstrate the feasibility of increasing the participation of minority students and students in poverty in its Middle Years Programme (MYP) and Diploma Programme (DP) in selected school districts in the…

  15. Application of a high-repetition-rate laser diagnostic system for single-cycle-resolved imaging in internal combustion engines.

    PubMed

    Hult, Johan; Richter, Mattias; Nygren, Jenny; Aldén, Marcus; Hultqvist, Anders; Christensen, Magnus; Johansson, Bengt

    2002-08-20

    High-repetition-rate laser-induced fluorescence measurements of fuel and OH concentrations in internal combustion engines are demonstrated. Series of as many as eight fluorescence images, with a temporal resolution ranging from 10 micros to 1 ms, are acquired within one engine cycle. A multiple-laser system in combination with a multiple-CCD camera is used for cycle-resolved imaging in spark-ignition, direct-injection stratified-charge, and homogeneous-charge compression-ignition engines. The recorded data reveal unique information on cycle-to-cycle variations in fuel transport and combustion. Moreover, the imaging system in combination with a scanning mirror is used to perform instantaneous three-dimensional fuel-concentration measurements.

  16. Symposium (International) on Combustion, 20th, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, August 12-17, 1984, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The present conference on combustion phenomena considers topics in automotive engine combustion, turbulent reacting flows, the modeling of practical combustion systems, reaction kinetics, combustion-generated particulates, combustion diagnostics, coal combustion process characteristics, fire-related phenomena, explosion/detonation phenomena, spray combustion, ignition/extinction, laminar flames, pollutant formation processes, practical combustor devices, and rocket propellant combustion. Attention is given to the contributions of combustion science to piston engine design, modeling and measurement techniques for turbulent combustion, the specific effects of energy, collisions, and transport processes in combustion chemistry kinetics, the formation of large molecules, particulates and ions in premixed hydrocarbon flames, the application of laser diagnostics to combustion systems, spark ignition energies for dust-air mixtures, the controlling mechanisms of flow-assisted flame spread, the ignition and combustion of coal-water slurries, spontaneous ignition of methane, turbulent and accelerating dust flames, and the temperature sensitivity of double base propellants.

  17. Coal combustion science

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, D.R.; Baxter, L.L.; Fletcher, T.H.; Mitchell, R.E.

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency (IEA) Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks include: coal devolatilization, coal char combustion, and fate of mineral matter during coal combustion. 91 refs., 40 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. Determining size of drops in fuel mixture of internal combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauter, J

    1926-01-01

    In compressorless Diesel engines and in explosion engines using fuels with high boiling points it is difficult to effect a good combustion of the fuel mixture. This report presents different methods for calculating the size and uniformity of fuel droplets and mixtures.

  19. The International Symposium on Special Topics in Chemical Propulsion (3rd): Non-Intrusive Combustion Diagnostics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-14

    temperature level above 2500 K. This is the required temperature to reduce NO emission by combustion proc- esses. References: 1. K. Aron. L.E. Harris . Chem...lAyout of the optical system; (a) transmitting and (b) tweiving optics. ¶ n,7i Laser Doppler poter volume Sizng beam Figure 2. Tested pointer volume

  20. Symposium (International) on Combustion, 19th, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel, August 8-13, 1982, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Topics discussed are related to elementary reactions, reaction mechanisms and modeling, laminar flames, flame chemistry, turbulent reacting shear flows, turbulent premixed flames, turbulent combustion measurements, continuous combustors, detonation, detonation and explosion, heterogeneous detonation, propellant combustion, fire-ignition and thermal degradation, fire-flame spread and burning, fire-modeling, spray combustion, and droplet combustion. Coal combustion kinetics and mechanisms are considered along with coal combustion mechanisms and pyrolysis, coal combustion techniques, NOx in coal combustion, gaseous pollutants, soot and PAH, soot and inorganic pollutants, I.C. engine combustion, and ignition and extinction. Attention is given to intricate paths and simple steps in chemical kinetics and combustion, the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by combustion, turbulent flame structure and speed in spark ignition engines, and unresolved problems in SOx, NOx, and soot control in combustion.

  1. Global mercury emissions from combustion in light of international fuel trading.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yilin; Wang, Rong; Shen, Huizhong; Li, Wei; Chen, Han; Huang, Ye; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Yuanchen; Su, Shu; Lin, Nan; Liu, Junfeng; Li, Bengang; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Wenxin; Coveney, Raymond M; Tao, Shu

    2014-01-01

    The spatially resolved emission inventory is essential for understanding the fate of mercury. Previous global mercury emission inventories for fuel combustion sources overlooked the influence of fuel trading on local emission estimates of many countries, mostly developing countries, for which national emission data are not available. This study demonstrates that in many countries, the mercury content of coal and petroleum locally consumed differ significantly from those locally produced. If the mercury content in locally produced fuels were used to estimate emission, then the resulting global mercury emissions from coal and petroleum would be overestimated by 4.7 and 72%, respectively. Even higher misestimations would exist in individual countries, leading to strong spatial bias. On the basis of the available data on fuel trading and an updated global fuel consumption database, a new mercury emission inventory for 64 combustion sources has been developed. The emissions were mapped at 0.1° × 0.1° resolution for 2007 and at country resolution for a period from 1960 to 2006. The estimated global total mercury emission from all combustion sources (fossil fuel, biomass fuel, solid waste, and wildfires) in 2007 was 1454 Mg (1232-1691 Mg as interquartile range from Monte Carlo simulation), among which elementary mercury (Hg(0)), divalent gaseous mercury (Hg(2+)), and particulate mercury (Hg(p)) were 725, 548, and 181 Mg, respectively. The total emission from anthropogenic sources, excluding wildfires, was 1040 Mg (886-1248 Mg), with coal combustion contributing more than half. Globally, total annual anthropogenic mercury emission from combustion sources increased from 285 Mg (263-358 Mg) in 1960 to 1040 Mg (886-1248 Mg) in 2007, owing to an increased fuel consumption in developing countries. However, mercury emissions from developed countries have decreased since 2000.

  2. Managing an Open Access, Multi-Institutional, International Digital Library: The Digital Library of the Caribbean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooldridge, Brooke; Taylor, Laurie; Sullivan, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Developing an Open Access, multi-institutional, multilingual, international digital library requires robust technological and institutional infrastructures that support both the needs of individual institutions alongside the needs of the growing partnership and ensure continuous communication and development of the shared vision for the digital…

  3. The Role of International Medical Graduates in America?s Small Rural Critical Access Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagopian, Amy; Thompson, Matthew J.; Kaltenbach, Emily; Hart, L. Gary

    2004-01-01

    Critical access hospitals (CAHs) are a federal Medicare category for isolated rural facilities with 15 or fewer acute care beds that receive cost-based reimbursement from Medicare. Purpose: This study examines the role of foreign-born international medical graduates (IMGs) in the staffing of CAHs. Methods: Chief executive officers (CEOs) of CAH…

  4. International cooperation to improve access to and sustain effectiveness of antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Årdal, Christine; Outterson, Kevin; Hoffman, Steven J; Ghafur, Abdul; Sharland, Mike; Ranganathan, Nisha; Smith, Richard; Zorzet, Anna; Cohn, Jennifer; Pittet, Didier; Daulaire, Nils; Morel, Chantal; Rizvi, Zain; Balasegaram, Manica; Dar, Osman A; Heymann, David L; Holmes, Alison H; Moore, Luke S P; Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Mendelson, Marc; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2016-01-16

    Securing access to effective antimicrobials is one of the greatest challenges today. Until now, efforts to address this issue have been isolated and uncoordinated, with little focus on sustainable and international solutions. Global collective action is necessary to improve access to life-saving antimicrobials, conserving them, and ensuring continued innovation. Access, conservation, and innovation are beneficial when achieved independently, but much more effective and sustainable if implemented in concert within and across countries. WHO alone will not be able to drive these actions. It will require a multisector response (including the health, agriculture, and veterinary sectors), global coordination, and financing mechanisms with sufficient mandates, authority, resources, and power. Fortunately, securing access to effective antimicrobials has finally gained a place on the global political agenda, and we call on policy makers to develop, endorse, and finance new global institutional arrangements that can ensure robust implementation and bold collective action.

  5. IFLA General Conference, 1985. International Association of Law Libraries (IALL) Round-Table on Access to Information in International Legal Research. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on international access to information pertaining to legal research, which were presented at the 1985 conference of the International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) include: (1) "Materials of European Intergovernmental Organizations and Their Accessibility through Available Research Tools" (Irene Berkey, Northwestern…

  6. Within but without: human rights and access to HIV prevention and treatment for internal migrants

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide, far more people migrate within than across borders, and although internal migrants do not risk a loss of citizenship, they frequently confront significant social, financial and health consequences, as well as a loss of rights. The recent global financial crisis has exacerbated the vulnerability internal migrants face in realizing their rights to health care generally and to antiretroviral therapy in particular. For example, in countries such as China and Russia, internal migrants who lack official residence status are often ineligible to receive public health services and may be increasingly unable to afford private care. In India, internal migrants face substantial logistical, cultural and linguistic barriers to HIV prevention and care, and have difficulty accessing treatment when returning to poorly served rural areas. Resulting interruptions in HIV services may lead to a wide range of negative consequences, including: individual vulnerability to infection and risk of death; an undermining of state efforts to curb the HIV epidemic and provide universal access to treatment; and the emergence of drug-resistant disease strains. International human rights law guarantees individuals lawfully within a territory the right to free movement within the borders of that state. This guarantee, combined with the right to the highest attainable standard of health set out in international human rights treaties, and the fundamental principle of non-discrimination, creates a duty on states to provide a core minimum of health care services to internal migrants on a non-discriminatory basis. Targeted HIV prevention programs and the elimination of restrictive residence-based eligibility criteria for access to health services are necessary to ensure that internal migrants are able to realize their equal rights to HIV prevention and treatment. PMID:19925647

  7. A Highly Efficient Six-Stroke Internal Combustion Engine Cycle with Water Injection for In-Cylinder Exhaust Heat Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Conklin, Jim; Szybist, James P

    2010-01-01

    A concept is presented here that adds two additional strokes to the four-stroke Otto or Diesel cycle that has the potential to increase fuel efficiency of the basic cycle. The engine cycle can be thought of as a 4 stroke Otto or Diesel cycle followed by a 2-stroke heat recovery steam cycle. Early exhaust valve closing during the exhaust stroke coupled with water injection are employed to add an additional power stroke at the end of the conventional four-stroke Otto or Diesel cycle. An ideal thermodynamics model of the exhaust gas compression, water injection at top center, and expansion was used to investigate this modification that effectively recovers waste heat from both the engine coolant and combustion exhaust gas. Thus, this concept recovers energy from two waste heat sources of current engine designs and converts heat normally discarded to useable power and work. This concept has the potential of a substantial increase in fuel efficiency over existing conventional internal combustion engines, and under appropriate injected water conditions, increase the fuel efficiency without incurring a decrease in power density. By changing the exhaust valve closing angle during the exhaust stroke, the ideal amount of exhaust can be recompressed for the amount of water injected, thereby minimizing the work input and maximizing the mean effective pressure of the steam expansion stroke (MEPsteam). The value of this exhaust valve closing for maximum MEPsteam depends on the limiting conditions of either one bar or the dew point temperature of the expansion gas/moisture mixture when the exhaust valve opens to discard the spent gas mixture in the sixth stroke. The range of MEPsteam calculated for the geometry of a conventional gasoline spark-ignited internal combustion engine and for plausible water injection parameters is from 0.75 to 2.5 bars. Typical combustion mean effective pressures (MEPcombustion) of naturally aspirated gasoline engines are up to 10 bar, thus this

  8. NASA Microgravity Combustion Science Research Plans for the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Thomas J.

