Abedi, Jamal; Bayley, Robert; Ewers, Nancy; Mundhenk, Kimberly; Leon, Seth; Kao, Jenny; Herman, Joan
Assessments developed and field tested for the mainstream student population may not be accessible for students with disabilities (SWDs) as a result of the impact of extraneous variables, including cognitive features, such as depth of knowledge required, grammatical and lexical complexity, lexical density, and textual/visual features. This study…
In this article, I focus on three areas of reading assessment that I believe to be crucial for students' reading development: developing comprehensive formative assessments, assessing the wide array of factors that contribute to students' reading development, and fostering student independence by helping students learn to use reading assessment on…
Abedi, Jamal; Kao, Jenny C.; Leon, Seth; Sullivan, Lisa; Herman, Joan L.; Pope, Rita; Nambiar, Veena; Mastergeorge, Ann M.
This study sought to explore factors that affect the accessibility of reading comprehension assessments for students with disabilities. The study consisted of testing students using reading comprehension passages that were broken down into shorter "segments" or "chunks." The results of the segmenting study indicated that: (a)…
Gambrell, Linda B.; And Others
Describes the Motivation to Read Profile (MRP), which assesses children's self-concepts as readers and the value they see in reading. Discusses its development and offers suggestions for its use with elementary students. Includes the MRP. (SR)
Abedi, Jamal; Kao, Jenny C.; Leon, Seth; Mastergeorge, Ann M.; Sullivan, Lisa; Herman, Joan; Pope, Rita
This study explores factors that affect the accessibility of reading comprehension assessments for students with disabilities in grade 8 public school classrooms. The study consisted of assessing students using reading comprehension passages that were broken down into shorter "segments" or "chunks" in order to assess the…
Authentic reading assessment is examined, focusing on its implementation within the Michigan Essential Skills Reading Test (MESRT). Authentic reading assessment emerged as a response to research that indicates that reading is not a particular skill but an interaction among reader, text, and the context of the reading situation. Unlike formal…
MacGinitie, Walter H., Ed.
The papers in this volume deal with a range of assessment problems in reading. The first paper, by Karlin, introduces the general problem of using assessment procedures to guide teaching. The next six papers deal with various aspects of this general problem. Otto discusses the distinction between norm-referenced, standardized achievement tests and…
Wood, Frank B.; Hill, Deborah F.; Meyer, Marianne S.; Flowers, D. Lynn
Study 1 retrospectively analyzed neuropsychological and psychoeducational tests given to N = 220 first graders, with follow-up assessments in third and eighth grade. Four predictor constructs were derived: (1) Phonemic Awareness, (2) Picture Vocabulary, (3) Rapid Naming, and (4) Single Word Reading. Together, these accounted for 88%, 76%, 69%, and…
August, Diane; Francis, David J.; Hsu, Han-Ya Annie; Snow, Catherine E.
A new measure of reading comprehension, the Diagnostic Assessment of Reading Comprehension (DARC), designed to reflect central comprehension processes while minimizing decoding and language demands, was pilot tested. We conducted three pilot studies to assess the DARC's feasibility, reliability, comparability across Spanish and English,…
Klingner, Janette K.
Generally, experts agree on what good readers do to comprehend text--they connect new text with past experiences, interpret, evaluate, synthesize, and consider alternative interpretations. Yet, traditional measures of reading comprehension only provide a general indicator of how well a student understands text. They do not provide information…
There are many environmental and personal factors that contribute to reading success. Reading comprehension is a complex interaction of language, sensory perception, memory, and motivational aspects. However, most existing assessment tools have not adequately reflected the complex nature of reading comprehension. Good assessment requires a…
E-assessment offers many opportunities to broaden the range of tools at the assessor's disposal and thereby improve the overall accessibility of the assessment experience. In 2006, TechDis commissioned a report, produced by Edexcel, on the state of guidance on accessibility at the various stages of the assessment process--question design,…
National Assessment of Educational Progress, Princeton, NJ.
The 1986 and 1988 Reading Objectives Assessment of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) reflects a consensus of opinion about the processes of reading for grades 4, 8, and 12. The objectives are based on an interpretation of reading as an interactive process between the reader, the reader's purposes and previous experiences, the…
Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg. Curriculum Development Branch.
This "Summary Report" is the last report of the findings of the 1985 Manitoba Reading Assessment. The report contains a description of the study along with recommendations based upon teachers' and principals' opinions and the judgment of the Technical Advisory Committee. The purposes of the 1985 Reading Assessment were: (1) to provide…
ReadCube Access is a patron-driven, document delivery system that provides immediate access to articles from journals owned by Nature Publishing Group. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of ReadCube Access as an interlibrary loan (ILL) alternative for nonsubscribed Nature journals at Auburn University, a research university with a School of Pharmacy and a School of Veterinary Medicine. An analysis of ten months' usage and costs are presented along with the results of a user satisfaction survey. Auburn University Libraries found ReadCube to be an acceptable alternative to ILL for unsubscribed Nature journals and at current levels of use and cost, consider ReadCube to be financially sustainable.
as its name implies, CD RON is a read only technology . Data on a CD ROM disk cannot be erased or changed. % CD ROM, like other optical technologies ...flO-fti9 259 AN ASSESSMENT OF CO RON (COMPACT DISK READ OILY NENOAY 1/1 (U) DEFENSE TECHNICAL INFORMATION CENTER ALEX AND RIA YO K J JACOBSON JUN 96...ELEMENT NO. NO NO. ACCESSION NO I’ TITLE (Include Security Classification) An Assessment of CD ROM Technology 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Karen J. Jacobson T3a
Johnston, Peter H.
Drawing on work from a number of disciplines, this volume brings together experimental and theoretical information relevant to the problems of assessing children's reading comprehension. After a short introduction, the first section defines reading comprehension, presenting theoretical issues intended to provide an understanding of what is being…
Wheeler, Rebecca; Cartwright, Kelly B.; Swords, Rachel
In our increasingly diverse schools, students bring diverse ways of speaking to the classroom. In turn, as features from students' home language varieties transfer into their readings of texts, teachers' assessment and intervention plans may be directly affected. If teachers conflate dialect influence with reading error in Standard English, they…
Piper, Benjamin; Zuilkowski, Stephanie Simmons
In recent years, the Education for All movement has focused more intensely on the quality of education, rather than simply provision. Many recent and current education quality interventions focus on literacy, which is the core skill required for further academic success. Despite this focus on the quality of literacy instruction in developing countries, little rigorous research has been conducted on critical issues of assessment. This analysis, which uses data from the Primary Math and Reading Initiative (PRIMR) in Kenya, aims to begin filling this gap by addressing a key assessment issue - should literacy assessments in Kenya be administered orally or silently? The authors compared second-grade students' scores on oral and silent reading tasks of the Early Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA) in Kiswahili and English, and found no statistically significant differences in either language. They did, however, find oral reading rates to be more strongly related to reading comprehension scores. Oral assessment has another benefit for programme evaluators - it allows for the collection of data on student errors, and therefore the calculation of words read correctly per minute, as opposed to simply words read per minute. The authors therefore recommend that, in Kenya and in similar contexts, student reading fluency be assessed via oral rather than silent assessment.
This National Reading Conference Policy Brief provides information related to high stakes reading tests and reading assessment. High stakes reading tests are those with highly consequential outcomes for students, teachers, and schools. These outcomes may include student promotion or retention, student placement in reading groups, school funding…
Morris, Darrell; Trathen, Woodrow; Frye, Elizabeth M.; Kucan, Linda; Ward, Devery; Schlagal, Robert; Hendrix, Mary
This article, which focuses on oral reading rate, reports findings from a large assessment study in rural North Carolina. Students in grades 2 to 6 were assessed on the following measures: isolated word recognition (timed and untimed); oral reading accuracy, reading rate, and reading comprehension. Overall, the results (1) support traditional…
Council of Chief State School Officers, Washington, DC.
This booklet presents the Reading Framework for the 1992 and 1994 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), which contains the rationale for the aspects of reading assessed and the criteria for the development of the assessment. The booklet notes that the new reading assessment examines students' abilities to construct, extend, and…
Hudson, Roxanne F.; Lane, Holly B.; Pullen, Paige C.
This article explains the elements of reading fluency and ways to assess and teach them. Fluent reading has three elements: accurate reading of connected text, at a conversational rate with appropriate prosody. Word reading accuracy refers to the ability to recognize or decode words correctly. Reading rate refers to both word-level automaticity…
National Assessment of Educational Progress reading data were scaled using a unidimensional item response theory model. Bock's full-information factor analysis and Rosenbaum's test of unidimensionality were applied. Conclusions about unidimensionality for balanced incomplete block spiralled data were the same as for complete data. (Author/GDC)
This indispensable resource offers a cutting-edge framework and practical tools for screening and assessing K-2 students at risk for reading problems. Provided are critical reviews of 42 specific measures, selected for optimal technical quality and presented in a clear, standardized format. Encapsulated are the scientific basis for each…
These instructor's materials consist of a handbook directed to the teacher and 33 worksheets teachers can use with adult students in order to use the cloze procedure to assess how readily they can read materials of differing complexity. The handbook introduces the materials by considering such questions as What is meant by reading?, How could…
Paris, Scott G.
This article focuses on strategies children can use to foster their reading comprehension and develop metacognitive skills. The article discusses crucial aspects of reading comprehension, the authentic assessment of strategic reading, alternative methods of assessing reading strategies and metacognition, and promoting thinking with literacy…
Magliano, Joseph P.; Millis, Keith K.; Levinstein, Irwin
Comprehension emerges as the results of inference and strategic processes that support the construction of a coherent mental model for a text. However, the vast majority of comprehension skills tests adopt a format that does not afford an assessment of these processes as they operate during reading. This study assessed the viability of the Reading Strategy Assessment Tool (RSAT), which is an automated computer-based reading assessment designed to measure readers’ comprehension and spontaneous use of reading strategies while reading texts. In the tool, readers comprehend passages one sentence at a time, and are asked either an indirect (“What are your thoughts regarding your understanding of the sentence in the context of the passage?”) or direct (e.g., why X?) question after reading each pre-selected target sentence. The answers to the indirect questions are analyzed on the extent that they contain words associated with comprehension processes. The answers to direct questions are coded for the number of content words in common with an ideal answer, which is intended to be an assessment of emerging comprehension. In the study, the RSAT approach was shown to predict measures of comprehension comparable to standardized tests. The RSAT variables were also shown to correlate with human ratings. The results of this study constitute a “proof of concept” and demonstrate that it is possible to develop a comprehension skills assessment tool that assesses both comprehension and comprehension strategies. PMID:23901332
Dogan, Enis; Ogut, Burhan; Kim, Young Yee
The relationship between reading skills in earlier grades and achieving "Proficiency" on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) grade 8 reading assessment was examined by establishing a statistical link between NAEP and the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS) grade 8 reading assessments using data from a common…
Gambrell, Linda B.; And Others
The Motivation to Read Profile (MRP) is a public-domain instrument designed to provide teachers with an efficient and reliable way to assess reading motivation qualitatively and quantitatively by evaluating students' self-concept as readers and the value they place on reading. The MRP consists of two basic instruments: the Reading Survey (a…
Caine, Kate; Oakhill, Jane
Background: The Neale Analysis of Reading Ability (NARA; Neale, 1997) is a widely used assessment of reading comprehension and word reading accuracy. Spooner, Baddeley, and Gathercole (2004) questioned the suitability of the NARA for identifying children with specific reading comprehension deficits. Aims and methods: An evaluation of the NARA…
Hickey, David W.
This ex post facto, participatory action research study investigated the relationship between a criterion-referenced, inventory-based reading assessment and the standardized Third Grade Reading Ohio Achievement Assessment (OAA). The study, conducted in a suburban Ohio district where the Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA) has been used since…
Council of Chief State School Officers, Washington, DC.
The Reading Framework for the 1992 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) contains the rationale for the aspects of reading assessed in 1992 and criteria for development of the assessment. Developed through a national consensus process as a part of an effort to move assessment forward, the framework presented in the booklet is more…
Council of Chief State School Officers, Washington, DC.
This booklet presents the Reading Framework for the 1992, 1994, 1998, and 2000 National Assessments of Educational Progress (NAEP), adopted by the National Assessment Governing Board (NAGB). The Framework contains the rationale for the aspects of reading assessed and criteria for development of the assessment. Developed through a national…
Gilliam, Sara; Magliano, Joseph P; Millis, Keith K; Levinstein, Irwin; Boonthum, Chutima
We are constructing a new computerized test of reading comprehension called the Reading Strategy Assessment Tool (R-SAT). R-SAT elicits and analyzes verbal protocols that readers generate in response to questions as they read texts. We examined whether the amount of information available to the reader when reading and answering questions influenced the extent to which R-SAT accounts for comprehension. We found that R-SAT was most predictive of comprehension when the readers did not have access to the text as they answered questions.
Nagler, Telse; Lonnemann, Jan; Linkersdörfer, Janosch; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Lindberg, Sven
The "acceleration phenomenon" (AP) is defined by improvements in reading speed and reading comprehension, induced by an artificial text fading procedure corresponding to the previously determined fastest individual reading rate. Recent results, however, indicated that fading that is slower than the self-paced reading rate can produce…
Lamberg, Walter J.
Describes specific training, using taped readings, designed to prepare teachers to accurately assess the oral reading of students who exhibit dialect or second language influences in their speech. (MKM)
Francis, David J.; Snow, Catherine E.; August, Diane; Carlson, Coleen D.; Miller, Jon; Iglesias, Aquiles
This study compares 2 measures of reading comprehension: (a) the Woodcock-Johnson Passage Comprehension test, a standard in reading research, and (b) the Diagnostic Assessment of Reading Comprehension (DARC), an innovative measure. Data from 192 Grade 3 Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs) were used to fit a series of latent variable…
Gentile, Lance M.; McMillan, Merna M.
Focusing on the personality of the reading disabled child, this booklet is designed to encourage researchers to move past the circular debate concerning student reading difficulties and to help teachers improve the reading performance of students with disabling stress reactions to reading. The first section examines research related to emotional…
Barrentine, Shelby J., Ed.
This compilation of articles from "The Reading Teacher" contrasts old and new approaches to reading assessment and offers methods that teachers can use in the classroom to build better readers. The articles suggest that in order to effectively assess young readers, one must integrate assessment with instruction, which requires new forms of…
Rahayu, Endang Yuliani; Februariyanti, Herni
The current study reports a two-year research project funded by the Government of the Republic of Indonesia through a competitive research scheme. The aim is basically to respond to the fact most university students have very low interests in reading activities, such as finding out important information for their term papers as assigned by the…
Katz, Claudia Anne; Kuby, Sue Ann
Explains Fish Bowl, an activity for upper elementary and middle school students to share what they read and a method for teachers to assess student understanding of a book. Discusses benefits of reading aloud a summary of the book, reading a passage from the book, asking appropriate questions, and answering questions. (LRW)
Afflerbach, Peter; Cho, Byeong-Young; Kim, Jong-Yun
Students engage in higher-order thinking as they read complex texts and perform complex reading-related tasks. However, the most consequential assessments, high-stakes tests, are currently limited in providing information about students' higher-order thinking. In this article, we describe higher-order thinking in relation to reading. We provide a…
Bolaños, Daniel; Cole, Ron A.; Ward, Wayne H.; Tindal, Gerald A.; Hasbrouck, Jan; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.
This article describes a comprehensive approach to fully automated assessment of children's oral reading fluency (ORF), one of the most informative and frequently administered measures of children's reading ability. Speech recognition and machine learning techniques are described that model the 3 components of oral reading fluency: word accuracy,…
Snyder, Lynn; Caccamise, Donna; Wise, Barbara
This article discusses the main purposes of reading comprehension assessment and identifies the key features of good assessment. The article also identifies pitfalls that clinicians and educators should avoid to conduct valid assessments of reading comprehension, such as the degree to which the measure taps the constructive and integrative…
Cremer, M.; Schoonen, R.
The influences of word decoding, availability, and accessibility of semantic word knowledge on reading comprehension were investigated for monolingual "("n = 65) and bilingual children ("n" = 70). Despite equal decoding abilities, monolingual children outperformed bilingual children with regard to reading comprehension and…
Strong, Sue; Sexton, Larry C.
Researchers surveyed Kentucky high school seniors to collect data on and compare the results of the Kentucky Instructional Results Information System (KIRIS) open-response reading results and ACT reading multiple-choice format. Results found a great deal of disagreement between the KIRIS and ACT reading results. (SM)
Council of Chief State School Officers, Washington, DC.
This booklet presents the Reading Framework for the 1992, 1994, and 1998 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Developed through a national consensus process as part of an effort to move assessment forward, the framework presented in the booklet is more consistent with contemporary knowledge about reading and more relevant to the…
Yin, Shuangxu; Kawachi, Paul
This paper explores and presents new data on how to improve open access in distance education through using prior learning assessments. Broadly there are three types of prior learning assessment (PLAR): Type-1 for prospective students to be allowed to register for a course; Type-2 for current students to avoid duplicating work-load to gain…
Yamamoto, Yasue; Moriwaki, Shinichi; Kawasumi, Atsushi; Miyano, Shinji; Shinohara, Hirofumi
We propose novel circuit techniques for 1 clock (1CLK) 1 read/1 write (1R/1W) 2-port static random-access memories (SRAMs) to improve read access time (tAC) and write margins at low voltages. Two-stage read boost (TSR-BST) and write word line boost (WWL-BST) after the read sensing schemes have been proposed. TSR-BST reduces the worst read bit line (RBL) delay by 61% and RBL amplitude by 10% at V DD = 0.5 V, which improves tAC by 39% and reduces energy dissipation by 11% at V DD = 0.55 V. WWL-BST after read sensing scheme improves minimum operating voltage (V min) by 140 mV. A 32 kbit 1CLK 1R/1W 2-port SRAM with TSR-BST and WWL-BST has been developed using a 40 nm CMOS.
Libben, Maya R.; Titone, Debra A.
Current models of bilingualism (e.g., BIA+) posit that lexical access during reading is not language selective. However, much of this research is based on the comprehension of words in isolation. The authors investigated whether nonselective access occurs for words embedded in biased sentence contexts (e.g., A. I. Schwartz & J. F. Kroll,…
The purpose of this study is to briefly explore the interactions among measurement theories, reading theories, and measurement practices from an historical perspective. The assessment of reading provides a useful framework for examining how theories influence, and in some cases fail to influence, the practice of reading assessment as operationalized in reading tests. The first section describes a conceptual framework for examining the assessment of reading. Next I describe the major research traditions in measurement theory that have dominated measurement practice during the 20th century. In the next section I briefly introduce major reading theories. Next, I bring together the previous two sections in order to examine the adequacy of the proposed conceptual framework for examining the assessment of reading. This section includes criticism of measurement theory by selected reading theorists. It also provides a brief history of the use of Rasch measurement theory to calibrate reading tests. Finally, the main points of the study are summarized and discussed. It should be recognized that this study represents a preliminary analysis of these issues.
National Assessment Governing Board, 2012
As the ongoing national indicator of what American students know and can do, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in Reading regularly collects achievement information on representative samples of students in grades 4, 8, and 12. Through The Nation's Report Card, the NAEP Reading Assessment reports how well students perform in…
National Assessment Governing Board, 2010
As the ongoing national indicator of what American students know and can do, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in Reading regularly collects achievement information on representative samples of students in grades 4, 8, and 12. Through "The Nation's Report Card," the NAEP Reading Assessment reports how well students…
Blanchard, Jay S.
Evaluates the Computer-Based Assessment Instrument (CRAI) as a test for reading proficiency. Notes strengths of CRAI, including its use as a quick assessment of silent reading comprehension level, and the problems with readability and content specific words lists and the lack of scoring features. (JC)
Moore, David W.
Presents a historical overview of the introduction of the major reading comprehension assessments, showing that the predominant approaches were shaped by the prevailing educational measurement milieu and were implemented largely in response to public pressure. Argues in favor of a naturalistic reading comprehension assessment for evaluating those…
Cribbs, Aimee M.
This study focused on the relationships between educator reading fluency constructs, reading fluency instruction and oral reading fluency assessment. Survey responses from sixty-six elementary educators in rural and urban north Georgia were analyzed to reach an understanding of why educators are likely to equate reading fluency with reading fast…
Calabrèse, Aurélie; Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald; Legge, Gordon E.
IMPORTANCE We define a Reading Accessibility Index for evaluating reading in individuals with normal and low vision. OBJECTIVE To compare the Reading Accessibility Index with data from the Impact of Cataracts on Mobility (ICOM) study. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This investigation was a secondary data analysis from the ICOM study performed between July 1, 2014, and September 20, 2015, at 12 eye clinics in Alabama from October 1, 1994, through March 31, 1996. Participants were 321 adults with cataract (n = 92), pseudophakia (n = 131), or natural crystalline lenses without cataract (n = 98). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The Reading Accessibility Index (hereafter referred to using the abbreviation ACC for the first 3 letters of Accessibility) is defined as an individual’s mean reading speed measured across the 10 largest print sizes on the MNREAD Acuity Chart (Precision Vision) (0.4–1.3 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution at 40 cm), normalized by 200 words per minute, which was the mean value for a group of 365 normally sighted young adults. The ACC is a single-value measure that captures an individual’s range of accessible print sizes and reading fluency within this range. RESULTS The study cohort comprised 321 participants. Their age range was 55 to 85 years, and 157 (48.9%) were female. The ACCs for the ICOM study participants ranged from 0.19 to 1.33, where 1.00 is the mean value for normally sighted young adults. The ACC for the cataract group (mean [SD], 0.65 [0.18]) was significantly lower than that for the pseudophakia group (mean [SD], 0.77 [0.16]) and the control group (mean [SD], 0.76 [0.19]) (P < .001 for both). The correlation between the ACC and Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study visual acuity (r = −0.22) and Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity (r = 0.20) was weaker than that with a reading-related measure of instrumental activities of daily living (r = −0.60) (P < .001 for both). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The ACC represents
Fremer, John; Dwyer, Carol A.
State and school district testing activities involving basic reading competency requirements are discussed. The purposes of minimum competency testing in reading include the identification of students who need remedial assistance, and the evaluation of secondary school students regarding graduation requirements. Important considerations regarding…
Lamb, John H.
Increased reading difficulty of mathematics assessment items has been shown to negatively affect student performance. The advent of high-stakes testing, which has serious ramifications for students' futures and teachers' careers, necessitates analysis of reading difficulty on state assessment items and student performance on those items. Using…
This article serves as a primer for assessment and evaluation design by describing the range of methods commonly employed in library settings. Quantitative methods, such as counting and benchmarking measures, are useful for investigating the internal operations of an access services department in order to identify workflow inefficiencies or…
Petersen, Douglas B; Gillam, Ronald B
This study investigated the predictive validity of a dynamic assessment designed to evaluate later risk for reading difficulty in bilingual Latino children at risk for language impairment. During kindergarten, 63 bilingual Latino children completed a dynamic assessment nonsense-word recoding task that yielded pretest to posttest gain scores, residuum gain scores, and modifiability scores. At the end of first grade, the same participants completed criterion reading measures of word identification, decoding, and reading fluency. The dynamic assessment yielded high classification accuracy, with sensitivity and specificity at or above 80% for all three criterion reading measures, including 100% sensitivity for two out of the three first-grade measures. The dynamic assessment used in this study has promise as a means for predicting first-grade word-level reading ability in Latino, bilingual children.
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Reading test data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) were scaled using the unidimensional item response theory model. Data were collected for students aged 9, 13, and 17. To determine whether the responses to the reading items were consistent with unidimensionality, four different methods were applied: (1) principal…
Agee, Nicole S.
Cultural sensitivity and responsiveness are being advocated in reading assessments to reduce the impact of community speech patterns (CSP) on the accuracy of miscue analysis. This study, motivated by a high incidence of retention in 1st grade in a local school district, investigated whether CSP among students affected reading outcomes and…
Sharma, Amit; Van Hoof, Bert; Pursel, Barton
Research suggests that reading compliance among undergraduate students is low. This study assesses the factors that influence students' decisions to comply with their assigned course readings using two theoretical underpinnings: students' self-rationing ability of time and construal effects on their decision process. Data collected through focus…
Carlisle, Joanne F.
This article discusses (1) assessment of discourse through listening and reading to evaluate comprehension problems; (2) developmental aspects of the relationship between listening and reading comprehension skills; (3) problems with selecting text passages and methods of testing comprehension; and (4) the development of a set of passages and a…
Schumm, Jeanne Shay, Ed.
Weaving together the latest knowledge and best practices for teaching children to read, this indispensable text and professional resource provides a complete guide to differentiated instruction for diverse learners. Uniquely integrative, the book places the needs of English language learners and students with disabilities front and center instead…
Poulsen, Mads; Elbro, Carsten
The present study investigated the relationships between lexical access, reading fluency, and comprehension. Two components of speed of lexical access were studied: phonological and semantic. Previous studies have mainly investigated these components of lexical access separately. The present study examined both components in naming tasks--with…
Computer-based technologies offer promise as a means to assess students and provide teachers with better understandings of their students' achievement. This article describes recent developments in computer-based and web-based reading and literacy assessment, focusing on assessment administration, information management, and report creation. In…
Merrell, C.; Tymms, P.
This paper describes the development of an adaptive assessment called Interactive Computerised Assessment System (InCAS) that is aimed at children of a wide age and ability range to identify specific reading problems. Rasch measurement has been used to create the equal interval scales that form each part of the assessment. The rationale for the…
Hollinger, Jamie L.
The purpose of this correlational study was twofold: to examine the relationship of students' reading performance on six different diagnostic reading assessments and the third grade Ohio Reading Achievement Test; and to assist educators in choosing the diagnostic assessments that best identify students at risk of failing the third grade Ohio…
Vollands, Stacy R.; And Others
A study evaluated the effect software for self-assessment and management of reading practice had on reading achievement and motivation in two primary schools in Aberdeen, Scotland. The program utilized was The Accelerated Reader (AR) which was designed to enable curriculum based assessment of reading comprehension within the classroom. Students…
Kahn, Josh; Nese, Joseph T.; Alonzo, Julie
There is strong theoretical support for oral reading fluency (ORF) as an essential building block of reading proficiency. The current and standard ORF assessment procedure requires that students read aloud a grade-level passage (˜ 250 words) in a one-to-one administration, with the number of words read correctly in 60 seconds constituting their…
Barrentine, Shelby J., Ed.; Stokes, Sandra M., Ed.
How do teachers respond to the competing pressures of school accountability, high-stakes testing, classroom assessment and instruction? This updated collection of articles from The Reading Teacher can help. Readers will find tools for: (1) Building school assessment policies; (2) Helping students succeed on high-stakes tests; (3) Using assessment…
Petersen, Douglas B.; Gillam, Ronald B.
This study investigated the predictive validity of a dynamic assessment designed to evaluate later risk for reading difficulty in bilingual Latino children at risk for language impairment. During kindergarten, 63 bilingual Latino children completed a dynamic assessment nonsense-word recoding task that yielded pretest to posttest gain scores,…
Andersen, Barbara L.; Licht, Barbara G.; Ullmann, Rina K.; Buck, Sylvia T.; Redd, William H.
The purpose of the study was to assess the effectiveness of two strategies for using undergraduate paraprofessionals as tutors for first-grade children with reading difficulties. The two groups of undergraduates taught first graders the same 150 words, and both reinforced (socially and materially) correct performances. However, one group employed a programmed method of word presentation (i.e., the Edmark Reading Program), while the other group of tutors was allowed flexibility in the pacing and methods for presenting words. The performance of each reading group was compared to that of a control group who engaged in educational activities not directly related to reading. Thirty-six poor readers were randomly assigned to one of the three groups. Subjects were tutored after school by university undergraduates for an average of twenty-three 40-minute sessions. Children in both reading groups showed significantly more improvement than controls on an oral reading posttest of the 150 criterion words. Treatment effects did not emerge on a test composed mainly of noncriterion words. PMID:19668353
Hanushek, Eric A.
E. A. Hanushek points out in this commentary that applied researchers in education have only recently begun to appreciate the value of international assessments, even though there are now 50 years of experience with these. Until recently, these assessments have been stand-alone surveys that have not been linked, and analysis has largely focused on…
Valencia, Sheila W., Ed.; And Others
Presenting nine case studies describing new assessment efforts, this book is designed to foster communication and dialogue about the products and the processes of development. Comprehensive introductory and concluding chapters examine the background of and future challenges facing authentic assessment. Intermediate chapters discusses authentic…
Baca, Jo-Ann M.; Shepperson, Barbara A.
