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Sample records for accessible reading assessment

  1. Steps toward Creating Fully Accessible Reading Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurlow, Martha L.

    2010-01-01

    The National Accessible Reading Assessment Projects (NARAP) have been conducting research and engaging in other activities to pull together a full view of the issues and potential solutions for developing reading assessments that are fully accessible and produce valid results for students with disabilities. To introduce this topic, the assumptions…

  2. Accessible Reading Assessments for Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abedi, Jamal; Bayley, Robert; Ewers, Nancy; Mundhenk, Kimberly; Leon, Seth; Kao, Jenny; Herman, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Assessments developed and field tested for the mainstream student population may not be accessible for students with disabilities (SWDs) as a result of the impact of extraneous variables, including cognitive features, such as depth of knowledge required, grammatical and lexical complexity, lexical density, and textual/visual features. This study…

  3. Exploring Factors that Affect the Accessibility of Reading Comprehension Assessments for Students with Disabilities: A Study of Segmented Text. CRESST Report 746

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abedi, Jamal; Kao, Jenny C.; Leon, Seth; Sullivan, Lisa; Herman, Joan L.; Pope, Rita; Nambiar, Veena; Mastergeorge, Ann M.

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to explore factors that affect the accessibility of reading comprehension assessments for students with disabilities. The study consisted of testing students using reading comprehension passages that were broken down into shorter "segments" or "chunks." The results of the segmenting study indicated that: (a) segmenting did not…

  4. Reading Assessment: Looking Ahead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afflerbach, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I focus on three areas of reading assessment that I believe to be crucial for students' reading development: developing comprehensive formative assessments, assessing the wide array of factors that contribute to students' reading development, and fostering student independence by helping students learn to use reading assessment on…

  5. Assessing Motivation to Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrell, Linda B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Motivation to Read Profile (MRP), which assesses children's self-concepts as readers and the value they see in reading. Discusses its development and offers suggestions for its use with elementary students. Includes the MRP. (SR)

  6. Accessible Reading Assessments for Students with Disabilities: The Role of Cognitive, Grammatical, Lexical, and Textual/Visual Features. CRESST Report 785

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abedi, Jamal; Leon, Seth; Kao, Jenny; Bayley, Robert; Ewers, Nancy; Herman, Joan; Mundhenk, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of reading test items that may differentially impede the performance of students with disabilities. The findings suggest that there are certain revisions that can be done on current assessments to make them more accessible for students with disabilities. Features such as words per page,…

  7. Accessibility of Segmented Reading Comprehension Passages for Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abedi, Jamal; Kao, Jenny C.; Leon, Seth; Mastergeorge, Ann M.; Sullivan, Lisa; Herman, Joan; Pope, Rita

    2010-01-01

    This study explores factors that affect the accessibility of reading comprehension assessments for students with disabilities in grade 8 public school classrooms. The study consisted of assessing students using reading comprehension passages that were broken down into shorter "segments" or "chunks" in order to assess the validity and effectiveness…

  8. Continued Access to Syntactic Information in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funke, Reinold; Sieger, Jasmin

    2012-01-01

    Reliable access to syntactic information beyond its use in first-pass reading was probed using a task labeled "syntactic reading task." This task draws on an orthographic marker for syntactic structure, the capitalization of nouns in German. Subjects read written text strings containing a unit that could be taken as a noun or as a verb. The…

  9. Predictive Assessment of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Frank B.; Hill, Deborah F.; Meyer, Marianne S.; Flowers, D. Lynn

    2005-01-01

    Study 1 retrospectively analyzed neuropsychological and psychoeducational tests given to N = 220 first graders, with follow-up assessments in third and eighth grade. Four predictor constructs were derived: (1) Phonemic Awareness, (2) Picture Vocabulary, (3) Rapid Naming, and (4) Single Word Reading. Together, these accounted for 88%, 76%, 69%, and…

  10. Assessing Children's Silent Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yule, Valerie

    1987-01-01

    Less is known about how children read connected text in silent reading, and the range of reading strategies used in an ordinary primary school classroom, than about the reading of single words, oral reading and reading by skilled adults. This paper describes and evaluates a method of testing children's silent reading in which they are their own…

  11. Developing New Reading Assessments to Promote Beginning Reading in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Kim H.; Paris, Scott G.

    2011-01-01

    Effective reading instruction and intervention are rooted in effective assessments of children's developing skills in reading. The article aims to describe the development of new reading assessments to help promote beginning reading in Singapore primary schools. We begin with an introduction to the educational landscape and policies before…

  12. The Assessment of Reading Comprehension Difficulties for Reading Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolley, Gary

    2008-01-01

    There are many environmental and personal factors that contribute to reading success. Reading comprehension is a complex interaction of language, sensory perception, memory, and motivational aspects. However, most existing assessment tools have not adequately reflected the complex nature of reading comprehension. Good assessment requires a…

  13. Accessibility in E-Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Simon

    2009-01-01

    E-assessment offers many opportunities to broaden the range of tools at the assessor's disposal and thereby improve the overall accessibility of the assessment experience. In 2006, TechDis commissioned a report, produced by Edexcel, on the state of guidance on accessibility at the various stages of the assessment process--question design,…

  14. Understanding and Using Reading Assessment, K-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afflerbach, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This book will help teachers examine and choose reading assessment in relation to current understandings of the reading process, students' development, and the culture of schooling. Each chapter focuses on a particular type of reading assessment to familiarize teachers with the broad array of assessments available; uses the CURRV framework as an…

  15. Sixth Grade Reading: A Needs Assessment Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Program Planning and Needs Assessment.

    This study reports the findings of a 1971 assessment of the reading achievement of 22,000 sixth grade students in Texas. The study used the Prescriptive Reading Test (PRT) and a Pupil Identification Form (PID). Results from the PRT are reported in terms of the percentage of pupils who achieved each of 48 reading objectives. Nineteen objectives…

  16. Adaptive Assessment for Nonacademic Secondary Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hittleman, Daniel R.

    Adaptive assessment procedures are a means of determining the quality of a reader's performance in a variety of reading situations and on a variety of written materials. Such procedures are consistent with the idea that there are functional competencies which change with the reading task. Adaptive assessment takes into account that a lack of…

  17. Factoring AAVE into Reading Assessment and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Rebecca; Cartwright, Kelly B.; Swords, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    In our increasingly diverse schools, students bring diverse ways of speaking to the classroom. In turn, as features from students' home language varieties transfer into their readings of texts, teachers' assessment and intervention plans may be directly affected. If teachers conflate dialect influence with reading error in Standard English, they…

  18. Assessing Competence in ESL: Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oller, John W., Jr.

    Results from research with eye movement photography (EMP) are discussed with a view to defining differences between native-speaker and non-native reading processes. The greatest contrast is in terms of the duration of eye fixations; non-native speakers at the college level require about as much time for a fixation as an average native-speaker at…

  19. Assessing reading fluency in Kenya: Oral or silent assessment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piper, Benjamin; Zuilkowski, Stephanie Simmons

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, the Education for All movement has focused more intensely on the quality of education, rather than simply provision. Many recent and current education quality interventions focus on literacy, which is the core skill required for further academic success. Despite this focus on the quality of literacy instruction in developing countries, little rigorous research has been conducted on critical issues of assessment. This analysis, which uses data from the Primary Math and Reading Initiative (PRIMR) in Kenya, aims to begin filling this gap by addressing a key assessment issue - should literacy assessments in Kenya be administered orally or silently? The authors compared second-grade students' scores on oral and silent reading tasks of the Early Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA) in Kiswahili and English, and found no statistically significant differences in either language. They did, however, find oral reading rates to be more strongly related to reading comprehension scores. Oral assessment has another benefit for programme evaluators - it allows for the collection of data on student errors, and therefore the calculation of words read correctly per minute, as opposed to simply words read per minute. The authors therefore recommend that, in Kenya and in similar contexts, student reading fluency be assessed via oral rather than silent assessment.

  20. Complex dynamics of semantic memory access in reading.

    PubMed

    Baggio, Giosué; Fonseca, André

    2012-02-01

    Understanding a word in context relies on a cascade of perceptual and conceptual processes, starting with modality-specific input decoding, and leading to the unification of the word's meaning into a discourse model. One critical cognitive event, turning a sensory stimulus into a meaningful linguistic sign, is the access of a semantic representation from memory. Little is known about the changes that activating a word's meaning brings about in cortical dynamics. We recorded the electroencephalogram (EEG) while participants read sentences that could contain a contextually unexpected word, such as 'cold' in 'In July it is very cold outside'. We reconstructed trajectories in phase space from single-trial EEG time series, and we applied three nonlinear measures of predictability and complexity to each side of the semantic access boundary, estimated as the onset time of the N400 effect evoked by critical words. Relative to controls, unexpected words were associated with larger prediction errors preceding the onset of the N400. Accessing the meaning of such words produced a phase transition to lower entropy states, in which cortical processing becomes more predictable and more regular. Our study sheds new light on the dynamics of information flow through interfaces between sensory and memory systems during language processing.

  1. Early Reading Assessment. A Practitioner's Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathvon, Natalie

    2004-01-01

    This indispensable resource offers a cutting-edge framework and practical tools for screening and assessing K-2 students at risk for reading problems. Provided are critical reviews of 42 specific measures, selected for optimal technical quality and presented in a clear, standardized format. Encapsulated are the scientific basis for each…

  2. Assessing the Dimensionality of NAEP Reading Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwick, Rebecca

    1987-01-01

    National Assessment of Educational Progress reading data were scaled using a unidimensional item response theory model. Bock's full-information factor analysis and Rosenbaum's test of unidimensionality were applied. Conclusions about unidimensionality for balanced incomplete block spiralled data were the same as for complete data. (Author/GDC)

  3. Reading Fluency Assessment and Instruction: What, Why, and How?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Roxanne F.; Lane, Holly B.; Pullen, Paige C.

    2005-01-01

    This article explains the elements of reading fluency and ways to assess and teach them. Fluent reading has three elements: accurate reading of connected text, at a conversational rate with appropriate prosody. Word reading accuracy refers to the ability to recognize or decode words correctly. Reading rate refers to both word-level automaticity…

  4. Assessing Reading. Using Cloze Procedure To Assess Reading Skills. [Packet] and Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Judy

    These instructor's materials consist of a handbook directed to the teacher and 33 worksheets teachers can use with adult students in order to use the cloze procedure to assess how readily they can read materials of differing complexity. The handbook introduces the materials by considering such questions as What is meant by reading?, How could…

  5. Assessing Comprehension During Reading with the Reading Strategy Assessment Tool (RSAT)

    PubMed Central

    Magliano, Joseph P.; Millis, Keith K.; Levinstein, Irwin

    2011-01-01

    Comprehension emerges as the results of inference and strategic processes that support the construction of a coherent mental model for a text. However, the vast majority of comprehension skills tests adopt a format that does not afford an assessment of these processes as they operate during reading. This study assessed the viability of the Reading Strategy Assessment Tool (RSAT), which is an automated computer-based reading assessment designed to measure readers’ comprehension and spontaneous use of reading strategies while reading texts. In the tool, readers comprehend passages one sentence at a time, and are asked either an indirect (“What are your thoughts regarding your understanding of the sentence in the context of the passage?”) or direct (e.g., why X?) question after reading each pre-selected target sentence. The answers to the indirect questions are analyzed on the extent that they contain words associated with comprehension processes. The answers to direct questions are coded for the number of content words in common with an ideal answer, which is intended to be an assessment of emerging comprehension. In the study, the RSAT approach was shown to predict measures of comprehension comparable to standardized tests. The RSAT variables were also shown to correlate with human ratings. The results of this study constitute a “proof of concept” and demonstrate that it is possible to develop a comprehension skills assessment tool that assesses both comprehension and comprehension strategies. PMID:23901332

  6. Early Childhood Reading Skills and Proficiency in NAEP Eighth-Grade Reading Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan, Enis; Ogut, Burhan; Kim, Young Yee

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between reading skills in earlier grades and achieving "Proficiency" on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) grade 8 reading assessment was examined by establishing a statistical link between NAEP and the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS) grade 8 reading assessments using data from a common…

  7. Assessing Motivation To Read. Instructional Resource No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrell, Linda B.; And Others

    The Motivation to Read Profile (MRP) is a public-domain instrument designed to provide teachers with an efficient and reliable way to assess reading motivation qualitatively and quantitatively by evaluating students' self-concept as readers and the value they place on reading. The MRP consists of two basic instruments: the Reading Survey (a…

  8. The Developmental Reading Assessment and the Third Grade Reading Ohio Achievement Assessment: An Investigation of Possible Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey, David W.

    2012-01-01

    This ex post facto, participatory action research study investigated the relationship between a criterion-referenced, inventory-based reading assessment and the standardized Third Grade Reading Ohio Achievement Assessment (OAA). The study, conducted in a suburban Ohio district where the Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA) has been used since…

  9. Assessing and Improving Reading in Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2001-01-01

    All students must read well enough to be able to understand content that is necessary in the workplace. Technical education teachers must ascertain where each student is achieving in reading and provide sequential experiences in reading technical materials. (JOW)

  10. Assessing the format of the presentation of text in developing a Reading Strategy Assessment Tool (R-SAT).

    PubMed

    Gilliam, Sara; Magliano, Joseph P; Millis, Keith K; Levinstein, Irwin; Boonthum, Chutima

    2007-05-01

    We are constructing a new computerized test of reading comprehension called the Reading Strategy Assessment Tool (R-SAT). R-SAT elicits and analyzes verbal protocols that readers generate in response to questions as they read texts. We examined whether the amount of information available to the reader when reading and answering questions influenced the extent to which R-SAT accounts for comprehension. We found that R-SAT was most predictive of comprehension when the readers did not have access to the text as they answered questions. PMID:17695345

  11. A Standardized Tool for Assessing the Quality of Classroom-Based Shared Reading: Systematic Assessment of Book Reading (SABR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pentimonti, Jill M.; Zucker, Tricia A.; Justice, Laura M.; Petscher, Yaacov; Piasta, Shayne B.; Kaderavek, Joan N.

    2012-01-01

    Participation in shared-reading experiences is associated with children's language and literacy outcomes, yet few standardized assessments of shared-reading quality exist. The purpose of this study was to describe the psychometric characteristics of the Systematic Assessment of Book Reading (SABR), an observational tool designed to characterize…

  12. Stress and Reading Difficulties: Research, Assessment, Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentile, Lance M.; McMillan, Merna M.

    Focusing on the personality of the reading disabled child, this booklet is designed to encourage researchers to move past the circular debate concerning student reading difficulties and to help teachers improve the reading performance of students with disabling stress reactions to reading. The first section examines research related to emotional…

  13. Reading Assessment: Principles and Practices for Elementary Teachers. A Collection of Articles from "The Reading Teacher."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrentine, Shelby J., Ed.

    This compilation of articles from "The Reading Teacher" contrasts old and new approaches to reading assessment and offers methods that teachers can use in the classroom to build better readers. The articles suggest that in order to effectively assess young readers, one must integrate assessment with instruction, which requires new forms of…

  14. Implementation of Online Reading Assessments to Encourage Reading Interests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahayu, Endang Yuliani; Februariyanti, Herni

    2015-01-01

    The current study reports a two-year research project funded by the Government of the Republic of Indonesia through a competitive research scheme. The aim is basically to respond to the fact most university students have very low interests in reading activities, such as finding out important information for their term papers as assigned by the…

  15. Improving Open Access through Prior Learning Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Shuangxu; Kawachi, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores and presents new data on how to improve open access in distance education through using prior learning assessments. Broadly there are three types of prior learning assessment (PLAR): Type-1 for prospective students to be allowed to register for a course; Type-2 for current students to avoid duplicating work-load to gain…

  16. The Role of Accessibility of Semantic Word Knowledge in Monolingual and Bilingual Fifth-Grade Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cremer, M.; Schoonen, R.

    2013-01-01

    The influences of word decoding, availability, and accessibility of semantic word knowledge on reading comprehension were investigated for monolingual "("n = 65) and bilingual children ("n" = 70). Despite equal decoding abilities, monolingual children outperformed bilingual children with regard to reading comprehension and…

  17. Human and Automated Assessment of Oral Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolaños, Daniel; Cole, Ron A.; Ward, Wayne H.; Tindal, Gerald A.; Hasbrouck, Jan; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a comprehensive approach to fully automated assessment of children's oral reading fluency (ORF), one of the most informative and frequently administered measures of children's reading ability. Speech recognition and machine learning techniques are described that model the 3 components of oral reading fluency: word accuracy,…

  18. The Fish Bowl: A Strategy for Assessing Independent Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Claudia Anne; Kuby, Sue Ann

    2001-01-01

    Explains Fish Bowl, an activity for upper elementary and middle school students to share what they read and a method for teachers to assess student understanding of a book. Discusses benefits of reading aloud a summary of the book, reading a passage from the book, asking appropriate questions, and answering questions. (LRW)

  19. Conceptualizing and Assessing Higher-Order Thinking in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afflerbach, Peter; Cho, Byeong-Young; Kim, Jong-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Students engage in higher-order thinking as they read complex texts and perform complex reading-related tasks. However, the most consequential assessments, high-stakes tests, are currently limited in providing information about students' higher-order thinking. In this article, we describe higher-order thinking in relation to reading. We provide a…

  20. The Assessment of Reading Comprehension: Considerations and Cautions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Lynn; Caccamise, Donna; Wise, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the main purposes of reading comprehension assessment and identifies the key features of good assessment. The article also identifies pitfalls that clinicians and educators should avoid to conduct valid assessments of reading comprehension, such as the degree to which the measure taps the constructive and integrative…

  1. Assessing Reading: Multiple Measures for Kindergarten through Eighth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consortium on Reading Excellence, Inc., Emeryville, CA.

    This book contains a collection of formal and informal reading assessments for use with students in Grades K-8. These assessments assist the teacher in targeting areas of strength and weakness, in monitoring student reading development, and in planning appropriate instruction. The book's assessments (some in both English and Spanish) range from…

  2. Assessing for Generalized Improvements in Reading Comprehension by Intervening to Improve Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neddenriep, Christine E.; Fritz, Abigail M.; Carrier, Miranda E.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between reading fluency and comprehension was evaluated in five 4th-grade students. These students were identified as being at risk of not meeting yearly goals in reading fluency and comprehension based on fall benchmark assessment data. A brief intervention assessment was used to determine which intervention components would be…

  3. 39% access time improvement, 11% energy reduction, 32 kbit 1-read/1-write 2-port static random-access memory using two-stage read boost and write-boost after read sensing scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Yasue; Moriwaki, Shinichi; Kawasumi, Atsushi; Miyano, Shinji; Shinohara, Hirofumi

    2016-04-01

    We propose novel circuit techniques for 1 clock (1CLK) 1 read/1 write (1R/1W) 2-port static random-access memories (SRAMs) to improve read access time (tAC) and write margins at low voltages. Two-stage read boost (TSR-BST) and write word line boost (WWL-BST) after the read sensing schemes have been proposed. TSR-BST reduces the worst read bit line (RBL) delay by 61% and RBL amplitude by 10% at V DD = 0.5 V, which improves tAC by 39% and reduces energy dissipation by 11% at V DD = 0.55 V. WWL-BST after read sensing scheme improves minimum operating voltage (V min) by 140 mV. A 32 kbit 1CLK 1R/1W 2-port SRAM with TSR-BST and WWL-BST has been developed using a 40 nm CMOS.

  4. Reading Assessments for Students with ASD: A Survey of Summative Reading Assessments Used in Special Educational Schools in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Sharon; Reed, Phil

    2016-01-01

    Schools have an obligation to assess the literacy skills of their students, and the provision of reading instruction to students includes the ability to measure progress in this area. However, the design of reading tests includes the ability not only to read words, but also the ability to verbalise them. This presents a particular challenge for…

  5. Reading Assessments: Practice and Theoretical Perspectives. Research on Instructional Assessment: Instructionally Relevant Reading Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Robert L.; Valencia, Shelia W.

    This paper evaluates widely used, standardized tests of reading within the framework of four interdependent reading components: (1) decoding speed and accuracy; (2) accuracy, fluency, and flexibility of determining semantic meaning of words; (3) sentence comprehension; and (4) passage dependent sentence comprehension. Among the types of…

  6. Individual Differences in Reading: The Case for Lexical Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, S. Jay; Naslund, Jan Carol

    1994-01-01

    Reviews research on lexical access (the process of getting information about a word from a mental dictionary). Discusses implications for comprehension development. Suggests that individual differences in comprehension depend on speed of lexical access as well as on speed of decoding. (SR)

  7. Bilingual Lexical Access in Context: Evidence from Eye Movements during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libben, Maya R.; Titone, Debra A.

    2009-01-01

    Current models of bilingualism (e.g., BIA+) posit that lexical access during reading is not language selective. However, much of this research is based on the comprehension of words in isolation. The authors investigated whether nonselective access occurs for words embedded in biased sentence contexts (e.g., A. I. Schwartz & J. F. Kroll, 2006).…

  8. Reading Framework for the 2013 National Assessment of Educational Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assessment Governing Board, 2012

    2012-01-01

    As the ongoing national indicator of what American students know and can do, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in Reading regularly collects achievement information on representative samples of students in grades 4, 8, and 12. Through The Nation's Report Card, the NAEP Reading Assessment reports how well students perform in…

  9. Eighth Grade Assessment of Mathematics and Reading. 1989 Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    In February 1989, statewide assessment tests in reading, mathematics, and writing were given to a sample of eighth graders throughout Oregon. The results and analyses of reading and mathematics assessments are presented. Important trends are described based on the analysis of data from 1985, 1987, and 1989. The 1989 information provides the first…

  10. Assessment and Evaluation Methods for Access Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Dallas

    2014-01-01

    This article serves as a primer for assessment and evaluation design by describing the range of methods commonly employed in library settings. Quantitative methods, such as counting and benchmarking measures, are useful for investigating the internal operations of an access services department in order to identify workflow inefficiencies or…

  11. Understanding the Misunderstanding: An Analysis of the Relationships between Reading Fluency Constructs, Reading Fluency Instruction and Oral Reading Fluency Assessment in the Elementary Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cribbs, Aimee M.

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on the relationships between educator reading fluency constructs, reading fluency instruction and oral reading fluency assessment. Survey responses from sixty-six elementary educators in rural and urban north Georgia were analyzed to reach an understanding of why educators are likely to equate reading fluency with reading fast…

  12. NAEP 1994 Reading State Report for Hawaii. Trial State Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assessment of Educational Progress, Princeton, NJ.

    In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment (TSA); for the first time in NAEP's history, voluntary state-by-state assessments were made. In 1994, TSA was expanded to include non-public school students. The 1994 reading assessment considered students' proficiency in situations that involved…

  13. Teachers' Voices on Integrating MCAG into Reading Assessment Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guterman, Eva; Boxall, Waltraud

    2002-01-01

    Attempts to address, on behalf of the teacher of reading, some pedagogically significant aspects of metacognition. Tests the effect of using Metacognitive Awareness Guidance (MCAG) in reading assessment tasks given to nine-year-old Israeli pupils. Notes teachers' reactions related to four aspects: use of self-talk, use of metacognitive learning…

  14. An Assessment of Reading Compliance Decisions among Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Amit; Van Hoof, Bert; Pursel, Barton

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that reading compliance among undergraduate students is low. This study assesses the factors that influence students' decisions to comply with their assigned course readings using two theoretical underpinnings: students' self-rationing ability of time and construal effects on their decision process. Data collected…

  15. Reading Leveled Books in Assessment-Saturated Classrooms: A Close Examination of Unmarked Processes of Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kontovourki, Stavroula

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the reading of leveled books and the assessment of students' reading levels in a public school classroom. The purpose of the research study was to examine how these processes of assessment, which often go unnoticed, shaped the ways reading and readers were defined. The research was located in a third grade, public school…

  16. What's in a Name Depends on the Type of Name: The Relationships between Semantic and Phonological Access, Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulsen, Mads; Elbro, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between lexical access, reading fluency, and comprehension. Two components of speed of lexical access were studied: phonological and semantic. Previous studies have mainly investigated these components of lexical access separately. The present study examined both components in naming tasks--with…

  17. Differential processing of consonants and vowels in lexical access through reading.

    PubMed

    New, Boris; Araújo, Verónica; Nazzi, Thierry

    2008-12-01

    Do consonants and vowels have the same importance during reading? Recently, it has been proposed that consonants play a more important role than vowels for language acquisition and adult speech processing. This proposal has started receiving developmental support from studies showing that infants are better at processing specific consonantal than vocalic information while learning new words. This proposal also received support from adult speech processing. In our study, we directly investigated the relative contributions of consonants and vowels to lexical access while reading by using a visual masked-priming lexical decision task. Test items were presented following four different primes: identity (e.g., for the word joli, joli), unrelated (vabu), consonant-related (jalu), and vowel-related (vobi). Priming was found for the identity and consonant-related conditions, but not for the vowel-related condition. These results establish the privileged role of consonants during lexical access while reading. PMID:19121127

  18. Technology and Current Reading/Literacy Assessment Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balajthy, Ernest

    2007-01-01

    Computer-based technologies offer promise as a means to assess students and provide teachers with better understandings of their students' achievement. This article describes recent developments in computer-based and web-based reading and literacy assessment, focusing on assessment administration, information management, and report creation. In…

  19. Identifying Reading Problems with Computer-Adaptive Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrell, C.; Tymms, P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an adaptive assessment called Interactive Computerised Assessment System (InCAS) that is aimed at children of a wide age and ability range to identify specific reading problems. Rasch measurement has been used to create the equal interval scales that form each part of the assessment. The rationale for the…

  20. The Relationship between Students' Reading Performance on Diagnostic Assessments and the Third Grade Reading Achievement Test in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollinger, Jamie L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational study was twofold: to examine the relationship of students' reading performance on six different diagnostic reading assessments and the third grade Ohio Reading Achievement Test; and to assist educators in choosing the diagnostic assessments that best identify students at risk of failing the third grade Ohio…

  1. Teacher Survey of the Accessibility and Text Features of the Computerized Oral Reading Evaluation (CORE). Technical Report #1601

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Josh; Nese, Joseph T.; Alonzo, Julie

    2016-01-01

    There is strong theoretical support for oral reading fluency (ORF) as an essential building block of reading proficiency. The current and standard ORF assessment procedure requires that students read aloud a grade-level passage (˜ 250 words) in a one-to-one administration, with the number of words read correctly in 60 seconds constituting their…

  2. Predicting Reading Ability for Bilingual Latino Children Using Dynamic Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Douglas B.; Gillam, Ronald B.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the predictive validity of a dynamic assessment designed to evaluate later risk for reading difficulty in bilingual Latino children at risk for language impairment. During kindergarten, 63 bilingual Latino children completed a dynamic assessment nonsense-word recoding task that yielded pretest to posttest gain scores,…

  3. Reading Assessment: Principles and Practices for Elementary Teachers. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrentine, Shelby J., Ed.; Stokes, Sandra M., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    How do teachers respond to the competing pressures of school accountability, high-stakes testing, classroom assessment and instruction? This updated collection of articles from The Reading Teacher can help. Readers will find tools for: (1) Building school assessment policies; (2) Helping students succeed on high-stakes tests; (3) Using assessment…

  4. Organizing and Evaluating Results from Multiple Reading Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Jim

    2011-01-01

    The challenges of understanding how reading abilities vary within the classroom can be daunting. This article offers techniques to organize a variety of assessment data to give teachers a clear picture of individual achievement, how students compare with one another, and how reliably various assessment instruments yield an accurate picture of…

  5. Linking Large-Scale Reading Assessments: Comment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanushek, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    E. A. Hanushek points out in this commentary that applied researchers in education have only recently begun to appreciate the value of international assessments, even though there are now 50 years of experience with these. Until recently, these assessments have been stand-alone surveys that have not been linked, and analysis has largely focused on…

  6. Authentic Reading Assessment: Practices and Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia, Sheila W., Ed.; And Others

    Presenting nine case studies describing new assessment efforts, this book is designed to foster communication and dialogue about the products and the processes of development. Comprehensive introductory and concluding chapters examine the background of and future challenges facing authentic assessment. Intermediate chapters discusses authentic…

  7. Poor readers' retrieval mechanism: efficient access is not dependent on reading skill

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Clinton L.; Matsuki, Kazunaga; Van Dyke, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    A substantial body of evidence points to a cue-based direct-access retrieval mechanism as a crucial component of skilled adult reading. We report two experiments aimed at examining whether poor readers are able to make use of the same retrieval mechanism. This is significant in light of findings that poor readers have difficulty retrieving linguistic information (e.g., Perfetti, 1985). Our experiments are based on a previous demonstration of direct-access retrieval in language processing, presented in McElree et al. (2003). Experiment 1 replicates the original result using an auditory implementation of the Speed-Accuracy Tradeoff (SAT) method. This finding represents a significant methodological advance, as it opens up the possibility of exploring retrieval speeds in non-reading populations. Experiment 2 provides evidence that poor readers do use a direct-access retrieval mechanism during listening comprehension, despite overall poorer accuracy and slower retrieval speeds relative to skilled readers. The findings are discussed with respect to hypotheses about the source of poor reading comprehension. PMID:26528212

  8. Silent Reading Fluency Using Underlining: Evidence for an Alternative Method of Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Katherine W.; Meisinger, Elizabeth B.; Louwerse, Max M.; D'Mello, Sidney K.

    2012-01-01

    Assessing silent reading fluency in classroom environments is challenging. This article reports on a method of assessing silent reading using underlining, an approach that solves many problems other silent reading fluency assessment measures face. This method computationally monitors readers' silent reading fluency by the speed they underline…

  9. Podcasts on Mobile Devices as a Read-Aloud Testing Accommodation in Middle School Science Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, Don; Wright, Rachel; Cihak, David F.; Moore, Tara C.; Lamb, Richard

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a digitized podcast to deliver read-aloud testing accommodations on mobile devices to students with disabilities and reading difficulties. The total sample for this study included 47 middle school students with reading difficulties. Of the 47 students, 16 were identified as students with disabilities who received special education services. Participants were randomly assigned to three experimental testing conditions, standard administration, teacher-controlled read-aloud in traditional group delivery format, and student-controlled read-aloud delivered as a podcast and accessed on a mobile device, and given sample end-of-year science assessments. Based on a factorial analysis of variances, with test conditions and student status as the fixed factors, both student groups demonstrated statistically significant gains based on their testing conditions. Results support the use of podcast delivery as a viable alternative to the traditional teacher-delivered read-aloud test accommodation. Conclusions are discussed in the context of universal design for learning testing accommodations for future research and practice.

  10. Validity of CBM Measures of Oral Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension on High-Stakes Reading Assessments in Grades 7 and 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Doris Luft; Biancarosa, Gina; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Bousselot, Tracy; Smith, Jean-Louise; Baker, Scott K.; Kame'enui, Edward J.; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    We examined the criterion validity and diagnostic efficiency of oral reading fluency (ORF), word reading accuracy, and reading comprehension (RC) for students in Grades 7 and 8 taking into account form effects of ORF, time of assessment, and individual differences, including student designations of limited English proficiency and special education…

  11. Research-Driven Reading Assessment: Drilling to the Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hempenstall, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    There is considerable interest and controversy in the community concerning how our students are faring in the task of mastering reading. Broad scale assessment, formerly at a State level and now at a National level (NAPLAN), is potentially valuable in helping answer this question in a broad sense. However, there are limitations to the value of…

  12. The Reading Behavior Inventory: An Outcome Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrich, Gregory L.; Kirby, Jennine; Wood, Jennifer; Peters, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Many questionnaires attempt to assess the quality of life of individuals who are visually impaired (that is, those who are blind or have low vision), but few apply to those who are undergoing visual rehabilitation and hence are difficult to adapt as an outcome measure Massof & Rubin, 2001). The Reading Behavior Inventory (RBI) was developed as a…

  13. Teacher Inquiry into Formative Assessment Practices in Remedial Reading Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.; Moss, Connie M.; Long, Beverly A.

    2010-01-01

    Six remedial reading teachers in a large, rural school district participated in a form of professional development called Teaching as Intentional Learning, based on an inquiry process. Their topic of inquiry was formative assessment. Professional development comprised both direct instruction and inquiry learning in teachers' own classrooms. This…

  14. Documenting Reading Achievement and Growth for Students Taking Alternate Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tindal, Gerald; Nese, Joseph F. T.; Farley, Dan; Saven, Jessica L.; Elliott, Stephen N.

    2016-01-01

    Students with disabilities have been included in state accountability systems for more than a decade; however, only in the past few years have alternate assessments of alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS) become stable enough to allow examination of these students' achievement growth. Using data from Oregon's AA-AAS in Reading during the…

  15. Assessment of Children with Intellectual Giftedness and Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volker, Martin A.; Lopata, Christopher; Cook-Cottone, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the current issues involved in the evaluation of children who have both intellectual gifts and a specific learning disability (SLD) in reading. Given recent changes in federal special education law (i.e., the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004), the use of a unified assessment model that…

  16. Alternative Approaches to the Assessment of Reading Attitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Mary Ann; Singleton, Barbara A.

    Qualitative research that takes into account children's views of themselves as well as their own assessments of their talents and capabilities in reading and other academic areas can enhance understandings already established in research and measured by standardized instruments. New avenues of qualitative research can prove amenable to assessing…

  17. Assessing Understanding through Reading and Writing in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Bosse, Michael J.; Faulconer, Johna

    2010-01-01

    The mathematics education community recognizes the integrality of reading and writing in learning and communicating mathematics knowledge. Unfortunately, many students have yet to significantly experience this integrality in their mathematics classrooms despite the power these tools offer teachers for assessing student knowledge. This paper…

  18. Team Assessment when Members Have Low Reading Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlepage, Glen E.; Brower, Grant

    2004-01-01

    Work teams sometimes include individuals with low levels of reading proficiency. Traditional team assessment instruments may not be suitable for use with such teams. A well-known teamwork instrument, the Team Excellence survey (LaFasto & Larson, 1987), was simplified to enhance readability. Fifty-two participants completed both the original and…

  19. Methodological Issues in Curriculum-Based Reading Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Three studies involving elementary students examined methodological issues in curriculum-based reading assessment. Results indicated that (1) whereas sample duration did not affect concurrent validity, increasing duration reduced performance instability and increased performance slopes and (2) domain size was related inversely to performance slope…

  20. Emerging Theoretical Models of Reading through Authentic Assessments among Preservice Teachers: Two Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oboler, Eileen S.; Gupta, Abha

    2010-01-01

    This two-part study examines the emerging understanding of the reading process among preservice teachers (PTs), enrolled in a teacher preparation course on diagnostic reading. The study focuses on the use of reading assessment tools to understand the process of reading, while using reading inventories for diagnostic as well as pedagogical…

  1. Frequency Drives Lexical Access in Reading but not in Speaking: The Frequency-Lag Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Gollan, Tamar H.; Slattery, Timothy J.; Goldenberg, Diane; van Assche, Eva; Duyck, Wouter; Rayner, Keith

    2010-01-01

    To contrast mechanisms of lexical access in production versus comprehension we compared the effects of word-frequency (high, low), context (none, low-constraining, high-constraining), and level of English proficiency (monolinguals, Spanish-English bilinguals, Dutch-English bilinguals), on picture naming, lexical decision, and eye fixation times. Semantic constraint effects were larger in production than in reading. Frequency effects were larger in production than in reading without constraining context, but larger in reading than in production with constraining context. Bilingual disadvantages were modulated by frequency in production but not in eye fixation times, were not smaller in low-constraining context, and were reduced by high-constraining context only in production and only at the lowest level of English proficiency. These results challenge existing accounts of bilingual disadvantages, and reveal fundamentally different processes during lexical access across modalities, entailing a primarily semantically driven search in production, but a frequency driven search in comprehension. The apparently more interactive process in production than comprehension could simply reflect a greater number of frequency-sensitive processing stages in production. PMID:21219080

  2. 49 CFR 7.12 - What records are available in reading rooms, and how are they accessed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What records are available in reading rooms, and... available in reading rooms, and how are they accessed? (a) General. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(2), unless..., DOT and its components make the following records, and an index to the records, available in a...

  3. Understanding the Reading Attributes and Their Cognitive Relationships on a High-Stakes Biology Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawlusyk, Kevin James

    Test items used to assess learners' knowledge on high-stakes science examinations contain contextualized questions that unintentionally assess reading skill along with conceptual knowledge. Therefore, students who are not proficient readers are unable to comprehend the text within the test item to demonstrate effectively their level of science knowledge. The purpose of this quantitative study was to understand what reading attributes were required to successfully answer the Biology 30 Diploma Exam. Furthermore, the research sought to understand the cognitive relationships among the reading attributes through quantitative analysis structured by the Attribute Hierarchy Model (AHM). The research consisted of two phases: (1) Cognitive development, where the cognitive attributes of the Biology 30 Exam were specified and hierarchy structures were developed; and (2) Psychometric analysis, that statistically tested the attribute hierarchy using the Hierarchy Consistency Index (HCI), and calculate attribute probabilities. Phase one of the research used January 2011, Biology 30 Diploma Exam, while phase two accessed archival data for the 9985 examinees who took the assessment on January 24th, 2011. Phase one identified ten specific reading attributes, of which five were identified as unique subsets of vocabulary, two were identified as reading visual representations, and three corresponded to general reading skills. Four hierarchical cognitive model were proposed then analyzed using the HCI as a mechanism to explain the relationship among the attributes. Model A had the highest HCI value (0.337), indicating an overall poor data fit, yet for the top achieving examinees the model had an excellent model fit with an HCI value of 0.888, and for examinees that scored over 60% there was a moderate model fit (HCI = 0.592). Linear regressions of the attribute probability estimates suggest that there is a cognitive relationship among six of the ten reading attributes (R2 = 0.958 and 0

  4. Oral Reading Fluency and Authentic Reading Material: Criterion Validity of the Technical Features of CBM Survey-Level Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hintze, John M.; Shapiro, Edward S.; Conte, Kristin L.; Basile, Isabella M.

    1997-01-01

    Assesses the effects of curriculum on technical features of survey-level curriculum-based measurement (CBM) in reading. Results indicate that correlation between survey-level CBM and reading comprehension is similar regardless of material used for assessment. Also, developmental fluency rates are similar. Results support the use of CBM…

  5. A highly efficient SDRAM controller supporting variable-length burst access and batch process for discrete reads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Nan; Wang, Junzheng

    2016-03-01

    A highly efficient Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (SDRAM) controller supporting variable-length burst access and batch process for discrete reads is proposed in this paper. Based on the Principle of Locality, command First In First Out (FIFO) and address range detector are designed within this controller to accelerate its responses to discrete read requests, which dramatically improves the average Effective Bus Utilization Ratio (EBUR) of SDRAM. Our controller is finally verified by driving the Micron 256-Mb SDRAM MT48LC16M16A2. Successful simulation and verification results show that our controller exhibits much higher EBUR than do most existing designs in case of discrete reads.

