Science.gov

Sample records for accessible sources designed

  1. World Wide Access: Accessible Web Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Univ., Seattle.

    This brief paper considers the application of "universal design" principles to Web page design in order to increase accessibility for people with disabilities. Suggestions are based on the World Wide Web Consortium's accessibility initiative, which has proposed guidelines for all Web authors and federal government standards. Seven guidelines for…

  2. Web accessibility and open source software.

    PubMed

    Obrenović, Zeljko

    2009-07-01

    A Web browser provides a uniform user interface to different types of information. Making this interface universally accessible and more interactive is a long-term goal still far from being achieved. Universally accessible browsers require novel interaction modalities and additional functionalities, for which existing browsers tend to provide only partial solutions. Although functionality for Web accessibility can be found as open source and free software components, their reuse and integration is complex because they were developed in diverse implementation environments, following standards and conventions incompatible with the Web. To address these problems, we have started several activities that aim at exploiting the potential of open-source software for Web accessibility. The first of these activities is the development of Adaptable Multi-Interface COmmunicator (AMICO):WEB, an infrastructure that facilitates efficient reuse and integration of open source software components into the Web environment. The main contribution of AMICO:WEB is in enabling the syntactic and semantic interoperability between Web extension mechanisms and a variety of integration mechanisms used by open source and free software components. Its design is based on our experiences in solving practical problems where we have used open source components to improve accessibility of rich media Web applications. The second of our activities involves improving education, where we have used our platform to teach students how to build advanced accessibility solutions from diverse open-source software. We are also partially involved in the recently started Eclipse projects called Accessibility Tools Framework (ACTF), the aim of which is development of extensible infrastructure, upon which developers can build a variety of utilities that help to evaluate and enhance the accessibility of applications and content for people with disabilities. In this article we briefly report on these activities.

  3. "Accessions": Researching, Designing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    This brief viewpoint piece depicts educational (dis)engagements apparent in researching and (re)designing higher education in and through "Accessions". "Accessions", a collaborative research-design project, probed at how cultures, climates and conditions of higher education may be reproducing or reshaping social inequalities and divisions. Here,…

  4. Accessible Web design.

    PubMed

    2004-09-01

    As part of the Institute of Medical Illustrators' (IMI) scheme for continuing professional development (CPD), worksheets will be published at regular intervals in this Journal. These are designed to provide the members of IMI with a structured CPD activity that offers one way to earn credits. It is recognized that this worksheet requires some time spent undertaking the exercises. This activity has been tested, and hours have been allocated to individual tasks (see clocks), but these are intended only as a guide. The answers to the questions, along with any notes and reflections you make or other publications you find, should be kept in your CPD portfolio. PMID:15799590

  5. Open Access, Open Source and Digital Libraries: A Current Trend in University Libraries around the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishnamurthy, M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the open access and open source movement in the digital library world. Design/methodology/approach: A review of key developments in the open access and open source movement is provided. Findings: Open source software and open access to research findings are of great use to scholars in developing…

  6. Source circuit design considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noel, G. T.

    1983-01-01

    The cost of several circuit configurations for large (5MW) array fields were investigated to assess the relative costs of high and low voltage configurations. Three source circuit NOC voltages were evaluated: 400V (ungrounded), 800V (+ or 400V center grounded), and 2000V (+ or - 1000V center grounded). Four source circuit configurations were considered for each of the three NOC voltages. The configurations correspond to source circuit currents of 15, 30, 45, and 60 amperes, respectively. Conceptual layouts for 5MW building blocks for each of the above configurations were developed. The designs were optimized to minimize BOS electrical and structural costs. Only the BOS electrical costs were evaluated. The designs were broken down into the following elements for cost: (1) basic source circuit intermodule wiring, bypass diodes and associated hardware, source circuit to J-Box wiring, etc; (2) J-Box blocking diodes, varistors, heat sinks, and housing; (3) disconnects source circuit disconnects, fuses, and housing; (4) bus cabling J-Box to PCU interface wiring, and trenching; (5) interface bus bar, group disconnects, and fuses; and (6) fault detection shunts, signal wire, electronics, and alarm. It is concluded that high voltage low current circuits are not economical, at higher currents high and low voltage circuit costs approach each other, high voltage circuits are not likely to offer near term advantage, and development work/manufacturer stimulation is needed to develop low cost high voltage hardware.

  7. Challenges in Database Design with Microsoft Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letkowski, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Design, development and explorations of databases are popular topics covered in introductory courses taught at business schools. Microsoft Access is the most popular software used in those courses. Despite quite high complexity of Access, it is considered to be one of the most friendly database programs for beginners. A typical Access textbook…

  8. Including Language Access into Medicaid ACO Design.

    PubMed

    Gershon, Rachel; Morris, Lisa; Ferguson, Warren

    2016-09-01

    Quality health care relies upon communication in a patient's preferred language. Language access in health care occurs when individuals are: (1) Welcomed by providers regardless of language ability; and (2) Offered quality language services as part of their care. Federal law generally requires access to health care and quality language services for deaf and Limited English Proficient (LEP) patients in health care settings, but these patients still find it hard to access health care and quality language services.Meanwhile, several states are implementing Medicaid Accountable Care Organization (ACO) initiatives to reduce health care costs and improve health care quality. Alternative payment methods used in these initiatives can give Accountable Care Organizations more flexibility to design linguistically accessible care, but they can also put ACOs at increased financial risk for the cost of care. If these new payment methods do not account for differences in patient language needs, ACO initiatives could have the unintended consequence of rewarding ACOs who do not reach out to deaf and LEP communities or offer quality language services.We reviewed public documents related to Medicaid ACO initiatives in six states. Some of these documents address language access. More could be done, however, to pay for language access efforts. This article describes Medicaid ACO initiatives and explores how different payment tools could be leveraged to reward ACOs for increased access to care and quality language services. We find that a combination of payment tools might be helpful to encourage both access and quality. PMID:27587453

  9. Information Access Instruction (IAI to the Fourth Power): Design Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ercegovac, Zorana

    1995-01-01

    Proposes four design principles of an information access system that link information sources regardless of implementation medium, information structure, or interface style. Provides examples from an undergraduate course in information science at the University of California at Los Angeles. (Author/AEF)

  10. BioZone Exploting Source-Capability Information for Integrated Access to Multiple Bioinformatics Data Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, L; Buttler, D; Paques, H; Pu, C; Critchlow

    2002-01-28

    Modern Bioinformatics data sources are widely used by molecular biologists for homology searching and new drug discovery. User-friendly and yet responsive access is one of the most desirable properties for integrated access to the rapidly growing, heterogeneous, and distributed collection of data sources. The increasing volume and diversity of digital information related to bioinformatics (such as genomes, protein sequences, protein structures, etc.) have led to a growing problem that conventional data management systems do not have, namely finding which information sources out of many candidate choices are the most relevant and most accessible to answer a given user query. We refer to this problem as the query routing problem. In this paper we introduce the notation and issues of query routing, and present a practical solution for designing a scalable query routing system based on multi-level progressive pruning strategies. The key idea is to create and maintain source-capability profiles independently, and to provide algorithms that can dynamically discover relevant information sources for a given query through the smart use of source profiles. Compared to the keyword-based indexing techniques adopted in most of the search engines and software, our approach offers fine-granularity of interest matching, thus it is more powerful and effective for handling queries with complex conditions.

  11. Accessing FMS Functionality: The Impact of Design on Learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fennell, Karl; Sherry, Lance; Roberts, Ralph, Jr.

    2004-01-01

    In modern commercial and military aircraft, the Flight Management System (FMS) lies at the heart of the functionality of the airplane. The nature of the FMS has also caused great difficulties learning and accessing this functionality. This study examines actual Air Force pilots who were qualified on the newly introduced advanced FMS and shows that the design of the system itself is a primary source of difficulty learning the system. Twenty representative tasks were selected which the pilots could be expected to accomplish on an ' actual flight. These tasks were analyzed using the RAFIV stage model (Sherry, Polson, et al. 2002). This analysis demonstrates that a great burden is placed on remembering complex reformulation of the task to function mapping. 65% of the tasks required retaining one access steps in memory to accomplish the task, 20% required two memorized access steps, and 15% required zero memorized access steps. The probability that a participant would make an access error on the tasks was: two memorized access steps - 74%, one memorized access step - 13%, and zero memorized access steps - 6%. Other factors were analyzed as well, including experience with the system and frequency of use. This completed the picture of a system with many memorized steps causing difficulty with the new system, especially when trying to fine where to access the correct function.

  12. Web Design for Accessibility: Policies and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Alan; Regan, Bob

    2002-01-01

    Discusses Web design for people with disabilities and outlines a process-based approach to accessibility policy implementation. Topics include legal mandates; determining which standards apply to a given organization; validation, or evaluation of the site; site architecture; navigation; and organizational needs. (Author/LRW)

  13. Stanford University's Archimedes Project: Design for Accessibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNulty, Tom, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    The Archimedes Project's primary goal is to educate those who will develop the next generation of software and hardware on the obstacles and opportunities that technology presents for people with disabilities. Its research program designs prototypes, explores accessibility problems, and conducts research on relevant scientific issues. (Author/PEN)

  14. Access to Space Interactive Design Web Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, John; Cutlip, William; Hametz, Mark

    2000-01-01

    The Access To Space (ATS) Group at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) supports the science and technology community at GSFC by facilitating frequent and affordable opportunities for access to space. Through partnerships established with access mode suppliers, the ATS Group has developed an interactive Mission Design web site. The ATS web site provides both the information and the tools necessary to assist mission planners in selecting and planning their ride to space. This includes the evaluation of single payloads vs. ride-sharing opportunities to reduce the cost of access to space. Features of this site include the following: (1) Mission Database. Our mission database contains a listing of missions ranging from proposed missions to manifested. Missions can be entered by our user community through data input tools. Data is then accessed by users through various search engines: orbit parameters, ride-share opportunities, spacecraft parameters, other mission notes, launch vehicle, and contact information. (2) Launch Vehicle Toolboxes. The launch vehicle toolboxes provide the user a full range of information on vehicle classes and individual configurations. Topics include: general information, environments, performance, payload interface, available volume, and launch sites.

  15. Accessible haptic technology for drug design applications.

    PubMed

    Zonta, Nicola; Grimstead, Ian J; Avis, Nick J; Brancale, Andrea

    2009-02-01

    Structure-based drug design is a creative process that displays several features that make it closer to human reasoning than to machine automation. However, very often the user intervention is limited to the preparation of the input and analysis of the output of a computer simulation. In some cases, allowing human intervention directly in the process could improve the quality of the results by applying the researcher intuition directly into the simulation. Haptic technology has been previously explored as a useful method to interact with a chemical system. However, the need of expensive hardware and the lack of accessible software have limited the use of this technology to date. Here we are reporting the implementation of a haptic-based molecular mechanics environment aimed for interactive drug design and ligand optimization, using an easily accessible software/hardware combination. PMID:19048316

  16. Source-circuit design overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The source circuit is the fundamental electrical building block of a large central-station array; it consists of a series-parallel network of solar cells that develops full system voltage. The array field is generally made up of a large number of parallel source circuits. Source-circuit electrical configuration is driven by a number of design considerations, which must be considered simultaneously. Array fault tolerance and hot spot heating endurance are examined in detail.

  17. 10 CFR 4.33 - Access to sources of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Access to sources of information. 4.33 Section 4.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING... of 1964 and Title IV of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 Compliance Information § 4.33 Access...

  18. 10 CFR 4.33 - Access to sources of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Access to sources of information. 4.33 Section 4.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING... of 1964 and Title IV of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 Compliance Information § 4.33 Access...