As part of the reporting of Delaware's State Improvement Grant (DelaSIG), the Delaware Education Research and Development Center (R&D Center) completed a study on the Diagnostic Assessment of Reading (DAR) scores of students whose teachers attended a professional development program designed to help focus teacher instruction of struggling …
Reading difficulties and second language acquisition have attracted international interest among researchers and practitioners in recent years. This is because increased mobility between countries means that educators are faced with the problem of providing appropriate assessment and assistance for students with different linguistic and cultural…
Johns, Clinton L.; Matsuki, Kazunaga; Van Dyke, Julie A.
A substantial body of evidence points to a cue-based direct-access retrieval mechanism as a crucial component of skilled adult reading. We report two experiments aimed at examining whether poor readers are able to make use of the same retrieval mechanism. This is significant in light of findings that poor readers have difficulty retrieving linguistic information (e.g., Perfetti, 1985). Our experiments are based on a previous demonstration of direct-access retrieval in language processing, presented in McElree et al. (2003). Experiment 1 replicates the original result using an auditory implementation of the Speed-Accuracy Tradeoff (SAT) method. This finding represents a significant methodological advance, as it opens up the possibility of exploring retrieval speeds in non-reading populations. Experiment 2 provides evidence that poor readers do use a direct-access retrieval mechanism during listening comprehension, despite overall poorer accuracy and slower retrieval speeds relative to skilled readers. The findings are discussed with respect to hypotheses about the source of poor reading comprehension. PMID:26528212
McMahon, Don; Wright, Rachel; Cihak, David F.; Moore, Tara C.; Lamb, Richard
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a digitized podcast to deliver read-aloud testing accommodations on mobile devices to students with disabilities and reading difficulties. The total sample for this study included 47 middle school students with reading difficulties. Of the 47 students, 16 were identified as students with disabilities who received special education services. Participants were randomly assigned to three experimental testing conditions, standard administration, teacher-controlled read-aloud in traditional group delivery format, and student-controlled read-aloud delivered as a podcast and accessed on a mobile device, and given sample end-of-year science assessments. Based on a factorial analysis of variances, with test conditions and student status as the fixed factors, both student groups demonstrated statistically significant gains based on their testing conditions. Results support the use of podcast delivery as a viable alternative to the traditional teacher-delivered read-aloud test accommodation. Conclusions are discussed in the context of universal design for learning testing accommodations for future research and practice.
Kennedy, Lauren; Stansfeld, Charles W.
The Reading Proficiency Interview (RPI) is a new reading proficiency test format that was created in response to the US government's need to rapidly produce a cost effective and credible reading proficiency assessment format for small-population languages. The RPI was developed in response to a requirement by the National Language Service Corps…
Baker, Doris Luft; Biancarosa, Gina; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Bousselot, Tracy; Smith, Jean-Louise; Baker, Scott K.; Kame'enui, Edward J.; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald
We examined the criterion validity and diagnostic efficiency of oral reading fluency (ORF), word reading accuracy, and reading comprehension (RC) for students in Grades 7 and 8 taking into account form effects of ORF, time of assessment, and individual differences, including student designations of limited English proficiency and special education…
There is considerable interest and controversy in the community concerning how our students are faring in the task of mastering reading. Broad scale assessment, formerly at a State level and now at a National level (NAPLAN), is potentially valuable in helping answer this question in a broad sense. However, there are limitations to the value of…
Simic, Marge; Smith, Carl, Comp.
Originally developed for the Department of Defense Schools (DoDDS) system, this learning package on changing perspective in reading assessment is designed for teachers who wish to upgrade or expand their teaching skills on their own. The package includes a comprehensive search of the ERIC database; a lecture giving an overview on the topic; the…
Brookhart, Susan M.; Moss, Connie M.; Long, Beverly A.
Six remedial reading teachers in a large, rural school district participated in a form of professional development called Teaching as Intentional Learning, based on an inquiry process. Their topic of inquiry was formative assessment. Professional development comprised both direct instruction and inquiry learning in teachers' own classrooms. This…
Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Bosse, Michael J.; Faulconer, Johna
The mathematics education community recognizes the integrality of reading and writing in learning and communicating mathematics knowledge. Unfortunately, many students have yet to significantly experience this integrality in their mathematics classrooms despite the power these tools offer teachers for assessing student knowledge. This paper…
Tindal, Gerald; Nese, Joseph F. T.; Farley, Dan; Saven, Jessica L.; Elliott, Stephen N.
Students with disabilities have been included in state accountability systems for more than a decade; however, only in the past few years have alternate assessments of alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS) become stable enough to allow examination of these students' achievement growth. Using data from Oregon's AA-AAS in Reading during the…
Littlepage, Glen E.; Brower, Grant
Work teams sometimes include individuals with low levels of reading proficiency. Traditional team assessment instruments may not be suitable for use with such teams. A well-known teamwork instrument, the Team Excellence survey (LaFasto & Larson, 1987), was simplified to enhance readability. Fifty-two participants completed both the original and…
Denton, Carolyn A.; Swanson, Elizabeth A.; Mathes, Patricia G.
The use of student assessment data is a key component of a model of instructional coaching, Student-Focused Coaching (Hasbrouck & Denton, 2005), designed to support student achievement by engaging reading teachers in a collaborative problem-solving process to modify instructional strategies with the goal of enhanced student outcomes. In this…
... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What records are available in reading rooms, and... available in reading rooms, and how are they accessed? (a) General. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(2), unless..., DOT and its components make the following records, and an index to the records, available in a...
Leist, Cathy W.; Woolwine, Mark A.; Bays, Cathy L.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of a critical thinking rubric as an assessment of reading achievement for students enrolled in a reading intervention course. A reading prompt and scoring rubric, based on Richard Paul and Linda Elder's critical thinking framework, were created to assess critical reading in an intervention…
Rawlusyk, Kevin James
Test items used to assess learners' knowledge on high-stakes science examinations contain contextualized questions that unintentionally assess reading skill along with conceptual knowledge. Therefore, students who are not proficient readers are unable to comprehend the text within the test item to demonstrate effectively their level of science knowledge. The purpose of this quantitative study was to understand what reading attributes were required to successfully answer the Biology 30 Diploma Exam. Furthermore, the research sought to understand the cognitive relationships among the reading attributes through quantitative analysis structured by the Attribute Hierarchy Model (AHM). The research consisted of two phases: (1) Cognitive development, where the cognitive attributes of the Biology 30 Exam were specified and hierarchy structures were developed; and (2) Psychometric analysis, that statistically tested the attribute hierarchy using the Hierarchy Consistency Index (HCI), and calculate attribute probabilities. Phase one of the research used January 2011, Biology 30 Diploma Exam, while phase two accessed archival data for the 9985 examinees who took the assessment on January 24th, 2011. Phase one identified ten specific reading attributes, of which five were identified as unique subsets of vocabulary, two were identified as reading visual representations, and three corresponded to general reading skills. Four hierarchical cognitive model were proposed then analyzed using the HCI as a mechanism to explain the relationship among the attributes. Model A had the highest HCI value (0.337), indicating an overall poor data fit, yet for the top achieving examinees the model had an excellent model fit with an HCI value of 0.888, and for examinees that scored over 60% there was a moderate model fit (HCI = 0.592). Linear regressions of the attribute probability estimates suggest that there is a cognitive relationship among six of the ten reading attributes (R2 = 0.958 and 0
... finalizing achievement levels definitions for the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in... for improvements to the achievement levels definitions for the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in reading. These achievement levels definitions describe the reading skills and...
Wolf, Darlene F.
Data from a study on second-language reading comprehension show that assessment task type, language of assessment, and target language experience uniformly affect learners' ability to demonstrate their reading comprehension. A literature review is included. (Contains 57 references.) (LB)
Cline, Frederick; Johnstone, Christopher; King, Teresa
The National Accessible Reading Assessment Projects (NARAP) is a collaborative effort that is conducting research to make large-scale assessments of reading proficiency more accessible for students who have disabilities that affect reading. There are two projects that comprise the NARAP partnership, Designing Accessible Reading Assessments (DARA)…
Simpson, Richard; Koester, Heidi Horstmann; Lopresti, Edmund
Computer access technology (CAT) allows people who have trouble using a standard computer keyboard, mouse, or monitor to access a computer. CAT is critical for enhancing the educational and vocational opportunities of people with disabilities. Choosing the most appropriate CAT is a collaborative decision-making process involving the consumer, clinician(s), and third party payers. The challenges involved and potential technological solutions are discussed.
Grajo, Lenin C; Candler, Catherine; Bowyer, Patricia; Schultz, Sally; Thomson, Jennifer; Fong, Karen
The Inventory of Reading Occupations (IRO) is an assessment tool of children's reading participation. In this study, we used Rasch methods to determine the internal validity of the IRO. Participants included 192 typical and struggling readers from kindergarten to third grade from five different states in the United States. We analyzed the fit of each of the items in the 17 reading categories, the test items in the three dimensions of reading participation, and the contexts of reading in the IRO. Analysis indicated that the IRO items support the Rasch model of unidimensionality. Analysis also indicated that 1 of the 30 test items can be revised to strengthen test validity. Moreover, the analysis also suggested that the IRO is more useful for first- to third-grade students. This study provides evidence of internal validity of a useful tool to assess children's reading participation.
Marcotte, Amanda M.; Hintze, John M.
Formative assessment measures are commonly used in schools to assess reading and to design instruction accordingly. The purpose of this research was to investigate the incremental and concurrent validity of formative assessment measures of reading comprehension. It was hypothesized that formative measures of reading comprehension would contribute…
Patel, Shaan S; Sheppard, Evan D; Siegel, Herrick J; Ponce, Brent A
Cancer patients rely on patient education materials (PEMs) to gather information regarding their disease. Patients who are better informed about their illness have better health outcomes. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommends that PEMs be written at a sixth- to seventh-grade reading level. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the readability of online PEMs of bone and soft-tissue sarcomas and related conditions. We identified relevant online PEMs from the following websites: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, academic training centers, sarcoma specialists, Google search hits, Bonetumor.org, Sarcoma Alliance, Sarcoma Foundation of America, and Medscape. We used 10 different readability instruments to evaluate the reading level of each website's PEMs. In assessing 72 websites and 774 articles, we found that none of the websites had a mean readability score at or below 7 (seventh grade). Collectively, all websites had a mean readability score of 11.4, and the range of scores was grade level 8.9 to 15.5. None of the PEMs in this study of bone and soft-tissue sarcomas and related conditions met the NIH recommendation for PEM reading levels. Concerted efforts to improve the reading level of orthopedic oncologic PEMs are necessary.
Stack, Maria H.; Moorefield-Lang, Heather; Barksdale, Mary Alice
In order to promote voluntary reading in elementary school, students need to have access to books they want to read, to believe they can read, and to be in an environment conducive to reading. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an instrument intended to measure students' perceptions in these areas. An exploratory factor analysis…
Pearson, P. David; Valencia, Sheila W.; Wixson, Karen
In this article, we share with readers our hopes, fears, and predictions for reading assessment in American schools at a critical policy juncture--the production of new assessments to measure achievement of the Common Core State Standards. It isn't just Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers and Smarter Balanced…
Manzo, Ula; Manzo, Anthony V.
In this article, we discuss the Informal Reading-"Thinking" Inventory (IR-TI), an informal reading inventory built on an easily recognized legacy model that also branches out into new realms. The IR-TI provides tools for assessing reading the lines, reading between the lines, and reading beyond the lines. This is a 21st-century…
van Steensel, Roel; Oostdam, Ron; van Gelderen, Amos
On the basis of a validation study of a new test for assessing low-achieving adolescents' reading comprehension skills--the SALT-reading--we analyzed two issues relevant to the field of reading test development. Using the test results of 200 seventh graders, we examined the possibility of identifying reading comprehension subskills and the effects…
Nanda, Alice Owens
Due to the paucity of research on struggling adult readers, researchers rely on child-based reading constructs and measures when investigating the reading skills of adults struggling with reading. The purpose of the two studies in this investigation was to evaluate the appropriateness of using child-based reading constructs and assessments with…
Mulford, Jeremy, Ed.
A collection of articles reflecting the underlying concern of British contributors with continuity--conceiving reading and learning as a whole throughout the school years--comprises this special issue of "English in Education." Specific topics treated are: "What Children Learn in Learning to Read" by R. Morris; "Reading without Primers" by W.…
Kim, James; Hemphill, Lowry; Troyer, Margaret; Jones, Stephanie; LaRusso, Maria; Kim, Ha-Yeon; Donovan, Suzanne; Snow, Catherine
Nearly one-quarter of U.S. eighth graders score below basic on national assessments of reading (NCES, 2013) and are poorly equipped for the reading demands of secondary school. Struggling adolescent readers cannot summarize a simple passage, use context to determine word meanings, and have difficulties making text-based inferences. In addition,…
Kirkham, Robert Scott
Despite flexibility waivers granted to states by the United States Department of Education from some provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act, our nation's public schools continue to struggle to improve reading proficiency as measured by high stakes assessments. To reach state targets for reading proficiency schools must use data at the earliest…
Hale, Andrea D.; Henning, Jaime B.; Hawkins, Renee O.; Sheeley, Wesley; Shoemaker, Larissa; Reynolds, Jennifer R.; Moch, Christina
This study was designed to investigate the validity of four different aloud reading comprehension assessment measures: Maze, comprehension questions, Maze accurate response rate (MARR), and reading comprehension rate (RCR). The criterion measures used in this study were the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement (WJ-III ACH) Broad Reading…
Decker, Dawn M.; Hixson, Michael D.; Shaw, Amber; Johnson, Gloria
The purpose of this study was to examine whether using a multiple-measure framework yielded better classification accuracy than oral reading fluency (ORF) or maze alone in predicting pass/fail rates for middle-school students on a large-scale reading assessment. Participants were 178 students in Grades 7 and 8 from a Midwestern school district.…
Marchand, Gwen C.; Furrer, Carrie J.
This study explored the relationships among formative curriculum-based measures of reading (CBM-R), student engagement as an extra-academic indicator of student motivation, and summative performance on a high-stakes reading assessment. A diverse sample of third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade students and their teachers responded to questionnaires…
Gove, Amber, Ed.; Wetterberg, Anna, Ed.
This book highlights the experience of Liberia in both assessing and improving reading in primary schools. As a result of an Early Grade Reading Assessment, the Ministry of Education and partners, including the United States Agency for International Development, came together to identify and develop strategies for improving reading in schools.…
Carlson, Sarah; Seipel, Ben; McMaster, Kristen
Many researchers focus on assessing the cognitive components of reading comprehension. However, researchers are challenged to find the best way to measure the cognitive components of reading comprehension because many reading comprehension assessments differ in terms of format (i.e., cloze, multiple-chose, open-ended); presentation (i.e., print);…
Mullis, Ina V.S.; Kennedy, Ann M.; Martin, Michael O.; Sainsbury, Marian
The Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2006 Assessment Framework and Specifications is intended as a blueprint for IEA's 2006 assessment of reading literacy. Concrete information about how well students can read provides policymakers and researchers in every country with insight on how to improve literacy and reading…
The purpose of this study was to characterize students' self-assessments when reading mathematical texts, in particular regarding what students use as a basis for evaluations of their own reading comprehension. A total of 91 students read two mathematical texts, and for each text, they performed a self-assessment of their comprehension and…
Ralston, Nicole C.; Waggoner, Jacqueline M.; Tarasawa, Beth; Jackson, Amy
This study investigates the use of screening assessments within the increasingly popular Response to Intervention (RTI) framework, specifically seeking to collect concurrent validity evidence on one potential new screening tool, the Independent Reading Level Assessment (IRLA) framework. Furthermore, this study builds on existing literature by…
In terms of local legislation, South Africa has a handful of regulations that indirectly require Universal Access, which is then in itself largely described as facilities for people with disabilities. The most predominant set of regulations is the South African National Building Regulations, with a specific code which is deemed to satisfy standard titled South African National Standard (SANS) 10400 Part S: Facilities for Persons with Disabilities. Revised in 2011, this building regulation offers some technical guidelines specific to built infrastructure, and largely for people with functional mobility limitations. The description of the term "functional mobility limitations" in the context of this paper refers to people who make use of mobility aids to assist with their functionality in an environment, for example people who use walking aids (sticks, canes or walkers) and people who use wheelchairs. Albeit lacking in specifics around the requirements for other areas of functional limitations, including people who are blind, people who are deaf, and people with cognitive limitations, the SANS 10400 Part S is, to date, the most effective regulatory requirement in the country to assist with making facilities more accessible. With only a few experts in South Africa working in the field, the ability to offer clients Universal Access Reviews in terms of basic compliance with the SANS 10400 Part S is limited by two major factors. Firstly, the costs associated with employing experts in the field to review infrastructure is mostly too exorbitant for clients to carry. Secondly, the amount of time taken to perform reviews onsite and then collate the information into a coherent report for the client is far too long. These aspects result in a gap between clients wanting to meet the requirements, and being able to have the work completed in a reasonable amount of time. To overcome the challenge of larger institutions and organizations wanting to have their facilities reviewed in
National Assessment of Educational Progress, Princeton, NJ.
In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment (TSA); for the first time in NAEP's history, voluntary state-by-state assessments were made. In 1992, the NAEP Program included an expanded TSA in fourth-grade reading. The 1992 reading assessment considered students' performance in situations that…
Schenk, John J.; Steppan, Scott J.
Graduate-level reading groups serve as a primary forum for students to learn current and complex concepts in their field. Because graduate students lament that reading "abnormally long" articles discourage them from attending particular reading group sessions, we tested the hypothesis that attendance will decrease proportionally with…
Jacobs, Rhonda Suzanne
Research concerning technology-based reading intervention is limited and additional studies are needed in this area of study. This study examined the individual intervention programs (Read 180 and Thinking Reader) for diverse 6th, 7th, and 8th graders in order to determine the gains per grade level on state standardized reading tests. This study…
Reading affects a plethora of areas in life. Students with learning disabilities often fall into this category due to a lack of practice with reading and less time to focus on building skills. This paper examines the background, the relationship between reading and learning disabilities, the characteristics of students with learning disabilities…
Chen, Nian-Shing; Teng, Daniel Chia-En; Lee, Cheng-Han; Kinshuk
Comprehension is the goal of reading. However, students often encounter reading difficulties due to the lack of background knowledge and proper reading strategy. Unfortunately, print text provides very limited assistance to one's reading comprehension through its static knowledge representations such as symbols, charts, and graphs. Integrating…
Coy-Shaffer, Joye; Pettit, Shirley
A study conducted in the Orange County Public Schools in central Florida investigated the reading interests of sixth-grade students. The study also gathered information from teachers regarding the nature and source of reading materials used for independent reading in their classrooms and on the implementation of sustained silent reading practices.…
This article examines how three urban elementary school teachers adapted pedagogical strategies from a school district--adopted core reading program to increase their students' access to the curriculum. Using teacher interviews and classroom observations to construct a descriptive case study of teacher adaptation, analysis reveals that the…
Reinders, Hayo; Lázaro, Noemí
Assessment is generally seen as one of the key challenges in the field of self-access learning (Gardner & Miller, 1999; Champagne et al., 2001; Lai, 2001; Kinoshita Thomson, 1996). Many researchers and practitioners point to difficulties with assessing language gains in an environment in which variables cannot comprehensively be controlled…
Foorman, Barbara R.; Petscher, Yaacov
In Florida, mean proficiency scores are reported on the Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test (FCAT) as well as recommended learning gains from the developmental scale score. Florida now has another within-year measure of growth in reading comprehension from the Florida Assessments for Instruction in Reading (FAIR). The FAIR reading comprehension…
Cho, Eunsoo; Compton, Donald L.; Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Steacy, Laura M.; Collins, Alyson A.; Lindström, Esther R.
Dynamic assessment (DA) of word reading measures learning potential for early reading development by documenting the amount of assistance needed to learn how to read words with unfamiliar orthography. We examined the additive value of DA for predicting first-grade decoding and word recognition development while controlling for autoregressive…
Alonzo, Julie; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Tindal, Gerald
In this technical report, we document the development and piloting of easyCBM reading measures aligned to the Common Core State Standards, designed for use in screening students at risk for reading difficulty and monitoring their progress as they develop reading skills. The measures, which assess students' ability to respond to…
Valencia, Sheila W.; Smith, Antony T.; Reece, Anne M.; Li, Min; Wixson, Karen K.; Newman, Heather
This study investigated multiple models for assessing oral reading fluency, including 1-minute oral reading measures that produce scores reported as words correct per minute (wcpm). We compared a measure of wcpm with measures of the individual and combined indicators of oral reading fluency (rate, accuracy, prosody, and comprehension) to examine…
Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC. Right to Read Program.
The Right to Read Needs Assessment Package (NAP) is designed to assist individual schools in evaluating their current reading program, personnel, and achievement in a relatively short period of time as a prelude to planning a more effective approach to reading instruction. The contents include instructions and suggested forms for the collection of…
Emphasizing the work done at the Center for the Study of Reading in Urbana, Illinois, this paper draws together experimental and theoretical information that is relevant to the problem of assessing children's reading comprehension. The first two sections of the paper present and support a model of reading comprehension that integrates some…
Lochrin, Margaret; Arciuli, Joanne; Sharma, Mridula
This study investigated the relationship between both receptive and expressive prosody and each of three reading outcomes: accuracy of reading aloud words, accuracy of reading aloud nonwords, and comprehension. Participants were 63 children aged 7 to 12 years. To assess prosody, we used the Profiling Elements of Prosody in Speech Communication…
Kirkham, Scott; Lampley, James H.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between three predictor variables (Fall R-CBM, Winter R-CBM, and Spring R-CBM) and the Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program third grade reading and language arts assessment. The population selected for this study included all third grade students from an East Tennessee school…
Kame'enui, Edward J.; Fuchs, Lynn; Francis, David J.; Good, Roland, III; O'Connor, Rollanda E.; Simmons, Deborah C.; Tindal, Gerald; Torgesen, Joseph K.
Assessment of student performance is critical for developing effective instructional policy and designing programs responsive to individual students' needs. To gauge the adequacy of available assessment tools for achieving these ends, the Reading First Assessment Committee (RFAC) developed criteria for evaluating the adequacy of reading measures…
Drawing on the programme for international student assessment 2009 US data-set, this study examines the relationship between formative assessment and students' reading achievement using a structural equation modelling approach. We find that formative assessment is positively related to students' reading achievement directly and indirectly (through…
Posey, Virginia K.; Henderson, Barbara W.
Introduction: This exploratory study determined whether transcribing selected test items on an adult life and work skills reading test into braille could maintain the same approximate scale-score range and maintain fitness within the item response theory model as used by the Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (CASAS) for developing…
The Space Life Sciences Directorate/Medical Informatics and Health Care Systems Branch (SD4) is assessing the benefits Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology for tracking items flown onboard the International Space Station (ISS). As an initial study, the Avionic Systems Division Electromagnetic Systems Branch (EV4) is collaborating with SD4 to affix RFID tags to a water kit supplied by SD4 and studying the read success rate of the tagged items. The tagged water kit inside a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB) was inventoried using three different RFID technologies, including the Johnson Space Center Building 14 Wireless Habitat Test Bed RFID portal, an RFID hand-held reader being targeted for use on board the ISS, and an RFID enclosure designed and prototyped by EV4.
Bosse, Michael J.; Faulconer, Johna
Students learn mathematics more effectively and more deeply when reading and writing is directed at learning mathematics. Although reading and writing in mathematics may necessitate more skills and practice to master, the mathematical learning derived from reading and writing mathematics far outweighs the burden it places on teachers and students.…
Service (1989). TOEFL Test of Written English Guide. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service. Educational Testing Service (1990). Test of Written...55 Research Design ............ ................. 57 Independent Variables .............. ......... 58 English Reading Comprehension...169 APPENDICES A. English Reading Passages .................. 171 Louis IX ...................... . ...... 172 Napoleon
Kariuki, Patrick; Baxter, Andrew
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between prosodic oral reading and overall reading comprehension of second grade students. The sample consisted of ten students who were randomly selected from a second grade classroom. The students read aloud from the book "Bedtime for Frances" by Lillian and Russell Hoban for a…
Colorado Student Assessment Program: 2001 Released Passages, Items, and Prompts. Grade 4 Reading and Writing, Grade 4 Lectura y Escritura, Grade 5 Mathematics and Reading, Grade 6 Reading, Grade 7 Reading and Writing, Grade 8 Mathematics, Reading and Science, Grade 9 Reading, and Grade 10 Mathematics and Reading and Writing.
Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.
This document contains released reading comprehension passages, test items, and writing prompts from the Colorado Student Assessment Program for 2001. The sample questions and prompts are included without answers or examples of student responses. Test materials are included for: (1) Grade 4 Reading and Writing; (2) Grade 4 Lectura y Escritura…
Sabatini, John; O'Reilly, Tenaha; Deane, Paul
This report describes the foundation and rationale for a framework designed to measure reading literacy. The aim of the effort is to build an assessment system that reflects current theoretical conceptions of reading and is developmentally sensitive across a prekindergarten to 12th grade student range. The assessment framework is intended to…
Woods, Kevin; Parkinson, Gill; Lewis, Sarah
Many countries have established systems for identifying, and providing for, the range of students with disabilities during their formal educational assessments. Most systems include the provision of variously termed "special access arrangements" (SAAs), such as the provision of extra time or practical assistance with some aspect of an…
Falcomata, Terry S.; Roane, Henry S.; Feeney, Brian J.; Stephenson, Kasey M.
We evaluated a treatment for elopement maintained by access to stereotypic door play. First, we conducted a functional analysis of elopement that produced undifferentiated results. Next, we conducted an assessment in which we evaluated the relation between elopement and door play. Results suggested a functional relation between the 2 behaviors…
Phelps, Geoffrey; Johnson, David; Carlisle, Joanne
The research reported in this paper is focused directly on assessing the validity of the "Teaching Knowledge about Reading and Reading Practices" (TKRRP) assessment. Following the recommendations of the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing (APA/AERA, 1999), the authors see validation as a process of constructing an…
Beavers, Karen F.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Braden, Jeffery P.
In this study, 18 teachers and 32 of their students who had reading difficulties were randomly assigned to one of two assessment conditions. In the functional assessment condition, consultants identified functional relationships among environmental events and targeted reading behaviors to develop an intervention plan. In the empiric condition,…
Oxford-Carpenter, Rebecca L.; Schultz-Shiner, Linda J.
Noting that the United States Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences (ARI) has been involved in research on reading assessment in the Army from both practical and theoretical perspectives, this paper addresses practical Army problems in reading assessment from a theory base that reflects the most recent and most sound…
Manzo, Anthony V.; Casale, Ula Price
A test battery termed "Assessment of Reading and Language Maturity" (ALARM) contains 15 subtests designed to cover the major and minor elements involved in assessing and promoting progress toward reading-language-thinking and social-emotional maturity. Although still undergoing development, ALARM has been administered to and partially…
Perin, Dolores; Raufman, Julia; Kalamkarian, Hoori Santikian
This paper reports findings from a researcher-practitioner partnership that assessed the readiness for postsecondary reading and writing demands of 211 students in developmental reading and English courses in two community colleges. An assessment battery was designed for the study, comprising two standardized tests and five projectdeveloped tasks.…
Clark, Amy K.
The present study sought to fit a cognitive diagnostic model (CDM) across multiple forms of a passage-based reading comprehension assessment using the attribute hierarchy method. Previous research on CDMs for reading comprehension assessments served as a basis for the attributes in the hierarchy. The two attribute hierarchies were fit to data from…
This study investigated choral singers' comfort level using computer technology for vocal sight-reading assessment. High school choral singers (N = 138) attending a summer music camp completed a computer-based sight-reading assessment and accompanying pre- and posttest surveys on their musical backgrounds and perceptions about technology. A large…
Puente, Anibal; Alvarado, Jesús M; Fernández, Paz; Rosselli, Mónica; Ardila, Alfredo; Jiménez, Amelia
This study's purpose was to analyse basic reading processes in different age groups of Spanish-speaking children using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and regression analysis. Two hundred forty-five children (aged 4 years and 9 months, to 9 years and 7 months; 120 boys, 125 girls), native Spanish-speakers, were selected from schools in Madrid. All participants were in either their last year of preschool or the first three years of elementary school, depending on their age. Nine classic reading tasks were created and administered to measure three reading skills: word recognition, phonological awareness, and reading comprehension. The results of the CFA show that data fit to proposed model with a general reading factor based on these three reading skills χ2(27) = 29.03, p = .36, RMSEA = .02, 90% CIs [.0, .05], CFI = 1.0. The word recognition skills were the best at describing reading performance in preschool children (R 2 = .51 for word identification task); phonological awareness, especially rhyme identification task, discriminated well until second grade (R 2 = .60); and finally, reading comprehension, basically phrase completion task, were the best measure of reading performance in third grade (R 2 = .45).