    2003-01-01

    A peer-reviewed research program in Microgravity Combustion Science has been chartered by the Physical Sciences Research Division of the NASA Office of Biological and Physical Research. The scope of these investigations address both fundamental combustion phenomena and applied combustion research topics of interest to NASA. From this pool of research, flight investigations are selected which benefit from access to a microgravity environment. Fundamental research provides insights to develop accurate simulations of complex combustion processes and allows developers to improve the efficiency of combustion devices, to reduce the production of harmful emissions, and to reduce the incidence of accidental uncontrolled combustion (fires, explosions). Through its spacecraft fire safety program, applied research is conducted to decrease risks to humans living and working in space. The Microgravity Combustion Science program implements a structured flight research process utilizing the International Space Station (ISS) and two of its premier facilities- the Combustion Integrated Rack of the Fluids and Combustion Facility and the Microgravity Science Glovebox - to conduct space-based research investigations. This paper reviews the current plans for Microgravity Combustion Science research on the International Space Station from 2003 through 2012.

  9. Influence of the cooling degree upon performances of internal combustion engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grǎdinariu, Andrei Cristian; Mihai, Ioan

    2016-12-01

    Up to present, air cooling systems still raise several unsolved problems due to conditions imposed by the environment in terms of temperature and pollution levels. The present paper investigates the impact of the engine cooling degree upon its performances, as important specific power is desired for as low as possible fuel consumption. A technical solution advanced by the authors[1], consists of constructing a bi-flux compressor, which can enhance the engine's performances. The bi-flux axial compressor accomplishes two major functions, that is it cools down the engine and it also turbocharges it. The present paper investigates the temperature changes corresponding to the fresh load, during the use of a bi-flux axial compressor. This compressor is economically simple, compact, and offers an optimal response at low rotational speeds of the engine, when two compression steps are used. The influence of the relative coefficient of air temperature drop upon working agent temperature at the intercooler exit is also investigated in the present work. The variation of the thermal load coefficient by report to the working agent temperature is also investigated during engine cooling. The variation of the average combustion temperature is analyzed in correlation to the thermal load coefficient and the temperatures of the working fluid at its exit from the cooling system. An exergetic analysis was conducted upon the influence of the cooling degree on the motor fluid and the gases resulted from the combustion process.

  10. Light Microscopy Module: An On-Orbit Microscope Planned for the Fluids and Combustion Facility on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.; Motil, Susan M.; Snead, John H.; Griffin, DeVon W.

    2001-01-01

    The Light Microscopy Module (LMM) is planned as a fully remotely controllable on-orbit microscope subrack facility, allowing flexible scheduling and control of fluids and biology experiments within NASA Glenn Research Center's Fluids and Combustion Facility on the International Space Station. Within the Fluids and Combustion Facility, four fluids physics experiments will utilize an instrument built around a light microscope. These experiments are the Constrained Vapor Bubble experiment (Peter C. Wayner of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute), the Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment-2 (Paul M. Chaikin of Princeton University), the Physics of Colloids in Space-2 experiment (David A. Weitz of Harvard University), and the Low Volume Fraction Colloidal Assembly experiment (Arjun G. Yodh of the University of Pennsylvania). The first experiment investigates heat conductance in microgravity as a function of liquid volume and heat flow rate to determine, in detail, the transport process characteristics in a curved liquid film. The other three experiments investigate various complementary aspects of the nucleation, growth, structure, and properties of colloidal crystals in microgravity and the effects of micromanipulation upon their properties. Key diagnostic capabilities for meeting the science requirements of the four experiments include video microscopy to observe sample features including basic structures and dynamics, interferometry to measure vapor bubble thin film thickness, laser tweezers for colloidal particle manipulation and patterning, confocal microscopy to provide enhanced three-dimensional visualization of colloidal structures, and spectrophotometry to measure colloidal crystal photonic properties.

  11. Working fluid selection for the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) exhaust heat recovery of an internal combustion engine power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douvartzides, S.; Karmalis, I.

    2016-11-01

    Organic Rankine cycle technology is capable to efficiently convert low-grade heat into useful mechanical power. In the present investigation such a cycle is used for the recovery of heat from the exhaust gases of a four stroke V18 MAN 51/60DF internal combustion engine power plant operating with natural gas. Design is focused on the selection of the appropriate working fluid of the Rankine cycle in terms of thermodynamic, environmental and safety criteria. 37 candidate fluids have been considered and all Rankine cycles examined were subcritical. The thermodynamic analysis of all fluids has been comparatively undertaken and the effect of key operation conditions such as the evaporation pressure and the superheating temperature was taken into account. By appropriately selecting the working fluid and the Rankine cycle operation conditions the overall plant efficiency was improved by 5.52% and fuel consumption was reduced by 12.69%.

  12. Fluorescence characteristics of the fuel tracers triethylamine and trimethylamine for the investigation of fuel distribution in internal combustion engines.

    PubMed

    Lind, Susanne; Aßmann, Simon; Zigan, Lars; Will, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence based on fuel tracers like amines is a suitable measurement technique for mixing studies in internal combustion (IC) engines. Triethylamine has often been used in gasoline IC engines; however, no detailed fluorescence characterization for excitation at 263 or 266 nm is available. Trimethylamine (TMA) exhibits high potential as a gaseous fuel tracer but little information about TMA fluorescence is currently available. A picosecond laser source combined with a streak camera equipped with a spectrograph was used to determine the spectral fluorescence emission and fluorescence decay time of both tracers. The tracers were investigated at various temperatures and pressures in a calibration cell with nitrogen as bath gas. The results provide an in-depth understanding of the fluorescence characteristics of both tracers and allow assessment of their application to the investigation of fuel distribution in IC engines.

  13. The application of product architecture in determining the concept of mini hydrogen cell for petrol powered internal combustion engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nidzamuddin, M. Y.; Nadzirah, T. S.; Juffrizal, K.; Zulfattah, Z. M.; Tan, C. F.; Taha, M. M.; Hidayah, I.; Hilwa, M. Z.

    2015-05-01

    Product architecture is a method to translate the physical element of the functional requirement within the product system and describe the connection between these physical elements. Physical element will be interpreted through parts, component or subassemblies. Method of product architecture is an effective way in determined the conceptual design because it is not only considered the way of the product to be designed but it also focused on how the product will be made, used and even maintaining the product. This paper presents the methodology of the design and development of mini hydrogen cell for petrol powered internal combustion engine through the product architecture method. This method is applied based on the four stages of the product concept development process which is product element, product cluster, product geometry and the morphological chart. From this method, the best option of the concept is selected.

  14. New, efficient and viable system for ethanol fuel utilization on combined electric/internal combustion engine vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, André G.; Silva, Gabriel C. D.; Paganin, Valdecir A.; Biancolli, Ana L. G.; Ticianelli, Edson A.

    2015-10-01

    Although ethanol can be directly employed as fuel on polymer-electrolyte fuel cells (PEMFC), its low oxidation kinetics in the anode and the crossover to the cathode lead to a substantial reduction of energy conversion efficiency. However, when fuel cell driven vehicles are considered, the system may include an on board steam reformer for converting ethanol into hydrogen, but the hydrogen produced contains carbon monoxide, which limits applications in PEMFCs. Here, we present a system consisting of an ethanol dehydrogenation catalytic reactor for producing hydrogen, which is supplied to a PEMFC to generate electricity for electric motors. A liquid by-product effluent from the reactor can be used as fuel for an integrated internal combustion engine, or catalytically recycled to extract more hydrogen molecules. Power densities comparable to those of a PEMFC operating with pure hydrogen are attained by using the hydrogen rich stream produced by the ethanol dehydrogenation reactor.

  15. International Policies on Sharing Genomic Research Results with Relatives: Approaches to Balancing Privacy with Access.

    PubMed

    Branum, Rebecca; Wolf, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    Returning genetic research results to relatives raises complex issues. In order to inform the U.S. debate, this paper analyzes international law and policies governing the sharing of genetic research results with relatives and identifies key themes and lessons. The laws and policies from other countries demonstrate a range of approaches to balancing individual privacy and autonomy with family access for health benefit, offering important lessons for further development of approaches in the United States.

  16. International Policies on Sharing Genomic Research Results with Relatives: Approaches to Balancing Privacy with Access

    PubMed Central

    Branum, Rebecca; Wolf, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Returning genetic research results to raises complex issues. In order to inform the U.S. debate, this paper analyzes international law and policies governing the sharing of genetic research results with relatives and identifies key themes and lessons. The laws and policies from other countries demonstrate a range of approaches to balancing individual privacy and autonomy with family access for health benefit, offering important lessons for further development of approaches in the United States. PMID:26479568

  17. [Factors affecting access to health care institutions by the internally displaced population in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Mogollón-Pérez, Amparo Susana; Vázquez, María Luisa

    2008-04-01

    In Colombia, the on-going armed conflict causes displacement of thousands of persons that suffer its economic, social, and health consequences. Despite government regulatory efforts, displaced people still experience serious problems in securing access to health care. In order to analyze the institutional factors that affect access to health care by the internally displaced population, a qualitative, exploratory, and descriptive study was carried out by means of semi-structured individual interviews with a criterion sample of stakeholders (81). A narrative content analysis was performed, with mixed generation of categories and segmentation of data by themes and informants. Inadequate funding, providers' problems with reimbursement by insurers, and lack of clear definition as to coverage under the Social Security System in Health pose barriers to access to health care by the internally displaced population. Bureaucratic procedures, limited inter- and intra-sector coordination, and scarce available resources for public health service providers also affect access. Effective government action is required to ensure the right to health care for this population.

  18. Experimental Study of Ignition by Hot Spot in Internal Combustion Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serruys, Max

    1938-01-01

    In order to carry out the contemplated study, it was first necessary to provide hot spots in the combustion chamber, which could be measured and whose temperature could be changed. It seemed difficult to realize both conditions working solely on the temperature of the cooling water in a way so as to produce hot spots on the cylinder wall capable of provoking autoignition. Moreover, in the majority of practical cases, autoignition is produced by the spark plug, one of the least cooled parts in the engine. The first procedure therefore did not resemble that which most generally occurs in actual engine operation. All of these considerations caused us to reproduce similar hot spots at the spark plugs. The hot spots produced were of two kinds and designated with the name of thermo-electric spark plug and of metallic hot spot.

  19. TEM and HRTEM of Soot-in-oil particles and agglomerates from internal combustion engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, M. W.; La Rocca, A.; Shayler, P. J.

    2014-06-01

    Over time, the performance of lubricating oil in a diesel engine is affected by the build-up of carbon soot produced by the combustion process. TEM and HRTEM are commonly used to investigate the characteristics of individual and agglomerated particles from diesel exhaust, to understand the structure and distribution of the carbon sheets in the primary particles and the nanostructure morphology. However, high resolution imaging of soot-in-oil is more challenging, as mineral oil is a contaminant for the electron microscope and leads to instability under the electron beam. In this work we compare solvent extraction and centrifugation techniques for removing the mineral oil contaminant, and the effect on particle size distribution.

  20. Access patterns of a clinic-based health information web site for international travelers.

    PubMed

    Licciardone, John C

    2002-01-01

    A large national telephone survey conducted in 2000 by the Pew Internet & American Life Project estimated that 52 million American adults used the Internet to acquire health information. Based on population estimates, these users comprised 25% of all adults. The growth of online health information coupled with increasing Internet access has led to the emergence of consumer informatics as an outbranching from traditional medical informatics. The ease of international communications afforded by the Internet holds great promise for consumers in the realm of travel medicine. For example, an early study found that a Web site hosted by an international travel medicine clinic was accessed by client computers in more than 100 countries. Nevertheless, relatively little research has been conducted on consumer informatics in travel medicine. An important aspect of consumer informatics involves studying consumers' needs for health information. The purpose of this study was to perform a descriptive analysis of overall use and content-specific access patterns for health information provided on a clinic-based Web site for international travelers.