  6. Informal Reading-Thinking Inventory: An Informal Reading Inventory (IRI) with Options for Assessing Additional Elements of Higher-Order Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Anthony V.; And Others

    Focusing on better assessing the thinking, or meaning-making, aspects of reading that are emphasized in current views of the reading process, this book presents the Informal Reading-Thinking Inventory (IR-TI) which offers options to enhance assessment beyond assessing students' listening level, oral reading of words, and basic comprehension. The…

  7. Lexical access during eye fixations in reading: effects of word-initial letter sequence.

    PubMed

    Lima, S D; Inhoff, A W

    1985-06-01

    Two experiments tested the hypothesis that lexical access in reading is initiated on the basis of word-initial letter information obtainable in the parafoveal region. Eye movements were monitored while college students read sentences containing target words whose initial trigram (Experiment 1) or bigram (Experiment 2) imposed either a high or a low degree of constraint in the lexicon. In contradiction to our hypothesis, high-constraint words (e.g., DWARF) received longer fixations than did low-constraint words (e.g., CLOWN), despite the fact that high-constraint words have an initial letter sequence shared by few other words in the lexicon. Moreover, a comparison of fixation times in viewing conditions with and without parafoveal letter information showed that the amount of decrease in target fixation time due to prior parafoveal availability was the same for high-constraint and low-constraint targets. We concluded that increased familiarity of word-initial letter sequence is beneficial to lexical access and that familiarity affects the efficiency of foveal but not parafoveal processing.

  8. A Review of the Early Reading Diagnostic Assessment, Second Edition (ERDA-2)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Gina L.

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the Early Reading Diagnostic Assessment second edition (ERDA-2). The Early Reading Diagnostic Assessment, second edition (ERDA-2; The Psychological Corporation, 2003) assesses the acquisition of reading skills in children from kindergarten to Grade 3. The ERDA-2 is a collection of subtests adapted primarily from the Wechsler…

  9. Middle School Reading Assessment: Measuring What Matters under a RTI Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'reilly, Tenaha; Sabatini, John; Bruce, Kelly; Pillarisetti, Srinivasa; McCormick, Carina

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a prototype reading assessment designed to measure and support component and integrated reading skills. The work is motivated by the need to create a new generation of assessments that are better aligned with the research in cognitive science, reading and learning. An assessment that synthesizes advances in these areas may…

  10. Complicating the World of Reading Assessment: Toward Better Assessments for Better Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, P. David; Valencia, Sheila W.; Wixson, Karen

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we share with readers our hopes, fears, and predictions for reading assessment in American schools at a critical policy juncture--the production of new assessments to measure achievement of the Common Core State Standards. It isn't just Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers and Smarter Balanced…

  11. The Informal Reading-"Thinking" Inventory: Twenty-First-Century Assessment Formats for Discovering Reading and Writing Needs--and Strengths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Ula; Manzo, Anthony V.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the Informal Reading-"Thinking" Inventory (IR-TI), an informal reading inventory built on an easily recognized legacy model that also branches out into new realms. The IR-TI provides tools for assessing reading the lines, reading between the lines, and reading beyond the lines. This is a 21st-century…

  12. Use of a Measure of Reading Comprehension to Enhance Prediction on the State High Stakes Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Edward S.; Solari, Emily; Petscher, Yaacov

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined the diagnostic accuracy of two screening measures of risk for future difficulties in reading comprehension, as well as the degree to which adding a screening measure of reading comprehension enhanced the prediction of Oral Reading Fluency to outcomes of student reading performance on the state high stakes assessment for…

  13. Evaluating Child-Based Reading Constructs and Assessments with Struggling Adult Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nanda, Alice Owens

    2009-01-01

    Due to the paucity of research on struggling adult readers, researchers rely on child-based reading constructs and measures when investigating the reading skills of adults struggling with reading. The purpose of the two studies in this investigation was to evaluate the appropriateness of using child-based reading constructs and assessments with…

  14. A Comparison of the ISRT, NDRT, and SDRT for Use in Assessing FVCC Student Reading Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Mel

    A study was conducted at Florissant Valley Community College (FVCC) to compare three standardized tests--the Iowa Silent Reading Test (ISRT), the Nelson-Denny Reading Test (NDRT), and the Stanford Diagnostic Reading Test (SDRT)--for use in assessing student reading skills. The study population of 402 students included 216 students who agreed to…

  15. Assessing Reading Comprehension in Adolescent Low Achievers: Subskills Identification and Task Specificity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Steensel, Roel; Oostdam, Ron; van Gelderen, Amos

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of a validation study of a new test for assessing low-achieving adolescents' reading comprehension skills--the SALT-reading--we analyzed two issues relevant to the field of reading test development. Using the test results of 200 seventh graders, we examined the possibility of identifying reading comprehension subskills and the effects…

  16. Using Metacognitive Assessments to Create Individualized Reading Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Israel, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    Today more than ever, educators are challenged to meet the literacy needs of all learners in increasingly diverse classrooms. To help them meet this challenge, author Susan E. Israel, shows how to use metacognitive assessments to adapt literacy instruction to elementary students' individual needs. This book supplies teachers with easy access to…

  17. Predicting Performance on the Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment for Reading for Third Graders Using Reading Curriculum Based Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkham, Robert Scott

    2013-01-01

    Despite flexibility waivers granted to states by the United States Department of Education from some provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act, our nation's public schools continue to struggle to improve reading proficiency as measured by high stakes assessments. To reach state targets for reading proficiency schools must use data at the earliest…

  18. The Experimental Effects of the Strategic Adolescent Reading Intervention (STARI) on a Scenarios-Based Reading Comprehension Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, James; Hemphill, Lowry; Troyer, Margaret; Jones, Stephanie; LaRusso, Maria; Kim, Ha-Yeon; Donovan, Suzanne; Snow, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Nearly one-quarter of U.S. eighth graders score below basic on national assessments of reading (NCES, 2013) and are poorly equipped for the reading demands of secondary school. Struggling adolescent readers cannot summarize a simple passage, use context to determine word meanings, and have difficulties making text-based inferences. In addition,…

  19. Formative, Informative, and Summative Assessment: The Relationship among Curriculum-Based Measurement of Reading, Classroom Engagement, and Reading Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchand, Gwen C.; Furrer, Carrie J.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the relationships among formative curriculum-based measures of reading (CBM-R), student engagement as an extra-academic indicator of student motivation, and summative performance on a high-stakes reading assessment. A diverse sample of third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade students and their teachers responded to questionnaires…

  20. Classification Accuracy of Oral Reading Fluency and Maze in Predicting Performance on Large-Scale Reading Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Dawn M.; Hixson, Michael D.; Shaw, Amber; Johnson, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether using a multiple-measure framework yielded better classification accuracy than oral reading fluency (ORF) or maze alone in predicting pass/fail rates for middle-school students on a large-scale reading assessment. Participants were 178 students in Grades 7 and 8 from a Midwestern school district.…

  1. Reading Assessment Methods for Middle-School Students: An Investigation of Reading Comprehension Rate and Maze Accurate Response Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Andrea D.; Henning, Jaime B.; Hawkins, Renee O.; Sheeley, Wesley; Shoemaker, Larissa; Reynolds, Jennifer R.; Moch, Christina

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the validity of four different aloud reading comprehension assessment measures: Maze, comprehension questions, Maze accurate response rate (MARR), and reading comprehension rate (RCR). The criterion measures used in this study were the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement (WJ-III ACH) Broad Reading…

  2. Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulford, Jeremy, Ed.

    1971-01-01

    A collection of articles reflecting the underlying concern of British contributors with continuity--conceiving reading and learning as a whole throughout the school years--comprises this special issue of "English in Education." Specific topics treated are: "What Children Learn in Learning to Read" by R. Morris; "Reading without Primers" by W.…

  3. Mobile App to Assess Universal Access Compliance.

    PubMed

    Fransolet, Colette

    2016-01-01

    In terms of local legislation, South Africa has a handful of regulations that indirectly require Universal Access, which is then in itself largely described as facilities for people with disabilities. The most predominant set of regulations is the South African National Building Regulations, with a specific code which is deemed to satisfy standard titled South African National Standard (SANS) 10400 Part S: Facilities for Persons with Disabilities. Revised in 2011, this building regulation offers some technical guidelines specific to built infrastructure, and largely for people with functional mobility limitations. The description of the term "functional mobility limitations" in the context of this paper refers to people who make use of mobility aids to assist with their functionality in an environment, for example people who use walking aids (sticks, canes or walkers) and people who use wheelchairs. Albeit lacking in specifics around the requirements for other areas of functional limitations, including people who are blind, people who are deaf, and people with cognitive limitations, the SANS 10400 Part S is, to date, the most effective regulatory requirement in the country to assist with making facilities more accessible. With only a few experts in South Africa working in the field, the ability to offer clients Universal Access Reviews in terms of basic compliance with the SANS 10400 Part S is limited by two major factors. Firstly, the costs associated with employing experts in the field to review infrastructure is mostly too exorbitant for clients to carry. Secondly, the amount of time taken to perform reviews onsite and then collate the information into a coherent report for the client is far too long. These aspects result in a gap between clients wanting to meet the requirements, and being able to have the work completed in a reasonable amount of time. To overcome the challenge of larger institutions and organizations wanting to have their facilities reviewed in

  4. Mobile App to Assess Universal Access Compliance.

    PubMed

    Fransolet, Colette

    2016-01-01

    In terms of local legislation, South Africa has a handful of regulations that indirectly require Universal Access, which is then in itself largely described as facilities for people with disabilities. The most predominant set of regulations is the South African National Building Regulations, with a specific code which is deemed to satisfy standard titled South African National Standard (SANS) 10400 Part S: Facilities for Persons with Disabilities. Revised in 2011, this building regulation offers some technical guidelines specific to built infrastructure, and largely for people with functional mobility limitations. The description of the term "functional mobility limitations" in the context of this paper refers to people who make use of mobility aids to assist with their functionality in an environment, for example people who use walking aids (sticks, canes or walkers) and people who use wheelchairs. Albeit lacking in specifics around the requirements for other areas of functional limitations, including people who are blind, people who are deaf, and people with cognitive limitations, the SANS 10400 Part S is, to date, the most effective regulatory requirement in the country to assist with making facilities more accessible. With only a few experts in South Africa working in the field, the ability to offer clients Universal Access Reviews in terms of basic compliance with the SANS 10400 Part S is limited by two major factors. Firstly, the costs associated with employing experts in the field to review infrastructure is mostly too exorbitant for clients to carry. Secondly, the amount of time taken to perform reviews onsite and then collate the information into a coherent report for the client is far too long. These aspects result in a gap between clients wanting to meet the requirements, and being able to have the work completed in a reasonable amount of time. To overcome the challenge of larger institutions and organizations wanting to have their facilities reviewed in

  5. Reading and Literature Objectives, 1979-80 Assessment. No. 11-RL-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO. National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    The reading and literature objectives for the 1979-80 assessment by the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) are categorized into four major areas: valves reading and literature, comprehends written works, responds to written works, and applies study skills in reading. These major objectives and their subobjectives are presented as…

  6. What Is the Basis for Self-Assessment of Comprehension When Reading Mathematical Expository Texts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Österholm, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize students' self-assessments when reading mathematical texts, in particular regarding what students use as a basis for evaluations of their own reading comprehension. A total of 91 students read two mathematical texts, and for each text, they performed a self-assessment of their comprehension and…

  7. The Early Grade Reading Assessment: Applications and Interventions to Improve Basic Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gove, Amber, Ed.; Wetterberg, Anna, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This book highlights the experience of Liberia in both assessing and improving reading in primary schools. As a result of an Early Grade Reading Assessment, the Ministry of Education and partners, including the United States Agency for International Development, came together to identify and develop strategies for improving reading in schools.…

  8. The neural bases of the pseudohomophone effect: Phonological constraints on lexico-semantic access in reading.

    PubMed

    Braun, M; Hutzler, F; Münte, T F; Rotte, M; Dambacher, M; Richlan, F; Jacobs, A M

    2015-06-01

    We investigated phonological processing in normal readers to answer the question to what extent phonological recoding is active during silent reading and if or how it guides lexico-semantic access. We addressed this issue by looking at pseudohomophone and baseword frequency effects in lexical decisions with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The results revealed greater activation in response to pseudohomophones than for well-controlled pseudowords in the left inferior/superior frontal and middle temporal cortex, left insula, and left superior parietal lobule. Furthermore, we observed a baseword frequency effect for pseudohomophones (e.g., FEAL) but not for pseudowords (e.g., FEEP). This baseword frequency effect was qualified by activation differences in bilateral angular and left supramarginal, and bilateral middle temporal gyri for pseudohomophones with low- compared to high-frequency basewords. We propose that lexical decisions to pseudohomophones involves phonology-driven lexico-semantic activation of their basewords and that this is converging neuroimaging evidence for automatically activated phonological representations during silent reading in experienced readers.

  9. Early Activity in Broca's Area During Reading Reflects Fast Access to Articulatory Codes From Print.

    PubMed

    Klein, Michael; Grainger, Jonathan; Wheat, Katherine L; Millman, Rebecca E; Simpson, Michael I G; Hansen, Peter C; Cornelissen, Piers L

    2015-07-01

    Prior evidence for early activity in Broca's area during reading may reflect fast access to articulatory codes in left inferior frontal gyrus pars opercularis (LIFGpo). We put this hypothesis to test using a benchmark for articulatory involvement in reading known as the masked onset priming effect (MOPE). In masked onset priming, briefly presented pronounceable strings of letters that share an initial phoneme with subsequently presented target words (e.g., gilp-GAME) facilitate word naming responses compared with unrelated primes (dilp-GAME). Crucially, these priming effects only occur when the task requires articulation (naming), and not when it requires lexical decisions. A standard explanation of masked onset priming is that it reflects fast computation of articulatory output codes from letter representations. We therefore predicted 1) that activity in left IFG pars opercularis would be modulated by masked onset priming, 2) that priming-related modulation in LIFGpo would immediately follow activity in occipital cortex, and 3) that this modulation would be greater for naming than for lexical decision. These predictions were confirmed in a magnetoencephalography (MEG) priming study. MOPEs emerged in left IFG at ∼100 ms posttarget onset, and the priming effects were more sustained when the task involved articulation.

  10. Assessment, authorization and access to medicaid managed mental health care.

    PubMed

    Masland, Mary C; Snowden, Lonnie R; Wallace, Neal T

    2007-11-01

    Examined were effects on access of managed care assessment and authorization processes in California's 57 county mental health plans. Primary data on managed care implementation were collected from surveys of county plan administrators; secondary data were from Medicaid claims and enrollment files. Using multivariate fixed effects regression, we found that following implementation of managed care, greater access occurred in county plans where assessments and treatment were performed by the same clinician, and where service authorizations were made more rapidly. Lower access occurred in county plans where treating clinicians authorized services themselves. Results confirm the significant effects of managed care processes on outcomes and highlight the importance of system capacity.

  11. NAEP 1992 Reading State Report for Hawaii. The Trial State Assessment at Grade 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assessment of Educational Progress, Princeton, NJ.

    In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment (TSA); for the first time in NAEP's history, voluntary state-by-state assessments were made. In 1992, the NAEP Program included an expanded TSA in fourth-grade reading. The 1992 reading assessment considered students' performance in situations that…

  12. Assessment as a Strategy to Increase Oral Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Maria S.; Munger, Kristen A.; Clonan, Sheila M.

    2012-01-01

    For students with reading disabilities who experience difficulties with oral reading fluency, school-based interventions frequently focus on increasing speed through interventions such as repeated readings of texts. Students may not respond adequately to such "fluency only" interventions if the underlying skills that lead to fluent reading are…

  13. Augmenting Paper-Based Reading Activity with Direct Access to Digital Materials and Scaffolded Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Nian-Shing; Teng, Daniel Chia-En; Lee, Cheng-Han; Kinshuk

    2011-01-01

    Comprehension is the goal of reading. However, students often encounter reading difficulties due to the lack of background knowledge and proper reading strategy. Unfortunately, print text provides very limited assistance to one's reading comprehension through its static knowledge representations such as symbols, charts, and graphs. Integrating…

  14. Independent Reading in the Sixth Grade: Free Choice and Access to Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy-Shaffer, Joye; Pettit, Shirley

    A study conducted in the Orange County Public Schools in central Florida investigated the reading interests of sixth-grade students. The study also gathered information from teachers regarding the nature and source of reading materials used for independent reading in their classrooms and on the implementation of sustained silent reading practices.…

  15. The Assessment of Self-Access Language Learning: Practical Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinders, Hayo; Lazaro, Noemi

    2008-01-01

    Self-access centers are a popular type of language support offered by an increasing number of schools and universities around the world. Assessment of the learning that takes place in such centers is seen as both crucial and problematic. Many barriers to successful assessment appear to exist, but these have not been comprehensively documented,…

  16. Current Approaches to Assessment in Self-Access Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinders, Hayo; Lázaro, Noemí

    2007-01-01

    Assessment is generally seen as one of the key challenges in the field of self-access learning (Gardner & Miller, 1999; Champagne et al., 2001; Lai, 2001; Kinoshita Thomson, 1996). Many researchers and practitioners point to difficulties with assessing language gains in an environment in which variables cannot comprehensively be controlled…

  17. Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, James Paul

    1992-01-01

    Explores what is meant by reading, noting that to read is to respond appropriately to a specific consensus centered on certain values and that the consensus is achieved among persons whose paths through life have come together with members of dominant discourses in society. (SLD)

  18. Access Control for Mobile Assessment Systems Using ID.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Masaharu; Ishii, Tadashi; Morino, Kazuma

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of shelters during disaster is critical to ensure the health of evacuees and prevent pandemic. In the Ishinomaki area, one of the areas most damaged by the Great East Japan Earthquake, the highly organized assessment helped to successfully manage a total of 328 shelters with a total of 46,480 evacuees. The input and analysis of vast amounts of data was tedious work for staff members. However, a web-based assessment system that utilized mobile devices was thought to decrease workload and standardize the evaluation form. The necessary access of information should be controlled in order to maintain individuals' privacy. We successfully developed an access control system using IDs. By utilizing a unique numerical ID, users can access the input form or assessment table. This avoids unnecessary queries to the server, resulting in a quick response and easy availability, even with poor internet connection. PMID:26262204

  19. Reading Fluency: Implications for the Assessment of Children with Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisinger, Elizabeth B.; Bloom, Juliana S.; Hynd, George W.

    2010-01-01

    The current investigation explored the diagnostic utility of reading fluency measures in the identification of children with reading disabilities. Participants were 50 children referred to a university-based clinic because of suspected reading problems and/or a prior diagnosis of dyslexia, where children completed a battery of standardized…

  20. Mislabeled Reading and Learning Disabilities: Assessment and Treatment for Reading Difficulties in Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sze, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Reading affects a plethora of areas in life. Students with learning disabilities often fall into this category due to a lack of practice with reading and less time to focus on building skills. This paper examines the background, the relationship between reading and learning disabilities, the characteristics of students with learning disabilities…

  1. Too Long to Read: Assessing the Motivation behind Graduate Student Attendance in Reading Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenk, John J.; Steppan, Scott J.

    2014-01-01

    Graduate-level reading groups serve as a primary forum for students to learn current and complex concepts in their field. Because graduate students lament that reading "abnormally long" articles discourage them from attending particular reading group sessions, we tested the hypothesis that attendance will decrease proportionally with…

  2. Oral Reading Fluency Assessment: Issues of Construct, Criterion, and Consequential Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia, Sheila W.; Smith, Antony T.; Reece, Anne M.; Li, Min; Wixson, Karen K.; Newman, Heather

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated multiple models for assessing oral reading fluency, including 1-minute oral reading measures that produce scores reported as words correct per minute (wcpm). We compared a measure of wcpm with measures of the individual and combined indicators of oral reading fluency (rate, accuracy, prosody, and comprehension) to examine…

  3. Assessing the Relationship between Prosody and Reading Outcomes in Children Using the PEPS-C

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lochrin, Margaret; Arciuli, Joanne; Sharma, Mridula

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between both receptive and expressive prosody and each of three reading outcomes: accuracy of reading aloud words, accuracy of reading aloud nonwords, and comprehension. Participants were 63 children aged 7 to 12 years. To assess prosody, we used the Profiling Elements of Prosody in Speech Communication…

  4. Predicting Performance on the Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment for Third Grade Reading Students Using Reading Curriculum Based Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkham, Scott; Lampley, James H.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between three predictor variables (Fall R-CBM, Winter R-CBM, and Spring R-CBM) and the Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program third grade reading and language arts assessment. The population selected for this study included all third grade students from an East Tennessee school…

  5. Assessing Reading and Writing: Building a More Complete Picture for Middle School Assessment. Technical Report No. 500.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia, Sheila; And Others

    The intention of this report is to build a strong case for a portfolio approach to assessment of reading and writing during the middle school years. A portfolio is both a collection of the artifacts of students' reading and writing and a disposition toward assessment. This disposition is characterized by the belief that assessment must be…

  6. The Adequacy of Tools for Assessing Reading Competence: A Framework and Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kame'enui, Edward J.; Fuchs, Lynn; Francis, David J.; Good, Roland, III; O'Connor, Rollanda E.; Simmons, Deborah C.; Tindal, Gerald; Torgesen, Joseph K.

    2006-01-01

    Assessment of student performance is critical for developing effective instructional policy and designing programs responsive to individual students' needs. To gauge the adequacy of available assessment tools for achieving these ends, the Reading First Assessment Committee (RFAC) developed criteria for evaluating the adequacy of reading measures…

  7. Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems Braille Reading Assessment: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posey, Virginia K.; Henderson, Barbara W.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This exploratory study determined whether transcribing selected test items on an adult life and work skills reading test into braille could maintain the same approximate scale-score range and maintain fitness within the item response theory model as used by the Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (CASAS) for developing…

  8. Prediction of State Mandated Assessment Mathematics Scores from Computer Based Mathematics and Reading Preview Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa-Guerra, Boris

    2012-01-01

    The study sought to understand whether MAPs computer based assessment of math and language skills using MAPs reading scores can predict student scores on the NMSBA. A key question was whether or not the prediction can be improved by including student language skill scores. The study explored the effectiveness of computer based preview assessments…

  9. Assessment of RFID Read Accuracy for ISS Water Kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The Space Life Sciences Directorate/Medical Informatics and Health Care Systems Branch (SD4) is assessing the benefits Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology for tracking items flown onboard the International Space Station (ISS). As an initial study, the Avionic Systems Division Electromagnetic Systems Branch (EV4) is collaborating with SD4 to affix RFID tags to a water kit supplied by SD4 and studying the read success rate of the tagged items. The tagged water kit inside a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB) was inventoried using three different RFID technologies, including the Johnson Space Center Building 14 Wireless Habitat Test Bed RFID portal, an RFID hand-held reader being targeted for use on board the ISS, and an RFID enclosure designed and prototyped by EV4.

  10. Issues Relating to the Assessment of Flexible Efficient Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nacke, Phil L.

    An integral dimension in the concept of flexible efficient reading is the process of skimming, which is defined as the reading behavior in which information is processed without looking at all or most of the words in continuous printed discourse. Measurement of flexible reading efficiency presents problems which revolve around four major issues.…

  11. Learning and Assessing Mathematics through Reading and Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosse, Michael J.; Faulconer, Johna

    2008-01-01

    Students learn mathematics more effectively and more deeply when reading and writing is directed at learning mathematics. Although reading and writing in mathematics may necessitate more skills and practice to master, the mathematical learning derived from reading and writing mathematics far outweighs the burden it places on teachers and students.…

  12. Optimization of Pit Depth for Concurrent Read Only Memory-Random Access Memory Optical Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Nobuhide; Yamashita, Satoshi; Kunimatsu, Yasukiyo; Hosokawa, Tetsuo; Morimoto, Yasuaki; Suenaga, Masashi; Yoshihiro, Masafumi; Shimazaki, Katsusuke

    2004-06-01

    We have studied a concurrent read only memory-random access memory (ROM-RAM) optical disk system without laser feedback by optimizing pit depth. When the pit depth was 47 nm (optical depth about 1/11 λ) and the pit width 0.45 μm, about 8% jitter in both pit and magneto-optical (MO) signals was obtained with a 785 nm wavelength laser diode and 0.55 NA objective lens by employing magnetic-field-modulation (MFM) MO recording. Both pit data and MO data were recorded with eight to fourteen modulation (EFM) code with a minimum mark length of 0.83 μm and a track pitch of 1.6 μm and thus the areal density is comparable to 1.3 GB for φ 120 mm single sided disk. By the optimization of the pit depth, sufficient system margins for practical use were obtained without laser feed back for the simultaneous reproduction of both pit and MO signals.

  13. Linking the 2011 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in Reading to the 2011 Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Gary W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a statistical linking between the 2011 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in Grade 4 reading and the 2011 Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) in Grade 4 reading. The primary purpose of the linking study is to obtain a statistical comparison between NAEP (a national assessment) and PIRLS (an…

  14. Investigating Access to Educational Assessment for Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Kevin; Parkinson, Gill; Lewis, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Many countries have established systems for identifying, and providing for, the range of students with disabilities during their formal educational assessments. Most systems include the provision of variously termed "special access arrangements" (SAAs), such as the provision of extra time or practical assistance with some aspect of an examination.…

  15. Colorado Student Assessment Program: 2001 Released Passages, Items, and Prompts. Grade 4 Reading and Writing, Grade 4 Lectura y Escritura, Grade 5 Mathematics and Reading, Grade 6 Reading, Grade 7 Reading and Writing, Grade 8 Mathematics, Reading and Science, Grade 9 Reading, and Grade 10 Mathematics and Reading and Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    This document contains released reading comprehension passages, test items, and writing prompts from the Colorado Student Assessment Program for 2001. The sample questions and prompts are included without answers or examples of student responses. Test materials are included for: (1) Grade 4 Reading and Writing; (2) Grade 4 Lectura y Escritura…

  16. The Role of Timing in Assessing Oral Reading Fluency and Comprehension in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Benjamin; Zuilkowski, Stephanie Simmons

    2016-01-01

    Despite rapid growth in literacy-related programmes and evaluation in sub-Saharan Africa, little critical attention has been paid to the relevance of assumptions that underlie existing assessment methods. This study focuses on the issue of timing in the assessment of oral reading fluency, a critical component of successful reading (Chard, Vaughn,…

  17. Technical Report of the NAEP 1992 Trial State Assessment Program in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Eugene G.; And Others

    Documenting the design and data analysis procedures behind the 1992 Trial State Assessment in reading, this book also provides insight into the rationale behind the technical decisions made about the program. Chapters in the book are: (1) "Overview: The Design, Implementation, and Analysis of the 1992 Trial State Assessment Program in Reading"…

  18. Relating Knowledge about Reading to Teaching Practice: An Exploratory Validity Study of a Teacher Knowledge Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Geoffrey; Johnson, David; Carlisle, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    The research reported in this paper is focused directly on assessing the validity of the "Teaching Knowledge about Reading and Reading Practices" (TKRRP) assessment. Following the recommendations of the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing (APA/AERA, 1999), the authors see validation as a process of constructing an argument that…

  19. Vocal Sight-Reading Assessment: Technological Advances, Student Perceptions, and Instructional Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Michele

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated choral singers' comfort level using computer technology for vocal sight-reading assessment. High school choral singers (N = 138) attending a summer music camp completed a computer-based sight-reading assessment and accompanying pre- and posttest surveys on their musical backgrounds and perceptions about technology. A large…

  20. Validation of a Cognitive Diagnostic Model across Multiple Forms of a Reading Comprehension Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Amy K.

    2013-01-01

    The present study sought to fit a cognitive diagnostic model (CDM) across multiple forms of a passage-based reading comprehension assessment using the attribute hierarchy method. Previous research on CDMs for reading comprehension assessments served as a basis for the attributes in the hierarchy. The two attribute hierarchies were fit to data from…

  1. Scales and Other Problems in the NAEP Reading Assessment: Critical Comments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, John B.

    Two major issues are addressed in this commentary on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) reading assessment: the design of the reading proficiency scale and interpretation of test data; and the dimensionality of this scale and the possibility of supplying data on specific skill dimensions. An examination of NAEP data and the…

  2. Description and Factor Analysis of a Broad Spectrum Battery for Assessing "Progress toward Reading Maturity."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Anthony V.; Casale, Ula Price

    A test battery termed "Assessment of Reading and Language Maturity" (ALARM) contains 15 subtests designed to cover the major and minor elements involved in assessing and promoting progress toward reading-language-thinking and social-emotional maturity. Although still undergoing development, ALARM has been administered to and partially normed on…

  3. Assessing Reading: Multiple Measures for Kindergarten through Twelfth Grade. 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Linda, Ed.; Thorsnes, B. J., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This book contains a collection of formal and informal reading assessments for use with students in Grades K-12. These assessments assist the teacher in targeting areas of strength and weakness, in monitoring student reading development, and in planning appropriate instruction. Unlike large-scale achievement tests, the majority of these…

  4. Children with Reading Disabilities: Does Dynamic Assessment Help in the Classification?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, H. Lee; Howard, Crystal B.

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether the cognitive performance of reading disabled and poor readers can be separated under dynamic assessment procedures, and whether measures related to dynamic assessment add unique variance, beyond IO, in predicting reading achievement scores. The sample consisted of 70 children (39 females and 31…

  5. Developmental Reading and English Assessment in a Researcher-Practitioner Partnership. CCRC Working Paper No. 85

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perin, Dolores; Raufman, Julia; Kalamkarian, Hoori Santikian

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a researcher-practitioner partnership that assessed the readiness for postsecondary reading and writing demands of 211 students in developmental reading and English courses in two community colleges. An assessment battery was designed for the study, comprising two standardized tests and five projectdeveloped tasks.…

  6. Assessing communication accessibility in the university classroom: towards a goal of universal hearing accessibility.

    PubMed

    Cheesman, Margaret F; Jennings, Mary Beth; Klinger, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Measures of accessibility typically focus on the physical environment and aspects relating to getting into and out of spaces. The transient sound environment is less well characterized in typical accessibility measures. Hearing accessibility measures can be based upon physical indices or functional assessment. The physical measures are indices that use signal-to-noise ratios to evaluate audibility while the functional assessment tool adopts universal design for hearing (UDH) principles derived from principles of universal design. The UDH principles include (1) Optimization of the hearing environment for all; (2) Optimization of interactions between persons and objects to promote better hearing in an environment; (3) Optimization of opportunities for people to have multiple choices of interactions with one another; (4) Optimization of opportunities for people to perform different activities in and across environments; (5) Optimization of opportunities for people to have safe, private, and secure use of the environment while minimizing distraction, interference, or cognitive loading; and (6) Optimization of opportunities for people to use the environment without extra steps for hearing access during preparatory, use and/or after use phases. This paper compares the two approaches using case examples from post-secondary classrooms in order to describe the potential advantages and limitations of each. PMID:24004801

  7. Assessing communication accessibility in the university classroom: towards a goal of universal hearing accessibility.

    PubMed

    Cheesman, Margaret F; Jennings, Mary Beth; Klinger, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Measures of accessibility typically focus on the physical environment and aspects relating to getting into and out of spaces. The transient sound environment is less well characterized in typical accessibility measures. Hearing accessibility measures can be based upon physical indices or functional assessment. The physical measures are indices that use signal-to-noise ratios to evaluate audibility while the functional assessment tool adopts universal design for hearing (UDH) principles derived from principles of universal design. The UDH principles include (1) Optimization of the hearing environment for all; (2) Optimization of interactions between persons and objects to promote better hearing in an environment; (3) Optimization of opportunities for people to have multiple choices of interactions with one another; (4) Optimization of opportunities for people to perform different activities in and across environments; (5) Optimization of opportunities for people to have safe, private, and secure use of the environment while minimizing distraction, interference, or cognitive loading; and (6) Optimization of opportunities for people to use the environment without extra steps for hearing access during preparatory, use and/or after use phases. This paper compares the two approaches using case examples from post-secondary classrooms in order to describe the potential advantages and limitations of each.

  8. Teachers' and Students' Views of Reading Fluency: Issues of Consequential Validity in Adopting One-Minute Reading Fluency Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeney, Theresa A.; Shim, Minsuk K.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we present results of a survey designed to understand teachers' (n = 77) and students' (n = 875) perceptions of purported negative consequences of using one-minute oral reading fluency (ORF) measures such as the "Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills" (DIBELS) ORF assessment and the "aimsweb Reading…

  9. Teachers and Tests: Assessing Pupils' Reading Achievement in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Stefan; Myrberg, Eva; Rosen, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine validity aspects of teachers' judgements of pupils' reading skills. Data come from Sweden's participation in the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2001, for Grades 3 and 4. For pupils at the same achievement levels, as measured by PIRLS 2001 test, teachers' judgements of…

  10. Office of Probation - Richmond College: Reading Center Assessment. Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, James M.

    This program serves a population of disaffected, underachieving inner-city youth of junior high and high school age who are known to the Family and/or Criminal courts and are at least two years retarded in reading. In most cases, the first efforts of the center are said to be directed to the provision of remedial reading services, and toward…

  11. Process Assessment: Minnesota Reading Corps PreK Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaconis, Athena; Estrera, Elc; Hafford, Carol; Hernandez, Marc; Markovitz, Carrie; Muyskens, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Minnesota Reading Corps is the largest AmeriCorps State program in the country. Its mission is to help every Minnesota child become a proficient reader by the end of third grade. To meet this goal, the Minnesota Reading Corps and its host organization, ServeMinnesota Action Network, engages a diverse group of AmeriCorps members to provide…

  12. Assessing Reading Skills in an F.E. College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Judy

    This guide outlines a model that adult educators can use to construct a test for their adult students, regardless of subject area, that is written at the students' reading level. The problems that written tests pose for trade and technical students in further education (FE) who have poor reading skills and the drawbacks of using commercially…

  13. Updated Perspectives on Educational Diagnosticians' Understanding of Reading Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rueter, Jessica A.; McWhorter, Rochell R.; Lamb, John H.; Dykes, Frank O.

    2016-01-01

    Chappell, Stephens, Kinnison, and Pettigrew (2009) conducted a study investigating educational diagnosticians knowledge of early reading development. Our study replicated the work of Chappell et al. through a mixed methods design that investigated educational diagnosticians' perceptions and knowledge of early reading development. Additionally, our…

  14. Assessing spelling in kindergarten: further comparison of scoring metrics and their relation to reading skills.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Nathan H; Oslund, Eric L; Simmons, Leslie E; Simmons, Deborah

    2014-02-01

    Early reading and spelling development share foundational skills, yet spelling assessment is underutilized in evaluating early reading. This study extended research comparing the degree to which methods for scoring spelling skills at the end of kindergarten were associated with reading skills measured at the same time as well as at the end of first grade. Five strategies for scoring spelling responses were compared: totaling the number of words spelled correctly, totaling the number of correct letter sounds, totaling the number of correct letter sequences, using a rubric for scoring invented spellings, and calculating the Spelling Sensitivity Score (Masterson & Apel, 2010b). Students (N=287) who were identified at kindergarten entry as at risk for reading difficulty and who had received supplemental reading intervention were administered a standardized spelling assessment in the spring of kindergarten, and measures of phonological awareness, decoding, word recognition, and reading fluency were administered concurrently and at the end of first grade. The five spelling scoring metrics were similar in their strong relations with factors summarizing reading subskills (phonological awareness, decoding, and word reading) on a concurrent basis. Furthermore, when predicting first-grade reading skills based on spring-of-kindergarten performance, spelling scores from all five metrics explained unique variance over the autoregressive effects of kindergarten word identification. The practical advantages of using a brief spelling assessment for early reading evaluation and the relative tradeoffs of each scoring metric are discussed.

  15. Assessing spelling in kindergarten: further comparison of scoring metrics and their relation to reading skills.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Nathan H; Oslund, Eric L; Simmons, Leslie E; Simmons, Deborah

    2014-02-01

    Early reading and spelling development share foundational skills, yet spelling assessment is underutilized in evaluating early reading. This study extended research comparing the degree to which methods for scoring spelling skills at the end of kindergarten were associated with reading skills measured at the same time as well as at the end of first grade. Five strategies for scoring spelling responses were compared: totaling the number of words spelled correctly, totaling the number of correct letter sounds, totaling the number of correct letter sequences, using a rubric for scoring invented spellings, and calculating the Spelling Sensitivity Score (Masterson & Apel, 2010b). Students (N=287) who were identified at kindergarten entry as at risk for reading difficulty and who had received supplemental reading intervention were administered a standardized spelling assessment in the spring of kindergarten, and measures of phonological awareness, decoding, word recognition, and reading fluency were administered concurrently and at the end of first grade. The five spelling scoring metrics were similar in their strong relations with factors summarizing reading subskills (phonological awareness, decoding, and word reading) on a concurrent basis. Furthermore, when predicting first-grade reading skills based on spring-of-kindergarten performance, spelling scores from all five metrics explained unique variance over the autoregressive effects of kindergarten word identification. The practical advantages of using a brief spelling assessment for early reading evaluation and the relative tradeoffs of each scoring metric are discussed. PMID:24495494

  16. The development of an automated sentence generator for the assessment of reading speed.

    PubMed

    Crossland, Michael D; Legge, Gordon E; Dakin, Steven C

    2008-03-28

    Reading speed is an important outcome measure for many studies in neuroscience and psychology. Conventional reading speed tests have a limited corpus of sentences and usually require observers to read sentences aloud. Here we describe an automated sentence generator which can create over 100,000 unique sentences, scored using a true/false response. We propose that an estimate of the minimum exposure time required for observers to categorise the truth of such sentences is a good alternative to reading speed measures that guarantees comprehension of the printed material. Removing one word from the sentence reduces performance to chance, indicating minimal redundancy. Reading speed assessed using rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of these sentences is not statistically different from using MNREAD sentences. The automated sentence generator would be useful for measuring reading speed with button-press response (such as within MRI scanners) and for studies requiring many repeated measures of reading speed.

  17. An Exploratory Investigation of the Relations among Annual School Absences, Reading Curriculum-Based Measurement, and a High-Stakes State Reading Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Ara; Balles, John; Venesky, Lindsey

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relations among annual school absences, data obtained from triennial reading curriculum-based measurement (R-CBM) screenings, including R-CBM slope, and a high-stakes state reading assessment. Participants included 106 third- and fourth-grade students for whom attendance and reading achievement data were available…

  18. Teacher Prediction of Students' Reading Attitudes: An Examination of Teacher Judgment Compared to Student-Peer Judgment in Assessing Student Reading Attitude and Habit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikulecky, Larry J.

    Fifteen high school English teachers and 544 students in their classes participated in a study to determine how well teachers assess student reading habits and attitudes and to compare the accuracy of their judgments with those of student-peers. Each student was administered a measure of reading ability and of reading attitude; additional data…

  19. Assessment of the impact of using a reference transcriptome in mapping short RNA-Seq reads.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shanrong

    2014-01-01

    RNA-Seq has become increasingly popular in transcriptome profiling. The major challenge in RNA-Seq data analysis is the accurate mapping of junction reads to their genomic origins. To detect splicing sites in short reads, many RNA-Seq aligners use reference transcriptome to inform placement of junction reads. However, no systematic evaluation has been performed to assess or quantify the benefits of incorporating reference transcriptome in mapping RNA-Seq reads. In this paper, we have studied the impact of reference transcriptome on mapping RNA-Seq reads, especially on junction ones. The same dataset were analysed with and without RefGene transcriptome, respectively. Then a Perl script was developed to analyse and compare the mapping results. It was found that about 50-55% junction reads can be mapped to the same genomic regions regardless of the usage of RefGene model. More than one-third of reads fail to be mapped without the help of a reference transcriptome. For "Alternatively" mapped reads, i.e., those reads mapped differently with and without RefGene model, the mappings without RefGene model are usually worse than their corresponding alignments with RefGene model. For junction reads that span more than two exons, it is less likely to align them correctly without the assistance of reference transcriptome. As the sequencing technology evolves, the read length is becoming longer and longer. When reads become longer, they are more likely to span multiple exons, and thus the mapping of long junction reads is actually becoming more and more challenging without the assistance of reference transcriptome. Therefore, the advantages of using reference transcriptome in the mapping demonstrated in this study are becoming more evident for longer reads. In addition, the effect of the completeness of reference transcriptome on mapping of RNA-Seq reads is discussed.