  19. ACCESS: Design and Sub-System Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Morris, Matthew J.; McCandliss, Stephan R.; Rasucher, Bernard J.; Kimble, Randy A.; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Pelton, Russell; Mott, D. Brent; Wen, Hiting; Foltz, Roger; Quijada, Manuel A.; Gum, Jeffery S.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Kahle, Duncan M.; Benford, Dominic J.; Woodgate, Bruce E.; Wright, Edward L.; Feldman, Paul D.; Hart, Murdock; Moos, H. Warren; Reiss, Adam G.; Bohlin, Ralph; Deustua, Susana E.; Dixon, W. V.; Sahnow, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Establishing improved spectrophotometric standards is important for a broad range of missions and is relevant to many astrophysical problems. ACCESS, "Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars", is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments designed to enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of absolute laboratory detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35 -1.7 micrometer bandpass.

  20. ACCESS: Design, Calibration Strategy, and Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, M. E.; Access Team

    2016-05-01

    ACCESS, Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars, is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments designed to enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of absolute laboratory detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35–1.7μm bandpass. Establishing improved spectrophotometric standards is important for a broad range of missions and is relevant to many astrophysical problems. Systematic errors associated with problems such as dark energy now compete with the statistical errors and thus limit our ability to answer fundamental questions in astrophysics.

  1. ACCESS: Design, Calibration Strategy, and Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, M. E.; Access Team

    2016-05-01

    ACCESS, Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars, is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments designed to enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of absolute laboratory detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35-1.7μm bandpass. Establishing improved spectrophotometric standards is important for a broad range of missions and is relevant to many astrophysical problems. Systematic errors associated with problems such as dark energy now compete with the statistical errors and thus limit our ability to answer fundamental questions in astrophysics.

  2. ACCESS: Design, Strategy, and Test Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Morris, M. J.; McCandliss, S. R.; Rauscher, B. J.; Kimble, R. A.; Kruk, J. W.; Wright, E. L.; Pelton, R. S.; Feldman, P. D.; Moos, H. W.; Riess, A. G.; Benford, D. J.; Foltz, R.; Gardner, J. P.; Mott, D. B.; Wen, Y.; Woodgate, B. E.; Bohlin, R.; Deustua, S. E.; Dixon, W. V.; Sahnow, D. J.; Kurucz, R. L.; Lampton, M.; Perlmutter, S.

    2013-01-01

    Improvements in the astrophysical flux scale are needed to answer fundamental scientific questions ranging from cosmology to stellar physics. In particular, the precise calibration of the flux scale across the visible-NIR bandpass is fundamental to the precise determination of dark energy parameters based on SNeIa photometry. ACCESS, Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars, is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments that will enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of absolute laboratory detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35 to 1.7 micron bandpass. The telescope is a Dall-Kirkham Cassegrain with a 15.5-inch primary. The spectrograph is a Rowland circle design, with the grating operating as a low order (m=1-4) echelle, a Fery prism provides cross dispersion, and a HST/WFC3 heritage HAWAII-1R HgCdTe detector is used across the full spectral bandpass. The telescope mirrors have received their flight coatings. The flight detector and detector spare have been integrated with their electronics and flight mount. The controller electronics have been flight qualified. Vibration testing to launch loads and thermal vacuum testing of the detector, mount, and housing have been performed. Detector characterization testing is in progress (Morris et al.). Fabrication, integration, and automation of the ground-based calibration subsystems are also in progress. The ACCESS design, calibration strategy, and ground-based integration and test results will be presented. Launch is expected this year. NASA sounding rocket grant NNX08AI65G and DOE DE-FG02-07ER41506 support this work.

  3. ACCESS: Thermal Mechanical Design, Performance, and Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Morris, M. J.; McCandliss, S. R.; Rauscher, B. J.; Kimble, R. A.; Kruk, J. W.; Wright, E. L.; Bohlin, R.; Kurucz, R. L.; Riess, A. G.; Pelton, R.; Deustua, S. E.; Dixon, W. V.; Sahnow, D. J.; Benford, D. J.; Gardner, J. P.; Feldman, P. D.; Moos, H. W.; Lampton, M.; Perlmutter, S.; Woodgate, B. E.

    2014-01-01

    Systematic errors associated with astrophysical data used to probe fundamental astrophysical questions, such as SNeIa observations used to constrain dark energy theories, are now rivaling and exceeding the statistical errors associated with these measurements. ACCESS: Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments designed to enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of absolute laboratory detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35 - 1.7μm bandpass. Achieving this level of accuracy requires characterization and stability of the instrument and detector including a thermal background that contributes less than 1% to the flux per resolution element in the NIR. We will present the instrument and calibration status with a focus on the thermal mechanical design and associated performance data. The detector control and performance will be presented in a companion poster (Morris, et al). NASA APRA sounding rocket grant NNX08AI65G supports this work.

  4. High School Student Information Access and Engineering Design Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentzer, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Developing solutions to engineering design problems requires access to information. Research has shown that appropriately accessing and using information in the design process improves solution quality. This quasi-experimental study provides two groups of high school students with a design problem in a three hour design experience. One group has…

  5. Distributed policy based access to networked heterogeneous ISR data sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bent, G.; Vyvyan, D.; Wood, David; Zerfos, Petros; Calo, Seraphin

    2010-04-01

    Within a coalition environment, ad hoc Communities of Interest (CoI's) come together, perhaps for only a short time, with different sensors, sensor platforms, data fusion elements, and networks to conduct a task (or set of tasks) with different coalition members taking different roles. In such a coalition, each organization will have its own inherent restrictions on how it will interact with the others. These are usually stated as a set of policies, including security and privacy policies. The capability that we want to enable for a coalition operation is to provide access to information from any coalition partner in conformance with the policies of all. One of the challenges in supporting such ad-hoc coalition operations is that of providing efficient access to distributed sources of data, where the applications requiring the data do not have knowledge of the location of the data within the network. To address this challenge the International Technology Alliance (ITA) program has been developing the concept of a Dynamic Distributed Federated Database (DDFD), also know as a Gaian Database. This type of database provides a means for accessing data across a network of distributed heterogeneous data sources where access to the information is controlled by a mixture of local and global policies. We describe how a network of disparate ISR elements can be expressed as a DDFD and how this approach enables sensor and other information sources to be discovered autonomously or semi-autonomously and/or combined, fused formally defined local and global policies.

  6. Designed for Access in the School Washroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettelman, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Many stakeholders in the public and private sectors have been involved in establishing minimum accessibility standards for people with disabilities in public buildings. One of the most important spaces in any building is the restroom. Unless a building has a restroom that is compliant with applicable accessibility standards such as the Americans…

  7. The design of LBT's telemetry source registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgin, Tony; Cushing, Norman

    2010-07-01

    In the current report, we describe the structure of the telemetry logging system of the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) and its approach to telemeter registration. The telemetry logging system, called Telemetry, has three functions. It will provide system data to LBT Observatory (LBTO) personnel in order to facilitate engineering activities such as commissioning, failure diagnosis and system repair. In order to detect failures as soon as possible after they occur, telemetry will allow for live monitoring of the functional status of key telescope systems. Finally, in order to help personnel understand how the LBT operating characteristics evolve with time, telemetry will provide access to historical telescope system data. Given this range of functions, a key requirement of Telemetry is that it must easily adapt to new sources of data. To minimize the changes required to Telemetry, it has no pre-existing knowledge about the structure of the data it will collect. Instead, it engages in a telemeter registration process, in which the data source must describe its own structure. This registration process requires no external data files to be maintained since the description is built up by a sequence of function calls to a C++ library. So far, this strategy has proven successful, as only minor modifications have been made to accommodate the nearly 400 sources of data introduced to the system in the past year. The current report describes the design of the LBT telemetry system and its source registration process.

  8. Light source design for machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieczka, Eric J.; Harding, Kevin G.

    1992-03-01

    There is a lack of commercially available white light sources for machine vision applications. Current commercial sources are typically expensive and primarily designed for workbench use. Because of their benchtop design, these light sources cannot be easily integrated into the inspection system. In most cases a light source must be custom designed and built to suit the needs of the particular machine vision application. The materials being inspected can vary from highly specular to highly diffuse, thus requiring a broad range of illumination levels. Other issues important in machine vision light sources include efficiency, light divergence, spectral content, source size, and packaging. This paper discusses the issues that must be overcome when designing a light source for machine vision applications, and describes the work done by ITI to produce an efficient white light source with computer controlled illumination level.

  9. Access to patents as sources to musical acoustics inventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brock-Nannestad, George

    2005-09-01

    Patents are important sources for the development of any technology. The paper addresses modern methods of access to patent publications relating to musical acoustics, in particular the constructions of instruments and components for instruments, methods for tuning, methods for teaching, and measuring equipment. The patent publications available are, among others, from the U.S., England, France, Germany, Japan, Russia, and the date range is from ca. 1880 to the present day. The two main searchable websites use different classification systems in their approach, and by suitable combination of the information it is possible to target the search efficiently. The paper will demonstrate the recent transfer of inventions relating to physical instruments to electronic simulations, and the fact that most recent inventions were made by independent inventors. A specific example is given by discussing the proposals for improved pipe organ and violin constructions invented in Denmark in the 1930s by Jarnak based on patented improvements for telephone reproducers.

  10. Sole Source Aquifer designation: petitioner guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Braem, L.

    1987-02-01

    The purpose of the guidance is to aid potential Sole Source Aquifer (SSA) petitioners to prepare and submit Sole Source Aquifer designation petitions to the Environmental Protection Agency. The Sole Source Aquifer program was established under the 1974 Safe Drinking Water Act, to protect principal or sole sources of drinking water for an area from contamination. The guidance presents an overview of the designation process, petition preparation, and how and where to submit petition information. Also included is general information about the Sole Source Aquifer program.

  11. Variation in low food access areas due to data source inaccuracies.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoguang; Battersby, Sarah E; Bell, Bethany A; Hibbert, James D; Barnes, Timothy L; Liese, Angela D

    2013-12-01

    Several spatial measures of community food access identifying so called "food deserts" have been developed based on geospatial information and commercially-available, secondary data listings of food retail outlets. It is not known how data inaccuracies influence the designation of Census tracts as areas of low access. This study replicated the U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service (USDA ERS) food desert measure and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) non-healthier food retail tract measure in two secondary data sources (InfoUSA and Dun & Bradstreet) and reference data from an eight-county field census covering169 Census tracts in South Carolina. For the USDA ERS food deserts measure accuracy statistics for secondary data sources were 94% concordance, 50-65% sensitivity, and 60-64% positive predictive value (PPV). Based on the CDC non-healthier food retail tracts both secondary data demonstrated 88-91% concordance, 80-86% sensitivity and 78-82% PPV. While inaccuracies in secondary data sources used to identify low food access areas may be acceptable for large-scale surveillance, verification with field work is advisable for local community efforts aimed at identifying and improving food access.

  12. Variation in low food access areas due to data source inaccuracies

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaoguang; Battersby, Sarah E.; Bell, Bethany A.; Hibbert, James D.; Barnes, Timothy L.; Liese, Angela D.