  1. 10 CFR 95.36 - Access by representatives of the International Atomic Energy Agency or by participants in other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Access by representatives of the International Atomic... Atomic Energy Agency or by participants in other international agreements. (a) Based upon written... an authorized representative of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) or other...

  2. 10 CFR 95.36 - Access by representatives of the International Atomic Energy Agency or by participants in other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Access by representatives of the International Atomic... Atomic Energy Agency or by participants in other international agreements. (a) Based upon written... an authorized representative of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) or other...

  3. Solid rocket booster performance evaluation model. Volume 3: Sample case. [propellant combustion simulation/internal ballistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The solid rocket booster performance evaluation model (SRB-11) is used to predict internal ballistics in a sample motor. This motor contains a five segmented grain. The first segment has a 14 pointed star configuration with a web which wraps partially around the forward dome. The other segments are circular in cross-section and are tapered along the interior burning surface. Two of the segments are inhibited on the forward face. The nozzle is not assumed to be submerged. The performance prediction is broken into two simulation parts: the delivered end item specific impulse and the propellant properties which are required as inputs for the internal ballistics module are determined; and the internal ballistics for the entire burn duration of the motor are simulated.

  4. Symposium (International) on Combustion, 23rd, Universite d'Orleans, France, July 22-27, 1990, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The present symposium on combustion discusses reaction kinetics, NO(x) kinetics, premixed, diffusion, and nonsteady flames, turbulent combustion, hazardous waste, fluidized bed combustion, coal boilers and furnaces, engines, heterogeneous kinetics, heterogeneous, droplet, and microgravity combustion, and high-temperature synthesis. Attention is given to reactions of biphenyl, methylnaphthalenes, and phenanthrene with atomic oxygen in the gas phase, the oxidation of ortho-xylene, the effects of water on combustion kinetics at high pressure, and the formation and measurement of N2O in combustion systems. Topics addressed include large ions in premixed benzene-oxygen flames, the structure and kinetics of CH4/N2O flames, the propagation of unsteady hydrogen premixed flames near flammability limits, and the basic structure of lean propane flames. Also considered are OH measurements of piloted diffusion flames of nitrogen-diluted methane near extinction, waste combustion, preferential oxidation of carbon surfaces, and reburning mechanisms in a pulverized coal combustor.

  5. Apparatus utilizing a plural-profiled cam unit for actuating the valve of an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Burandt, C.O.

    1987-08-04

    An apparatus is described for operating a reciprocable valve assembly associated with a combustion cylinder of an internal combustion engine comprising an axially-fixed camshaft having a central axis, first cam means mounted on the camshaft for rotation. The first cam means having a first base circle portion, and first and second ramp portions, the first ramp portion are connected at one end of the first base circle portion and extending in one direction away from the first base circle portion and gradually increasing in radius in the one direction. The second ramp portion is connected at one end to the first base circle portion and extends in an opposite direction away from the first base circle portion and gradually increasing in radius in the opposite direction. The second cam means has a second base circle portion of the same radius as the first base circle portion. A lobe portion radially extends from the central axis a first distance and connects third and fourth ramp portions. The third ramp portion extends in the one direction away from the second base circle portion and gradually increases in radius in the one direction. The fourth ramp portion extends in the opposite direction away from the second base circle portion and gradually increases in radius in the opposite direction. The first cam means has an outermost radial distance less than the first distance and follower means provides a single working surface engageable by both of the first and second cam means. The lobe portion and the third and fourth ramp portions of the second cam means engage a different portion of the single working surface of the follower means from that engaged by the first and second ramp portions of the first cam means.

  6. New power source from fractional quantum energy levels of atomic hydrogen that surpasses internal combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, R. L.; Ray, P.; Dhandapani, B.; Nansteel, M.; Chen, X.; He, J.

    2002-12-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectroscopy was recorded on microwave discharges of helium with 2% hydrogen. Novel emission lines were observed with energies of q·13.6 eV where q=1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9, or 11 or these lines inelastically scattered by helium atoms wherein 21.2 eV was absorbed in the excitation of He (1s 2) to He (1s 12p 1). These lines were identified as hydrogen transitions to electronic energy levels below the 'ground' state corresponding to fractional quantum numbers. Significant line broadening corresponding to an average hydrogen atom temperature of 33-38 eV was observed for helium-hydrogen discharge plasmas; whereas pure hydrogen showed no excessive broadening corresponding to an average hydrogen atom temperature of ≈3 eV. Since a significant increase in H temperature was observed with helium-hydrogen discharge plasmas, and energetic hydrino lines were observed at short wavelengths in the corresponding microwave plasmas that required a very significant reaction rate due to low photon detection efficiency in this region, the power balance was measured on the helium-hydrogen microwave plasmas. With a microwave input power of 30 W, the thermal output power was measured to be at least 300 W corresponding to a reactor temperature rise from room temperature to 900 °C within 90 s, a power density of 30 MW/m 3, and an energy balance of about -4×10 5 kJ/mol H 2 compared to the enthalpy of combustion of hydrogen of -241.8 kJ/mol H 2.

  7. Accessibility

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Federal laws, including Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act, mandate that people with disabilities have access to the same information that someone without a disability would have. 508 standards cover electronic and information technology (EIT) products.

  8. Life cycle comparison of fuel cell vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles for Canada and the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamel, Nada; Li, Xianguo

    The objective of this study is to put forward a full analysis of the impact of the difference between the Canadian and American energy realities on the life cycle of fuel cell vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles. Electricity is a major type of energy used in the transportation sector. Electricity is needed in the production of feedstock of fuel, the production of the fuel, the production of the vehicle material and the assembly of the vehicles. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the impact of the electricity mix difference between Canada and the United States. In the analysis, the life cycle of the fuel consists of obtaining the raw material, extracting the fuel from the raw material, transporting and storing the fuel as well as using the fuel in the vehicle. Four different methods of obtaining hydrogen were analyzed; using coal and nuclear power to produce electricity and extract hydrogen through electrolysis and via steam reforming of natural gas in a natural gas plant and in a hydrogen refueling station. It is found that fuel cell vehicle fuelled by hydrogen has lower energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions than internal combustion engine vehicle fuelled by conventional gasoline except for hydrogen production using coal as the primary energy source in Canada and the United States. Using the Canadian electricity mix will result in lower carbon dioxide emissions and energy consumption than using the American electricity mix. For the present vehicles, using the Canadian electricity mix will save up to 215.18 GJ of energy and 20.87 t of CO 2 on a per capita basis and 26.53 GJ of energy and 6.8 t of CO 2 on a per vehicle basis. Similarly, for the future vehicles, using the Canadian electricity mix will lower the total carbon dioxide emissions by 21.15 t and the energy consumed is reduced by 218.49 GJ on a per capita basis and 26.53 GJ of energy and 7.22 t of CO 2 on a per vehicle basis. The well-to-tank efficiencies are higher with the

  9. International Student Access to U.S. Higher Education since World War II: How NAFSA (Association of International Educators) Has Influenced Federal Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyokawa, Norifumi

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation is a study of the policy process behind the legislation and regulation governing international student access to U.S. higher education since the immediate aftermath of World War II. The particular research focus of this dissertation is on NAFSA: Association of International Educators (originally established as the National…

  10. Path planning during combustion mode switch

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Li; Ravi, Nikhil

    2015-12-29

    Systems and methods are provided for transitioning between a first combustion mode and a second combustion mode in an internal combustion engine. A current operating point of the engine is identified and a target operating point for the internal combustion engine in the second combustion mode is also determined. A predefined optimized transition operating point is selected from memory. While operating in the first combustion mode, one or more engine actuator settings are adjusted to cause the operating point of the internal combustion engine to approach the selected optimized transition operating point. When the engine is operating at the selected optimized transition operating point, the combustion mode is switched from the first combustion mode to the second combustion mode. While operating in the second combustion mode, one or more engine actuator settings are adjusted to cause the operating point of the internal combustion to approach the target operating point.

  11. Development of a phenomenological cycle simulation for a natural gas-fuelled, compression-ignited, internal combustion engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yafeng

    Engine cycle simulations have been developed for modeling both diesel and dual fuel combustion in compression ignition engines. The primary objective of this work was to investigate the dual fuel combustion process in an engine and to better understand the processes of ignition, flame propagation, and pollutant formation in the engine. A multizone diesel combustion model was first developed to predict the diesel combustion process and emissions for diesel fueling. A phenomenological combustion model for dual fuel operation was then developed to simulate the combustion process and emissions of a micro-pilot diesel ignition natural gas fueled engine. Coupled with the chemical equilibrium reactions for emission formation (i.e., extended Zeldovich NOx mechanism, soot formation and destruction submodeling, unburned hydrocarbon emissions submodeling), models for diesel droplet evaporation, air entrainment, cylinder heat transfer, piston work, mass flow rates, flame propagation, crevice flow, and flame quenching have been combined with a thermodynamic analysis of the engine to yield instantaneous cylinder conditions, engine performance, and emissions. Parametric and comparison studies of diesel operation, dual fuel combustion, and micro-pilot combustion have been conducted. The major conclusions that can be drawn from this work include (1) diesel evaporation and air entrainment can have significant influence on the ignition and combustion processes, (2) pressure and temperature of inlet air, compression ratio, and the start of fuel injection are important engine operating and design parameters, (3) the combustion process of the mixture of natural gas and air is dominantly premixed-combustion, and (4) the processes of crevice flow and flame quenching can have a substantial impact on the dual fuel/micro-pilot combustion and emission formation processes.

  12. [European integration and health policies: repercussions of the internal European Market on access to health services].

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Luisa; Giovanella, Lígia

    2006-09-01

    This article explores the health policy repercussions of countries' regional integration into the European Union. The aim is to review the regulation of access in other countries, with the conclusion of the single European market and the free circulation of persons, services, goods, and capital. The article begins by reviewing the various forms of integration and describes the expansion and institutionalization of Community agencies. The repercussions of European integration on health policies and regulation of access are analyzed. Market impacts on health result from Treaty directives and internal policy adjustments to free circulation. Health services access is gradually regulated and granted by rulings. Projects along borders illustrate the dynamics where differences are used to achieve comprehensive care. In the oldest integration experience, the market regulation has generated intentional and non-intentional impacts on the health policies of member states, regardless of the organizational model. Knowledge and analysis of this experience signals challenges for the Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur) and adds to future debates and decisions.

  13. Analysis of Wall Models for Internal Combustion Engine Simulations Using High-speed Micro-PIV Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Peter; Ewan, Tim; Jainski, Christopher; Dreizler, Andreas; Lu, Louise; Sick, Volker; Ihme, Matthias

    2014-11-01

    The performance of internal combustion engines (IC-engine) is affected by the thermo-viscous boundary layer region. Computational models for the prediction of engine performance typically rely on wall functions to overcome the need for resolving the boundary layer structure. The objective of this contribution is to assess some of the assumptions on the wall functions under realistic operating conditions in a motored engine. Crank angle resolved high-resolution micro particle image velocimetry (μ-PIV) measurements were conducted previously in a spark-ignition direct-injection single cylinder engine. Data analysis is performed to assess the inner structure of the boundary layer. Using these measurements, the performance of a hierarchy of wall models, including the wall function model, which is commonly used in RANS and LES IC-engine simulations, and three hybrid RANS/LES wall models with increasing fidelity are investigated. It is shown that all four models provide adequate predictions if the first grid-point is located in the viscous sublayer; the wall function model has consistently underpredicted the shear velocity if the first grid-point is located outside the viscous sublayer, however the other three hybrid wall models all give reasonable results in this region.

  14. Speciated hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions from an internal combustion engine operating on methyl tertiary butyl ether-containing fuels.