  20. Measuring up: Advances in How We Assess Reading Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabatini, John; Albro, Elizabeth; O'Reilly, Tenaha

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, the science of reading acquisition, processes, and individual differences in general and special populations has been continuously advancing through interdisciplinary research in cognitive, psycholinguistic, developmental, genetic, neuroscience, cross-language studies, and experimental comparison studies of effective…

  1. Me and My Reading Profile: A Tool for Assessing Early Reading Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinak, Barbara A.; Malloy, Jacquelynn B.; Gambrell, Linda B.; Mazzoni, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    Research indicates that motivation plays a central role in literacy development. Recent investigations have revealed that reading motivation begins to erode as early as second grade. Therefore, it can be suggested that motivation must be carefully considered during early literacy instruction. However, such motivating instruction can be effectively…

  2. The 2008-2009 Pennsylvania System of School Assessment Handbook for Assessment Coordinators: Writing, Reading and Mathematics, Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This handbook describes the responsibilities of district and school assessment coordinators in the administration of the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA). This updated guidebook contains the following sections: (1) General Assessment Guidelines for All Assessments; (2) Writing Specific Guidelines; (3) Reading and Mathematics…

  3. Methodological Differentiation in Assessing the Value-Added of Florida's Interim Reading Assessment System to Predicting FCAT's Mean Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foorman, Barbara R.; Petscher, Yaacov

    2011-01-01

    In Florida, mean proficiency scores are reported on the Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test (FCAT) as well as recommended learning gains from the developmental scale score. Florida now has another within-year measure of growth in reading comprehension from the Florida Assessments for Instruction in Reading (FAIR). The FAIR reading…

  4. The Assessment of Print Materials. Individualized Inservice Packet Number I. Teaching Teen Reading Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus.

    This individualized inservice packet provides teachers with guidelines for the meaningful selection and assessment of print materials, so that they may locate and utilize the appropriate reading content for individual students. It is one of a nine-part series of booklets--Teaching Teen Reading--in self-instructional format, intended as a practical…

  5. "The Caterpillar": A Novel Reading Passage for Assessment of Motor Speech Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Rupal; Connaghan, Kathryn; Franco, Diana; Edsall, Erika; Forgit, Dory; Olsen, Laura; Ramage, Lianna; Tyler, Emily; Russell, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: A review of the salient characteristics of motor speech disorders and common assessment protocols revealed the need for a novel reading passage tailored specifically to differentiate between and among the dysarthrias (DYSs) and apraxia of speech (AOS). Method: "The Caterpillar" passage was designed to provide a contemporary, easily read,…

  6. Interpreting Reading Assessment Data: Moving From Parts to Whole in a Testing Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amendum, Steven J.; Conradi, Kristin; Pendleton, Melissa J.

    2016-01-01

    This article is designed to help teachers interpret reading assessment data from DIBELS beyond individual subtests to better support their students' needs. While it is important to understand the individual subtest measures, it is more vital to understand how each fits into the larger picture of reading development. The underlying construct of…

  7. Student Performance on the 2013 Assessment Program in Primary Reading (Kindergarten to Grade 2). Memorandum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Geoffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    This evaluation report provides details for school year 2013 on the percentage of primary students who met or exceeded grade-level reading benchmarks on the Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools' (MCPS) Assessment Program in Primary Reading (AP-PR). The percentage remained above 90% for kindergarten students and showed a small decrease for…

  8. PSSA Released Reading Items, 2000-2001. The Pennsylvania System of School Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of Curriculum and Academic Services.

    This document contains materials directly related to the actual reading test of the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA), including the reading rubric, released passages, selected-response questions with answer keys, performance tasks, and scored samples of students' responses to the tasks. All of these items may be duplicated to…

  9. How To Become a Better Reading Teacher: Strategies for Assessment and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Lillian R., Ed.

    Reflecting the diverse philosophies and experiences of clinicians and practitioners, this book presents 30 essays that address the identification of reading strengths and weaknesses, assessment, and instructional strategies for remediation. Chapters in the book are (1) "The Role of Vision in Reading Disability" (Lois B. Bing); (2) "Problems with…

  10. Assessment and Early Instruction of Preschool Children at Risk for Reading Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindson, Barbara; Byrne, Brian; Fielding-Barnsley, Ruth; Newman, Cara; Hine, Donald W.; Shankweiler, Donald

    2005-01-01

    Preschool children at familial risk for reading disability were assessed on cognitive and linguistic variables and compared with preschoolers without familial risk. Risk children displayed performance profiles resembling those of older children with reading disability. Each group received intensive instruction in phonemic awareness and structured…

  11. Validating Craft Knowledge: An Empirical Examination of Elementary-Grade Students' Performance on an Informal Reading Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Darrell; Bloodgood, Janet W.; Perney, Jan; Frye, Elizabeth M.; Kucan, Linda; Trathen, Woodrow; Ward, Devery; Schlagal, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated children's performance on several informal reading and spelling tasks. Students (n = 274) in a rural North Carolina county were assessed across grades 2 to 6 on the following measures: isolated word recognition (timed and untimed), oral reading accuracy, reading comprehension, reading rate, and spelling.…

  12. Use of a Measure of Reading Comprehension to Enhance Prediction on the State High Stakes Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Edward S.; Solari, Emily; Petscher, Yaacov

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the diagnostic accuracy of two screening measures of risk for future difficulties in reading comprehension, as well as the degree to which adding a screening measure of reading comprehension enhanced the prediction of Oral Reading Fluency to outcomes of student reading performance on the state high stakes assessment for grades 3 through 5. Data from fall and winter assessments of the DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency (DORF) and 4Sight Benchmark Assessment (4Sight) measures along with outcomes on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) across a total of 1000 students from 6 schools were examined using indices of diagnostic efficiency, ROC curve, and logistic regression analyses. Results showed that the addition of a measure of reading comprehension (4Sight) to DORF enhanced the decision making process for identifying students at risk for reading difficulties, especially for those students at higher elementary grades and those who achieved benchmark levels on the DORF. Although DORF alone showed a good level of prediction to the statewide assessment, the combination of the DORF plus 4Sight measures resulted consistently in the best predictive outcomes. Suggestions are made to consider alternative cut points for the DORF and 4Sight measures. PMID:26347390

  13. Can Science Aid In Remediating State Assessment Reading Deficiencies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esler, William K.; Anderson, Betty

    1981-01-01

    An experiment in science instruction designed to help third- and fifth-grade students overcome reading deficiencies is detailed. The results of the study indicate that the activities may be a valuable supplement to the more common activities for teaching communication skills. (MP)

  14. Assessing Affective Constructs in Reading: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conradi, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Research investigating affective dimensions in reading has long been plagued by vaguely defined constructs and, consequently, by an array of potentially problematic instruments designed to measure them. This mixed-methods study investigated the relationship among three popular group-administered instruments intended to tap affective constructs in…

  15. Assessing the Reading Comprehension of Adults with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, F. W.; Long, K.; Finlay, W. M. L.

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study's aim was to begin the process of measuring the reading comprehension of adults with mild and borderline learning disabilities, in order to generate information to help clinicians and other professionals to make written material for adults with learning disabilities more comprehensible. Methods: The Test for the Reception of…

  16. Reading Area Community College Community Needs Assessment Telephone Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Area Community Coll., PA.

    A telephone survey was conducted in 1981 at Reading Area Community College (RACC) to determine the educational needs of the community, particularly those of prospective students and employers. More specifically, the study sought to determine how the Berks County community perceived the quality of education provided at RACC and to ascertain the…

  17. Assessing Reading Strategies of Engineering Students: Think Aloud Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nalliveettil, George Mathew

    2014-01-01

    Literacy in reading and understanding printed words is significant for all undergraduate students to succeed in their academic career. Developments in digital technology improved the quality of academic texts in terms of design, format and layout. Further, availability of academic related English language resources in electronic versions gave…

  18. At-Risk Students in Reading. Focused Access to Selected Topics (FAST) Bibliography No. 46.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Jerry; Desmond, Joann

    Focusing on students who are at risk of failure in reading, this 26-item annotated bibliography offers strategies, instructional approaches, and motivational techniques to help those who deal with this group of students. The selections in the bibliography date from 1983 to 1989. The bibliography is divided into sections on general information, the…

  19. Providing Access to Developmental Reading Courses at the Community College: An Evaluation of Three Presentation Modes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Susan K.

    2010-01-01

    Rural community colleges often face the problem of having to cancel classes due to low enrollment. To eliminate this problem one western community college developed several presentation modes for College Reading I (CR1) to combine low-enrollment classes. This study was a program evaluation on non-equivalent groups to determine which presentation…

  20. Using Read-Alouds to Help Struggling Readers Access and Comprehend Complex, Informational Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santoro, Lana Edwards; Baker, Scott K.; Fien, Hank; Smith, Jean Louise M.; Chard, David J.

    2016-01-01

    The use of informational texts in the elementary grades provides a context for helping students develop content understanding and domain knowledge across a wide range of subject matter. Reading informational text also provides students with the language of thought, foundational vocabulary that can be connected to other words, and technical content…

  1. Assessment of Arabic phonological awareness and its relation to word reading ability.

    PubMed

    Abou-Elsaad, Tamer; Ali, Rawhia; Abd El-Hamid, Haidy

    2016-12-01

    Phonological awareness (PA) is one of the most important components in the development of normal reading ability. It refers to the ability to detect and manipulate the sound structure of words independently of their meaning. The current study aimed to assess Arabic PA skills and the relation to word reading abilities in Egyptian Arabic-speaking children. The designed assessment was applied to 80 typically developing children, divided into two subgroups ranging in age from 5 years 6 months to 8 years 6 months. The design of assessment involved six PA tasks covering three levels: rhyme awareness, syllabic awareness, and phonemic awareness, as well as the assessment of reading abilities that include real word and nonsense word reading tasks. Descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation), Student's t tests, and Pearson correlation coefficient tests were used to analyze the data. The reliability of the test was proven using the test-retest procedure. Validity of the test was estimated through internal consistency validity. The results revealed that the Arabic PA assessment test (APAAT) proved to be a reliable and valid tool for assessing Arabic reading skills. Findings from the study provided important insights into the developmental patterns of Arabic PA. In addition, the findings revealed a strong relationship between phonological awareness skills and the proficiency in word reading abilities in Arabic school-aged children. PMID:26556648

  2. Perspectives on the Impact of the 1994 Trial State Assessments: State Assessment Directors, State Mathematics Specialists, and State Reading Specialists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartka, Liz; Stancavage, Fran

    This paper is the fourth in a series prepared for the National Academy of Education on the evaluation of the National Assessment of Educational Progress Trial State Assessment (TSA) and the impact of reporting TSA results. This paper provides a perspective on the last of the TSAs, an assessment of fourth-grade reading that was carried out in 44…

  3. The Effect of Portfolio Assessment on EFL Learners' Reading Comprehension and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosseini, Hosna; Ghabanchi, Zargham

    2014-01-01

    This study highlighted the humanistic-transformational perspectives via portfolio assessment which offers a conceptual framework for teaching and assessment. More specifically, it attempted to explore the effectof portfolio assessment on EFL learners'reading comprehension ability and motivation in the context of Iran. It adopted the…

  4. Using Curriculum-Based Measurement to Predict Eighth-Grade Student Performance on a Statewide Reading Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeRoux, Mindy J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between oral reading fluency (ORF) and Maze, two common Curriculum-Based Measures (CBMs), and the statewide large-scale assessment of reading in Oregon, the Oregon Assessment of Knowledge and Skills- Reading (OAKS-R). A sample of three cohorts of eighth-grade students in an Oregon school…

  5. The Impact of Reading Material's Lexical Accessibility on Text Fading Effects in Children's Reading Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagler, Telse; Lonnemann, Jan; Linkersdörfer, Janosch; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Lindberg, Sven

    2014-01-01

    The "acceleration phenomenon" (AP) is defined by improvements in reading speed and reading comprehension, induced by an artificial text fading procedure corresponding to the previously determined fastest individual reading rate. Recent results, however, indicated that fading that is slower than the self-paced reading rate can produce…

  6. Screening for Meares-Irlen sensitivity in adults: can assessment methods predict changes in reading speed?

    PubMed

    Hollis, Jarrod; Allen, Peter M

    2006-11-01

    Two methods of assessing candidates for coloured overlays were compared with the aim of determining which method had the most practical utility. A total of 58 adults were assessed as potential candidates for coloured overlays, using two methods; a questionnaire, which identified self-reported previous symptoms, and a measure of perceptual distortions immediately prior to testing. Participants were classified as normal, Meares-Irlen sensitive, and borderline sensitive. Reading speed was measured with and without coloured overlays, using the Wilkins Rate of Reading Test and the change in speed was calculated. Participants classified as normal did not show any significant benefit from reading with an overlay. In contrast, a significant reading advantage was found for the borderline and Meares-Irlen participants. Current symptom rating was found to be a significant predictor of the change in reading speed, however the previous symptom rating was not found to be a reliable predictor. These data indicate that the assessment of perceptual distortions immediately prior to measuring colour preference and reading speed is the most meaningful method of assessing pattern glare and determining the utility of coloured overlays.

  7. Frequency Drives Lexical Access in Reading but Not in Speaking: The Frequency-Lag Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gollan, Tamar H.; Slattery, Timothy J.; Goldenberg, Diane; Van Assche, Eva; Duyck, Wouter; Rayner, Keith

    2011-01-01

    To contrast mechanisms of lexical access in production versus comprehension we compared the effects of word frequency (high, low), context (none, low constraint, high constraint), and level of English proficiency (monolingual, Spanish-English bilingual, Dutch-English bilingual) on picture naming, lexical decision, and eye fixation times. Semantic…

  8. Audio Support Guidelines for Accessible Assessments: Insights from Cognitive Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Laurene L.; Shyyan, Vitaliy; Rogers, Christopher; Kincaid, Aleksis

    2014-01-01

    Some students, including students with print disabilities, students with low vision, and English language learners, may benefit from having test content read aloud. However, there have been challenges in standardizing the presentation of test content, including whether or not to read answer choices or to describe maps and cartoons, among many…

  9. Cross-Cultural Reading Comprehension Assessment in Malay and English as It Relates to the Dagostino-Carifio Model of Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagostino, Lorraine; Carifio, James; Bauer, Jennifer D. C.; Zhao, Qing

    2013-01-01

    The review of existing literature suggests that few researchers have adopted cross-language comparisons to explore how cultural background affects the assessment of reading comprehension of students. In this present study, the researchers independently reviewed and rated all the items of two reading comprehension tests translated from Malay into…

  10. The Immediate and Delayed Effect of Dynamic Assessment on EFL Reading Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajideh, Parviz; Nourdad, Nava

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic assessment rooted in sociolinguistic theory of Vygotsky has a long history in applied linguistics but has recently been the hot topic of EFL studies. The present study aimed at investigating the difference between applying dynamic and non-dynamic assessment of EFL reading comprehension ability and examining its immediate and delayed…

  11. A Test of the Relationship between Reading Ability & Standardized Biology Assessment Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Denise A.

    2014-01-01

    Little empirical evidence suggested that independent reading abilities of students enrolled in biology predicted their performance on the Biology I Graduation End-of-Course Assessment (ECA). An archival study was conducted at one Indiana urban public high school in Indianapolis, Indiana, by examining existing educational assessment data to test…

  12. District Results for the 2013 Mathematics and Reading Assessments. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2013

    2013-01-01

    NAEP Trial Urban District Assessment (TUDA) results in mathematics and reading are based on representative samples of 1,100 to 2,300 public school students at grade 4 and 900 to 2,100 public school students at grade 8 in each participating urban district in 2013. Twenty-one urban districts participated in the 2013 assessments. The assessments…

  13. The Impact of Indiana's System of Interim Assessments on Mathematics and Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Miller, Shazia Rafiullah; van der Ploeg, Arie

    2013-01-01

    Interim assessments are increasingly common in U.S. schools. We use high-quality data from a large-scale school-level cluster randomized experiment to examine the impact of two well-known commercial interim assessment programs on mathematics and reading achievement in Indiana. Results indicate that the treatment effects are positive but not…

  14. Classroom-Up Policy Change: Early Reading and Math Assessments at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gove, Amber; Habib, Samir; Piper, Benjamin; Ralaingita, Wendi

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the development of the Early Grade Reading and Mathematics Assessments (EGRA and EGMA), which are locally tailored, timely assessments designed to directly inform policy and instruction for learning improvement, particularly for countries on the lower end of the income spectrum. The history of the design and implementation of…

  15. Technical Report of the NAEP 1994 Trial State Assessment Program in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzeo, John; And Others

    This report provides a description of the design for the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 1994 Trial State Assessment in Reading and gives an overview of the steps involved in the implementation of the program from the planning stages through to the analysis and reporting of data. The report does not provide the results of the…

  16. Credibly Assessing Reading and Writing Abilities for both Elementary Student and Program Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgin, John; Hughes, Gail D.

    2009-01-01

    The authors explored the credibility of using informal reading inventories and writing samples for 138 students (K-4) to evaluate the effectiveness of a summer literacy program. Running Records (a measure of a child's reading level) and teacher experience during daily reading instruction were used to estimate the reliability of the more formal…

  17. Assessment of Reading Comprehension, Panel 5; Conference on Studies in Reading (Washington, D.C., August 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Marshall S., Ed.

    The aim of the panel on reading comprehension, sponsored by the National Institute of Education Conference on Studies in Reading, was to determine the influence of intellectual factors, general experiences with the world, knowledge specific to the particular reading task, and general decoding skills to successful reading performance. In addition,…

  18. Experimental study on radiation effects in floating gate read-only-memories and static random access memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chao-Hui; Li, Yong-Hong

    2007-09-01

    Radiation effects of the floating gate read-only-memory (FG ROM) and the static random access memory (SRAM) have been evaluated using the 14 MeV neutron and 31.9MeV proton beams and Co-60 γ-rays. The neutron fluence, when the first error occurs in the FG ROMs, is at least 5 orders of magnitude higher than that in the SRAMs, and the proton fluence, 4 orders of magnitude higher. The total dose threshold for Co-60 γ-ray irradiation is about 104 rad (Si) for both memories. The difference and similarity are attributed to the structure of the memory cells and the mechanism of radiation effects. It is concluded that the FG ROMs are more reliable as semiconductor memories for storing data than the SRAMs, when they are used in the satellites or space crafts exposed to high energy particle radiation.

  19. Making Assessment Matter: Using Test Results to Differentiate Reading Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesaux, Nonie K.; Marietta, Sky H.

    2011-01-01

    All too often, literacy assessments are given only for accountability purposes and fail to be seen as valuable resources for planning and differentiating instruction. This clear, concise book shows K-5 educators how to implement a comprehensive, balanced assessment battery that integrates accountability concerns with data-driven instruction.…

  20. Reading Students' Minds: Design Assessment in Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Derek

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the design of assessment for students of design according to behaviourist versus experiential pedagogical approaches, relating these to output-oriented as opposed to process-oriented assessment methods. It is part case study and part recognition of the importance of process in design education and how this might be applied in…

  1. The benefit of assessment-based language and reading instruction: perspectives from a case study.

    PubMed

    Corcoran Nielsen, Diane; Luetke-Stahlman, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    We present a case study of the language and literacy development of a deaf child, Marcy, from preschool through sixth grade. The purpose of the project was to examine the connection between language and reading and to provide insight into the relationships between them. To compile the case study, we analyzed data from nine years of follow-up, including listening, speech articulation, semantic, syntactic, reading, and writing information drawn from a number of informal and formal assessments. Annual evaluation of language and literacy skills was used to select educational placements, as well as instructional methods, strategies, and materials. Given that Marcy began school at 4 years of age, mute and without expressive language of any form (oral or sign), it may at first appear remarkable that she read narrative and expository text as did her hearing peers by sixth grade, because a substantial body of research shows that most deaf students read at the fourth-grade level by high school graduation (review by Paul, 1998). However, those responsible for Marcy's education prevented reading failure by carefully planning, instituting, and monitoring elements of language and literacy instruction. We present Marcy's progress and instruction by grade level and discuss it within the framework of phases/stages of reading development. We hope that the resulting case study may serve as an example of the language-reading connection, an awareness important not only for the literacy instruction of deaf and language-challenged children but for hearing students as well.

  2. Using the Computer-Based Academic Assessment System (CASS) To Identify Reading Disability in College Students: A Replication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cisero, Cheryl A.; And Others

    This research investigates whether the Computer-Based Academic Assessment System (CAAS), a battery of tests examining speed and accuracy at performing component reading skills, would be useful for identifying reading disability in college students. One important question was whether CAAS could distinguish reading disability from non-disability or…

  3. The Relationship between Parent Report of Adaptive Behavior and Direct Assessment of Reading Ability in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arciuli. Joanne; Stevens, Kirsten; Trembath, David; Simpson, Ian Craig

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to shed light on the profile of reading ability in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A key aim was to examine the relationship between parent report of adaptive behavior and direct assessment of reading ability in these children. Method: The authors investigated children's reading ability using the…

  4. Assessment method of accessibility conditions: how to make public buildings accessible?

    PubMed

    Andrade, Isabela Fernandes; Ely, e Vera Helena Moro Bins

    2012-01-01

    The enforcement of accessibility today has faced several difficulties, such as intervention in historic buildings that now house public services and cultural activities, such as town halls, museums and theaters and should allow access, on equal terms to all people. The paper presents the application of a method for evaluating the spatial accessibility conditions and their results. For this, we sought to support the theoretical foundation about the main issue involved and legislation. From the method used--guided walks--it was possible to identify the main barriers to accessibility in historic buildings. From the identified barriers, possible solutions are presented according to the four components of accessibility: spatial orientation, displacement, use and communication. It is hoped also that the knowledge gained in this research contributes to an improvement of accessibility legislation in relation to the listed items.

  5. Assessment method of accessibility conditions: how to make public buildings accessible?

    PubMed

    Andrade, Isabela Fernandes; Ely, e Vera Helena Moro Bins

    2012-01-01

    The enforcement of accessibility today has faced several difficulties, such as intervention in historic buildings that now house public services and cultural activities, such as town halls, museums and theaters and should allow access, on equal terms to all people. The paper presents the application of a method for evaluating the spatial accessibility conditions and their results. For this, we sought to support the theoretical foundation about the main issue involved and legislation. From the method used--guided walks--it was possible to identify the main barriers to accessibility in historic buildings. From the identified barriers, possible solutions are presented according to the four components of accessibility: spatial orientation, displacement, use and communication. It is hoped also that the knowledge gained in this research contributes to an improvement of accessibility legislation in relation to the listed items. PMID:22317296

  6. A Teacher's Perception and Practice of Assessing the Reading Skills of Young Learners--A Study from Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalani, Shaheena Sulaiman; Rodrigues, Sherwin

    2012-01-01

    This collaborative action research aimed to explore some classroom-based assessment strategies to assess the reading skills of young children. This article presents the findings of the pre-intervention stage as part of an action research study where a teacher's perception and practice of assessing the reading skills of young learners were…

  7. Evaluating the Screening Accuracy of the Florida Assessments for Instruction in Reading (FAIR). REL 2013-008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foorman, Barbara R.; Kershaw, Sarah; Petscher, Yaacov

    2013-01-01

    Florida requires that students who do not meet grade-level reading proficiency standards on the end-of-year state assessment (Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test, FCAT) receive intensive reading intervention. With the stakes so high, teachers and principals are interested in using screening or diagnostic assessments to identify students with a…

  8. [Physiological and hygienic assessment of perception of the information from electronic device for reading (reader)].

    PubMed

    Kuchma, V R; Teksheva, L M; Vyatleva, O A; Kurgansky, A M

    2013-01-01

    A comparison of the legibility of the three different media: paper personal computer (LCD) and the e-reader in schoolchildren (12-14 years of age) was performed. Comprehensive assessment of the reading performance (speed of reading aloud, the number of errors in reading, and integral indicator of the degree of difficulty of visual task), its physiological value (according to data of EEG, EOG and ECG), and subjective preference of type of media by the schoolchildren showed that by the sum of signs e-reader occupies an intermediate position between printed text and the computer screen. The effect of increased emotional intensity of using e-reader (increased motivation), which is manifested in the preservation of the sympathetic nervous system activation after the reading, was obtained. The necessity of additional research has been shown.

  9. Search, Read and Write: An Inquiry into Web Accessibility for People with Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Berget, Gerd; Herstad, Jo; Sandnes, Frode Eika

    2016-01-01

    Universal design in context of digitalisation has become an integrated part of international conventions and national legislations. A goal is to make the Web accessible for people of different genders, ages, backgrounds, cultures and physical, sensory and cognitive abilities. Political demands for universally designed solutions have raised questions about how it is achieved in practice. Developers, designers and legislators have looked towards the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) for answers. WCAG 2.0 has become the de facto standard for universal design on the Web. Some of the guidelines are directed at the general population, while others are targeted at more specific user groups, such as the visually impaired or hearing impaired. Issues related to cognitive impairments such as dyslexia receive less attention, although dyslexia is prevalent in at least 5-10% of the population. Navigation and search are two common ways of using the Web. However, while navigation has received a fair amount of attention, search systems are not explicitly included, although search has become an important part of people's daily routines. This paper discusses WCAG in the context of dyslexia for the Web in general and search user interfaces specifically. Although certain guidelines address topics that affect dyslexia, WCAG does not seem to fully accommodate users with dyslexia.

  10. Search, Read and Write: An Inquiry into Web Accessibility for People with Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Berget, Gerd; Herstad, Jo; Sandnes, Frode Eika

    2016-01-01

    Universal design in context of digitalisation has become an integrated part of international conventions and national legislations. A goal is to make the Web accessible for people of different genders, ages, backgrounds, cultures and physical, sensory and cognitive abilities. Political demands for universally designed solutions have raised questions about how it is achieved in practice. Developers, designers and legislators have looked towards the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) for answers. WCAG 2.0 has become the de facto standard for universal design on the Web. Some of the guidelines are directed at the general population, while others are targeted at more specific user groups, such as the visually impaired or hearing impaired. Issues related to cognitive impairments such as dyslexia receive less attention, although dyslexia is prevalent in at least 5-10% of the population. Navigation and search are two common ways of using the Web. However, while navigation has received a fair amount of attention, search systems are not explicitly included, although search has become an important part of people's daily routines. This paper discusses WCAG in the context of dyslexia for the Web in general and search user interfaces specifically. Although certain guidelines address topics that affect dyslexia, WCAG does not seem to fully accommodate users with dyslexia. PMID:27534340

  11. 42 CFR 431.834 - Access to records: Claims processing assessment systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION Quality Control Medicaid Quality Control (mqc) Claims Processing Assessment System § 431.834 Access to records: Claims processing assessment systems. The agency, upon written request, must provide HHS staff with access to all records pertaining to its MQC claims processing assessment system...

  12. 42 CFR 431.834 - Access to records: Claims processing assessment systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION Quality Control Medicaid Quality Control (mqc) Claims Processing Assessment System § 431.834 Access to records: Claims processing assessment systems. The agency, upon written request, must provide HHS staff with access to all records pertaining to its MQC claims processing assessment system...

  13. 42 CFR 431.834 - Access to records: Claims processing assessment systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION Quality Control Medicaid Quality Control (mqc) Claims Processing Assessment System § 431.834 Access to records: Claims processing assessment systems. The agency, upon written request, must provide HHS staff with access to all records pertaining to its MQC claims processing assessment system...

  14. Assessing Accessibility: How Accessible Are Online Courses for Students with Disabilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massengale, Lindsey R.; Vasquez, Eleazar, III

    2016-01-01

    Delivering course material in a manner that is accessible to all students including those with disabilities is important in the online environment. This article presents an analysis focusing on the accessibility of six courses presented through the Webcourses platform. Six professors volunteered one course for analysis. The tool used for analyzing…

  15. Source Text Borrowing in an Integrated Reading/Writing Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weigle, Sara Cushing; Parker, Keisha

    2012-01-01

    Source-based writing is becoming more common in tests of academic English, in part to make tests more reflective of authentic academic writing. However, the concern has been raised that over-reliance on language from the source texts in essays may mask gaps in proficiency and thus lead to an inaccurate assessment of writing skill. In this paper,…

  16. Behaviour assessment and reading ability in second grade greek school children.

    PubMed

    Lazaratou, H; Vlassopoulos, M; Zelios, G; Kalogerakis, Z; Ploumbidis, D; Anagnostopoulos, D C; Dellatolas, G

    2010-01-01

    Studies on ADHD show high comorbidity with behavioural and learning disorders. However, the specific association of behavioural and attention factors with learning disorders is not clear. The aim of this study is to examine the relationships between hyperactivity, inattentionand reading ability in a non-referred sample in Greece. Data were collected from 201 pupils attending second grade in public school in an Athens district. The CBCL was administrated to parents in order to evaluate behavioural disorders, inattention and hyperactivity. Teachers completedthe CBCL and the Conner's scale. Reading ability was assessed by a reading test appropriate for second grade. Attention difficulties reported by the teacher were associated with lower readingskills, but hyperactivity and behaviour disorders were not. Correlations of reading skills with CBCL scores were very low, especially through parental ratings. Girls showed better reading skills and less"hyperactivity" than boys. There was consistency in teachers' ratings between the Conner's and the CBCL. Teacher-parent concordance on CBCL was very low or absent. Report of hyperactivity without report of attention problems was not associated with reading difficulties in a non-referred Greek sample of second grade schoolchildren. This observation must be considered when therapeutic and/or educational planning is undertaken. PMID:21914613

  17. Using Complexity Metrics to Assess Silent Reading Fluency: A Cross-Sectional Study Comparing Oral and Silent Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Beth A.; Wallot, Sebastian; Haussmann, Anna; Kloos, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Reading typically undergoes a qualitative shift around Grade 4, becoming more fluent and silent, but there is no established measure for fluency in children's silent reading. The present study presents a measure of self-paced reading in children, examining the use of complexity measures for time-series analyses recently established with…

  18. Using Reading Grade Level to Assess Readability of Selected Plant and Soil Science Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graveel, John G.; Fribourg, Henry A.

    1987-01-01

    Reported is a study designed to determine whether reading grade level (RGL) assessment techniques used for elementary and secondary education textbooks would discriminate among plant and soil science textbooks. The study was to select the RGL indices suited to quantify the readability of these sources, and to identify the factors affecting…

  19. Hypertext Glosses for Foreign Language Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Acquisition: Effects of Assessment Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, I-Jung

    2016-01-01

    This study compared how three different gloss modes affected college students' L2 reading comprehension and vocabulary acquisition. The study also compared how results on comprehension and vocabulary acquisition may differ depending on the four assessment methods used. A between-subjects design was employed with three groups of Mandarin-speaking…

  20. Applying Unidimensional and Multidimensional Item Response Theory Models in Testlet-Based Reading Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Min, Shangchao; He, Lianzhen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relative effectiveness of the multidimensional bi-factor model and multidimensional testlet response theory (TRT) model in accommodating local dependence in testlet-based reading assessment with both dichotomously and polytomously scored items. The data used were 14,089 test-takers' item-level responses to the…

  1. Nonlinguistic Variables in Advanced Second Language Reading: Learners' Self-Assessment and Enjoyment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantmeier, Cindy

    2005-01-01

    The present study on second language (L2) reading and individual difference variables (IDVs) examines learners' self-assessed ability level and enjoyment and the effects of these factors on two different measures of comprehension. The investigation controls for topic familiarity differences by gender and the study utilizes the authentic short…

  2. Diagnostic Assessment and Treatment of Reading Difficulties: A Case Study of Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oviedo, Paula Outon; Gonzalez, Rebeca Abal

    2013-01-01

    Dyslexia is a specific learning disability in reading and writing, which requires adequate early intervention to prevent future school failure. We describe the diagnostic assessment of a 7-year-old boy labelled "dyslexic", the evaluation of his family, social, medical, developmental, and academic status as a preliminary for the design and…

  3. Reading and Study Behaviors of Fourth-Grade Hispanics: Can Teachers Assess Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frontera, Lucy S.; Horowitz, Rosalind

    1995-01-01

    In a low-income south Texas school with primarily Mexican American students, teacher assessments of fourth-grade students' content reading ability and work habits predicted student success for that school year, as measured by grades and achievement scores. Teacher input can be critical in the early identification of students at risk of dropping…

  4. Alternate Assessments in Reading and Math: Development and Validation for Students with Significant Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tindal, Gerald; McDonald, Marilee; Tedesco, Marick; Glasgow, Aaron; Almond, Pat; Crawford, Lindy; Hollenbeck, Keith

    2003-01-01

    A series of standardized tasks was developed using the same constructs as operationalized in a state's large-scale assessment program. Student performance (n=437) was then analyzed. In reading and math, teachers (n=131) were successfully trained to administer the tasks and judge performance, providing a system with instructional and evaluative…

  5. The Role of Reading Comprehension in Large-Scale Subject-Matter Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Ting

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed with the overall goal of understanding how difficulties in reading comprehension are associated with early adolescents' performance in large-scale assessments in subject domains including science and civic-related social studies. The current study extended previous research by taking a cognition-centered approach based on…

  6. Informal Reading Inventories: Creating Teacher-Designed Literature-Based Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provost, Mary C.; Lambert, Monica A.; Babkie, Andrea M.

    2010-01-01

    Mandates emphasizing student achievement have increased the importance of appropriate assessment techniques for students in general and special education classrooms. Informal reading inventories (IRIs), designed by classroom teachers, have been proven to be an efficient and effective way to determine students' strengths, weaknesses, and strategies…

  7. The Effect of Classroom Performance Assessment on EFL Students' Basic and Inferential Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Koumy, Abdel Salam Abdel Khalek

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of classroom performance assessment on the EFL students' basic and inferential reading skills. A pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design was employed in the study. The subjects of the study consisted of 64 first-year secondary school students in Menouf Secondary School for Boys at Menoufya…

  8. Differentials of a State Reading Assessment: Item Functioning, Distractor Functioning, and Omission Frequency for Disability Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Kentaro; Moen, Ross E.; Thurlow, Martha L.

    2009-01-01

    Large data sets from a state reading assessment for third and fifth graders were analyzed to examine differential item functioning (DIF), differential distractor functioning (DDF), and differential omission frequency (DOF) between students with particular categories of disabilities (speech/language impairments, learning disabilities, and emotional…

  9. Teachers' Classroom Assessment Practices and Fourth-Graders' Reading Literacy Achievements: An International Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hao, Shiqi; Johnson, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    This study, through multilevel analyses of the data of four English-speaking nations (i.e., Canada, England, New Zealand and the United States) from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2001 database, investigated the relationship between teachers' uses of various types of classroom assessments and their fourth-graders'…

  10. Reading Achievement and Science Proficiency: International Comparisons from the Programme on International Student Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromley, Jennifer G.

    2009-01-01

    Students need to develop scientific literacy in order to participate fully as citizens, community members, and in the globalized economy. But what is the relationship between scientific literacy and reading literacy? Three international data sets from the Programme on International Student Assessment (PISA) were used to calculate correlations…

  11. Addressing False Positives in Early Reading Assessment Using Intervention Response Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlenney, Athena Lentini; Coyne, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined a solution to high false positive reading risk classification rates in early kindergarten by investigating a method of identifying students with possible false positive risk classifications and returning them to general classroom instruction. Researchers assessed kindergarten students (N = 105) identified as at risk who…

  12. Toward a research-based assessment of dyslexia: using cognitive measures to identify reading disabilities.

    PubMed

    Bell, Sherry Mee; McCallum, R Steve; Cox, Elizabeth A

    2003-01-01

    One hundred five participants from a random sample of elementary and middle school children completed measures of reading achievement and cognitive abilities presumed, based on a synthesis of current dyslexia research, to underlie reading. Factor analyses of these cognitive variables (including auditory processing, phonological awareness, short-term auditory memory, visual memory, rapid automatized naming, and visual processing speed) produced three empirically and theoretically derived factors (auditory processing, visual processing/speed, and memory), each of which contributed to the prediction of reading and spelling skills. Factor scores from the three factors combined predicted 85% of the variance associated with letter/sight word naming, 70% of the variance associated with reading comprehension, 73% for spelling, and 61% for phonetic decoding. The auditory processing factor was the strongest predictor, accounting for 27% to 43% of the variance across the different achievement areas. The results provide practitioner and researcher with theoretical and empirical support for the inclusion of measures of the three factors, in addition to specific measures of reading achievement, in a standardized assessment of dyslexia. Guidelines for a thorough, research-based assessment are provided. PMID:15493433

  13. Two Wheels are Better than One: The Importance of Capturing the Home Literacy Environment in Large-Scale Assessments of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, Amy Jo; Pisani, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    Children's reading skill development is influenced by availability of reading materials, reading habits and opportunity to read. Save the Children's Literacy Boost data have replicated this finding across numerous developing contexts. Meanwhile international large-scale reading assessments do not capture detail on current home literacy.…

  14. Grouping and Read-Across Approaches for Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Oomen, Agnes G.; Bleeker, Eric A. J.; Bos, Peter M. J.; van Broekhuizen, Fleur; Gottardo, Stefania; Groenewold, Monique; Hristozov, Danail; Hund-Rinke, Kerstin; Irfan, Muhammad-Adeel; Marcomini, Antonio; Peijnenburg, Willie J. G. M.; Rasmussen, Kirsten; Sánchez Jiménez, Araceli; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J.; van Tongeren, Martie; Wiench, Karin; Wohlleben, Wendel; Landsiedel, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of chemicals affect their exposure, toxicokinetics/fate and hazard, and for nanomaterials, the variation of these properties results in a wide variety of materials with potentially different risks. To limit the amount of testing for risk assessment, the information gathering process for nanomaterials needs to be efficient. At the same time, sufficient information to assess the safety of human health and the environment should be available for each nanomaterial. Grouping and read-across approaches can be utilised to meet these goals. This article presents different possible applications of grouping and read-across for nanomaterials within the broader perspective of the MARINA Risk Assessment Strategy (RAS), as developed in the EU FP7 project MARINA. Firstly, nanomaterials can be grouped based on limited variation in physicochemical properties to subsequently design an efficient testing strategy that covers the entire group. Secondly, knowledge about exposure, toxicokinetics/fate or hazard, for example via properties such as dissolution rate, aspect ratio, chemical (non-)activity, can be used to organise similar materials in generic groups to frame issues that need further attention, or potentially to read-across. Thirdly, when data related to specific endpoints is required, read-across can be considered, using data from a source material for the target nanomaterial. Read-across could be based on a scientifically sound justification that exposure, distribution to the target (fate/toxicokinetics) and hazard of the target material are similar to, or less than, the source material. These grouping and read-across approaches pave the way for better use of available information on nanomaterials and are flexible enough to allow future adaptations related to scientific developments. PMID:26516872

  15. Grouping and Read-Across Approaches for Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Oomen, Agnes G; Bleeker, Eric A J; Bos, Peter M J; van Broekhuizen, Fleur; Gottardo, Stefania; Groenewold, Monique; Hristozov, Danail; Hund-Rinke, Kerstin; Irfan, Muhammad-Adeel; Marcomini, Antonio; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Rasmussen, Kirsten; Jiménez, Araceli Sánchez; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J; van Tongeren, Martie; Wiench, Karin; Wohlleben, Wendel; Landsiedel, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Physicochemical properties of chemicals affect their exposure, toxicokinetics/fate and hazard, and for nanomaterials, the variation of these properties results in a wide variety of materials with potentially different risks. To limit the amount of testing for risk assessment, the information gathering process for nanomaterials needs to be efficient. At the same time, sufficient information to assess the safety of human health and the environment should be available for each nanomaterial. Grouping and read-across approaches can be utilised to meet these goals. This article presents different possible applications of grouping and read-across for nanomaterials within the broader perspective of the MARINA Risk Assessment Strategy (RAS), as developed in the EU FP7 project MARINA. Firstly, nanomaterials can be grouped based on limited variation in physicochemical properties to subsequently design an efficient testing strategy that covers the entire group. Secondly, knowledge about exposure, toxicokinetics/fate or hazard, for example via properties such as dissolution rate, aspect ratio, chemical (non-)activity, can be used to organise similar materials in generic groups to frame issues that need further attention, or potentially to read-across. Thirdly, when data related to specific endpoints is required, read-across can be considered, using data from a source material for the target nanomaterial. Read-across could be based on a scientifically sound justification that exposure, distribution to the target (fate/toxicokinetics) and hazard of the target material are similar to, or less than, the source material. These grouping and read-across approaches pave the way for better use of available information on nanomaterials and are flexible enough to allow future adaptations related to scientific developments. PMID:26516872

  16. Comparing the performance and preference of students experiencing a Reading Aloud Accommodation to those who do not on a virtual science assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, Angela

    Many United States secondary students perform poorly on standardized summative science assessments. Situated Assessments using Virtual Environments (SAVE) Science is an innovative assessment project that seeks to capture students' science knowledge and understanding by contextualizing problems in a game-based virtual environment called Scientopolis. Within Scientopolis, students use an "avatar" to interact with non-player characters (NPCs), artifacts, embedded clues and "sci-tools" in order to help solve the problems of the townspeople. In an attempt to increase students' success on assessments, SAVE science places students in an environment where they can use their inquiry skills to solve problems instead of reading long passages which attempt to contextualize questions but ultimately cause construct-irrelevant variance. However, within these assessments reading is still required to access the test questions and character interactions. This dissertation explores how students' in-world performances differ when exposed to a Reading Aloud Accommodation (RAA) treatment in comparison to a control group. Student perceptions of the treatment are also evaluated. While a RAA is typically available for students with learning disabilities or English language learners, within this study, all students were randomly assigned to either the treatment or control, regardless of any demographic factors or learning barriers. The theories of Universal design for learning and brain-based learning advocate for multiple ways for students to engage, comprehend, and illustrate their content knowledge. Further, through providing more ways for students to interact with content, all students should benefit, not just those with learning disabilities. Students in the experimental group listened to the NPCs speak the dialogue that provides them with the problem, clues, and assessment questions, instead of relying on reading skills to gather the information. Overall, students in the treatment

  17. Improve the ranking algorithm of the GEO Discovery and Access Broker through resource accessibility assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoro, M.; Sorichetta, A.; Roglia, E.; Quaglia, A.; Craglia, M.; Nativi, S.