Deeney, Theresa A.; Shim, Minsuk K.
In this article, we present results of a survey designed to understand teachers' (n = 77) and students' (n = 875) perceptions of purported negative consequences of using one-minute oral reading fluency (ORF) measures such as the "Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills" (DIBELS) ORF assessment and the "aimsweb Reading…
Huh, Jeonghee; Hirumi, Atsusi
Compared to conventional classroom settings, e-learning relies heavily on a student's reading ability. However, many students, particularly those at-risk or those who may have already dropped out of conventional schools, tend to have low reading ability that affects their ability to learn online. The problem is that relatively little has been done…
Afflerbach, Peter; And Others
Describes a program intended to help students reflect on, discuss, and evaluate their reading and their accomplishments related to reading. Notes that the program uses a set of materials and procedures based on a Native American winter count (an animal hide or cloth on which the Yankton Sioux recorded important events). (SR)
Rueter, Jessica A.; McWhorter, Rochell R.; Lamb, John H.; Dykes, Frank O.
Chappell, Stephens, Kinnison, and Pettigrew (2009) conducted a study investigating educational diagnosticians knowledge of early reading development. Our study replicated the work of Chappell et al. through a mixed methods design that investigated educational diagnosticians' perceptions and knowledge of early reading development. Additionally, our…
This guide outlines a model that adult educators can use to construct a test for their adult students, regardless of subject area, that is written at the students' reading level. The problems that written tests pose for trade and technical students in further education (FE) who have poor reading skills and the drawbacks of using commercially…
Johansson, Stefan; Myrberg, Eva; Rosen, Monica
The purpose of the present study was to examine validity aspects of teachers' judgements of pupils' reading skills. Data come from Sweden's participation in the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2001, for Grades 3 and 4. For pupils at the same achievement levels, as measured by PIRLS 2001 test, teachers' judgements of…
Diaconis, Athena; Estrera, Elc; Hafford, Carol; Hernandez, Marc; Markovitz, Carrie; Muyskens, Paul
Minnesota Reading Corps is the largest AmeriCorps State program in the country. Its mission is to help every Minnesota child become a proficient reader by the end of third grade. To meet this goal, the Minnesota Reading Corps and its host organization, ServeMinnesota Action Network, engages a diverse group of AmeriCorps members to provide…
Clemens, Nathan H; Oslund, Eric L; Simmons, Leslie E; Simmons, Deborah
Early reading and spelling development share foundational skills, yet spelling assessment is underutilized in evaluating early reading. This study extended research comparing the degree to which methods for scoring spelling skills at the end of kindergarten were associated with reading skills measured at the same time as well as at the end of first grade. Five strategies for scoring spelling responses were compared: totaling the number of words spelled correctly, totaling the number of correct letter sounds, totaling the number of correct letter sequences, using a rubric for scoring invented spellings, and calculating the Spelling Sensitivity Score (Masterson & Apel, 2010b). Students (N=287) who were identified at kindergarten entry as at risk for reading difficulty and who had received supplemental reading intervention were administered a standardized spelling assessment in the spring of kindergarten, and measures of phonological awareness, decoding, word recognition, and reading fluency were administered concurrently and at the end of first grade. The five spelling scoring metrics were similar in their strong relations with factors summarizing reading subskills (phonological awareness, decoding, and word reading) on a concurrent basis. Furthermore, when predicting first-grade reading skills based on spring-of-kindergarten performance, spelling scores from all five metrics explained unique variance over the autoregressive effects of kindergarten word identification. The practical advantages of using a brief spelling assessment for early reading evaluation and the relative tradeoffs of each scoring metric are discussed.
Schmitt, Ara; Balles, John; Venesky, Lindsey
This study investigated the relations among annual school absences, data obtained from triennial reading curriculum-based measurement (R-CBM) screenings, including R-CBM slope, and a high-stakes state reading assessment. Participants included 106 third- and fourth-grade students for whom attendance and reading achievement data were available…
Jones, Brooke A; Dozier, Claudia L; Neidert, Pamela L
We evaluated the extent to which access duration during stimulus preference assessments affects preschool-age children's preferences for leisure items. Results demonstrated that rankings for highly preferred items remained similar across both short- and long-access durations; however, overall preference hierarchies remained more similar across administrations of long-access-duration assessments than short-access-duration assessments.
O'Reilly, Tenaha; Weeks, Jonathan; Sabatini, John; Halderman, Laura; Steinberg, Jonathan
When designing a reading intervention, researchers and educators face a number of challenges related to the focus, intensity, and duration of the intervention. In this paper, we argue there is another fundamental challenge--the nature of the reading outcome measures used to evaluate the intervention. Many interventions fail to demonstrate…
Law, Caroline; Cupples, Linda
Improving the reading performance of children with developmental surface dyslexia has proved challenging, with limited generalisation of reading skills typically reported after intervention. The aim of this study was to provide tailored, theoretically motivated intervention to two children with developmental surface dyslexia. Our objectives were to improve their reading performance, and to evaluate the utility of current reading models in therapeutic practice. Detailed reading and cognitive profiles for two male children with developmental surface dyslexia were compared to the results obtained by age-matched control groups. The specific area of single-word reading difficulty for each child was identified within the dual route model (DRM) of reading, following which a theoretically motivated intervention programme was devised. Both children showed significant improvements in single-word reading ability after training, with generalisation effects observed for untrained words. However, the assessment and intervention results also differed for each child, reinforcing the view that the causes and consequences of developmental dyslexia, even within subtypes, are not homogeneous. Overall, the results of the interventions corresponded more closely with the DRM than other current reading models, in that real word reading improved in the absence of enhanced nonword reading for both children.
Sabatini, John; Albro, Elizabeth; O'Reilly, Tenaha
In recent decades, the science of reading acquisition, processes, and individual differences in general and special populations has been continuously advancing through interdisciplinary research in cognitive, psycholinguistic, developmental, genetic, neuroscience, cross-language studies, and experimental comparison studies of effective…
Malloy, Jacquelynn A.; Marinak, Barbara A.; Gambrell, Linda B.; Mazzoni, Susan A.
For most classroom teachers, recognizing when students are engaged in literacy activities--and perhaps more glaringly, when they are not--is a process that is key to evaluating the potential success of the instruction being offered. Students who are engaged have their eyes on what they are doing, are ardently attending to the teacher's read aloud…
Marinak, Barbara A.; Malloy, Jacquelynn B.; Gambrell, Linda B.; Mazzoni, Susan A.
Research indicates that motivation plays a central role in literacy development. Recent investigations have revealed that reading motivation begins to erode as early as second grade. Therefore, it can be suggested that motivation must be carefully considered during early literacy instruction. However, such motivating instruction can be effectively…
In order to identify students at risk of failing the Tennessee high-stakes achievement test known as the Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP), early literacy skills are monitored using reading assessments. Common reading assessments are based upon varying theories of reading development and do not reflect the necessary reading…
Sanderson, Geoffrey T.
This evaluation report provides details for school year 2013 on the percentage of primary students who met or exceeded grade-level reading benchmarks on the Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools' (MCPS) Assessment Program in Primary Reading (AP-PR). The percentage remained above 90% for kindergarten students and showed a small decrease for…
Reading by the colors: Overcoming dyslexia and other reading disabilities through the Irlen Method. Garden City Park, NY: Avery Publishing. Irlen, H...prescription? 2. If you have previously been assessed for dyslexia /dyslexic tendencies, was the result positive? [In other words, were you
Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of Curriculum and Academic Services.
This document contains materials directly related to the actual reading test of the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA), including the reading rubric, released passages, selected-response questions with answer keys, performance tasks, and scored samples of students' responses to the tasks. All of these items may be duplicated to…
Putnam, Lillian R., Ed.
Reflecting the diverse philosophies and experiences of clinicians and practitioners, this book presents 30 essays that address the identification of reading strengths and weaknesses, assessment, and instructional strategies for remediation. Chapters in the book are (1) "The Role of Vision in Reading Disability" (Lois B. Bing); (2) "Problems with…
Valleley, Rachel J.; Shriver, Mark D.; Rozema, Sheryl
An 11-year-old boy presented in an outpatient clinic with a vocal habit that occurred during reading and conversation. A brief reading assessment was conducted to determine an effective intervention to decrease the habit. A modified version of the word error-correction procedure resulted in positive changes and was implemented by his mother during…
Amendum, Steven J.; Conradi, Kristin; Pendleton, Melissa J.
This article is designed to help teachers interpret reading assessment data from DIBELS beyond individual subtests to better support their students' needs. While it is important to understand the individual subtest measures, it is more vital to understand how each fits into the larger picture of reading development. The underlying construct of…
Sarroub, Loukia; Pearson, P. David
Examines the historical course of reading-comprehension assessment practices over 25 years (from the 1970s to the mid-1990s), examining changing views of reading processes, practices, and policies. Characterizes progress in terms of political and practical constraints. Finds that, although very different formats are used today, the functions of…
Bell, Sherry Mee; McCallum, R. Steve; Ziegler, Mary; Davis, C. A.; Coleman, MariBeth
The purpose of this paper is to describe briefly the development and utility of the "Assessment of Reading Instructional Knowledge-Adults" ("ARIK-A"), the only nationally normed (n?=?468) measure of adult reading instructional knowledge, created to facilitate professional development of adult educators. Developmental data…
Patel, Rupal; Connaghan, Kathryn; Franco, Diana; Edsall, Erika; Forgit, Dory; Olsen, Laura; Ramage, Lianna; Tyler, Emily; Russell, Scott
Purpose: A review of the salient characteristics of motor speech disorders and common assessment protocols revealed the need for a novel reading passage tailored specifically to differentiate between and among the dysarthrias (DYSs) and apraxia of speech (AOS). Method: "The Caterpillar" passage was designed to provide a contemporary, easily read,…
National Assessment of Educational Progress, Princeton, NJ.
In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment (TSA); for the first time in NAEP's history, voluntary state-by-state assessments were made. In 1994, TSA was expanded to include non-public school students. The 1994 reading assessment considered students' proficiency in situations that involved…
Nevo, Einat; Breznitz, Zvia
The ability of working memory skills (measured by tasks assessing all four working memory components), IQ, language, phonological awareness, literacy, rapid naming, and speed of processing at 6 years of age, before reading was taught, to predict reading abilities (decoding, reading comprehension, and reading time) a year later was examined in 97…
Hoffman, R. Gene; Becker, D. E. (Sunny); Wise, Lauress L.
In March 2003, the National Center for Education Statistics asked the Human Resources Research Organization to participate in a special study of 2002 reading assessment results for Delaware. This working paper summarizes the findings of that study. (AMT)
Jones, F. W.; Long, K.; Finlay, W. M. L.
Background: This study's aim was to begin the process of measuring the reading comprehension of adults with mild and borderline learning disabilities, in order to generate information to help clinicians and other professionals to make written material for adults with learning disabilities more comprehensible. Methods: The Test for the Reception of…
Research investigating affective dimensions in reading has long been plagued by vaguely defined constructs and, consequently, by an array of potentially problematic instruments designed to measure them. This mixed-methods study investigated the relationship among three popular group-administered instruments intended to tap affective constructs in…
Caverly, David C.; Taylor, Judi Salsburg; Dimino, Renee K.; Lampi, Jodi P.
The first "Connecting Practice and Research" column (Lampi, Dimino, & Salsburg Taylor, 2015), introduced a Research-to-Practice partnership (Coburn & Penuel, 2016) between two faculty from a community college and a university professor who were aiming to develop effective integrated reading and writing (IRW) instruction through a…
Nalliveettil, George Mathew
Literacy in reading and understanding printed words is significant for all undergraduate students to succeed in their academic career. Developments in digital technology improved the quality of academic texts in terms of design, format and layout. Further, availability of academic related English language resources in electronic versions gave…
Abou-Elsaad, Tamer; Ali, Rawhia; Abd El-Hamid, Haidy
Phonological awareness (PA) is one of the most important components in the development of normal reading ability. It refers to the ability to detect and manipulate the sound structure of words independently of their meaning. The current study aimed to assess Arabic PA skills and the relation to word reading abilities in Egyptian Arabic-speaking children. The designed assessment was applied to 80 typically developing children, divided into two subgroups ranging in age from 5 years 6 months to 8 years 6 months. The design of assessment involved six PA tasks covering three levels: rhyme awareness, syllabic awareness, and phonemic awareness, as well as the assessment of reading abilities that include real word and nonsense word reading tasks. Descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation), Student's t tests, and Pearson correlation coefficient tests were used to analyze the data. The reliability of the test was proven using the test-retest procedure. Validity of the test was estimated through internal consistency validity. The results revealed that the Arabic PA assessment test (APAAT) proved to be a reliable and valid tool for assessing Arabic reading skills. Findings from the study provided important insights into the developmental patterns of Arabic PA. In addition, the findings revealed a strong relationship between phonological awareness skills and the proficiency in word reading abilities in Arabic school-aged children.
Heinz, Peter J.
Second language (L2) reading comprehension assessment has long relied upon classical quantitative, product-oriented measurement techniques (i.e., multiple-choice and cloze) in both research and classroom assessment. As Bernhardt (1991) clearly demonstrated, these traditionally employed assessment methods are unable to capture the complex processes…
Hosseini, Hosna; Ghabanchi, Zargham
This study highlighted the humanistic-transformational perspectives via portfolio assessment which offers a conceptual framework for teaching and assessment. More specifically, it attempted to explore the effectof portfolio assessment on EFL learners'reading comprehension ability and motivation in the context of Iran. It adopted the…
Santoro, Lana Edwards; Baker, Scott K.; Fien, Hank; Smith, Jean Louise M.; Chard, David J.
The use of informational texts in the elementary grades provides a context for helping students develop content understanding and domain knowledge across a wide range of subject matter. Reading informational text also provides students with the language of thought, foundational vocabulary that can be connected to other words, and technical content…
Phillips, Susan K.
Rural community colleges often face the problem of having to cancel classes due to low enrollment. To eliminate this problem one western community college developed several presentation modes for College Reading I (CR1) to combine low-enrollment classes. This study was a program evaluation on non-equivalent groups to determine which presentation…
LeRoux, Mindy J.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between oral reading fluency (ORF) and Maze, two common Curriculum-Based Measures (CBMs), and the statewide large-scale assessment of reading in Oregon, the Oregon Assessment of Knowledge and Skills- Reading (OAKS-R). A sample of three cohorts of eighth-grade students in an Oregon school…
Limbos, M M; Geva, E
This study examined the accuracy of teacher assessments in screening for reading disabilities among students of English as a second language (ESL) and as a first language (L1). Academic and oral language tests were administered to 369 children (249 ESL, 120 L1) at the beginning of Grade 1 and at the end of Grade 2. Concurrently, 51 teachers nominated children at risk for reading failure and completed rating scales assessing academic and oral language skills. Scholastic records were reviewed for notation of concern or referral. The criterion measure was a standardized reading score based on phonological awareness, rapid naming, and word recognition. Results indicated that teacher rating scales and nominations had low sensitivity in identifying ESL and L1 students at risk for reading disability at the 1-year mark. Relative to other forms of screening, teacher-expressed concern had lower sensitivity. Finally, oral language proficiency contributed to misclassifications in the ESL group.
Johnson, Kary A.; Wilson, Celia M.; Williams-Rossi, Dara
This exploratory study investigated how reading comprehension was conceptualized on the new high-stakes test, the 2011-2012 State of Texas Assessment of Academic Readiness (STAAR). Specifically, comprehension, rate, and accuracy scores on the Gray Oral Reading Test 4 (GORT-4) from a group of struggling, low-SES, Hispanic middle school students (n…
Lee, Siok H.
Extending its use beyond the traditional role in reading and general proficiency assessment, this study examined the effects of the rational cloze procedure (RCP) as a stimulus in integrated reading, writing, and vocabulary instruction and teacher-student interaction. Participants were 39 secondary school multi-grade, multi-L1 low intermediate ESL…
Dagostino, Lorraine; Carifio, James; Bauer, Jennifer D. C.; Zhao, Qing
The review of existing literature suggests that few researchers have adopted cross-language comparisons to explore how cultural background affects the assessment of reading comprehension of students. In this present study, the researchers independently reviewed and rated all the items of two reading comprehension tests translated from Malay into…
Chen, Huilin; Chen, Jinsong
Cognitive diagnosis models (CDMs) are psychometric models developed mainly to assess examinees' specific strengths and weaknesses in a set of skills or attributes within a domain. By adopting the Generalized-DINA model framework, the recently developed general modeling framework, we attempted to retrofit the PISA reading assessments, a…
Amirian, Mohammad Reza; Davoudi, Mohammad; Ramazanian, Mohsen
Dynamic Assessment (DA), is grounded in Vygotsky's idea on Sociocultural Theory (SCT) of mind, his concept of Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) and its related metaphor; scaffolding. This study examined the effects of dynamic assessment on improving reading comprehension of Iranian intermediate students who were learning English as a foreign…
Mazzeo, John; And Others
This report provides a description of the design for the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 1994 Trial State Assessment in Reading and gives an overview of the steps involved in the implementation of the program from the planning stages through to the analysis and reporting of data. The report does not provide the results of the…
Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Miller, Shazia Rafiullah; van der Ploeg, Arie
Interim assessments are increasingly common in U.S. schools. We use high-quality data from a large-scale school-level cluster randomized experiment to examine the impact of two well-known commercial interim assessment programs on mathematics and reading achievement in Indiana. Results indicate that the treatment effects are positive but not…
Allen, Denise A.
Little empirical evidence suggested that independent reading abilities of students enrolled in biology predicted their performance on the Biology I Graduation End-of-Course Assessment (ECA). An archival study was conducted at one Indiana urban public high school in Indianapolis, Indiana, by examining existing educational assessment data to test…
Ajideh, Parviz; Nourdad, Nava
Dynamic assessment rooted in sociolinguistic theory of Vygotsky has a long history in applied linguistics but has recently been the hot topic of EFL studies. The present study aimed at investigating the difference between applying dynamic and non-dynamic assessment of EFL reading comprehension ability and examining its immediate and delayed…
National Academies Press, 2016
Since 1969, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has been providing policymakers, educators, and the public with reports on academic performance and progress of the nation's students. The assessment is given periodically in a variety of subjects: mathematics, reading, writing, science, the arts, civics, economics, geography, U.S.…
Gove, Amber; Habib, Samir; Piper, Benjamin; Ralaingita, Wendi
This article reviews the development of the Early Grade Reading and Mathematics Assessments (EGRA and EGMA), which are locally tailored, timely assessments designed to directly inform policy and instruction for learning improvement, particularly for countries on the lower end of the income spectrum. The history of the design and implementation of…
National Center for Education Statistics, 2013
NAEP Trial Urban District Assessment (TUDA) results in mathematics and reading are based on representative samples of 1,100 to 2,300 public school students at grade 4 and 900 to 2,100 public school students at grade 8 in each participating urban district in 2013. Twenty-one urban districts participated in the 2013 assessments. The assessments…
Gollan, Tamar H.; Slattery, Timothy J.; Goldenberg, Diane; Van Assche, Eva; Duyck, Wouter; Rayner, Keith
To contrast mechanisms of lexical access in production versus comprehension we compared the effects of word frequency (high, low), context (none, low constraint, high constraint), and level of English proficiency (monolingual, Spanish-English bilingual, Dutch-English bilingual) on picture naming, lexical decision, and eye fixation times. Semantic…
Albertini, J; Bochner, J; Dowaliby, F; Henderson, J
One way to improve students' access to and retention in post-secondary degree progams is to assess their readiness for such programs accurately. To place deaf and hard-of-hearing students in preparatory courses and to determine their readiness for degree programs more accurately, a direct measure of writing was developed for deaf and hard-of-hearing students at a large technical university. The purpose of this study was to estimate the concurrent and predictive validity of this measure. The Test of Written English (Educational Testing Service, 1992) served as the criterion in the concurrent validity study, and student success in the university's gateway freshman composition course served as the criterion in the predictive validity study. Results provide evidence of the concurrent and predictive validity of the measure, supporting its use for course placement and early planning purposes.
Wisdom, Jenifer R.; White, Nathan A.; Goldsmith, Kimberley A.; Bielavitz, Sarann; Davis, Charles E.; Drum, Charles
A needs assessment determined Oregon community college staff knowledge of (a) accessible information technology (IT) guidelines, (b) IT-related disability laws, (c) legal obligations regarding Web accessibility, and (d) perceived level of current Web accessibility. Training needs were assessed and training suggestions were solicited. IT staff…
Research indicates that the most effective instruction in basic reading skills and reading comprehension should take place in the classroom. For some students, however, additional reading instruction outside of the regular classroom may be needed and should begin early in a student's educational career. Since reading comprehension is the goal of…
Saltmarsh, David; Saltmarsh, Sue
This paper reports on the theoretical and political rationale for an assessment strategy designed to support the development of academic literacies and learning cultures amongst undergraduate and postgraduate education students in one metropolitan and one regional university in Australia. The "Critical Review" is an integrated assessment…
Forbes, Bethany E.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Maurer, Kristin; Taylor, Emily; Schall, Megan; Cazzell, Samantha; Ciancio, Dennis; Conley, Matt; Conley, Elisha
Working with middle-school students, we replicated and extended research on oral reading fluency (ORF) assessments and prompting students to read faster. Altering ORF administration procedures by instructing students to read fast caused statistically significant increases in their words correct per minute (WCPM) and errors, which was moderated by…
Arciuli. Joanne; Stevens, Kirsten; Trembath, David; Simpson, Ian Craig
Purpose: This study was designed to shed light on the profile of reading ability in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A key aim was to examine the relationship between parent report of adaptive behavior and direct assessment of reading ability in these children. Method: The authors investigated children's reading ability using the Wide…
This paper considers the design of assessment for students of design according to behaviourist versus experiential pedagogical approaches, relating these to output-oriented as opposed to process-oriented assessment methods. It is part case study and part recognition of the importance of process in design education and how this might be applied in…
Lesaux, Nonie K.; Marietta, Sky H.
All too often, literacy assessments are given only for accountability purposes and fail to be seen as valuable resources for planning and differentiating instruction. This clear, concise book shows K-5 educators how to implement a comprehensive, balanced assessment battery that integrates accountability concerns with data-driven instruction.…
Nevo, Einat; Breznitz, Zvia
The ability of working memory skills (measured by tasks assessing all four working memory components), IQ, language, phonological awareness, literacy, rapid naming, and speed of processing at 6years of age, before reading was taught, to predict reading abilities (decoding, reading comprehension, and reading time) a year later was examined in 97 children. Among all working memory components, phonological complex memory contributed most to predicting all three reading abilities. A capacity measure of phonological complex memory, based on passing a minimum threshold in those tasks, contributed to the explained variance of decoding and reading comprehension. Findings suggest that a minimal ability of phonological complex memory is necessary for children to attain a normal reading level. Adding assessment of phonological complex memory, before formal teaching of reading begins, to more common measures might better estimate children's likelihood of future academic success.
Zackriya, Mohammed; Kittur, Harish M.; Chin, Albert
The major issue of RRAM is the uneven sneak path that limits the array size. For the first time record large One-Resistor (1R) RRAM array of 128x128 is realized, and the array cells at the worst case still have good Low-/High-Resistive State (LRS/HRS) current difference of 378 nA/16 nA, even without using the selector device. This array has extremely low read current of 9.7 μA due to both low-current RRAM device and circuit interaction, where a novel and simple scheme of a reference point by half selected cell and a differential amplifier (DA) were implemented in the circuit design.
Zackriya, Mohammed; Kittur, Harish M.; Chin, Albert
The major issue of RRAM is the uneven sneak path that limits the array size. For the first time record large One-Resistor (1R) RRAM array of 128x128 is realized, and the array cells at the worst case still have good Low-/High-Resistive State (LRS/HRS) current difference of 378 nA/16 nA, even without using the selector device. This array has extremely low read current of 9.7 μA due to both low-current RRAM device and circuit interaction, where a novel and simple scheme of a reference point by half selected cell and a differential amplifier (DA) were implemented in the circuit design. PMID:28186147
Foorman, Barbara R.; Kershaw, Sarah; Petscher, Yaacov
Florida requires that students who do not meet grade-level reading proficiency standards on the end-of-year state assessment (Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test, FCAT) receive intensive reading intervention. With the stakes so high, teachers and principals are interested in using screening or diagnostic assessments to identify students with a…
Kuchma, V R; Teksheva, L M; Vyatleva, O A; Kurgansky, A M
A comparison of the legibility of the three different media: paper personal computer (LCD) and the e-reader in schoolchildren (12-14 years of age) was performed. Comprehensive assessment of the reading performance (speed of reading aloud, the number of errors in reading, and integral indicator of the degree of difficulty of visual task), its physiological value (according to data of EEG, EOG and ECG), and subjective preference of type of media by the schoolchildren showed that by the sum of signs e-reader occupies an intermediate position between printed text and the computer screen. The effect of increased emotional intensity of using e-reader (increased motivation), which is manifested in the preservation of the sympathetic nervous system activation after the reading, was obtained. The necessity of additional research has been shown.
Lehri, B.; Seddon, A. M.; Karlyshev, A. V.
This article provides a comparative analysis of the various methods of genome sequencing focusing on verification of the assembly quality. The results of a comparative assessment of various de novo assembly tools, as well as sequencing technologies, are presented using a recently completed sequence of the genome of Lactobacillus fermentum 3872. In particular, quality of assemblies is assessed by using CLC Genomics Workbench read mapping and Optical mapping developed by OpGen. Over-extension of contigs without prior knowledge of contig location can lead to misassembled contigs, even when commonly used quality indicators such as read mapping suggest that a contig is well assembled. Precautions must also be undertaken when using long read sequencing technology, which may also lead to misassembled contigs. PMID:28225089
Barnes, D.A.; Reed, R.W., Flour Daniel Hanford
This document contains a technical assessment of the cause and disposition of Interstitial Liquid Level(ILL) readings taken in February 1997 on Hanford waste tank 241-BY-112 that were below specified limits. Some readings were determined to be spurious while other readings were below the limit because of normal data scatter. The data assessment did discover that a new ILL had formed below the currently established baseline because of the normal drainage of the interstitial liquid over time. A new baseline and limit will be established. Because the new ILL appears to be stable and consistent with post saltwell pumping behavior, and because there is no other evidence to the contrary, the tank is judged not to be leaking.
O'Reilly, Tenaha; Sheehan, Kathleen M.
This paper presents the rationale and research base for a reading competency model designed to guide the development of cognitively based assessment of reading comprehension. The model was developed from a detailed review of the cognitive research on reading and learning and a review of state standards for language arts. A survey of the literature…
Santos, Sandra; Cadime, Irene; Viana, Fernanda L; Chaves-Sousa, Séli; Gayo, Elena; Maia, José; Ribeiro, Iolanda
Reading comprehension assessment should rely on valid instruments that enable adequate conclusions to be taken regarding students' reading comprehension performance. In this article, two studies were conducted to collect validity evidence for the vertically scaled forms of two Tests of Reading Comprehension for Portuguese elementary school students in the second to fourth grades, one with narrative texts (TRC-n) and another with expository ones (TRC-e). Two samples of 950 and 990 students participated in Study 1, the study of the dimensionality of the TRC-n and TRC-e forms, respectively. Confirmatory factor analyses provided evidence of an acceptable fit for the one-factor solution for all test forms. Study 2 included 218 students to collect criterion-related validity. The scores obtained in each of the test forms were significantly correlated with the ones obtained in other reading comprehension measures and with the results obtained in oral reading fluency, vocabulary and working memory tests. Evidence suggests that the test forms are valid measures of reading comprehension.
Massengale, Lindsey R.; Vasquez, Eleazar, III
Delivering course material in a manner that is accessible to all students including those with disabilities is important in the online environment. This article presents an analysis focusing on the accessibility of six courses presented through the Webcourses platform. Six professors volunteered one course for analysis. The tool used for analyzing…
O'Brien, Beth A.; Wallot, Sebastian; Haussmann, Anna; Kloos, Heidi
Reading typically undergoes a qualitative shift around Grade 4, becoming more fluent and silent, but there is no established measure for fluency in children's silent reading. The present study presents a measure of self-paced reading in children, examining the use of complexity measures for time-series analyses recently established with…
Zeuch, Nina; Förster, Natalie; Souvignier, Elmar
Learning progress assessment (LPA) provides formative information about effectiveness of instructional decisions. Learning curves are usually presented as graphical illustrations. However, little is known about teachers understanding and interpreting of graphically presented information. An instrument to measure competencies in reading graphs from…
Petrosky, Anthony R.