    PubMed

    Poulopoulos, S G; Philippopoulos, C J

    2001-07-01

    In the present work, engine and tailpipe (after a three-way catalytic converter) emissions from an internal combustion engine operating on two oxygenated blend fuels [containing 2 and 11% weight/weight (w/w) methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE)] and on a nonoxygenated base fuel were characterized. The engine (OPEL 1.6 L) was operated under various conditions, in the range of 0-20 HP. Total unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, methane, hexane, ethylene, acetaldehyde, acetone, 2-propanol, benzene, toluene, 1,3-butadiene, acetic acid, and MTBE were measured at each engine operating condition. As concerns the total HC emissions, the use of MTBE was beneficial from 1.90 to 3.81 HP, which were by far the most polluting conditions. Moreover, CO emissions in tailpipe exhaust were decreased in the whole operation range with increasing MTBE in the fuel. The greatest advantage of MTBE addition to gasoline was the decrease in ethylene, acetaldehyde, benzene, toluene, and acetic acid emissions in engine exhaust, especially when MTBE content in the fuel was increased to 11% w/w. In tailpipe exhaust, the catalyst operation diminished the observed differences. Ethylene, methane, and acetaldehyde were the main compounds present in exhaust gases. Ethylene was easily oxidized over the catalyst, while acetaldehyde and methane were quite resistant to oxidation.

  15. Fast Spatially Resolved Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Distribution Measurements in an Internal Combustion Engine Using Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Jihyung; Prikhodko, Vitaly; Parks, James E.; Perfetto, Anthony; Geckler, Sam; Partridge, William P.

    2015-09-01

    One effective method of reducing NOx emissions while improving efficiency is exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in internal combustion engines. But, insufficient mixing between fresh air and exhaust gas can lead to cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder nonuniform charge gas mixtures of a multi-cylinder engine, which can in turn reduce engine performance and efficiency. Furthermore, a sensor packaged into a compact probe was designed, built and applied to measure spatiotemporal EGR distributions in the intake manifold of an operating engine. The probe promotes the development of more efficient and higher-performance engines by resolving high-speed in situ CO2 concentration at various locations in the intake manifold. Our study employed mid-infrared light sources tuned to an absorption band of CO2 near 4.3 μm, an industry standard species for determining EGR fraction. The calibrated probe was used to map spatial EGR distributions in an intake manifold with high accuracy and monitor cycle-resolved cylinder-specific EGR fluctuations at a rate of up to 1 kHz.

  16. Environmental impacts of varying electric vehicle user behaviours and comparisons to internal combustion engine vehicle usage - An Irish case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weldon, Peter; Morrissey, Patrick; O'Mahony, Margaret

    2016-07-01

    Concerns have been expressed regarding the displacement of harmful emissions from internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) tailpipes to the sources of electricity generation used to charge electric vehicles (EV). The degree to which EVs can reduce the environmental impacts of road transportation is dependent on the fuel mix of electricity generation within a country and on the real-time charging behaviours of EV users since the fuel mix of electricity generation frequently changes. This paper analyses the varying environmental impacts of EVs based on contrasting user behaviours and compares them to the environmental impacts of ICEVs. Individual EV user profiles are developed which comprise real data emerging from charge events undertaken in Ireland, and information is gathered on the actual CO2 intensity of the electrical grid in real-time, allowing for the carbon intensity of every individual charge event to be determined using time and date information. The results show that the environmental impacts of EVs are highly influenced by the charging behaviours of individual users, and night-time charging was found to produce the largest environmental impact. EVs are shown to be a more environmentally friendly choice of vehicle than ICEVs under a wide majority of scenarios.

  17. Fast spatially resolved exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) distribution measurements in an internal combustion engine using absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jihyung; Prikhodko, Vitaly; Parks, James E; Perfetto, Anthony; Geckler, Sam; Partridge, William P

    2015-09-01

    Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in internal combustion engines is an effective method of reducing NOx emissions while improving efficiency. However, insufficient mixing between fresh air and exhaust gas can lead to cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder non-uniform charge gas mixtures of a multi-cylinder engine, which can in turn reduce engine performance and efficiency. A sensor packaged into a compact probe was designed, built and applied to measure spatiotemporal EGR distributions in the intake manifold of an operating engine. The probe promotes the development of more efficient and higher-performance engines by resolving high-speed in situ CO2 concentration at various locations in the intake manifold. The study employed mid-infrared light sources tuned to an absorption band of CO2 near 4.3 μm, an industry standard species for determining EGR fraction. The calibrated probe was used to map spatial EGR distributions in an intake manifold with high accuracy and monitor cycle-resolved cylinder-specific EGR fluctuations at a rate of up to 1 kHz.

  18. Power generation and gaseous emissions performance of an internal combustion engine fed with blends of soybean and beef tallow biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, Waldir Nagel; Gauer, Mayara Ananda; Tomaz, Edson; Rodrigues, Paulo Rogério Pinto; de Souza, Samuel Nelson Melegari; Chaves, Luiz Inácio; Villetti, Lucas; Olanyk, Luciano Zart; Cabral, Alexandre Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the performance of an internal combustion engine fed with blends of biodiesel produced from soybean and diesel, and blends of biodiesel produced from beef tallow and diesel. Performance was evaluated in terms of power generated at low loading conditions (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kW) and emission of organic and inorganic pollutants. In order to analyse inorganic gases (CO, SO2 and NOx), an automatic analyser was used and the organic emissions (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene - BTEX) were carried out using a gas chromatograph. The results indicate that the introduction of the two biodiesels in the fuel caused a reduction in CO, SO2 and BTEX emissions. In addition, the reduction was proportional to the increase in loading regime. Beef tallow biodiesels presented better results regarding emission than soybean biodiesels. The use of pure biodiesels also presented a net reduction in pollutant gas emissions without hindering the engine generator performance.

  19. Supercharging an internal combustion engine by aid of a dual-rotor bi-flux axial compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grǎdinariu, Andrei Cristian; Mihai, Ioan

    2016-12-01

    Internal combustion engines can be supercharged in order to enhance their performances [1-3]. Engine power is proportional to the quantity of fresh fluid introduced into the cylinder. At present, the general tendency is to try to obtain actual specific powers as high as possible, for as small as possible cylinder capacity, without increasing the generated pollution hazards. The present paper investigates the impact of replacing a centrifugal turbo-compressor with an axial double-rotor bi-flux one [4]. The proposed method allows that for the same number of cylinders, an increase in discharged airflow, accompanied by a decrease in fuel consumption. Using a program developed under the MathCad environment, the present work was aimed at studying the way temperature modifies at the end of isentropic compression under supercharging conditions. Taking into account a variation between extreme limits of the ambient temperature, its influence upon the evolution of thermal load coefficient was analyzed considering the air pressure at the compressor cooling system outlet. This analysis was completed by an exergetical study of the heat evacuated through cylinder walls in supercharged engine conditions. The conducted investigation allows verification of whether significant differences can be observed between an axial, dual-rotor, bi-flux compressor and centrifugal compressors.

  20. Fast Spatially Resolved Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Distribution Measurements in an Internal Combustion Engine Using Absorption Spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Yoo, Jihyung; Prikhodko, Vitaly; Parks, James E.; ...

    2015-09-01

    One effective method of reducing NOx emissions while improving efficiency is exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in internal combustion engines. But, insufficient mixing between fresh air and exhaust gas can lead to cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder nonuniform charge gas mixtures of a multi-cylinder engine, which can in turn reduce engine performance and efficiency. Furthermore, a sensor packaged into a compact probe was designed, built and applied to measure spatiotemporal EGR distributions in the intake manifold of an operating engine. The probe promotes the development of more efficient and higher-performance engines by resolving high-speed in situ CO2 concentration at various locations in themore » intake manifold. Our study employed mid-infrared light sources tuned to an absorption band of CO2 near 4.3 μm, an industry standard species for determining EGR fraction. The calibrated probe was used to map spatial EGR distributions in an intake manifold with high accuracy and monitor cycle-resolved cylinder-specific EGR fluctuations at a rate of up to 1 kHz.« less

  1. Effects of alloying elements on the microstructure and fatigue properties of cast iron for internal combustion engine exhaust manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenmann, David J.

    In the design of exhaust manifolds for internal combustion engines the materials used must exhibit resistance to corrosion at high temperatures while maintaining a stable microstructure. Cast iron has been used for manifolds for many years by auto manufacturers due to a combination of suitable mechanical properties, low cost, and ease of casting. Over time cast iron is susceptible to microstructural changes, corrosion, and oxidation which can result in failure due to fatigue. This thesis seeks to answer the question: "Can observed microstructural changes and measured high temperature fatigue life in cast iron alloys be used to develop a predictive model for fatigue life?" the importance of this question lies in the fact that there is little data for the behavior of cast iron alloys at high temperature. For this study two different types of cast iron, 50HS and HSM will be examined. Of particular concern for the high Si+C cast irons (and Mo in the case of the HSM cast iron) are subsurface microstructural changes that result due to heat treatment including (1) decarburization, (2) ferrite formation, (3) graphitization, (4) internal oxidation of the Si, (5) high temperature fatigue resistance, and (6) creep potential. Initial results obtained include microstructure examination after being exposed to high temperatures, grain size, nodule size, and hardness measurements. The initial examinations concluded that both cast irons performed fairly similarly, although the microstructure of the HSM samples did show slightly better resistance to high temperature as compared to that of the 50HS. Follow on work involved high temperature fatigue testing of these two materials in order to better determine if the newer alloy, HSM is a better choice for exhaust manifolds. Correlations between fatigue performance and microstructure were made and discussed, with the results examined in light of current and proposed models for predicting fatigue performance based on computational methods

  2. International Collaborations Fostering Data Discovery and Access of Geodetic Data for the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meertens, C. M.; Boler, F. M.; Miller, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    UNAVCO community investigators are actively engaged in using space and terrestrial geodetic techniques to study earthquake processes, mantle properties, active magmatic systems, plate tectonics, plate boundary zone deformation, intraplate deformation, glacial isostatic adjustment, and hydrologic and atmospheric processes. Since the first GPS field projects were conducted over thirty years ago, these science investigations and the UNAVCO constituency as a whole have been international and collaborative in scope and participation. Collaborations were driven by the nature of the scientific problems being addressed, the capability of the technology to make precise measurements over global scales, and inherent technical necessity for sharing of GPS tracking data across national boundaries. The International GNSS Service (IGS) was formed twenty years ago as a voluntary federation to share GPS data from now hundreds of locations around the globe to facilitate realization of global reference frames, ties to regional surveys, precise orbits, and to establish and improve best practices in analysis and infrastructure. Recently, however, numbers of regional stations have grown to the tens of thousands, typically with data that are difficult to access. UNAVCO has been working to help remove technical barriers by providing open source tools such as the Geodetic Seamless Archive Centers software to facilitate data sharing and discovery and by developing DataWorks software to manage network data. Data web services also provide the framework for UNAVCO contributions to multi-technique, inter-disciplinary, and integrative activities such as CooPEUS, GEO Supersites, EarthScope, and EarthCube. We will discuss some of UNAVCO's experiences with building and maintaining international collaborations, processes for defining and evolving best practices, technological approaches for sharing and attribution of geodetic data, and challenges to open data access.

  3. Fuel economy opportunities for internal combustion engines by means of oil-cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, C. F.; Li, J. C.; Qin, W. X.; Wei, Z. Y.; Chen, J.

    1997-06-01

    Comparative experiments of oil and water-cooling were performed on a 4-cylinder automotive gasoline engine and a single-cylinder direct injection Diesel engine. Measurements were made to investigate the variation of fuel consumption, combustor wall temperature and engine emissions (HC, CO, NOx and smoke) with two cooling media at steady-state conditions. Significant improvement of fuel economy was found mainly at partial load conditions with oil-cooling in comparison with the baseline water-cooling both for the two engines. The experimental results also showed general trend of reduction in engine emissions using oil as the coolant. Measurements of wall temperature demonstrated that oil-cooling resulted in considerable increase of the combustor wall temperature and reduce of warm-up period in starting process. For automotive gasoline engine, road tests indicated the same trend of fuel economy improvement with oil-cooling. The performance of the automotive oil-cooled engine was further improved by internal cooling with water or methanol injection.