    2013-12-01

    The vision of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) is the achievement of societal benefits through voluntary contribution and sharing of resources to better understand the relationships between the society and the environment where we live. To address complex issues in the field of geosciences a combined effort from many disciplines, ranging from physical to social sciences and including humanities, is required. The introduction of the Discovery and Access Broker (DAB) in the GEOSS Common Infrastructure (GCI) allowed to lower significantly the entry barriers for data users and producers, and thus to increase the order of magnitude of discoverable resources in the GCI, from hundreds of thousands to millions. This is a major step forward but from discovery to access, the road is still long! Either missing accessibility information in the metadata or broken links represent the major issue that prevents the real exploitation of the GCI resources. This is a remarkable problem for users attempting to exploit services and datasets obtained through a DAB query. This issue can be minimized providing the user with a ranked list of results that takes into account the real availability and accessibility of resources. We present in this work a methodology that overcomes the problem described above by improving the ranking algorithm, which is currently applied to the result set of a query to the DAB. The proposed methodology is based on the following steps: 1) Verify if information related to the accessibility of resources is described in the metadata provided by GEOSS contributors; 2) If accessibility information is provided, identify the type of resources (e.g. services, datasets) and produce modified and standardized accessibility information in a consistent manner; 3) Use standardized information to test accessibility and availability of resources using a probing approach; 4) Use the results returned in the ranking algorithm to assign the correct weight to

  18. Contrasting group analysis of Brazilian students with dyslexia and good readers using the computerized reading and writing assessment battery "BALE".

    PubMed

    Toledo Piza, Carolina M J; de Macedo, Elizeu C; Miranda, Monica C; Bueno, Orlando F A

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of cognitive processes underpinning reading and writing skills may help to distinguish different reading ability profiles. The present study used a Brazilian reading and writing battery to compare performance of students with dyslexia with two individually matched control groups: one contrasting on reading competence but not age and the other group contrasting on age but not reading competence. Participants were 28 individuals with dyslexia (19 boys) with a mean age of 9.82 (SD ± 1.44) drawn from public and private schools. These were matched to: (1) an age control group (AC) of 26 good readers with a mean age of 9.77 (SD ± 1.44) matched by age, sex, years of schooling, and type of school; (2) reading control group (RC) of 28 younger controls with a mean age of 7.82 (SD ± 1.06) matched by sex, type of school, and reading level. All groups were tested on four tasks from the Brazilian Reading and Writing Assessment battery ("BALE"): Written Sentence Comprehension Test (WSCT); Spoken Sentence Comprehension Test (OSCT); Picture-Print Writing Test (PPWT 1.1-Writing); and the Reading Competence Test (RCT). These tasks evaluate reading and listening comprehension for sentences, spelling, and reading isolated words and pseudowords (non-words). The dyslexia group scored lower and took longer to complete tasks than the AC group. Compared with the RC group, there were no differences in total scores on reading or oral comprehension tasks. However, dyslexics presented slower reading speeds, longer completion times, and lower scores on spelling tasks, even compared with younger controls. Analysis of types of errors on word and pseudoword reading items showed students with dyslexia scoring lower for pseudoword reading than the other two groups. These findings suggest that the dyslexics overall scores were similar to those of younger readers. However, specific phonological and visual decoding deficits showed that the two groups differ in terms of underpinning

  19. Alignment Content Analysis of NAEP 2009 Reading Assessment Analysis Based on Method of Surveys of Enacted Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Rolf K.; Smithson, John

    2010-01-01

    Beginning in summer 2009, the complete set of NAEP student assessment items for grades 4 and 8 Science and Reading 2009 assessments were analyzed for comparison to the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Item Specifications which are based on the NAEP Assessment Frameworks for these subjects (National Assessment Governing Board,…

  20. Analytical resource assessment method for continuous (unconventional) oil and gas accumulations - The "ACCESS" Method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crovelli, Robert A.; revised by Charpentier, Ronald R.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) periodically assesses petroleum resources of areas within the United States and the world. The purpose of this report is to explain the development of an analytic probabilistic method and spreadsheet software system called Analytic Cell-Based Continuous Energy Spreadsheet System (ACCESS). The ACCESS method is based upon mathematical equations derived from probability theory. The ACCESS spreadsheet can be used to calculate estimates of the undeveloped oil, gas, and NGL (natural gas liquids) resources in a continuous-type assessment unit. An assessment unit is a mappable volume of rock in a total petroleum system. In this report, the geologic assessment model is defined first, the analytic probabilistic method is described second, and the spreadsheet ACCESS is described third. In this revised version of Open-File Report 00-044 , the text has been updated to reflect modifications that were made to the ACCESS program. Two versions of the program are added as appendixes.

  1. Correlations and Predictive Ability of Oral Reading Fluency and the Wilson Reading System on End of Year Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zielinski, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    To insure academic success for students with learning disabilities, it is critical that educators are able to make timely and effective instructional decisions. The focus of this study was to evaluate the relationship and effectiveness of two different progress monitoring tools, a measure of oral reading fluency and the Wilson Reading System's…

  2. Development and validation of an assessment of adult educators' reading instructional knowledge.

    PubMed

    Bell, Sherry Mee; McCallum, R Steve; Ziegler, Mary; Davis, C A; Coleman, Maribeth

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe briefly the development and utility of the Assessment of Reading Instructional Knowledge-Adults (ARIK-A), the only nationally normed (n = 468) measure of adult reading instructional knowledge, created to facilitate professional development of adult educators. Developmental data reveal reliabilities ranging from 0.73 to 0.85 for five ARIK-A scales (alphabetics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension, and assessment) and 0.91 for the composite score; factor analytic data and expert review provide support for construct validity as well. Information on how to use the ARIK-A to determine mastery and relative standing is presented. With two alternate forms, the ARIK-A is a promising and needed tool for adult education practitioners within continuing education and professional development contexts. PMID:23152145

  3. Licensure tests for special education teachers: how well they assess knowledge of reading instruction and mathematics.

    PubMed

    Stotsky, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    To determine the extent to which knowledge of evidence-based reading instruction and mathematics is assessed on licensure tests for prospective special education teachers, this study drew on information provided by Educational Testing Service (ETS), the American Board for Certification of Teacher Excellence, and National Evaluation Systems (now Evaluation Systems group of Pearson). It estimated the percentage of test items on phonemic awareness, phonics, and vocabulary knowledge and on mathematics content. It also analyzed descriptions of ETS's tests of "principles of teaching and learning." Findings imply that prospective special education teachers should be required to take both a dedicated test of evidence-based reading instructional knowledge, as in California, Massachusetts, and Virginia, and a test of mathematical knowledge, as in Massachusetts. States must design their own tests of teaching principles to assess knowledge of evidence-based educational theories.

  4. Sign Support Guidelines for Accessible Assessments: Insights from Cognitive Labs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shyyan, Vitaliy; Christensen, Laurene L.; Rogers, Christopher; Kincaid, Aleksis

    2014-01-01

    Students who are deaf or hard of hearing (Deaf/HH) and communicate using American Sign Language (ASL) may benefit from sign accommodations on state assessments. However, there have been challenges in standardizing assessment content including how items should be signed. Technology enhanced assessment offers the opportunity to provide standardized…

  5. Assessing the Promise of a Supplemental Reading Intervention for At-Risk First Grade Students in a Public School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokhtari, Kouider; Neel, Joanna L.; Kaiser, Forrest; Le, Hong-Hai

    2015-01-01

    In this exploratory quasi-experimental case study, we assessed the promise of a yearlong supplemental reading intervention with a small pilot group of at-risk first grade readers in an elementary school setting. Using standardized measures of reading proficiency, we found that after 47 hours of one-on-one tutoring instruction, students read…

  6. The Nation's Report Card: Reading 2009. National Assessment of Educational Progress at Grades 4 and 8. NCES 2010-458

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) presents results from the 2009 NAEP in reading. Nationally representative samples of more than 178,000 fourth-graders and 160,000 eighth-graders participated in the 2009 NAEP in reading. At each grade, students responded to questions designed to measure their knowledge of…

  7. Assessing the Impact of Reading First Programs on Student Achievement in K-3 Classrooms in Selected Mississippi Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day-Meeks, Angel LaKease

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the implementation and impact of Reading First programs in 8 elementary schools across the state of Mississippi. The study assessed how principals, literacy coaches, and kindergarten through third grade teachers perceived the implementation of the Reading First program at their respective schools. Data from these three…

  8. 42 CFR 73.10 - Restricting access to select agents and toxins; security risk assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Restricting access to select agents and toxins... AND HUMAN SERVICES QUARANTINE, INSPECTION, LICENSING SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 73.10 Restricting access to select agents and toxins; security risk assessments. (a) An individual or entity required...

  9. 42 CFR 73.10 - Restricting access to select agents and toxins; security risk assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Restricting access to select agents and toxins... AND HUMAN SERVICES QUARANTINE, INSPECTION, LICENSING SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 73.10 Restricting access to select agents and toxins; security risk assessments. (a) An individual or entity required...

  10. 42 CFR 73.10 - Restricting access to select agents and toxins; security risk assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Restricting access to select agents and toxins... AND HUMAN SERVICES QUARANTINE, INSPECTION, LICENSING SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 73.10 Restricting access to select agents and toxins; security risk assessments. (a) An individual or entity required...

  11. 42 CFR 73.10 - Restricting access to select agents and toxins; security risk assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Restricting access to select agents and toxins... AND HUMAN SERVICES QUARANTINE, INSPECTION, LICENSING SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 73.10 Restricting access to select agents and toxins; security risk assessments. (a) An individual or entity required...

  12. Decoding and Reading Comprehension: A Meta-Analysis to Identify Which Reader and Assessment Characteristics Influence the Strength of the Relationship in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García, J. Ricardo; Cain, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The twofold purpose of this meta-analysis was to determine the relative importance of decoding skills to reading comprehension in reading development and to identify which reader characteristics and reading assessment characteristics contribute to differences in the decoding and reading comprehension correlation. A meta-analysis of 110 studies…

  13. Text-Processing Differences in Adolescent Adequate and Poor Comprehenders Reading Accessible and Challenging Narrative and Informational Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Carolyn A.; Enos, Mischa; York, Mary J.; Francis, David J.; Barnes, Marcia A.; Kulesz, Paulina A.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Carter, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Based on the analysis of 620 think-aloud verbal protocols from students in grades 7, 9, and 11, we examined students' conscious engagement in inference generation, paraphrasing, verbatim text repetition, and monitoring while reading narrative or informational texts that were either at or above the students' current reading levels. Students were…

  14. Assessing the Library Homepages of COPLAC Institutions for Section 508 Accessibility Errors: Who's Accessible, Who's Not, and How the Online WebXACT Assessment Tool Can Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huprich, Julia; Green, Ravonne

    2007-01-01

    The Council on Public Liberal Arts Colleges (COPLAC) libraries websites were assessed for Section 508 errors using the online WebXACT tool. Only three of the twenty-one institutions (14%) had zero accessibility errors. Eighty-six percent of the COPLAC institutions had an average of 1.24 errors. Section 508 compliance is required for institutions…

  15. Evidence-Based Reading and Writing Assessment for Dyslexia in Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Kathleen; Abbott, Robert; Griffin, Whitney; Lott, Joe; Raskind, Wendy; Berninger, Virginia W.

    2016-01-01

    The same working memory and reading and writing achievement phenotypes (behavioral markers of genetic variants) validated in prior research with younger children and older adults in a multi-generational family genetics study of dyslexia were used to study 81 adolescent and young adults (ages 16 to 25) from that study. Dyslexia is impaired word reading and spelling skills below the population mean and ability to use oral language to express thinking. These working memory predictor measures were given and used to predict reading and writing achievement: Coding (storing and processing) heard and spoken words (phonological coding), read and written words (orthographic coding), base words and affixes (morphological coding), and accumulating words over time (syntax coding); Cross-Code Integration (phonological loop for linking phonological name and orthographic letter codes and orthographic loop for linking orthographic letter codes and finger sequencing codes), and Supervisory Attention (focused and switching attention and self-monitoring during written word finding). Multiple regressions showed that most predictors explained individual difference in at least one reading or writing outcome, but which predictors explained unique variance beyond shared variance depended on outcome. ANOVAs confirmed that research-supported criteria for dyslexia validated for younger children and their parents could be used to diagnose which adolescents and young adults did (n=31) or did not (n=50) meet research criteria for dyslexia. Findings are discussed in reference to the heterogeneity of phenotypes (behavioral markers of genetic variables) and their application to assessment for accommodations and ongoing instruction for adolescents and young adults with dyslexia. PMID:26855554

  16. Web-enabling Ecological Risk Assessment for Accessibility and Transparency

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological risk methods and tools are necessarily diverse to account for different combinations of receptors, exposure processes, effects estimation, and degree of conservatism/realism necessary to support chemical-based assessments. These tools have been continuously developed s...

  17. Reading Content Knowledge: What Do Teachers Need to Know and How Can We Assess Their Knowledge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilienthal, Linda K.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate preservice teachers' reading content knowledge, to develop a definition of reading, and to develop an informal test of teachers' reading content knowledge. A content analysis of two contemporary reading textbooks used in university reading courses was the source of a six-tier, hierarchical definition of…

  18. An Investigation of Silent versus Aloud Reading Comprehension of Elementary Students Using Maze Assessment Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Andrea D.; Hawkins, Renee O.; Sheeley, Wesley; Reynolds, Jennifer R.; Jenkins, Shonna; Schmitt, Ara J.; Martin, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    Many reading comprehension measures require the student to read silently. When students read silently, important information (e.g., consistent reading errors) may not be identified. It may also be difficult to detect a student who is choosing not to read the passage. For this reason, investigating whether there is a significant difference in…

  19. Oral Reading Fluency in Second Language Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Eun Hee

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the role of oral reading fluency in second language reading. Two hundred and fifty-five high school students in South Korea were assessed on three oral reading fluency (ORF) variables and six other reading predictors. The relationship between ORF and other reading predictors was examined through an exploratory factor…

  20. Random Access: The Latino Student Experience with Prior Learning Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein-Collins, Rebecca; Olson, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Many Latinos come to higher education as adults. One degree completion strategy that is particularly suited to adult students in higher education is prior learning assessment (PLA). PLA provides opportunities to evaluate a student's learning from work or life experience for the purpose of awarding college credit. For students whose…

  1. Adaptations and Access to Assessment of Common Core Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettler, Ryan J.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter introduces theory that undergirds the role of testing adaptations in assessment, provides examples of item modifications and testing accommodations, reviews research relevant to each, and introduces a new paradigm that incorporates opportunity to learn (OTL), academic enablers, testing adaptations, and inferences that can be made from…

  2. Is It Just Me, or Are There Other Parents and Teachers Out There Confused about SOL Reading Assessments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bintz, William P.

    1998-01-01

    Describes an incident involving the author, his daughter, and sample items from a Standards of Learning (SOL) assessment. Elaborates on the author's increasing confusion with SOL assessments, especially in reading. Proposes that educators spend less time testing kids and more time "testing their theories" so that assessments better reflect recent…

  3. Preoperative assessment and planning of haemodialysis vascular access.

    PubMed

    Lomonte, Carlo; Basile, Carlo

    2015-06-01

    Effective haemodialysis (HD) requires a reliable vascular access (VA). Clinical practice guidelines strongly recommend the arteriovenous fistula (AVF) as the preferred VA in HD patients. The creation of an AVF should be promoted in all eligible patients who choose HD, as it improves outcomes and reduces costs when compared with central venous catheters. Fistula eligibility is a 'work in progress'. Three steps in order to increase the pool of eligible patients can be individualized: (i) process of care, which includes three fundamental items: the VA team, early VA education and timely VA surgery referral; (ii) preoperative evaluation; (iii) surgical strategy. Nephrologists should be able to play a leading and coordinating role of the VA team. They should design a plan that identifies a sequence of options that can be used to provide adequate renal replacement therapy throughout the life span of every end-stage renal disease patient. The main points of this strategy are (i) early vascular education, in which a 'save the vein program' should always be implemented; (ii) timely VA surgery referral and preoperative evaluation: careful examination of arterial and venous beds is mandatory before VA placement; physical examination in addition to colour Doppler ultrasound mapping improves AVF outcomes; (iii) surgical strategy: a successful VA strategy must take into account vascular anatomy, clinical factors and prognosis.

  4. Binocular coordination of saccades during reading in children with clinically assessed poor vergence capabilities.

    PubMed

    Gaertner, Chrystal; Bucci, Maria Pia; Ajrezo, Layla; Wiener-Vacher, Sylvette

    2013-07-19

    Prior studies have pointed toward a link between the saccadic and vergence systems, coordinating binocular saccadic movements. Recent studies have shown that vergence deficits in children induce poor binocular coordination during saccades, but none of them have studied ocular motility in children during a daily task such as reading. The present study tests whether vergence deficits in children perturb binocular coordination of saccades and fixation during reading. Our second objective was to explore whether vergence training could improve the quality of binocular coordination. Twelve patients (from 7.3 to 13.4 years old) complaining from vertigo but without vestibular and neurological pathology underwent orthoptic tests and were selected for our study when they presented vergence deficits. Eye movements were recorded during a reading task with a Mobile EyeBrain® Tracker video-oculography system. Data were compared to twelve age-matched controls with normal orthoptic values. While there was no statistically significant difference in saccade amplitudes between the two groups (p=0.29), patients showed higher disconjugacy during and after the saccades compared to controls (p<0.001). After orthoptic training, six patients out of the first 12 examined came back for a second oculomotor test. All showed a significant improvement of their binocular saccade coordination. We suggest that the larger disconjugacy during reading observed in patients before training could be due to poor vergence as initially assessed by orthoptic examination. Such findings support the hypothesis of a tight relationship between the saccadic and vergence systems for controlling the binocular coordination of saccades. The improvement reported after orthoptic training is in line with the hypothesis of an adaptative interaction on a premotor level between the saccadic and vergence system.

  5. Development of gestalt-reading processes in children: assessment using the Boder test.

    PubMed

    Chiarenza, G A; Coati, P; Cucci, M

    1994-01-01

    According to Boder, there are two processes involved in reading: visual-gestalt and analytic-phonetic. The gestalt process is activated for known words, forming part of the child's "sight vocabulary", and it enables him/her to recognize words even when they are exposed for a very short time. The analytic-phonetic process involves the auditory channel when the words are not part of the "sight vocabulary" and require a spelling process. At first, neither the English version nor the Italian adaptation of the Boder test included a control of word exposition time (ET) and reading time (RT). Both parameters are necessary for a check of the gestalt and phonetic processes. The aim of this paper was the assessment of minimum ET for the words belonging to the "sight vocabulary" and of RT for a word read through a gestalt process. Seventy-five primary schoolchildren from the first to the fifth class were presented with 100 meaningful words (MF) and 100 meaningless (ML) words, using ETs ranging from 150 to 650 ms. The results showed that, at the age of 7 years, the gestalt process was completely developed. Of MF words, 95% were correctly read and it did not change significantly with longer ETs. The RT for MF words did not change with different ETs and remained stable after the age of 7 years. Finally, the RT for ML words was always longer than the RT for MF words, and the difference was significant in 8-, 9- and 10-year-old children.

  6. Binocular coordination of saccades during reading in children with clinically assessed poor vergence capabilities.

    PubMed

    Gaertner, Chrystal; Bucci, Maria Pia; Ajrezo, Layla; Wiener-Vacher, Sylvette

    2013-07-19

    Prior studies have pointed toward a link between the saccadic and vergence systems, coordinating binocular saccadic movements. Recent studies have shown that vergence deficits in children induce poor binocular coordination during saccades, but none of them have studied ocular motility in children during a daily task such as reading. The present study tests whether vergence deficits in children perturb binocular coordination of saccades and fixation during reading. Our second objective was to explore whether vergence training could improve the quality of binocular coordination. Twelve patients (from 7.3 to 13.4 years old) complaining from vertigo but without vestibular and neurological pathology underwent orthoptic tests and were selected for our study when they presented vergence deficits. Eye movements were recorded during a reading task with a Mobile EyeBrain® Tracker video-oculography system. Data were compared to twelve age-matched controls with normal orthoptic values. While there was no statistically significant difference in saccade amplitudes between the two groups (p=0.29), patients showed higher disconjugacy during and after the saccades compared to controls (p<0.001). After orthoptic training, six patients out of the first 12 examined came back for a second oculomotor test. All showed a significant improvement of their binocular saccade coordination. We suggest that the larger disconjugacy during reading observed in patients before training could be due to poor vergence as initially assessed by orthoptic examination. Such findings support the hypothesis of a tight relationship between the saccadic and vergence systems for controlling the binocular coordination of saccades. The improvement reported after orthoptic training is in line with the hypothesis of an adaptative interaction on a premotor level between the saccadic and vergence system. PMID:23694682

  7. [The Dutch version of the Radner Reading Chart for assessing vision function].

    PubMed

    Maaijwee, K J M; Meulendijks, C F M; Radner, W; van Meurs, J C; Hoyng, C B

    2007-11-10

    A chart for measuring visual acuity is a better functional test than the routine distance visual acuity testing with single optotypes. The characteristics of a good reading chart are: logarithmically diminishing print size, simultaneous measurement of reading acuity and reading speed, and the calculation of one score for reading acuity corrected for the number of reading errors. The original German-language Radner Reading Chart meets all these requirements, and above all emphasizes the principle of 'sentence optotypes' i.e. highly standardized sentences, because sentence complexity also influences reading performance. Sentence optotypes were created in the Dutch language and tested according to Radner's strict principles. The most equally matched sentence optotypes in terms of reading speed and number of reading errors were selected for the introduction and printing of the first Dutch version of the Radner Reading Chart. The Dutch Radner Reading Chart is precise and practical and therefore useful for research and daily practice.

  8. Predicting Reading Difficulty in First Grade Using Dynamic Assessment of Decoding in Early Kindergarten: A Large-Scale Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Douglas B; Allen, Melissa M; Spencer, Trina D

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the classification accuracy of early static prereading measures and early dynamic assessment reading measures administered to 600 kindergarten students. At the beginning of kindergarten, all of the participants were administered two commonly used static prereading measures. The participants were then administered either a dynamic assessment featuring an onset-rime decoding strategy or a dynamic assessment featuring a sound-by-sound strategy. At the end of first grade, those same participants' reading ability was assessed using multiple reading measures. Results indicated that the dynamic assessments yielded significantly higher classification accuracy over the static measures, but that the classification accuracy of the two dynamic assessments did not differ significantly. Sensitivity for the static measures was less than 80%, and specificity ranged from 33% to 51%. The sensitivity and specificity for the dynamic assessments was greater than 80% for all children, with the exception of specificity for the Hispanic children, which was at or greater than 70%. Results also indicated that the combination of static and dynamic measures did not improve the classification accuracy over the dynamic assessments alone. Dynamic assessment appears to be a promising approach to classifying young children at risk for future reading difficulty.

  9. Analyzing Components of Reading on Performance Assessments: An Expanded Simple View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Evelyn S.; Jenkins, Joseph R.; Jewell, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This research examined the validity of the theoretical model of reading outlined by the Simple View of Reading when measuring reading ability with a performance-based reading test. Participants were 95 fourth-grade, students randomly sampled from four schools in an urban district. The test we studied employed a mixture of traditional…

  10. ""Moby-Dick" Is My Favorite:" Evaluating a Cognitively Accessible Portable Reading System for Audiobooks for Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Daniel K.; Stock, Steven E.; King, Larry R.; Wehmeyer, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    Significant barriers exist for individuals with intellectual disability to independently access print-based content. It is regrettable that, while the amount of content now available electronically increases, tools to access these materials have not been developed with individuals with intellectual disability in mind. This article reports the…

  11. It Matters Whether Reading Comprehension Is Conceptualised as Rate or Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rønberg, Louise Flensted; Petersen, Dorthe Klint

    2016-01-01

    This study shows that it makes a difference whether accuracy measures or rate measures are used when assessing reading comprehension. When the outcome is reading comprehension accuracy (i.e., the number of correct responses), word reading skills (measured as access to orthographic representations) account for a modest amount of the variance in the…

  12. The CBAL Reading Assessment: An Approach for Balancing Measurement and Learning Goals. Research Report. ETS RR-11-21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Kathleen M.; O'Reilly, Tenaha

    2011-01-01

    "No Child Left Behind" has highlighted the need for new types of assessments that not only provide high-quality evidence about what students know and can do, but also help to move learning forward. This paper describes a linked set of formative and summative reading assessments designed to address the tradeoffs inherent in these two goals.…

  13. A Summary Report of Iowa's Review of PreK-6 Reading Assessments for Universal Screening and Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Department of Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This document contains summary information for the Iowa Department of Education's review of PreK-6th grade reading assessments for the purposes of Universal Screening and Progress Monitoring. It is intended to provide general information to help inform decisions about selecting assessments for use as a part of Iowa's Response to Intervention…

  14. The Construct and Predictive Validity of a Dynamic Assessment of Young Children Learning to Read: Implications for RTI Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Bouton, Bobette; Caffrey, Erin

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the construct and predictive validity of a dynamic assessment (DA) of decoding learning. Students (N = 318) were assessed in the fall of first grade on an array of instruments that were given in hopes of forecasting responsiveness to reading instruction. These instruments included DA as well as…

  15. Students with Reading and Writing Challenges: Using Informal Assessment to Assist in Planning for the Transition to Adult Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitlington, Patricia L.

    2008-01-01

    The transition to adult life for students with reading and writing challenges is an area that is not often addressed. The purpose of this article is to relate the informal assessment process to the broader context of high stakes assessment, high school exit exams, diploma options, and transition planning; identify the competencies needed for a…

  16. Predicting Math Outcomes from a Reading Screening Assessment in Grades 3-8. REL 2016-180

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truckenmiller, Adrea J.; Petscher, Yaacov; Gaughan, Linda; Dwyer, Ted

    2016-01-01

    District and state education leaders frequently use screening assessments to identify students who are at risk of performing poorly on end-of-year achievement tests. This study examines the use of a universal screening assessment of reading skills for early identification of students at risk of low achievement on nationally normed tests of reading…

  17. Indiana Reading Diagnostic Assessment: Resource & Intervention Guide, Kindergarten. Additional Activities and Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The materials included in this manual are organized according to the Indiana's Kindergarten Academic Standards for English/Language Arts. In each section teachers will find: (1) Indiana's Kindergarten Academic Standards for English/Language Arts Assessments: Black Line Masters of diagnostic/practice pages for skill areas, checklists, and rubrics;…

  18. Cognitive flexibility predicts early reading skills.

    PubMed

    Colé, Pascale; Duncan, Lynne G; Blaye, Agnès

    2014-01-01

    An important aspect of learning to read is efficiency in accessing different kinds of linguistic information (orthographic, phonological, and semantic) about written words. The present study investigates whether, in addition to the integrity of such linguistic skills, early progress in reading may require a degree of cognitive flexibility in order to manage the coordination of this information effectively. Our study will look for evidence of a link between flexibility and both word reading and passage reading comprehension, and examine whether any such link involves domain-general or reading-specific flexibility. As the only previous support for a predictive relationship between flexibility and early reading comes from studies of reading comprehension in the opaque English orthography, another possibility is that this relationship may be largely orthography-dependent, only coming into play when mappings between representations are complex and polyvalent. To investigate these questions, 60 second-graders learning to read the more transparent French orthography were presented with two multiple classification tasks involving reading-specific cognitive flexibility (based on words) and non-specific flexibility (based on pictures). Reading skills were assessed by word reading, pseudo-word decoding, and passage reading comprehension measures. Flexibility was found to contribute significant unique variance to passage reading comprehension even in the less opaque French orthography. More interestingly, the data also show that flexibility is critical in accounting for one of the core components of reading comprehension, namely, the reading of words in isolation. Finally, the results constrain the debate over whether flexibility has to be reading-specific to be critically involved in reading.

  19. "Moby-dick is my favorite:" evaluating a cognitively accessible portable reading system for audiobooks for individuals with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Davies, Daniel K; Stock, Steven E; King, Larry R; Wehmeyer, Michael L

    2008-08-01

    Significant barriers exist for individuals with intellectual disability to independently access print-based content. It is regrettable that, while the amount of content now available electronically increases, tools to access these materials have not been developed with individuals with intellectual disability in mind. This article reports the results of research evaluating the use of a palmtop PC-based application designed to enable individuals with intellectual disability to access electronic books and documents. Participants with intellectual disability were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups, each group differing in the type of audio player used. Participants who used the specially designed reader made significantly fewer errors accessing electronic books and required significantly fewer prompts than did participants using either of 2 mainstream audiobook readers.

  20. "Moby-dick is my favorite:" evaluating a cognitively accessible portable reading system for audiobooks for individuals with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Davies, Daniel K; Stock, Steven E; King, Larry R; Wehmeyer, Michael L

    2008-08-01

    Significant barriers exist for individuals with intellectual disability to independently access print-based content. It is regrettable that, while the amount of content now available electronically increases, tools to access these materials have not been developed with individuals with intellectual disability in mind. This article reports the results of research evaluating the use of a palmtop PC-based application designed to enable individuals with intellectual disability to access electronic books and documents. Participants with intellectual disability were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups, each group differing in the type of audio player used. Participants who used the specially designed reader made significantly fewer errors accessing electronic books and required significantly fewer prompts than did participants using either of 2 mainstream audiobook readers. PMID:18671443

  1. Reading Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, W. T.

    1978-01-01

    The Canadian Institute for Research in Behavioral and Social Sciences of Calgary was awarded a contract by the Provincial Government of Alberta to assess student skills and knowledge in reading and written composition. Here evaluation is defined and the use of standardized and criterion referenced tests for evaluating reading performance are…

  2. A Study of the Utility of Results from the 1992 Trial State Assessment (TSA) in Reading for State-Level Administrators of Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Cheryl Davis; DeStefano, Lizanne

    1998-01-01

    The usefulness of the 1992 TSA in reading was studied using interviews from 26 state directors of assessment. Perceptions about TSA credibility and orientation of test components and current use of TSA results were examined. The directors suggested involving more teachers in assessment, modifying descriptors, disseminating results quicker, and…

  3. 42 CFR 73.10 - Restricting access to select agents and toxins; security risk assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restricting access to select agents and toxins; security risk assessments. 73.10 Section 73.10 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Responsible Official and a showing of good cause (e.g., public health or agricultural emergencies,...

  4. Assessment and Access: Hispanics in Higher Education. SUNY Series, United States Hispanic Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Gary D., Ed.; And Others

    This book contains 10 papers on solutions and barriers to improving the access of Hispanic American students to higher education. Following an introductory essay on: "Advances in Assessment and the Potential for Increasing the Number of Hispanics in Higher Education" (G. D. Keller), the papers are organized into four parts. Papers in part I…

  5. Assessment Data-Informed Guidance to Individualize Kindergarten Reading Instruction: Findings from a Cluster-Randomized Control Field Trial.

    PubMed

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Connor, Carol M; Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Greulich, Luana; Meadows, Jane; Li, Zhi

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this cluster-randomized control field trial was to was to examine the extent to which kindergarten teachers could learn a promising instructional strategy, wherein kindergarten reading instruction was differentiated based upon students' ongoing assessments of language and literacy skills and documented child characteristic by instruction (CXI) interactions; and to test the efficacy of this differentiated reading instruction on the reading outcomes of students from culturally diverse backgrounds. The study involved 14 schools and included 23 treatment (n = 305 students) and 21 contrast teacher (n = 251 students). Teachers in the contrast condition received only a baseline professional development that included a researcher-delivered summer day-long workshop on individualized instruction. Data sources included parent surveys, individually administered child assessments of language, cognitive, and reading skills and videotapes of classroom instruction. Using Hierarchical Multivariate Linear Modeling (HMLM), we found students in treatment classrooms outperformed students in the contrast classrooms on a latent measure of reading skills, comprised of letter-word reading, decoding, alphabetic knowledge, and phonological awareness (ES = .52). Teachers in both conditions provided small group instruction, but teachers in the treatment condition provided significantly more individualized instruction. Our findings extend research on the efficacy of teachers using Individualized Student Instruction to individualize instruction based upon students' language and literacy skills in first through third grade. Findings are discussed regarding the value of professional development related to differentiating core reading instruction and the challenges of using Response to Intervention approaches to address students' needs in the areas of reading in general education contexts.

  6. 75 FR 6012 - National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in Reading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... Progress (NAEP) in reading. These achievement levels definitions describe the reading skills and abilities... organizations are invited to provide written comments and recommendations. Voluntary participation by all... descriptions (ALDs) were written to describe how students should be able to perform on the reading...

  7. The Relationship between Early Literacy Assessment and First-Grade Reading Achievement for Native American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coats-Kitsopoulos, Gloria Jean

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS), the Reading Recovery Observation Survey (RROS) early reading sub-tests, and the reading achievement of Native American first-graders as measured by the Stanford 10. A causal-comparative correlation research design…

  8. Assessment for the Masses: A Historical Critique of High-Stakes Testing in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huddleston, Andrew P.; Rockwell, Elizabeth C.

    2015-01-01

    This historical critique of high-stakes testing in reading focuses on selected events from three historical movements: 1) the history of standardized testing, 2) the history of standardized reading tests, and 3) the history of high-stakes testing. These three interrelated histories have produced the high-stakes, standardized reading tests used in…

  9. Factorial and Construct Validity of a New Instrument for the Assessment of Reading Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiefele, Ulrich; Schaffner, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Reading motivation has been defined consistently as a multidimensional construct. However, there is some disagreement regarding the number and nature of the dimensions of reading motivation. In particular, there is a lack of studies investigating the dimensional structure and measurement invariance (e.g., across gender) of reading motivation…

  10. Adult Second-Language Reading Research: How May It Inform Assessment and Instruction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlo, Maria S.; Sylvester, Ellen Skilton

    Research studies on how adults learn and develop second-language reading competence were considered in the context of a componential theory of reading. In particular, C. A. Perfetti's Verbal Efficiency Theory (VET) was used as a framework in which to organize and evaluate the studies' contribution to the field of second-language reading. The…

  11. Podcasts on Mobile Devices as a Read-Aloud Testing Accommodation in Middle School Science Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Don; Wright, Rachel; Cihak, David F.; Moore, Tara C.; Lamb, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a digitized podcast to deliver read-aloud testing accommodations on mobile devices to students with disabilities and reading difficulties. The total sample for this study included 47 middle school students with reading difficulties. Of the 47 students, 16 were identified as students with…

  12. The Effects of Sustained Silent Reading on Reading Achievement and Reading Attitudes of Fourth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Holly Lynn

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the effects of a Sustained Silent Reading program on reading achievement and reading attitude. The study accessed scores from the DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency (Good, Kaminski, & Dill, 2007) to measure reading achievement. This measure was given before and after a twelve week period, during which the treatment group…

  13. A Benchmark Study on Error Assessment and Quality Control of CCS Reads Derived from the PacBio RS.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Xiaoli; Zheng, Xin; Ma, Liang; Kutty, Geetha; Gogineni, Emile; Sun, Qiang; Sherman, Brad T; Hu, Xiaojun; Jones, Kristine; Raley, Castle; Tran, Bao; Munroe, David J; Stephens, Robert; Liang, Dun; Imamichi, Tomozumi; Kovacs, Joseph A; Lempicki, Richard A; Huang, Da Wei

    2013-07-31

    PacBio RS, a newly emerging third-generation DNA sequencing platform, is based on a real-time, single-molecule, nano-nitch sequencing technology that can generate very long reads (up to 20-kb) in contrast to the shorter reads produced by the first and second generation sequencing technologies. As a new platform, it is important to assess the sequencing error rate, as well as the quality control (QC) parameters associated with the PacBio sequence data. In this study, a mixture of 10 prior known, closely related DNA amplicons were sequenced using the PacBio RS sequencing platform. After aligning Circular Consensus Sequence (CCS) reads derived from the above sequencing experiment to the known reference sequences, we found that the median error rate was 2.5% without read QC, and improved to 1.3% with an SVM based multi-parameter QC method. In addition, a De Novo assembly was used as a downstream application to evaluate the effects of different QC approaches. This benchmark study indicates that even though CCS reads are post error-corrected it is still necessary to perform appropriate QC on CCS reads in order to produce successful downstream bioinformatics analytical results.