    2013-01-01

    Several spatial measures of community food access identifying so called “food deserts” have been developed based on geospatial information and commercially-available, secondary data listings of food retail outlets. It is not known how data inaccuracies influence the designation of Census tracts as areas of low access. This study replicated the U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service (USDA ERS) food desert measure and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) non-healthier food retail tract measure in two secondary data sources (InfoUSA and Dun & Bradstreet) and reference data from an eight-county field census covering169 Census tracts in South Carolina. For the USDA ERS food deserts measure accuracy statistics for secondary data sources were 94% concordance, 50–65% sensitivity, and 60–64% positive predictive value (PPV). Based on the CDC non-healthier food retail tracts both secondary data demonstrated 88–91% concordance, 80–86% sensitivity and 78–82% PPV. While inaccuracies in secondary data sources used to identify low food access areas may be acceptable for large-scale surveillance, verification with field work is advisable for local community efforts aimed at identifying and improving food access. PMID:24367136

  13. Accessing heterogeneous sources of evidence to answer clinical questions.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, E A; Cimino, J J; Johnson, S B; Seol, Y H

    2001-04-01

    The large and rapidly growing number of information sources relevant to health care, and the increasing amounts of new evidence produced by researchers, are improving the access of professionals and students to valuable information. However, seeking and filtering useful, valid information can be still very difficult. An online information system that conducts searches based on individual patient data can have a beneficial influence on the particular patient's outcome and educate the healthcare worker. In this paper, we describe the underlying model for a system that aims to facilitate the search for evidence based on clinicians' needs. This paper reviews studies of information needs of clinicians, describes principles of information retrieval, and examines the role that standardized terminologies can play in the integration between a clinical system and literature resources, as well as in the information retrieval process. The paper also describes a model for a digital library system that supports the integration of clinical systems with online information sources, making use of information available in the electronic medical record to enhance searches and information retrieval. The model builds on several different, previously developed techniques to identify information themes that are relevant to specific clinical data. Using a framework of evidence-based practice, the system generates well-structured questions with the intent of enhancing information retrieval. We believe that by helping clinicians to pose well-structured clinical queries and including in them relevant information from individual patients' medical records, we can enhance information retrieval and thus can improve patient-care.

  14. "AccessDesign": A Two-Day Workshop for Students with Disabilities Exploring Design Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaser, Brianna; Burgstahler, Sheryl; Braitmayer, Karen

    2012-01-01

    A two-day pilot workshop called Access to the Design Professions for People with Disabilities ("AccessDesign") was conducted for high school and college students with disabilities in Seattle. The goal of the workshop was to increase the pipeline of design professionals with disabilities by recruiting students with disabilities into postsecondary…

  15. Design parameters and source terms: Volume 3, Source terms

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-10-01

    The Design Parameters and Source Terms Document was prepared in accordance with DOE request and to provide data for the environmental impact study to be performed in the future for the Deaf Smith County, Texas site for a nuclear waste repository in salt. This document updates a previous unpublished report by Stearns Catalytic Corporation (SCC), entitled ''Design Parameters and Source Terms for a Two-Phase Repository in Salt,'' 1985, to the level of the Site Characterization Plan - Conceptual Design Report. The previous unpublished SCC Study identifies the data needs for the Environmental Assessment effort for seven possible Salt Repository sites. 11 refs., 9 tabs.

  16. Design study of the accessible focal plane telescope for shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The design and cost analysis of an accessible focal plane telescope for Spacelab is presented in blueprints, tables, and graphs. Topics covered include the telescope tube, the telescope mounting, the airlock plus Spacelab module aft plate, the instrument adapter, and the instrument package. The system allows access to the image plane with instrumentation that can be operated by a scientist in a shirt sleeve environment inside a Spacelab module.

  17. Ion source design for industrial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    The design of broad-beam industrial ion sources is described. The approach used emphasizes refractory metal cathodes and permanent-magnet multipole discharge chambers. Design procedures and sample calculations are given for the discharge chamber, ion optics, cathodes, and magnetic circuit. Hardware designs are included for the isolator, cathode supports, anode supports, pole-piece assembly, and ion-optics supports. There are other ways of designing most ion source components, but the designs presented are representative of current technology and adaptable to a wide range of configurations.

  18. Virtual shelves in a digital library: a framework for access to networked information sources.

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, T B; Springer, G K; Mitchell, J A; Sievert, M E

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Develop a framework for collections-based access to networked information sources that addresses the problem of location-dependent access to information sources. DESIGN: This framework uses a metaphor of a virtual shelf. A virtual shelf is a general-purpose server that is dedicated to a particular information subject class. The identifier of one of these servers identifies its subject class. Location-independent call numbers are assigned to information sources. Call numbers are based on standard vocabulary codes. The call numbers are first mapped to the location-independent identifiers of virtual shelves. When access to an information resource is required, a location directory provides a second mapping of these location-independent server identifiers to actual network locations. RESULTS: The framework has been implemented in two different systems. One system is based on the Open System Foundation/Distributed Computing Environment and the other is based on the World Wide Web. CONCLUSIONS: This framework applies in new ways traditional methods of library classification and cataloging. It is compatible with two traditional styles of selecting information searching and browsing. Traditional methods may be combined with new paradigms of information searching that will be able to take advantage of the special properties of digital information. Cooperation between the library-informational science community and the informatics community can provide a means for a continuing application of the knowledge and techniques of library science to the new problems of networked information sources. PMID:8581554

  19. Designing Web Pages That Are Usable and Accessible to All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheaton, Joe E.; Granello, Paul F.

    The Internet is a growing source of information for persons worldwide, but for many people with disabilities the Internet can be a confusing jumble of images, frames, scripts, and colors that make little sense. Although learning how to make Web pages accessible to all takes some effort, it is effort well spent for one very good reason:…

  20. Accessible Web Design - The Power of the Personal Message.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Gill

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe ongoing research being carried out to enable people with visual impairments to communicate directly with designers and specifiers of hobby and community web sites to maximise the accessibility of their sites. The research started with an investigation of the accessibility of community and hobby web sites as perceived by a group of visually impaired end users. It is continuing with an investigation into how to best to communicate with web designers who are not experts in web accessibility. The research is making use of communication theory to investigate how terminology describing personal experience can be used in the most effective and powerful way. By working with the users using a Delphi study the research has ensured that the views of the visually impaired end users is successfully transmitted. PMID:26294465

  1. Accessible Web Design - The Power of the Personal Message.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Gill

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe ongoing research being carried out to enable people with visual impairments to communicate directly with designers and specifiers of hobby and community web sites to maximise the accessibility of their sites. The research started with an investigation of the accessibility of community and hobby web sites as perceived by a group of visually impaired end users. It is continuing with an investigation into how to best to communicate with web designers who are not experts in web accessibility. The research is making use of communication theory to investigate how terminology describing personal experience can be used in the most effective and powerful way. By working with the users using a Delphi study the research has ensured that the views of the visually impaired end users is successfully transmitted.

  2. Inclusion and Online Learning Opportunities: Designing for Accessibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Elaine J.; Koppi, Tony

    2002-01-01

    Discusses an evaluation of WebCT (Web Course Tools) in practice at University of New South Wales (Australia) to assess the accessibility of WebCT for people with sensory, cognitive, and physical disabilities. Topics include evaluation methodology; learner-centered courseware design model; course evaluation by students; staff perceptions; and…

  3. Designing the OPAC User Interface to Improve Access and Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basista, Thomas; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of problems with retrieval of records in library online public access catalogs (OPACs) focuses on an ongoing research project at the Indiana University of Pennsylvania (IUP) that has been trying to improve subject retrieval vocabulary control using natural and thesaural language and on the design of a good graphical user interface.…

  4. Barrier-Free Design Accessibility for the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tica, Phyllis L.; Shaw, Julius A.

    Intended to aid administrators, architects, engineers, and contractors in designing barrier-free environments for the physically handicapped, the booklet contains information on accessibility aspects of the New York City Building Code and recommendations derived from experiments with the handicapped community as well as national and international…

  5. Designing the TouchSource Authoring Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, David; Franklin, Mike

    1989-01-01

    Reviews the development process of the TouchSource authoring system, which has been designed for use in developing touchscreen information directories using interactive videodisc. Topics discussed include authoring languages; the compatibility of interactive videodisc systems; hardware considerations; menu creation and design; database functions;…

  6. Heat source reentry vehicle design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, R. L.

    1971-01-01

    The design details are presented of a flight-type heat source reentry vehicle and heat exchanger compatible with the isotope Brayton power conversion system. The reference reentry vehicle and heat exchanger were modified, orbital and superorbital capability was assessed, and a complete set of detail design layout drawings were provided.

  7. FreeSASA: An open source C library for solvent accessible surface area calculations

    PubMed Central

    Mitternacht, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Calculating solvent accessible surface areas (SASA) is a run-of-the-mill calculation in structural biology. Although there are many programs available for this calculation, there are no free-standing, open-source tools designed for easy tool-chain integration. FreeSASA is an open source C library for SASA calculations that provides both command-line and Python interfaces in addition to its C API. The library implements both Lee and Richards’ and Shrake and Rupley’s approximations, and is highly configurable to allow the user to control molecular parameters, accuracy and output granularity. It only depends on standard C libraries and should therefore be easy to compile and install on any platform. The library is well-documented, stable and efficient. The command-line interface can easily replace closed source legacy programs, with comparable or better accuracy and speed, and with some added functionality. PMID:26973785

  8. FreeSASA: An open source C library for solvent accessible surface area calculations.

    PubMed

    Mitternacht, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Calculating solvent accessible surface areas (SASA) is a run-of-the-mill calculation in structural biology. Although there are many programs available for this calculation, there are no free-standing, open-source tools designed for easy tool-chain integration. FreeSASA is an open source C library for SASA calculations that provides both command-line and Python interfaces in addition to its C API. The library implements both Lee and Richards' and Shrake and Rupley's approximations, and is highly configurable to allow the user to control molecular parameters, accuracy and output granularity. It only depends on standard C libraries and should therefore be easy to compile and install on any platform. The library is well-documented, stable and efficient. The command-line interface can easily replace closed source legacy programs, with comparable or better accuracy and speed, and with some added functionality.

  9. Ion source design for industrial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    The more frequently used design techniques for the components of broad-beam electron bombardment ion sources are discussed. The approach used emphasizes refractory metal cathodes and permanent-magnet multipole discharge chambers. Design procedures and sample calculations are given for the discharge chamber, ion optics, the cathodes, and the magnetic circuit. Hardware designs are included for the isolator, cathode supports, anode supports, pole-piece assembly, and ion-optics supports. A comparison is made between two-grid and three-grid optics. The designs presented are representative of current technology and are adaptable to a wide range of configurations.

  10. A Framework for Transparently Accessing Deep Web Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dragut, Eduard Constantin

    2010-01-01

    An increasing number of Web sites expose their content via query interfaces, many of them offering the same type of products/services (e.g., flight tickets, car rental/purchasing). They constitute the so-called "Deep Web". Accessing the content on the Deep Web has been a long-standing challenge for the database community. For a user interested in…

  11. Open Source Radiation Hardened by Design Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuler, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The proposed technology allows use of the latest microcircuit technology with lowest power and fastest speed, with minimal delay and engineering costs, through new Radiation Hardened by Design (RHBD) techniques that do not require extensive process characterization, technique evaluation and re-design at each Moore's Law generation. The separation of critical node groups is explicitly parameterized so it can be increased as microcircuit technologies shrink. The technology will be open access to radiation tolerant circuit vendors. INNOVATION: This technology would enhance computation intensive applications such as autonomy, robotics, advanced sensor and tracking processes, as well as low power applications such as wireless sensor networks. OUTCOME / RESULTS: 1) Simulation analysis indicates feasibility. 2)Compact voting latch 65 nanometer test chip designed and submitted for fabrication -7/2016. INFUSION FOR SPACE / EARTH: This technology may be used in any digital integrated circuit in which a high level of resistance to Single Event Upsets is desired, and has the greatest benefit outside low earth orbit where cosmic rays are numerous.

  12. Advanced Neutron Source radiological design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, J.L.

    1995-08-01

    The operation of the proposed Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) facility will present a variety of radiological protection problems. Because it is desired to design and operate the ANS according to the applicable licensing standards of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), it must be demonstrated that the ANS radiological design basis is consistent not only with state and Department of Energy (DOE) and other usual federal regulations, but also, so far as is practicable, with NRC regulations and with recommendations of such organizations as the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). Also, the ANS radiological design basis is in general to be consistent with the recommendations of authoritative professional and scientific organizations, specifically the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). As regards radiological protection, the principal goals of DOE regulations and guidance are to keep occupational doses ALARA [as low as (is) reasonably achievable], given the current state of technology, costs, and operations requirements; to control and monitor contained and released radioactivity during normal operation to keep public doses and releases to the environment ALARA; and to limit doses to workers and the public during accident conditions. Meeting these general design objectives requires that principles of dose reduction and of radioactivity control by employed in the design, operation, modification, and decommissioning of the ANS. The purpose of this document is to provide basic radiological criteria for incorporating these principles into the design of the ANS. Operations, modification, and decommissioning will be covered only as they are affected by design.