  4. International Workshop on Mathematical Methods in Combustion Held in Como, Italy on 18-22 May 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    Colombo Mr. Ugo Scaglione Mathematical Methods in Combustion Monday, 18 May 1992 Villa Olmo, Room ’ Olimpo " 08.30 Registration 09.15 L De Luca, R...Villa Olmo, Room " Olimpo " 8.50 L. De Luca Introductory Remarks NUMERICAL FUNDAMENTALS M.K. Strelets chairman 09.00 E.S. Oran Limitations and...Villa Olmo, Room " Olimpo " 08.50 L. De Luca Introductory Remarks LINEAR COMBUSTION STABILITY A.G. Merzhanov chairman 09.00 B.V. Novozhilov Combustion

  5. Internal structure of Family Health Units: access for people with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Martins, Kaisy Pereira; Costa, Tatiana Ferreira da; Medeiros, Thayris Mariano de; Fernandes, Maria das Graças Melo; França, Inácia Sátiro Xavier de; Costa, Kátia Nêyla de Freitas Macêdo

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the internal structure of Family Health Units in relation to the access of people with physical and/or sensory disabilities. It is a descriptive, exploratory, population-based research, held in Family Health Units of the municipality of João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. For the collection of data, a checklist based on Technical Standard 9050 was used. For the analysis, the descriptive and exploratory analysis of the data and the Chi-square test were applied. As a result, of the 90 buildings evaluated, only 47.8% have a wheelchair ramp, of these 30.0% have maximum slope and 32.2% have anti-slip flooring. In 28.9% access happens through a staircase without handrail and in 6.7% through a staircase with handrail, 6.7% of these with anti-slip flooring. And only 17.8% of sliding doors have lowered tracks. We concluded that it must be recognized that public policies and institutions do not correspond to the need of these people, and it is necessary to reformulate this form of care and reorganize health services.

  6. Internal combustion engine control for series hybrid electric vehicles by parallel and distributed genetic programming/multiobjective genetic algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladwin, D.; Stewart, P.; Stewart, J.

    2011-02-01

    This article addresses the problem of maintaining a stable rectified DC output from the three-phase AC generator in a series-hybrid vehicle powertrain. The series-hybrid prime power source generally comprises an internal combustion (IC) engine driving a three-phase permanent magnet generator whose output is rectified to DC. A recent development has been to control the engine/generator combination by an electronically actuated throttle. This system can be represented as a nonlinear system with significant time delay. Previously, voltage control of the generator output has been achieved by model predictive methods such as the Smith Predictor. These methods rely on the incorporation of an accurate system model and time delay into the control algorithm, with a consequent increase in computational complexity in the real-time controller, and as a necessity relies to some extent on the accuracy of the models. Two complementary performance objectives exist for the control system. Firstly, to maintain the IC engine at its optimal operating point, and secondly, to supply a stable DC supply to the traction drive inverters. Achievement of these goals minimises the transient energy storage requirements at the DC link, with a consequent reduction in both weight and cost. These objectives imply constant velocity operation of the IC engine under external load disturbances and changes in both operating conditions and vehicle speed set-points. In order to achieve these objectives, and reduce the complexity of implementation, in this article a controller is designed by the use of Genetic Programming methods in the Simulink modelling environment, with the aim of obtaining a relatively simple controller for the time-delay system which does not rely on the implementation of real time system models or time delay approximations in the controller. A methodology is presented to utilise the miriad of existing control blocks in the Simulink libraries to automatically evolve optimal control

  7. Internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Flaig, J.D.; Baltz, G.F.; Billingsley, H.C.; Hartke, D.J.; Holcomb, J.A.; Du Bois, C.G.; Taipale, D.L.

    1988-07-19

    A carburetor is described comprising a throttle body section adapted to be mounted on a mounting surface of an intake manifold and having a first end including a flat surface abutting the mounting surface, an opposite second end including a generally flat mounting surface, and a first portion of an air passage extending between the first end surface and the second end mounting surface and adapted to communicate with an intake manifold intake opening. A plastic venturi section is mounted on the mounting surface of the throttle body section and includes a second portion of the air passage, and a generally horizontal, downwardly facing flat mounting surface, a generally cup-shaped, plastic float bowl section mounted on the mounting surface of the venturi section and including an upper end forming a generally flat surface abutting the mounting surface of the venturi section. A reservoir including a float, a throttle shaft, a generally vertical nozzle mounted in the venturi section and having a first end communicating with the air passage second portion, and a second end extending beyond the mounting surface of the venturi section and into the reservoir and a conduit communicating between the air passage first portion and the reservoir are included.

  8. Performance, Efficiency, and Emissions Characterization of Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines Fueled with Hydrogen/Natural Gas Blends

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby S. Chapman; Amar Patil

    2007-06-30

    Hydrogen is an attractive fuel source not only because it is abundant and renewable but also because it produces almost zero regulated emissions. Internal combustion engines fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) are operated throughout a variety of industries in a number of mobile and stationary applications. While CNG engines offer many advantages over conventional gasoline and diesel combustion engines, CNG engine performance can be substantially improved in the lean operating region. Lean operation has a number of benefits, the most notable of which is reduced emissions. However, the extremely low flame propagation velocities of CNG greatly restrict the lean operating limits of CNG engines. Hydrogen, however, has a high flame speed and a wide operating limit that extends into the lean region. The addition of hydrogen to a CNG engine makes it a viable and economical method to significantly extend the lean operating limit and thereby improve performance and reduce emissions. Drawbacks of hydrogen as a fuel source, however, include lower power density due to a lower heating value per unit volume as compared to CNG, and susceptibility to pre-ignition and engine knock due to wide flammability limits and low minimum ignition energy. Combining hydrogen with CNG, however, overcomes the drawbacks inherent in each fuel type. Objectives of the current study were to evaluate the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas as a fuel for conventional natural gas engines. The experiment and data analysis included evaluation of engine performance, efficiency, and emissions along with detailed in-cylinder measurements of key physical parameters. This provided a detailed knowledge base of the impact of using hydrogen/natural gas blends. A four-stroke, 4.2 L, V-6 naturally aspirated natural gas engine coupled to an eddy current dynamometer was used to measure the impact of hydrogen/natural gas blends on performance, thermodynamic efficiency and exhaust gas emissions

  9. Fuel Effects on Gas Turbine Combustion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    W. S., Combustion Considerations for Future Jet Fuels, Sixteenth Symposium (International) on Combustion , The Combustion Institute, pp. 1631-1638...AFWAL-TR-83-2004 -. i FUEL EFFECTS ON SGAS TURBINE COMBUSTION A. H. Lefebvre <.A t • Combustion Laboratory Thermal Science and Propulsion Center...PERIOD COVEREDFinal Report for Period FUEL EFFECTS ON GAS TURBINE COMBUSTION 21 Sep 81 - 23 Dec 82 6. PERFORMING OIG. REPORT NUMBER ś. AUT"HOR(.) S

  10. Anatomy of open access publishing: a study of longitudinal development and internal structure

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Open access (OA) is a revolutionary way of providing access to the scholarly journal literature made possible by the Internet. The primary aim of this study was to measure the volume of scientific articles published in full immediate OA journals from 2000 to 2011, while observing longitudinal internal shifts in the structure of OA publishing concerning revenue models, publisher types and relative distribution among scientific disciplines. The secondary aim was to measure the share of OA articles of all journal articles, including articles made OA by publishers with a delay and individual author-paid OA articles in subscription journals (hybrid OA), as these subsets of OA publishing have mostly been ignored in previous studies. Methods Stratified random sampling of journals in the Directory of Open Access Journals (n = 787) was performed. The annual publication volumes spanning 2000 to 2011 were retrieved from major publication indexes and through manual data collection. Results An estimated 340,000 articles were published by 6,713 full immediate OA journals during 2011. OA journals requiring article-processing charges have become increasingly common, publishing 166,700 articles in 2011 (49% of all OA articles). This growth is related to the growth of commercial publishers, who, despite only a marginal presence a decade ago, have grown to become key actors on the OA scene, responsible for 120,000 of the articles published in 2011. Publication volume has grown within all major scientific disciplines, however, biomedicine has seen a particularly rapid 16-fold growth between 2000 (7,400 articles) and 2011 (120,900 articles). Over the past decade, OA journal publishing has steadily increased its relative share of all scholarly journal articles by about 1% annually. Approximately 17% of the 1.66 million articles published during 2011 and indexed in the most comprehensive article-level index of scholarly articles (Scopus) are available OA through journal

  11. Life cycle analysis of vehicles powered by a fuel cell and by internal combustion engine for Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamel, Nada; Li, Xianguo

    The transportation sector is responsible for a great percentage of the greenhouse gas emissions as well as the energy consumption in the world. Canada is the second major emitter of carbon dioxide in the world. The need for alternative fuels, other than petroleum, and the need to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gases emissions are the main reasons behind this study. In this study, a full life cycle analysis of an internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) and a fuel cell vehicle (FCV) has been carried out. The impact of the material and fuel used in the vehicle on energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions is analyzed for Canada. The data collected from the literature shows that the energy consumption for the production of 1 kg of aluminum is five times higher than that of 1 kg of steel, although higher aluminum content makes vehicles lightweight and more energy efficient during the vehicle use stage. Greenhouse gas regulated emissions and energy use in transportation (GREET) software has been used to analyze the fuel life cycle. The life cycle of the fuel consists of obtaining the raw material, extracting the fuel from the raw material, transporting, and storing the fuel as well as using the fuel in the vehicle. Four different methods of obtaining hydrogen were analyzed; using coal and nuclear power to produce electricity and extraction of hydrogen through electrolysis and via steam reforming of natural gas in a natural gas plant and in a hydrogen refueling station. It is found that the use of coal to obtain hydrogen generates the highest emissions and consumes the highest energy. Comparing the overall life cycle of an ICEV and a FCV, the total emissions of an FCV are 49% lower than an ICEV and the energy consumption of FCV is 87% lower than that of ICEV. Further, CO 2 emissions during the hydrogen fuel production in a central plant can be easily captured and sequestrated. The comparison carried out in this study between FCV and ICEV is extended to

  12. Numerical analysis of flow interaction of turbine system in two-stage turbocharger of internal combustion engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. B.; Zhuge, W. L.; Zhang, Y. J.; Zhang, S. Y.

    2016-05-01

    To reach the goal of energy conservation and emission reduction, high intake pressure is needed to meet the demand of high power density and high EGR rate for internal combustion engine. Present power density of diesel engine has reached 90KW/L and intake pressure ratio needed is over 5. Two-stage turbocharging system is an effective way to realize high compression ratio. Because turbocharging system compression work derives from exhaust gas energy. Efficiency of exhaust gas energy influenced by design and matching of turbine system is important to performance of high supercharging engine. Conventional turbine system is assembled by single-stage turbocharger turbines and turbine matching is based on turbine MAP measured on test rig. Flow between turbine system is assumed uniform and value of outlet physical quantities of turbine are regarded as the same as ambient value. However, there are three-dimension flow field distortion and outlet physical quantities value change which will influence performance of turbine system as were demonstrated by some studies. For engine equipped with two-stage turbocharging system, optimization of turbine system design will increase efficiency of exhaust gas energy and thereby increase engine power density. However flow interaction of turbine system will change flow in turbine and influence turbine performance. To recognize the interaction characteristics between high pressure turbine and low pressure turbine, flow in turbine system is modeled and simulated numerically. The calculation results suggested that static pressure field at inlet to low pressure turbine increases back pressure of high pressure turbine, however efficiency of high pressure turbine changes little; distorted velocity field at outlet to high pressure turbine results in swirl at inlet to low pressure turbine. Clockwise swirl results in large negative angle of attack at inlet to rotor which causes flow loss in turbine impeller passages and decreases turbine

  13. Japanese Language as an Organizational Barrier for International Students to Access to University Services: A Case of Aoyama Gakuin University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiratsuka, Hiroyoshi

    2016-01-01

    In 2011, Aoyama Gakuin University (AGU) started a government-funded degree program (taught in English) to accept international students with limited or no Japanese language proficiency. However, the students faced obstacles in accessing all of the university resources provided. In this article, I investigated Japanese language as an organizational…

  14. A feasibility study of dynamic stress analysis inside a running internal combustion engine using synchrotron X-ray beams.