  14. Assessing the Assessment: Access to Algebra in an Era of API

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Jayson D.

    2010-01-01

    A high school education, which includes access to advanced math courses, has a positive effect on students. Math classes taken in high school show a relationship to higher salaries and college graduation rates. However, the high-stakes accountability system in California, redesigned in 2003 to meet the requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act…

  15. Assemblathon 1: a competitive assessment of de novo short read assembly methods.

    PubMed

    Earl, Dent; Bradnam, Keith; St John, John; Darling, Aaron; Lin, Dawei; Fass, Joseph; Yu, Hung On Ken; Buffalo, Vince; Zerbino, Daniel R; Diekhans, Mark; Nguyen, Ngan; Ariyaratne, Pramila Nuwantha; Sung, Wing-Kin; Ning, Zemin; Haimel, Matthias; Simpson, Jared T; Fonseca, Nuno A; Birol, İnanç; Docking, T Roderick; Ho, Isaac Y; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Chikhi, Rayan; Lavenier, Dominique; Chapuis, Guillaume; Naquin, Delphine; Maillet, Nicolas; Schatz, Michael C; Kelley, David R; Phillippy, Adam M; Koren, Sergey; Yang, Shiaw-Pyng; Wu, Wei; Chou, Wen-Chi; Srivastava, Anuj; Shaw, Timothy I; Ruby, J Graham; Skewes-Cox, Peter; Betegon, Miguel; Dimon, Michelle T; Solovyev, Victor; Seledtsov, Igor; Kosarev, Petr; Vorobyev, Denis; Ramirez-Gonzalez, Ricardo; Leggett, Richard; MacLean, Dan; Xia, Fangfang; Luo, Ruibang; Li, Zhenyu; Xie, Yinlong; Liu, Binghang; Gnerre, Sante; MacCallum, Iain; Przybylski, Dariusz; Ribeiro, Filipe J; Yin, Shuangye; Sharpe, Ted; Hall, Giles; Kersey, Paul J; Durbin, Richard; Jackman, Shaun D; Chapman, Jarrod A; Huang, Xiaoqiu; DeRisi, Joseph L; Caccamo, Mario; Li, Yingrui; Jaffe, David B; Green, Richard E; Haussler, David; Korf, Ian; Paten, Benedict

    2011-12-01

    Low-cost short read sequencing technology has revolutionized genomics, though it is only just becoming practical for the high-quality de novo assembly of a novel large genome. We describe the Assemblathon 1 competition, which aimed to comprehensively assess the state of the art in de novo assembly methods when applied to current sequencing technologies. In a collaborative effort, teams were asked to assemble a simulated Illumina HiSeq data set of an unknown, simulated diploid genome. A total of 41 assemblies from 17 different groups were received. Novel haplotype aware assessments of coverage, contiguity, structure, base calling, and copy number were made. We establish that within this benchmark: (1) It is possible to assemble the genome to a high level of coverage and accuracy, and that (2) large differences exist between the assemblies, suggesting room for further improvements in current methods. The simulated benchmark, including the correct answer, the assemblies, and the code that was used to evaluate the assemblies is now public and freely available from http://www.assemblathon.org/.

  16. Assessing Young Children's Intention-Reading in Authentic Communicative Contexts: Preliminary Evidence and Clinical Utility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Kathryn J.; Coggins, Truman E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Identifying what a communication partner is looking at (referential intention) and why (social intention) is essential to successful social communication, and may be challenging for children with social communication deficits. This study explores a clinical task that assesses these intention-reading abilities within an authentic…

  17. School Psychologists' Perceptions regarding the Practice of Identifying Reading Disabilities: Cognitive Assessment and Response to Intervention Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machek, Greg R.; Nelson, Jason M.

    2010-01-01

    This study surveyed a national sample of school psychologists with respect to the identification of reading disabilities (RD). It covers school psychologists' opinions regarding perceived benefits of the use of cognitive assessment in RD identification, both within and outside of an IQ-achievement discrepancy model. The survey also solicited…

  18. The Nation's Report Card[TM]: Trial Urban District Assessment, Reading, 2005. NCES 2006-455r

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lurkus, A. D.; Rampey, B. D.; Donahue, P.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents results for three years of trial school-district-level reading assessments in NAEP at grades 4 and 8. Five urban public-school districts voluntarily participated in NAEP in 2002 and 2003: Atlanta City, City of Chicago School District 299, Houston ISD, Los Angeles Unified, and New York City Public Schools. In 2003 four…

  19. Self-Concepts and Psychological Well-Being Assessed by Beck Youth Inventory among Pupils with Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindeblad, Emma; Svensson, Idor; Gustafson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the self-image and psychological well-being in 67 children and adolescents age 10-16 years with severe reading difficulties and/or dyslexia. The participants were assessed with Beck Youth Inventory regarding symptoms of depression, anxiety, and negative self-image. The results showed that the participants do not depict…

  20. Exploring Ways to Provide Diagnostic Feedback with an ESL Placement Test: Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment of L2 Reading Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ah-Young

    2015-01-01

    Previous research in cognitive diagnostic assessment (CDA) of L2 reading ability has been frequently conducted using large-scale English proficiency exams (e.g., TOEFL, MELAB). Using CDA, it is possible to analyze individual learners' strengths and weaknesses in multiple attributes (i.e., knowledge, skill, strategy) measured at the item level.…

  1. Predicting Reading Difficulty in First Grade Using Dynamic Assessment of Decoding in Early Kindergarten: A Large-Scale Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Douglas B.; Allen, Melissa M.; Spencer, Trina D.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the classification accuracy of early static prereading measures and early dynamic assessment reading measures administered to 600 kindergarten students. At the beginning of kindergarten, all of the participants were administered two commonly used static prereading measures. The participants were…

  2. A Longitudinal Study on State Mathematics and Reading Assessments: Comparisons of Growth Models on Students' Achievement Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Pui Chi

    2012-01-01

    This study examines student growth on mathematics and reading assessments across academic years (Spring 2006 through Spring 2009) using three different growth models: hierarchical linear model (HLM), value-added model (VAM), and student growth percentile model (SGP). Comparisons across these three growth models were conducted to investigate the…

  3. Assessment of replicate bias in 454 pyrosequencing and a multi-purpose read-filtering tool

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Roche 454 pyrosequencing platform is often considered the most versatile of the Next Generation Sequencing technology platforms, permitting the sequencing of large genomes, the analysis of variations or the study of transcriptomes. A recent reported bias leads to the production of multiple reads for a unique DNA fragment in a random manner within a run. This bias has a direct impact on the quality of the measurement of the representation of the fragments using the reads. Other cleaning steps are usually performed on the reads before assembly or alignment. Findings PyroCleaner is a software module intended to clean 454 pyrosequencing reads in order to ease the assembly process. This program is a free software and is distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation. It implements several filters using criteria such as read duplication, length, complexity, base-pair quality and number of undetermined bases. It also permits to clean flowgram files (.sff) of paired-end sequences generating on one hand validated paired-ends file and the other hand single read file. Conclusions Read cleaning has always been an important step in sequence analysis. The pyrocleaner python module is a Swiss knife dedicated to 454 reads cleaning. It includes commonly used filters as well as specialised ones such as duplicated read removal and paired-end read verification. PMID:21615897

  4. Assessment of micro-regional internal accessibility based on road network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Ting; Li, Manchun; Jiang, Zhixin; Huang, Kang

    2007-06-01

    Accessibility is an important indicator of regional land-use, social justice and quality of life. It means the convenience from one place to another in a specified kind of transportation system. Wide-region based, most of the present domestic accessibility research took the high-grade highway such as highway and railway as entirely open road, without considering the service that high-grade highway provides based on intersection and railway station. This study extended to put forward arithmetic to deal with this problem in a micro-regional study area. Taking New District, Wuxi City, Jiangsu Province as a study case, this study researched the assessment of micro-regional internal accessibility based on road network including closed road. This study provides a tool to regional economical and social decision, and introduces a new view for studying relationship between people and land-use in micro-district.

  5. Does the Component Processes Task Assess Text-Based Inferences Important for Reading Comprehension? A Path Analysis in Primary School Children.

    PubMed

    Wassenburg, Stephanie I; de Koning, Björn B; de Vries, Meinou H; van der Schoot, Menno

    2016-01-01

    Using a component processes task (CPT) that differentiates between higher-level cognitive processes of reading comprehension provides important advantages over commonly used general reading comprehension assessments. The present study contributes to further development of the CPT by evaluating the relative contributions of its components (text memory, text inferencing, and knowledge integration) and working memory to general reading comprehension within a single study using path analyses. Participants were 173 third- and fourth-grade children. As hypothesized, knowledge integration was the only component of the CPT that directly contributed to reading comprehension, indicating that the text-inferencing component did not assess inferential processes related to reading comprehension. Working memory was a significant predictor of reading comprehension over and above the component processes. Future research should focus on finding ways to ensure that the text-inferencing component taps into processes important for reading comprehension.

  6. Does the Component Processes Task Assess Text-Based Inferences Important for Reading Comprehension? A Path Analysis in Primary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Wassenburg, Stephanie I.; de Koning, Björn B.; de Vries, Meinou H.; van der Schoot, Menno

    2016-01-01

    Using a component processes task (CPT) that differentiates between higher-level cognitive processes of reading comprehension provides important advantages over commonly used general reading comprehension assessments. The present study contributes to further development of the CPT by evaluating the relative contributions of its components (text memory, text inferencing, and knowledge integration) and working memory to general reading comprehension within a single study using path analyses. Participants were 173 third- and fourth-grade children. As hypothesized, knowledge integration was the only component of the CPT that directly contributed to reading comprehension, indicating that the text-inferencing component did not assess inferential processes related to reading comprehension. Working memory was a significant predictor of reading comprehension over and above the component processes. Future research should focus on finding ways to ensure that the text-inferencing component taps into processes important for reading comprehension. PMID:27378989

  7. Does the Component Processes Task Assess Text-Based Inferences Important for Reading Comprehension? A Path Analysis in Primary School Children.

    PubMed

    Wassenburg, Stephanie I; de Koning, Björn B; de Vries, Meinou H; van der Schoot, Menno

    2016-01-01

    Using a component processes task (CPT) that differentiates between higher-level cognitive processes of reading comprehension provides important advantages over commonly used general reading comprehension assessments. The present study contributes to further development of the CPT by evaluating the relative contributions of its components (text memory, text inferencing, and knowledge integration) and working memory to general reading comprehension within a single study using path analyses. Participants were 173 third- and fourth-grade children. As hypothesized, knowledge integration was the only component of the CPT that directly contributed to reading comprehension, indicating that the text-inferencing component did not assess inferential processes related to reading comprehension. Working memory was a significant predictor of reading comprehension over and above the component processes. Future research should focus on finding ways to ensure that the text-inferencing component taps into processes important for reading comprehension. PMID:27378989

  8. Test Review: Beaver, J. M., & Carter, M. A. (2006). "The Developmental Reading Assessment--Second Edition" (DRA2). Upper Saddle River, NJ--Pearson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Allison M.; Christ, Theodore J.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the "Developmental Reading Assessment--Second Edition" (DRA2), a teacher-administered assessment that identifies students' instructional level, along with their strengths and weaknesses in reading. Once teachers calculate and interpret scores, the data can purportedly be used to inform, and possibly individualize, instruction.…

  9. Are All America's Children Really above Average? A Comparative Analysis of Fourth-Grade Reading Proficiency on National and State Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyrell, Terrylynn; Spangler, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    According to the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), only one-third of American fourth grade students are at or above proficient in reading. Yet state assessments indicate that most American fourth-grade students are above average in reading. This analysis raises the questions about standards of success and what children need to…

  10. Assessment methodology of protection schemes for next generation optical access networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mas Machuca, Carmen; Wosinska, Lena; Chen, Jiajia

    2015-12-01

    Optical access networks are evolving towards next generation solutions offering much higher bandwidth per end point. Moreover, the uninterrupted access to the network services is becoming crucial and therefore operators are now considering protecting their access networks. However, the cost factor is still very important due to the relatively low cost sharing in access segment. For this purpose, this paper proposes an assessment methodology that can be used to compare different protection schemes and help to identify the suitable solution for a given scenario. The assessment criteria includes some reliability measures such as Failure Impact Factor (FIF) and connection availability, as well as cost parameters such as the investment required in greenfield and brownfield scenarios and the increase in power consumption compared to the unprotected network. The proposed criteria have been used to compare 7 representative protection schemes shown in literature, which differ mainly in the number of protected network elements and the technology used for protection (fiber, wireless, etc.). The considered protection schemes have been applied to a hybrid wavelength division multiplexing/time division multiplexing Passive Optical Network (Hybrid PON) architecture in an urban area. It has been shown that it is difficult to identify the absolute best scheme with respect to all the considered criteria. However, depending on the requirements from the operator regarding the targeted reliability performance in the network, an appropriate protection scheme can be recommended for either a greenfield or a brownfield scenario.

  11. Using eye tracking to assess reading performance in patients with glaucoma: a within-person study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Nicholas D; Glen, Fiona C; Mönter, Vera M; Crabb, David P

    2014-01-01

    Reading is often cited as a demanding task for patients with glaucomatous visual field (VF) loss, yet reading speed varies widely between patients and does not appear to be predicted by standard visual function measures. This within-person study aimed to investigate reading duration and eye movements when reading short passages of text in a patient's worse eye (most VF damage) when compared to their better eye (least VF damage). Reading duration and saccade rate were significantly different on average in the worse eye when compared to the better eye (P < 0.001) in 14 patients with glaucoma that had median (interquartile range) between-eye difference in mean deviation (MD; a standard clinical measure for VF loss) of 9.8 (8.3 to 14.8) dB; differences were not related to the size of the difference in MD between eyes. Patients with a more pronounced effect of longer reading duration on their worse eye made a larger proportion of "regressions" (backward saccades) and "unknown" EMs (not adhering to expected reading patterns) when reading with the worse eye when compared to the better eye. A between-eye study in patients with asymmetric disease, coupled with eye tracking, provides a useful experimental design for exploring reading performance in glaucoma.

  12. Enabling Equal Access to Molecular Diagnostics: What Are the Implications for Policy and Health Technology Assessment?

    PubMed

    Plun-Favreau, Juliette; Immonen-Charalambous, Kaisa; Steuten, Lotte; Strootker, Anja; Rouzier, Roman; Horgan, Denis; Lawler, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Molecular diagnostics can offer important benefits to patients and are a key enabler of the integration of personalised medicine into health care systems. However, despite their promise, few molecular diagnostics are embedded into clinical practice (especially in Europe) and access to these technologies remains unequal across countries and sometimes even within individual countries. If research translation and the regulatory environments have proven to be more challenging than expected, reimbursement and value assessment remain the main barriers to providing patients with equal access to molecular diagnostics. Unclear or non-existent reimbursement pathways, together with the lack of clear evidence requirements, have led to significant delays in the assessment of molecular diagnostics technologies in certain countries. Additionally, the lack of dedicated diagnostics budgets and the siloed nature of resource allocation within certain health care systems have significantly delayed diagnostics commissioning. This article will consider the perspectives of different stakeholders (patients, health care payers, health care professionals, and manufacturers) on the provision of a research-enabled, patient-focused molecular diagnostics platform that supports optimal patient care. Through the discussion of specific case studies, and building on the experience from countries that have successfully integrated molecular diagnostics into clinical practice, this article will discuss the necessary evolutions in policy and health technology assessment to ensure that patients can have equal access to appropriate molecular diagnostics. PMID:27237607

  13. Access and use of information resources in assessing health risks from chemical exposure: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    Health risk assessment is based on access to comprehensive information about potentially hazardous agents in question. Relevant information is scattered throughout the literature, and often is not readily accessible. To be useful in assessment efforts, emerging scientific findings, risk assess parameters, and associated data must be compiled and evaluated systemically. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are among the federal agencies heavily involved in this effort. This symposium was a direct response by EPA and ORNL to the expressed needs of individuals involved in assessing risks from chemical exposure. In an effort to examine the state of the risk assessment process, the availability of toxicological information, and the future development and transfer of this information, the symposium provided an excellent cadre of speakers and participants from state and federal agencies, academia and research laboratories to address these topics. This stimulating and productive gathering discussed concerns associated with (1) environmental contamination by chemicals; (2) laws regulating chemicals; (3) information needs and resources; (4) applications; (5) challenges and priorities; and (6)future issues. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  14. Harmonizing South African Sotho Language Varieties: Lessons from Reading Proficiency Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makalela, Leketi

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated degrees of mutual intelligibility among 3 structurally related languages in South Africa: Sepedi, Sesotho, and Setswana. To compare reading proficiency of mother-tongue speakers who enrolled for freshman courses at the University of Limpopo, 4 reading experimental conditions, in the 3 languages and 1 in a harmonized text,…

  15. A Novel Approach for Enhancing Student Reading Comprehension and Assisting Teacher Assessment of Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jun-Ming; Chen, Meng-Chang; Sun, Yeali S.

    2010-01-01

    For students of English as a Foreign Language (EFL), reading exercises are critical not only for developing strong reading comprehension, but also for developing listening, speaking, and writing skills. Prior research suggests that social, collaborative learning environments are best suited for improving language ability. However, opportunities…

  16. Measuring Reading Comprehension of Content Area Texts Using an Assessment of Knowledge Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Marcia H.; Guthrie, John T.

    2015-01-01

    The authors outline results of 3 studies conducted to examine the structure of disciplinary knowledge from reading measured through proximity data. In Study 1, 168 third-grade students were asked to read a science text and rate the relationships of keywords from the passage. From these ratings, comprehension scores were calculated that related…

  17. Analysis of Textual Features of a New Reading Comprehension Assessment: MOCCA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seipel, Ben; Biancarosa, Gina; Carlson, Sarah; Davison, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has established two types of struggling readers: those who struggle with lower-level reading skills and those who struggle with higher-level reading skills (Cain & Oakhill, 2006; Perfetti, 2007). The latter group is commonly termed "poor comprehenders": readers who exhibit poor comprehension compared to peers with…

  18. Contrasting group analysis of Brazilian students with dyslexia and good readers using the computerized reading and writing assessment battery “BALE”

    PubMed Central

    Toledo Piza, Carolina M. J.; de Macedo, Elizeu C.; Miranda, Monica C.; Bueno, Orlando F. A.

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of cognitive processes underpinning reading and writing skills may help to distinguish different reading ability profiles. The present study used a Brazilian reading and writing battery to compare performance of students with dyslexia with two individually matched control groups: one contrasting on reading competence but not age and the other group contrasting on age but not reading competence. Participants were 28 individuals with dyslexia (19 boys) with a mean age of 9.82 (SD ± 1.44) drawn from public and private schools. These were matched to: (1) an age control group (AC) of 26 good readers with a mean age of 9.77 (SD ± 1.44) matched by age, sex, years of schooling, and type of school; (2) reading control group (RC) of 28 younger controls with a mean age of 7.82 (SD ± 1.06) matched by sex, type of school, and reading level. All groups were tested on four tasks from the Brazilian Reading and Writing Assessment battery (“BALE”): Written Sentence Comprehension Test (WSCT); Spoken Sentence Comprehension Test (OSCT); Picture-Print Writing Test (PPWT 1.1-Writing); and the Reading Competence Test (RCT). These tasks evaluate reading and listening comprehension for sentences, spelling, and reading isolated words and pseudowords (non-words). The dyslexia group scored lower and took longer to complete tasks than the AC group. Compared with the RC group, there were no differences in total scores on reading or oral comprehension tasks. However, dyslexics presented slower reading speeds, longer completion times, and lower scores on spelling tasks, even compared with younger controls. Analysis of types of errors on word and pseudoword reading items showed students with dyslexia scoring lower for pseudoword reading than the other two groups. These findings suggest that the dyslexics overall scores were similar to those of younger readers. However, specific phonological and visual decoding deficits showed that the two groups differ in terms of underpinning

  19. How accessible are coral reefs to people? A global assessment based on travel time.

    PubMed

    Maire, Eva; Cinner, Joshua; Velez, Laure; Huchery, Cindy; Mora, Camilo; Dagata, Stephanie; Vigliola, Laurent; Wantiez, Laurent; Kulbicki, Michel; Mouillot, David

    2016-04-01

    The depletion of natural resources has become a major issue in many parts of the world, with the most accessible resources being most at risk. In the terrestrial realm, resource depletion has classically been related to accessibility through road networks. In contrast, in the marine realm, the impact on living resources is often framed into the Malthusian theory of human density around ecosystems. Here, we develop a new framework to estimate the accessibility of global coral reefs using potential travel time from the nearest human settlement or market. We show that 58% of coral reefs are located < 30 min from the nearest human settlement. We use a case study from New Caledonia to demonstrate that travel time from the market is a strong predictor of fish biomass on coral reefs. We also highlight a relative deficit of protection on coral reef areas near people, with disproportional protection on reefs far from people. This suggests that conservation efforts are targeting low-conflict reefs or places that may already be receiving de facto protection due to their isolation. Our global assessment of accessibility in the marine realm is a critical step to better understand the interplay between humans and resources. PMID:26879898

  20. How accessible are coral reefs to people? A global assessment based on travel time.

    PubMed

    Maire, Eva; Cinner, Joshua; Velez, Laure; Huchery, Cindy; Mora, Camilo; Dagata, Stephanie; Vigliola, Laurent; Wantiez, Laurent; Kulbicki, Michel; Mouillot, David

    2016-04-01

    The depletion of natural resources has become a major issue in many parts of the world, with the most accessible resources being most at risk. In the terrestrial realm, resource depletion has classically been related to accessibility through road networks. In contrast, in the marine realm, the impact on living resources is often framed into the Malthusian theory of human density around ecosystems. Here, we develop a new framework to estimate the accessibility of global coral reefs using potential travel time from the nearest human settlement or market. We show that 58% of coral reefs are located < 30 min from the nearest human settlement. We use a case study from New Caledonia to demonstrate that travel time from the market is a strong predictor of fish biomass on coral reefs. We also highlight a relative deficit of protection on coral reef areas near people, with disproportional protection on reefs far from people. This suggests that conservation efforts are targeting low-conflict reefs or places that may already be receiving de facto protection due to their isolation. Our global assessment of accessibility in the marine realm is a critical step to better understand the interplay between humans and resources.

  1. Chemical Safety Assessment Using Read-Across: Assessing the Use of Novel Testing Methods to Strengthen the Evidence Base for Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Amcoff, Patric; Benigni, Romualdo; Blackburn, Karen; Carney, Edward; Cronin, Mark; Deluyker, Hubert; Gautier, Francoise; Judson, Richard S.; Kass, Georges E.N.; Keller, Detlef; Knight, Derek; Lilienblum, Werner; Mahony, Catherine; Rusyn, Ivan; Schultz, Terry; Schwarz, Michael; Schüürmann, Gerrit; White, Andrew; Burton, Julien; Lostia, Alfonso M.; Munn, Sharon; Worth, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background Safety assessment for repeated dose toxicity is one of the largest challenges in the process to replace animal testing. This is also one of the proof of concept ambitions of SEURAT-1, the largest ever European Union research initiative on alternative testing, co-funded by the European Commission and Cosmetics Europe. This review is based on the discussion and outcome of a workshop organized on initiative of the SEURAT-1 consortium joined by a group of international experts with complementary knowledge to further develop traditional read-across and include new approach data. Objectives The aim of the suggested strategy for chemical read-across is to show how a traditional read-across based on structural similarities between source and target substance can be strengthened with additional evidence from new approach data—for example, information from in vitro molecular screening, “-omics” assays and computational models—to reach regulatory acceptance. Methods We identified four read-across scenarios that cover typical human health assessment situations. For each such decision context, we suggested several chemical groups as examples to prove when read-across between group members is possible, considering both chemical and biological similarities. Conclusions We agreed to carry out the complete read-across exercise for at least one chemical category per read-across scenario in the context of SEURAT-1, and the results of this exercise will be completed and presented by the end of the research initiative in December 2015. Citation Berggren E, Amcoff P, Benigni R, Blackburn K, Carney E, Cronin M, Deluyker H, Gautier F, Judson RS, Kass GE, Keller D, Knight D, Lilienblum W, Mahony C, Rusyn I, Schultz T, Schwarz M, Schüürmann G, White A, Burton J, Lostia AM, Munn S, Worth A. 2015. Chemical safety assessment using read-across: assessing the use of novel testing methods to strengthen the evidence base for decision making. Environ Health Perspect 123:1232

  2. Access to prenatal care: assessment of the adequacy of different indices.

    PubMed

    Santos Neto, Edson Theodoro dos; Oliveira, Adauto Emmerich; Zandonade, Eliana; Leal, Maria do Carmo

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to compare the evaluation of adequate access to prenatal care according to different indices. Data to construct the indices were obtained from 1,006 patient interviews, prenatal cards, and medical charts for postpartum women who had been admitted for childbirth at maternity hospitals in Greater Metropolitan Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil, from April to September 2010. The various indices for the evaluation of prenatal care were compared to the Kotelchuck index (1994) as the standard reference. Prevalence rates for adequacy were calculated, as were agreement, sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, accuracy, and likelihood ratios. The Takeda index showed the highest prevalence of adequacy (55.8%). The highest agreement was between the indices proposed by Villar et al. and Rosen et al. (adjusted kappa = 0.84). The study concludes that the Carvalho & Novaes index and the Brazilian Ministry of Health index are relevant for assessing adequate access to prenatal care.

  3. A Needs Assessment of the Accessibility of Distance Education in the California Community College System. Part II: Costs and Promising Practices Associated with Making Distance Education Courses Accessible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farr, Beverly; Studier, Carol; Sipes, Laurel; Coombs, Norman

    2009-01-01

    As the number of online distance education (DE) courses mushrooms in the California community college system, the need to address the accessibility of these courses becomes more and more urgent. With this in mind, the California Community College System Office (CCCSO) retained MPR Associates, Inc. to complete a needs assessment to help determine…

  4. Promoting Reading Motivation by Reading Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monteiro, Vera

    2013-01-01

    In the present project we tested the hypothesis that tutorial situations with peers would benefit children's reading motivation. Participants were from elementary school--80 fourth-graders and 80 second-graders. We used a questionnaire to assess reading motivation. In the tutorial sessions we developed a Paired Reading Program. The children who…

  5. 49 CFR 1544.228 - Access to cargo and cargo screening: Security threat assessments for cargo personnel in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to cargo and cargo screening: Security... COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Operations § 1544.228 Access to cargo and cargo screening: Security threat assessments... authorizes to screen cargo or to supervise the screening of cargo under § 1544.205....

  6. 25 CFR 30.125 - What happens if a State refuses to allow a school access to the State assessment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... include direct communication with the Governor of the State. A Bureau-funded school may, if necessary, pay... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What happens if a State refuses to allow a school access... if a State refuses to allow a school access to the State assessment? (a) The Department will...

  7. 25 CFR 30.125 - What happens if a State refuses to allow a school access to the State assessment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... include direct communication with the Governor of the State. A Bureau-funded school may, if necessary, pay... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What happens if a State refuses to allow a school access... if a State refuses to allow a school access to the State assessment? (a) The Department will...

  8. 25 CFR 30.125 - What happens if a State refuses to allow a school access to the State assessment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... include direct communication with the Governor of the State. A Bureau-funded school may, if necessary, pay... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What happens if a State refuses to allow a school access... if a State refuses to allow a school access to the State assessment? (a) The Department will...

  9. 25 CFR 30.125 - What happens if a State refuses to allow a school access to the State assessment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... include direct communication with the Governor of the State. A Bureau-funded school may, if necessary, pay... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What happens if a State refuses to allow a school access... if a State refuses to allow a school access to the State assessment? (a) The Department will...

  10. 25 CFR 30.125 - What happens if a State refuses to allow a school access to the State assessment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... include direct communication with the Governor of the State. A Bureau-funded school may, if necessary, pay... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What happens if a State refuses to allow a school access... if a State refuses to allow a school access to the State assessment? (a) The Department will...

  11. The World Stress Map - A Freely Accessible Tool For Geohazard Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Birgit; Heidbach, Oliver; Tingay, Mark

    2006-03-23

    The World Stress Map (WSM) database contains over 16,000 indicators on contemporary crustal tectonic stress and provides an essential parameter for geohazard assessment. This paper focuses on the importance of database accessibility for geohazard assessment and presents the basic concepts and availability of the WSM. The WSM can be applied to several key aspects of geohazard assessment, in particular the mapping of stress patterns and places of stress concentration for improved delineation of zones of seismic hazard. Furthermore, contemporary tectonic stresses can be used in combination with numerical modeling to identify faults or sections of fault systems with high failure potential and can help to predict the likely type of fault reactivation. This approach is especially valuable for assessing the likelihood of strong and rare seismic events for which probabilistic hazard assessment will fail and physically based methodologies are required. Herein, we use the Caspian-Caucasian region as an example to apply WSM data for geohazard assessment. The Caspian-Caucasian area is characterized by the occurrence of a number of stress related geohazards on different spatial scales, in particular crustal earthquakes, seismically triggered landslides and mud volcanism.

  12. Assessing numbers and faces: a prerequisite for improving access to lymphatic filariasis morbidity care.

    PubMed

    Becker, Sören L; Fürst, Thomas; Addiss, David G; Utzinger, Jürg

    2015-06-01

    Concerted efforts to eliminate lymphatic filariasis worldwide have registered success; multiple rounds of mass drug administration have led to the interruption of transmission in many previously endemic areas. However, the management of patients with established clinical disease (e.g., lymphoedema, hydrocoele and acute dermatolymphangioadenitis) has not been addressed sufficiently. Two recent studies from Malawi underscore the need for accurate epidemiological and clinical data, and comprehensive morbidity assessments across various domains of daily life. Addressing these issues will guide the implementation of programmes to improve access to treatment and disability prevention for affected individuals in Malawi and beyond.

  13. A Comparison of School Psychologists' Acceptability, Training, and Use of Norm-Referenced, Curriculum-Based, and Brief Experimental Analysis Methods to Assess Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Eckert, Tanya L.

    2003-01-01

    This investigation compared the acceptability of three methods for assessing reading (i.e., norm-referenced assessment, curriculum-based assessment, brief experimental analysis), and explored how a new assessment methodology can gain acceptance as a useful and appropriate approach. Given that brief experimental analysis is a relatively new…

  14. Dependable Trend Measurement Is Not Just IRT Scaling: Commentary on "Linking Large-Scale Reading Assessments: Measuring International Trends over 40 Years"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Ina V. S.; Martin, Michael O.

    2016-01-01

    Linking IEA's international reading assessments across 40 years is an interesting endeavor from several perspectives. Being able to examine trends in reading achievement at the 4th grade over such a long period and relate these to policy changes during that time span is an attractive idea. However, this work brings to the fore many thorny issues…

  15. A Study of a District-Wide Vocabulary Program Implemented to Improve Reading Comprehension on the North Carolina End-of-Grade Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stivers-Blaebaum, Janet E.

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that there is a strong link between reading comprehension and vocabulary, yet many children lack the required vocabulary needed to perform adequately on reading comprehension assessments. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the teaching of Larry Bell's 12 Powerful Words vocabulary program in order to raise third, fourth…

  16. Monitoring Children with Reading Disabilities' Response to Phonics Intervention: Are There Differences between Intervention Aligned and General Skill Progress Monitoring Assessments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olinghouse, Natalie G.; Lambert, Warren; Compton, Donald L.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated whether 2 different progress monitoring assessments differentially predicted growth in reading skills associated with systematic phonics instruction. Oral reading fluency (ORE) was compared with an intervention aligned word list (IAWL) as predictors of growth in untimed and timed decoding and word identification and text…

  17. The Efficacy of Instructor-Guided Supplemental Instruction as a Strategy for Helping Reading-Deficient College Students Improve Testing and Assessment Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartley-Lukula, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    This research project examined whether the use of Instructor-guided Supplemental Instruction as a classroom scaffolding technique, might help improve testing and assessment reading outcomes for reading-deficient college students. The study was completed at Tennessee State University in Nashville, Tennessee over the 16-week Fall, 2012 semester…

  18. Analyzing the Effects of Two Response to Intervention Tools, Oral Reading Fluency and Maze Assessments, in the Language Arts Classrooms of Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Donna L.

    2009-01-01

    This quantitative study analyzed data to find a valid and reliable assessment for progress monitoring also having predictive power of a student's future reading performance on a state-mandated standardized reading achievement evaluation. The Response to Intervention (RTI) model was implemented in the language arts classrooms of a rural middle…

  19. Rules or Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruefle, Anne E.

    2011-01-01

    Research shows that an important step in the development of readers is having access to books. Steven Krashen, in "The Power of Reading," cites multiple studies that demonstrate access to books is crucial in developing strong readers: "the richer the print environment, the better the literacy development." Limiting access runs counter to research…

  20. An Analysis of the Concurrent and Predictive Validity of Curriculum Based Measures CBM), the Measures of Academic Progress (MAP), and the New England Common Assessment Program (NECAP) for Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andren, Kristina J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the concurrent validity of four different reading assessments that are commonly used to screen students at risk for reading difficulties by measuring the correlation of the third grade Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) in Reading with three specific versions of curriculum based measurement: DIBELS oral reading fluency (ORF),…

  1. An Approach to Assessing Multicity Implementation of Healthful Food Access Policy, Systems, and Environmental Changes

    PubMed Central

    Silberfarb, Laura Oliven; Geber, Gayle

    2014-01-01

    Local governments play an increasingly important role in improving residents’ access to healthful food and beverages to reduce obesity and chronic disease. Cities can use multiple strategies to improve community health through, for example, land use and zoning policies, city contracting and procurement practices, sponsorship of farmers markets and community gardens, and vending and concession practices in parks and recreation facilities. With 41 cities in the Hennepin County Human Services and Public Health Department jurisdiction, the county undertook to measure the extent to which cities were engaged in making policy, systems, and environmental (PSE) changes to increase residents’ access to healthful food. The results revealed that some cities, particularly those with higher resident demand for healthful food, are making nationally recommended PSE changes, such as sponsoring farmers markets and community gardens. Cities have moved more slowly to make changes in areas with perceived negative cost consequences or lesser public demand, such as parks and recreation vending and concessions. This article describes the assessment process, survey tools, findings, and implications for other health departments seeking to undertake a similar assessment. PMID:24762528

  2. Executive functioning and reading achievement in school: a study of Brazilian children assessed by their teachers as "poor readers".

    PubMed

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale M J; Abreu, Neander; Nikaedo, Carolina C; Puglisi, Marina L; Tourinho, Carlos J; Miranda, Mônica C; Befi-Lopes, Debora M; Bueno, Orlando F A; Martin, Romain

    2014-01-01

    This study examined executive functioning and reading achievement in 106 6- to 8-year-old Brazilian children from a range of social backgrounds of whom approximately half lived below the poverty line. A particular focus was to explore the executive function profile of children whose classroom reading performance was judged below standard by their teachers and who were matched to controls on chronological age, sex, school type (private or public), domicile (Salvador/BA or São Paulo/SP) and socioeconomic status. Children completed a battery of 12 executive function tasks that were conceptual tapping cognitive flexibility, working memory, inhibition and selective attention. Each executive function domain was assessed by several tasks. Principal component analysis extracted four factors that were labeled "Working Memory/Cognitive Flexibility," "Interference Suppression," "Selective Attention," and "Response Inhibition." Individual differences in executive functioning components made differential contributions to early reading achievement. The Working Memory/Cognitive Flexibility factor emerged as the best predictor of reading. Group comparisons on computed factor scores showed that struggling readers displayed limitations in Working Memory/Cognitive Flexibility, but not in other executive function components, compared to more skilled readers. These results validate the account that working memory capacity provides a crucial building block for the development of early literacy skills and extends it to a population of early readers of Portuguese from Brazil. The study suggests that deficits in working memory/cognitive flexibility might represent one contributing factor to reading difficulties in early readers. This might have important implications for how educators might intervene with children at risk of academic under achievement.

  3. Executive functioning and reading achievement in school: a study of Brazilian children assessed by their teachers as "poor readers".

    PubMed

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale M J; Abreu, Neander; Nikaedo, Carolina C; Puglisi, Marina L; Tourinho, Carlos J; Miranda, Mônica C; Befi-Lopes, Debora M; Bueno, Orlando F A; Martin, Romain

    2014-01-01

    This study examined executive functioning and reading achievement in 106 6- to 8-year-old Brazilian children from a range of social backgrounds of whom approximately half lived below the poverty line. A particular focus was to explore the executive function profile of children whose classroom reading performance was judged below standard by their teachers and who were matched to controls on chronological age, sex, school type (private or public), domicile (Salvador/BA or São Paulo/SP) and socioeconomic status. Children completed a battery of 12 executive function tasks that were conceptual tapping cognitive flexibility, working memory, inhibition and selective attention. Each executive function domain was assessed by several tasks. Principal component analysis extracted four factors that were labeled "Working Memory/Cognitive Flexibility," "Interference Suppression," "Selective Attention," and "Response Inhibition." Individual differences in executive functioning components made differential contributions to early reading achievement. The Working Memory/Cognitive Flexibility factor emerged as the best predictor of reading. Group comparisons on computed factor scores showed that struggling readers displayed limitations in Working Memory/Cognitive Flexibility, but not in other executive function components, compared to more skilled readers. These results validate the account that working memory capacity provides a crucial building block for the development of early literacy skills and extends it to a population of early readers of Portuguese from Brazil. The study suggests that deficits in working memory/cognitive flexibility might represent one contributing factor to reading difficulties in early readers. This might have important implications for how educators might intervene with children at risk of academic under achievement. PMID:24959155

  4. Use of scrolled text in a scanning laser ophthalmoscope to assess reading performance at different retinal locations.

    PubMed

    Culham, L E; Fitzke, F W; Timberlake, G T; Marshall, J

    1992-07-01

    A new technique is described for assessing reading performance using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope. Letters of different sizes and contrasts were projected onto specific retinal locations of normal and low vision observers. Successive letters were scrolled in a horizontal direction at different speeds through a 'window'. Throughout the experiments the subjects' fundus and the retinal location of the stimuli could be visualized. With this scanning laser ophthalmoscope text-scrolling computer program the subject does not search for adjacent letters, and because the eye is held relatively stationary the tedious eye movement analysis incurred in other studies is reduced. Five retinal areas were investigated in two normal observers. The percentage of letters correctly identified decreased with eccentricity, increased velocity of the text and reduced text contrast. The reading performance of two patients, one with age-related macular degeneration and the other with juvenile macular disease, was investigated. Decrements in performance were related to morphology of the lesions.