In discussing the third national assessment of reading and literature, four major points can be made. First, norm-referenced tests and criterion-referenced tests ignore serious ethical and measurement problems, namely, we don't know enough about individual differences to do such testing and the outcome, social class tracking, is ethically…
Frontera, Lucy S.; Horowitz, Rosalind
In a low-income south Texas school with primarily Mexican American students, teacher assessments of fourth-grade students' content reading ability and work habits predicted student success for that school year, as measured by grades and achievement scores. Teacher input can be critical in the early identification of students at risk of dropping…
Oviedo, Paula Outon; Gonzalez, Rebeca Abal
Dyslexia is a specific learning disability in reading and writing, which requires adequate early intervention to prevent future school failure. We describe the diagnostic assessment of a 7-year-old boy labelled "dyslexic", the evaluation of his family, social, medical, developmental, and academic status as a preliminary for the design…
Tindal, Gerald; McDonald, Marilee; Tedesco, Marick; Glasgow, Aaron; Almond, Pat; Crawford, Lindy; Hollenbeck, Keith
A series of standardized tasks was developed using the same constructs as operationalized in a state's large-scale assessment program. Student performance (n=437) was then analyzed. In reading and math, teachers (n=131) were successfully trained to administer the tasks and judge performance, providing a system with instructional and evaluative…
This study compared how three different gloss modes affected college students' L2 reading comprehension and vocabulary acquisition. The study also compared how results on comprehension and vocabulary acquisition may differ depending on the four assessment methods used. A between-subjects design was employed with three groups of Mandarin-speaking…
Provost, Mary C.; Lambert, Monica A.; Babkie, Andrea M.
Mandates emphasizing student achievement have increased the importance of appropriate assessment techniques for students in general and special education classrooms. Informal reading inventories (IRIs), designed by classroom teachers, have been proven to be an efficient and effective way to determine students' strengths, weaknesses, and strategies…
This study was designed with the overall goal of understanding how difficulties in reading comprehension are associated with early adolescents' performance in large-scale assessments in subject domains including science and civic-related social studies. The current study extended previous research by taking a cognition-centered approach based on…
Kato, Kentaro; Moen, Ross E.; Thurlow, Martha L.
Large data sets from a state reading assessment for third and fifth graders were analyzed to examine differential item functioning (DIF), differential distractor functioning (DDF), and differential omission frequency (DOF) between students with particular categories of disabilities (speech/language impairments, learning disabilities, and emotional…
The purpose of this article is to provide the reader with insight into the clinical reasoning process involved in the assessment and intervention planning for a child with a reading disability. A Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theoretical/neuropsychological approach shall serve as the foundational theoretical framework for this case study, and…
Magliano, Joseph P.; Millis, Keith K.
Two studies examined the viability of assessing reading strategies using a think-aloud protocol combined with latent semantic analysis (LSA). Findings demonstrated that the responses of less-skilled readers semantically overlapped more with focal sentences than with causal antecedent sentences, whereas skilled readers' responses overlapped with…
Min, Shangchao; He, Lianzhen
This study examined the relative effectiveness of the multidimensional bi-factor model and multidimensional testlet response theory (TRT) model in accommodating local dependence in testlet-based reading assessment with both dichotomously and polytomously scored items. The data used were 14,089 test-takers' item-level responses to the testlet-based…
Mindell, Phyllis; Stracher, Dorothy
The article introduces an ongoing process of evaluating the reading and writing of gifted students. The assessment tool presented enables the teacher to determine the specific functional level for each aspect of literacy of the gifted child. A model of goal setting and educational planning for all advanced readers is offered. (DLS)
Ratcliff, Monica Wong; Powell, Sherlyn Ezell; Cage, Bob N.; Chen, Cheng C.
This three-year comparative study investigated the impact of the Reading First (RF) Program on student performance as measured by statewide-mandated English Language Arts (ELA) assessment programs. A matching procedure was used where 3 RF schools and 3 non-RF schools from two rural school districts in north Louisiana were matched. The ELA test…
Lee, Yong-Won; Sawaki, Yasuyo
The present study investigated the functioning of three psychometric models for cognitive diagnosis--the general diagnostic model, the fusion model, and latent class analysis--when applied to large-scale English as a second language listening and reading comprehension assessments. Data used in this study were scored item responses and incidence…
Charvade, Mahshid Rostami; Jahandar, Shahrokh; Khodabandehlou, Morteza
The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of portfolio assessment on EFL learners' reading comprehension ability. 50 EFL language learners at intermediate level all female from a private institute were selected for this purpose. Then they were randomly divided into the control and experimental group. The control group received the…
Offerdahl, Erika G; Montplaisir, Lisa
Formative assessment has long been identified as a critical element to teaching for conceptual development in science. It is therefore important for university instructors to have an arsenal of formative assessment tools at their disposal which enable them to effectively uncover and diagnose all students' thinking, not just the most vocal or assertive. We illustrate the utility of one type of formative assessment prompt (reading question assignment) in producing high-quality evidence of student thinking (student-generated reading questions). Specifically, we characterized student assessment data using three distinct analytic frames to exemplify their effectiveness in diagnosing student learning in relationship to three sample learning outcomes. Our data will be useful for university faculty, particularly those engaged in teaching upper-level biochemistry courses and their prerequisites, as they provide an alternative mechanism for uncovering and diagnosing student understanding.
Navarro, Juan-José; Lara, Laura
Dynamic Assessment (DA) has been shown to have more predictive value than conventional tests for academic performance. However, in relation to reading difficulties, further research is needed to determine the predictive validity of DA for specific aspects of the different processes involved in reading and the differential validity of DA for different subgroups of students with an academic disadvantage. This paper analyzes the implementation of a DA device that evaluates processes involved in reading (EDPL) among 60 students with reading comprehension difficulties between 9 and 16 years of age, of whom 20 have intellectual disabilities, 24 have reading-related learning disabilities, and 16 have socio-cultural disadvantages. We specifically analyze the predictive validity of the EDPL device over attitude toward reading, and the use of dialogue/participation strategies in reading activities in the classroom during the implementation stage. We also analyze if the EDPL device provides additional information to that obtained with a conventionally applied personal-social adjustment scale (APSL). Results showed that dynamic scores, obtained from the implementation of the EDPL device, significantly predict the studied variables. Moreover, dynamic scores showed a significant incremental validity in relation to predictions based on an APSL scale. In relation to differential validity, the results indicated the superior predictive validity for DA for students with intellectual disabilities and reading disabilities than for students with socio-cultural disadvantages. Furthermore, the role of metacognition and its relation to the processes of personal-social adjustment in explaining the results is discussed. PMID:28243215
Navarro, Juan-José; Lara, Laura
Dynamic Assessment (DA) has been shown to have more predictive value than conventional tests for academic performance. However, in relation to reading difficulties, further research is needed to determine the predictive validity of DA for specific aspects of the different processes involved in reading and the differential validity of DA for different subgroups of students with an academic disadvantage. This paper analyzes the implementation of a DA device that evaluates processes involved in reading (EDPL) among 60 students with reading comprehension difficulties between 9 and 16 years of age, of whom 20 have intellectual disabilities, 24 have reading-related learning disabilities, and 16 have socio-cultural disadvantages. We specifically analyze the predictive validity of the EDPL device over attitude toward reading, and the use of dialogue/participation strategies in reading activities in the classroom during the implementation stage. We also analyze if the EDPL device provides additional information to that obtained with a conventionally applied personal-social adjustment scale (APSL). Results showed that dynamic scores, obtained from the implementation of the EDPL device, significantly predict the studied variables. Moreover, dynamic scores showed a significant incremental validity in relation to predictions based on an APSL scale. In relation to differential validity, the results indicated the superior predictive validity for DA for students with intellectual disabilities and reading disabilities than for students with socio-cultural disadvantages. Furthermore, the role of metacognition and its relation to the processes of personal-social adjustment in explaining the results is discussed.
Many United States secondary students perform poorly on standardized summative science assessments. Situated Assessments using Virtual Environments (SAVE) Science is an innovative assessment project that seeks to capture students' science knowledge and understanding by contextualizing problems in a game-based virtual environment called Scientopolis. Within Scientopolis, students use an "avatar" to interact with non-player characters (NPCs), artifacts, embedded clues and "sci-tools" in order to help solve the problems of the townspeople. In an attempt to increase students' success on assessments, SAVE science places students in an environment where they can use their inquiry skills to solve problems instead of reading long passages which attempt to contextualize questions but ultimately cause construct-irrelevant variance. However, within these assessments reading is still required to access the test questions and character interactions. This dissertation explores how students' in-world performances differ when exposed to a Reading Aloud Accommodation (RAA) treatment in comparison to a control group. Student perceptions of the treatment are also evaluated. While a RAA is typically available for students with learning disabilities or English language learners, within this study, all students were randomly assigned to either the treatment or control, regardless of any demographic factors or learning barriers. The theories of Universal design for learning and brain-based learning advocate for multiple ways for students to engage, comprehend, and illustrate their content knowledge. Further, through providing more ways for students to interact with content, all students should benefit, not just those with learning disabilities. Students in the experimental group listened to the NPCs speak the dialogue that provides them with the problem, clues, and assessment questions, instead of relying on reading skills to gather the information. Overall, students in the treatment
Oomen, Agnes G.; Bleeker, Eric A. J.; Bos, Peter M. J.; van Broekhuizen, Fleur; Gottardo, Stefania; Groenewold, Monique; Hristozov, Danail; Hund-Rinke, Kerstin; Irfan, Muhammad-Adeel; Marcomini, Antonio; Peijnenburg, Willie J. G. M.; Rasmussen, Kirsten; Sánchez Jiménez, Araceli; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J.; van Tongeren, Martie; Wiench, Karin; Wohlleben, Wendel; Landsiedel, Robert
Physicochemical properties of chemicals affect their exposure, toxicokinetics/fate and hazard, and for nanomaterials, the variation of these properties results in a wide variety of materials with potentially different risks. To limit the amount of testing for risk assessment, the information gathering process for nanomaterials needs to be efficient. At the same time, sufficient information to assess the safety of human health and the environment should be available for each nanomaterial. Grouping and read-across approaches can be utilised to meet these goals. This article presents different possible applications of grouping and read-across for nanomaterials within the broader perspective of the MARINA Risk Assessment Strategy (RAS), as developed in the EU FP7 project MARINA. Firstly, nanomaterials can be grouped based on limited variation in physicochemical properties to subsequently design an efficient testing strategy that covers the entire group. Secondly, knowledge about exposure, toxicokinetics/fate or hazard, for example via properties such as dissolution rate, aspect ratio, chemical (non-)activity, can be used to organise similar materials in generic groups to frame issues that need further attention, or potentially to read-across. Thirdly, when data related to specific endpoints is required, read-across can be considered, using data from a source material for the target nanomaterial. Read-across could be based on a scientifically sound justification that exposure, distribution to the target (fate/toxicokinetics) and hazard of the target material are similar to, or less than, the source material. These grouping and read-across approaches pave the way for better use of available information on nanomaterials and are flexible enough to allow future adaptations related to scientific developments. PMID:26516872
Oomen, Agnes G; Bleeker, Eric A J; Bos, Peter M J; van Broekhuizen, Fleur; Gottardo, Stefania; Groenewold, Monique; Hristozov, Danail; Hund-Rinke, Kerstin; Irfan, Muhammad-Adeel; Marcomini, Antonio; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Rasmussen, Kirsten; Jiménez, Araceli Sánchez; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J; van Tongeren, Martie; Wiench, Karin; Wohlleben, Wendel; Landsiedel, Robert
Physicochemical properties of chemicals affect their exposure, toxicokinetics/fate and hazard, and for nanomaterials, the variation of these properties results in a wide variety of materials with potentially different risks. To limit the amount of testing for risk assessment, the information gathering process for nanomaterials needs to be efficient. At the same time, sufficient information to assess the safety of human health and the environment should be available for each nanomaterial. Grouping and read-across approaches can be utilised to meet these goals. This article presents different possible applications of grouping and read-across for nanomaterials within the broader perspective of the MARINA Risk Assessment Strategy (RAS), as developed in the EU FP7 project MARINA. Firstly, nanomaterials can be grouped based on limited variation in physicochemical properties to subsequently design an efficient testing strategy that covers the entire group. Secondly, knowledge about exposure, toxicokinetics/fate or hazard, for example via properties such as dissolution rate, aspect ratio, chemical (non-)activity, can be used to organise similar materials in generic groups to frame issues that need further attention, or potentially to read-across. Thirdly, when data related to specific endpoints is required, read-across can be considered, using data from a source material for the target nanomaterial. Read-across could be based on a scientifically sound justification that exposure, distribution to the target (fate/toxicokinetics) and hazard of the target material are similar to, or less than, the source material. These grouping and read-across approaches pave the way for better use of available information on nanomaterials and are flexible enough to allow future adaptations related to scientific developments.
Stoll, Patricia Donath
The objectives of this investigation were: (1) to construct test problems which assess skill in resolving problems in teaching reading, (2) to develop criteria for assessing performance on these problems, and (3) to explore the usefulness of the constructed problems in discussing the professional skills of those who teach reading. Data on…
Mathews, John J.; And Others
To assess the reading ability of military service applicants and accessions, and to determine the relationship between Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) measures and reading scores, 2,432 subjects were given the Gates MacGinitie reading test and a subsample of 818 were given the Nelson-Denny reading test. The median reading grade…
Federal laws, including Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act, mandate that people with disabilities have access to the same information that someone without a disability would have. 508 standards cover electronic and information technology (EIT) products.
... ADMINISTRATION Quality Control Medicaid Quality Control (mqc) Claims Processing Assessment System § 431.834 Access to records: Claims processing assessment systems. The agency, upon written request, must provide... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to records: Claims processing...
... Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for... transportation, dispatch or security of cargo for transport on a passenger aircraft or all-cargo aircraft,...
... Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for... transportation, dispatch or security of cargo for transport on a passenger aircraft or all-cargo aircraft,...
... Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for... transportation, dispatch or security of cargo for transport on a passenger aircraft or all-cargo aircraft,...
Toledo Piza, Carolina M J; de Macedo, Elizeu C; Miranda, Monica C; Bueno, Orlando F A
The analysis of cognitive processes underpinning reading and writing skills may help to distinguish different reading ability profiles. The present study used a Brazilian reading and writing battery to compare performance of students with dyslexia with two individually matched control groups: one contrasting on reading competence but not age and the other group contrasting on age but not reading competence. Participants were 28 individuals with dyslexia (19 boys) with a mean age of 9.82 (SD ± 1.44) drawn from public and private schools. These were matched to: (1) an age control group (AC) of 26 good readers with a mean age of 9.77 (SD ± 1.44) matched by age, sex, years of schooling, and type of school; (2) reading control group (RC) of 28 younger controls with a mean age of 7.82 (SD ± 1.06) matched by sex, type of school, and reading level. All groups were tested on four tasks from the Brazilian Reading and Writing Assessment battery ("BALE"): Written Sentence Comprehension Test (WSCT); Spoken Sentence Comprehension Test (OSCT); Picture-Print Writing Test (PPWT 1.1-Writing); and the Reading Competence Test (RCT). These tasks evaluate reading and listening comprehension for sentences, spelling, and reading isolated words and pseudowords (non-words). The dyslexia group scored lower and took longer to complete tasks than the AC group. Compared with the RC group, there were no differences in total scores on reading or oral comprehension tasks. However, dyslexics presented slower reading speeds, longer completion times, and lower scores on spelling tasks, even compared with younger controls. Analysis of types of errors on word and pseudoword reading items showed students with dyslexia scoring lower for pseudoword reading than the other two groups. These findings suggest that the dyslexics overall scores were similar to those of younger readers. However, specific phonological and visual decoding deficits showed that the two groups differ in terms of underpinning
Bell, Sherry Mee; McCallum, R Steve; Ziegler, Mary; Davis, C A; Coleman, Maribeth
The purpose of this paper is to describe briefly the development and utility of the Assessment of Reading Instructional Knowledge-Adults (ARIK-A), the only nationally normed (n = 468) measure of adult reading instructional knowledge, created to facilitate professional development of adult educators. Developmental data reveal reliabilities ranging from 0.73 to 0.85 for five ARIK-A scales (alphabetics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension, and assessment) and 0.91 for the composite score; factor analytic data and expert review provide support for construct validity as well. Information on how to use the ARIK-A to determine mastery and relative standing is presented. With two alternate forms, the ARIK-A is a promising and needed tool for adult education practitioners within continuing education and professional development contexts.
To determine the extent to which knowledge of evidence-based reading instruction and mathematics is assessed on licensure tests for prospective special education teachers, this study drew on information provided by Educational Testing Service (ETS), the American Board for Certification of Teacher Excellence, and National Evaluation Systems (now Evaluation Systems group of Pearson). It estimated the percentage of test items on phonemic awareness, phonics, and vocabulary knowledge and on mathematics content. It also analyzed descriptions of ETS's tests of "principles of teaching and learning." Findings imply that prospective special education teachers should be required to take both a dedicated test of evidence-based reading instructional knowledge, as in California, Massachusetts, and Virginia, and a test of mathematical knowledge, as in Massachusetts. States must design their own tests of teaching principles to assess knowledge of evidence-based educational theories.
Crovelli, Robert A.; revised by Charpentier, Ronald R.
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) periodically assesses petroleum resources of areas within the United States and the world. The purpose of this report is to explain the development of an analytic probabilistic method and spreadsheet software system called Analytic Cell-Based Continuous Energy Spreadsheet System (ACCESS). The ACCESS method is based upon mathematical equations derived from probability theory. The ACCESS spreadsheet can be used to calculate estimates of the undeveloped oil, gas, and NGL (natural gas liquids) resources in a continuous-type assessment unit. An assessment unit is a mappable volume of rock in a total petroleum system. In this report, the geologic assessment model is defined first, the analytic probabilistic method is described second, and the spreadsheet ACCESS is described third. In this revised version of Open-File Report 00-044 , the text has been updated to reflect modifications that were made to the ACCESS program. Two versions of the program are added as appendixes.
Baniabdelrahman, Abdallah Ahmad
This study investigates the effect of Jordanian Eleventh grade students' self-assessment on their performance in reading in English. The sample of the study consisted of an experimental group and a control group; each group consisted of two eleventh grade sections (67 male and 69 female students). A reading test was developed and its validity and…
Gerlich, Bella Karr; Berard, G. Lynn
The READ Scale (Reference Effort Assessment Data) is a six-point scale tool for recording qualitative statistics by placing an emphasis on recording effort, knowledge, skills, and teaching used by staff during a reference transaction. Institutional research grants enabled the authors to conduct a national study of the READ Scale at 14 diverse…
Gadway, Charles; Wilson, H. A.
The functional literacy of various groups of 17-year-old students was assessed to discover whether the reading skills which are usually taught in the schools are adequate for functioning in everyday life. Eighty-six test exercises were classified according to the various formats of reading materials they represent and according to the types of…
Shyyan, Vitaliy; Christensen, Laurene L.; Rogers, Christopher; Kincaid, Aleksis
Students who are deaf or hard of hearing (Deaf/HH) and communicate using American Sign Language (ASL) may benefit from sign accommodations on state assessments. However, there have been challenges in standardizing assessment content including how items should be signed. Technology enhanced assessment offers the opportunity to provide standardized…
García, J. Ricardo; Cain, Kate
The twofold purpose of this meta-analysis was to determine the relative importance of decoding skills to reading comprehension in reading development and to identify which reader characteristics and reading assessment characteristics contribute to differences in the decoding and reading comprehension correlation. A meta-analysis of 110 studies…
United States. Bonneville Power Administration.
The proposed Policy will govern access by all entities to BPA's portion of the Intertie. Assured Delivery will be provided for BPA firm sales and for other firm contracts of Pacific Northwest (PNW) utilities, if approved under the standards established by the Policy. Hourly access will be allocated among BPA and scheduling utilities, with priority access being reserved for the surplus power of PNW utilities. Capacity not needed for PNW surplus may be made available for extraregional utilities. The proposal will grant access to existing resources only, as did the Interim Policy. In addition to this limitation, the proposal carries the same provisions as the Interim Policy protecting against adverse effects on fish and wildlife due to operation of resources. Environmental analysis indicates that the proposal will have no significant environmental impacts, based on the following conclusions: (1) The proposal does not promote new resource development and thus does not result in associated environmental effects; (2) The total amount of generation in the PNW and Pacific Southwest (PSW) will not change as a result of the proposal; (3) Any changes in PNW hydrosystem operations will be insignificant; (4) There will be no significant environmental impacts from PNW thermal resource operations because: (a) the amount of additional thermal generation due to the policy, if any, will be small relative to total thermal generation; (b) resources will not be operated beyond levels which may occur in the absence of the proposal; (c) PNW thermal resources are regulated by licenses or permits which limit operations to acceptable ranges; and (d) PNW thermal will continue to be displaced by low cost NW and Canadian hydro; and (5) The proposal does not promote transmission development and thus does not result in associated environmental effects.
Nielsen, Kathleen; Abbott, Robert; Griffin, Whitney; Lott, Joe; Raskind, Wendy; Berninger, Virginia W.
The same working memory and reading and writing achievement phenotypes (behavioral markers of genetic variants) validated in prior research with younger children and older adults in a multi-generational family genetics study of dyslexia were used to study 81 adolescent and young adults (ages 16 to 25) from that study. Dyslexia is impaired word reading and spelling skills below the population mean and ability to use oral language to express thinking. These working memory predictor measures were given and used to predict reading and writing achievement: Coding (storing and processing) heard and spoken words (phonological coding), read and written words (orthographic coding), base words and affixes (morphological coding), and accumulating words over time (syntax coding); Cross-Code Integration (phonological loop for linking phonological name and orthographic letter codes and orthographic loop for linking orthographic letter codes and finger sequencing codes), and Supervisory Attention (focused and switching attention and self-monitoring during written word finding). Multiple regressions showed that most predictors explained individual difference in at least one reading or writing outcome, but which predictors explained unique variance beyond shared variance depended on outcome. ANOVAs confirmed that research-supported criteria for dyslexia validated for younger children and their parents could be used to diagnose which adolescents and young adults did (n=31) or did not (n=50) meet research criteria for dyslexia. Findings are discussed in reference to the heterogeneity of phenotypes (behavioral markers of genetic variables) and their application to assessment for accommodations and ongoing instruction for adolescents and young adults with dyslexia. PMID:26855554
Nielsen, Kathleen; Abbott, Robert; Griffin, Whitney; Lott, Joe; Raskind, Wendy; Berninger, Virginia W
The same working memory and reading and writing achievement phenotypes (behavioral markers of genetic variants) validated in prior research with younger children and older adults in a multi-generational family genetics study of dyslexia were used to study 81 adolescent and young adults (ages 16 to 25) from that study. Dyslexia is impaired word reading and spelling skills below the population mean and ability to use oral language to express thinking. These working memory predictor measures were given and used to predict reading and writing achievement: Coding (storing and processing) heard and spoken words (phonological coding), read and written words (orthographic coding), base words and affixes (morphological coding), and accumulating words over time (syntax coding); Cross-Code Integration (phonological loop for linking phonological name and orthographic letter codes and orthographic loop for linking orthographic letter codes and finger sequencing codes), and Supervisory Attention (focused and switching attention and self-monitoring during written word finding). Multiple regressions showed that most predictors explained individual difference in at least one reading or writing outcome, but which predictors explained unique variance beyond shared variance depended on outcome. ANOVAs confirmed that research-supported criteria for dyslexia validated for younger children and their parents could be used to diagnose which adolescents and young adults did (n=31) or did not (n=50) meet research criteria for dyslexia. Findings are discussed in reference to the heterogeneity of phenotypes (behavioral markers of genetic variables) and their application to assessment for accommodations and ongoing instruction for adolescents and young adults with dyslexia.
... and toxins; security risk assessments. 121.10 Section 121.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... Restricting access to select agents and toxins; security risk assessments. (a) An individual or entity... Administrator or the HHS Secretary following a security risk assessment by the Attorney General. (b)...
... and toxins; security risk assessments. 121.10 Section 121.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... Restricting access to select agents and toxins; security risk assessments. (a) An individual or entity... Administrator or the HHS Secretary following a security risk assessment by the Attorney General. (b)...
... and toxins; security risk assessments. 121.10 Section 121.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... Restricting access to select agents and toxins; security risk assessments. (a) An individual or entity... Administrator or the HHS Secretary following a security risk assessment by the Attorney General. (b)...
...; security risk assessments. 73.10 Section 73.10 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... access to select agents and toxins; security risk assessments. (a) An individual or entity required to... Administrator, following a security risk assessment by the Attorney General. (b) An individual will be deemed...
...; security risk assessments. 73.10 Section 73.10 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... access to select agents and toxins; security risk assessments. (a) An individual or entity required to... Administrator, following a security risk assessment by the Attorney General. (b) An individual will be deemed...
...; security risk assessments. 73.10 Section 73.10 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... access to select agents and toxins; security risk assessments. (a) An individual or entity required to... Administrator, following a security risk assessment by the Attorney General. (b) An individual will be deemed...
Denton, Carolyn A.; Enos, Mischa; York, Mary J.; Francis, David J.; Barnes, Marcia A.; Kulesz, Paulina A.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Carter, Suzanne
Based on the analysis of 620 think-aloud verbal protocols from students in grades 7, 9, and 11, we examined students' conscious engagement in inference generation, paraphrasing, verbatim text repetition, and monitoring while reading narrative or informational texts that were either at or above the students' current reading levels. Students were…
Jeon, Eun Hee
This study investigated the role of oral reading fluency in second language reading. Two hundred and fifty-five high school students in South Korea were assessed on three oral reading fluency (ORF) variables and six other reading predictors. The relationship between ORF and other reading predictors was examined through an exploratory factor…
Huprich, Julia; Green, Ravonne
The Council on Public Liberal Arts Colleges (COPLAC) libraries websites were assessed for Section 508 errors using the online WebXACT tool. Only three of the twenty-one institutions (14%) had zero accessibility errors. Eighty-six percent of the COPLAC institutions had an average of 1.24 errors. Section 508 compliance is required for institutions…
Hale, Andrea D.; Hawkins, Renee O.; Sheeley, Wesley; Reynolds, Jennifer R.; Jenkins, Shonna; Schmitt, Ara J.; Martin, Daniel A.
Many reading comprehension measures require the student to read silently. When students read silently, important information (e.g., consistent reading errors) may not be identified. It may also be difficult to detect a student who is choosing not to read the passage. For this reason, investigating whether there is a significant difference in…
Ecological risk methods and tools are necessarily diverse to account for different combinations of receptors, exposure processes, effects estimation, and degree of conservatism/realism necessary to support chemical-based assessments. These tools have been continuously developed s...
Bintz, William P.
Describes an incident involving the author, his daughter, and sample items from a Standards of Learning (SOL) assessment. Elaborates on the author's increasing confusion with SOL assessments, especially in reading. Proposes that educators spend less time testing kids and more time "testing their theories" so that assessments better reflect recent…
National Center for Education Statistics, 2011
Representative samples of fourth- and eighth-grade public school students from 21 urban districts participated in the 2011 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in reading. Eighteen of the districts participating in the 2011 NAEP Trial Urban District Assessment (TUDA) participated in earlier assessment years, while three districts…
Aguirre, Trina; Wilhelm, Susan; Joshi, Ashish
In the United States, Hispanic populations tend to have higher incidences of chronic disease such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, obesity and hyperlipidemias . They are also more likely to be underinsured or uninsured than other populations . The purpose of this descriptive technology assessment survey study was to determine computer and internet access, skill level and health education information preferences of a rural Hispanic (primarily Mexican-American) population in the United States. Among the sample, 81% of individuals who answered the survey had a computer and internet access in their home. Nineteen percent did not have computers or internet access in their homes. Compared to the average 54% home internet access found by the Pew Hispanic Research Center the rural convenience sample in this study had a high percentage of technology access. Recommendations include using multimedia to improve the health information accessability among Hispanic persons.