    PubMed

    Baimpas, Nikolaos; Drakopoulos, Michael; Connolley, Thomas; Song, Xu; Pandazaras, Costas; Korsunsky, Alexander M

    2013-03-01

    The present investigation establishes the feasibility of using synchrotron-generated X-ray beams for time-resolved in situ imaging and diffraction of the interior components of an internal combustion engine during its operation. The demonstration experiment was carried out on beamline I12 (JEEP) at Diamond Light Source, UK. The external hutch of the JEEP instrument is a large-scale engineering test bed for complex in situ processing and simulation experiments. The hutch incorporates a large capacity translation and rotation table and a selection of detectors for monochromatic and white-beam diffraction and imaging. These capabilities were used to record X-ray movies of a motorcycle internal combustion engine running at 1850 r.p.m. and to measure strain inside the connecting rod via stroboscopic X-ray diffraction measurement. The high penetrating ability and high flux of the X-ray beam at JEEP allowed the observation of inlet and outlet valve motion, as well as that of the piston, connecting rod and the timing chain within the engine. Finally, the dynamic internal strain within the moving connecting rod was evaluated with an accuracy of ~50 × 10(-6).

  15. U.S. Government Publications: Their Value, Online Accessibility for International Information Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usdane, Bernice S.

    1980-01-01

    Classifies the types of online databases available through System Development Corporation (ORBIT) and Lockheed Information Systems (DIALOG) that access government information; briefly describes those which include access to government sources; and discusses in greater depth five databases which exclusively access U.S. Federal Government Documents.…

  16. Performance and cost evaluation of internal combustion engines for the destruction of hydrocarbon vapors from fuel-contaminated soils. Report for 18 October 1993-14 January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Archabal, S.R.; Downey, D.C.

    1994-12-01

    This document describes the performance and costs associated with a modified internal combustion engine (ICE) used for the destruction of hydrocarbon vapors extracted from fuel contaminated soils. During the period of 18 October 1993 to 14 January 1994, an ICE treatment system manufactured by VR Systems Inc. in Anaheim, California was tested at the Patrick Air Force Base (AFB), Florida, active Base Exchange (BX) service station. The purpose of this test was to independently measure both the performance and the cost of ICE operation, and to determine how this technology can be most effectively used to complement the bioventing technology.

  17. Combustion of high-sulfur coal and anthracite wastes in a rotary kiln combustor with an advanced internal air distributor

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.T. Jr. ); Ahn, Y.K. ); Angelo, J.F. )

    1990-01-01

    Fluid bed combustors have received extensive testing with both high-sulfur coal and anthracite wastes. Rotary kilns are effective and popular devices for waste combustion. The Angelo Rotary Furnace{trademark} has been developed to improve the operation of rotary pyrolyzer/combustor systems through enhanced air distribution, which in this process is defined as staged, swirled combustion air injection. Fourteen of these new furnaces have been installed worldwide. Two units in Thailand, designed for rice hull feed with occasional lignite feed, have been recently started up. An older unit in Pennsylvania is being upgraded with a new, more advanced air distribution system for a series of tests this fall in which inexpensive high-sulfur coal and anthracite wastes will be fired with limestone. The purposes of these tests are to determine the burning characteristics of these two fuels in this system, to discover the Ca/S ratios necessary for operation of a rotary kiln combusting these fuels, and to observe the gas-borne emissions from the furnace. An extensive preliminary design study will be performed on a commercial installation for combustion of anthracite wastes. 14 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. 40 CFR 60.4210 - What are my compliance requirements if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... manufactured from January 1, 2006 to March 31, 2006 (January 1, 2006 to June 30, 2006 for fire pump engines... from April 1, 2006 to December 31, 2006 (or, for fire pump engines, July 1, 2006 to December 31 of the... combustion engines that meet Tier 1 requirements (or requirements for fire pumps) under this subpart, but...

  19. Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion, Held in Irvine, California on July 31-August 5, 1994

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    THE PRESENTATIONS. THE VOLUMES ALSO HAVE A FULL AUTHOR AND SUBJECT INDEX. THE CONTENTS IS AN ARCHIVAL RECORD OF CURRMNT COMBUSTION RESEARCH RESULTS. 14...Gaetano Continillo, CNR, Istituto Ricerche Prof. Barry P. Butler , University of Iowa Combustione Dr. Hartwell F. Calcote, AeroChem Research Labs Dr...Mackie xxiii CONTENTS Page P R E F A C E

  20. Attitudes toward Post-Trial Access to Medical Interventions: A Review of Academic Literature, Legislation, and International Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Cook, Kori; Snyder, Jeremy; Calvert, John

    2016-08-01

    There is currently no international consensus around post-trial obligations toward research participants, community members, and host countries. This literature review investigates arguments and attitudes toward post-trial access. The literature review found that academic discussions focused on the rights of research participants, but offered few practical recommendations for addressing or improving current practices. Similarly, there are few regulations or legislation pertaining to post-trial access. If regulatory changes are necessary, we need to understand the current arguments, legislation, and attitudes towards post-trial access and participants and community members. Given that clinical trials conducted in low-income countries will likely continue, there is an urgent need for consideration of post-trial benefits for participants, communities, and citizens of host countries. While this issue may not be as pressing in countries where participants have access to healthcare and medicines through public schemes, it is particularly important in regions where this may not be available.

  1. Droplet Combustion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayagam, Vedha

    1998-01-01

    Liquid fuel combustion provides a major portion of the world's energy supply. In most practical combustion devices, liquid burns after being separated into a droplet spray. Essential to the design of efficient combustion systems is a knowledge of droplet combustion behavior. The microgravity environment aboard spacecraft provides an opportunity to investigate the complex interactions between the physical and chemical combustion processes involved in droplet combustion without the complications of natural buoyancy. Launched on STS-83 and STS-94 (April 4 and July 1, 1997), the Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) investigated the fundamentals of droplet combustion under a range of pressures (0.25 to 1 atm), oxygen mole fractions (<0.5), and droplet sizes (1.5 to 5 mm). Principal DCE flight hardware features were a chamber to supply selected test environments, the use of crew-inserted bottles, and a vent system to remove unwanted gaseous combustion products. The internal apparatus contained the droplet deployment and ignition mechanisms to burn single, freely deployed droplets in microgravity. Diagnostics systems included a 35-mm high-speed motion picture camera (see the following sequence of photos) with a backlight to photograph burning droplets and a camcorder to monitor experiment operations. Additional diagnostics included an ultraviolet-light-sensitive CCD (charge couple discharge) camera to obtain flame radiation from hydroxyl radicals (see the final figure) and a 35-mm SLR (single-lens-reflex) camera to obtain color still photographs of the flames.

  2. Thermo-mechanical analysis of an internal cooling system with various configurations of a combustion liner after shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Hokyu; Kim, Kyung Min; Park, Jun Su; Kim, Beom Seok; Cho, Hyung Hee

    2015-12-01

    The after-shell section, which is part of the gas turbine combustion liner, is exposed to the hottest combustion gas. Various cooling schemes have been applied to protect against severe thermal load. However, there is a significant discrepancy in the thermal expansion with large temperature differences, resulting in thermo-mechanical crack formation. In this study, to reduce combustion liner damage, thermo-mechanical analysis was conducted on three after-shell section configurations: inline-discrete divider wall, staggered divider wall, and swirler wall arrays. These array components are well-known heat-transfer enhancement structures in the duct. In the numerical analyses, the heat transfer characteristics, temperature and thermo-mechanical stress distribution were evaluated using finite volume method and finite element method commercial codes. As a result, we demonstrated that the temperature and the thermo-mechanical stress distribution were readily dependent on the structural array for cooling effectiveness and structural support in each modified cooling system. Compared with the reference model, the swirler wall array was most effective in diminishing the thermo-mechanical stress concentration, especially on the inner ring that is vulnerable to crack formation.

  3. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 275 - Obtaining Access for Foreign Intelligence, Foreign Counterintelligence, and International...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obtaining Access for Foreign Intelligence..., App. E Appendix E to Part 275—Obtaining Access for Foreign Intelligence, Foreign Counterintelligence... financial institution (as identified at § 275.3) by an intelligence organization, as identified in...

  4. Small World: Access to Higher Education between Methodological Nationalism and International Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goastellec, Gaele

    2010-01-01

    What do the shared norms emerging in the regulation of access reveal about the higher education internationalisation process? The history of access norms brings to light two characteristics of this process: the spreading of sociotechnic tools and the emergence of moral entrepreneurs. Based on case studies carried out in France, the US, South…

  5. Access to medicines among internally displaced and non-displaced people in urban areas in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Rodríguez, Myriam; Wirtz, Veronika J; Idrovo, Alvaro J; Angulo, Mary Lupe

    2012-12-01

    This study analyzes access to medicines among displaced and non-displaced populations in urban areas in Bucaramanga, Colombia. A household survey was carried out to study access to medicines for self-reported and medically diagnosed health conditions. Multiple Poisson regression with robust variance was used to determine factors associated with access to medicines. Two thousand and sixty individuals from 514 families participated. Only 29.1% (95%CI: 22.04-37.08) of the individuals in the sample with prescriptions and 44.3% (95%CI: 40.42-48.25) with self-reported needs for pharmacotherapy were taking medicines. Greater access was associated with the perceived severity of the illness, higher income, having a health center nearby and not perceiving barriers in accessing services. Social security affiliation and being displaced were not related. Social security coverage alone does not have an effect on access to medicines because it does not include essential medicines that correspond to the health needs of this population. Resolving administrative and geographical barriers is likely to improve access to medicines.

  6. Coal Combustion Science

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, D.R.; Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. )

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

  7. Using Ultrasound-Guided Peripheral Catheterization of the Internal Jugular Vein in Patients With Difficult Peripheral Access.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Michael; Abdelghani, Ramsy; Mohamad, Maha; Limsuwat, Chok; Kheir, Fayez

    2015-10-08

    Vascular access is necessary in patients admitted to the intensive care unit and the medical ward. Currently, there are multiple modalities to achieve adequate vascular access, each with their own difficulties and drawbacks. Often, in patients with certain comorbidities, it is difficult to obtain a peripheral intravenous (IV) line, which can lead to multiple failed attempts in achieving access. We describe the feasibility of inserting an ultrasound (US)-guided peripheral IV catheter into the internal jugular vein (IJ) in such populations. This was a prospective observational case series in patients with difficult or failed peripheral IV access. All patients underwent sterile insertion of a peripheral IV catheter (2.5″, 18 gauge) into the IJ under US guidance. Catheter placement was confirmed by ultrasonography. Nineteen consecutive patients were included in this series. A total of 20 US-guided peripheral IJ catheters were placed. The mean patient age was 57. Sixty percent of patients were male and the mean body mass index was 26 (14.1-51.5). The mean time taken to place the peripheral IJ catheter was 5.3 minutes. Eighty-five percent of catheters placed were mostly placed in the right IJ. There were no complications on follow-up. US-guided placement of peripheral IV catheters in the IJ is feasible to achieve short-term IV access in a select patient population who failed traditional peripheral IV placement. Furthermore, larger trials are needed to confirm safety and long-term complications of this method.