  13. Advanced Neutron Sources: Plant Design Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a new, world class facility for research using hot, thermal, cold, and ultra-cold neutrons. At the heart of the facility is a 350-MW{sub th}, heavy water cooled and moderated reactor. The reactor is housed in a central reactor building, with supporting equipment located in an adjoining reactor support building. An array of cold neutron guides fans out into a large guide hall, housing about 30 neutron research stations. Office, laboratory, and shop facilities are included to provide a complete users facility. The ANS is scheduled to begin operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the end of the decade. This Plant Design Requirements document defines the plant-level requirements for the design, construction, and operation of the ANS. This document also defines and provides input to the individual System Design Description (SDD) documents. Together, this Plant Design Requirements document and the set of SDD documents will define and control the baseline configuration of the ANS.

  14. SLC polarized beam source electron optics design

    SciTech Connect

    Eppley, K.R.; Lavine, T.L.; Early, R.A.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Miller, R.H.; Schultz, D.C.; Spencer, C.M.; Yeremian, A.D.

    1991-05-01

    This paper describes the design of the beam-line from the polarized electron gun to the linac injector in the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). The polarized electron source is a GaAs photocathode, requiring 10{sup {minus}11}-Torr-range pressure for adequate quantum efficiency and longevity. The photocathode is illuminated by 3-nsec-long laser pulses. The quality of the optics for the 160-kV beam is crucial since electron-stimulated gas desorption from beam loss in excess of 0.1% of the 20-nC pulses may poison the photocathode. Our design for the transport line consists of a differential pumping region isolated by a pair of valves. Focusing is provided by a pair of Helmholtz coils and by several iron-encased solenoidal lenses. Our optics design is based on beam transport simulations using 2{1/2}-D particle-in-cell codes to model the gun and to solve the fully-relativistic time-dependent equations of motion in three dimensions for electrons in the presence of azimuthally symmetric electromagnetic fields. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Optimal Ground Source Heat Pump System Design

    SciTech Connect

    Ozbek, Metin; Yavuzturk, Cy; Pinder, George

    2015-04-15

    Despite the facts that GSHPs first gained popularity as early as the 1940’s and they can achieve 30 to 60 percent in energy savings and carbon emission reductions relative to conventional HVAC systems, the use of geothermal energy in the U.S. has been less than 1 percent of the total energy consumption. The key barriers preventing this technically-mature technology from reaching its full commercial potential have been its high installation cost and limited consumer knowledge and trust in GSHP systems to deliver the technology in a cost-effective manner in the market place. Led by ENVIRON, with support from University Hartford and University of Vermont, the team developed and tested a software-based a decision making tool (‘OptGSHP’) for the least-cost design of ground-source heat pump (‘GSHP’) systems. OptGSHP combines state of the art optimization algorithms with GSHP-specific HVAC and groundwater flow and heat transport simulation. The particular strength of OptGSHP is in integrating heat transport due to groundwater flow into the design, which most of the GSHP designs do not get credit for and therefore are overdesigned.

  16. The Spallation Neutron Source accelerator system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, S.; Abraham, W.; Aleksandrov, A.; Allen, C.; Alonso, J.; Anderson, D.; Arenius, D.; Arthur, T.; Assadi, S.; Ayers, J.; Bach, P.; Badea, V.; Battle, R.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Bergmann, B.; Bernardin, J.; Bhatia, T.; Billen, J.; Birke, T.; Bjorklund, E.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Blind, B.; Blokland, W.; Bookwalter, V.; Borovina, D.; Bowling, S.; Bradley, J.; Brantley, C.; Brennan, J.; Brodowski, J.; Brown, S.; Brown, R.; Bruce, D.; Bultman, N.; Cameron, P.; Campisi, I.; Casagrande, F.; Catalan-Lasheras, N.; Champion, M.; Champion, M.; Chen, Z.; Cheng, D.; Cho, Y.; Christensen, K.; Chu, C.; Cleaves, J.; Connolly, R.; Cote, T.; Cousineau, S.; Crandall, K.; Creel, J.; Crofford, M.; Cull, P.; Cutler, R.; Dabney, R.; Dalesio, L.; Daly, E.; Damm, R.; Danilov, V.; Davino, D.; Davis, K.; Dawson, C.; Day, L.; Deibele, C.; Delayen, J.; DeLong, J.; Demello, A.; DeVan, W.; Digennaro, R.; Dixon, K.; Dodson, G.; Doleans, M.; Doolittle, L.; Doss, J.; Drury, M.; Elliot, T.; Ellis, S.; Error, J.; Fazekas, J.; Fedotov, A.; Feng, P.; Fischer, J.; Fox, W.; Fuja, R.; Funk, W.; Galambos, J.; Ganni, V.; Garnett, R.; Geng, X.; Gentzlinger, R.; Giannella, M.; Gibson, P.; Gillis, R.; Gioia, J.; Gordon, J.; Gough, R.; Greer, J.; Gregory, W.; Gribble, R.; Grice, W.; Gurd, D.; Gurd, P.; Guthrie, A.; Hahn, H.; Hardek, T.; Hardekopf, R.; Harrison, J.; Hatfield, D.; He, P.; Hechler, M.; Heistermann, F.; Helus, S.; Hiatt, T.; Hicks, S.; Hill, J.; Hill, J.; Hoff, L.; Hoff, M.; Hogan, J.; Holding, M.; Holik, P.; Holmes, J.; Holtkamp, N.; Hovater, C.; Howell, M.; Hseuh, H.; Huhn, A.; Hunter, T.; Ilg, T.; Jackson, J.; Jain, A.; Jason, A.; Jeon, D.; Johnson, G.; Jones, A.; Joseph, S.; Justice, A.; Kang, Y.; Kasemir, K.; Keller, R.; Kersevan, R.; Kerstiens, D.; Kesselman, M.; Kim, S.; Kneisel, P.; Kravchuk, L.; Kuneli, T.; Kurennoy, S.; Kustom, R.; Kwon, S.; Ladd, P.; Lambiase, R.; Lee, Y. Y.; Leitner, M.; Leung, K.-N.; Lewis, S.; Liaw, C.; Lionberger, C.; Lo, C. C.; Long, C.; Ludewig, H.; Ludvig, J.; Luft, P.; Lynch, M.; Ma, H.; MacGill, R.; Macha, K.; Madre, B.; Mahler, G.; Mahoney, K.; Maines, J.; Mammosser, J.; Mann, T.; Marneris, I.; Marroquin, P.; Martineau, R.; Matsumoto, K.; McCarthy, M.; McChesney, C.; McGahern, W.; McGehee, P.; Meng, W.; Merz, B.; Meyer, R.; Meyer, R.; Miller, B.; Mitchell, R.; Mize, J.; Monroy, M.; Munro, J.; Murdoch, G.; Musson, J.; Nath, S.; Nelson, R.; Nelson, R.; O`Hara, J.; Olsen, D.; Oren, W.; Oshatz, D.; Owens, T.; Pai, C.; Papaphilippou, I.; Patterson, N.; Patterson, J.; Pearson, C.; Pelaia, T.; Pieck, M.; Piller, C.; Plawski, T.; Plum, M.; Pogge, J.; Power, J.; Powers, T.; Preble, J.; Prokop, M.; Pruyn, J.; Purcell, D.; Rank, J.; Raparia, D.; Ratti, A.; Reass, W.; Reece, K.; Rees, D.; Regan, A.; Regis, M.; Reijonen, J.; Rej, D.; Richards, D.; Richied, D.; Rode, C.; Rodriguez, W.; Rodriguez, M.; Rohlev, A.; Rose, C.; Roseberry, T.; Rowton, L.; Roybal, W.; Rust, K.; Salazer, G.; Sandberg, J.; Saunders, J.; Schenkel, T.; Schneider, W.; Schrage, D.; Schubert, J.; Severino, F.; Shafer, R.; Shea, T.; Shishlo, A.; Shoaee, H.; Sibley, C.; Sims, J.; Smee, S.; Smith, J.; Smith, K.; Spitz, R.; Staples, J.; Stein, P.; Stettler, M.; Stirbet, M.; Stockli, M.; Stone, W.; Stout, D.; Stovall, J.; Strelo, W.; Strong, H.; Sundelin, R.; Syversrud, D.; Szajbler, M.; Takeda, H.; Tallerico, P.; Tang, J.; Tanke, E.; Tepikian, S.; Thomae, R.; Thompson, D.; Thomson, D.; Thuot, M.; Treml, C.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; Tuzel, W.; Vassioutchenko, A.; Virostek, S.; Wallig, J.; Wanderer, P.; Wang, Y.; Wang, J. G.; Wangler, T.; Warren, D.; Wei, J.; Weiss, D.; Welton, R.; Weng, J.; Weng, W.-T.; Wezensky, M.; White, M.; Whitlatch, T.; Williams, D.; Williams, E.; Wilson, K.; Wiseman, M.; Wood, R.; Wright, P.; Wu, A.; Ybarrolaza, N.; Young, K.; Young, L.; Yourd, R.; Zachoszcz, A.; Zaltsman, A.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, W.; Zhang, Y.; Zhukov, A.

    2014-11-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) was designed and constructed by a collaboration of six U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories. The SNS accelerator system consists of a 1 GeV linear accelerator and an accumulator ring providing 1.4 MW of proton beam power in microsecond-long beam pulses to a liquid mercury target for neutron production. The accelerator complex consists of a front-end negative hydrogen-ion injector system, an 87 MeV drift tube linear accelerator, a 186 MeV side-coupled linear accelerator, a 1 GeV superconducting linear accelerator, a 248-m circumference accumulator ring and associated beam transport lines. The accelerator complex is supported by ~100 high-power RF power systems, a 2 K cryogenic plant, ~400 DC and pulsed power supply systems, ~400 beam diagnostic devices and a distributed control system handling ~100,000 I/O signals. The beam dynamics design of the SNS accelerator is presented, as is the engineering design of the major accelerator subsystems.

  17. Use and perceptions of information among family physicians: sources considered accessible, relevant, and reliable

    PubMed Central

    Kosteniuk, Julie G.; Morgan, Debra G.; D'Arcy, Carl K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The research determined (1) the information sources that family physicians (FPs) most commonly use to update their general medical knowledge and to make specific clinical decisions, and (2) the information sources FPs found to be most physically accessible, intellectually accessible (easy to understand), reliable (trustworthy), and relevant to their needs. Methods: A cross-sectional postal survey of 792 FPs and locum tenens, in full-time or part-time medical practice, currently practicing or on leave of absence in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan was conducted during the period of January to April 2008. Results: Of 666 eligible physicians, 331 completed and returned surveys, resulting in a response rate of 49.7% (331/666). Medical textbooks and colleagues in the main patient care setting were the top 2 sources for the purpose of making specific clinical decisions. Medical textbooks were most frequently considered by FPs to be reliable (trustworthy), and colleagues in the main patient care setting were most physically accessible (easy to access). Conclusions: When making specific clinical decisions, FPs were most likely to use information from sources that they considered to be reliable and generally physically accessible, suggesting that FPs can best be supported by facilitating easy and convenient access to high-quality information. PMID:23405045

  18. Advanced Neutron Source: Plant Design Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source will be a new world-class facility for research using hot, thermal, cold, and ultra-cold neutrons. The heart of the facility will be a 330-MW (fission), heavy-water cooled and heavy-water moderated reactor. The reactor will be housed in a central reactor building, with supporting equipment located in an adjoining reactor support building. An array of cold neutron guides will fan out into a large guide hall, housing about 30 neutron research stations. Appropriate office, laboratory, and shop facilities will be included to provide a complete facility for users. The ANS is scheduled to begin operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory early in the next decade. This PDR document defines the plant-level requirements for the design, construction, and operation of ANS. It also defines and provides input to the individual System Design Description (SDD) documents. Together, this PDR document and the set of SDD documents will define and control the baseline configuration of ANS.