  5. The anxious wait: assessing the impact of patient accessible EHRs for breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Personal health records (PHRs) provide patients with access to personal health information (PHI) and targeted education. The use of PHRs has the potential to improve a wide range of outcomes, including empowering patients to be more active participants in their care. There are a number of widespread barriers to adoption, including privacy and security considerations. In addition, there are clinical concerns that patients could become anxious or distressed when accessing complex medical information. This study assesses the implementation of a PHR, and its impact on anxiety levels and perceptions of self-efficacy in a sample of breast cancer patients. Methods A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test design was used to collect data from participants to evaluate the use of the PHR. Study participants completed background and pre-assessment questionnaires and were then registered into the portal. By entering an activation key, participants were then able to review their lab results and diagnostic imaging reports. After six weeks, participants completed post-assessment questionnaires and usability heuristics. All data were collected using an online survey tool. Data were cleaned and analyzed using SAS v9.1. Results A total of 311 breast cancer patients completed demographic and pre-assessment questionnaires, 250 registered to use the online intervention, and 125 participants completed all required study elements. Matching the pre- and post-anxiety scores demonstrated a decrease in mean anxiety scores (-2.2, p = 0.03); the chemotherapy sub-group had a statistically insignificant mean increase (1.8, p = .14). There was no mean change in self-efficacy scores. Conclusions Participants generally found the portal easy to use; however, the perceived value of improved participation was not detected in the self-efficacy scores. Having access to personal health information did not increase anxiety levels. While these results suggest that the use of this PHR may be of

  6. An Oral Reading Fluency Assessment for Young Adult Career and Technical Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellard, Daryl; Woods, Kari; Md Desa, Zairul

    2012-01-01

    Educators confront a difficult challenge of quickly and efficiently identifying students with literacy skill deficits in academically diverse career and technical education classes. A statistical examination of oral reading fluency (ORF) of 296 at-risk students participating in Job Corps tests the hypothesis that a 2-minute, two-dimensional ORF…

  7. Shared Reading: assessing the intrinsic value of a literature-based health intervention.

    PubMed

    Longden, Eleanor; Davis, Philip; Billington, Josie; Lampropoulou, Sofia; Farrington, Grace; Magee, Fiona; Walsh, Erin; Corcoran, Rhiannon

    2015-12-01

    Public health strategies have placed increasing emphasis on psychosocial and arts-based strategies for promoting well-being. This study presents preliminary findings for a specific literary-based intervention, Shared Reading, which provides community-based spaces in which individuals can relate with both literature and one another. A 12-week crossover design was conducted with 16 participants to compare benefits associated with six sessions of Shared Reading versus a comparison social activity, Built Environment workshops. Data collected included quantitative self-report measures of psychological well-being, as well as transcript analysis of session recordings and individual video-assisted interviews. Qualitative findings indicated five intrinsic benefits associated with Shared Reading: liveness, creative inarticulacy, the emotional, the personal and the group (or collective identity construction). Quantitative data additionally showed that the intervention is associated with enhancement of a sense of 'Purpose in Life'. Limitations of the study included the small sample size and ceiling effects created by generally high levels of psychological well-being at baseline. The therapeutic potential of reading groups is discussed, including the distinction between instrumental and intrinsic value within arts-and-health interventions.

  8. Selecting Individualized Reading Material for Informal Assessment of Students with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mary Ann Rhoads

    2004-01-01

    Testing materials for high school students whose reading is below grade level might not be age-appropriate or sufficiently motivating. The first step in finding appropriate material would be to talk with the student to learn his or her interests. To find age-appropriate material the author searched Internet resources and then used Microsoft Word…

  9. Bringing Reading-to-Write and Writing-Only Assessment Tasks Together: A Generalizability Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebril, Atta

    2010-01-01

    Integrated tasks are currently employed in a number of L2 exams since they are perceived as an addition to the writing-only task type. Given this trend, the current study investigates composite score generalizability of both reading-to-write and writing-only tasks. For this purpose, a multivariate generalizability analysis is used to investigate…

  10. Shared Reading: assessing the intrinsic value of a literature-based health intervention.

    PubMed

    Longden, Eleanor; Davis, Philip; Billington, Josie; Lampropoulou, Sofia; Farrington, Grace; Magee, Fiona; Walsh, Erin; Corcoran, Rhiannon

    2015-12-01

    Public health strategies have placed increasing emphasis on psychosocial and arts-based strategies for promoting well-being. This study presents preliminary findings for a specific literary-based intervention, Shared Reading, which provides community-based spaces in which individuals can relate with both literature and one another. A 12-week crossover design was conducted with 16 participants to compare benefits associated with six sessions of Shared Reading versus a comparison social activity, Built Environment workshops. Data collected included quantitative self-report measures of psychological well-being, as well as transcript analysis of session recordings and individual video-assisted interviews. Qualitative findings indicated five intrinsic benefits associated with Shared Reading: liveness, creative inarticulacy, the emotional, the personal and the group (or collective identity construction). Quantitative data additionally showed that the intervention is associated with enhancement of a sense of 'Purpose in Life'. Limitations of the study included the small sample size and ceiling effects created by generally high levels of psychological well-being at baseline. The therapeutic potential of reading groups is discussed, including the distinction between instrumental and intrinsic value within arts-and-health interventions. PMID:26070845

  11. Lectures Replaced by Prescribed Reading with Frequent Assessment: Enhanced Student Performance in Animal Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevins, Peter F. D.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a study of the effects of partial replacement of lectures with a system of prescribed reading, supported by weekly objective testing in a second year animal physiology module. Formative tests with feedback within 24 hours were followed a week later with summative tests on the same material, utilising a proportion of the same…

  12. A Computer System of Referential Resolution to Assess Students' Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yu-Fen; Wong, Wing-Kwong; Yeh, Hui-Chin

    2008-01-01

    The major purpose of this study is to assist college students in constructing mental representation of referential resolution in a computer system. Ninety students were asked to draw mental maps indicating the relationships between references, take reading comprehension tests, and fill out open-ended questionnaire. Results showed that the…

  13. Advanced L2 Learners and Reading Placement: Self-Assessment, CBT, and Subsequent Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantmeier, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    There is a dearth of research involving advanced second language (L2) learners in the USA [Brantmeier, C., 2001. Second language reading research on passage content and gender: challenges for the intermediate level curriculum, Foreign Language Annals 34, 325-333; Young, D.J., 2003. Workshop on overcoming anxiety in the foreign language classroom.…

  14. How Can We Assess Computer-Assisted Reading and Writing Instruction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauthamer, Helene

    This paper addresses the lack of evaluative resources for computer-assisted reading and writing instruction (CARWI). It begins by discussing the benefits, drawbacks, and effectiveness of computer-based instruction. It then describes types of CARWI packages, including: (1) writing process software; (2) electronic handbooks; (3) interactive…

  15. The Componential Model of Reading: Predicting First Grade Reading Performance of Culturally Diverse Students from Ecological, Psychological, and Cognitive Factors Assessed at Kindergarten Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Miriam; Folsom, Jessica S.; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Greulich, Luana; Thomas-Tate, Shurita; Connor, Carol M.

    2012-01-01

    This study, framed by the component model of reading (CMR), examined the relative importance of kindergarten-entry predictors of first grade reading performance. Specifically, elements within the ecological domain included dialect, maternal education, amount of preschool, and home literacy; elements within the psychological domain included…

  16. 7 CFR 331.10 - Restricting access to select agents and toxins; security risk assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Restricting access to select agents and toxins... TRANSFER OF SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 331.10 Restricting access to select agents and toxins; security risk... access to a select agent or toxin, and an individual may not access a select agent or toxin, unless...

  17. 7 CFR 331.10 - Restricting access to select agents and toxins; security risk assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Restricting access to select agents and toxins... TRANSFER OF SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 331.10 Restricting access to select agents and toxins; security risk... access to a select agent or toxin, and an individual may not access a select agent or toxin, unless...

  18. 7 CFR 331.10 - Restricting access to select agents and toxins; security risk assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Restricting access to select agents and toxins... TRANSFER OF SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 331.10 Restricting access to select agents and toxins; security risk... access to a select agent or toxin, and an individual may not access a select agent or toxin, unless...

  19. 7 CFR 331.10 - Restricting access to select agents and toxins; security risk assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restricting access to select agents and toxins... TRANSFER OF SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 331.10 Restricting access to select agents and toxins; security risk... access to a select agent or toxin, and an individual may not access a select agent or toxin, unless...

  20. 7 CFR 331.10 - Restricting access to select agents and toxins; security risk assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Restricting access to select agents and toxins... TRANSFER OF SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 331.10 Restricting access to select agents and toxins; security risk... access to a select agent or toxin, and an individual may not access a select agent or toxin, unless...

  1. Assessment of the pharmaceutical market in Poland after accession to the European Union.

    PubMed

    Willert, Patricia L

    2007-12-01

    The Republic of Poland joined the European Union (EU) on 1 May 2004. The EU accession brought new opportunities to the Polish health care system and the pharmaceutical market. However, there are still barriers to overcome such as bureaucracy, lack of transparency in pricing and reimbursement, decision-making processes, the short period of data exclusivity, respect for intellectual property rights, favorisation of local companies and low health care investment. Additionally, drug costs outpace overall economic development, a trend which is universally valid for almost all EU countries and which forms one of the most serious factors in health care expenditure. A systematic cost-effective assessment, the so-called fourth hurdle (after quality, efficacy and safety), of prescription drugs seems a necessity in most EU countries. The Polish Ministry of Health has defined aims for the future health care system in the National Drug Policy 2004-2008, including health economical criteria and instruments. However, it is to be expected that for some time there will be more a reimbursement hurdle instead of a fourth hurdle in controlling drug expenditure. This review focuses on the Polish pharmaceutical market with special consideration of the history of the Polish health care system. It will highlight the present situation of the Polish health care system after EU accession and provide an outlook to its possible future.

  2. Use of read-across and computer-based predictive analysis for the safety assessment of PEG cocamines.

    PubMed

    Skare, Julie A; Blackburn, Karen; Wu, Shengde; Re, Thomas A; Duche, Daniel; Ringeissen, Stephanie; Bjerke, Donald L; Srinivasan, Viny; Eisenmann, Carol

    2015-04-01

    In the European Union animal testing has been eliminated for cosmetic ingredients while the US Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel may request data from animal studies. The use of read-across and predictive toxicology provides a path for filling data gaps without additional animal testing. The PEG cocamines are tertiary amines with an alkyl group derived from coconut fatty acids and two PEG chains of varying length. Toxicology data gaps for the PEG cocamines can be addressed by read-across based on structure-activity relationship using the framework described by Wu et al. (2010) for identifying suitable structural analogs. Data for structural analogs supports the conclusion that the PEG cocamines are non-genotoxic and not expected to exhibit systemic or developmental/reproductive toxicity with use in cosmetics. Due to lack of reliable dermal sensitization data for suitable analogs, this endpoint was addressed using predictive software (TIMES SS) as a first step (Laboratory of Mathematical Chemistry). The prediction for PEG cocamines was the same as that for PEGs, which have been concluded to not present a significant concern for dermal sensitization. This evaluation for PEG cocamines demonstrates the utility of read-across and predictive toxicology tools to assess the safety of cosmetic ingredients. PMID:25659490

  3. Use of read-across and computer-based predictive analysis for the safety assessment of PEG cocamines.

    PubMed

    Skare, Julie A; Blackburn, Karen; Wu, Shengde; Re, Thomas A; Duche, Daniel; Ringeissen, Stephanie; Bjerke, Donald L; Srinivasan, Viny; Eisenmann, Carol

    2015-04-01

    In the European Union animal testing has been eliminated for cosmetic ingredients while the US Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel may request data from animal studies. The use of read-across and predictive toxicology provides a path for filling data gaps without additional animal testing. The PEG cocamines are tertiary amines with an alkyl group derived from coconut fatty acids and two PEG chains of varying length. Toxicology data gaps for the PEG cocamines can be addressed by read-across based on structure-activity relationship using the framework described by Wu et al. (2010) for identifying suitable structural analogs. Data for structural analogs supports the conclusion that the PEG cocamines are non-genotoxic and not expected to exhibit systemic or developmental/reproductive toxicity with use in cosmetics. Due to lack of reliable dermal sensitization data for suitable analogs, this endpoint was addressed using predictive software (TIMES SS) as a first step (Laboratory of Mathematical Chemistry). The prediction for PEG cocamines was the same as that for PEGs, which have been concluded to not present a significant concern for dermal sensitization. This evaluation for PEG cocamines demonstrates the utility of read-across and predictive toxicology tools to assess the safety of cosmetic ingredients.

  4. [Assessment of exposure to cancerogenic aromatic hydrocarbon during controlled-access highways management activities].

    PubMed

    Martinotti, I; Cirla, A M; Cottica, D; Cirla, P E

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was an integrated assessment of exposure to benzene and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in 29 workers employed to manage a controlled-access highways. A campaign was performed in summertime by environmental monitoring (active and passive airborne personal sampler), as well as by biological monitoring (urine samples of the beginning and of the end of daily shift, baseline after two days of vacation). The measured environmental levels did not differ from background environmental concentrations found in a metropolitan area (i.e. benzo[a]pyrene < 1 ng/m3; benzene < 5 mcg/m3), and the results of biological monitoring were in agreement and were compatible with extra-professional habits of the investigated subjects (1-hydroxipyrene 50-990 ng/g creatinine; unmetabolized benzene 15-2010 ng/I; t-t muconic acid < 4-222 mcg/g creatinine).

  5. Mifamurtide in Metastatic and Recurrent Osteosarcoma: A Patient Access Study with Pharmacokinetic, Pharmacodynamic, and Safety Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, P.M.; Meyers, P.; Kleinerman, E.; Venkatakrishnan, K.; Hughes, D.P.; Herzog, C.; Huh, W.; Sutphin, R.; Vyas, Y. M.; Shen, V.; Warwick, A.; Yeager, N.; Oliva, C.; Wang, B.; Liu, Y.; Chou, A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This non-randomized, patient-access protocol, assessed both safety and efficacy outcomes following liposomal muramyl –tripeptide-phosphatidylethanolamine (L-MTP-PE; mifamurtide) in patients with high-risk, recurrent and/or metastatic osteosarcoma. Methods Patients received mifamurtide 2 mg/m2 intravenously twice-weekly ×12 weeks, then weekly ×24 weeks with and without chemotherapy. Serum concentration-time profiles were collected. Adverse events within 24 hours of drug administration were classified as infusion-related adverse events (IRAE); other AEs and overall survival (OS) were assessed. Results The study began therapy in January 2008; the last patient completed therapy in October 2012. 205 patients were enrolled; median age was 16.5 years and 143/204 (72%) had active disease. Mifamurtide serum concentrations declined rapidly in the first 30 minutes post-infusion, then in a loglinear manner 2–6 hours post-dose; t1/2 was 2 hours. There were no readily apparent relationships between age and BSA-normalized clearance, half-life, or pharmacodynamic effects, supporting the dose of 2 mg/m2 mifamurtide across the age range. Patients reported 3,415 IRAE after 7,122 mifamurtide infusions. These were very rarely grade 3 or 4 and most commonly included chills+fever or headache+fatigue symptom clusters. One and two year OS was 70.6% and 41.4%. Patients with initial metastatic disease or progression approximated by within 9 months of diagnosis (N=40) had similar 2-year OS (38.8%) as the entire cohort (41.4%) Conclusions Mifamurtide had a manageable safety profile; PK/PD of mifamurtide in this patient access study was consistent with prior studies. Two-year OS was 41.4%. A randomized clinical trial would be required to definitively determine impact on patient outcomes. PMID:23997016

  6. Remote reading of coronary CTA exams using a tablet computer: utility for stenosis assessment and identification of coronary anomalies.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Stefan L; Lin, Cheng T; Chu, Linda C; Eng, John; Fishman, Elliot K

    2016-06-01

    The feasibility of remote reading of coronary CT examinations on tablet computers has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of coronary CT angiography reading using an iPad compared to standard 3D workstations. Fifty coronary CT angiography exams, including a spectrum of coronary artery disease and anatomic variants, were reviewed. Coronary CT angiography exams were interpreted by two readers independently on an iPad application (Siemens Webviewer) and a clinical 3D workstation at sessions 2 weeks apart. Studies were scored per vessel for severity of stenosis on a 0-3 scale (0 none, 1 <50 %, 2 ≥50-69 %, 3 ≥70 %). Coronary anomalies were recorded. A consensus read by two experienced cardiac imagers was used as the reference standard. Level of agreement with the reference for iPad and 3D workstations was compared. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between agreement and display type and to adjust for inter-reader differences. For both readers, there was no significant difference in agreement with the reference standard for per-vessel stenosis scores using either the 3D workstation or the iPad. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis including reader, workstation, and vessel as co-variates, there was no significant association between workstation type or reader and agreement with the reference standard (p > 0.05). Both readers identified 100 % of coronary anomalies using each technique. Reading of coronary CT angiography examinations on the iPad had no influence on stenosis assessment compared to the standard clinical workstation. PMID:27085532

  7. Remote reading of coronary CTA exams using a tablet computer: utility for stenosis assessment and identification of coronary anomalies.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Stefan L; Lin, Cheng T; Chu, Linda C; Eng, John; Fishman, Elliot K

    2016-06-01

    The feasibility of remote reading of coronary CT examinations on tablet computers has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of coronary CT angiography reading using an iPad compared to standard 3D workstations. Fifty coronary CT angiography exams, including a spectrum of coronary artery disease and anatomic variants, were reviewed. Coronary CT angiography exams were interpreted by two readers independently on an iPad application (Siemens Webviewer) and a clinical 3D workstation at sessions 2 weeks apart. Studies were scored per vessel for severity of stenosis on a 0-3 scale (0 none, 1 <50 %, 2 ≥50-69 %, 3 ≥70 %). Coronary anomalies were recorded. A consensus read by two experienced cardiac imagers was used as the reference standard. Level of agreement with the reference for iPad and 3D workstations was compared. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between agreement and display type and to adjust for inter-reader differences. For both readers, there was no significant difference in agreement with the reference standard for per-vessel stenosis scores using either the 3D workstation or the iPad. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis including reader, workstation, and vessel as co-variates, there was no significant association between workstation type or reader and agreement with the reference standard (p > 0.05). Both readers identified 100 % of coronary anomalies using each technique. Reading of coronary CT angiography examinations on the iPad had no influence on stenosis assessment compared to the standard clinical workstation.

  8. The Read-Across Hypothesis and Environmental Risk Assessment of Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals in the environment have received increased attention over the past decade, as they are ubiquitous in rivers and waterways. Concentrations are in sub-ng to low μg/L, well below acute toxic levels, but there are uncertainties regarding the effects of chronic exposures and there is a need to prioritise which pharmaceuticals may be of concern. The read-across hypothesis stipulates that a drug will have an effect in non-target organisms only if the molecular targets such as receptors and enzymes have been conserved, resulting in a (specific) pharmacological effect only if plasma concentrations are similar to human therapeutic concentrations. If this holds true for different classes of pharmaceuticals, it should be possible to predict the potential environmental impact from information obtained during the drug development process. This paper critically reviews the evidence for read-across, and finds that few studies include plasma concentrations and mode of action based effects. Thus, despite a large number of apparently relevant papers and a general acceptance of the hypothesis, there is an absence of documented evidence. There is a need for large-scale studies to generate robust data for testing the read-across hypothesis and developing predictive models, the only feasible approach to protecting the environment. PMID:24006913

  9. Readings in technology assessment. [in relation to social impact and the law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Papers are presented which reflect research in the following areas: development of the concept of technology assessment; institutionalization of technology assessment; the interface between law and technology assessment; and assessment case studies. Case studies include hazards of the medical use of X-rays, environmental noise effects in transportation planning, genetic technology, impact of underground coal mining, and aircraft/airport noise abatement.

  10. Postural control is not systematically related to reading skills: implications for the assessment of balance as a risk factor for developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Loras, Håvard; Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin; Talcott, Joel B

    2014-01-01

    Impaired postural control has been associated with poor reading skills, as well as with lower performance on measures of attention and motor control variables that frequently co-occur with reading difficulties. Measures of balance and motor control have been incorporated into several screening batteries for developmental dyslexia, but it is unclear whether the relationship between such skills and reading manifests as a behavioural continuum across the range of abilities or is restricted to groups of individuals with specific disorder phenotypes. Here were obtained measures of postural control alongside measures of reading, attention and general cognitive skills in a large sample of young adults (n = 100). Postural control was assessed using centre of pressure (CoP) measurements, obtained over 5 different task conditions. Our results indicate an absence of strong statistical relationships between balance measures with either reading, cognitive or attention measures across the sample as a whole.

  11. Sex Differences in Mathematics and Reading Achievement Are Inversely Related: Within- and Across-Nation Assessment of 10 Years of PISA Data

    PubMed Central

    Stoet, Gijsbert; Geary, David C.

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed one decade of data collected by the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), including the mathematics and reading performance of nearly 1.5 million 15 year olds in 75 countries. Across nations, boys scored higher than girls in mathematics, but lower than girls in reading. The sex difference in reading was three times as large as in mathematics. There was considerable variation in the extent of the sex differences between nations. There are countries without a sex difference in mathematics performance, and in some countries girls scored higher than boys. Boys scored lower in reading in all nations in all four PISA assessments (2000, 2003, 2006, 2009). Contrary to several previous studies, we found no evidence that the sex differences were related to nations’ gender equality indicators. Further, paradoxically, sex differences in mathematics were consistently and strongly inversely correlated with sex differences in reading: Countries with a smaller sex difference in mathematics had a larger sex difference in reading and vice versa. We demonstrate that this was not merely a between-nation, but also a within-nation effect. This effect is related to relative changes in these sex differences across the performance continuum: We did not find a sex difference in mathematics among the lowest performing students, but this is where the sex difference in reading was largest. In contrast, the sex difference in mathematics was largest among the higher performing students, and this is where the sex difference in reading was smallest. The implication is that if policy makers decide that changes in these sex differences are desired, different approaches will be needed to achieve this for reading and mathematics. Interventions that focus on high-achieving girls in mathematics and on low achieving boys in reading are likely to yield the strongest educational benefits. PMID:23516422

  12. Sex differences in mathematics and reading achievement are inversely related: within- and across-nation assessment of 10 years of PISA data.

    PubMed

    Stoet, Gijsbert; Geary, David C

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed one decade of data collected by the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), including the mathematics and reading performance of nearly 1.5 million 15 year olds in 75 countries. Across nations, boys scored higher than girls in mathematics, but lower than girls in reading. The sex difference in reading was three times as large as in mathematics. There was considerable variation in the extent of the sex differences between nations. There are countries without a sex difference in mathematics performance, and in some countries girls scored higher than boys. Boys scored lower in reading in all nations in all four PISA assessments (2000, 2003, 2006, 2009). Contrary to several previous studies, we found no evidence that the sex differences were related to nations' gender equality indicators. Further, paradoxically, sex differences in mathematics were consistently and strongly inversely correlated with sex differences in reading: Countries with a smaller sex difference in mathematics had a larger sex difference in reading and vice versa. We demonstrate that this was not merely a between-nation, but also a within-nation effect. This effect is related to relative changes in these sex differences across the performance continuum: We did not find a sex difference in mathematics among the lowest performing students, but this is where the sex difference in reading was largest. In contrast, the sex difference in mathematics was largest among the higher performing students, and this is where the sex difference in reading was smallest. The implication is that if policy makers decide that changes in these sex differences are desired, different approaches will be needed to achieve this for reading and mathematics. Interventions that focus on high-achieving girls in mathematics and on low achieving boys in reading are likely to yield the strongest educational benefits.

  13. Bilingual lexical access during L1 sentence reading: The effects of L2 knowledge, semantic constraint, and L1-L2 intermixing.

    PubMed

    Titone, Debra; Libben, Maya; Mercier, Julie; Whitford, Veronica; Pivneva, Irina

    2011-11-01

    Libben and Titone (2009) recently observed that cognate facilitation and interlingual homograph interference were attenuated by increased semantic constraint during bilingual second language (L2) reading, using eye movement measures. We now investigate whether cross-language activation also occurs during first language (L1) reading as a function of age of L2 acquisition and task demands (i.e., inclusion of L2 sentences). In Experiment 1, participants read high and low constraint English (L1) sentences containing interlingual homographs, cognates, or control words. In Experiment 2, we included French (L2) filler sentences to increase salience of the L2 during L1 reading. The results suggest that bilinguals reading in their L1 show nonselective activation to the extent that they acquired their L2 early in life. Similar to our previous work on L2 reading, high contextual constraint attenuated cross-language activation for cognates. The inclusion of French filler items promoted greater cross-language activation, especially for late stage reading measures. Thus, L1 bilingual reading is modulated by L2 knowledge, semantic constraint, and task demands. PMID:21767061

  14. Bilingual lexical access during L1 sentence reading: The effects of L2 knowledge, semantic constraint, and L1-L2 intermixing.

    PubMed

    Titone, Debra; Libben, Maya; Mercier, Julie; Whitford, Veronica; Pivneva, Irina

    2011-11-01

    Libben and Titone (2009) recently observed that cognate facilitation and interlingual homograph interference were attenuated by increased semantic constraint during bilingual second language (L2) reading, using eye movement measures. We now investigate whether cross-language activation also occurs during first language (L1) reading as a function of age of L2 acquisition and task demands (i.e., inclusion of L2 sentences). In Experiment 1, participants read high and low constraint English (L1) sentences containing interlingual homographs, cognates, or control words. In Experiment 2, we included French (L2) filler sentences to increase salience of the L2 during L1 reading. The results suggest that bilinguals reading in their L1 show nonselective activation to the extent that they acquired their L2 early in life. Similar to our previous work on L2 reading, high contextual constraint attenuated cross-language activation for cognates. The inclusion of French filler items promoted greater cross-language activation, especially for late stage reading measures. Thus, L1 bilingual reading is modulated by L2 knowledge, semantic constraint, and task demands.

  15. Bilingual Lexical Access during L1 Sentence Reading: The Effects of L2 Knowledge, Semantic Constraint, and L1-L2 Intermixing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titone, Debra; Libben, Maya; Mercier, Julie; Whitford, Veronica; Pivneva, Irina

    2011-01-01

    Libben and Titone (2009) recently observed that cognate facilitation and interlingual homograph interference were attenuated by increased semantic constraint during bilingual second language (L2) reading, using eye movement measures. We now investigate whether cross-language activation also occurs during first language (L1) reading as a function…

  16. Three-dimensional MDCT angiography for the assessment of arteriovenous grafts and fistulas in hemodialysis access.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S; Raman, S P; Fishman, E K

    2016-03-01

    Arteriovenous grafts and fistulas are placed for long-term hemodialysis access, and their associated complications can lead to considerable morbidity. Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) images provide accurate delineation of hemodialysis access anatomy and show potential complications. This review makes the reader more familiar with vascular access anatomy and configurations, describes the appearance of access complications encountered on MDCT, and discusses endovascular and surgical treatment options for complications, which should aid in post-treatment evaluation. PMID:26868603

  17. Measuring reading performance.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Gary S

    2013-09-20

    Despite significant changes in the treatment of common eye conditions like cataract and age-related macular degeneration, reading difficulty remains the most common complaint of patients referred for low vision services. Clinical reading tests have been widely used since Jaeger introduced his test types in 1854. A brief review of the major developments in clinical reading tests is provided, followed by a discussion of some of the main controversies in clinical reading assessment. Data for the Salisbury Eye Evaluation (SEE) study demonstrate that standardised clinical reading tests are highly predictive of reading performance under natural, real world conditions, and that discrepancies between self-reported reading ability and measured reading performance may be indicative of people who are at a pre-clinical stage of disability, but are at risk for progression to clinical disability. If measured reading performance is to continue to increase in importance as a clinical outcome measure, there must be agreement on what should be measured (e.g. speed or comprehension) and how it should be measured (e.g. reading silently or aloud). Perhaps most important, the methods for assessing reading performance and the algorithms for scoring reading tests need to be optimised so that the reliability and responsiveness of reading tests can be improved.

  18. Do Intervention-Embedded Assessment Procedures Successfully Measure Student Growth in Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begeny, John C.; Whitehouse, Mary H.; Methe, Scott A.; Codding, Robin S.; Stage, Scott A.; Nuepert, Shevaun

    2015-01-01

    Effective intervention delivery requires ongoing assessment to determine whether students are learning at the desired rate. Intervention programs with embedded assessment procedures (i.e., assessment that occurs naturally "during" the process of delivering intervention) can potentially enhance instructional decisions. However, there is…

  19. Generalizability Theory Applied to Reading Assessments for Students with Significant Cognitive Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tindal, Gerald; Yovanoff, Paul; Geller, Josh P.

    2010-01-01

    Students with significant disabilities must participate in large-scale assessments, often using an alternate assessment judged against alternate achievement standards. The development and administration of this type of assessment must necessarily balance meaningful participation with accurate measurement. In this study, generalizability theory is…

  20. Assessing young unmarried men's access to reproductive health information and services in rural India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We investigated the accessibility of reproductive health information and contraceptives in a relatively less developed area of rural central India and assessed the risks facing young unmarried men. Methods This cross-sectional study used both qualitative and quantitative methods. Participants included 38 unmarried rural men in four focus-group discussions and a representative sample of 316 similarly profiled men, aged 17-22 years, in a survey. Information was collected on the men's socioeconomic characteristics; awareness, knowledge, and perceptions of family planning; attitudes toward future contraceptive use; intra-family communication; knowledge about STIs/HIV/AIDS; and access and use of condoms. Content analysis for qualitative information and descriptive analysis for survey data were used to draw conclusions. Results Young unmarried rural Indian men's sexual and reproductive health (SRH) knowledge is limited, although the majority is familiar with condoms (99%). The young men identified electronic mass media (67%) as the prime source of reproductive health information, yet they lacked detailed knowledge of various contraceptives and felt ignored by health providers, who, they felt, would be capable of providing SRH information through interpersonal communication. Young men are more concerned about avoiding infections and securing sexual pleasure and less concerned about avoiding potential pregnancies. For example, 68% of the young men were aware of condoms and their HIV/AIDS preventive role, but only about two-fifths mentioned condom use to prevent unwanted pregnancies. Although most young men (96%) knew where to access a condom, they felt uncomfortable or embarrassed doing so in their own villages or close by because of socio-cultural norms that prevented them from using contraceptives. Very few respondents (4%) disclosed using condoms themselves, but 59% said they knew someone from their peer group who had used them. Conclusions Young unmarried

  1. Goats Don't Wear Coats: An Examination of Semantic Interference in Rhyming Assessments of Reading Readiness for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreira, Sylvia; Hamilton, Maryellen

    2006-01-01

    Rhyming tests have historically been used in the education system to assess reading readiness. English language learners (ELLs) have consistently scored poorly on these assessment tools. The current article examines a possible reason for this poor performance by ELLs. Specifically, the authors examined the relationship between semantic…

  2. Achievement Gaps: How Hispanic and White Students in Public Schools Perform in Mathematics and Reading on the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Highlights. NCES 2011-485

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report provides a detailed portrait of Hispanic and White academic achievement gaps and how students' performance has changed over time at both the national and state levels. The report presents achievement gaps using reading and mathematics assessment data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) for the 4th- and 8th-grade…

  3. Early Patient Access to Medicines: Health Technology Assessment Bodies Need to Catch Up with New Marketing Authorization Methods.

    PubMed

    Leyens, Lada; Brand, Angela

    2016-01-01

    National and international medicines agencies have developed innovative methods to expedite promising new medicines to the market and facilitate early patient access. Some of these approval pathways are the conditional approval and the adaptive pathways by the European Medicines Agency (EMA); the Promising Innovative Medicine (PIM) designation and the Early Access to Medicines Scheme (EAMS) by the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA), as well as the Fast Track, Breakthrough or Accelerated Approval methods by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, at least in Europe, these methods cannot achieve the goal of improving timely access for patients to new medicines on their own; the reimbursement process also has to become adaptive and flexible. In the past 2 years, the effective access (national patient access) to newly approved oncology drugs ranged from 1 to 30 months, with an extremely high variability between European countries. The goal of early patient access in Europe can only be achieved if the national health technology assessment bodies, such as NICE (ENG), HAS (FR), G-BA (DE) or AIFA (IT), provide harmonized, transparent, flexible, conditional and adaptive methods that adopt the level of evidence accepted by the medicines agencies. The efforts from medicines agencies are welcome but will be in vain if health technology assessments do not follow with similar initiatives, and the European 'postcode' lottery will continue.

  4. Early Patient Access to Medicines: Health Technology Assessment Bodies Need to Catch Up with New Marketing Authorization Methods.

    PubMed

    Leyens, Lada; Brand, Angela

    2016-01-01

    National and international medicines agencies have developed innovative methods to expedite promising new medicines to the market and facilitate early patient access. Some of these approval pathways are the conditional approval and the adaptive pathways by the European Medicines Agency (EMA); the Promising Innovative Medicine (PIM) designation and the Early Access to Medicines Scheme (EAMS) by the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA), as well as the Fast Track, Breakthrough or Accelerated Approval methods by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, at least in Europe, these methods cannot achieve the goal of improving timely access for patients to new medicines on their own; the reimbursement process also has to become adaptive and flexible. In the past 2 years, the effective access (national patient access) to newly approved oncology drugs ranged from 1 to 30 months, with an extremely high variability between European countries. The goal of early patient access in Europe can only be achieved if the national health technology assessment bodies, such as NICE (ENG), HAS (FR), G-BA (DE) or AIFA (IT), provide harmonized, transparent, flexible, conditional and adaptive methods that adopt the level of evidence accepted by the medicines agencies. The efforts from medicines agencies are welcome but will be in vain if health technology assessments do not follow with similar initiatives, and the European 'postcode' lottery will continue. PMID:27238553

  5. Evaluating the impact of climate policies on regional food availability and accessibility using an Integrated Assessment Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, E.; Cui, Y. R.; Waldhoff, S.

    2015-12-01

    Beyond 2015, eradicating hunger will remain a critical part of the global development agenda through the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). Efforts to limit climate change through both mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and land use policies may interact with food availability and accessibility in complex and unanticipated ways. Here, we develop projections of regional food accessibility to 2050 under the alternative futures outlined by the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) and under different climate policy targets and structures. We use the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model (IAM), for our projections. We calculate food access as the weighted average of consumption of five staples and the portion of income spend on those commodities and extend the GCAM calculated universal global producer price to regional consumer prices drawing on historical relationships of these prices. Along the SSPs, food access depends largely on expectations of increases in population and economic status. Under a more optimistic scenario, the pressures on food access from increasing demand and rising prices can be counterbalanced by faster economic development. Stringent climate policies that increase commodity prices, however, may hinder vulnerable regions, namely Sub-Saharan Africa, from achieving greater food accessibility.

  6. The componential model of reading: predicting first grade reading performance of culturally diverse students from ecological, psychological, and cognitive factors assessed at kindergarten entry.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Miriam; Folsom, Jessica S; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Greulich, Luana; Thomas-Tate, Shurita; Connor, Carol M

    2012-01-01

    This study, framed by the component model of reading (CMR), examined the relative importance of kindergarten-entry predictors of first grade reading performance. Specifically, elements within the ecological domain included dialect, maternal education, amount of preschool, and home literacy; elements within the psychological domain included teacher-reported academic competence, social skills, and behavior; and elements within the cognitive domain included initial vocabulary, phonological, and morpho-syntactic skills, and alphabetic and word recognition skills. Data were obtained for 224 culturally diverse kindergarteners (58% Black, 34% White, and 8% Hispanic or other; 58% received free or reduced-price lunch) from a larger study conducted in seven predominantly high poverty schools (n = 20 classrooms) in a midsized city school district in northern Florida. Results from a hierarchical multiple regression (with variables in the ecological domain entered first, followed by the psychological and cognitive domains) revealed a model that explained roughly 56% of the variance in first grade reading achievement, using fall-of-kindergarten predictors. Letter-word reading and morpho-syntactic skill were the strongest significant predictors. The findings largely support the CMR model as a means to understand individual differences in reading acquisition and, in turn, to support data-based instructional decisions for a wider range of children.

  7. The componential model of reading: predicting first grade reading performance of culturally diverse students from ecological, psychological, and cognitive factors assessed at kindergarten entry.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Miriam; Folsom, Jessica S; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Greulich, Luana; Thomas-Tate, Shurita; Connor, Carol M

    2012-01-01

    This study, framed by the component model of reading (CMR), examined the relative importance of kindergarten-entry predictors of first grade reading performance. Specifically, elements within the ecological domain included dialect, maternal education, amount of preschool, and home literacy; elements within the psychological domain included teacher-reported academic competence, social skills, and behavior; and elements within the cognitive domain included initial vocabulary, phonological, and morpho-syntactic skills, and alphabetic and word recognition skills. Data were obtained for 224 culturally diverse kindergarteners (58% Black, 34% White, and 8% Hispanic or other; 58% received free or reduced-price lunch) from a larger study conducted in seven predominantly high poverty schools (n = 20 classrooms) in a midsized city school district in northern Florida. Results from a hierarchical multiple regression (with variables in the ecological domain entered first, followed by the psychological and cognitive domains) revealed a model that explained roughly 56% of the variance in first grade reading achievement, using fall-of-kindergarten predictors. Letter-word reading and morpho-syntactic skill were the strongest significant predictors. The findings largely support the CMR model as a means to understand individual differences in reading acquisition and, in turn, to support data-based instructional decisions for a wider range of children. PMID:22227395

  8. Reading(s).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerfield, Geoffrey; Summerfield, Judith

    Developed for college English courses, this book presents selections of poetry, short stories, and commentary intended to invite different ways of reading and interpreting literature. An introduction provides an overview of the book's content, as well as a discussion of how to read. The first section, "Entering a Language," considers the…

  9. Reading and Writing Assessment Kit. An ESL Assessment Kit for the Classroom. Stage One: Initial Learner Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, Sue; Solomon, Nicky

    This English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) assessment kit was designed for use by teachers and program managers who are involved in the initial interview, assessment, and referral of students and who are responsible for placement of learners in programs and classes. Its aims are to help the interviewer to: (1) identify the relative priority of…

  10. Assessing mouse alternatives to access to computer: a case study of a user with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Pousada, Thais; Pareira, Javier; Groba, Betania; Nieto, Laura; Pazos, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the process of assessment of three assistive devices to meet the needs of a woman with cerebral palsy (CP) in order to provide her with computer access and use. The user has quadriplegic CP, with anarthria, using a syllabic keyboard. Devices were evaluated through a three-step approach: (a) use of a questionnaire to preselect potential assistive technologies, (b) use of an eTAO tool to determine the effectiveness of each devised, and (c) a conducting semi-structured interview to obtain qualitative data. Touch screen, joystick, and trackball were the preselected devices. The best device that met the user's needs and priorities was joystick. The finding was corroborated by both the eTAO tool and the semi-structured interview. Computers are a basic form of social participation. It is important to consider the special needs and priorities of users and to try different devices when undertaking a device-selection process. Environmental and personal factors have to be considered, as well. This leads to a need to evaluate new tools in order to provide the appropriate support. The eTAO could be a suitable instrument for this purpose. Additional research is also needed to understand how to better match devices with different user populations and how to comprehensively evaluate emerging technologies relative to users with disabilities.