  8. Heterogeneous Combustion Particles with Distinctive Light-Absorbing and Light-Scattering Phases as Mimics of Internally-Mixed Ambient Atmospheric Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conny, J. M.; Ma, X.; Gunn, L. R.

    2011-12-01

    Particles with heterogeneously-distributed light-absorbing and light-scattering phases were generated from incomplete combustion or thermal decomposition to mimic real atmospheric particles with distinctive optical properties. Individual particles and particle populations were characterized microscopically. The purpose was to examine how optical property measurements of internally-mixed ambient air particles might vary based on the properties of laboratory-generated particles produced under controlled conditions. The project is an initial stage in producing reference samples for calibrating instrumentation for monitoring climatically-important atmospheric aerosols. Binary-phase particles containing black carbon (BC) and a metal or a metal oxide phase were generated from the thermal decomposition or partial combustion of liquid fuels at a variety of temperatures from 600 °C to 1100 °C. Fuels included mixtures of toluene or isooctane and iron pentacarbonyl or titanium tetrachloride. Scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy revealed that burning the fuels at different temperatures resulted in distinctive differences in morphology and carbon vs. metal/metal oxide composition. Particles from toluene/Fe(CO)5 thermal decomposition exhibited aggregated morphologies that were classified as dendritic, soot-like, globular, or composited (dendritic-globular). Particles from isooctane/TiCl4 combustion were typically spherical with surface adducts or aggregates. Diameters of the BC/TiO2 particles averaged 0.68 μm to 0.70 μm. Regardless of combustion temperature, the most abundant particles in each BC/TiO2 sample had an aspect ratio of 1.2. However, for the 600 °C and 900 °C samples the distribution of aspect ratios was skewed toward much larger ratios suggesting significant chainlike aggregation. Carbon and titanium compositions (wt.) for the 600 °C sample were 12 % and 53 %, respectively. In contrast, the composition trended in the opposite

  9. Combustion noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahle, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the subject of combustion generated noise is presented. Combustion noise is an important noise source in industrial furnaces and process heaters, turbopropulsion and gas turbine systems, flaring operations, Diesel engines, and rocket engines. The state-of-the-art in combustion noise importance, understanding, prediction and scaling is presented for these systems. The fundamentals and available theories of combustion noise are given. Controversies in the field are discussed and recommendations for future research are made.

  10. Accessibility, searchability, transparency and engagement of soil carbon data: The International Soil Carbon Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harden, Jennifer W.; Hugelius, Gustaf; Koven, Charlie; Sulman, Ben; O'Donnell, Jon; He, Yujie

    2016-04-01

    Soils are capacitors for carbon and water entering and exiting through land-atmosphere exchange. Capturing the spatiotemporal variations in soil C exchange through monitoring and modeling is difficult in part because data are reported unevenly across spatial, temporal, and management scales and in part because the unit of measure generally involves destructive harvest or non-recurrent measurements. In order to improve our fundamental basis for understanding soil C exchange, a multi-user, open source, searchable database and network of scientists has been formed. The International Soil Carbon Network (ISCN) is a self-chartered, member-based and member-owned network of scientists dedicated to soil carbon science. Attributes of the ISCN include 1) Targeted ISCN Action Groups which represent teams of motivated researchers that propose and pursue specific soil C research questions with the aim of synthesizing seminal articles regarding soil C fate. 2) Datasets to date contributed by institutions and individuals to a comprehensive, searchable open-access database that currently includes over 70,000 geolocated profiles for which soil C and other soil properties. 3) Derivative products resulting from the database, including depth attenuation attributes for C concentration and storage; C storage maps; and model-based assessments of emission/sequestration for future climate scenarios. Several examples illustrate the power of such a database and its engagement with the science community. First, a simplified, data-constrained global ecosystem model estimated a global sensitivity of permafrost soil carbon to climate change (g sensitivity) of -14 to -19 Pg C °C-1 of warming on a 100 years time scale. Second, using mathematical characterizations of depth profiles for organic carbon storage, C at the soil surface reflects Net Primary Production (NPP) and its allotment as moss or litter, while e-folding depths are correlated to rooting depth. Third, storage of deep C is highly

  11. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 275 - Obtaining Access for Foreign Intelligence, Foreign Counterintelligence, and International...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Foreign Counterintelligence, and International Terrorist Activities or Investigations E Appendix E to Part..., and International Terrorist Activities or Investigations A. Financial records may be obtained from a... Directive 5240.1 1 , authorized to conduct intelligence activities, to include investigation or...

  12. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 275 - Obtaining Access for Foreign Intelligence, Foreign Counterintelligence, and International...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Foreign Counterintelligence, and International Terrorist Activities or Investigations E Appendix E to Part..., and International Terrorist Activities or Investigations A. Financial records may be obtained from a... Directive 5240.1 1 , authorized to conduct intelligence activities, to include investigation or...

  13. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 275 - Obtaining Access for Foreign Intelligence, Foreign Counterintelligence, and International...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Foreign Counterintelligence, and International Terrorist Activities or Investigations E Appendix E to Part..., and International Terrorist Activities or Investigations A. Financial records may be obtained from a... Directive 5240.1 1 , authorized to conduct intelligence activities, to include investigation or...

  14. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 275 - Obtaining Access for Foreign Intelligence, Foreign Counterintelligence, and International...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Foreign Counterintelligence, and International Terrorist Activities or Investigations E Appendix E to Part..., and International Terrorist Activities or Investigations A. Financial records may be obtained from a... Directive 5240.1 1 , authorized to conduct intelligence activities, to include investigation or...

  15. International Education for the Millennium: Toward Access, Equity, and Quality. Harvard Educational Review Reprint Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Benjamin, Ed.; Dryden-Peterson, Sarah, Ed.; Kim, Young-Suk, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This volume sheds light on contemporary theoretical work and research, on a range of national and international polices, and on education reform in developing countries. International Education has become an increasingly prominent and urgent matter in recent decades. Since the 1990 and 2000 Education for All conferences in Thailand, and Senegal,…

  16. MN Center for Renewable Energy: Cellulosic Ethanol, Optimization of Bio-fuels in Internal Combustion Engines, & Course Development for Technicians in These Areas

    SciTech Connect

    John Frey

    2009-02-22

    This final report for Grant #DE-FG02-06ER64241, MN Center for Renewable Energy, will address the shared institutional work done by Minnesota State University, Mankato and Minnesota West Community and Technical College during the time period of July 1, 2006 to December 30, 2008. There was a no-cost extension request approved for the purpose of finalizing some of the work. The grant objectives broadly stated were to 1) develop educational curriculum to train technicians in wind and ethanol renewable energy, 2) determine the value of cattails as a biomass crop for production of cellulosic ethanol, and 3) research in Optimization of Bio-Fuels in Internal Combustion Engines. The funding for the MN Center for Renewable Energy was spent on specific projects related to the work of the Center.

  17. U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCar & Vehicle Technologies Program CARB Executive Order Exemption Process for a Hydrogen-fueled Internal Combustion engine Vehicle -- Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-04-01

    The CARB Executive Order Exemption Process for a Hydrogen-fueled Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle was undertaken to define the requirements to achieve a California Air Resource Board Executive Order for a hydrogenfueled vehicle retrofit kit. A 2005 to 2006 General Motors Company Sierra/Chevrolet Silverado 1500HD pickup was assumed to be the build-from vehicle for the retrofit kit. The emissions demonstration was determined not to pose a significant hurdle due to the non-hydrocarbon-based fuel and lean-burn operation. However, significant work was determined to be necessary for Onboard Diagnostics Level II compliance. Therefore, it is recommended that an Experimental Permit be obtained from the California Air Resource Board to license and operate the vehicles for the durability of the demonstration in support of preparing a fully compliant and certifiable package that can be submitted.

  18. [Evolution of the international intellectual property rights system: patent protection for the pharmaceutical industry and access to medicines].

    PubMed

    Chaves, Gabriela Costa; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora; Hasenclever, Lia; de Melo, Luiz Martins

    2007-02-01

    This article discusses the evolution of the international intellectual property rights system in three phases and the implications for public health, especially for the implementation of policies for access to medicines. During the first phase, characterized by the Paris and Berne Convention, signatory countries defined which technological fields should be protected (or not). Under the second phase, with the enforcement of the WTO TRIPS Agreement, countries are obliged to grant patent protection for all technological fields, including for the pharmaceutical industry. Within their national legislations, countries also have the opportunity to implement access to TRIPS flexibilities for medicines. With the third phase, characterized by the negotiation and signing of bilateral and regional free trade agreements, countries will have to implement TRIPS-plus provisions which may have negative implications for the TRIPS flexibilities as well as for policies for access to medicines. The authors conclude that the currently proposed international intellectual property rights system favors patent-holder rights and that a balance is needed between patent holders' and health rights.

  19. The Diesel Combustion Collaboratory: Combustion Researchers Collaborating over the Internet

    SciTech Connect

    C. M. Pancerella; L. A. Rahn; C. Yang

    2000-02-01

    The Diesel Combustion Collaborator (DCC) is a pilot project to develop and deploy collaborative technologies to combustion researchers distributed throughout the DOE national laboratories, academia, and industry. The result is a problem-solving environment for combustion research. Researchers collaborate over the Internet using DCC tools, which include: a distributed execution management system for running combustion models on widely distributed computers, including supercomputers; web-accessible data archiving capabilities for sharing graphical experimental or modeling data; electronic notebooks and shared workspaces for facilitating collaboration; visualization of combustion data; and video-conferencing and data-conferencing among researchers at remote sites. Security is a key aspect of the collaborative tools. In many cases, the authors have integrated these tools to allow data, including large combustion data sets, to flow seamlessly, for example, from modeling tools to data archives. In this paper the authors describe the work of a larger collaborative effort to design, implement and deploy the DCC.

  20. International Perspectives on Problems of Higher Education: Access, Systems, Youth and Employment. Conference Papers Number Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burn, Barbara B., Ed.

    Contents include papers on access to higher education (Barbara B. Burn, Klaus von Dohnanyi, Lois Rice, William W. Turnbull, Burton R. Clark, Ernest L. Boyer, and John W. Nason); systems of higher education (Ernest L. Boyer, Alain Bienamye, Lyman A. Glenny, Torsten Husen, Hans Leussink, Edward F. Sheffield, Francis X. Sutton, and John W. Nason);…

  1. Access, Equity, and Capacity in Asia-Pacific Higher Education. International and Development Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neubauer, Deane, Ed.; Tanaka, Yoshiro, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Access, equity and capacity are elements within the higher education environment that interact in complex ways to affect virtually all other aspects of such institutions. This volume examines various features of how these concepts are generated, transformed throughout policy environments, and deployed across the complex differences of higher…

  2. International Development and Research Capacities: Increasing Access to African Scholarly Publishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalfe, Amy Scott; Esseh, Samuel; Willinsky, John

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the evolving relationship between Canada and the African academic research community through the promotion of a concept known as Information and Communication Technology for Development (ICT4D) and with an eye to its implications for increasing the circulation of research through such means as open access (OA) publishing…

  3. A human rights view on access to controlled substances for medical purposes under the international drug control framework.

    PubMed

    Gispen, Marie Elske C

    2013-11-05

    The world is confronted with a major public health deficit caused by poor access to controlled essential medicines under the international drug control framework. This is affecting millions of patients on a daily basis and resulting in numerous human rights violations. The present review contextualises this deficit from a human rights perspective. Drug control efforts are informed by a twofold objective stemming from the double nature of scheduled substances: free access for medical purposes should be ensured, though non-medical use of substances such as opium should be restricted. The international drug control framework is, in theory, based on this twofold notion, however at the level of interpretation, monitoring, and implementation, a one-sided emphasis is demonstrated. By tracing a parallel between the obligations of states under the international drug control framework and those that derive from human rights law, the review shows that the two systems seem incoherent and conflicting in nature and flags the importance of cross-disciplinary research into drug control and human rights.