Galuschka, Katharina; Rothe, Josefine; Schulte-Körne, Gerd
This article looks at a means of objectively evaluating the quality of psychometric tests. This approach enables users to evaluate psychometric tests based on their methodological characteristics, in order to decide which instrument should be used. Reading and spelling assessment tools serve as examples. The paper also provides a review of German psychometric tests for the assessment of reading and spelling skills. This method facilitates the identification of psychometric tests.of high methodological quality which can be used for the assessment of reading and spelling skills. Reading performance should ideally be assessed with the following instruments: ELFE 1-6, LGVT 6-12, LESEN 6-7, LESEN 8-9, or WLLP-R. The tests to be used for the evaluation of spelling skills are DERET 1-2+, DERET 3-4+, WRT 1+, WRT 2+, WRT 3+, WRT 4+ or HSP 1-10.
Gaertner, Chrystal; Bucci, Maria Pia; Ajrezo, Layla; Wiener-Vacher, Sylvette
Prior studies have pointed toward a link between the saccadic and vergence systems, coordinating binocular saccadic movements. Recent studies have shown that vergence deficits in children induce poor binocular coordination during saccades, but none of them have studied ocular motility in children during a daily task such as reading. The present study tests whether vergence deficits in children perturb binocular coordination of saccades and fixation during reading. Our second objective was to explore whether vergence training could improve the quality of binocular coordination. Twelve patients (from 7.3 to 13.4 years old) complaining from vertigo but without vestibular and neurological pathology underwent orthoptic tests and were selected for our study when they presented vergence deficits. Eye movements were recorded during a reading task with a Mobile EyeBrain® Tracker video-oculography system. Data were compared to twelve age-matched controls with normal orthoptic values. While there was no statistically significant difference in saccade amplitudes between the two groups (p=0.29), patients showed higher disconjugacy during and after the saccades compared to controls (p<0.001). After orthoptic training, six patients out of the first 12 examined came back for a second oculomotor test. All showed a significant improvement of their binocular saccade coordination. We suggest that the larger disconjugacy during reading observed in patients before training could be due to poor vergence as initially assessed by orthoptic examination. Such findings support the hypothesis of a tight relationship between the saccadic and vergence systems for controlling the binocular coordination of saccades. The improvement reported after orthoptic training is in line with the hypothesis of an adaptative interaction on a premotor level between the saccadic and vergence system.
Kettler, Ryan J.
This chapter introduces theory that undergirds the role of testing adaptations in assessment, provides examples of item modifications and testing accommodations, reviews research relevant to each, and introduces a new paradigm that incorporates opportunity to learn (OTL), academic enablers, testing adaptations, and inferences that can be made from…
Rønberg, Louise Flensted; Petersen, Dorthe Klint
This study shows that it makes a difference whether accuracy measures or rate measures are used when assessing reading comprehension. When the outcome is reading comprehension accuracy (i.e., the number of correct responses), word reading skills (measured as access to orthographic representations) account for a modest amount of the variance in the…
Petersen, Douglas B; Allen, Melissa M; Spencer, Trina D
The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the classification accuracy of early static prereading measures and early dynamic assessment reading measures administered to 600 kindergarten students. At the beginning of kindergarten, all of the participants were administered two commonly used static prereading measures. The participants were then administered either a dynamic assessment featuring an onset-rime decoding strategy or a dynamic assessment featuring a sound-by-sound strategy. At the end of first grade, those same participants' reading ability was assessed using multiple reading measures. Results indicated that the dynamic assessments yielded significantly higher classification accuracy over the static measures, but that the classification accuracy of the two dynamic assessments did not differ significantly. Sensitivity for the static measures was less than 80%, and specificity ranged from 33% to 51%. The sensitivity and specificity for the dynamic assessments was greater than 80% for all children, with the exception of specificity for the Hispanic children, which was at or greater than 70%. Results also indicated that the combination of static and dynamic measures did not improve the classification accuracy over the dynamic assessments alone. Dynamic assessment appears to be a promising approach to classifying young children at risk for future reading difficulty.
Pomplun, M; Omar, M H
This study investigated the factorial invariance of a fourth-grade state mathematics assessment across groups of general education students and students with learning disabilities with and without reading accommodations. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the fit of a 2-factor model to each of the 3 groups. In addition to the overall fit of this model, several levels of constraint were investigated. Invariance across the 3 groups was supported for factor loadings and intercepts. However, invariance of the factor covariances across the general education group and the groups of students with learning disabilities was not supported. Because of the implications for aggregating reported scores, further research is needed into the relationship between the factors in the different groups.
Yusuf, Hanna Onyi
This study assessed the implementation of the reading component of the Junior Secondary School English Language Curriculum for Basic Education in Nigeria. Ten (10) randomly selected public and private secondary schools from Kaduna metropolis in Kaduna State of Nigeria were used for the study. Among the factors assessed in relation to the…
Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Bouton, Bobette; Caffrey, Erin
The purpose of this study was to examine the construct and predictive validity of a dynamic assessment (DA) of decoding learning. Students (N = 318) were assessed in the fall of first grade on an array of instruments that were given in hopes of forecasting responsiveness to reading instruction. These instruments included DA as well as…
O'Reilly, Tenaha; Sabatini, John
This paper represents the third installment of the Reading for Understanding (RfU) assessment framework. This paper builds upon the two prior installments (Sabatini & O'Reilly, 2013; Sabatini, O'Reilly, & Deane, 2013) by discussing the role of performance moderators in the test design and how scenario-based assessment can be used as a tool…
Iowa Department of Education, 2013
This document contains summary information for the Iowa Department of Education's review of PreK-6th grade reading assessments for the purposes of Universal Screening and Progress Monitoring. It is intended to provide general information to help inform decisions about selecting assessments for use as a part of Iowa's Response to Intervention…
Sheehan, Kathleen M.; O'Reilly, Tenaha
"No Child Left Behind" has highlighted the need for new types of assessments that not only provide high-quality evidence about what students know and can do, but also help to move learning forward. This paper describes a linked set of formative and summative reading assessments designed to address the tradeoffs inherent in these two…
Truckenmiller, Adrea J.; Petscher, Yaacov; Gaughan, Linda; Dwyer, Ted
District and state education leaders frequently use screening assessments to identify students who are at risk of performing poorly on end-of-year achievement tests. This study examines the use of a universal screening assessment of reading skills for early identification of students at risk of low achievement on nationally normed tests of reading…
Hinds, Richard M; Danna, Natalie R; Capo, John T; Mroczek, Kenneth J
Background The Internet has been reported to be the first informational resource for many fellowship applicants. The objective of this study was to assess the accessibility of orthopaedic foot and ankle fellowship websites and to evaluate the quality of information provided via program websites. Methods The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) and the Fellowship and Residency Electronic Interactive Database (FREIDA) fellowship databases were accessed to generate a comprehensive list of orthopaedic foot and ankle fellowship programs. The databases were reviewed for links to fellowship program websites and compared with program websites accessed from a Google search. Accessible fellowship websites were then analyzed for the quality of recruitment and educational content pertinent to fellowship applicants. Results Forty-seven orthopaedic foot and ankle fellowship programs were identified. The AOFAS database featured direct links to 7 (15%) fellowship websites with the independent Google search yielding direct links to 29 (62%) websites. No direct website links were provided in the FREIDA database. Thirty-six accessible websites were analyzed for content. Program websites featured a mean 44% (range = 5% to 75%) of the total assessed content. The most commonly presented recruitment and educational content was a program description (94%) and description of fellow operative experience (83%), respectively. Conclusions There is substantial variability in the accessibility and quality of orthopaedic foot and ankle fellowship websites. Clinical Relevance Recognition of deficits in accessibility and content quality may assist foot and ankle fellowships in improving program information online.
Davies, Daniel K.; Stock, Steven E.; King, Larry R.; Wehmeyer, Michael L.
Significant barriers exist for individuals with intellectual disability to independently access print-based content. It is regrettable that, while the amount of content now available electronically increases, tools to access these materials have not been developed with individuals with intellectual disability in mind. This article reports the…
Colé, Pascale; Duncan, Lynne G.; Blaye, Agnès
An important aspect of learning to read is efficiency in accessing different kinds of linguistic information (orthographic, phonological, and semantic) about written words. The present study investigates whether, in addition to the integrity of such linguistic skills, early progress in reading may require a degree of cognitive flexibility in order to manage the coordination of this information effectively. Our study will look for evidence of a link between flexibility and both word reading and passage reading comprehension, and examine whether any such link involves domain-general or reading-specific flexibility. As the only previous support for a predictive relationship between flexibility and early reading comes from studies of reading comprehension in the opaque English orthography, another possibility is that this relationship may be largely orthography-dependent, only coming into play when mappings between representations are complex and polyvalent. To investigate these questions, 60 second-graders learning to read the more transparent French orthography were presented with two multiple classification tasks involving reading-specific cognitive flexibility (based on words) and non-specific flexibility (based on pictures). Reading skills were assessed by word reading, pseudo-word decoding, and passage reading comprehension measures. Flexibility was found to contribute significant unique variance to passage reading comprehension even in the less opaque French orthography. More interestingly, the data also show that flexibility is critical in accounting for one of the core components of reading comprehension, namely, the reading of words in isolation. Finally, the results constrain the debate over whether flexibility has to be reading-specific to be critically involved in reading. PMID:24966842
Indiana Department of Education, 2006
The materials included in this manual are organized according to the Indiana's Kindergarten Academic Standards for English/Language Arts. In each section teachers will find: (1) Indiana's Kindergarten Academic Standards for English/Language Arts Assessments: Black Line Masters of diagnostic/practice pages for skill areas, checklists, and rubrics;…
Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L; Fuchs, Lynn S; Bouton, Bobette; Caffrey, Erin
The purpose of this study was to examine the construct and predictive validity of a dynamic assessment (DA) of decoding learning. Students (N = 318) were assessed in the fall of first grade on an array of instruments that were given in hopes of forecasting responsiveness to reading instruction. These instruments included DA as well as one-point-in-time (static) measures of early alphabetic knowledge, rapid automatized naming (RAN), phonemic awareness, oral vocabulary, listening comprehension, attentive behavior, and hyperactive or impulsive behavior. An IQ test was administered in spring of second grade. Measures of reading outcomes administered in spring of first grade were accuracy and fluency of word identification skills and reading comprehension. Factor analysis using principal axis factor extraction indicated that DA loaded on a first factor that also included language abilities and IQ, which the authors refer to as the "language, IQ, and DA" factor. It was relatively distinct from two additional factors: (a) "speeded alphabetic knowledge and RAN" and (b) "task-oriented behavior." A three-level (children nested within classroom; classrooms nested within school) random intercept model with fixed effects predictors suggested that DA differed from word attack in predicting future reading skill and that DA was a significant predictor of responsiveness to instruction, contributing unique variance to end-of-first-grade word identification and reading comprehension beyond that explained by other well-established predictors of reading development.
Wolff, Jennifer L; Darer, Jonathan D; Berger, Andrea; Clarke, Deserae; Green, Jamie A; Stametz, Rebecca A; Delbanco, Tom; Walker, Jan
We examined the acceptability and effects of delivering doctors' visit notes electronically (via OpenNotes) to patients and care partners with authorized access to patients' electronic medical records. Adult patients and care partners at Geisinger Health System were surveyed at baseline and after 12 months of exposure to OpenNotes. Reporting on care partner access to OpenNotes, patients and care partners stated that they had better agreement about patient treatment plans and more productive discussions about their care. At follow-up, patients were more confident in their ability to manage their health, felt better prepared for office visits, and reported understanding their care better than at baseline. Care partners were more likely to access and use patient portal functionality and reported improved communication with patients' providers at follow-up. Our findings suggest that offering patients and care partners access to doctors' notes is acceptable and improves communication and patients' confidence in managing their care.
Davies, Daniel K; Stock, Steven E; King, Larry R; Wehmeyer, Michael L
Significant barriers exist for individuals with intellectual disability to independently access print-based content. It is regrettable that, while the amount of content now available electronically increases, tools to access these materials have not been developed with individuals with intellectual disability in mind. This article reports the results of research evaluating the use of a palmtop PC-based application designed to enable individuals with intellectual disability to access electronic books and documents. Participants with intellectual disability were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups, each group differing in the type of audio player used. Participants who used the specially designed reader made significantly fewer errors accessing electronic books and required significantly fewer prompts than did participants using either of 2 mainstream audiobook readers.
What Works Clearinghouse, 2015
The study, "The Impact of Indiana's System of Interim Assessments on Mathematics and Reading," examined the effects of using Diagnostic Assessment Tools (DAT) on mathematics and reading outcomes for students in 59 Indiana schools during the 2009-10 academic year. DAT consists of interim assessment tools--Wireless Generation's mCLASS for…
Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Connor, Carol M; Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Greulich, Luana; Meadows, Jane; Li, Zhi
The purpose of this cluster-randomized control field trial was to was to examine the extent to which kindergarten teachers could learn a promising instructional strategy, wherein kindergarten reading instruction was differentiated based upon students' ongoing assessments of language and literacy skills and documented child characteristic by instruction (CXI) interactions; and to test the efficacy of this differentiated reading instruction on the reading outcomes of students from culturally diverse backgrounds. The study involved 14 schools and included 23 treatment (n = 305 students) and 21 contrast teacher (n = 251 students). Teachers in the contrast condition received only a baseline professional development that included a researcher-delivered summer day-long workshop on individualized instruction. Data sources included parent surveys, individually administered child assessments of language, cognitive, and reading skills and videotapes of classroom instruction. Using Hierarchical Multivariate Linear Modeling (HMLM), we found students in treatment classrooms outperformed students in the contrast classrooms on a latent measure of reading skills, comprised of letter-word reading, decoding, alphabetic knowledge, and phonological awareness (ES = .52). Teachers in both conditions provided small group instruction, but teachers in the treatment condition provided significantly more individualized instruction. Our findings extend research on the efficacy of teachers using Individualized Student Instruction to individualize instruction based upon students' language and literacy skills in first through third grade. Findings are discussed regarding the value of professional development related to differentiating core reading instruction and the challenges of using Response to Intervention approaches to address students' needs in the areas of reading in general education contexts.
Coats-Kitsopoulos, Gloria Jean
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS), the Reading Recovery Observation Survey (RROS) early reading sub-tests, and the reading achievement of Native American first-graders as measured by the Stanford 10. A causal-comparative correlation research design…
Liu, Xing; O'Connell, Ann A.
Childhood is the crucial period for early children's reading ability building. Former research (Hanson & Farrell, 1995) found that early reading experience had a positive and long-term effect on reading competence for high school seniors in the future. Therefore, it is of great importance for researchers to understand children's initial reading…
Schiefele, Ulrich; Schaffner, Ellen
Reading motivation has been defined consistently as a multidimensional construct. However, there is some disagreement regarding the number and nature of the dimensions of reading motivation. In particular, there is a lack of studies investigating the dimensional structure and measurement invariance (e.g., across gender) of reading motivation…
McMahon, Don; Wright, Rachel; Cihak, David F.; Moore, Tara C.; Lamb, Richard
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a digitized podcast to deliver read-aloud testing accommodations on mobile devices to students with disabilities and reading difficulties. The total sample for this study included 47 middle school students with reading difficulties. Of the 47 students, 16 were identified as students with…
Greene, John F.; Zirkel, Perry A.
This paper reviews the literature pertaining to the measurement of attitudes toward reading, and recommends a workable approach for the elementary grades based on available instrumentation. The preliminary section summarizes the findings of studies relating to the theoretical framework of the psychology of reading. Reading research findings…
Huddleston, Andrew P.; Rockwell, Elizabeth C.
This historical critique of high-stakes testing in reading focuses on selected events from three historical movements: 1) the history of standardized testing, 2) the history of standardized reading tests, and 3) the history of high-stakes testing. These three interrelated histories have produced the high-stakes, standardized reading tests used in…
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restricting access to select agents and toxins; security risk assessments. 121.10 Section 121.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... intelligence agency of committing a crime set forth in 18 U.S.C. 2332b(g)(5); knowing involvement with...
National Institute of Adult Continuing Education, 2009
Dyscalculia is considered to be a learning difficulty or difference. It is increasingly being recognised and "diagnosed" within adult learning. However, practitioners are often unclear about whether learners who are considered to have dyscalculia are entitled to access arrangements for examinations and assessments, and which access…
Keller, Gary D., Ed.; And Others
This book contains 10 papers on solutions and barriers to improving the access of Hispanic American students to higher education. Following an introductory essay on: "Advances in Assessment and the Potential for Increasing the Number of Hispanics in Higher Education" (G. D. Keller), the papers are organized into four parts. Papers in…
Gray, Holly Lynn
This study tested the effects of a Sustained Silent Reading program on reading achievement and reading attitude. The study accessed scores from the DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency (Good, Kaminski, & Dill, 2007) to measure reading achievement. This measure was given before and after a twelve week period, during which the treatment group…
Bassini, S.; Antonelli, A.; Di Piazza, I.; Tarantino, M.
Oxygen sensors for Heavy Liquid Metals (HLMs) such as lead and LBE (lead-bismuth eutectic) will be essential devices in future Lead Fast Reactor (LFR) and Accelerator Driven System (ADS). Potentiometric sensors based on solid electrolytes were developed in recent years to this purpose. Internal reference electrodes such as Pt-air and Bi/Bi2O3 liquid metal/metal-oxide are among the most used but they both have a weak point: Pt-air sensor has a high minimum reading temperature around 400 °C whereas Bi/Bi2O3 suffers from internal stresses induced by Bi volume variations with temperature, which may lead to the sensor failure in the long-term. The present work describes the performance of standard Pt-air and Bi/Bi2O3 sensors and compares them with recent Cu/Cu2O sensor. Sensors with Yttria Partially Stabilized Zirconia (YPSZ) electrolyte were calibrated in oxygen-saturated HLM between 160 and 550 °C and the electric potential compared to the theoretical one to define the accuracy and the minimum reading temperature. Standard Pt-air sensor were also tested using Yttria Totally Stabilized Zirconia (YTSZ) to assess the effect of a different electrolyte on the minimum reading temperature. The performance of Pt-air and Cu/Cu2O sensors with YPSZ electrolyte were then tested together in low-oxygen HLM between 200 and 450 °C. The results showed that Pt-air, Bi/Bi2O3 and Cu/Cu2O sensors with YPSZ measured oxygen in HLMs down to 400 °C, 290 °C and 200 °C respectively. When the YTSZ electrolyte was used in place of the YPSZ, the Pt-air sensor measured correctly down to at least 350 °C thanks to the superior ionic conductivity of the YTSZ. When Cu/Cu2O and Pt-air sensors were tested together in the same low-oxygen HLM between 200 and 450 °C, Cu/Cu2O sensor worked predictably in the whole temperature range whereas Pt-air sensor exhibited a correct output only above 400 °C.
Leong, Che Kan
The research and practical questions about the internal lexicon, the associated network of internal representation basic to word meaning, boil down to whether in reading English the phonological route is obligatory or optional. Since the English writing system is morphophonemic, not phonetic, access to the internal lexicon cannot and should not…
Petersen, Douglas B.; Allen, Melissa M.; Spencer, Trina D.
The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the classification accuracy of early static prereading measures and early dynamic assessment reading measures administered to 600 kindergarten students. At the beginning of kindergarten, all of the participants were administered two commonly used static prereading measures. The participants were…
Townsend, Dianna; Collins, Penny
A study was conducted to determine whether the measures used to identify native English speakers who are at risk for reading difficulties could also be used for identifying English learners who were at a similar risk. Additionally it was investigated whether English learners should be assessed in the language of instruction, English, or in their…
Greenslade, Kathryn J.; Coggins, Truman E.
Background: Identifying what a communication partner is looking at (referential intention) and why (social intention) is essential to successful social communication, and may be challenging for children with social communication deficits. This study explores a clinical task that assesses these intention-reading abilities within an authentic…
Forster, Natalie; Souvignier, Elmar
The purpose of this study was to examine the technical adequacy of a computer-based assessment instrument which is based on hierarchical models of text comprehension for monitoring student reading progress following the Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) approach. At intervals of two weeks, 120 third-grade students finished eight CBM tests. To…
Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald
In this technical report, the authors describe the development alternate forms of Word and Passage Reading Fluency measures as part of a comprehensive progress monitoring literacy assessment system developed in 2006 for use with students in Kindergarten through fourth grade. They begin with a brief overview of the two conceptual frameworks…
Alonzo, Julie; Liu, Kimy; Tindal, Gerald
In this technical report, the authors describe the development and piloting of reading comprehension measures as part of a comprehensive progress monitoring literacy assessment system developed in 2006 for use with students in Kindergarten through fifth grade. They begin with a brief overview of the two conceptual frameworks underlying the…
Gilbertson, Donna; Ferre, Scot
Problematic assessment and intervention issues present substantial challenges when making educational decisions for deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH) students who are experiencing reading difficulties. These students present a diverse set of language acquisition skills, hearing ability, and orientation to early school learning activities that are…
Reutzel, D. Ray; Brandt, Lorilynn; Fawson, Parker C.; Jones, Cindy D.
This article examines the Consortium on Reading Excellence-Phonics Survey (CORE-PS), an informal, inexpensive, and widely disseminated assessment tool that is used to determine primary-grade students' knowledge of and abilities to apply key alphabetic and phonics understandings to decode a mix of real and pseudo-words. Evidence is reported of the…
Previous research in cognitive diagnostic assessment (CDA) of L2 reading ability has been frequently conducted using large-scale English proficiency exams (e.g., TOEFL, MELAB). Using CDA, it is possible to analyze individual learners' strengths and weaknesses in multiple attributes (i.e., knowledge, skill, strategy) measured at the item level.…
Lindeblad, Emma; Svensson, Idor; Gustafson, Stefan
This study investigated the self-image and psychological well-being in 67 children and adolescents age 10-16 years with severe reading difficulties and/or dyslexia. The participants were assessed with Beck Youth Inventory regarding symptoms of depression, anxiety, and negative self-image. The results showed that the participants do not depict…
The reading comprehension assessment tool is a product developed for the Regional Educational Laboratory's (REL) initiative, Pacific Communities with High performance In Literacy Development, herein named the Pacific CHILD. This research project is focused on school improvement, especially as it relates to the teaching and learning of early…
Darkenwald, Gordon G.; Silvestri, Kenneth
An assessment of the Newark Literacy Campaign's (NLC's) Adult Tutorial Reading Program studied 20 long-term (in the program for at least 1 year) and 20 new adult learners; all but 2 were African-Americans. The following data sources were used: in-depth interviews with learners, logs completed by tutors, follow-up interviews 6-8 months later,…
Beaton, Albert E.; Zwick, Rebecca
Results of new research into the anomalous results of the 1986 reading portion of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) are reported. The original analysis of the 1986 data indicated that the estimated performance level of 9- and 17-year-old students had dropped dramatically since 1984, whereas the performance of 13-year-olds had…
Chiu, Pui Chi
This study examines student growth on mathematics and reading assessments across academic years (Spring 2006 through Spring 2009) using three different growth models: hierarchical linear model (HLM), value-added model (VAM), and student growth percentile model (SGP). Comparisons across these three growth models were conducted to investigate the…
Background Roche 454 pyrosequencing platform is often considered the most versatile of the Next Generation Sequencing technology platforms, permitting the sequencing of large genomes, the analysis of variations or the study of transcriptomes. A recent reported bias leads to the production of multiple reads for a unique DNA fragment in a random manner within a run. This bias has a direct impact on the quality of the measurement of the representation of the fragments using the reads. Other cleaning steps are usually performed on the reads before assembly or alignment. Findings PyroCleaner is a software module intended to clean 454 pyrosequencing reads in order to ease the assembly process. This program is a free software and is distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation. It implements several filters using criteria such as read duplication, length, complexity, base-pair quality and number of undetermined bases. It also permits to clean flowgram files (.sff) of paired-end sequences generating on one hand validated paired-ends file and the other hand single read file. Conclusions Read cleaning has always been an important step in sequence analysis. The pyrocleaner python module is a Swiss knife dedicated to 454 reads cleaning. It includes commonly used filters as well as specialised ones such as duplicated read removal and paired-end read verification. PMID:21615897
Wassenburg, Stephanie I.; de Koning, Björn B.; de Vries, Meinou H.; van der Schoot, Menno
Using a component processes task (CPT) that differentiates between higher-level cognitive processes of reading comprehension provides important advantages over commonly used general reading comprehension assessments. The present study contributes to further development of the CPT by evaluating the relative contributions of its components (text memory, text inferencing, and knowledge integration) and working memory to general reading comprehension within a single study using path analyses. Participants were 173 third- and fourth-grade children. As hypothesized, knowledge integration was the only component of the CPT that directly contributed to reading comprehension, indicating that the text-inferencing component did not assess inferential processes related to reading comprehension. Working memory was a significant predictor of reading comprehension over and above the component processes. Future research should focus on finding ways to ensure that the text-inferencing component taps into processes important for reading comprehension. PMID:27378989
Wassenburg, Stephanie I; de Koning, Björn B; de Vries, Meinou H; van der Schoot, Menno
Using a component processes task (CPT) that differentiates between higher-level cognitive processes of reading comprehension provides important advantages over commonly used general reading comprehension assessments. The present study contributes to further development of the CPT by evaluating the relative contributions of its components (text memory, text inferencing, and knowledge integration) and working memory to general reading comprehension within a single study using path analyses. Participants were 173 third- and fourth-grade children. As hypothesized, knowledge integration was the only component of the CPT that directly contributed to reading comprehension, indicating that the text-inferencing component did not assess inferential processes related to reading comprehension. Working memory was a significant predictor of reading comprehension over and above the component processes. Future research should focus on finding ways to ensure that the text-inferencing component taps into processes important for reading comprehension.
Lloyd, Jayson D.
A high school education, which includes access to advanced math courses, has a positive effect on students. Math classes taken in high school show a relationship to higher salaries and college graduation rates. However, the high-stakes accountability system in California, redesigned in 2003 to meet the requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act…
McCarty, Allison M.; Christ, Theodore J.
This article reviews the "Developmental Reading Assessment--Second Edition" (DRA2), a teacher-administered assessment that identifies students' instructional level, along with their strengths and weaknesses in reading. Once teachers calculate and interpret scores, the data can purportedly be used to inform, and possibly individualize,…
Tyrell, Terrylynn; Spangler, Stephanie
According to the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), only one-third of American fourth grade students are at or above proficient in reading. Yet state assessments indicate that most American fourth-grade students are above average in reading. This analysis raises the questions about standards of success and what children need to…
Smith, Nicholas D.; Glen, Fiona C.; Mönter, Vera M.; Crabb, David P.
Reading is often cited as a demanding task for patients with glaucomatous visual field (VF) loss, yet reading speed varies widely between patients and does not appear to be predicted by standard visual function measures. This within-person study aimed to investigate reading duration and eye movements when reading short passages of text in a patient's worse eye (most VF damage) when compared to their better eye (least VF damage). Reading duration and saccade rate were significantly different on average in the worse eye when compared to the better eye (P < 0.001) in 14 patients with glaucoma that had median (interquartile range) between-eye difference in mean deviation (MD; a standard clinical measure for VF loss) of 9.8 (8.3 to 14.8) dB; differences were not related to the size of the difference in MD between eyes. Patients with a more pronounced effect of longer reading duration on their worse eye made a larger proportion of “regressions” (backward saccades) and “unknown” EMs (not adhering to expected reading patterns) when reading with the worse eye when compared to the better eye. A between-eye study in patients with asymmetric disease, coupled with eye tracking, provides a useful experimental design for exploring reading performance in glaucoma. PMID:24883203
Mas Machuca, Carmen; Wosinska, Lena; Chen, Jiajia
Optical access networks are evolving towards next generation solutions offering much higher bandwidth per end point. Moreover, the uninterrupted access to the network services is becoming crucial and therefore operators are now considering protecting their access networks. However, the cost factor is still very important due to the relatively low cost sharing in access segment. For this purpose, this paper proposes an assessment methodology that can be used to compare different protection schemes and help to identify the suitable solution for a given scenario. The assessment criteria includes some reliability measures such as Failure Impact Factor (FIF) and connection availability, as well as cost parameters such as the investment required in greenfield and brownfield scenarios and the increase in power consumption compared to the unprotected network. The proposed criteria have been used to compare 7 representative protection schemes shown in literature, which differ mainly in the number of protected network elements and the technology used for protection (fiber, wireless, etc.). The considered protection schemes have been applied to a hybrid wavelength division multiplexing/time division multiplexing Passive Optical Network (Hybrid PON) architecture in an urban area. It has been shown that it is difficult to identify the absolute best scheme with respect to all the considered criteria. However, depending on the requirements from the operator regarding the targeted reliability performance in the network, an appropriate protection scheme can be recommended for either a greenfield or a brownfield scenario.