  19. Electrical impedance tomography system: an open access circuit design

    PubMed Central

    Soleimani, Manuchehr

    2006-01-01

    Background This paper reports a simple 2-D system for electrical impedance tomography EIT, which works efficiently and is low cost. The system has been developed in the Sharif University of Technology Tehran-Iran (for the author's MSc Project). Methods The EIT system consists of a PC in which an I/O card is installed with an external current generator, a multiplexer, a power supply and a phantom with an array of electrodes. The measurement system provides 12-bit accuracy and hence, suitable data acquisition software has been prepared accordingly. The synchronous phase detection method has been implemented for voltage measurement. Different methods of image reconstruction have been used with this instrument to generate electrical conductivity images. Results The results of simulation and real measurement of the system are presented. The reconstruction programs were written in MATLAB and the data acquisition software in C++. The system has been tested with both static and dynamic mode in a 2-D domain. Better results have been produced in the dynamic mode of operation, due to the cancellation of errors. Conclusion In the spirit of open access publication the design details of this simple EIT system are made available here. PMID:16672061

  20. Universal Design Criteria in Standards and Codes About Accessibility of Built Environments in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Marcelo Pinto

    2016-01-01

    This paper includes some criticism in analysis of the development and implementation of the national standards for accessibility of the built environment in Brazil, i.e., the NBR9050. Currently, the 2015 version of it resembles an encyclopaedia including a variety of exotic contributions gathered historically from different sources; however, that characteristic makes it work like a puzzle that keeps alive prejudices about users' needs and disabilities. Besides, there are conflicts between recommended ideas and previous requirements from older versions. The definition of Universal Design has been published since 2004, but there is still no indication of how to make the principles work in practice. Therefore, it is very hard for city officials to assess quality of environments, and professionals have serious constraints to explore their skills further while addressing users' diversified needs. Certainly, the current NBR9050 requires further editorial work. Nevertheless, an important decision is necessary: it is important to organize information so that readers may identify in each topic whether Universal Design application can be achieved or whether the proposed technical solution may lead to construction of limited spatial adaptation and reach only some poor accommodation of users with uncommon needs. Presenting some examples in context of socially inclusive environments, the newer revised version of NBR9050 is necessary to explain about pitfalls of bad design of accessibility for discriminated disabled users. Readers should be able to establish conceptual links between the best ideas so that Universal Design could be easily understood. PMID:27534295

  1. Universal Design Criteria in Standards and Codes About Accessibility of Built Environments in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Marcelo Pinto

    2016-01-01

    This paper includes some criticism in analysis of the development and implementation of the national standards for accessibility of the built environment in Brazil, i.e., the NBR9050. Currently, the 2015 version of it resembles an encyclopaedia including a variety of exotic contributions gathered historically from different sources; however, that characteristic makes it work like a puzzle that keeps alive prejudices about users' needs and disabilities. Besides, there are conflicts between recommended ideas and previous requirements from older versions. The definition of Universal Design has been published since 2004, but there is still no indication of how to make the principles work in practice. Therefore, it is very hard for city officials to assess quality of environments, and professionals have serious constraints to explore their skills further while addressing users' diversified needs. Certainly, the current NBR9050 requires further editorial work. Nevertheless, an important decision is necessary: it is important to organize information so that readers may identify in each topic whether Universal Design application can be achieved or whether the proposed technical solution may lead to construction of limited spatial adaptation and reach only some poor accommodation of users with uncommon needs. Presenting some examples in context of socially inclusive environments, the newer revised version of NBR9050 is necessary to explain about pitfalls of bad design of accessibility for discriminated disabled users. Readers should be able to establish conceptual links between the best ideas so that Universal Design could be easily understood.

  2. Process-Oriented Design: Conversational Interfaces for Global Accessibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    The ability of the Internet to serve as a bridge to cultural understanding relies in great part on issues related to accessibility. My focus in this article is on accessibility as it relates to providing individuals with the full capabilities of the Internet to facilitate a process of association and learning, which can alleviate many issues that…

  3. On2broker: Semantic-Based Access to Information Sources at the WWW.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fensel, Dieter; Angele, Jurgen; Decker, Stefan; Erdmann, Michael; Schnurr, Hans-Peter; Staab, Steffen; Studer, Rudi; Witt, Andreas

    On2broker provides brokering services to improve access to heterogeneous, distributed, and semistructured information sources as they are presented in the World Wide Web. It relies on the use of ontologies to make explicit the semantics of Web pages. This paper discusses the general architecture and main components (i.e., query engine, information…

  4. Topographic Maps: Rediscovering an Accessible Data Source for Land Cover Change Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McChesney, Ron; McSweeney, Kendra

    2005-01-01

    Given some limitations of satellite imagery for the study of land cover change, we draw attention here to a robust and often overlooked data source for use in student research: USGS topographic maps. Topographic maps offer an inexpensive, rapid, and accessible means for students to analyze land cover change over large areas. We demonstrate our…

  5. 5 CFR 1630.5 - Granting access to a designated individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Granting access to a designated individual. 1630.5 Section 1630.5 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 1630.5 Granting access to a designated individual. (a) An individual who wishes...

  6. A Usability and Accessibility Design and Evaluation Framework for ICT Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subasi, Özge; Leitner, Michael; Tscheligi, Manfred

    This paper introduces a step by step framework for practitioners for combining accessibility and usability engineering processes. Following the discussions towards the needs of more user centeredness in the design of accessible solutions, there is a need for such a practical framework. In general, accessibility has been considered as a topic dealing with "hard facts". But lately terms like semantic and procedural accessibility have been introduced. In the following pages we propose a first sketch of a framework, which shows how to merge both usability and accessibility evaluation methods in the same process in order to guarantee a unified solution for both hard and soft facts of accessibility. We argue that by enhancing the user centered design process as the ISO DIS 9241-210 (revised DIN ISO 13407) describes it, accessibility and usability issues may be covered in one process.

  7. Design and Performance of Overlap FFT Filter-Bank for Dynamic Spectrum Access Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Motohiro; Umehira, Masahiro

    An OFDMA-based (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access-based) channel access scheme for dynamic spectrum access has the drawbacks of large PAPR (Peak to Average Power Ratio) and large ACI (Adjacent Channel Interference). To solve these problems, a flexible channel access scheme using an overlap FFT filter-bank was proposed based on single carrier modulation for dynamic spectrum access. In order to apply the overlap FFT filter-bank for dynamic spectrum access, it is necessary to clarify the performance of the overlap FFT filter-bank according to the design parameters since its frequency characteristics are critical for dynamic spectrum access applications. This paper analyzes the overlap FFT filter-bank and evaluates its performance such as frequency characteristics and ACI performance according to the design parameters.

  8. Financing Adult Education: How Adequate Are Current Sources in Facilitating Access and Participation in Centres in Murang'a South Sub-County, Murang'a County, Kenya?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maina, Ndonga James; Orodho, John Aluko

    2016-01-01

    The thrust of this study was to examine the level of adequacy of current sources in facilitating access and participation in adult education centres in Murang'a South Sub-County, Murang'a County, Kenya. The study adopted the descriptive survey design. Combinations of purposive and stratified random sampling techniques were used to select 82…

  9. Alternative Natural Energy Sources in Building Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Albert J.; Schubert, Robert P.

    This publication provides a discussion of various energy conserving building systems and design alternatives. The information presented here covers alternative space and water heating systems, and energy conserving building designs incorporating these systems and other energy conserving techniques. Besides water, wind, solar, and bio conversion…

  10. Student-Accessible Science Texts: Elements of Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McTigue, Erin M.; Slough, Scott W.

    2010-01-01

    Within this article, we introduce our conception of text accessibility. First, we synthesize recent research on informational text quality and present key attributes proven to contribute to comprehension of science texts beyond the readability formula. These features include (a) the concreteness of text, (b) the voice of the author, (c) coherent…

  11. The Accessible School: Universal Design for Educational Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar, Laurel; Galluzzo, Judith

    This book provides practical reasons for the Americans with Disabilities Act requirements for accessibility of school sites, buildings, and educational rooms as well as clear illustrations to aid in the explanation of the guidelines. It addresses practical matters such as safety and cost-effectiveness while increasing sensitivity to different…

  12. Contextual and Community Factors Associated with Youth Access to Cigarettes through Commercial Sources

    PubMed Central

    Grube, Joel W.; Friend, Karen B.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study examines contextual and community level characteristics associated with youth access to tobacco through commercial sources in 50 non-contiguous mid-sized California communities. Methods The study is based on data from access surveys conducted by 4 confederate buyers (2 males and 2 females) in 997 tobacco outlets. City demographics, adult smoking prevalence and measures of tobacco outlet density, local tobacco retailer licensing and cigarette tax were included. Results Multilevel regression analyses indicated that buyer actual age, a male clerk and asking young buyers about their age were related to successful cigarette purchases. Buyer actual age and minimum age signs increased the likelihood that clerks will request an ID. At the community level, higher percentage of minors, higher education, and a greater percentage of African Americans were associated with increased likelihood of a successful purchase. Lower percentage of minors, lower education, lower percentage of African Americans, and having a local tobacco retailer licensing were associated with retailer asked for ID. Additionally, supermarkets charged significantly more for a pack of cigarettes than small markets whereas smoke/tobacco shops and drug stores/pharmacies charged less. Higher prices were associated with higher median household income and greater percentage of Hispanics. Findings about community characteristics, however, differed by cigarette brand. Conclusions This study enhances our understanding of the associations between contextual and community characteristics and youth access to tobacco through commercial sources which can help policymakers to identify and target at-risk communities and outlets to decrease youth access to tobacco. PMID:23092887

  13. JHelioviewer: Open-Source Software for Discovery and Image Access in the Petabyte Age (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, D.; Dimitoglou, G.; Langenberg, M.; Pagel, S.; Dau, A.; Nuhn, M.; Garcia Ortiz, J. P.; Dietert, H.; Schmidt, L.; Hughitt, V. K.; Ireland, J.; Fleck, B.

    2010-12-01

    The unprecedented torrent of data returned by the Solar Dynamics Observatory is both a blessing and a barrier: a blessing for making available data with significantly higher spatial and temporal resolution, but a barrier for scientists to access, browse and analyze them. With such staggering data volume, the data is bound to be accessible only from a few repositories and users will have to deal with data sets effectively immobile and practically difficult to download. From a scientist's perspective this poses three challenges: accessing, browsing and finding interesting data while avoiding the proverbial search for a needle in a haystack. To address these challenges, we have developed JHelioviewer, an open-source visualization software that lets users browse large data volumes both as still images and movies. We did so by deploying an efficient image encoding, storage, and dissemination solution using the JPEG 2000 standard. This solution enables users to access remote images at different resolution levels as a single data stream. Users can view, manipulate, pan, zoom, and overlay JPEG 2000 compressed data quickly, without severe network bandwidth penalties. Besides viewing data, the browser provides third-party metadata and event catalog integration to quickly locate data of interest, as well as an interface to the Virtual Solar Observatory to download science-quality data. As part of the Helioviewer Project, JHelioviewer offers intuitive ways to browse large amounts of heterogeneous data remotely and provides an extensible and customizable open-source platform for the scientific community.