  4. 78 FR 66697 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Science Applications International Corporation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ...: EPA has authorized its contractor, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) of McLean, VA... Number GS-35F-4461G, Order Number EP-G13H-00665, contractor SAIC of 1701 SAIC Drive, McLean,...

  5. International dissemination of evidence-based practice, open access and the IACAPAP textbook of child and adolescent mental health.

    PubMed

    Rey, Joseph M; Omigbodun, Olayinka Olusola

    2015-01-01

    Dramatic changes have occurred in both publishing and teaching in the last 20 years stemming from the digital and Internet revolutions. Such changes are likely to grow exponentially in the near future aided by the trend to open access publishing. This revolution has challenged traditional publishing and teaching methods that-largely but not exclusively due to cost-are particularly relevant to professionals in low and middle income countries. The digital medium and the Internet offer boundless opportunities for teaching and training to people in disadvantaged regions. This article describes the development of the IACAPAP eTextbook of child and adolescent mental health, its use, accessibility, and potential impact on the international dissemination of evidence-based practice.

  6. PROCEEDINGS: 1991 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION - VOLUME 2. SESSIONS 1B, 2B, 3B, 4B, 7A, 7B, 8A, 8B, AND 9B

    EPA Science Inventory

    The three-volumes document 82 presentations by authors from 15 countries at the Second International Conference on Municipal Waste Combustion (MWC) in Tampa, Florida, April 16-19, 1991. The Conference fostered the exchange of current information on research concerning MWC, ash di...

  7. PROCEEDINGS: 1991 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION - VOLUME 1. SESSIONS P, 0, 1A, 2A, 3A, 4A, 6A, 6B, 9C, AND 10B

    EPA Science Inventory

    The three-volumes document 82 presentations by authors from 15 countries at the Second International Conference on Municipal Waste Combustion (MWC) in Tampa, Florida, April 16-19, 1991. The Conference fostered the exchange of current information on research concerning MWC, ash di...

  8. PROCEEDINGS: 1991 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION - VOLUME 3. SESSIONS 1C, 2C, 3C 4C, 6C, 7C, 8C, 9A, AND 10A/C

    EPA Science Inventory

    The three-volumes document 82 presentations by authors from 15 countries at the Second International Conference on Municipal Waste Combustion (MWC) in Tampa, Florida, April 16-19, 1991. The Conference fostered the exchange of current information on research concerning MWC, ash di...

  9. Method and apparatus for active control of combustion rate through modulation of heat transfer from the combustion chamber wall

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Jr., Charles E.; Chadwell, Christopher J.

    2004-09-21

    The flame propagation rate resulting from a combustion event in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is controlled by modulation of the heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls. In one embodiment, heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls is mechanically modulated by a movable member that is inserted into, or withdrawn from, the combustion chamber thereby changing the shape of the combustion chamber and the combustion chamber wall surface area. In another embodiment, heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls is modulated by cooling the surface of a portion of the combustion chamber wall that is in close proximity to the area of the combustion chamber where flame speed control is desired.

  10. Combustion Technology Outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Lewis' High Speed Research (HSR) Propulsion Project Office initiated a targeted outreach effort to market combustion-related technologies developed at Lewis for the next generation of supersonic civil transport vehicles. These combustion-related innovations range from emissions measurement and reduction technologies, to diagnostics, spray technologies, NOx and SOx reduction of burners, noise reduction, sensors, and fuel-injection technologies. The Ohio Aerospace Institute and the Great Lakes Industrial Technology Center joined forces to assist Lewis' HSR Office in this outreach activity. From a database of thousands of nonaerospace firms considered likely to be interested in Lewis' combustion and emission-related technologies, the outreach team selected 41 companies to contact. The selected companies represent oil-gas refineries, vehicle/parts suppliers, and manufacturers of residential furnaces, power turbines, nonautomobile engines, and diesel internal combustion engines.

  11. Engine combustion control responsive to location and magnitude of peak combustion pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Tombley, D.E.

    1987-11-17

    A combustion control is described for an internal combustion engine of the type having combustion chambers, means for supplying a combustible charge to and igniting the combustible charge within each combustion chamber, power output apparatus including a rotating crankshaft, and means for sensing the crankshaft angle (LPP) and magnitude (MPP) of peak combustion pressure for each combustion chamber. The combustion control consists of: means for deriving the average magnitude of peak combustion pressure (AMPP); means for determining base values; memory means for storing tables of LPP ignition trim values, MPP ignition trim values and A/F trim values for each combustion chamber; means for comparing the sensed LPP value for each combustion chamber with a desired LPP value (DLPP) for that combustion chamber and adjusting the LPP ignition trim value for the predetermined engine operating parameters; means for comparing the MPP value for each combustion chamber with the average magnitude of peak combustion pressure; means to adjust the A/F trim value in the rich direction and reset the MPP ignition trim value; means to adjust the MPP ignition trim value in the advance direction; means to adjust the A/F trim value in the lean direction and reset the MPP ignition trim value; means for determining the combustible charge mixture for each combustion chamber from the base value thereof and the A/F trim value for the sensed predetermined engine operating parameters; means for determining the ignition timing for each combustion.

  12. Trans-sphenoidal Approach to the Supraclinoid Internal Carotid Artery for Endovascular Access in a Cadaver

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Hunter Kegan; Serici, Anthony Joseph; Moftakhar, Roham

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Sometimes, intracranial pathology in the distal vasculature cannot be accessed by standard endovascular techniques because of occlusion or insurmountable tortuosity of theinternal carotid artery (ICA). A trans-sphenoidal surgical approach can follow a similar trajectory to the course of the supraclinoid ICA. This study evaluates the feasibility of a trans-sphenoidal approach to the supraclinoid ICA for endovascular access. Materials and Methods In a fresh cadaver head, the sphenoid sinus was dissected through a trans-sphenoidal route. Bone over the carotid prominence was removed to expose the ICA. The artery was catheterized using the Seldinger technique, and three-dimensional digital subtraction angiography was performed to evaluate the procedure. Results The catheter was successfully inserted into the supraclinoid ICA via the trans-sphenoidal route. Three-dimensional radiographic reconstruction confirmed placement of the catheter and the trajectory of the sheath into the supraclinoid ICA. Conclusion While the trans-sphenoidal route has innumerable disadvantages over the standard endovascular access techniques, this route could be considered when other treatment options are too risky or impractical. PMID:23515414

  13. Three dimensional simulation of nucleate boiling heat and mass transfer in cooling passages of internal combustion engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdipour, R.; Baniamerian, Z.; Delauré, Y.

    2016-05-01

    An accurate knowledge of heat transfer and temperature distribution in vehicle engines is essential to have a good management of heat transfer performance in combustion engines. This may be achieved by numerical simulation of flow through the engine cooling passages; but the task becomes particularly challenging when boiling occurs. Neglecting two phase flow processes in the simulation would however result in significant inaccuracy in the predictions. In this study a three dimensional numerical model is proposed using Fluent 6.3 to simulate heat transfer of fluid flowing through channels of conventional size. Results of the present theoretical and numerical model are then compared with some empirical results. For high fluid flow velocities, departure between experimental and numerical results is about 9 %, while for lower velocity conditions, the model inaccuracy increases to 18 %. One of the outstanding capabilities of the present model, beside its ability to simulate two phase fluid flow and heat transfer in three dimensions, is the prediction of the location of bubble formation and condensation which can be a key issue in the evaluation of the engine performance and thermal stresses.

  14. Proceedings: 11th International Symposium on use and management of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Tyson, S.S.; Blackstock, T.H.; Hunger, J.; Marshall, A.

    1995-01-01

    Topics discussed at the llth symposium on CCB use and management included fundamental CCB use research, product marketing, applied research, CCB management and the environment, and commercial uses. There is a continuing, international research interest in CCB use because of the prospects of avoiding disposal costs and generating revenue from CCB sales. Volume two contains the following sections on: Flowable fill; handling systems and equipment; international and regional perspectives; manufactured aggregate; mine reclamation; physical and chemical properties; structural fill and stabilized base; and waste management. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  15. Housing and Transport: Access Issues for Disabled International Students in British Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soorenian, Armineh

    2013-01-01

    This article explores two disabled people's "Seven Needs" to independent living, those of "housing" and "transport" issues, in relation to disabled international students in British universities. Firstly, students' living arrangements, including issues related to the suitability of university accommodation to their…

  16. Making International Experiences Accessible to In-Service Teachers through East Meets West Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    An, Shuhua; Wu, Zhonghe

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the impact of the integration of global experiences on in-service teachers' international perspectives in mathematics classroom teaching through offering a graduate course "Global Perspectives in Mathematics Teaching" in the form of the East Meets West Program. This program engages teachers in an…

  17. Light Duty Efficient, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Stanton, Donald W.

    2011-06-03

    Cummins has successfully completed the Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion (LDECC) cooperative program with DoE. This program was established in 2007 in support of the Department of Energy’s Vehicles Technologies Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control initiative to remove critical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high efficiency, emissions compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light duty vehicles. Work in this area expanded the fundamental knowledge of engine combustion to new regimes and advanced the knowledge of fuel requirements for these diesel engines to realize their full potential. All of our objectives were met with fuel efficiency improvement targets exceeded.

  18. Computational Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, C K; Mizobuchi, Y; Poinsot, T J; Smith, P J; Warnatz, J

    2004-08-26

    Progress in the field of computational combustion over the past 50 years is reviewed. Particular attention is given to those classes of models that are common to most system modeling efforts, including fluid dynamics, chemical kinetics, liquid sprays, and turbulent flame models. The developments in combustion modeling are placed into the time-dependent context of the accompanying exponential growth in computer capabilities and Moore's Law. Superimposed on this steady growth, the occasional sudden advances in modeling capabilities are identified and their impacts are discussed. Integration of submodels into system models for spark ignition, diesel and homogeneous charge, compression ignition engines, surface and catalytic combustion, pulse combustion, and detonations are described. Finally, the current state of combustion modeling is illustrated by descriptions of a very large jet lifted 3D turbulent hydrogen flame with direct numerical simulation and 3D large eddy simulations of practical gas burner combustion devices.

  19. Universal Access to HIV prevention, treatment and care: assessing the inclusion of human rights in international and national strategic plans

    PubMed Central

    Gruskin, Sofia; Tarantola, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Rhetorical acknowledgment of the value of human rights for the AIDS response continues, yet practical application of human rights principles to national efforts appears to be increasingly deficient. We assess the ways in which international and national strategic plans and other core documents take into account the commitments made by countries to uphold human rights in their efforts towards achieving Universal Access. Key documents from the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS), the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Bank, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria (GFATM) and the US President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) were reviewed along with 14 national HIV strategic plans chosen for their illustration of the diversity of HIV epidemic patterns, levels of income and geographical location. Whereas human rights concepts overwhelmingly appeared in both international and national strategic documents, their translation into actionable terms or monitoring frameworks was weak, unspecific or absent. Future work should analyse strategic plans, plans of operation, budgets and actual implementation so that full advantage can be taken, not only of the moral and legal value of human rights, but also their instrumental value for achieving Universal Access. PMID:18641464

  20. Simulating Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merker, G.; Schwarz, C.; Stiesch, G.; Otto, F.

    The content spans from simple thermodynamics of the combustion engine to complex models for the description of the air/fuel mixture, ignition, combustion and pollutant formation considering the engine periphery of petrol and diesel engines. Thus the emphasis of the book is on the simulation models and how they are applicable for the development of modern combustion engines. Computers can be used as the engineers testbench following the rules and recommendations described here.