Carson, Karyn; Boustead, Therese; Gillon, Gail
The screening and monitoring of phonological awareness (PA) in the classroom is of great importance to the early identification and prevention of reading disorder. This study investigated whether a time-efficient computer-based PA screening and monitoring assessment (Com-PASMA) could accurately predict end-of-year reading outcomes for 5-year-old children in the first year of schooling. A longitudinal design was employed where the Com-PASMA was used to measure the PA ability of 95 5-year-old children at the start, middle, and end of the first year of school. Of this group, 21 children presented with spoken language impairment. Reading outcomes were formally measured after 1 year of schooling. School-entry measures of PA using the Com-PASMA (p < .001), in conjunction with language ability (p = .004), accounted for 68.9% of the variance in end-of-year word decoding ability. Sensitivity and specificity calculations demonstrated that the Com-PASMA was 92% accurate at school-entry, and 94% accurate by the middle of the school year in predicting reading outcomes at 6-years of age. Results suggest that a time-efficient computer-based method of screening and monitoring PA can support the early identification of reading difficulties in the first year of schooling.
Finn, Diana Baker
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of specific cognitive abilities and reading comprehension across a variety of norm referenced tests that align with Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities and integrative models of reading. Data from existing studies was analyzed by comparing the relationships of four…
Davis, Marcia H.; Guthrie, John T.
The authors outline results of 3 studies conducted to examine the structure of disciplinary knowledge from reading measured through proximity data. In Study 1, 168 third-grade students were asked to read a science text and rate the relationships of keywords from the passage. From these ratings, comprehension scores were calculated that related…
Harste, Jerome C., Ed.; Stephens, Diane, Ed.
Written for language educators, this volume about reading and research suggests that the theory-practice and research-teaching gaps are dysfunctional and calls for a collaborative pedagogy between colleges and schools to develop a practical theory of reading instruction. In the opening article, Jerome Harste discusses issues that emerged from…
Chen, Jun-Ming; Chen, Meng-Chang; Sun, Yeali S.
For students of English as a Foreign Language (EFL), reading exercises are critical not only for developing strong reading comprehension, but also for developing listening, speaking, and writing skills. Prior research suggests that social, collaborative learning environments are best suited for improving language ability. However, opportunities…
Seipel, Ben; Biancarosa, Gina; Carlson, Sarah; Davison, Mark
Previous research has established two types of struggling readers: those who struggle with lower-level reading skills and those who struggle with higher-level reading skills (Cain & Oakhill, 2006; Perfetti, 2007). The latter group is commonly termed "poor comprehenders": readers who exhibit poor comprehension compared to peers with…
Limbrick, Lisa; Wheldall, Kevin; Madelaine, Alison
Extensive research indicates that there are more boys than girls who are struggling readers, although considerable variation in gender ratios has been reported as a result of a lack of consensus in defining and measuring poor reading. The purpose of this study was to establish stable and consistent gender ratios for poor reading using a single…
Jordan, Timothy R; Thomas, Sharon M; Patching, Geoffrey R; Scott-Brown, Kenneth C
Exterior letter pairs (e.g., d--k in dark) play a major role in single-word recognition, but other research (D. Briihl & A. W. Inhoff, 1995) indicates no such role in reading text. This issue was examined by visually degrading letter pairs in three positions in words (initial, exterior, and interior) in text. Each degradation slowed reading rate compared with an undegraded control. However, whereas degrading initial and interior pairs slowed reading rate to a similar extent, degrading exterior pairs slowed reading rate most of all. Moreover, these effects were obtained when letter identities across pair positions varied naturally and when they were matched. The findings suggest that exterior letter pairs play a preferential role in reading, and candidates for this role are discussed.
Toledo Piza, Carolina M. J.; de Macedo, Elizeu C.; Miranda, Monica C.; Bueno, Orlando F. A.
The analysis of cognitive processes underpinning reading and writing skills may help to distinguish different reading ability profiles. The present study used a Brazilian reading and writing battery to compare performance of students with dyslexia with two individually matched control groups: one contrasting on reading competence but not age and the other group contrasting on age but not reading competence. Participants were 28 individuals with dyslexia (19 boys) with a mean age of 9.82 (SD ± 1.44) drawn from public and private schools. These were matched to: (1) an age control group (AC) of 26 good readers with a mean age of 9.77 (SD ± 1.44) matched by age, sex, years of schooling, and type of school; (2) reading control group (RC) of 28 younger controls with a mean age of 7.82 (SD ± 1.06) matched by sex, type of school, and reading level. All groups were tested on four tasks from the Brazilian Reading and Writing Assessment battery (“BALE”): Written Sentence Comprehension Test (WSCT); Spoken Sentence Comprehension Test (OSCT); Picture-Print Writing Test (PPWT 1.1-Writing); and the Reading Competence Test (RCT). These tasks evaluate reading and listening comprehension for sentences, spelling, and reading isolated words and pseudowords (non-words). The dyslexia group scored lower and took longer to complete tasks than the AC group. Compared with the RC group, there were no differences in total scores on reading or oral comprehension tasks. However, dyslexics presented slower reading speeds, longer completion times, and lower scores on spelling tasks, even compared with younger controls. Analysis of types of errors on word and pseudoword reading items showed students with dyslexia scoring lower for pseudoword reading than the other two groups. These findings suggest that the dyslexics overall scores were similar to those of younger readers. However, specific phonological and visual decoding deficits showed that the two groups differ in terms of underpinning
Plun-Favreau, Juliette; Immonen-Charalambous, Kaisa; Steuten, Lotte; Strootker, Anja; Rouzier, Roman; Horgan, Denis; Lawler, Mark
Molecular diagnostics can offer important benefits to patients and are a key enabler of the integration of personalised medicine into health care systems. However, despite their promise, few molecular diagnostics are embedded into clinical practice (especially in Europe) and access to these technologies remains unequal across countries and sometimes even within individual countries. If research translation and the regulatory environments have proven to be more challenging than expected, reimbursement and value assessment remain the main barriers to providing patients with equal access to molecular diagnostics. Unclear or non-existent reimbursement pathways, together with the lack of clear evidence requirements, have led to significant delays in the assessment of molecular diagnostics technologies in certain countries. Additionally, the lack of dedicated diagnostics budgets and the siloed nature of resource allocation within certain health care systems have significantly delayed diagnostics commissioning. This article will consider the perspectives of different stakeholders (patients, health care payers, health care professionals, and manufacturers) on the provision of a research-enabled, patient-focused molecular diagnostics platform that supports optimal patient care. Through the discussion of specific case studies, and building on the experience from countries that have successfully integrated molecular diagnostics into clinical practice, this article will discuss the necessary evolutions in policy and health technology assessment to ensure that patients can have equal access to appropriate molecular diagnostics.
Health risk assessment is based on access to comprehensive information about potentially hazardous agents in question. Relevant information is scattered throughout the literature, and often is not readily accessible. To be useful in assessment efforts, emerging scientific findings, risk assess parameters, and associated data must be compiled and evaluated systemically. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are among the federal agencies heavily involved in this effort. This symposium was a direct response by EPA and ORNL to the expressed needs of individuals involved in assessing risks from chemical exposure. In an effort to examine the state of the risk assessment process, the availability of toxicological information, and the future development and transfer of this information, the symposium provided an excellent cadre of speakers and participants from state and federal agencies, academia and research laboratories to address these topics. This stimulating and productive gathering discussed concerns associated with (1) environmental contamination by chemicals; (2) laws regulating chemicals; (3) information needs and resources; (4) applications; (5) challenges and priorities; and (6)future issues. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.
Maire, Eva; Cinner, Joshua; Velez, Laure; Huchery, Cindy; Mora, Camilo; Dagata, Stephanie; Vigliola, Laurent; Wantiez, Laurent; Kulbicki, Michel; Mouillot, David
The depletion of natural resources has become a major issue in many parts of the world, with the most accessible resources being most at risk. In the terrestrial realm, resource depletion has classically been related to accessibility through road networks. In contrast, in the marine realm, the impact on living resources is often framed into the Malthusian theory of human density around ecosystems. Here, we develop a new framework to estimate the accessibility of global coral reefs using potential travel time from the nearest human settlement or market. We show that 58% of coral reefs are located < 30 min from the nearest human settlement. We use a case study from New Caledonia to demonstrate that travel time from the market is a strong predictor of fish biomass on coral reefs. We also highlight a relative deficit of protection on coral reef areas near people, with disproportional protection on reefs far from people. This suggests that conservation efforts are targeting low-conflict reefs or places that may already be receiving de facto protection due to their isolation. Our global assessment of accessibility in the marine realm is a critical step to better understand the interplay between humans and resources.
In the present project we tested the hypothesis that tutorial situations with peers would benefit children's reading motivation. Participants were from elementary school--80 fourth-graders and 80 second-graders. We used a questionnaire to assess reading motivation. In the tutorial sessions we developed a Paired Reading Program. The children who…
Santos Neto, Edson Theodoro dos; Oliveira, Adauto Emmerich; Zandonade, Eliana; Leal, Maria do Carmo
This study aimed to compare the evaluation of adequate access to prenatal care according to different indices. Data to construct the indices were obtained from 1,006 patient interviews, prenatal cards, and medical charts for postpartum women who had been admitted for childbirth at maternity hospitals in Greater Metropolitan Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil, from April to September 2010. The various indices for the evaluation of prenatal care were compared to the Kotelchuck index (1994) as the standard reference. Prevalence rates for adequacy were calculated, as were agreement, sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, accuracy, and likelihood ratios. The Takeda index showed the highest prevalence of adequacy (55.8%). The highest agreement was between the indices proposed by Villar et al. and Rosen et al. (adjusted kappa = 0.84). The study concludes that the Carvalho & Novaes index and the Brazilian Ministry of Health index are relevant for assessing adequate access to prenatal care.
Meskarpour-Amiri, Mohammad; Dopeykar, Nooredin; Ameryoun, Ahmad; Mehrabi Tavana, Ali
Background: Timely access to cardiovascular health services is necessary to prevent heart damages. The present study examined inequality in geographical distribution of cardiovascular health services in Iran. Methods: Present study is a cross-sectional study conducted using demographic data from all Iranian provinces (31 provinces) from 2012 census by the Statistics Center of Iran (SCI). The Gini coefficients of CCU beds and cardiologists were used to assess equality in access to cardiovascular health services in Iran. MS Excel software was used to calculate Gini coefficients. Results: The proportions of CCU bed and cardiologist per 100,000 population were 4.88 and 1.27, respectively; also the Gini coefficients were 0.129 and 0.045, respectively. Conclusion: Descriptive statistics showed a skewness in distribution of pubic cardiovascular health services in Iran, though Gini coefficient revealed no significant inequality. However, equal distribution of CCU beds and cardiovascular specialists does not mean they are sufficiently available in Iran. PMID:28210585
Institute for the Study of Inquiring Systems, Philadelphia, PA.
An assessment of reading performance of a representative sample of students aged nine, thirteen, and seventeen years was conducted in Connecticut Public Schools to discover the percentage of students who could perform specific reading skills appropriate to their age and experience. Comparisons were made in the following categories: with national…
State of Hawaii Department of Education, 2007
The Hawai'i State Assessment is an annual testing program that measures student progress on Hawai'i's reading, writing, and mathematics standards. This handbook provides all Department of Education personnel at the school, complex area, and state levels with information about participation in the Hawai'i State Reading and Mathematics Assessment…
Reynolds, Meree; Wheldall, Kevin; Madelaine, Alison
Early years teachers are in need of efficient measures to identify young students who are not making adequate progress in learning to read. The Wheldall Assessment of Reading Lists (WARL) has been developed to meet this need. The test, a curriculum-based measure of word identification fluency, consists of a series of parallel lists of frequently…
Jones, Donna L.
This quantitative study analyzed data to find a valid and reliable assessment for progress monitoring also having predictive power of a student's future reading performance on a state-mandated standardized reading achievement evaluation. The Response to Intervention (RTI) model was implemented in the language arts classrooms of a rural middle…
This research project examined whether the use of Instructor-guided Supplemental Instruction as a classroom scaffolding technique, might help improve testing and assessment reading outcomes for reading-deficient college students. The study was completed at Tennessee State University in Nashville, Tennessee over the 16-week Fall, 2012 semester…
Mullis, Ina V. S.; Martin, Michael O.
Linking IEA's international reading assessments across 40 years is an interesting endeavor from several perspectives. Being able to examine trends in reading achievement at the 4th grade over such a long period and relate these to policy changes during that time span is an attractive idea. However, this work brings to the fore many thorny issues…
Stivers-Blaebaum, Janet E.
Research has shown that there is a strong link between reading comprehension and vocabulary, yet many children lack the required vocabulary needed to perform adequately on reading comprehension assessments. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the teaching of Larry Bell's 12 Powerful Words vocabulary program in order to raise third, fourth…
Olinghouse, Natalie G.; Lambert, Warren; Compton, Donald L.
This study investigated whether 2 different progress monitoring assessments differentially predicted growth in reading skills associated with systematic phonics instruction. Oral reading fluency (ORE) was compared with an intervention aligned word list (IAWL) as predictors of growth in untimed and timed decoding and word identification and text…
A Needs Assessment of the Accessibility of Distance Education in the California Community College System. Part II: Costs and Promising Practices Associated with Making Distance Education Courses Accessible
Farr, Beverly; Studier, Carol; Sipes, Laurel; Coombs, Norman
As the number of online distance education (DE) courses mushrooms in the California community college system, the need to address the accessibility of these courses becomes more and more urgent. With this in mind, the California Community College System Office (CCCSO) retained MPR Associates, Inc. to complete a needs assessment to help determine…
Ruefle, Anne E.
Research shows that an important step in the development of readers is having access to books. Steven Krashen, in "The Power of Reading," cites multiple studies that demonstrate access to books is crucial in developing strong readers: "the richer the print environment, the better the literacy development." Limiting access runs counter to research…
Braze, David; Tabor, Whitney; Shankweiler, Donald P; Mencl, W Einar
This study is part of a broader project aimed at developing cognitive and neurocognitive profiles of adolescent and young adult readers whose educational and occupational prospects are constrained by their limited literacy skills. We explore the relationships among reading-related abilities in participants ages 16 to 24 years spanning a wide range of reading ability. Two specific questions are addressed: (a) Does the simple view of reading capture all nonrandom variation in reading comprehension? (b) Does orally assessed vocabulary knowledge account for variance in reading comprehension, as predicted by the lexical quality hypothesis? A comprehensive battery of cognitive and educational tests was employed to assess phonological awareness, decoding, verbal working memory, listening comprehension, reading comprehension, word knowledge, and experience with print. In this heterogeneous sample, decoding ability clearly played an important role in reading comprehension. The simple view of reading gave a reasonable fit to the data, although it did not capture all of the reliable variance in reading comprehension as predicted. Orally assessed vocabulary knowledge captured unique variance in reading comprehension even after listening comprehension and decoding skill were accounted for. We explore how a specific connectionist model of lexical representation and lexical access can account for these findings.
Silberfarb, Laura Oliven; Savre, Sonja; Geber, Gayle
Local governments play an increasingly important role in improving residents' access to healthful food and beverages to reduce obesity and chronic disease. Cities can use multiple strategies to improve community health through, for example, land use and zoning policies, city contracting and procurement practices, sponsorship of farmers markets and community gardens, and vending and concession practices in parks and recreation facilities. With 41 cities in the Hennepin County Human Services and Public Health Department jurisdiction, the county undertook to measure the extent to which cities were engaged in making policy, systems, and environmental (PSE) changes to increase residents' access to healthful food. The results revealed that some cities, particularly those with higher resident demand for healthful food, are making nationally recommended PSE changes, such as sponsoring farmers markets and community gardens. Cities have moved more slowly to make changes in areas with perceived negative cost consequences or lesser public demand, such as parks and recreation vending and concessions. This article describes the assessment process, survey tools, findings, and implications for other health departments seeking to undertake a similar assessment.
Longden, Eleanor; Davis, Philip; Billington, Josie; Lampropoulou, Sofia; Farrington, Grace; Magee, Fiona; Walsh, Erin; Corcoran, Rhiannon
Public health strategies have placed increasing emphasis on psychosocial and arts-based strategies for promoting well-being. This study presents preliminary findings for a specific literary-based intervention, Shared Reading, which provides community-based spaces in which individuals can relate with both literature and one another. A 12-week crossover design was conducted with 16 participants to compare benefits associated with six sessions of Shared Reading versus a comparison social activity, Built Environment workshops. Data collected included quantitative self-report measures of psychological well-being, as well as transcript analysis of session recordings and individual video-assisted interviews. Qualitative findings indicated five intrinsic benefits associated with Shared Reading: liveness, creative inarticulacy, the emotional, the personal and the group (or collective identity construction). Quantitative data additionally showed that the intervention is associated with enhancement of a sense of 'Purpose in Life'. Limitations of the study included the small sample size and ceiling effects created by generally high levels of psychological well-being at baseline. The therapeutic potential of reading groups is discussed, including the distinction between instrumental and intrinsic value within arts-and-health interventions.
Kennedy, Mary Ann Rhoads
Testing materials for high school students whose reading is below grade level might not be age-appropriate or sufficiently motivating. The first step in finding appropriate material would be to talk with the student to learn his or her interests. To find age-appropriate material the author searched Internet resources and then used Microsoft Word…
Babbitt Bray, Gayle; Barron, Sheila
Previous research has established that interest in a text is related to better comprehension and recall, but the impact of interest on comprehension in testing situations has not been widely investigated. This study used Hierarchical Linear Models (HLM) to examine the relationship between students' interest in reading passages and their…
Chevins, Peter F. D.
This article describes a study of the effects of partial replacement of lectures with a system of prescribed reading, supported by weekly objective testing in a second year animal physiology module. Formative tests with feedback within 24 hours were followed a week later with summative tests on the same material, utilising a proportion of the same…
Cramer, Todd M.
Since the passage of the first Elementary and Secondary Education Act in 1965, increasing reading achievement for all students has been a focus for our nation. Unfortunately, our country still has over 30 million citizens who are illiterate (Mukherjee, 2007). One of the challenges for schools is to accurately identify students in need of early…
This paper addresses the lack of evaluative resources for computer-assisted reading and writing instruction (CARWI). It begins by discussing the benefits, drawbacks, and effectiveness of computer-based instruction. It then describes types of CARWI packages, including: (1) writing process software; (2) electronic handbooks; (3) interactive…
There is a dearth of research involving advanced second language (L2) learners in the USA [Brantmeier, C., 2001. Second language reading research on passage content and gender: challenges for the intermediate level curriculum, Foreign Language Annals 34, 325-333; Young, D.J., 2003. Workshop on overcoming anxiety in the foreign language classroom.…
Yang, Yu-Fen; Wong, Wing-Kwong; Yeh, Hui-Chin
The major purpose of this study is to assist college students in constructing mental representation of referential resolution in a computer system. Ninety students were asked to draw mental maps indicating the relationships between references, take reading comprehension tests, and fill out open-ended questionnaire. Results showed that the…
Lewis, Karla; McColskey, Wendy; Anderson, Kim; Bowling, Treana; Dufford-Melendez, Kathleen; Wynn, Lucy
When selecting reading across the curriculum interventions, educators should consider the extent of the evidence base on intervention effectiveness and the fit with the school or district context, whether they are purchasing a product from vendors or developing it internally. This report provides guidance in the decisionmaking. This report looks…
Lehto, Marja-Liisa; Maijala, Minna
Since Finnish is not an Indo-European language, studying foreign languages in general and then also studying special fields through the medium of foreign languages may provide an extra difficulty for Finnish students. Most university language centres in Finland have organized reading comprehension courses in several foreign languages for the…
van den Broek, Paul; Espin, Christine A.
The ability to read and comprehend texts is an essential component of successful functioning in our world. A substantial amount of information comes to us through written means, whether it is through regular print, Internet, or other media. Part of this information is for our enjoyment, part of it is vital for our basic functioning--application…
Rupp, Andre A.; Ferne, Tracy; Choi, Hyeran
This article provides renewed converging empirical evidence for the hypothesis that asking test-takers to respond to text passages with multiple-choice questions induces response processes that are strikingly different from those that respondents would draw on when reading in non-testing contexts. Moreover, the article shows that the construct of…
Daniell, James; Simpson, Alanna; Gunasekara, Rashmin; Baca, Abigail; Schaefer, Andreas; Ishizawa, Oscar; Murnane, Rick; Tijssen, Annegien; Deparday, Vivien; Forni, Marc; Himmelfarb, Anne; Leder, Jan
Over the past few decades, a plethora of open access software packages for the calculation of earthquake, volcanic, tsunami, storm surge, wind and flood have been produced globally. As part of the World Bank GFDRR Review released at the Understanding Risk 2014 Conference, over 80 such open access risk assessment software packages were examined. Commercial software was not considered in the evaluation. A preliminary analysis was used to determine whether the 80 models were currently supported and if they were open access. This process was used to select a subset of 31 models that include 8 earthquake models, 4 cyclone models, 11 flood models, and 8 storm surge/tsunami models for more detailed analysis. By using multi-criteria analysis (MCDA) and simple descriptions of the software uses, the review allows users to select a few relevant software packages for their own testing and development. The detailed analysis evaluated the models on the basis of over 100 criteria and provides a synopsis of available open access natural hazard risk modelling tools. In addition, volcano software packages have since been added making the compendium of risk software tools in excess of 100. There has been a huge increase in the quality and availability of open access/source software over the past few years. For example, private entities such as Deltares now have an open source policy regarding some flood models (NGHS). In addition, leaders in developing risk models in the public sector, such as Geoscience Australia (EQRM, TCRM, TsuDAT, AnuGA) or CAPRA (ERN-Flood, Hurricane, CRISIS2007 etc.), are launching and/or helping many other initiatives. As we achieve greater interoperability between modelling tools, we will also achieve a future wherein different open source and open access modelling tools will be increasingly connected and adapted towards unified multi-risk model platforms and highly customised solutions. It was seen that many software tools could be improved by enabling user
... Callable routines in Interactive Data Language (IDL) provide basic read access to CALIPSO science data files. ... in both Microsoft Word and PDF formats. Interactive Data Language (IDL) is available from Exelis Visual Information Solutions . ...
Kim, Hung Tae; Uchimoto, Kazuhiro; Duellman, Tyler; Yang, Jay
The weight-bearing test is one method to assess pain in rodent animal models; however, the acceptance of this convenient method is limited by the low throughput data acquisition and necessity of confining the rodents to a small chamber. New methods We developed novel data acquisition hardware and software, data analysis software, and a conditioning protocol for an automated high throughput static weight-bearing assessment of pain. With this device, the rats voluntarily enter the weighing chamber, precluding the necessity to restrain the animals and thereby removing the potential stress-induced confounds as well as operator selection bias during data collection. We name this device the Voluntarily Accessed Static Incapacitance Chamber (VASIC). Results Control rats subjected to the VASIC device provided hundreds of weight-bearing data points in a single behavioral assay. Chronic constriction injury (CCI) surgery and paw pad injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) or carrageenan in rats generated hundreds of weight-bearing data during a 30 minute recording session. Rats subjected to CCI, CFA, or carrageenan demonstrated the expected bias in weight distribution favoring the un-operated leg, and the analgesic effect of i.p. morphine was demonstrated. In comparison with existing methods, brief water restriction encouraged the rats to enter the weighing chamber to access water, and an infrared detector confirmed the rat position with feet properly positioned on the footplates, triggering data collection. This allowed hands-off measurement of weight distribution data reducing operator selection bias. Conclusion The VASIC device should enhance the hands-free parallel collection of unbiased weight-bearing data in a high throughput manner, allowing further testing of this behavioral measure as an effective assessment of pain in rodents. PMID:26143745
Skare, Julie A; Blackburn, Karen; Wu, Shengde; Re, Thomas A; Duche, Daniel; Ringeissen, Stephanie; Bjerke, Donald L; Srinivasan, Viny; Eisenmann, Carol
In the European Union animal testing has been eliminated for cosmetic ingredients while the US Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel may request data from animal studies. The use of read-across and predictive toxicology provides a path for filling data gaps without additional animal testing. The PEG cocamines are tertiary amines with an alkyl group derived from coconut fatty acids and two PEG chains of varying length. Toxicology data gaps for the PEG cocamines can be addressed by read-across based on structure-activity relationship using the framework described by Wu et al. (2010) for identifying suitable structural analogs. Data for structural analogs supports the conclusion that the PEG cocamines are non-genotoxic and not expected to exhibit systemic or developmental/reproductive toxicity with use in cosmetics. Due to lack of reliable dermal sensitization data for suitable analogs, this endpoint was addressed using predictive software (TIMES SS) as a first step (Laboratory of Mathematical Chemistry). The prediction for PEG cocamines was the same as that for PEGs, which have been concluded to not present a significant concern for dermal sensitization. This evaluation for PEG cocamines demonstrates the utility of read-across and predictive toxicology tools to assess the safety of cosmetic ingredients.
Loras, Håvard; Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin; Talcott, Joel B.
Impaired postural control has been associated with poor reading skills, as well as with lower performance on measures of attention and motor control variables that frequently co-occur with reading difficulties. Measures of balance and motor control have been incorporated into several screening batteries for developmental dyslexia, but it is unclear whether the relationship between such skills and reading manifests as a behavioural continuum across the range of abilities or is restricted to groups of individuals with specific disorder phenotypes. Here were obtained measures of postural control alongside measures of reading, attention and general cognitive skills in a large sample of young adults (n = 100). Postural control was assessed using centre of pressure (CoP) measurements, obtained over 5 different task conditions. Our results indicate an absence of strong statistical relationships between balance measures with either reading, cognitive or attention measures across the sample as a whole. PMID:24892925
Loras, Håvard; Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin; Talcott, Joel B
Impaired postural control has been associated with poor reading skills, as well as with lower performance on measures of attention and motor control variables that frequently co-occur with reading difficulties. Measures of balance and motor control have been incorporated into several screening batteries for developmental dyslexia, but it is unclear whether the relationship between such skills and reading manifests as a behavioural continuum across the range of abilities or is restricted to groups of individuals with specific disorder phenotypes. Here were obtained measures of postural control alongside measures of reading, attention and general cognitive skills in a large sample of young adults (n = 100). Postural control was assessed using centre of pressure (CoP) measurements, obtained over 5 different task conditions. Our results indicate an absence of strong statistical relationships between balance measures with either reading, cognitive or attention measures across the sample as a whole.
Clinical endpoints relevant for relative effectiveness assessment (REA) reflect how patients feel, function, or survive. Outcome data requested by health technology assessment (HTA) bodies in Europe to support reimbursement of an anticancer drug are based on final endpoints coming from completed comparative phase 3 trials; overall survival improvement is the preferred criterion for the demonstration of the patient benefit in this field. Recent arrival of new treatments that target identified functional genetic mutations (“targeted therapies”) or PD-1/PD-L1,2 axis (“immunotherapies”) and their combinations have profoundly changed treatment strategies in cancers as they considerably improve patient survival, but also raise new challenges in REA and decision-making process in Europe as compared to the REA of “classical” chemotherapies. In addition, recent regulatory initiatives to support accelerated clinical development and approval of innovative cancer immunotherapies based on non-final endpoints, such as priority medicines through the European Medicines Agency, represent an additional challenge for HTA bodies and decision makers. In order to support adequate data generation for REA of anticancer drugs and especially for drugs candidates for accelerated assessment and early access to market, a close and open dialog of all stakeholders involved in development of such drugs is crucial. PMID:27896268
Clinical endpoints relevant for relative effectiveness assessment (REA) reflect how patients feel, function, or survive. Outcome data requested by health technology assessment (HTA) bodies in Europe to support reimbursement of an anticancer drug are based on final endpoints coming from completed comparative phase 3 trials; overall survival improvement is the preferred criterion for the demonstration of the patient benefit in this field. Recent arrival of new treatments that target identified functional genetic mutations ("targeted therapies") or PD-1/PD-L1,2 axis ("immunotherapies") and their combinations have profoundly changed treatment strategies in cancers as they considerably improve patient survival, but also raise new challenges in REA and decision-making process in Europe as compared to the REA of "classical" chemotherapies. In addition, recent regulatory initiatives to support accelerated clinical development and approval of innovative cancer immunotherapies based on non-final endpoints, such as priority medicines through the European Medicines Agency, represent an additional challenge for HTA bodies and decision makers. In order to support adequate data generation for REA of anticancer drugs and especially for drugs candidates for accelerated assessment and early access to market, a close and open dialog of all stakeholders involved in development of such drugs is crucial.