  14. Accessibility condition of wave propagation and multicharged ion production in electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Yushi; Yano, Keisuke; Nishiokada, Takuya; Nagaya, Tomoki; Kimura, Daiju; Kumakura, Sho; Imai, Youta; Hagino, Shogo; Otsuka, Takuro; Sato, Fuminobu

    2016-02-01

    A new tandem type source of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas has been constructing for producing synthesized ion beams in Osaka University. Magnetic mirror field configuration with octupole magnets can be controlled to various shape of ECR zones, namely, in the 2nd stage plasma to be available by a pair mirror and a supplemental coil. Noteworthy correlations between these magnetic configurations and production of multicharged ions are investigated in detail, as well as their optimum conditions. We have been considering accessibility condition of electromagnetic and electrostatic waves propagating in ECR ion source plasma, and then investigated their correspondence relationships with production of multicharged ions. It has been clarified that there exits efficient configuration of ECR zones for producing multicharged ion beams experimentally, and then has been suggested from detail accessibility conditions on the ECR plasma that new resonance, i.e., upper hybrid resonance, must have occurred.

  15. Accessibility condition of wave propagation and multicharged ion production in electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yushi; Yano, Keisuke; Nishiokada, Takuya; Nagaya, Tomoki; Kimura, Daiju; Kumakura, Sho; Imai, Youta; Hagino, Shogo; Otsuka, Takuro; Sato, Fuminobu

    2016-02-01

    A new tandem type source of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas has been constructing for producing synthesized ion beams in Osaka University. Magnetic mirror field configuration with octupole magnets can be controlled to various shape of ECR zones, namely, in the 2nd stage plasma to be available by a pair mirror and a supplemental coil. Noteworthy correlations between these magnetic configurations and production of multicharged ions are investigated in detail, as well as their optimum conditions. We have been considering accessibility condition of electromagnetic and electrostatic waves propagating in ECR ion source plasma, and then investigated their correspondence relationships with production of multicharged ions. It has been clarified that there exits efficient configuration of ECR zones for producing multicharged ion beams experimentally, and then has been suggested from detail accessibility conditions on the ECR plasma that new resonance, i.e., upper hybrid resonance, must have occurred. PMID:26931928

  16. Deaf Adolescents' Learning of Cardiovascular Health Information: Sources and Access Challenges.

    PubMed

    Smith, Scott R; Kushalnagar, Poorna; Hauser, Peter C

    2015-10-01

    Deaf individuals have more cardiovascular risks than the general population that are believed to be related to their cardiovascular health knowledge disparities. This phenomenological study describes where 20 deaf sign language-using adolescents from Rochester, New York, many who possess many positive characteristics to support their health literacy, learn cardiovascular health information and their lived experiences accessing health information. The goal is to ultimately use this information to improve the delivery of cardiovascular health education to this population and other deaf adolescents at a higher risk for weak health literacy. Deaf bilingual researchers interviewed deaf adolescents, transcribed and coded the data, and described the findings. Five major sources of cardiovascular health information were identified including family, health education teachers, healthcare providers, printed materials, and informal sources. Despite possessing advantageous characteristics contributing to stronger health literacy, study participants described significant challenges with accessing health information from each source. They also demonstrated inconsistencies in their cardiovascular health knowledge, especially regarding heart attack, stroke, and cholesterol. These findings suggest a great need for additional public funding to research deaf adolescents' informal health-related learning, develop accessible and culturally appropriate health surveys and health education programming, improve interpreter education, and disseminate information through social media. PMID:26048900

  17. Deaf Adolescents' Learning of Cardiovascular Health Information: Sources and Access Challenges.

    PubMed

    Smith, Scott R; Kushalnagar, Poorna; Hauser, Peter C

    2015-10-01

    Deaf individuals have more cardiovascular risks than the general population that are believed to be related to their cardiovascular health knowledge disparities. This phenomenological study describes where 20 deaf sign language-using adolescents from Rochester, New York, many who possess many positive characteristics to support their health literacy, learn cardiovascular health information and their lived experiences accessing health information. The goal is to ultimately use this information to improve the delivery of cardiovascular health education to this population and other deaf adolescents at a higher risk for weak health literacy. Deaf bilingual researchers interviewed deaf adolescents, transcribed and coded the data, and described the findings. Five major sources of cardiovascular health information were identified including family, health education teachers, healthcare providers, printed materials, and informal sources. Despite possessing advantageous characteristics contributing to stronger health literacy, study participants described significant challenges with accessing health information from each source. They also demonstrated inconsistencies in their cardiovascular health knowledge, especially regarding heart attack, stroke, and cholesterol. These findings suggest a great need for additional public funding to research deaf adolescents' informal health-related learning, develop accessible and culturally appropriate health surveys and health education programming, improve interpreter education, and disseminate information through social media.

  18. Designing social marketing strategies to increase African Americans' access to health promotion programs.

    PubMed

    Icard, Larry D; Bourjolly, Joretha N; Siddiqui, Nushina

    2003-08-01

    This qualitative study explored four key factors--source, message, channel, and target--for linking at-risk African Americans with health promotion programs. Among the findings from focus group discussions was that the use of the African American church to involve at-risk African Americans in health promotion programs may actually function as a barrier for some individuals. The study also suggests that use of a high profile person to deliver a message may be counterproductive to efforts to motivate people to use health promotion programs. The significance of these and other findings for designing more effective social marketing strategies to increase at-risk African Americans' access to health promotion programs are discussed.

  19. 40 CFR 61.170 - Applicability and designation of source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability and designation of source... for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Primary Copper Smelters § 61.170 Applicability and designation of source. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to each copper converter at any new or...

  20. 2D accelerator design for SITEX negative ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Whealton, J.H.; Raridon, R.J.; McGaffey, R.W.; McCollough, D.H.; Stirling, W.L.; Dagenhart, W.K.

    1983-01-01

    Solving the Poisson-Vlasov equations where the magnetic field, B, is assumed constant, we optimize the optical system of a SITEX negative ion source in infinite slot geometry. Algorithms designed to solve the above equations were modified to include the curved emitter boundary data appropriate to a negative ion source. Other configurations relevant to negative ion sources are examined.

  1. Design and experimental validation of a compact collimated Knudsen source.

    PubMed

    Wouters, Steinar H W; Ten Haaf, Gijs; Mutsaers, Peter H A; Vredenbregt, Edgar J D

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the design and performance of a collimated Knudsen source, which has the benefit of a simple design over recirculating sources, is discussed. Measurements of the flux, transverse velocity distribution, and brightness of the resulting rubidium beam at different source temperatures were conducted to evaluate the performance. The scaling of the flux and brightness with the source temperature follows the theoretical predictions. The transverse velocity distribution in the transparent operation regime also agrees with the simulated data. The source was tested up to a temperature of 433 K and was able to produce a flux in excess of 10(13) s(-1). PMID:27587111

  2. JHelioviewer: Open-Source Software for Discovery and Image Access in the Petabyte Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, D.; Dimitoglou, G.; Garcia Ortiz, J.; Langenberg, M.; Nuhn, M.; Dau, A.; Pagel, S.; Schmidt, L.; Hughitt, V. K.; Ireland, J.; Fleck, B.

    2011-12-01

    The unprecedented torrent of data returned by the Solar Dynamics Observatory is both a blessing and a barrier: a blessing for making available data with significantly higher spatial and temporal resolution, but a barrier for scientists to access, browse and analyze them. With such staggering data volume, the data is accessible only from a few repositories and users have to deal with data sets effectively immobile and practically difficult to download. From a scientist's perspective this poses three challenges: accessing, browsing and finding interesting data while avoiding the proverbial search for a needle in a haystack. To address these challenges, we have developed JHelioviewer, an open-source visualization software that lets users browse large data volumes both as still images and movies. We did so by deploying an efficient image encoding, storage, and dissemination solution using the JPEG 2000 standard. This solution enables users to access remote images at different resolution levels as a single data stream. Users can view, manipulate, pan, zoom, and overlay JPEG 2000 compressed data quickly, without severe network bandwidth penalties. Besides viewing data, the browser provides third-party metadata and event catalog integration to quickly locate data of interest, as well as an interface to the Virtual Solar Observatory to download science-quality data. As part of the ESA/NASA Helioviewer Project, JHelioviewer offers intuitive ways to browse large amounts of heterogeneous data remotely and provides an extensible and customizable open-source platform for the scientific community. In addition, the easy-to-use graphical user interface enables the general public and educators to access, enjoy and reuse data from space missions without barriers.

  3. [Do public health practitioners have satisfactory access to important information sources?].

    PubMed

    Forsetlund, L; Bjørndal, A

    1999-06-30

    We asked Norwegian public health practitioners which information sources they used as support for their professional medical counselling, how they gathered their information, and how they evaluated the validity of the information. 348 (67%) questionnaires were returned. Legal sources, other types of reference books/textbooks, different types of expertise from other institutions, and colleagues were considered the most important information sources. The majority had difficulties accessing libraries. Bibliographic databases were used very little. 30% often had problems finding relevant information, while 56% had problems occasionally. Many respondents felt that it was too difficult to get hold of information, that it was difficult to know where to search and that it was difficult to find the time to do it. In judging the scientific validity of an article the majority compared the content with their own experience. Relevant scientifically based medical information was seldom obtained and utilized. Public health practitioners were surprisingly homogeneous in their description of their handling of information. We found for instance almost no differences between specialists and non-specialists. The survey shows that public health practitioners do not have satisfactory access to potentially important information sources. The type of barriers many of them meet when searching for information, indicates that public health physicians would benefit from tailored information services.

  4. 34 CFR 370.7 - What shall the designated agency do to make its services accessible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CLIENT ASSISTANCE PROGRAM General § 370.7 What shall the designated agency do to make its services... formats that are accessible to clients or client applicants who seek or receive CAP services. (Authority... services accessible? 370.7 Section 370.7 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department...

  5. Transparent mediation-based access to multiple yeast data sources using an ontology driven interface

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Saccharomyces cerevisiae is recognized as a model system representing a simple eukaryote whose genome can be easily manipulated. Information solicited by scientists on its biological entities (Proteins, Genes, RNAs...) is scattered within several data sources like SGD, Yeastract, CYGD-MIPS, BioGrid, PhosphoGrid, etc. Because of the heterogeneity of these sources, querying them separately and then manually combining the returned results is a complex and time-consuming task for biologists most of whom are not bioinformatics expert. It also reduces and limits the use that can be made on the available data. Results To provide transparent and simultaneous access to yeast sources, we have developed YeastMed: an XML and mediator-based system. In this paper, we present our approach in developing this system which takes advantage of SB-KOM to perform the query transformation needed and a set of Data Services to reach the integrated data sources. The system is composed of a set of modules that depend heavily on XML and Semantic Web technologies. User queries are expressed in terms of a domain ontology through a simple form-based web interface. Conclusions YeastMed is the first mediation-based system specific for integrating yeast data sources. It was conceived mainly to help biologists to find simultaneously relevant data from multiple data sources. It has a biologist-friendly interface easy to use. The system is available at http://www.khaos.uma.es/yeastmed/. PMID:22372975

  6. ERDDAP - An Easier Way for Diverse Clients to Access Scientific Data From Diverse Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendelssohn, R.; Simons, R. A.

    2008-12-01

    ERDDAP is a new open-source, web-based service that aggregates data from other web services: OPeNDAP grid servers (THREDDS), OPeNDAP sequence servers (Dapper), NOS SOAP service, SOS (IOOS, OOStethys), microWFS, DiGIR (OBIS, BMDE). Regardless of the data source, ERDDAP makes all datasets available to clients via standard (and enhanced) DAP requests and makes some datasets accessible via WMS. A client's request also specifies the desired format for the results, e.g., .asc, .csv, .das, .dds, .dods, htmlTable, XHTML, .mat, netCDF, .kml, .png, or .pdf (formats more directly useful to clients). ERDDAP interprets a client request, requests the data from the data source (in the appropriate way), reformats the data source's response, and sends the result to the client. Thus ERDDAP makes data from diverse sources available to diverse clients via standardized interfaces. Clients don't have to install libraries to get data from ERDDAP because ERDDAP is RESTful and resource-oriented: a URL completely defines a data request and the URL can be used in any application that can send a URL and receive a file. This also makes it easy to use ERDDAP in mashups with other web services. ERDDAP could be extended to support other protocols. ERDDAP's hub and spoke architecture simplifies adding support for new types of data sources and new types of clients. ERDDAP includes metadata management support, catalog services, and services to make graphs and maps.