  11. Improving Reading Readiness through Reading and Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dashner, Carol

    A study examined the effectiveness of a project to increase reading readiness skills. The targeted population consisted of kindergarten students in a growing middle class community located in northern Illinois. The problems of lack of reading readiness were documented through teacher observation and district assessment tools. Analysis of probable…

  12. Portfolio Assessment as a Method of Enhancing Preschool Reading Development and Teacher Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esliker, Regina

    2010-01-01

    Technological advances offer new ways and approaches to teaching and learning and have affected traditional methods of instruction and student assessment. Portfolio assessment is one way to document a student's progress over time and has been the subject of considerable research. This mixed method study explored the extent to which portfolio…

  13. Student-Generated Reading Questions: Diagnosing Student Thinking with Diverse Formative Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offerdahl, Erika G.; Montplaisir, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Formative assessment has long been identified as a critical element to teaching for conceptual development in science. It is therefore important for university instructors to have an arsenal of formative assessment tools at their disposal which enable them to effectively uncover and diagnose all students' thinking, not just the most vocal or…

  14. Prose reading in neglect.

    PubMed

    Beschin, Nicoletta; Cisari, Carlo; Cubelli, Roberto; Della Sala, Sergio

    2014-02-01

    Prose reading has been shown to be a very sensitive measure of Unilateral Spatial Neglect. However, little is known about the relationship between prose reading and other measures of neglect and its severity, or between prose reading and single word reading. Thirty participants with a first stroke in the right hemisphere and clear symptoms of spatial neglect in everyday life were assessed with tests of prose reading (text in one column book-like, and in two columns magazine-like), single words reading, and a battery of 13 tests investigating neglect. Seventy percent of these participants omitted words at the beginning of the text (left end), showing Prose Reading Neglect (PRN). The participants showing PRN differed from those not showing PRN only for the overall severity of neglect, and had a lesion centred on the insula, putamen and superior temporal gyrus. Double dissociations emerged between PRN and single word reading neglect, suggesting different cognitive requirements between the two tests: parallel processing in single word reading vs. serial analysis in text reading. Notably, the pattern of neglected text varied dramatically across participants presenting with PRN, including dissociations between reading performance of one and two columns text. Prose reading proved a complex and unique task which should be directly investigated to predict the effects of unilateral neglect. The outcome of this study should also inform clinical assessment and advises given to patients and care-givers.

  15. Peer Tutors Improve Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGue, Kristina M.; Wilson, Katrina

    2011-01-01

    The influential report "Teaching Children to Read: An Evidenced-Based Assessment of the Scientific Research Literature on Reading and Its Implications for Reading Instruction," published by the National Reading Panel in 2000, presented recommendations for daily literacy instruction in five key areas: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency,…

  16. Reading and the Special Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedley, Carolyn N., Ed.; Hicks, John S., Ed.

    Compiled from papers presented at the annual Reading/Special Education Institute at Fordham University, this collection of essays addresses reading problems of special education students. The book is divided into three sections. The first section covers reading assessment and reading intervention; section 2 addresses the specific learner and the…

  17. Open Access and beyond.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Shawn; Schmidt, Christian; Das, Chhaya; Tucker, Philip W

    2006-01-01

    Uncensored exchange of scientific results hastens progress. Open Access does not stop at the removal of price and permission barriers; still, censorship and reading disabilities, to name a few, hamper access to information. Here, we invite the scientific community and the public to discuss new methods to distribute, store and manage literature in order to achieve unfettered access to literature. PMID:16956402

  18. Diversity in 113 cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp] accessions assessed with 458 SNP markers.

    PubMed

    Egbadzor, Kenneth F; Ofori, Kwadwo; Yeboah, Martin; Aboagye, Lawrence M; Opoku-Agyeman, Michael O; Danquah, Eric Y; Offei, Samuel K

    2014-01-01

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers were used in characterization of 113 cowpea accessions comprising of 108 from Ghana and 5 from abroad. Leaf tissues from plants cultivated at the University of Ghana were genotyped at KBioscience in the United Kingdom. Data was generated for 477 SNPs, out of which 458 revealed polymorphism. The results were used to analyze genetic dissimilarity among the accessions using Darwin 5 software. The markers discriminated among all of the cowpea accessions and the dissimilarity values which ranged from 0.006 to 0.63 were used for factorial plot. Unexpected high levels of heterozygosity were observed on some of the accessions. Accessions known to be closely related clustered together in a dendrogram drawn with WPGMA method. A maximum length sub-tree which comprised of 48 core accessions was constructed. The software package structure was used to separate accessions into three groups, and the programme correctly identified varieties that were known hybrids. The hybrids were those accessions with numerous heterozygous loci. The structure plot showed closely related accessions with similar genome patterns. The SNP markers were more efficient in discriminating among the cowpea germplasm than morphological, seed protein polymorphism and simple sequence repeat studies reported earlier on the same collection. PMID:25332852

  19. Diversity in 113 cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp] accessions assessed with 458 SNP markers.

    PubMed

    Egbadzor, Kenneth F; Ofori, Kwadwo; Yeboah, Martin; Aboagye, Lawrence M; Opoku-Agyeman, Michael O; Danquah, Eric Y; Offei, Samuel K

    2014-01-01

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers were used in characterization of 113 cowpea accessions comprising of 108 from Ghana and 5 from abroad. Leaf tissues from plants cultivated at the University of Ghana were genotyped at KBioscience in the United Kingdom. Data was generated for 477 SNPs, out of which 458 revealed polymorphism. The results were used to analyze genetic dissimilarity among the accessions using Darwin 5 software. The markers discriminated among all of the cowpea accessions and the dissimilarity values which ranged from 0.006 to 0.63 were used for factorial plot. Unexpected high levels of heterozygosity were observed on some of the accessions. Accessions known to be closely related clustered together in a dendrogram drawn with WPGMA method. A maximum length sub-tree which comprised of 48 core accessions was constructed. The software package structure was used to separate accessions into three groups, and the programme correctly identified varieties that were known hybrids. The hybrids were those accessions with numerous heterozygous loci. The structure plot showed closely related accessions with similar genome patterns. The SNP markers were more efficient in discriminating among the cowpea germplasm than morphological, seed protein polymorphism and simple sequence repeat studies reported earlier on the same collection.

  20. Quality Assessment of Studies Published in Open Access and Subscription Journals: Results of a Systematic Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Pastorino, Roberta; Milovanovic, Sonja; Stojanovic, Jovana; Efremov, Ljupcho; Amore, Rosarita; Boccia, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Along with the proliferation of Open Access (OA) publishing, the interest for comparing the scientific quality of studies published in OA journals versus subscription journals has also increased. With our study we aimed to compare the methodological quality and the quality of reporting of primary epidemiological studies and systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in OA and non-OA journals. Methods In order to identify the studies to appraise, we listed all OA and non-OA journals which published in 2013 at least one primary epidemiologic study (case-control or cohort study design), and at least one systematic review or meta-analysis in the field of oncology. For the appraisal, we picked up the first studies published in 2013 with case-control or cohort study design from OA journals (Group A; n = 12), and in the same time period from non-OA journals (Group B; n = 26); the first systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in 2013 from OA journals (Group C; n = 15), and in the same time period from non-OA journals (Group D; n = 32). We evaluated the methodological quality of studies by assessing the compliance of case-control and cohort studies to Newcastle and Ottawa Scale (NOS) scale, and the compliance of systematic reviews and meta-analyses to Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) scale. The quality of reporting was assessed considering the adherence of case-control and cohort studies to STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) checklist, and the adherence of systematic reviews and meta-analyses to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) checklist. Results Among case-control and cohort studies published in OA and non-OA journals, we did not observe significant differences in the median value of NOS score (Group A: 7 (IQR 7–8) versus Group B: 8 (7–9); p = 0.5) and in the adherence to STROBE checklist (Group A, 75% versus Group B, 80%; p = 0.1). The

  1. Delivering Reading Intervention to the Poorest Children: The Case of Liberia and EGRA-Plus, a Primary Grade Reading Assessment and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Marcia; Hobbs, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    As governments, donors and implementation organisations re-focus Education for All Goals in terms of quality of education, increasing concerns have been raised over low literacy levels in developing countries. This paper provides key learning from the application of an early reading intervention applied in post-conflict Liberia, which included a…

  2. Assessing the Content and Quality of Commercially Available Reading Software Programs: Do They Have the Fundamental Structures to Promote the Development of Early Reading Skills in Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Amy; Wood, Eileen; Gottardo, Alexandra; Evans, Mary Ann; Phillips, Linda; Savage, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The current study developed a taxonomy of reading skills and compared this taxonomy with skills being trained in 30 commercially available software programs designed to teach emergent literacy or literacy-specific skills for children in preschool, kindergarten, and Grade 1. Outcomes suggest that, although some skills are being trained in a…

  3. Using Basic Reading Skills Instruction and Formative Assessments to Teach an Adult with Traumatic Brain Injury to Read: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, Yvonne; Rinderknecht, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Literacy expectations for persons with cognitive impairments, including impairments caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI), have remained quite low. Some researchers have suggested that educators move from a focus on teaching functional skills to teaching basic reading skills in a manner similar to instruction for nondisabled learners. The purpose…

  4. Assessing the Cognitive Demands of a Century of Reading Curricula: An Analysis of Reading Text and Comprehension Tasks from 1910 to 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Robert J.; Lu, Xiaofei; Baker, David P.; Ray, Melissa N.; Eckert, Sarah A.; Gamson, David A.

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the cognitive demands of reading curricula from 1910 to 2000. We considered both the nature of the text used and the comprehension tasks asked of students in determining the cognitive demands of the curricula. Contrary to the common assumption of a trend of simplification of the texts and comprehension tasks in third-…

  5. Assessing the Relationship of Working Memory to L2 Reading: Does the Nature of Comprehension Process and Reading Span Task Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alptekin, Cem; Ercetin, Gulcan

    2009-01-01

    Although an important role has been ascribed to working-memory capacity in reading comprehension, little consensus exists on its conceptualization, operationalization, and measurement except for its recognition as a limited-capacity processing and storage system. One specific problem in the measurement of working memory comes from researchers' use…

  6. Students' Self-Perception of Reading Ability, Enjoyment of Reading and Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jeffrey K.; Smith, Lisa F.; Gilmore, Alison; Jameson, Madgerie

    2012-01-01

    Using data from New Zealand's National Education Monitoring Project, a light sampling, low stakes performance based national school assessment program, reading self-efficacy, reading enjoyment, and reading achievement were examined in samples of 8 and 12 year old children. Sample sizes were n = 480 for each group. While reading achievement…

  7. Assessment of Web Content Accessibility Levels in Spanish Official Online Education Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roig-Vila, Rosabel; Ferrández, Sergio; Ferri-Miralles, Imma

    2014-01-01

    Diversity-based designing, or the goal of ensuring that web-based information is accessible to as many diverse users as possible, has received growing international acceptance in recent years, with many countries introducing legislation to enforce it. This paper analyses web content accessibility levels in Spanish education portals according to…

  8. Assessment of Low-Income Adults' Access to Technology: Implications for Nutrition Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuenschwander, Lauren M.; Abbott, Angela; Mobley, Amy R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this study was to investigate access and use of technologies such as the Internet among Indiana's low-income population. The secondary objective was to determine whether access and use of computers significantly differed by age, race, and/or education level. Methods: Data were collected from low-income adult…

  9. Assessing Syringe Exchange Program Access among Persons Who Inject Drugs (PWID) in the District of Columbia.

    PubMed

    Allen, Sean T; Ruiz, Monica S; Jones, Jeff

    2016-02-01

    Prior research has explored spatial access to syringe exchange programs (SEPs) among persons who inject drugs (PWID), but these studies have been based on limited data from short periods of time. No research has explored changes in spatial access to SEPs among PWID longitudinally. The purpose of this research is to examine spatial access to SEPs among PWID who accessed services at a SEP in Washington, District of Columbia (DC), from 1996 to 2010. The geometric point distance estimation technique was used to calculate the mean walking distance PWID traveled from the centroid point of their zip code of home residence to the mobile exchange site where they accessed SEP services. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine differences in walking distance measures by year. The results of this research suggest that the distance DC PWID traveled to access SEP services remained relatively constant (approximately 2.75 mi) from 2003 to 2008, but increased to just over 4 mi in 2010. This research provides support for expanding SEP operations such that PWID have increased access to their services. Increasing SEP accessibility may help resolve unmet needs among injectors. PMID:26786782

  10. Prevalence of Online Reading among High School Students in Qatar: Evidence from the Programme for International Student Assessment 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheema, Jehanzeb R.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has suggested presence of a significant relationship between prevalence of online reading and reading literacy. In this study we examined the prevalence of online reading among 15-year old students in Qatar using a nationally representative sample of 8,089 students. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted at the item and…

  11. A Web-Based Assessment for Phonological Awareness, Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) and Learning to Read Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Chen-Huei; Kuo, Bor-Chen

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the equivalency of conventional and web-based tests in reading Chinese. Phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), reading accuracy, and reading fluency tests were administered to 93 grade 6 children in Taiwan with both test versions (paper-pencil and web-based). The results suggest that conventional and…

  12. The Utility of Maze Accurate Response Rate in Assessing Reading Comprehension in Upper Elementary and Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCane-Bowling, Sara J.; Strait, Andrea D.; Guess, Pamela E.; Wiedo, Jennifer R.; Muncie, Eric

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the predictive utility of five formative reading measures: words correct per minute, number of comprehension questions correct, reading comprehension rate, number of maze correct responses, and maze accurate response rate (MARR). Broad Reading cluster scores obtained via the Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ III) Tests of Achievement…

  13. From the Margins to the Spotlight: Diverse Deaf and Hard of Hearing Student Populations and Standardized Assessment Accessibility.

    PubMed

    Cawthon, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Designing assessments and tests is one of the more challenging aspects of creating an accessible learning environment for students who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH), particularly for deaf students with a disability (DWD). Standardized assessments are a key mechanism by which the educational system in the United States measures student progress, teacher effectiveness, and the impact of school reform. The diversity of student characteristics within DHH and DWD populations is only now becoming visible in the research literature relating to standardized assessments and their use in large-scale accountability reforms. The purpose of this article is to explore the theoretical frameworks surrounding assessment policy and practice, current research related to standardized assessment and students who are DHH and DWD, and potential implications for practice within both the assessment and instruction contexts. PMID:26497076

  14. From the Margins to the Spotlight: Diverse Deaf and Hard of Hearing Student Populations and Standardized Assessment Accessibility.

    PubMed

    Cawthon, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Designing assessments and tests is one of the more challenging aspects of creating an accessible learning environment for students who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH), particularly for deaf students with a disability (DWD). Standardized assessments are a key mechanism by which the educational system in the United States measures student progress, teacher effectiveness, and the impact of school reform. The diversity of student characteristics within DHH and DWD populations is only now becoming visible in the research literature relating to standardized assessments and their use in large-scale accountability reforms. The purpose of this article is to explore the theoretical frameworks surrounding assessment policy and practice, current research related to standardized assessment and students who are DHH and DWD, and potential implications for practice within both the assessment and instruction contexts.

  15. Assessing access for prospective adoptive parents living with HIV: an environmental scan of Ontario's adoption agencies.

    PubMed

    Underhill, Angela A; Kennedy, V Logan; Lewis, Johanna; Ross, Lori E; Loutfy, Mona

    2016-10-01

    Work has been underway to increase the availability of parenting options for people living with and affected by HIV. One option, adoption, has not yet been explored in the literature. The study aimed to gain a better understanding of the potential of adoption for individuals/couples living with HIV in Ontario, and to assess potential structural barriers or facilitators that may impact their experience navigating the adoption system by conducting an environmental scan of adoption service providers in Ontario. A list of adoption service providers was compiled using the Ontario government's website. Information relevant to the study's measures was collected using service providers' websites. Service providers without websites, or with websites that did not address all of the research measures, were contacted via telephone to complete a structured interview. Online data extraction was possible for 2 and telephone surveys were completed with 75 adoption service providers (total n = 77). Most service providers reported that HIV status is not an exclusion criterion for prospective parents (64%). However, more than one-fifth of the participants acknowledged they were not sure if people with HIV were eligible to adopt. Domestic service providers were the only providers who did not report knowledge of restrictions due to HIV status. Private domestic adoption presented social barriers as birth parent(s) of a child can access health records of a prospective parent and base their selection of an adoptive parent based on health status. Adoption practitioners and licensees involved in international adoptions reported the most structural barriers for prospective parent(s) living with HIV, attributed to the regulations established by the host country of the child(ren) eligible for adoption. Although international adoptions may present insurmountable barriers for individuals living with HIV, public and private domestic adoption appears to be a viable option.

  16. Assessing equitable access to urban green space: the role of engineered water infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Wendel, Heather E Wright; Downs, Joni A; Mihelcic, James R

    2011-08-15

    Urban green space and water features provide numerous social, environmental, and economic benefits, yet disparities often exist in their distribution and accessibility. This study examines the link between issues of environmental justice and urban water management to evaluate potential improvements in green space and surface water access through the revitalization of existing engineered water infrastructures, namely stormwater ponds. First, relative access to green space and water features were compared for residents of Tampa, Florida, and an inner-city community of Tampa (East Tampa). Although disparities were not found in overall accessibility between Tampa and East Tampa, inequalities were apparent when quality, diversity, and size of green spaces were considered. East Tampa residents had significantly less access to larger, more desirable spaces and water features. Second, this research explored approaches for improving accessibility to green space and natural water using three integrated stormwater management development scenarios. These scenarios highlighted the ability of enhanced water infrastructures to increase access equality at a variety of spatial scales. Ultimately, the "greening" of gray urban water infrastructures is advocated as a way to address environmental justice issues while also reconnecting residents with issues of urban water management. PMID:21728276

  17. Assessing the spatial accessibility of hospital care in Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jay; Liu, Huiran; Wang, Xiuli; Xie, Hongmei; Delamater, Paul L

    2015-01-01

    Regional disparities in geographical access to hospital care are found throughout China. Understanding variations in the spatial accessibility of hospital care has the potential to provide decision support in healthcare planning. This study examines the hospital system in the Sichuan Province in China, which provides healthcare for more than 80 million people. We examine the impacts of accessibility characterisation via the conventional measurement approach by comparing the results to those derived using a floating catchment area approach. Employing a geographical information system based on population and hospital administrative data, we conducted a province-wide study of the spatial accessibility of hospital care in Sichuan Province, China. A shortest-path analysis and the enhanced two-step floating catchment area (E2SFCA) method were implemented. Substantial differences between these two approaches were found, including a roughly 15% difference in the total number of under-served areas. Generally, spatial accessibility was higher in the eastern regions of Sichuan. More than 5.5 million people were found to have limited access, with large variations across the province. These results indicate that the official method used by policy makers in China may not capture the true nature of spatial accessibility throughout the region. We recommend that the E2SFCA method be implemented for health services research in China, providing decision makers with more accurate information when setting healthcare policies.

  18. Formative Evaluation to Assess Communication Technology Access and Health Communication Preferences of Alaska Native People

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Renee F.; Dillard, Denise A.; Hiratsuka, Vanessa Y.; Smith, Julia J.; Tierney, Steve; Avey, Jaedon P.; Buchwald, Dedra S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Information technology can improve the quality, safety, and efficiency of healthcare delivery by improving provider and patient access to health information. We conducted a nonrandomized, cross-sectional, self-report survey to determine whether Alaska Native and American Indian (AN/AI) people have access to the health communication technologies available through a patient-centered medical home. Methods In 2011, we administered a self-report survey in an urban, tribally owned and operated primary care center serving AN/AI adults. Patients in the center’s waiting rooms completed the survey on paper; center staff completed it electronically. Results Approximately 98% (n = 654) of respondents reported computer access, 97% (n = 650) email access, and 94% (n = 631) mobile phone use. Among mobile phone users, 60% had Internet access through their phones. Rates of computer access (p = .011) and email use (p = .005) were higher among women than men, but we found no significant gender difference in mobile phone access to the Internet or text messaging. Respondents in the oldest age category (65–80 years of age) were significantly less likely to anticipate using the Internet to schedule appointments, refill medications, or communicate with their health care providers (all p < .001). Conclusion Information on use of health communication technologies enables administrators to deploy these technologies more efficiently to address health concerns in AN/AI communities. Our results will drive future research on health communication for chronic disease screening and health management. PMID:27169131

  19. Assessing equitable access to urban green space: the role of engineered water infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Wendel, Heather E Wright; Downs, Joni A; Mihelcic, James R

    2011-08-15

    Urban green space and water features provide numerous social, environmental, and economic benefits, yet disparities often exist in their distribution and accessibility. This study examines the link between issues of environmental justice and urban water management to evaluate potential improvements in green space and surface water access through the revitalization of existing engineered water infrastructures, namely stormwater ponds. First, relative access to green space and water features were compared for residents of Tampa, Florida, and an inner-city community of Tampa (East Tampa). Although disparities were not found in overall accessibility between Tampa and East Tampa, inequalities were apparent when quality, diversity, and size of green spaces were considered. East Tampa residents had significantly less access to larger, more desirable spaces and water features. Second, this research explored approaches for improving accessibility to green space and natural water using three integrated stormwater management development scenarios. These scenarios highlighted the ability of enhanced water infrastructures to increase access equality at a variety of spatial scales. Ultimately, the "greening" of gray urban water infrastructures is advocated as a way to address environmental justice issues while also reconnecting residents with issues of urban water management.

  20. Assessing Early Reading: Change, Culture, and Community in a Pacific Island School. PREL Briefing Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Marylin; Clarence, Winton; William, Keti

    Children enter grade 1 at an island school in Kosrae, Micronesia with a rich oral language and very little experience with print. One of the main tasks of teachers is to help children become literate. However, the literacy and assessment practices in this early grade classroom are limited and unquestioned. In determining how best to teach early…

  1. Literacy Theory in Practice: Assessing Reading and Writing of Low-Literate Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytle, Susan L.; And Others

    This paper presents the preliminary results of a short-term longitudinal study of the impact of literacy instruction on the lives of 76 adults enrolled in a literacy program at the Center for Literacy in Philadelphia. It begins with an extensive review of literature on literacy, adult literacy and adult literacy assessment. It describes the…

  2. Literacy Assessment for Today's Schools. Monograph of the College Reading Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Martha D., Ed.; Moss, Barbara G., Ed.

    This collection of 17 papers provides a blueprint for teachers who want increasingly sophisticated methods for monitoring student growth and can serve as a resource for in-service educators as literacy instruction changes. Papers in the first section of the book examine literacy assessment as it pertains to school-age children. Papers in the…

  3. Assessing School-Level RTI Implementation for Reading: Development and Piloting of the RTIS-R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noltemeyer, Amity L.; Boone, William J.; Sansosti, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined Response to Intervention (RTI) implementation adherence at the school level. Although tools designed to assess the implementation of RTI exist, the technical properties have not been rigorously documented, and psychometric techniques now being used to develop instrumentation appear not to have been used. The purpose of…

  4. Writing and Reading Skills as Assessed by Teachers in 7-Year Olds: A Behavioral Genetic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Bonamy R.; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2007-01-01

    A behavioral genetic analysis of general writing ability was conducted using teacher assessments based on UK National Curriculum criteria for a sample of 3296 same-sex pairs of 7-year-old twins. Writing was highly heritable within the normal range (0.66) and at the low extreme (0.70). Environmental influences were almost all non-shared, with…

  5. Sample Tasks from the PISA 2000 Assessment: Reading, Mathematical and Scientific Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamassia, Claudia; Schleicher, Andreas

    In response to the need for internationally comparable student achievement data, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) launched the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). PISA represents a commitment by the members of OECD to monitor the outcomes of education systems in terms of student achievement. This…

  6. PISA 2009 Assessment Framework: Key Competencies in Reading, Mathematics and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleicher, Andreas; Zimmer, Karin; Evans, Juliet; Clements, Niccolina

    2009-01-01

    In response to the need for cross-nationally comparable evidence on student performance, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) launched the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) in 1997. PISA represents a commitment by governments to monitor the outcomes of education systems through measuring…

  7. Reading Recovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Joanna R., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of the Arizona Reading Journal focuses on the theme "reading recovery" and includes the following articles: "Why Is an Inservice Programme for Reading Recovery Teachers Necessary?" (Marie M. Clay); "What Is Reading Recovery?" (Gay Su Pinnell); "Teaching a Hard To Teach Child" (Constance A. Compton); "Reading Recovery in Arizona--A…

  8. Reading Faster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the visual nature of the reading process as it relates to reading speed. It points out that there is a physical limit on normal reading speed and beyond this limit the reading process will be different from normal reading where almost every word is attended to. The article describes a range of activities for developing…

  9. Making a spectacle of herself: reading community mental health nursing assessments.

    PubMed

    Street, A

    1994-11-01

    The metaphor of mapping is used in this paper to examine the discursive construction of women whose nudity in public places (making a spectacle of herself) provides dilemmas for community mental health nurses required to make assessments of these women's ability to function in the community. Excerpts from stories provided by the nurses are used to demonstrate the complexity of the decision-making processes and the limits to the choices they perceive they can make. PMID:7531608

  10. Examining the Effects of Skill Level and Reading Modality on Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickens, Rachel H.; Meisinger, Elizabeth B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of reading skill and reading modality (oral versus silent) on reading comprehension. A normative sample of sixth-grade students (N = 74) read texts aloud and silently and then answered questions about what they read. Skill in word reading fluency was assessed by the Test of Word Reading…

  11. Electrophysiological assessment of the time course of bilingual visual word recognition: Early access to language membership.

    PubMed

    Yiu, Loretta K; Pitts, Michael A; Canseco-Gonzalez, Enriqueta

    2015-08-01

    Previous research examining the time course of lexical access during word recognition suggests that phonological processing precedes access to semantic information, which in turn precedes access to syntactic information. Bilingual word recognition likely requires an additional level: knowledge of which language a specific word belongs to. Using the recording of event-related potentials, we investigated the time course of access to language membership information relative to semantic (Experiment 1) and syntactic (Experiment 2) encoding during visual word recognition. In Experiment 1, Spanish-English bilinguals viewed a series of printed words while making dual-choice go/nogo and left/right hand decisions based on semantic (whether the word referred to an animal or an object) and language membership information (whether the word was in English or in Spanish). Experiment 2 used a similar paradigm but with syntactic information (whether the word was a noun or a verb) as one of the response contingencies. The onset and peak latency of the N200, a component related to response inhibition, indicated that language information is accessed earlier than semantic information. Similarly, language information was also accessed earlier than syntactic information (but only based on peak latency). We discuss these findings with respect to models of bilingual word recognition and language comprehension in general.

  12. Exploration of the Consortium on Reading Excellence Phonics Survey: An Instrument for Assessing Primary-Grade Students' Phonics Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reutzel, D. Ray; Brandt, Lorilynn; Fawson, Parker C.; Jones, Cindy D.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the Consortium on Reading Excellence-Phonics Survey (CORE-PS), an informal, inexpensive, and widely disseminated assessment tool that is used to determine primary-grade students' knowledge of and abilities to apply key alphabetic and phonics understandings to decode a mix of real and pseudo-words. Evidence is reported of…

  13. The Development of Gender Achievement Gaps in Mathematics and Reading during Elementary and Middle School: Examining Direct Cognitive Assessments and Teacher Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Joseph Paul; Lubienski, Sarah Theule

    2011-01-01

    Using K-8 national longitudinal data, the authors investigate males' and females' achievement in math and reading, including when gender gaps first appear, whether the appearance of gaps depends on the metric used, and where on the achievement distribution gaps are most prevalent. Additionally, teachers' assessments of males and females are…

  14. The Performance Levels and Associated Cut Scores on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment Mathematics and Reading Tests: A Critical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwerling, Harris L.

    In the context of controversy over the use of high stakes testing, the Pennsylvania State Education Association (PSEA) asked for an evaluation of the performance levels and cut score of the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) mathematics and reading tests. While awaiting technical documentation from the Pennsylvania Department of…

  15. Relationship between the TCAP and the Pearson Benchmark Assessment in Elementary Students' Reading and Math Performance in a Northeastern Tennessee School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugger-Roberts, Cherith A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine if there was a relationship between the TCAP test and Pearson Benchmark assessment in elementary students' reading and language arts and math performance in a northeastern Tennessee school district. This study involved 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 6th grade students. The study focused on the following…

  16. Mobility: A Multivariate Study of Academic Achievement in Reading and Math for Eighth-Grade Students as Measured by the Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Margaret M.

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference between levels of student mobility in reading and mathematics achievement as measured by the 2007-2008 Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP) achievement test. The study also sought to determine if there existed a difference in socioeconomic and attendance…

  17. Passage Reading Fluency in Spanish and English: The Relation to State Assessment Outcomes in English for Students in a Dual-Language Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer-Iiams, Jennifer W.

    2013-01-01

    The United States is experiencing an increase in young students developing literacy in English and Spanish. Schools providing dual-language English/Spanish instruction need technically adequate tools to assess reading skills in the languages of instruction, and interpretation of results needs to acknowledge the complexity of cross-linguistic…

  18. How Does the Hawaii High School Assessment Measure Up? A Comparison of the 2005 Grade 10 Hawaii State Assessment in Reading and Mathematics with High School Graduation Exams from Other States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2007

    2007-01-01

    At the request of the Hawaii Department of Education, Achieve conducted a study of Hawaii's 2005 grade 10 State Assessment in reading and mathematics. The study compared the content, rigor and passing (meets proficiency) scores on Hawaii's assessment with those of the six states that participated in Achieve's earlier study, "Do Graduation Tests…

  19. Safe reading of chemical pathology reports: the RCPAQAP Report Assessment Survey.

    PubMed

    Koetsier, Sabrina; Jones, Graham Ross Dallas; Badrick, Tony

    2016-06-01

    Pathology reports are a vital component of the request-test-report cycle communicating pathology results to doctors to support clinical decision making. This should be done in a comprehensive, safe and time-efficient manner. As doctors may receive reports from different laboratories these goals can be achieved more readily if reports are formatted in the same way. This study evaluates the formatting of paper reports produced by Australian laboratories for numerical biochemistry results. As part of the RCPAQAP Liquid Serum Chemistry program in 2015, laboratories were invited to supply a routine paper report displaying the results. A total of 37 reports were received for analysis. These reports were assessed for variation in a range of components and, where possible, against relevant Australian standards and guidelines. In summary, there was a wide variation in most of the report components assessed including test names, result alignment, result flagging, sequence of data elements on the page, date formatting and patient name formatting. In most components there was also variation from the Standards. In order to ensure safe result transmission by printed reports there is a need to promote the adoption of current reporting standards and monitor compliance with similar external quality assurance programs. PMID:27130834

  20. An Assessment of Female Prisoners’ Perception of the Accessibility of Quality Healthcare: A Survey in the Kumasi Central Prisons, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Sarpong, AA; Otupiri, E; Yeboah-Awudzi, K; Osei-Yeboah, J; Berchie, GO; Ephraim, RKD

    2015-01-01

    Background: Accessibility of quality healthcare across the globe has generated a lot of attention among public health practitioners. Aim: This study explored the background characteristics of female prisoners and how it influences their assessment of the quality of accessible healthcare in the Kumasi Female Prison. Subjects and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted at the Female section of the Kumasi Central Prisons from June to December 2011. We used pretested questionnaires to obtain quantitative data from all 39 inmates of the female Prisons. An in-depth interview was used to obtain qualitative data from the prison healthcare giver. Data were analyzed with Epi Info Version 3.5.1, (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), Excel, and Graph Pad Prism version 5.00 for Windows (Graph Pad software, San Diego California USA, www.graphpad.com). Results: Using a 12-point scale inventory questionnaire, inmates with no formal education gave the highest mean health provision assessment score (6.0) whereas those with tertiary education gave the lowest (4.5). Females serving prison sentences gave the highest mean health assessment score whereas remand prisoners gave the lowest. Single females’ mean health assessment score was 5.7 whereas that of married inmates was 4.9. Unemployed inmates scored 5.8, informal 5.4 while civil servants scored 5.0. Conclusion: Access to quality healthcare was poor and demographic characteristics, marital status, educational background, and occupation influenced inmates’ perceptions of accessibility to quality healthcare. Inmates should be encouraged to be proactive in seeking healthcare irrespective of their background characteristics. PMID:26097759

  1. Cognitive and Meditative Aspects of Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le, Thao

    1984-01-01

    Redefines reading as a meditative rather than a narrowly cognitive process. Decries instruction in reading for comprehension and assessment because it restricts opportunities to explore and "get lost" in reading. (HTH)

  2. "Passageless" Administration of the Nelson-Denny Reading Comprehension Test: Associations with IQ and Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ready, Rebecca E.; Chaudhry, Maheen F.; Schatz, Kelly C.; Strazzullo, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    There are few tests that assess reading comprehension in adults, but these tests are needed for a comprehensive assessment of reading disorders (RD). "The Nelson-Denny Reading Test" (NDRT) has a long-passage reading comprehension component that can be used with adolescents and adults. A problem with the NDRT is that reading comprehension test…

  3. Validation of an instrument to assess evidence-based practice knowledge, attitudes, access, and confidence in the dental environment.

    PubMed

    Hendricson, William D; Rugh, John D; Hatch, John P; Stark, Debra L; Deahl, Thomas; Wallmann, Elizabeth R

    2011-02-01

    This article reports the validation of an assessment instrument designed to measure the outcomes of training in evidence-based practice (EBP) in the context of dentistry. Four EBP dimensions are measured by this instrument: 1) understanding of EBP concepts, 2) attitudes about EBP, 3) evidence-accessing methods, and 4) confidence in critical appraisal. The instrument-the Knowledge, Attitudes, Access, and Confidence Evaluation (KACE)-has four scales, with a total of thirty-five items: EBP knowledge (ten items), EBP attitudes (ten), accessing evidence (nine), and confidence (six). Four elements of validity were assessed: consistency of items within the KACE scales (extent to which items within a scale measure the same dimension), discrimination (capacity to detect differences between individuals with different training or experience), responsiveness (capacity to detect the effects of education on trainees), and test-retest reliability. Internal consistency of scales was assessed by analyzing responses of second-year dental students, dental residents, and dental faculty members using Cronbach coefficient alpha, a statistical measure of reliability. Discriminative validity was assessed by comparing KACE scores for the three groups. Responsiveness was assessed by comparing pre- and post-training responses for dental students and residents. To measure test-retest reliability, the full KACE was completed twice by a class of freshman dental students seventeen days apart, and the knowledge scale was completed twice by sixteen faculty members fourteen days apart. Item-to-scale consistency ranged from 0.21 to 0.78 for knowledge, 0.57 to 0.83 for attitude, 0.70 to 0.84 for accessing evidence, and 0.87 to 0.94 for confidence. For discrimination, ANOVA and post hoc testing by the Tukey-Kramer method revealed significant score differences among students, residents, and faculty members consistent with education and experience levels. For responsiveness to training, dental students

  4. 2013 Reading Assessment Report Card: Summary Data Tables for National and State Sample Sizes, Participation Rates, and Proportions of SD and ELL Students Identified. [Technical Appendix. NCES 2014-451

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This document represents one of three appendices associated with "The Nation's Report Card: A First Look--2013 Mathematics and Reading. National Assessment of Educational Progress at Grade 4 and 8. NCES 2014-451." It includes tabular data relating to the reading portion of the National Assessment of Education Progress at Grade 4 and 8. [For the…

  5. Secondary Students' Reading Attitudes and Achievement in a Scaffolded Silent Reading Program versus Traditional Sustained Silent Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Chandra Lorene

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the reading attitudes and achievement, as well as genre knowledge, of tenth, eleventh, and twelfth-grade students who participated in Scaffolded Silent Reading, Sustained Silent Reading, or a control group. The Reading and You attitude survey, Degrees of Reading Power achievement measure, and Genre Assessment were administered…

  6. Bringing everyday mind reading into everyday life: assessing empathic accuracy with daily diary data.

    PubMed

    Howland, Maryhope; Rafaeli, Eshkol

    2010-10-01

    Individual differences in empathic accuracy (EA) can be assessed using daily diary methods as a complement to more commonly used lab-based behavioral observations. Using electronic dyadic diaries, we distinguished among elements of EA (i.e., accuracy in levels, scatter, and pattern, regarding both positive and negative moods) and examined them as phenomena at both the day and the person level. In a 3-week diary study of cohabiting partners, we found support for differentiating these elements. The proposed indices reflect differing aspects of accuracy, with considerable similarity among same-valenced accuracy indices. Overall there was greater accuracy regarding negative target moods than positive target moods. These methods and findings take the phenomenon of "everyday mindreading" (Ickes, 2003) into everyday life. We conclude by discussing empathic accuracies as a family of capacities for, or tendencies toward, accurate interpersonal sensitivity. Members of this family may have distinct associations with the perceiver's, target's, and relationship's well-being.

  7. Modeling people with motor disabilities to empower the automatic accessibility and ergonomic assessment of new products.

    PubMed

    Kaklanis, Nikolaos; Stavropoulos, Georgios; Tzovaras, Dimitrios

    2015-11-01

    Virtual User Models (VUMs) can be a valuable tool for accessibility and ergonomic evaluation of designs in simulation environments. As increasing the accessibility of a design is usually translated into additional costs and increased development time, the need for specifying the percentage of population for which the design will be accessible is crucial. This paper addresses the development of VUMs representing specific groups of people with disabilities. In order to create such VUMs, we need to know the functional limitations, i.e. disability parameters, caused by each disability and their variability over the population. Measurements were obtained from 90 subjects with motor disabilities and were analyzed using both parametric and nonparametric regression methods as well as a proposed hybrid regression method able to handle small sample sizes. Validation results showed that in most cases the proposed regression analysis can produce valid estimations on the variability of each disability parameter. PMID:26154211

  8. A Validation Study of the Grade Six Reading Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills Using the Test of Reading Comprehension-Fourth Edition and the STAR Reading Test as Criterion Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adair, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    With the increase of high-stakes testing and the subsequent consequences it is essential that educators understand the validity and the inferences based on the scores produced by these tests. The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between the underlying constructs of the grade six reading TAKS, the Test of Reading…

  9. An examination of the rapid automatized naming-reading relationship using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Cummine, J; Chouinard, B; Szepesvari, E; Georgiou, G K

    2015-10-01

    Rapid automatized naming (RAN) has been established to be a strong predictor of reading. Yet, the neural correlates underlying the RAN-reading relationship remain unknown. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine: (a) the extent to which RAN and reading activate similar brain regions (within subjects), (b) whether RAN and reading are directly related in the shared activity network outlined in (a), and (c) to what extent RAN neural activation predicts behavioral reading performance. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), university students (N=15; Mean age=20.6 years) were assessed on RAN (letters and digits) and single-word reading (words and non-words). The results revealed a common RAN-reading network that included regions associated with motor planning (cerebellum), semantic access (middle temporal gyrus), articulation (supplementary motor area, pre-motor), and grapheme-phoneme translation (supramarginal gyrus). We found differences between RAN and reading with respect to percent signal change (PSC) in phonological and orthographic regions, but not in articulatory regions. Significant correlations between the neural RAN and reading parameters were found primarily in motor/articulatory regions. Further, we found a unique relationship between in-scanner reading response time and RAN PSC in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Taken together, these findings support the notion that RAN and reading activate similar neural networks. However, the relationship between RAN and reading is primarily driven by commonalities in the motor-sequencing/articulatory processes.