Papers are presented which reflect research in the following areas: development of the concept of technology assessment; institutionalization of technology assessment; the interface between law and technology assessment; and assessment case studies. Case studies include hazards of the medical use of X-rays, environmental noise effects in transportation planning, genetic technology, impact of underground coal mining, and aircraft/airport noise abatement.
Martinotti, I; Cirla, A M; Cottica, D; Cirla, P E
The purpose of this study was an integrated assessment of exposure to benzene and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in 29 workers employed to manage a controlled-access highways. A campaign was performed in summertime by environmental monitoring (active and passive airborne personal sampler), as well as by biological monitoring (urine samples of the beginning and of the end of daily shift, baseline after two days of vacation). The measured environmental levels did not differ from background environmental concentrations found in a metropolitan area (i.e. benzo[a]pyrene < 1 ng/m3; benzene < 5 mcg/m3), and the results of biological monitoring were in agreement and were compatible with extra-professional habits of the investigated subjects (1-hydroxipyrene 50-990 ng/g creatinine; unmetabolized benzene 15-2010 ng/I; t-t muconic acid < 4-222 mcg/g creatinine).
Stoet, Gijsbert; Geary, David C.
We analyzed one decade of data collected by the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), including the mathematics and reading performance of nearly 1.5 million 15 year olds in 75 countries. Across nations, boys scored higher than girls in mathematics, but lower than girls in reading. The sex difference in reading was three times as large as in mathematics. There was considerable variation in the extent of the sex differences between nations. There are countries without a sex difference in mathematics performance, and in some countries girls scored higher than boys. Boys scored lower in reading in all nations in all four PISA assessments (2000, 2003, 2006, 2009). Contrary to several previous studies, we found no evidence that the sex differences were related to nations’ gender equality indicators. Further, paradoxically, sex differences in mathematics were consistently and strongly inversely correlated with sex differences in reading: Countries with a smaller sex difference in mathematics had a larger sex difference in reading and vice versa. We demonstrate that this was not merely a between-nation, but also a within-nation effect. This effect is related to relative changes in these sex differences across the performance continuum: We did not find a sex difference in mathematics among the lowest performing students, but this is where the sex difference in reading was largest. In contrast, the sex difference in mathematics was largest among the higher performing students, and this is where the sex difference in reading was smallest. The implication is that if policy makers decide that changes in these sex differences are desired, different approaches will be needed to achieve this for reading and mathematics. Interventions that focus on high-achieving girls in mathematics and on low achieving boys in reading are likely to yield the strongest educational benefits. PMID:23516422
Stoet, Gijsbert; Geary, David C
We analyzed one decade of data collected by the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), including the mathematics and reading performance of nearly 1.5 million 15 year olds in 75 countries. Across nations, boys scored higher than girls in mathematics, but lower than girls in reading. The sex difference in reading was three times as large as in mathematics. There was considerable variation in the extent of the sex differences between nations. There are countries without a sex difference in mathematics performance, and in some countries girls scored higher than boys. Boys scored lower in reading in all nations in all four PISA assessments (2000, 2003, 2006, 2009). Contrary to several previous studies, we found no evidence that the sex differences were related to nations' gender equality indicators. Further, paradoxically, sex differences in mathematics were consistently and strongly inversely correlated with sex differences in reading: Countries with a smaller sex difference in mathematics had a larger sex difference in reading and vice versa. We demonstrate that this was not merely a between-nation, but also a within-nation effect. This effect is related to relative changes in these sex differences across the performance continuum: We did not find a sex difference in mathematics among the lowest performing students, but this is where the sex difference in reading was largest. In contrast, the sex difference in mathematics was largest among the higher performing students, and this is where the sex difference in reading was smallest. The implication is that if policy makers decide that changes in these sex differences are desired, different approaches will be needed to achieve this for reading and mathematics. Interventions that focus on high-achieving girls in mathematics and on low achieving boys in reading are likely to yield the strongest educational benefits.
Abrate, Silvio; Gaudino, Roberto
We present in this paper a comparative assessment of Time Division Multiple Access Passive Optical Networks (TDMA-PON) and Frequency-Division Multiple Access Passive Optical Networks (FDMA-PON). We try to point out the pros and cons of the two different approaches in the context of very high capacity next-generation PON mainly in terms of physical layer transmission performances, but also introducing some comparison in terms of complexity, cost and power consumption.
Titone, Debra; Libben, Maya; Mercier, Julie; Whitford, Veronica; Pivneva, Irina
Libben and Titone (2009) recently observed that cognate facilitation and interlingual homograph interference were attenuated by increased semantic constraint during bilingual second language (L2) reading, using eye movement measures. We now investigate whether cross-language activation also occurs during first language (L1) reading as a function of age of L2 acquisition and task demands (i.e., inclusion of L2 sentences). In Experiment 1, participants read high and low constraint English (L1) sentences containing interlingual homographs, cognates, or control words. In Experiment 2, we included French (L2) filler sentences to increase salience of the L2 during L1 reading. The results suggest that bilinguals reading in their L1 show nonselective activation to the extent that they acquired their L2 early in life. Similar to our previous work on L2 reading, high contextual constraint attenuated cross-language activation for cognates. The inclusion of French filler items promoted greater cross-language activation, especially for late stage reading measures. Thus, L1 bilingual reading is modulated by L2 knowledge, semantic constraint, and task demands.
Sainsbury, Marian; Benton, Tom
Computer-based testing, or e-assessment, has the potential to deliver immediate results for the benefit of schools. This paper describes a project that aimed to exploit this potential by designing e-assessments where the results were intended for use by teachers in planning the next steps in teaching and learning: low-stakes, formative assessment.…
including social marketing . This report is a supplement to two companion volumes, Assessing and Evaluating Department of Defense Efforts to Inform...10 Assessment in Advertising, Marketing , and Public Relations...implementation of diverse efforts. Assessment in Advertising, Marketing , and Public Relations Frankly, much of the instructional material on measurement
Begeny, John C.; Whitehouse, Mary H.; Methe, Scott A.; Codding, Robin S.; Stage, Scott A.; Nuepert, Shevaun
Effective intervention delivery requires ongoing assessment to determine whether students are learning at the desired rate. Intervention programs with embedded assessment procedures (i.e., assessment that occurs naturally "during" the process of delivering intervention) can potentially enhance instructional decisions. However, there is…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2015
The study authors examined the effects of using "Diagnostic Assessment Tools" ("DAT") on mathematics and reading outcomes for students in Indiana schools during the 2009-10 academic year. "DAT" consists of interim assessment tools--Wireless Generation's mCLASS for students in grades K-2 and CTB/ McGraw-Hill's Acuity…
Moreira, Sylvia; Hamilton, Maryellen
Rhyming tests have historically been used in the education system to assess reading readiness. English language learners (ELLs) have consistently scored poorly on these assessment tools. The current article examines a possible reason for this poor performance by ELLs. Specifically, the authors examined the relationship between semantic…
Martinez, David H.; Phelps, R. Neal
Provides the elementary school counselor with a knowledge base in the reading and reading disability areas. The discussion on reading highlights four major areas with which the elementary school counselor should be familiar: definition of reading, proliferation of terms, reading skills assessment, and reading disability. (Author)
Summerfield, Geoffrey; Summerfield, Judith
Developed for college English courses, this book presents selections of poetry, short stories, and commentary intended to invite different ways of reading and interpreting literature. An introduction provides an overview of the book's content, as well as a discussion of how to read. The first section, "Entering a Language," considers the…
Describes how reading and art have taught the author to slow down. Discusses how she wants her students to leave the third-grade classroom reading--reading words, reading pictures, and reading their world. Considers how one student slows down her reading, pays attention to her thinking, and begins to see the pictures and connections that poems…
Beschin, Nicoletta; Cisari, Carlo; Cubelli, Roberto; Della Sala, Sergio
Prose reading has been shown to be a very sensitive measure of Unilateral Spatial Neglect. However, little is known about the relationship between prose reading and other measures of neglect and its severity, or between prose reading and single word reading. Thirty participants with a first stroke in the right hemisphere and clear symptoms of spatial neglect in everyday life were assessed with tests of prose reading (text in one column book-like, and in two columns magazine-like), single words reading, and a battery of 13 tests investigating neglect. Seventy percent of these participants omitted words at the beginning of the text (left end), showing Prose Reading Neglect (PRN). The participants showing PRN differed from those not showing PRN only for the overall severity of neglect, and had a lesion centred on the insula, putamen and superior temporal gyrus. Double dissociations emerged between PRN and single word reading neglect, suggesting different cognitive requirements between the two tests: parallel processing in single word reading vs. serial analysis in text reading. Notably, the pattern of neglected text varied dramatically across participants presenting with PRN, including dissociations between reading performance of one and two columns text. Prose reading proved a complex and unique task which should be directly investigated to predict the effects of unilateral neglect. The outcome of this study should also inform clinical assessment and advises given to patients and care-givers.
Leyens, Lada; Brand, Angela
National and international medicines agencies have developed innovative methods to expedite promising new medicines to the market and facilitate early patient access. Some of these approval pathways are the conditional approval and the adaptive pathways by the European Medicines Agency (EMA); the Promising Innovative Medicine (PIM) designation and the Early Access to Medicines Scheme (EAMS) by the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA), as well as the Fast Track, Breakthrough or Accelerated Approval methods by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, at least in Europe, these methods cannot achieve the goal of improving timely access for patients to new medicines on their own; the reimbursement process also has to become adaptive and flexible. In the past 2 years, the effective access (national patient access) to newly approved oncology drugs ranged from 1 to 30 months, with an extremely high variability between European countries. The goal of early patient access in Europe can only be achieved if the national health technology assessment bodies, such as NICE (ENG), HAS (FR), G-BA (DE) or AIFA (IT), provide harmonized, transparent, flexible, conditional and adaptive methods that adopt the level of evidence accepted by the medicines agencies. The efforts from medicines agencies are welcome but will be in vain if health technology assessments do not follow with similar initiatives, and the European 'postcode' lottery will continue.
Leyens, Lada; Brand, Angela
National and international medicines agencies have developed innovative methods to expedite promising new medicines to the market and facilitate early patient access. Some of these approval pathways are the conditional approval and the adaptive pathways by the European Medicines Agency (EMA); the Promising Innovative Medicine (PIM) designation and the Early Access to Medicines Scheme (EAMS) by the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA), as well as the Fast Track, Breakthrough or Accelerated Approval methods by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, at least in Europe, these methods cannot achieve the goal of improving timely access for patients to new medicines on their own; the reimbursement process also has to become adaptive and flexible. In the past 2 years, the effective access (national patient access) to newly approved oncology drugs ranged from 1 to 30 months, with an extremely high variability between European countries. The goal of early patient access in Europe can only be achieved if the national health technology assessment bodies, such as NICE (ENG), HAS (FR), G-BA (DE) or AIFA (IT), provide harmonized, transparent, flexible, conditional and adaptive methods that adopt the level of evidence accepted by the medicines agencies. The efforts from medicines agencies are welcome but will be in vain if health technology assessments do not follow with similar initiatives, and the European ‘postcode’ lottery will continue. PMID:27238553
Gilmore, E.; Cui, Y. R.; Waldhoff, S.
Beyond 2015, eradicating hunger will remain a critical part of the global development agenda through the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). Efforts to limit climate change through both mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and land use policies may interact with food availability and accessibility in complex and unanticipated ways. Here, we develop projections of regional food accessibility to 2050 under the alternative futures outlined by the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) and under different climate policy targets and structures. We use the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model (IAM), for our projections. We calculate food access as the weighted average of consumption of five staples and the portion of income spend on those commodities and extend the GCAM calculated universal global producer price to regional consumer prices drawing on historical relationships of these prices. Along the SSPs, food access depends largely on expectations of increases in population and economic status. Under a more optimistic scenario, the pressures on food access from increasing demand and rising prices can be counterbalanced by faster economic development. Stringent climate policies that increase commodity prices, however, may hinder vulnerable regions, namely Sub-Saharan Africa, from achieving greater food accessibility.
Hedley, Carolyn N., Ed.; Hicks, John S., Ed.
Compiled from papers presented at the annual Reading/Special Education Institute at Fordham University, this collection of essays addresses reading problems of special education students. The book is divided into three sections. The first section covers reading assessment and reading intervention; section 2 addresses the specific learner and the…
Vink, S R; Mikkers, J; Bouwman, T; Marquart, H; Kroese, E D
REACH requests the exploration of alternative strategies for hazard identification before resorting to (in vivo) testing. Here, we combined read-across as non-testing strategy with a tiered exposure assessment for the risk characterisation of 1-methoxypropan-2-ol (PGME) as a representative for phase-in substances to be registered under REACH. Read-across from the selected source substances provided data which were comparable with experimental data available for target substance PGME, resulting in a realistic starting point for both qualitative and quantitative risk assessment. Greater variability was observed in the exposure estimates from a first Tier model (ECETOC TRA) or less conservative further Tier models (Stoffenmanager; RISKOFDERM), when these results were compared with results from a data-rich approach using measured data. When safe use of chemicals cannot be demonstrated with these approaches, refinement can be introduced in the estimation of hazard and exposure, or both. In view of the variability associated with exposure modeling, it may often add more value to invest in realistic exposure data than in toxicity studies, apart from animal welfare considerations.
Offerdahl, Erika G.; Montplaisir, Lisa
Formative assessment has long been identified as a critical element to teaching for conceptual development in science. It is therefore important for university instructors to have an arsenal of formative assessment tools at their disposal which enable them to effectively uncover and diagnose all students' thinking, not just the most vocal or…
The purpose of this paper is to help countries understand some of the "key principles and characteristics of an effective student assessment system". The focus is on assessment of student learning and achievement at the K-12 level. The paper extracts principles and guidelines from countries' experiences, professional testing standards,…
Technological advances offer new ways and approaches to teaching and learning and have affected traditional methods of instruction and student assessment. Portfolio assessment is one way to document a student's progress over time and has been the subject of considerable research. This mixed method study explored the extent to which portfolio…
Smith, Jeffrey K.; Smith, Lisa F.; Gilmore, Alison; Jameson, Madgerie
Using data from New Zealand's National Education Monitoring Project, a light sampling, low stakes performance based national school assessment program, reading self-efficacy, reading enjoyment, and reading achievement were examined in samples of 8 and 12 year old children. Sample sizes were n = 480 for each group. While reading achievement…
Manzo, Anthony V.; Casale, Ula Price
Describes a reading battery that was assembled to advance study and definitions of reading maturity. Factor analysis shows the battery to have greater implicit construct similarity to a popular taxonomy and diagnostic system than conventional measures typically address. (FL)
Goddard, Yvonne; Rinderknecht, Laura
Literacy expectations for persons with cognitive impairments, including impairments caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI), have remained quite low. Some researchers have suggested that educators move from a focus on teaching functional skills to teaching basic reading skills in a manner similar to instruction for nondisabled learners. The purpose…
Davidson, Marcia; Hobbs, Jenny
As governments, donors and implementation organisations re-focus Education for All Goals in terms of quality of education, increasing concerns have been raised over low literacy levels in developing countries. This paper provides key learning from the application of an early reading intervention applied in post-conflict Liberia, which included a…
Grant, Amy; Wood, Eileen; Gottardo, Alexandra; Evans, Mary Ann; Phillips, Linda; Savage, Robert
The current study developed a taxonomy of reading skills and compared this taxonomy with skills being trained in 30 commercially available software programs designed to teach emergent literacy or literacy-specific skills for children in preschool, kindergarten, and Grade 1. Outcomes suggest that, although some skills are being trained in a…
Stevens, Robert J.; Lu, Xiaofei; Baker, David P.; Ray, Melissa N.; Eckert, Sarah A.; Gamson, David A.
This research investigated the cognitive demands of reading curricula from 1910 to 2000. We considered both the nature of the text used and the comprehension tasks asked of students in determining the cognitive demands of the curricula. Contrary to the common assumption of a trend of simplification of the texts and comprehension tasks in third-…
Pousada, Thais; Pareira, Javier; Groba, Betania; Nieto, Laura; Pazos, Alejandro
The purpose of this study is to describe the process of assessment of three assistive devices to meet the needs of a woman with cerebral palsy (CP) in order to provide her with computer access and use. The user has quadriplegic CP, with anarthria, using a syllabic keyboard. Devices were evaluated through a three-step approach: (a) use of a questionnaire to preselect potential assistive technologies, (b) use of an eTAO tool to determine the effectiveness of each devised, and (c) a conducting semi-structured interview to obtain qualitative data. Touch screen, joystick, and trackball were the preselected devices. The best device that met the user's needs and priorities was joystick. The finding was corroborated by both the eTAO tool and the semi-structured interview. Computers are a basic form of social participation. It is important to consider the special needs and priorities of users and to try different devices when undertaking a device-selection process. Environmental and personal factors have to be considered, as well. This leads to a need to evaluate new tools in order to provide the appropriate support. The eTAO could be a suitable instrument for this purpose. Additional research is also needed to understand how to better match devices with different user populations and how to comprehensively evaluate emerging technologies relative to users with disabilities.
... Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for... certain functions related to the transportation, dispatch or security of cargo for transport on...
... Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for... certain functions related to the transportation, dispatch or security of cargo for transport on...
... Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for... certain functions related to the transportation, dispatch or security of cargo for transport on...
... Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for... certain functions related to the transportation, dispatch or security of cargo for transport on...
... Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for... certain functions related to the transportation, dispatch or security of cargo for transport on...
McCane-Bowling, Sara J.; Strait, Andrea D.; Guess, Pamela E.; Wiedo, Jennifer R.; Muncie, Eric
This study examined the predictive utility of five formative reading measures: words correct per minute, number of comprehension questions correct, reading comprehension rate, number of maze correct responses, and maze accurate response rate (MARR). Broad Reading cluster scores obtained via the Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ III) Tests of Achievement…
Liao, Chen-Huei; Kuo, Bor-Chen
The present study examined the equivalency of conventional and web-based tests in reading Chinese. Phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), reading accuracy, and reading fluency tests were administered to 93 grade 6 children in Taiwan with both test versions (paper-pencil and web-based). The results suggest that conventional and…
Cheema, Jehanzeb R.
Recent research has suggested presence of a significant relationship between prevalence of online reading and reading literacy. In this study we examined the prevalence of online reading among 15-year old students in Qatar using a nationally representative sample of 8,089 students. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted at the item and…
Egbadzor, Kenneth F; Ofori, Kwadwo; Yeboah, Martin; Aboagye, Lawrence M; Opoku-Agyeman, Michael O; Danquah, Eric Y; Offei, Samuel K
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers were used in characterization of 113 cowpea accessions comprising of 108 from Ghana and 5 from abroad. Leaf tissues from plants cultivated at the University of Ghana were genotyped at KBioscience in the United Kingdom. Data was generated for 477 SNPs, out of which 458 revealed polymorphism. The results were used to analyze genetic dissimilarity among the accessions using Darwin 5 software. The markers discriminated among all of the cowpea accessions and the dissimilarity values which ranged from 0.006 to 0.63 were used for factorial plot. Unexpected high levels of heterozygosity were observed on some of the accessions. Accessions known to be closely related clustered together in a dendrogram drawn with WPGMA method. A maximum length sub-tree which comprised of 48 core accessions was constructed. The software package structure was used to separate accessions into three groups, and the programme correctly identified varieties that were known hybrids. The hybrids were those accessions with numerous heterozygous loci. The structure plot showed closely related accessions with similar genome patterns. The SNP markers were more efficient in discriminating among the cowpea germplasm than morphological, seed protein polymorphism and simple sequence repeat studies reported earlier on the same collection.
Roberts, David W; Aptula, Aynur O; Patlewicz, Grace; Pease, Camilla
The skin sensitisation potential of chemicals is currently assessed using in vivo methods where the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is typically the method of first choice. Current regulatory initiatives are driving the impetus for the use of in vitro/in silico alternative approaches to provide the relevant information needed for the effective assessment of skin sensitisation, for both hazard characterisation and risk assessment purposes. A chemical must undergo a number of steps for it to induce skin sensitisation but the main determining step is formation of a stable covalent association with carrier protein. The ability of a chemical to react covalently with carrier protein nucleophiles relates to both its electrophilic reactivity and its hydrophobicity. This paper focuses on quantitative indices of electrophilic reactivity with nucleophiles, in a chemical mechanism-of-action context, and compares and contrasts the experimental approaches available to generate reactivity data that are suitable for mathematical modelling and making predictions of skin sensitisation potential, using new chemistry data correlated against existing in vivo bioassay data. As such, the paper goes on to describe an illustrative example of how quantitative kinetic measures of reactivity can be usefully and simply applied to perform mechanism-based read-across that enables hazard characterisation of skin sensitisation potential. An illustration of the types of quantitative mechanistic models that could be built using databases of kinetic measures of reactivity, hydrophobicity and existing in vivo bioassay data is also given.
Pastorino, Roberta; Milovanovic, Sonja; Stojanovic, Jovana; Efremov, Ljupcho; Amore, Rosarita; Boccia, Stefania
Introduction Along with the proliferation of Open Access (OA) publishing, the interest for comparing the scientific quality of studies published in OA journals versus subscription journals has also increased. With our study we aimed to compare the methodological quality and the quality of reporting of primary epidemiological studies and systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in OA and non-OA journals. Methods In order to identify the studies to appraise, we listed all OA and non-OA journals which published in 2013 at least one primary epidemiologic study (case-control or cohort study design), and at least one systematic review or meta-analysis in the field of oncology. For the appraisal, we picked up the first studies published in 2013 with case-control or cohort study design from OA journals (Group A; n = 12), and in the same time period from non-OA journals (Group B; n = 26); the first systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in 2013 from OA journals (Group C; n = 15), and in the same time period from non-OA journals (Group D; n = 32). We evaluated the methodological quality of studies by assessing the compliance of case-control and cohort studies to Newcastle and Ottawa Scale (NOS) scale, and the compliance of systematic reviews and meta-analyses to Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) scale. The quality of reporting was assessed considering the adherence of case-control and cohort studies to STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) checklist, and the adherence of systematic reviews and meta-analyses to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) checklist. Results Among case-control and cohort studies published in OA and non-OA journals, we did not observe significant differences in the median value of NOS score (Group A: 7 (IQR 7–8) versus Group B: 8 (7–9); p = 0.5) and in the adherence to STROBE checklist (Group A, 75% versus Group B, 80%; p = 0.1). The
This article describes the visual nature of the reading process as it relates to reading speed. It points out that there is a physical limit on normal reading speed and beyond this limit the reading process will be different from normal reading where almost every word is attended to. The article describes a range of activities for developing…
Neuenschwander, Lauren M.; Abbott, Angela; Mobley, Amy R.
Objective: The main objective of this study was to investigate access and use of technologies such as the Internet among Indiana's low-income population. The secondary objective was to determine whether access and use of computers significantly differed by age, race, and/or education level. Methods: Data were collected from low-income adult…
Roig-Vila, Rosabel; Ferrández, Sergio; Ferri-Miralles, Imma
Diversity-based designing, or the goal of ensuring that web-based information is accessible to as many diverse users as possible, has received growing international acceptance in recent years, with many countries introducing legislation to enforce it. This paper analyses web content accessibility levels in Spanish education portals according to…
MacCall, Steven L.
Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the number and topical range of available online medical books and to assess how health sciences libraries were providing access to these resources on their public Websites. Method: The collection-based evaluative technique of list checking was used to assess the number and topical range of online medical books of the six largest publishers. Publisher inventory lists were downloaded over a two-day period (May 16–17, 2004). Titles were counted and compared with the 2003 Brandon/Hill list. A sample of health sciences libraries was subsequently derived by consulting the 2004 “Top Medical Schools-Research” in U.S. News & World Report. Bibliographic and bibliothecal access methods were evaluated based on an inspection of the publicly available Websites of the sample libraries. Results: Of 318 currently published online medical books, 151 (47%) were Brandon/Hill titles covering 42 of 59 Brandon/Hill topics (71%). These 151 titles represented 22% (N = 672) of the Brandon/Hill list, which further broke down as 52 minimal core, 41 initial purchase, and 58 other recommended Brandon/Hill titles. These numbers represented 50%, 28%, and 12%, respectively, of all Brandon/Hill titles corresponding to those categories. In terms of bibliographic access, 20 of 21 of sampled libraries created catalog records for their online medical books, 1 of which also provided analytical access at the chapter level, and none provided access at the chapter section level. Of the 21 libraries, 19 had library Website search engines that provided title-level access and 4 provided access at the chapter level and none that at the chapter section level. For bibliothecal access, 19 of 21 libraries provided title-level access to medical books, 8 of which provided classified and alphabetic arrangements, 1 provided a classified arrangement only, and 10 provided an alphabetic arrangement only. No library provided a bibliothecal arrangement for
Dickens, Rachel H.; Meisinger, Elizabeth B.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of reading skill and reading modality (oral versus silent) on reading comprehension. A normative sample of sixth-grade students (N = 74) read texts aloud and silently and then answered questions about what they read. Skill in word reading fluency was assessed by the Test of Word Reading…
Harding, Luke; Alderson, J. Charles; Brunfaut, Tineke
Alderson, Brunfaut and Harding (2014) recently investigated how diagnosis is practised across a range of professions in order to develop a tentative framework for a theory of diagnosis in second or foreign language (SFL) assessment. In articulating this framework, a set of five broad principles were proposed, encompassing the entire enterprise of…
Collins, Martha D., Ed.; Moss, Barbara G., Ed.
This collection of 17 papers provides a blueprint for teachers who want increasingly sophisticated methods for monitoring student growth and can serve as a resource for in-service educators as literacy instruction changes. Papers in the first section of the book examine literacy assessment as it pertains to school-age children. Papers in the…
Controversy has surrounded the annual National Assessment Program-Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) since its introduction in 2008. This initiative was designed to provide nationally consistent information on student progress in basic skills in years 3, 5, and 7, replacing the various state-based tests that preceded it. A great deal of criticism has…
Low, Marylin; Clarence, Winton; William, Keti
Children enter grade 1 at an island school in Kosrae, Micronesia with a rich oral language and very little experience with print. One of the main tasks of teachers is to help children become literate. However, the literacy and assessment practices in this early grade classroom are limited and unquestioned. In determining how best to teach early…
Ebadi, Saman; Saeedian, Abdulbaset
Derived from Vygotsky's works, dynamic assessment (DA) enables learners to move beyond their current level of functioning through offering needs-sensitized mediation. This study aimed at exploring the learners' development in novel and increasingly more challenging situations called transcendence (TR) in an L2 context focusing on reading…
OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2013
Are students well prepared to meet the challenges of the future? Can they analyse, reason and communicate their ideas effectively? Have they found the kinds of interests they can pursue throughout their lives as productive members of the economy and society? The OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) seeks to answer these…
Designing assessments and tests is one of the more challenging aspects of creating an accessible learning environment for students who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH), particularly for deaf students with a disability (DWD). Standardized assessments are a key mechanism by which the educational system in the United States measures student progress, teacher effectiveness, and the impact of school reform. The diversity of student characteristics within DHH and DWD populations is only now becoming visible in the research literature relating to standardized assessments and their use in large-scale accountability reforms. The purpose of this article is to explore the theoretical frameworks surrounding assessment policy and practice, current research related to standardized assessment and students who are DHH and DWD, and potential implications for practice within both the assessment and instruction contexts.
Robinson, Renee F.; Dillard, Denise A.; Hiratsuka, Vanessa Y.; Smith, Julia J.; Tierney, Steve; Avey, Jaedon P.; Buchwald, Dedra S.
Objective Information technology can improve the quality, safety, and efficiency of healthcare delivery by improving provider and patient access to health information. We conducted a nonrandomized, cross-sectional, self-report survey to determine whether Alaska Native and American Indian (AN/AI) people have access to the health communication technologies available through a patient-centered medical home. Methods In 2011, we administered a self-report survey in an urban, tribally owned and operated primary care center serving AN/AI adults. Patients in the center’s waiting rooms completed the survey on paper; center staff completed it electronically. Results Approximately 98% (n = 654) of respondents reported computer access, 97% (n = 650) email access, and 94% (n = 631) mobile phone use. Among mobile phone users, 60% had Internet access through their phones. Rates of computer access (p = .011) and email use (p = .005) were higher among women than men, but we found no significant gender difference in mobile phone access to the Internet or text messaging. Respondents in the oldest age category (65–80 years of age) were significantly less likely to anticipate using the Internet to schedule appointments, refill medications, or communicate with their health care providers (all p < .001). Conclusion Information on use of health communication technologies enables administrators to deploy these technologies more efficiently to address health concerns in AN/AI communities. Our results will drive future research on health communication for chronic disease screening and health management. PMID:27169131
Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald
This technical report describes the process of development and piloting of reading comprehension measures that are appropriate for seventh-grade students as part of an online progress screening and monitoring assessment system, http://easycbm.com. Each measure consists of an original fictional story of approximately 1,600 to 1,900 words with 20…
Alonzo, Julie; Liu, Kimy; Tindal, Gerald
This technical report describes the development of reading comprehension assessments designed for use as progress monitoring measures appropriate for 2nd Grade students. The creation, piloting, and technical adequacy of the measures are presented. The following are appended: (1) Item Specifications for MC [Multiple Choice] Comprehension - Passage…
Dugger-Roberts, Cherith A.