  7. Drinking water sources, availability, quality, access and utilization for goats in the Karak Governorate, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Khaza'leh, Ja'far Mansur; Reiber, Christoph; Al Baqain, Raid; Valle Zárate, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Goat production is an important agricultural activity in Jordan. The country is one of the poorest countries in the world in terms of water scarcity. Provision of sufficient quantity of good quality drinking water is important for goats to maintain feed intake and production. This study aimed to evaluate the seasonal availability and quality of goats' drinking water sources, accessibility, and utilization in different zones in the Karak Governorate in southern Jordan. Data collection methods comprised interviews with purposively selected farmers and quality assessment of water sources. The provision of drinking water was considered as one of the major constraints for goat production, particularly during the dry season (DS). Long travel distances to the water sources, waiting time at watering points, and high fuel and labor costs were the key reasons associated with the problem. All the values of water quality (WQ) parameters were within acceptable limits of the guidelines for livestock drinking WQ with exception of iron, which showed slightly elevated concentration in one borehole source in the DS. These findings show that water shortage is an important problem leading to consequences for goat keepers. To alleviate the water shortage constraint and in view of the depleted groundwater sources, alternative water sources at reasonable distance have to be tapped and monitored for water quality and more efficient use of rainwater harvesting systems in the study area is recommended. PMID:25307764

  8. Drinking water sources, availability, quality, access and utilization for goats in the Karak Governorate, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Khaza'leh, Ja'far Mansur; Reiber, Christoph; Al Baqain, Raid; Valle Zárate, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Goat production is an important agricultural activity in Jordan. The country is one of the poorest countries in the world in terms of water scarcity. Provision of sufficient quantity of good quality drinking water is important for goats to maintain feed intake and production. This study aimed to evaluate the seasonal availability and quality of goats' drinking water sources, accessibility, and utilization in different zones in the Karak Governorate in southern Jordan. Data collection methods comprised interviews with purposively selected farmers and quality assessment of water sources. The provision of drinking water was considered as one of the major constraints for goat production, particularly during the dry season (DS). Long travel distances to the water sources, waiting time at watering points, and high fuel and labor costs were the key reasons associated with the problem. All the values of water quality (WQ) parameters were within acceptable limits of the guidelines for livestock drinking WQ with exception of iron, which showed slightly elevated concentration in one borehole source in the DS. These findings show that water shortage is an important problem leading to consequences for goat keepers. To alleviate the water shortage constraint and in view of the depleted groundwater sources, alternative water sources at reasonable distance have to be tapped and monitored for water quality and more efficient use of rainwater harvesting systems in the study area is recommended.

  9. Towards a Methodology for the Design of Multimedia Public Access Interfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Jennifer

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of information systems methodologies that can contribute to interface design for public access systems covers: the systems life cycle; advantages of adopting information systems methodologies; soft systems methodologies; task-oriented approaches to user interface design; holistic design, the Star model, and prototyping; the…

  10. Designation and nomenclature for astronomical sources of radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickel, H. R.; Lortet, M.-C.; de Boer, K. S.

    1987-02-01

    A nomenclature designation scheme for astronomical radiation sources, adopted by the IAU in Resolutions C3 and C12 on Astronomical Designations and Radio Source Nomenclature, is discussed. The proposed scheme is of the form: DDDD Errrrrrr + or - rrrrrrr (NNNNN) sssss, in which DDD represents the detection technique, observatory or observer(s) name(s); E is the code for the standard epoch and type of coordinate; NNNNN is the source or association name; and sssss are further specifiers, as needed. The first two designations are mandatory and the last two are optional. Other methods and schemes are also considered.

  11. Problem-Based Knowledge Access: Useful Design Principles for Clinical Hypertexts

    PubMed Central

    Estey, Greg; Oliver, Diane E.; Chueh, Henry C.; Levinson, John R.; Zielstorff, Rita D.; Barnett, G. Octo

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes experience with the development of two systems for clinical knowledge access. Six design principles for implementing such systems in hypertext or related media are offered under the heading “Problem-based Knowledge Access”. These design principles concern: contextual indexing, categories of knowledge access, constraints on hypertext linking, graphical indexing, maintaining the illusion of “no navigation” and problem-based content hierarchies.

  12. 28 CFR Appendix A to Part 36 - Standards for Accessible Design

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for Accessible Design A... DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Pt. 36, App. A Appendix A to Part 36—Standards for Accessible Design EC01NO91.000 EC01NO91.001 EC01NO91.002 EC01NO91.003 EC01NO91.004...

  13. Using a network menu and the UMLS Information Sources Map to facilitate access to online reference materials.

    PubMed Central

    Clyman, J I; Powsner, S M; Paton, J A; Miller, P L

    1993-01-01

    As computer technology advances, clinicians and biomedical researchers are becoming more dependent upon information from online databases and information systems. By using specially configured computer workstations and high-speed computer networks, it is now possible to access this information in a rapid and straightforward manner. To empower users by providing these capabilities, the authors are assembling a variety of network workstations to be located throughout Yale-New Haven Medical Center. At the heart of the workstation is NetMenu, a program designed to help users connect to a number of important online information systems, including a hospital order entry and results reporting system, a drug reference, bibliographic retrieval systems, and educational programs. In addition, as part of the National Library of Medicine's Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) project, the authors have developed a local prototype of the UMLS Information Sources Map (ISM) and a companion query assistant program to complement the NetMenu in helping users select and connect automatically to information services relevant to a particular question. The ISM query assistant draws from a listing of many online information sources accessible via local and international networks. PMID:8472006

  14. Understanding and Supporting Web Developers: Design and Evaluation of a Web Accessibility Information Resource (WebAIR).

    PubMed

    Swallow, David; Petrie, Helen; Power, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design and evaluation of a Web Accessibility Information Resource (WebAIR) for supporting web developers to create and evaluate accessible websites. WebAIR was designed with web developers in mind, recognising their current working practices and acknowledging their existing understanding of web accessibility. We conducted an evaluation with 32 professional web developers in which they used either WebAIR or an existing accessibility information resource, the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines, to identify accessibility problems. The findings indicate that several design decisions made in relation to the language, organisation, and volume of WebAIR were effective in supporting web developers to undertake web accessibility evaluations.

  15. Household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities in Vietnam and associated factors: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Lee, Jong-Koo; Oh, Juhwan; Van Minh, Hoang; Ou Lee, Chul; Hoan, Le Thi; Nam, You-Seon; Long, Tran Khanh

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite progress made by the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) number 7.C, Vietnam still faces challenges with regard to the provision of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. Objective This paper describes household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities separately, and analyses factors associated with access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities in combination. Design Secondary data from the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey in 2000, 2006, and 2011 were analyzed. Descriptive statistics and tests of significance describe trends over time in access to water and sanitation by location, demographic and socio-economic factors. Binary logistic regressions (2000, 2006, and 2011) describe associations between access to water and sanitation, and geographic, demographic, and socio-economic factors. Results There have been some outstanding developments in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities from 2000 to 2011. In 2011, the proportion of households with access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities reached 90% and 77%, respectively, meeting the 2015 MDG targets for safe drinking water and basic sanitation set at 88% and 75%, respectively. However, despite these achievements, in 2011, only 74% of households overall had access to combined improved drinking water and sanitation facilities. There were also stark differences between regions. In 2011, only 47% of households had access to both improved water and sanitation facilities in the Mekong River Delta compared with 94% in the Red River Delta. In 2011, households in urban compared to rural areas were more than twice as likely (odds ratio [OR]: 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9–2.5) to have access to improved water and sanitation facilities in combination, and households in the highest compared with the lowest wealth quintile were over 40 times more likely (OR: 42.3; 95% CI: 29.8–60.0). Conclusions More

  16. Inclusive Design for Learning - Making Your Classroom Accessible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speck, Angela; Ceylan, G.

    2013-06-01

    As science educators, our shared purpose of communicating and cultivating essential content and skills in all learners calls for continual re-evaluation of materials and approaches in the context of increasingly diverse classrooms. Lack of enrollment and retention of under-represented groups in science courses necessitates improvement of current science curricula design and teaching techniques in order to provide equitable educational experiences. We have developed an Inclusive Design for Learning course for STEM graduate students with the aim of improving the instructional approaches of our future STEM faculty in higher education. We will present the background and techniques used in this course and offer preliminary analysis of its first semester in action.

  17. 40 CFR 63.520 - Applicability and designation of sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability and designation of sources. 63.520 Section 63.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous...

  18. 40 CFR 63.520 - Applicability and designation of sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability and designation of sources. 63.520 Section 63.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous...

  19. 40 CFR 63.520 - Applicability and designation of sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability and designation of sources. 63.520 Section 63.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous...

  20. System and method for integrating and accessing multiple data sources within a data warehouse architecture

    DOEpatents

    Musick, Charles R.; Critchlow, Terence; Ganesh, Madhaven; Slezak, Tom; Fidelis, Krzysztof

    2006-12-19

    A system and method is disclosed for integrating and accessing multiple data sources within a data warehouse architecture. The metadata formed by the present method provide a way to declaratively present domain specific knowledge, obtained by analyzing data sources, in a consistent and useable way. Four types of information are represented by the metadata: abstract concepts, databases, transformations and mappings. A mediator generator automatically generates data management computer code based on the metadata. The resulting code defines a translation library and a mediator class. The translation library provides a data representation for domain specific knowledge represented in a data warehouse, including "get" and "set" methods for attributes that call transformation methods and derive a value of an attribute if it is missing. The mediator class defines methods that take "distinguished" high-level objects as input and traverse their data structures and enter information into the data warehouse.

  1. Design of receiver transmitters for use in multiple access networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonelli, P.; Cilli, L.

    1983-06-01

    The design of frequency synthetizers is discussed. The influence of the spectrum characteristrics of the local oscillation on the receiver selectivity, including the effects of spurious signals and phase noise, is analyzed. The dependence of receiver intermodulation attenuation on the spectrum of the local oscillator is also examined. The study of the synthesizer transfer function shows that to minimize phase noise a second order active filter may be placed after the loop filter with a cut-off frequency of at least 10 times the natural frequency of the loop. Separation of the voltage controlled oscillator from the modulation using multiloop synthesizers is advantageous.

  2. Low-cost MCM-D fabrication and assembly from MIDAS: the multichip module interconnect designer's access service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltier, Jennifer; Hansford, Wes

    1997-06-01

    The MCM Designers' Access Service (MIDAS) allows designers to obtain prototype and small quantities of MCMs. To date the service has processed designs from industry, government and major universities. The service currently accesses processes at the following MCM-D foundries: nChip/Flextronics in San Jose, CA; Micromodule Systems in Cupertino, CA; and IBM Microelectronics in Hopewell Junction, NY. MIDAS provides a low cost service achieved through a multiproject environment where the customers share tooling and substrate manufacturing costs. The service offers design support, distributes foundry design kits, groups the projects onto regularly scheduled runs, places orders and supplies fully assembled modules. As well, MIDAS offers a limited selection of open tooled, second-level packages, bare tested die, and test sockets to aid with the design process. Often when investigating implementation of MCMs into a working system designers need a prototype. In many cases a foundry prefers to handle only high volume orders or imposes minimum purchase quantities. These may likely exceed the entire project budget. MIDAS functions as a technology enabler by supplying the designers with an interface `transparent' to the fabricator and common to multiple vendors. Foundries prefer to work with a single source who coordinates the details of multiple orders to spare valuable overhead. By completing front-end foundry tasks such as data preparation and mask fabrication and by grouping multiple users together on a run, MIDAS serves this purpose. Certain design conditions such as footprint size and I/O ring, layer stacking and number of layers exist to establish uniformity amongst the unrelated customers. This paper discusses the history of the service, the operating guidelines and presents an overview of how to access the service for MCM fabrication.