  10. An examination of the rapid automatized naming-reading relationship using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Cummine, J; Chouinard, B; Szepesvari, E; Georgiou, G K

    2015-10-01

    Rapid automatized naming (RAN) has been established to be a strong predictor of reading. Yet, the neural correlates underlying the RAN-reading relationship remain unknown. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine: (a) the extent to which RAN and reading activate similar brain regions (within subjects), (b) whether RAN and reading are directly related in the shared activity network outlined in (a), and (c) to what extent RAN neural activation predicts behavioral reading performance. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), university students (N=15; Mean age=20.6 years) were assessed on RAN (letters and digits) and single-word reading (words and non-words). The results revealed a common RAN-reading network that included regions associated with motor planning (cerebellum), semantic access (middle temporal gyrus), articulation (supplementary motor area, pre-motor), and grapheme-phoneme translation (supramarginal gyrus). We found differences between RAN and reading with respect to percent signal change (PSC) in phonological and orthographic regions, but not in articulatory regions. Significant correlations between the neural RAN and reading parameters were found primarily in motor/articulatory regions. Further, we found a unique relationship between in-scanner reading response time and RAN PSC in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Taken together, these findings support the notion that RAN and reading activate similar neural networks. However, the relationship between RAN and reading is primarily driven by commonalities in the motor-sequencing/articulatory processes. PMID:26235433

  11. 22 CFR 171.3 - Public reading room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Public reading room. 171.3 Section 171.3... PUBLIC General Policy and Procedures § 171.3 Public reading room. A reading room providing public access..., NW., Washington, DC. The reading room contains material pertaining to access to information under...

  12. 22 CFR 171.3 - Public reading room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Public reading room. 171.3 Section 171.3... PUBLIC General Policy and Procedures § 171.3 Public reading room. A reading room providing public access..., NW., Washington, DC. The reading room contains material pertaining to access to information under...

  13. 22 CFR 171.3 - Public reading room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Public reading room. 171.3 Section 171.3... PUBLIC General Policy and Procedures § 171.3 Public reading room. A reading room providing public access..., NW., Washington, DC. The reading room contains material pertaining to access to information under...

  14. 22 CFR 171.3 - Public reading room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Public reading room. 171.3 Section 171.3... PUBLIC General Policy and Procedures § 171.3 Public reading room. A reading room providing public access..., NW., Washington, DC. The reading room contains material pertaining to access to information under...

  15. Assessing allele-specific expression across multiple tissues from RNA-seq read data

    PubMed Central

    Pirinen, Matti; Lappalainen, Tuuli; Zaitlen, Noah A.; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Donnelly, Peter; McCarthy, Mark I.; Rivas, Manuel A.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: RNA sequencing enables allele-specific expression (ASE) studies that complement standard genotype expression studies for common variants and, importantly, also allow measuring the regulatory impact of rare variants. The Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project is collecting RNA-seq data on multiple tissues of a same set of individuals and novel methods are required for the analysis of these data. Results: We present a statistical method to compare different patterns of ASE across tissues and to classify genetic variants according to their impact on the tissue-wide expression profile. We focus on strong ASE effects that we are expecting to see for protein-truncating variants, but our method can also be adjusted for other types of ASE effects. We illustrate the method with a real data example on a tissue-wide expression profile of a variant causal for lipoid proteinosis, and with a simulation study to assess our method more generally. Availability and implementation: http://www.well.ox.ac.uk/~rivas/mamba/. R-sources and data examples http://www.iki.fi/mpirinen/ Contact: matti.pirinen@helsinki.fi or rivas@well.ox.ac.uk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25819081

  16. Get That Brain Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapin, Gloria

    Noting the National Reading Panel's suggestions on assessing and improving children's phonemic awareness, this paper discusses how reading can be improved through think-alouds and visualizations. Comprehension strategies that teachers can model during think-alouds are: activating prior knowledge; building vocabulary; determining importance;…

  17. Access to Higher Education in Colombia: An Assessment of Public Policy and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uribe Correa, Lina

    2012-01-01

    This research analyzes a set of national policy initiatives, 2002-2010, regularly referred to as Colombia's "Educational Revolution". Together these policies constitute a Colombian effort to increase access to higher education, an effort in partnership with the World Bank. The dissertation presents findings on policy goals, efforts,…

  18. The Assessment of Physical and Program Accessibility for Students with Physical (Mobility) Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Deana R.

    A checklist and instructions are presented for evaluating the level of accessibility to school buildings, grounds, curricula, technology, and extracurricular activities for students with physical (mobility) disabilities. Legislative mandates (including The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, and Individuals with Disabilities Education Act)…

  19. Higher Education in Kenya: An Assessment of Current Responses to the Imperative of Widening Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odhiambo, George

    2016-01-01

    Higher education is a key factor in a nation's effort to develop a highly skilled workforce for competing in the global economy. In this paper, current trends in accessibility, equity, participation and financing of higher education in Kenya are examined. The paper explores the challenges which need to be confronted and discusses the way forward…

  20. Trade and Technical Volumes I: Access Skills. Vocational Readiness Skills. Missouri LINC. Assessing Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Dept. of Practical Arts and Vocational-Technical Education.

    This document contains trade and industrial occupations-related materials to help teachers and parents teach access skills to Missouri junior high and high school special needs students who want to pursue a vocational program in carpentry; commercial art; drafting; electronics; heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration; or offset lithography…

  1. Assessing Individual Social Capital Capacity: The Development and Validation of a Network Accessibility Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatala, John-Paul

    2009-01-01

    Any organization that is able to promote the importance of increased levels of social capital and individuals who can leverage and use the resources that exist within the network may experience higher levels of performance. This study sought to add to our knowledge about individuals' accessing social resources for the purpose of accomplishing…

  2. Do You Hear What I See? Assessing Accessibility of Digital Commons and CONTENTdm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Wendy; Keenan, Teressa

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the accessibility of two content management systems, Berkeley Electronic Press's Digital Commons and OCLC's CONTENTdm, widely used in libraries to host institutional repository and digital collections content. Based on observations by a visually impaired student who used the JAWS screen reader to view the design and display…

  3. Assessing Police Community Readiness to Work on Youth Access and Possession of Tobacco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunz, Charlotte B.; Jason, Leonard A.; Adams, Monica; Pokorny, Steven B.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers are only beginning to investigate how to measure a community's readiness to engage in an intervention. In this study, we investigated the readiness of police departments to deal with tobacco policies about youth access to tobacco and youth possession of tobacco. Police officers in 24 towns completed structured interviews designed to…

  4. Trade and Technical. Volume II. Access Skills. Vocational Readiness Skills. Missouri LINC. Assessing Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Dept. of Practical Arts and Vocational-Technical Education.

    This document contains trade and industrial occupations-related materials to help teachers and parents teach access skills to Missouri junior high and high school special needs students who want to pursue a vocational program in auto body repair, auto mechanics, building maintenance and custodial work, diesel mechanics, machinist, small engine…

  5. New Metrics, Measures, and Uses for Fluency Data: An Introduction to a Special Issue on the Assessment of Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biancarosa, Gina; Cummings, Kelli D.

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this special issue is to synthesize results from recent reading fluency research endeavors, and to link these findings to practical uses of reading curriculum-based measurement (R-CBM) tools. Taken together, the manuscripts presented in this issue discuss measurement work related to new metrics of indexing student reading…

  6. Middle Level Teachers' Perceptions of Interim Reading Assessments: An Exploratory Study of Data-Based Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Deborah K.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the data-based decision making of 12 teachers in grades 6-8 who were asked about their perceptions and use of three required interim measures of reading performance: oral reading fluency (ORF), retell, and a benchmark comprised of released state test items. Focus group participants reported they did not believe the benchmark or…

  7. Assessment Data-Informed Guidance to Individualize Kindergarten Reading Instruction: Findings from a Cluster-Randomized Control Field Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Connor, Carol M.; Folsom, Jessica S.; Greulich, Luana; Meadows, Jane; Li, Zhi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this cluster-randomized control field trial was to examine whether kindergarten teachers could learn to differentiate classroom reading instruction using Individualized Student Instruction for Kindergarten (ISI-K) and to test the efficacy of differentiation on reading outcomes. The study involved 14 schools, 23 ISI-K (n = 305…

  8. Equity in health care access to: assessing the urban health insurance reform in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gordon G; Zhao, Zhongyun; Cai, Renhua; Yamada, Tetsuji; Yamada, Tadashi

    2002-11-01

    This study evaluates changes in access to health care in response to the pilot experiment of urban health insurance reform in China. The pilot reform began in Zhenjiang and Jiujiang cities in 1994, followed by an expansion to 57 other cities in 1996, and finally to a nationwide campaign in the end of 1998. Specifically, this study examines the pre- and post-reform changes in the likelihood of obtaining various health care services across sub-population groups with different socioeconomic status and health conditions, in an attempt to shed light on the impact of reform on both vertical and horizontal equity measures in health care utilization. Empirical estimates were obtained in an econometric model using data from the annual surveys conducted in Zhenjiang City from 1994 through 1996. The main findings are as follows. Before the insurance reform, the likelihood of obtaining basic care at outpatient setting was much higher for those with higher income, education, and job status at work, indicating a significant measure of horizontal inequity against the lower socioeconomic groups. On the other hand, there was no evidence suggesting vertical inequity against people of chronic disease conditions in access to care at various settings. After the reform, the new insurance plan led to a significant increase in outpatient care utilization by the lower socioeconomic groups, making a great contribution to achieving horizontal equity in access to basic care. The new plan also has maintained the measure of vertical equity in the use of all types of care. Despite reform, people with poor socioeconomic status continue to be disadvantaged in accessing expensive and advanced diagnostic technologies. In conclusion, the reform model has demonstrated promising advantages over pre-reform insurance programs in many aspects, especially in the improvement of equity in access to basic care provided at outpatient settings. It also appears to be more efficient overall in allocating health

  9. Reading Comics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilley, Carol L.

    2008-01-01

    Many adults, even librarians who willingly add comics to their collections, often dismiss the importance of comics. Compared to reading "real" books, reading comics appears to be a simple task and compared to reading no books, reading comics might be preferable. After all, comics do have words, but the plentiful pictures seem to carry most of the…

  10. 22 CFR 171.3 - Public reading room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ACCESS TO INFORMATION AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION AND RECORDS TO THE PUBLIC General Policy and Procedures § 171.3 Public reading room. A reading room providing public access..., NW., Washington, DC. The reading room contains material pertaining to access to information under...

  11. Underlying skills of oral and silent reading.

    PubMed

    van den Boer, Madelon; van Bergen, Elsje; de Jong, Peter F

    2014-12-01

    Many studies have examined reading and reading development. The majority of these studies, however, focused on oral reading rather than on the more dominant silent reading mode. Similarly, it is common practice to assess oral reading abilities rather than silent reading abilities in schools and in diagnosis of reading impairments. More important, insights gained through examinations of oral reading tend to be generalized to silent reading. In the current study, we examined whether such generalizations are justified. We directly compared oral and silent reading fluency by examining whether these reading modes relate to the same underlying skills. In total, 132 fourth graders read words, sentences, and text orally, and 123 classmates read the same material silently. As underlying skills, we considered phonological awareness, rapid naming, and visual attention span. All skills correlated significantly with both reading modes. Phonological awareness contributed equally to oral and silent reading. Rapid naming, however, correlated more strongly with oral reading than with silent reading. Visual attention span correlated equally strongly with both reading modes but showed a significant unique contribution only to silent reading. In short, we showed that oral and silent reading indeed are fairly similar reading modes, based on the relations with reading-related cognitive skills. However, we also found differences that warrant caution in generalizing findings across reading modes.

  12. Underlying skills of oral and silent reading.

    PubMed

    van den Boer, Madelon; van Bergen, Elsje; de Jong, Peter F

    2014-12-01

    Many studies have examined reading and reading development. The majority of these studies, however, focused on oral reading rather than on the more dominant silent reading mode. Similarly, it is common practice to assess oral reading abilities rather than silent reading abilities in schools and in diagnosis of reading impairments. More important, insights gained through examinations of oral reading tend to be generalized to silent reading. In the current study, we examined whether such generalizations are justified. We directly compared oral and silent reading fluency by examining whether these reading modes relate to the same underlying skills. In total, 132 fourth graders read words, sentences, and text orally, and 123 classmates read the same material silently. As underlying skills, we considered phonological awareness, rapid naming, and visual attention span. All skills correlated significantly with both reading modes. Phonological awareness contributed equally to oral and silent reading. Rapid naming, however, correlated more strongly with oral reading than with silent reading. Visual attention span correlated equally strongly with both reading modes but showed a significant unique contribution only to silent reading. In short, we showed that oral and silent reading indeed are fairly similar reading modes, based on the relations with reading-related cognitive skills. However, we also found differences that warrant caution in generalizing findings across reading modes. PMID:25173643

  13. Quality and Utility: The 1994 Trial State Assessment in Reading. The Fourth Report of the National Academy of Education Panel on the Evaluation of the NAEP Trial State Assessment: 1994 Trial State Assessment in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Education, Stanford, CA.

    This report evaluates the conduct, validity, and uses of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Trial State Assessment (TSA). The report addresses such pressing problems as how participation in NAEP can be maintained and appropriate samples can be achieved; how errors can be minimized in the complex process of scaling and analyzing…

  14. Making Higher Education More Affordable, One Course Reading at a Time: Academic Libraries as Key Advocates for Open Access Textbooks and Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okamoto, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Open access textbooks (OATs) and educational resources (OERs) are being lauded as a viable alternative to costly print textbooks. Some academic libraries are joining the OER movement by creating guides to open repositories. Others are promoting OATs and OERs, reviewing them, and even helping to create them. This article analyzes how academic…

  15. Assessment of the vaccine industry in Iran in context of accession to WTO: a survey study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The vaccine industry is one of the most important health-related industries. It can be affected by accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) because of probable dramatic changes in the business environment. Iran has already initiated accession negotiations. Purpose of the study In this paper, we investigate the position of, challenges to, and opportunities for vaccine manufacturing in Iran with regard to accession to the WTO. Methods This is a qualitative and cross sectional study. To collect information, we designed a questionnaire and interviewed some of the vaccine industry’s key opinion leaders in Iran. Before the interviews were conducted, the questionnaires were sent to these individuals by email. Results According to the interviewees, the country’s main challenges with regard to accession to the WTO are the lack of firm internal intellectual property (IP) rules, not being recognized as pre-qualified by the World Health Organization (WHO), the use of old equipment, and a lack of cooperation with global vaccine companies. Major conclusions Iran’s local vaccine industry, with a long history and international reputation that could be used as an advantage, is faced with several challenges, such as problems with keeping up with Current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP), a lack of adequate and meaningful investment in research and development (R&D), and limitations on private sector participation in the production of vaccines. Gradual privatization of the industry, improved international relations, utilization of the R&D power of small hi-tech companies, consistent education of human resources, and modernization of infrastructures and equipment are among the suggested solutions. PMID:23351841

  16. Assessing the impact of secondary structure and solvent accessibility on protein evolution.

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, N; Thorne, J L; Jones, D T

    1998-01-01

    Empirically derived models of amino acid replacement are employed to study the association between various physical features of proteins and evolution. The strengths of these associations are statistically evaluated by applying the models of protein evolution to 11 diverse sets of protein sequences. Parametric bootstrap tests indicate that the solvent accessibility status of a site has a particularly strong association with the process of amino acid replacement that it experiences. Significant association between secondary structure environment and the amino acid replacement process is also observed. Careful description of the length distribution of secondary structure elements and of the organization of secondary structure and solvent accessibility along a protein did not always significantly improve the fit of the evolutionary models to the data sets that were analyzed. As indicated by the strength of the association of both solvent accessibility and secondary structure with amino acid replacement, the process of protein evolution-both above and below the species level-will not be well understood until the physical constraints that affect protein evolution are identified and characterized. PMID:9584116

  17. The Importance of Metacognitive Reading Strategy Awareness in Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza; Ismail, Hairul Nizam; Abdullah, Muhammad Kamarul Kabilan

    2013-01-01

    Metacognitive reading strategy awareness plays a significant role in reading comprehension and educational process. In spite of its importance, metacognitive strategy has long been the ignored skill in English language teaching, research, learning, and assessment. This lack of good metacognitive reading strategy skill is exacerbated by the central…

  18. Improving Student Reading Skills through the Use of Guided Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Suzanne; Wilkins, Katherine

    This study describes a program for improving student's reading skills. The targeted population consisted of students in a self-contained inclusion fourth grade classroom in a rural community, located in the Midwest. The lack of reading skills had been demonstrated through standardized achievement tests and the Developmental Reading Assessment.…

  19. Assessment of reading behavior with an infrared eye tracker after 360° macular translocation for age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Uppal, Gurmit; Feely, Mary P; Crossland, Michael D; Membrey, Luke; Lee, John; da Cruz, Lyndon; Rubin, Gary S

    2011-08-01

    PURPOSE. Macular translocation (MT360) is complex surgery used to restore reading in exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). MT360 involves retinal rotation and subsequent oculomotor globe counterrotation and is not without significant surgical risk. This study attempts to gauge the optimal potential of MT360 in restoring reading ability and describe the quality and extent of recovery. METHODS. The six best outcomes were examined from a consecutive series of 23 MT360 cases. Reading behavior and fixation characteristics were examined with an infrared eye tracker. Results were compared to age-matched normal subjects and patients with untreated exudative and nonexudative AMD. Retinal sensitivity was examined with microperimetry to establish threshold visual function. RESULTS. MT360 produced significant improvements in visual function over untreated disease and approximated normal function for reading speed and fixation quality. Relative to the comparative groups, eye tracking revealed the MT360 cohort generated a greater number of horizontal and vertical saccades, of longer latency and reduced velocity. In contrast, saccadic behavior when reading (forward and regressive saccades) closely matched normal function. Microperimetry revealed a reduction in the central scotoma with three patients recovering normal foveal sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS. Near normal reading function is recovered despite profound surgical disruption to the anatomy (retinal/oculomotor). MT360 restores foveal function sufficient to produce a single stable locus of fixation, with marked reduction of the central scotoma. Despite the limitations on saccadic function, the quality of reading saccadic behavior is maintained with good reading ability. Oculomotor surgery appears not to limit reading ability, and the results of retinal surgery approximate normal macular function. PMID:21596822

  20. Occupational Exposure Assessment in Carbon Nanotube and Nanofiber Primary and Secondary Manufacturers: Mobile Direct-Reading Sampling

    PubMed Central

    DAHM, MATTHEW M.; EVANS, DOUGLAS E.; SCHUBAUER-BERIGAN, MARY K.; BIRCH, M. EILEEN; DEDDENS, JAMES A.

    2015-01-01

    Research Significance Toxicological evidence suggests the potential for a wide range of health effects from exposure to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs). To date, there has been much focus on the use of direct-reading instruments (DRIs) to assess multiple airborne exposure metrics for potential exposures to CNTs and CNFs due to their ease of use and ability to provide instantaneous results. Still, uncertainty exists in the usefulness and interpretation of the data. To address this gap, air-monitoring was conducted at six sites identified as CNT and CNF manufacturers or users and results were compared with filter-based metrics. Methods Particle number, respirable mass, and active surface area concentrations were monitored with a condensation particle counter, a photometer, and a diffusion charger, respectively. The instruments were placed on a mobile cart and used as area monitors in parallel with filter-based elemental carbon (EC) and electron microscopy samples. Repeat samples were collected on consecutive days, when possible, during the same processes. All instruments in this study are portable and routinely used for industrial hygiene sampling. Results Differences were not observed among the various sampled processes compared with concurrent indoor or outdoor background samples while examining the different DRI exposure metrics. Such data were also inconsistent with results for filter-based samples collected concurrently at the same sites [Dahm MM, Evans DE, Schubauer-Berigan MK et al. (2012) Occupational exposure assessment in CNT and nanofiber primary and secondary manufacturers. Ann Occup Hyg; 56: 542–56]. Significant variability was seen between these processes as well as the indoor and outdoor backgrounds. However, no clear pattern emerged linking the DRI results to the EC or the microscopy data (CNT and CNF structure counts). Conclusions Overall, no consistent trends were seen among similar processes at the various sites. The DRI

  1. Libraries & Reading: Indispensable Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middle Grades Reading Network, Evansville, IN.

    Attention to school libraries must be at the heart of any comprehensive plan for improving youth literacy. Excellent school libraries are essential if young people are to have access to the reading resources to help them gain the level of literacy achievement vital to meeting the challenge of the twenty-first century. Sections of the booklet…

  2. The 2% Transition: Supporting Access to State Assessments for Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamgochian, Elisa M.; Ketterlin-Geller, Leanne R.

    2015-01-01

    Most students with disabilities participate in state assessments with or without accommodations [based on each student's Individualized Education Program (IEP)]. A small number of students with the most severe or profound intellectual disabilities participate in an alternate assessment based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS). Until…

  3. Going "social" to access experimental and potentially life-saving treatment: an assessment of the policy and online patient advocacy environment for expanded access.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Tim K; Schoenfeld, Virginia J

    2016-02-02

    Social media is fundamentally altering how we access health information and make decisions about medical treatment, including for terminally ill patients. This specifically includes the growing phenomenon of patients who use online petitions and social media campaigns in an attempt to gain access to experimental drugs through expanded access pathways. Importantly, controversy surrounding expanded access and "compassionate use" involves several disparate stakeholders, including patients, manufacturers, policymakers, and regulatory agencies-all with competing interests and priorities, leading to confusion, frustration, and ultimately advocacy. In order to explore this issue in detail, this correspondence article first conducts a literature review to describe how the expanded access policy and regulatory environment in the United States has evolved over time and how it currently impacts access to experimental drugs. We then conducted structured web searches to identify patient use of online petitions and social media campaigns aimed at compelling access to experimental drugs. This was carried out in order to characterize the types of communication strategies utilized, the diseases and drugs subject to expanded access petitions, and the prevalent themes associated with this form of "digital" patient advocacy. We find that patients and their families experience mixed results, but still gravitate towards the use of online campaigns out of desperation, lack of reliable information about treatment access options, and in direct response to limitations of the current fragmented structure of expanded access regulation and policy currently in place. In response, we discuss potential policy reforms to improve expanded access processes, including advocating greater transparency for expanded access programs, exploring use of targeted economic incentives for manufacturers, and developing systems to facilitate patient information about existing treatment options. This includes

  4. Going "social" to access experimental and potentially life-saving treatment: an assessment of the policy and online patient advocacy environment for expanded access.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Tim K; Schoenfeld, Virginia J

    2016-01-01

    Social media is fundamentally altering how we access health information and make decisions about medical treatment, including for terminally ill patients. This specifically includes the growing phenomenon of patients who use online petitions and social media campaigns in an attempt to gain access to experimental drugs through expanded access pathways. Importantly, controversy surrounding expanded access and "compassionate use" involves several disparate stakeholders, including patients, manufacturers, policymakers, and regulatory agencies-all with competing interests and priorities, leading to confusion, frustration, and ultimately advocacy. In order to explore this issue in detail, this correspondence article first conducts a literature review to describe how the expanded access policy and regulatory environment in the United States has evolved over time and how it currently impacts access to experimental drugs. We then conducted structured web searches to identify patient use of online petitions and social media campaigns aimed at compelling access to experimental drugs. This was carried out in order to characterize the types of communication strategies utilized, the diseases and drugs subject to expanded access petitions, and the prevalent themes associated with this form of "digital" patient advocacy. We find that patients and their families experience mixed results, but still gravitate towards the use of online campaigns out of desperation, lack of reliable information about treatment access options, and in direct response to limitations of the current fragmented structure of expanded access regulation and policy currently in place. In response, we discuss potential policy reforms to improve expanded access processes, including advocating greater transparency for expanded access programs, exploring use of targeted economic incentives for manufacturers, and developing systems to facilitate patient information about existing treatment options. This includes

  5. Mind-reading accuracy in intimate relationships: assessing the roles of the relationship, the target, and the judge.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Geoff; Fletcher, Garth J O

    2003-12-01

    Using a video-review procedure, multiple perceivers carried out mind-reading tasks of multiple targets at different levels of acquaintanceship (50 dating couples, friends of the dating partners, and strangers). As predicted, the authors found that mind-reading accuracy was (a). higher as a function of increased acquaintanceship, (b). relatively unaffected by target effects, (c). influenced by individual differences in perceivers' ability, and (d). higher for female than male perceivers. In addition, superior mind-reading accuracy (for dating couples and friends) was related to higher relationship satisfaction, closeness, and more prior disclosure about the problems discussed, but only under moderating conditions related to sex and relationship length. The authors conclude that the nature of the relationship between the perceiver and the target occupies a pivotal role in determining mind-reading accuracy.

  6. Development of competencies for the use of bedside ultrasound for assessment and cannulation of hemodialysis vascular access.

    PubMed

    Marticorena, Rosa M; Mills, Linda; Sutherland, Kelly; McBride, Norma; Kumar, Latha; Bachynski, Jovina Concepcion; Rivers, Carol; Petershofer, Elizabeth J; Hunter, Joyce; Luscombe, Rick; Donnelly, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Use of ultrasound for hemodialysis vascular access assessment and real-time cannulation requires specialized training. In order to obtain basic hand-eye coordination, theoretical sessions on ultrasound use, as well as practical sessions using phantom models are recommended prior to its use in the clinical setting with patients. New users of this technology need to consider that all competencies can be achieved with daily use of ultrasound at the bedside. It takes approximately 500 guided cannulations to achieve the highest level of competency described above. PMID:26964424

  7. Comparative Assessment of Variation among Sorghum Germplasm Accessions Using Seed Morphology and RAPD Measurements.

    PubMed

    Dahlberg, J. A.; Zhang, X.; Hart, G. E.; Mullet, J. E.

    2002-01-01

    The sorghum germplasm collection currently contains over 42 000 accessions, a number that is too large to manage efficiently. The specific objective of this research was to compare clusters developed from agronomic descriptors with phylogenetic groupings based on random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting of selected sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] races. Our intent was to identify one approach using agronomic descriptors that would most closely approximate the groupings produced by RAPD markers. Ninety-four accessions of sorghum were grouped into four of the five major races. Differences among accessions determined by various clustering procedures based on agronomic characteristics were compared with clusters developed by means of RAPD markers. Each race varied in the degree of similarity between the four clustering approaches taken and the information provided by RAPD fingerprinting. Test 2, standardization of data by Z-scores and cluster analysis using the complete set of data, provided the highest similarity score for the race bicolor, while Test 3, standardization of data by Z-scores and cluster analysis based on a reduced set of variables selected from principle component analysis, provided the highest similarity scores for the races guinea. Test 1, random selection, was highest for the races caudatum and durra. When averaged over all the races, Test 2 provided the highest similarity score. The results of this study indicate that no one approach to develop clusters by means of agronomic descriptors closely approximate the groupings produced by RAPD markers. These results underscore the need for further research in the evaluation of techniques used to develop core collections and their validity. PMID:11756288

  8. A stochastic simulation method for the assessment of resistive random access memory retention reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Berco, Dan Tseng, Tseung-Yuen

    2015-12-21

    This study presents an evaluation method for resistive random access memory retention reliability based on the Metropolis Monte Carlo algorithm and Gibbs free energy. The method, which does not rely on a time evolution, provides an extremely efficient way to compare the relative retention properties of metal-insulator-metal structures. It requires a small number of iterations and may be used for statistical analysis. The presented approach is used to compare the relative robustness of a single layer ZrO{sub 2} device with a double layer ZnO/ZrO{sub 2} one, and obtain results which are in good agreement with experimental data.

  9. A Logistic Regression Analysis of Turkey's 15-Year-Olds' Scoring above the OECD Average on the PISA'09 Reading Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasapoglu, Koray

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate which factors are associated with Turkey's 15-year-olds' scoring above the OECD average (493) on the PISA'09 reading assessment. Collected from a total of 4,996 15-year-old students from Turkey, data were analyzed by logistic regression analysis in order to model the data of students who were split…

  10. Assessing the population health impact of market interventions to improve access to antiretroviral treatment.

    PubMed

    Bärnighausen, Till; Kyle, Margaret; Salomon, Joshua A; Waning, Brenda

    2012-09-01

    Despite extraordinary global progress in increasing coverage of antiretroviral treatment (ART), the majority of people needing ART currently are not receiving treatment. Both the number of people needing ART and the average ART price per patient-year are expected to increase in coming years, which will dramatically raise funding needs for ART. Several international organizations are using interventions in ART markets to decrease ART price or to improve ART quality, delivery and innovation, with the ultimate goal of improving population health. These organizations need to select those market interventions that are most likely to substantially affect population health outcomes (ex ante assessment) and to evaluate whether implemented interventions have improved health outcomes (ex post assessment). We develop a framework to structure ex ante and ex post assessment of the population health impact of market interventions, which is transmitted through effects in markets and health systems. Ex ante assessment should include evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the ART products whose markets will be affected by the intervention; theoretical consideration of the mechanisms through which the intervention will affect population health; and predictive modelling to estimate the potential population health impact of the intervention. For ex post assessment, analysts need to consider which outcomes to estimate empirically and which to model based on empirical findings and understanding of the economic and biological mechanisms along the causal pathway from market intervention to population health. We discuss methods for ex post assessment and analyse assessment issues (unintended intervention effects, interaction effects between different interventions, and assessment impartiality and cost). We offer seven recommendations for ex ante and ex post assessment of population health impact of market interventions.

  11. Assessing the population health impact of market interventions to improve access to antiretroviral treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bärnighausen, Till; Kyle, Margaret; Salomon, Joshua A; Waning, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Despite extraordinary global progress in increasing coverage of antiretroviral treatment (ART), the majority of people needing ART currently are not receiving treatment. Both the number of people needing ART and the average ART price per patient-year are expected to increase in coming years, which will dramatically raise funding needs for ART. Several international organizations are using interventions in ART markets to decrease ART price or to improve ART quality, delivery and innovation, with the ultimate goal of improving population health. These organizations need to select those market interventions that are most likely to substantially affect population health outcomes (ex ante assessment) and to evaluate whether implemented interventions have improved health outcomes (ex post assessment). We develop a framework to structure ex ante and ex post assessment of the population health impact of market interventions, which is transmitted through effects in markets and health systems. Ex ante assessment should include evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the ART products whose markets will be affected by the intervention; theoretical consideration of the mechanisms through which the intervention will affect population health; and predictive modelling to estimate the potential population health impact of the intervention. For ex post assessment, analysts need to consider which outcomes to estimate empirically and which to model based on empirical findings and understanding of the economic and biological mechanisms along the causal pathway from market intervention to population health. We discuss methods for ex post assessment and analyse assessment issues (unintended intervention effects, interaction effects between different interventions, and assessment impartiality and cost). We offer seven recommendations for ex ante and ex post assessment of population health impact of market interventions. PMID:21914713

  12. Access road from State Route 240 to the 200 West Area, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct an access road on the Hanford Site, from State Route (SR) 240 to Beloit Avenue in the 200 West Area. Traffic volume during shift changes creates an extremely serious congestion and safety problem on Route 4S from the Wye barricade to the 200 Areas. A Risk Evaluation (Trost 1992) indicated that there is a probability of 1.53 fatal accidents on Route 4S within 2 years. To help alleviate this danger, a new 3.5-kilometer (2.2-mile)-long access road would be constructed from Beloit Avenue in the 200 West Area to SR 240. In addition, administrative controls such as redirecting traffic onto alternate routes would be used to further reduce traffic volume. The proposed access road would provide an alternative travel-to-work route for many outer area personnel, particularly those with destinations in the 200 West Area. This proposal is the most reasonable alternative to reduce the problem. While traffic safety would be greatly improved, a small portion of the shrub-steppe habitat would be disturbed. The DOE would offset any habitat damage by re-vegetation or other appropriate habitat enhancement activities elsewhere on the Hanford Site. This Environmental Assessment (EA) provides information about the environmental impacts of the proposed action, so a decision can be made to either prepare an Environmental Impact Statement or issue a Finding of No Significant Impact.

  13. Lectins as probes for assessing the accessibility of N-linked glycans in relation to the conformational changes of fibronectin.

    PubMed

    Agniel, Rémy; Vendrely, Charlotte; Poulouin, Laurent; Bascetin, Rümeyza; Benachour, Hamanou; Gallet, Olivier; Leroy-Dudal, Johanne

    2015-12-01

    Fibronectin, a ≈ 450-kDa protein with 4-9% (w/w) glycosylation, is a key component of extracellular matrices and has a high conformational lability regarding its functions. However, the accessibility and the role of glycosylated moieties associated with the conformational changes of fibronectin are poorly understood. Using lectins as probes, we developed an approach comprising dynamic light scattering, turbidimetry measurements, and isothermal titration calorimetry to assess the accessibility of glycosylated moieties of fibronectin undergoing thermal-induced conformational changes. Among a set of 14 lectins, fibronectin mainly reacted with mannose-binding lectins, specifically concanavalin A. When temperature was raised from 25 to 50 °C, fibronectin underwent progressive unfolding, but the conformation of concanavalin A was unaffected. Dynamic light scattering, turbidimetry measurements, and isothermal titration calorimetry showed increased concanavalin A binding to fibronectin during progressive thermal-induced unfolding of the protein core. Such data suggest that mannosylated residues are progressively exposed as fibronectin unfolds. Because oligosaccharide moieties can be differently exposed to cells, and the cell's responses could be modified physiologically or pathologically, modulation of fibronectin sugar chains could be relevant to its biological functions. Thus, lectins might be useful tools to probe the glycosylation accessibility accompanying changes in protein core folding, for which a better understanding would be of value for biological and biomedical research. PMID:26148749

  14. Assessing media access and use among Latina adolescents to inform development of a physical activity promotion intervention incorporating text messaging.

    PubMed

    Mojica, Cynthia M; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Yin, Zenong; Akopian, David; Esparza, Laura A

    2014-07-01

    Increasing physical activity (PA) during preadolescence and adolescence is critical to reversing the obesity epidemic. A recent report described the promising role of eHealth--the use of new media for purposes of health promotion--in reducing and preventing childhood obesity. This study assessed access/use of various media (cell phones, computers, gaming systems, Internet) among adolescent Latino girls and examined the relationship between PA and media access/use. A convenience sample of 110 Latino girls ages 11 to 14 was recruited from Girl Scouts of Southwest Texas and other groups. The media survey was self-administered (April-July 2010) on personal digital assistants. Of the girls, 55% reported owning a cell phone and spending 40 (SD = 4.2) hours per week talking, texting, listening to music, and browsing the Internet. Cell phone access increased significantly with age (p = .029). Compared to those with no cell phone, girls with a cell phone have greater odds of reporting more than 5 days of PA in the past week (odds ratio = 5.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.1, 14) and engaging in daily physical education classes (odds ratio = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.1, 5.9). Since girls with cell phones report greater PA, cell phones may be an effective strategy for communicating with girls about engaging in PA.

  15. Assessing media access and use among Latina adolescents to inform development of a physical activity promotion intervention incorporating text messaging.

    PubMed

    Mojica, Cynthia M; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Yin, Zenong; Akopian, David; Esparza, Laura A

    2014-07-01

    Increasing physical activity (PA) during preadolescence and adolescence is critical to reversing the obesity epidemic. A recent report described the promising role of eHealth--the use of new media for purposes of health promotion--in reducing and preventing childhood obesity. This study assessed access/use of various media (cell phones, computers, gaming systems, Internet) among adolescent Latino girls and examined the relationship between PA and media access/use. A convenience sample of 110 Latino girls ages 11 to 14 was recruited from Girl Scouts of Southwest Texas and other groups. The media survey was self-administered (April-July 2010) on personal digital assistants. Of the girls, 55% reported owning a cell phone and spending 40 (SD = 4.2) hours per week talking, texting, listening to music, and browsing the Internet. Cell phone access increased significantly with age (p = .029). Compared to those with no cell phone, girls with a cell phone have greater odds of reporting more than 5 days of PA in the past week (odds ratio = 5.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.1, 14) and engaging in daily physical education classes (odds ratio = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.1, 5.9). Since girls with cell phones report greater PA, cell phones may be an effective strategy for communicating with girls about engaging in PA. PMID:24357863

  16. An automated system for access to derived climate indices in support of ecological impacts assessments and resource management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, J.; Morisette, J. T.; Talbert, C.; Blodgett, D. L.; Kunicki, T.

    2012-12-01

    A U.S. Geological Survey team is working with several providers to establish standard data services for the climate projection data they host. To meet the needs of climate adaptation science and landscape management communities, the team is establishing a set of climate index calculation algorithms that will consume data from various providers and provide directly useful data derivatives. Climate projections coming from various scenarios, modeling centers, and downscaling methods are increasing in number and size. Global change impact modeling and assessment, generally, requires inputs in the form of climate indices or values derived from raw climate projections. This requirement puts a large burden on a community not familiar with climate data formats, semantics, and processing techniques and requires storage capacity and computing resources out of the reach of most. In order to fully understand the implications of our best available climate projections, assessments must take into account an ensemble of climate projections and potentially a range of parameters for calculation of climate indices. These requirements around data access and processing are not unique from project to project, or even among projected climate data sets, pointing to the need for a reusable tool to generate climate indices. The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a pilot application and supporting web service framework that automates the generation of climate indices. The web service framework consists of standards-based data servers and a data integration broker. The resulting system allows data producers to publish and maintain ownership of their data and data consumers to access climate derivatives via a simple to use "data product ordering" workflow. Data access and processing is completed on enterprise "cloud" computing resources and only the relatively small, derived climate indices are delivered to the scientist or land manager. These services will assist the scientific and land

  17. Oral Reading Fluency and Maze Measures as Predictors of Performance on North Carolina End-of-Grade Assessment of Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Tara Watkins

    2010-01-01

    Current legislation (IDEA, 2004; NCLB, 2001) mandates all students, including students with disabilities, demonstrate progress toward the same standards. However, students continue to struggle with attainment of statewide academic standards as measured by high-stakes assessment. The purpose of the current study was to examine the degree that…

  18. Examining Associations between Reading Motivation and Inference Generation beyond Reading Comprehension Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between reading motivation and inference generation while reading. Undergraduate participants (N = 69) read two science articles while thinking aloud, completed a standardized reading comprehension assessment, and self reported their habitual reading motivation. Findings indicate that…

  19. Reading Incentives that Work: No-Cost Strategies to Motivate Kids to Read and Love It!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Ruth V.

    2009-01-01

    In education, it is possible to find dozens of examples of "forced" reading incentive programs that categorize student reading levels, provide limited reading lists coordinated with those reading levels, assess student reading through computer-based tests, and award tangible prizes when they pass the test. Those who perform best get the most…

  20. Exploring Reading Processes in an Academic Reading Test Using Short-Answer Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weigle, Sara Cushing; Yang, WeiWei; Montee, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Integrated reading/writing tasks are becoming more common in large-scale language tests. Much of the research on these tasks has focused on writing through reading; assessing reading through writing is a less explored area. In this article we describe a reading-into-writing task that is intended to measure both reading comprehension and language…