The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine if there was a relationship between the TCAP test and Pearson Benchmark assessment in elementary students' reading and language arts and math performance in a northeastern Tennessee school district. This study involved 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 6th grade students. The study focused on the following…
Zwerling, Harris L.
In the context of controversy over the use of high stakes testing, the Pennsylvania State Education Association (PSEA) asked for an evaluation of the performance levels and cut score of the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) mathematics and reading tests. While awaiting technical documentation from the Pennsylvania Department of…
Sawaki, Yasuyo; Kim, Hae-Jin; Gentile, Claudia
This article presents the authors' response to the insightful comments provided by Charles Alderson and Fred Davidson regarding their article entitled "Q-matrix construction: Defining the link between constructs and test items in large-scale reading and listening comprehension assessments" (Sawaki, Kim, & Gentile, 2009). Many issues raised by both…
Morsy, Leila; Kieffer, Michael; Snow, Catherine
Although millions of dollars and weeks of instructional time are spent nationally on testing students, educators often have little information on how to choose appropriate assessments of adolescent reading for informing instruction. This guide is designed to meet that need, by drawing together evidence about nine of the most commonly-used,…
Sennett, Kenneth H.
Procedures are described to determine reliability and validity of the Brockton (Massachusetts) Battery's Tests of Reading Readiness and the Adaptive Behavior Scales, which were developed to assess performance levels of Hispanic, Portuguese, and Cape Verdean normal and high risk children. Among reasons given for development of the instruments are…
Achieve, Inc., 2007
At the request of the Hawaii Department of Education, Achieve conducted a study of Hawaii's 2005 grade 10 State Assessment in reading and mathematics. The study compared the content, rigor and passing (meets proficiency) scores on Hawaii's assessment with those of the six states that participated in Achieve's earlier study, "Do Graduation…
Salas, Gayla L.
This action research project was developed in order to increase student literacy, particularly in the area of reading, for students who were considered at-risk. The targeted student population was 2nd grade students who were served within a primary cross-categorical special education program. The classroom was housed in an elementary (K-2) school,…
Ready, Rebecca E.; Chaudhry, Maheen F.; Schatz, Kelly C.; Strazzullo, Sarah
There are few tests that assess reading comprehension in adults, but these tests are needed for a comprehensive assessment of reading disorders (RD). "The Nelson-Denny Reading Test" (NDRT) has a long-passage reading comprehension component that can be used with adolescents and adults. A problem with the NDRT is that reading comprehension…
Redefines reading as a meditative rather than a narrowly cognitive process. Decries instruction in reading for comprehension and assessment because it restricts opportunities to explore and "get lost" in reading. (HTH)
West, Chandra Lorene
This study explored the reading attitudes and achievement, as well as genre knowledge, of tenth, eleventh, and twelfth-grade students who participated in Scaffolded Silent Reading, Sustained Silent Reading, or a control group. The Reading and You attitude survey, Degrees of Reading Power achievement measure, and Genre Assessment were administered…
The objective of the Ocean Pollution Data and Information Network (OPDIN) under Section 8 of Public Law 95-273 is to improve the dissemination of information concerning Federal marine pollution-related projects. One means of improving dissemination is developing direct access and establishing a working knowledge with those systems that have automated data and information files. The Central Coordination and Referral Office (CCRO) maintains a description of the systems and services with pollution interests that are available from eleven Federal organizations. These systems and services range from completely automated, user-accessible systems of national interest, to non-automated services for retrieval of hard-copy materials and products of regional interest. This report focuses on the present CCRO access capabilities to those systems and identifies additional systems with potential access by the CCRO and its Network participants.
Cummine, J; Chouinard, B; Szepesvari, E; Georgiou, G K
Rapid automatized naming (RAN) has been established to be a strong predictor of reading. Yet, the neural correlates underlying the RAN-reading relationship remain unknown. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine: (a) the extent to which RAN and reading activate similar brain regions (within subjects), (b) whether RAN and reading are directly related in the shared activity network outlined in (a), and (c) to what extent RAN neural activation predicts behavioral reading performance. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), university students (N=15; Mean age=20.6 years) were assessed on RAN (letters and digits) and single-word reading (words and non-words). The results revealed a common RAN-reading network that included regions associated with motor planning (cerebellum), semantic access (middle temporal gyrus), articulation (supplementary motor area, pre-motor), and grapheme-phoneme translation (supramarginal gyrus). We found differences between RAN and reading with respect to percent signal change (PSC) in phonological and orthographic regions, but not in articulatory regions. Significant correlations between the neural RAN and reading parameters were found primarily in motor/articulatory regions. Further, we found a unique relationship between in-scanner reading response time and RAN PSC in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Taken together, these findings support the notion that RAN and reading activate similar neural networks. However, the relationship between RAN and reading is primarily driven by commonalities in the motor-sequencing/articulatory processes.
Yiu, Loretta K; Pitts, Michael A; Canseco-Gonzalez, Enriqueta
Previous research examining the time course of lexical access during word recognition suggests that phonological processing precedes access to semantic information, which in turn precedes access to syntactic information. Bilingual word recognition likely requires an additional level: knowledge of which language a specific word belongs to. Using the recording of event-related potentials, we investigated the time course of access to language membership information relative to semantic (Experiment 1) and syntactic (Experiment 2) encoding during visual word recognition. In Experiment 1, Spanish-English bilinguals viewed a series of printed words while making dual-choice go/nogo and left/right hand decisions based on semantic (whether the word referred to an animal or an object) and language membership information (whether the word was in English or in Spanish). Experiment 2 used a similar paradigm but with syntactic information (whether the word was a noun or a verb) as one of the response contingencies. The onset and peak latency of the N200, a component related to response inhibition, indicated that language information is accessed earlier than semantic information. Similarly, language information was also accessed earlier than syntactic information (but only based on peak latency). We discuss these findings with respect to models of bilingual word recognition and language comprehension in general.
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Public reading room. 171.3 Section 171.3... PUBLIC General Policy and Procedures § 171.3 Public reading room. A reading room providing public access..., NW., Washington, DC. The reading room contains material pertaining to access to information under...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Public reading room. 171.3 Section 171.3... PUBLIC General Policy and Procedures § 171.3 Public reading room. A reading room providing public access..., NW., Washington, DC. The reading room contains material pertaining to access to information under...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Public reading room. 171.3 Section 171.3... PUBLIC General Policy and Procedures § 171.3 Public reading room. A reading room providing public access..., NW., Washington, DC. The reading room contains material pertaining to access to information under...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Public reading room. 171.3 Section 171.3... PUBLIC General Policy and Procedures § 171.3 Public reading room. A reading room providing public access..., NW., Washington, DC. The reading room contains material pertaining to access to information under...
With the increase of high-stakes testing and the subsequent consequences it is essential that educators understand the validity and the inferences based on the scores produced by these tests. The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between the underlying constructs of the grade six reading TAKS, the Test of Reading…
Sarpong, AA; Otupiri, E; Yeboah-Awudzi, K; Osei-Yeboah, J; Berchie, GO; Ephraim, RKD
Background: Accessibility of quality healthcare across the globe has generated a lot of attention among public health practitioners. Aim: This study explored the background characteristics of female prisoners and how it influences their assessment of the quality of accessible healthcare in the Kumasi Female Prison. Subjects and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted at the Female section of the Kumasi Central Prisons from June to December 2011. We used pretested questionnaires to obtain quantitative data from all 39 inmates of the female Prisons. An in-depth interview was used to obtain qualitative data from the prison healthcare giver. Data were analyzed with Epi Info Version 3.5.1, (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), Excel, and Graph Pad Prism version 5.00 for Windows (Graph Pad software, San Diego California USA, www.graphpad.com). Results: Using a 12-point scale inventory questionnaire, inmates with no formal education gave the highest mean health provision assessment score (6.0) whereas those with tertiary education gave the lowest (4.5). Females serving prison sentences gave the highest mean health assessment score whereas remand prisoners gave the lowest. Single females’ mean health assessment score was 5.7 whereas that of married inmates was 4.9. Unemployed inmates scored 5.8, informal 5.4 while civil servants scored 5.0. Conclusion: Access to quality healthcare was poor and demographic characteristics, marital status, educational background, and occupation influenced inmates’ perceptions of accessibility to quality healthcare. Inmates should be encouraged to be proactive in seeking healthcare irrespective of their background characteristics. PMID:26097759
Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park.
The impact of ESEA Title I programs on reading competencies of elementary and secondary students in Northern Appalachia was examined. Fourth- and seventh-grade reading programs were assessed through samples taken from 74 different schools involving 1,429 students in 16 school districts within the Northern Appalachia area of Maryland, Ohio,…
... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ACCESS TO INFORMATION AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION AND RECORDS TO THE PUBLIC General Policy and Procedures § 171.3 Public reading room. A reading room providing public access..., NW., Washington, DC. The reading room contains material pertaining to access to information under...
...; security risk assessments. 331.10 Section 331.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... individual is approved by the Administrator or the HHS Secretary following a security risk assessment by the... risk assessment to the Attorney General. (e) An individual's security risk assessment may be...
...; security risk assessments. 331.10 Section 331.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... individual is approved by the Administrator or the HHS Secretary following a security risk assessment by the... risk assessment to the Attorney General. (e) An individual's security risk assessment may be...
Tilley, Carol L.
Many adults, even librarians who willingly add comics to their collections, often dismiss the importance of comics. Compared to reading "real" books, reading comics appears to be a simple task and compared to reading no books, reading comics might be preferable. After all, comics do have words, but the plentiful pictures seem to carry most of the…
Jones, Joanna R., Ed.
This issue of the Arizona Reading Journal focuses on the theme "reading recovery" and includes the following articles: "Why Is an Inservice Programme for Reading Recovery Teachers Necessary?" (Marie M. Clay); "What Is Reading Recovery?" (Gay Su Pinnell); "Teaching a Hard To Teach Child" (Constance A.…
Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy
The Ogden, Utah schools have used the mandates of the federal Reading First grant program to transform reading instruction and student achievement in low-performing schools. Reading First was approved by Congress in 2001 under the No Child Left Behind Act to bring scientifically based reading methods and materials to struggling schools. The $1…
Reed, Deborah K.
This study explored the data-based decision making of 12 teachers in grades 6-8 who were asked about their perceptions and use of three required interim measures of reading performance: oral reading fluency (ORF), retell, and a benchmark comprised of released state test items. Focus group participants reported they did not believe the benchmark or…
Sabatini, John P.; Venezky, Richard L.; Kharik, Polina; Jain, Richa
The Study of Adult Reading Acquisition (SARA) is a longitudinal research project designed to measure the development of reading subskills in adults enrolled in instructional programs. The study participants are all students enrolled in a variety of adult education sites and settings, including correctional institutions, community-based programs,…
Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Connor, Carol M.; Folsom, Jessica S.; Greulich, Luana; Meadows, Jane; Li, Zhi
The purpose of this cluster-randomized control field trial was to examine whether kindergarten teachers could learn to differentiate classroom reading instruction using Individualized Student Instruction for Kindergarten (ISI-K) and to test the efficacy of differentiation on reading outcomes. The study involved 14 schools, 23 ISI-K (n = 305…
Biancarosa, Gina; Cummings, Kelli D.
The primary objective of this special issue is to synthesize results from recent reading fluency research endeavors, and to link these findings to practical uses of reading curriculum-based measurement (R-CBM) tools. Taken together, the manuscripts presented in this issue discuss measurement work related to new metrics of indexing student reading…
Kaklanis, Nikolaos; Stavropoulos, Georgios; Tzovaras, Dimitrios
Virtual User Models (VUMs) can be a valuable tool for accessibility and ergonomic evaluation of designs in simulation environments. As increasing the accessibility of a design is usually translated into additional costs and increased development time, the need for specifying the percentage of population for which the design will be accessible is crucial. This paper addresses the development of VUMs representing specific groups of people with disabilities. In order to create such VUMs, we need to know the functional limitations, i.e. disability parameters, caused by each disability and their variability over the population. Measurements were obtained from 90 subjects with motor disabilities and were analyzed using both parametric and nonparametric regression methods as well as a proposed hybrid regression method able to handle small sample sizes. Validation results showed that in most cases the proposed regression analysis can produce valid estimations on the variability of each disability parameter.
van den Boer, Madelon; van Bergen, Elsje; de Jong, Peter F
Many studies have examined reading and reading development. The majority of these studies, however, focused on oral reading rather than on the more dominant silent reading mode. Similarly, it is common practice to assess oral reading abilities rather than silent reading abilities in schools and in diagnosis of reading impairments. More important, insights gained through examinations of oral reading tend to be generalized to silent reading. In the current study, we examined whether such generalizations are justified. We directly compared oral and silent reading fluency by examining whether these reading modes relate to the same underlying skills. In total, 132 fourth graders read words, sentences, and text orally, and 123 classmates read the same material silently. As underlying skills, we considered phonological awareness, rapid naming, and visual attention span. All skills correlated significantly with both reading modes. Phonological awareness contributed equally to oral and silent reading. Rapid naming, however, correlated more strongly with oral reading than with silent reading. Visual attention span correlated equally strongly with both reading modes but showed a significant unique contribution only to silent reading. In short, we showed that oral and silent reading indeed are fairly similar reading modes, based on the relations with reading-related cognitive skills. However, we also found differences that warrant caution in generalizing findings across reading modes.
The instruction and assessment of expository text: A content analysis of fifth grade reading and science Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills, state adopted text teacher's manuals, and Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills
Jones, Alison Adair
The purpose of this content analysis study was to examine how and with what frequency explicit directions for the instruction or assessment of expository text were presented in six fifth grade reading and science data sources. The study analyzed the science and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS), conforming state adopted basal readers and science textbooks, and the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) for fifth grade. Additionally, a determination was made concerning whether and alignment existed between the data sources. An inter coder examined 10% of the entries from each data source to ensure reliability. Data collection included recording message units that referred to the explicit directions for the instruction and assessment of expository text were from each of the six data sources. Next, the message units were organized into categories and recorded in an Excel spreadsheet. Due to the differences in the length, format, and content of each data source, a matrix was designed in order to determine if any alignment was present between data sources. The study resulted in 5 major findings: First, the science teacher's editions presented more message units related to the explicit directions for instruction or assessment of reading in expository text. Second, formatting in the basal reader teacher's editions has remained much the same as in the past, in that they are still scripted and many of the activities continue to be presented without directions to teachers. Third, the instruction of word attack skills is still included in the fifth grade science and reading teacher's editions. Fourth, there was no clear definition for the meaning of the terms skills and strategies in order for teachers to become more effective when teaching students. Finally, an alignment did exist between the TEKS and teacher's editions, with the exception of word analysis in all but one of the science series. The only categories assessed in either the reading or
Missouri Univ., Columbia. Dept. of Practical Arts and Vocational-Technical Education.
This document contains trade and industrial occupations-related materials to help teachers and parents teach access skills to Missouri junior high and high school special needs students who want to pursue a vocational program in carpentry; commercial art; drafting; electronics; heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration; or offset lithography…
Walker, Wendy; Keenan, Teressa
This article discusses the accessibility of two content management systems, Berkeley Electronic Press's Digital Commons and OCLC's CONTENTdm, widely used in libraries to host institutional repository and digital collections content. Based on observations by a visually impaired student who used the JAWS screen reader to view the design and display…
Higher education is a key factor in a nation's effort to develop a highly skilled workforce for competing in the global economy. In this paper, current trends in accessibility, equity, participation and financing of higher education in Kenya are examined. The paper explores the challenges which need to be confronted and discusses the way forward…
Sunn hemp, Crotalaria juncea L. is a tropical legume grown primarily for fiber, cover cropping, and as a green manure crop with potential to contribute to sustainability. Sunn hemp stems are potentially high sources of cellulose for the production of cellulosic ethanol. Sixteen sunn hemp accessions ...
Kunz, Charlotte B.; Jason, Leonard A.; Adams, Monica; Pokorny, Steven B.
Researchers are only beginning to investigate how to measure a community's readiness to engage in an intervention. In this study, we investigated the readiness of police departments to deal with tobacco policies about youth access to tobacco and youth possession of tobacco. Police officers in 24 towns completed structured interviews designed to…
Inegbedion, Juliet O.; Adu, Folorunso I.; Ofulue, Christine Y.
This paper presents a study conducted by Inegbedion, Adu and Ofulue from the National Open University of Nigeria. The study focused on the quality of access (admission and registration) at NOUN from a student perspective. A survey design was used for the study while a multi-stage sampling technique was used to select the sample size. All the…
Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza; Ismail, Hairul Nizam; Abdullah, Muhammad Kamarul Kabilan
Metacognitive reading strategy awareness plays a significant role in reading comprehension and educational process. In spite of its importance, metacognitive strategy has long been the ignored skill in English language teaching, research, learning, and assessment. This lack of good metacognitive reading strategy skill is exacerbated by the central…
Conklin, Suzanne; Wilkins, Katherine
This study describes a program for improving student's reading skills. The targeted population consisted of students in a self-contained inclusion fourth grade classroom in a rural community, located in the Midwest. The lack of reading skills had been demonstrated through standardized achievement tests and the Developmental Reading Assessment.…
Liu, Gordon G; Zhao, Zhongyun; Cai, Renhua; Yamada, Tetsuji; Yamada, Tadashi
This study evaluates changes in access to health care in response to the pilot experiment of urban health insurance reform in China. The pilot reform began in Zhenjiang and Jiujiang cities in 1994, followed by an expansion to 57 other cities in 1996, and finally to a nationwide campaign in the end of 1998. Specifically, this study examines the pre- and post-reform changes in the likelihood of obtaining various health care services across sub-population groups with different socioeconomic status and health conditions, in an attempt to shed light on the impact of reform on both vertical and horizontal equity measures in health care utilization. Empirical estimates were obtained in an econometric model using data from the annual surveys conducted in Zhenjiang City from 1994 through 1996. The main findings are as follows. Before the insurance reform, the likelihood of obtaining basic care at outpatient setting was much higher for those with higher income, education, and job status at work, indicating a significant measure of horizontal inequity against the lower socioeconomic groups. On the other hand, there was no evidence suggesting vertical inequity against people of chronic disease conditions in access to care at various settings. After the reform, the new insurance plan led to a significant increase in outpatient care utilization by the lower socioeconomic groups, making a great contribution to achieving horizontal equity in access to basic care. The new plan also has maintained the measure of vertical equity in the use of all types of care. Despite reform, people with poor socioeconomic status continue to be disadvantaged in accessing expensive and advanced diagnostic technologies. In conclusion, the reform model has demonstrated promising advantages over pre-reform insurance programs in many aspects, especially in the improvement of equity in access to basic care provided at outpatient settings. It also appears to be more efficient overall in allocating health
Background The two step floating catchment area (2SFCA) method has emerged in the last decade as a key measure of spatial accessibility, particularly in its application to primary health care access. Many recent ‘improvements’ to the original 2SFCA method have been developed, which generally either account for distance-decay within a catchment or enable the usage of variable catchment sizes. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of various proposed methods within these two improvement groups. Moreover, its assessment focuses on how well these improvements operate within and between rural and metropolitan populations over large geographical regions. Results Demonstrating these improvements to the whole state of Victoria, Australia, this paper presents the first comparison between continuous and zonal (step) decay functions and specifically their effect within both rural and metropolitan populations. Especially in metropolitan populations, the application of either type of distance-decay function is shown to be problematic by itself. Its inclusion necessitates the addition of a variable catchment size function which can enable the 2SFCA method to dynamically define more appropriate catchments which align with actual health service supply and utilisation. Conclusion This study assesses recent ‘improvements’ to the 2SFCA when applied over large geographic regions of both large and small populations. Its findings demonstrate the necessary combination of both a distance-decay function and variable catchment size function in order for the 2SFCA to appropriately measure healthcare access across all geographical regions. PMID:23153335
...; security risk assessments. 331.10 Section 331.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... individual is approved by the Administrator or the HHS Secretary following a security risk assessment by the... risk assessment to the Attorney General. (e) A person with valid approval from the HHS Secretary...
...; security risk assessments. 331.10 Section 331.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... individual is approved by the Administrator or the HHS Secretary following a security risk assessment by the... risk assessment to the Attorney General. (e) A person with valid approval from the HHS Secretary...
Open access textbooks (OATs) and educational resources (OERs) are being lauded as a viable alternative to costly print textbooks. Some academic libraries are joining the OER movement by creating guides to open repositories. Others are promoting OATs and OERs, reviewing them, and even helping to create them. This article analyzes how academic…
Kvapil, Charline R.; Schellenberg, Louise S.
A group of citizens in Phoenix, Arizona, in 1968, organized Right to Read, Inc., to combat potential censors. The purpose of the group is "to promote freedom of access to knowledge and to resist interference with that freedom," especially in schools and libraries. The members hope to improve the community climate before issues on censorship arise…
"A significant body of research links the close reading of complex text--whether the student is a struggling reader or advanced--to significant gains in reading proficiency and finds close reading to be a key component of college and career readiness" (Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers, 2011, p. 7). When the author…
DAHM, MATTHEW M.; EVANS, DOUGLAS E.; SCHUBAUER-BERIGAN, MARY K.; BIRCH, M. EILEEN; DEDDENS, JAMES A.
Research Significance Toxicological evidence suggests the potential for a wide range of health effects from exposure to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs). To date, there has been much focus on the use of direct-reading instruments (DRIs) to assess multiple airborne exposure metrics for potential exposures to CNTs and CNFs due to their ease of use and ability to provide instantaneous results. Still, uncertainty exists in the usefulness and interpretation of the data. To address this gap, air-monitoring was conducted at six sites identified as CNT and CNF manufacturers or users and results were compared with filter-based metrics. Methods Particle number, respirable mass, and active surface area concentrations were monitored with a condensation particle counter, a photometer, and a diffusion charger, respectively. The instruments were placed on a mobile cart and used as area monitors in parallel with filter-based elemental carbon (EC) and electron microscopy samples. Repeat samples were collected on consecutive days, when possible, during the same processes. All instruments in this study are portable and routinely used for industrial hygiene sampling. Results Differences were not observed among the various sampled processes compared with concurrent indoor or outdoor background samples while examining the different DRI exposure metrics. Such data were also inconsistent with results for filter-based samples collected concurrently at the same sites [Dahm MM, Evans DE, Schubauer-Berigan MK et al. (2012) Occupational exposure assessment in CNT and nanofiber primary and secondary manufacturers. Ann Occup Hyg; 56: 542–56]. Significant variability was seen between these processes as well as the indoor and outdoor backgrounds. However, no clear pattern emerged linking the DRI results to the EC or the microscopy data (CNT and CNF structure counts). Conclusions Overall, no consistent trends were seen among similar processes at the various sites. The DRI
Lagassé, Lisa P; Rimal, Rajiv N; Smith, Katherine C; Storey, J Douglas; Rhoades, Elizabeth; Barnett, Daniel J; Omer, Saad B; Links, Jonathan
We assessed the literacy level and readability of online communications about H1N1/09 influenza issued by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) during the first month of outbreak. Documents were classified as targeting one of six audiences ranging in technical expertise. Flesch-Kincaid (FK) measure assessed literacy level for each group of documents. ANOVA models tested for differences in FK scores across target audiences and over time. Readability was assessed for documents targeting non-technical audiences using the Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM). Overall, there was a main-effect by audience, F(5, 82) = 29.72, P<.001, but FK scores did not vary over time, F(2, 82) = .34, P>.05. A time-by-audience interaction was significant, F(10, 82) = 2.11, P<.05. Documents targeting non-technical audiences were found to be text-heavy and densely-formatted. The vocabulary and writing style were found to adequately reflect audience needs. The reading level of CDC guidance documents about H1N1/09 influenza varied appropriately according to the intended audience; sub-optimal formatting and layout may have rendered some text difficult to comprehend.
Thomas, Geoff; Fletcher, Garth J O
Using a video-review procedure, multiple perceivers carried out mind-reading tasks of multiple targets at different levels of acquaintanceship (50 dating couples, friends of the dating partners, and strangers). As predicted, the authors found that mind-reading accuracy was (a). higher as a function of increased acquaintanceship, (b). relatively unaffected by target effects, (c). influenced by individual differences in perceivers' ability, and (d). higher for female than male perceivers. In addition, superior mind-reading accuracy (for dating couples and friends) was related to higher relationship satisfaction, closeness, and more prior disclosure about the problems discussed, but only under moderating conditions related to sex and relationship length. The authors conclude that the nature of the relationship between the perceiver and the target occupies a pivotal role in determining mind-reading accuracy.
Small, Ruth V.
In education, it is possible to find dozens of examples of "forced" reading incentive programs that categorize student reading levels, provide limited reading lists coordinated with those reading levels, assess student reading through computer-based tests, and award tangible prizes when they pass the test. Those who perform best get the most…
Sargent, Stephan Earl
A study was designed to help teachers discover which tools best predict future success in reading proficiency. It sought to find out whether commonly used reading assessments and/or measures of oral reading fluency could predict reading proficiency as measured by a standardized criterion-referenced achievement test of reading. In the first…
Weigle, Sara Cushing; Yang, WeiWei; Montee, Megan
Integrated reading/writing tasks are becoming more common in large-scale language tests. Much of the research on these tasks has focused on writing through reading; assessing reading through writing is a less explored area. In this article we describe a reading-into-writing task that is intended to measure both reading comprehension and language…
The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between reading motivation and inference generation while reading. Undergraduate participants (N = 69) read two science articles while thinking aloud, completed a standardized reading comprehension assessment, and self reported their habitual reading motivation. Findings indicate that…
Jamgochian, Elisa M.; Ketterlin-Geller, Leanne R.
Most students with disabilities participate in state assessments with or without accommodations [based on each student's Individualized Education Program (IEP)]. A small number of students with the most severe or profound intellectual disabilities participate in an alternate assessment based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS). Until…
Guzman-Orth, Danielle; Laitusis, Cara; Thurlow, Martha; Christensen, Laurene
This paper is the second in a series from Educational Testing Service (ETS) that conceptualizes next-generation English language proficiency (ELP) assessment systems for K-12 English learners (ELs) in the United States.The first paper articulated a high-level conceptualization of next-generation ELP assessment systems (Hauck, Wolf, & Mislevy,…
Mackey, Tim K; Schoenfeld, Virginia J
Social media is fundamentally altering how we access health information and make decisions about medical treatment, including for terminally ill patients. This specifically includes the growing phenomenon of patients who use online petitions and social media campaigns in an attempt to gain access to experimental drugs through expanded access pathways. Importantly, controversy surrounding expanded access and "compassionate use" involves several disparate stakeholders, including patients, manufacturers, policymakers, and regulatory agencies-all with competing interests and priorities, leading to confusion, frustration, and ultimately advocacy. In order to explore this issue in detail, this correspondence article first conducts a literature review to describe how the expanded access policy and regulatory environment in the United States has evolved over time and how it currently impacts access to experimental drugs. We then conducted structured web searches to identify patient use of online petitions and social media campaigns aimed at compelling access to experimental drugs. This was carried out in order to characterize the types of communication strategies utilized, the diseases and drugs subject to expanded access petitions, and the prevalent themes associated with this form of "digital" patient advocacy. We find that patients and their families experience mixed results, but still gravitate towards the use of online campaigns out of desperation, lack of reliable information about treatment access options, and in direct response to limitations of the current fragmented structure of expanded access regulation and policy currently in place. In response, we discuss potential policy reforms to improve expanded access processes, including advocating greater transparency for expanded access programs, exploring use of targeted economic incentives for manufacturers, and developing systems to facilitate patient information about existing treatment options. This includes
Galloway, Tara Watkins
Current legislation (IDEA, 2004; NCLB, 2001) mandates all students, including students with disabilities, demonstrate progress toward the same standards. However, students continue to struggle with attainment of statewide academic standards as measured by high-stakes assessment. The purpose of the current study was to examine the degree that…