  3. PHARAO laser source flight model: Design and performances

    SciTech Connect

    Lévèque, T. Faure, B.; Esnault, F. X.; Delaroche, C.; Massonnet, D.; Grosjean, O.; Buffe, F.; Torresi, P.; Bomer, T.; Pichon, A.; Béraud, P.; Lelay, J. P.; Thomin, S.; Laurent, Ph.

    2015-03-15

    In this paper, we describe the design and the main performances of the PHARAO laser source flight model. PHARAO is a laser cooled cesium clock specially designed for operation in space and the laser source is one of the main sub-systems. The flight model presented in this work is the first remote-controlled laser system designed for spaceborne cold atom manipulation. The main challenges arise from mechanical compatibility with space constraints, which impose a high level of compactness, a low electric power consumption, a wide range of operating temperature, and a vacuum environment. We describe the main functions of the laser source and give an overview of the main technologies developed for this instrument. We present some results of the qualification process. The characteristics of the laser source flight model, and their impact on the clock performances, have been verified in operational conditions.

  4. Design and construction of four-hole ECR ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashiwagi, H.; Hattori, T.; Okamura, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Hata, T.; Yamamoto, K.; Okada, S.; Sugita, T.

    2002-02-01

    When a large current is accelerated, many radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) LINAC are needed, because the acceleration limit of a RFQ LINAC is 20 mA-30 mA. Therefore the same number of ion source are needed. But the limit is not the current limit of ion source. If the RFQ LINAC has many RFQ channels, it can accelerate large currents. We designed an accelerator with four RFQ channels to prove this principle. An ion source which extracts four equal beams from one chamber is needed for this RFQ LINAC. A four-hole ECR ion source was designed and manufactured after calculating the magnetic fields by OPERA, and simulating beam trajectory using the program FUGUN. In this ion source, since four extraction holes are located off axis by about 50 mm, the beam is deflected. We calculated this deviation.

  5. Spaces for Change: Gender and Technology Access in Collaborative Software Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ching, Cynthia Carter; Kafai, Yasmin B.; Marshall, Sue K.

    2000-01-01

    Examines a three-month software design activity in which mixed teams of girls and boys designed and implemented multimedia astronomy resources for younger students. Finds that the configuration of social, physical, and cognitive spaces in the project environment contributed to a positive change in girls' level of access. Discusses implications for…

  6. Universal Design for Instruction: A Matter of Equitable Access to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVore, Simone; Stuart, Shannon; Riall, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Universal design for instruction is an inclusive teaching model that the authors advocate for responding to the diverse learning needs of students in today's postsecondary classrooms. The goal of universally designed courses is to allow all students to have available a menu of choices by which they can access curriculum content, engage in learning…

  7. Design of access-tube TDR sensor for soil water content: Theory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The design of a cylindrical access-tube mounted waveguide was developed for in-situ soil water content sensing using time-domain reflectometry (TDR). To optimize the design with respect to sampling volume and losses, we derived the electromagnetic fields produced by a TDR sensor with cylindrical geo...

  8. Design and testing of access-tube TDR soil water sensor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed the design of a waveguide on the exterior of an access tube for use in time-domain reflectometry (TDR) for in-situ soil water content sensing. In order to optimize the design with respect to sampling volume and losses, we derived the electromagnetic (EM) fields produced by a TDR sensor...

  9. Design of a 2 MeV Compton scattering gamma-ray source for DNDO missions

    SciTech Connect

    Hartemann, F V; Albert, F

    2009-08-24

    Nuclear resonance fluorescence-based isotope-specific detection and imaging is a powerful new technology that can enable access to new mission spaces for DNDO. Within this context, the development of advanced mono-energetic gamma ray sources plays an important role in the DNDO R&D portfolio, as it offers a faster, more precise, and safer alternative to conventional Bremsstrahlung sources. In this report, a specific design strategy is presented, along with a series of theoretical and computational tools, with the goal of optimizing source parameters for DNDO applications. In parallel, key technologies are outlined, along with discussions justifying specific choices and contrasting those with other alternatives. Finally, a complete conceptual design is described, and machine parameters are presented in detail.

  10. Electrode design and performance of the ORNL positive ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Whealton, J.H.; Gardner, W.L.; Haselton, H.H.

    1981-08-01

    The neutral beam development group at ORNL has designed, constructed, and shipped four 50-kV, 100-A sources to PPL to be used for neutral beam heating of the confined plasma on the PDX tokamak. These sources have higher current capability than scaled-down sources, and they are required to run for 0.5 s as opposed to the 0.3-s requirement for PLT and ISX-B sources. Due to an innovative electrode design, these higher power sources met these requirements and achieved a higher transmission efficiency - 76% of the total input power on target vs 60% for the original ISX-B and modified PLT sources or 40% for the original PLT sources. Using the same electrode design with a tetrode accelerating structure and a new, indirectly heated cathode, repeatable long pulse, high energy conditions of 70 kV, 7 A, 8 s, and 90 kV, 9 A, 5 s were achieved. Grid deformation calculations and Monte Carlo beam line gas deposition algorithms will be discussed. A direct-magnetic-electron-blocking, direct-recovery device is described, and theoretical considerations of it are discussed.

  11. High Flux Isotope Reactor cold neutron source reference design concept

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, D.L.; Lucas, A.T.; Hyman, C.R.

    1998-05-01

    In February 1995, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) deputy director formed a group to examine the need for upgrades to the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) system in light of the cancellation of the Advanced neutron Source Project. One of the major findings of this study was that there was an immediate need for the installation of a cold neutron source facility in the HFIR complex. In May 1995, a team was formed to examine the feasibility of retrofitting a liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) cold source facility into an existing HFIR beam tube. The results of this feasibility study indicated that the most practical location for such a cold source was the HB-4 beam tube. This location provides a potential flux environment higher than the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) vertical cold source and maximizes the space available for a future cold neutron guide hall expansion. It was determined that this cold neutron beam would be comparable, in cold neutron brightness, to the best facilities in the world, and a decision was made to complete a preconceptual design study with the intention of proceeding with an activity to install a working LH{sub 2} cold source in the HFIR HB-4 beam tube. During the development of the reference design the liquid hydrogen concept was changed to a supercritical hydrogen system for a number of reasons. This report documents the reference supercritical hydrogen design and its performance. The cold source project has been divided into four phases: (1) preconceptual, (2) conceptual design and testing, (3) detailed design and procurement, and (4) installation and operation. This report marks the conclusion of the conceptual design phase and establishes the baseline reference concept.

  12. Sources of tobacco for youths in communities with strong enforcement of youth access laws

    PubMed Central

    DiFranza, J.; Coleman, M.

    2001-01-01

    AIM—To determine how youths obtain tobacco in communities with strong enforcement of tobacco sales laws.
SETTING—Ten communities in Massachusetts with merchant compliance rates at or above 90%.
METHODS—Paper surveys and focus group discussions with 68 adolescent smokers.
RESULTS—Parents and friends are the primary sources of tobacco for new smokers. When stealing from parents can no longer satisfy the need for cigarettes, young adolescents ask strangers to buy them tobacco. For high school age smokers, teenage store clerks are a major source. Teenage clerks sell to other teenagers, steal tobacco, and help their friends steal from their employers. Friends who are 18 years of age or over are a second major source for older adolescents. Parents often purchase tobacco for older adolescents.
CONCLUSION—Recommended actions include raising the minimum age for the purchase of tobacco to 21 years, and prohibiting individuals less than 21 years of age from selling tobacco.


Keywords: youth; youth access laws PMID:11740022

  13. MASS-REMOVAL AND MASS-FLUX-REDUCTION BEHAVIOR FOR IDEALIZED SOURCE ZONES WITH HYDRAULICALLY POORLY-ACCESSIBLE IMMISCIBLE LIQUID

    SciTech Connect

    Brusseau, M. L.; Difilippo, Erica L.; marble, justin C.; Oostrom, Mart

    2008-04-01

    A series of flow-cell experiments was conducted to investigate aqueous dissolution and mass-removal behavior for systems wherein immiscible liquid was non-uniformly distributed in physically heterogeneous source zones. The study focused specifically on characterizing the relationship between mass flux reduction and mass removal for systems for which immiscible liquid is poorly accessible to flowing water. Two idealized scenarios were examined, one wherein immiscible liquid at residual saturation exists within a lower-permeability unit residing in a higher-permeability matrix, and one wherein immiscible liquid at higher saturation (a pool) exists within a higher-permeability unit adjacent to a lower-permeability unit. The results showed that significant reductions in mass flux occurred at relatively moderate mass-removal fractions for all systems. Conversely, minimalmass flux reduction occurred until a relatively large fraction of mass (>80%) was removed for the control experiment, which was designed to exhibit ideal mass removal. In general, mass flux reduction was observed to follow an approximately one-to-one relationship with mass removal. Two methods for estimating mass-flux-reduction/mass-removal behavior, one based on system-indicator parameters (ganglia-to-pool ratio) and the other a simple mass-removal function, were used to evaluate the measured data. The results of this study illustrate the impact of poorly accessible immiscible liquid on mass-removal and mass-flux processes, and the difficulties posed for estimating mass-flux-reduction/mass-removal behavior.

  14. A new open-source Python-based Space Weather data access, visualization, and analysis toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Larquier, S.; Ribeiro, A.; Frissell, N. A.; Spaleta, J.; Kunduri, B.; Thomas, E. G.; Ruohoniemi, J.; Baker, J. B.

    2013-12-01

    Space weather research relies heavily on combining and comparing data from multiple observational platforms. Current frameworks exist to aggregate some of the data sources, most based on file downloads via web or ftp interfaces. Empirical models are mostly fortran based and lack interfaces with more useful scripting languages. In an effort to improve data and model access, the SuperDARN community has been developing a Python-based Space Science Data Visualization Toolkit (DaViTpy). At the center of this development was a redesign of how our data (from 30 years of SuperDARN radars) was made available. Several access solutions are now wrapped into one convenient Python interface which probes local directories, a new remote NoSQL database, and an FTP server to retrieve the requested data based on availability. Motivated by the efficiency of this interface and the inherent need for data from multiple instruments, we implemented similar modules for other space science datasets (POES, OMNI, Kp, AE...), and also included fundamental empirical models with Python interfaces to enhance data analysis (IRI, HWM, MSIS...). All these modules and more are gathered in a single convenient toolkit, which is collaboratively developed and distributed using Github and continues to grow. While still in its early stages, we expect this toolkit will facilitate multi-instrument space weather research and improve scientific productivity.

  15. Design parameters and source terms: Volume 2, Source terms: Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-10-01

    The Design Parameters and Source Terms Document was prepared in accordance with DOE request and to provide data for the environmental impact study to be performed in the future for the Deaf Smith County, Texas site for a nuclear waste repository in salt. This document updates a previous unpublished report by Stearns Catalytic Corporation (SCC), entitled ''Design Parameters and Source Terms for a Two-Phase Repository Salt,'' 1985, to the level of the Site Characterization Plan - Conceptual Design Report. The previous unpublished SCC Study identifies the data needs for the Environmental Assessment effort for seven possible Salt Repository sites. 2 tabs.

  16. Improved design for the atmospheric pressure photoionization source.

    PubMed

    Tabrizchi, Mahmoud; Bahrami, Hamed

    2011-12-01

    A different design for the atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) source, other than commercially available sources, such as PhotoSpray and PhotoMate, has been proposed. Unlike PhotoSpray, this design applies an electric field to separate photoions and electrons. In addition, the UV radiation is parallel to the gas stream toward the mass spectrometer sampling aperture. The total ion current obtained using this geometry, for dopant only, could be an order of magnitude larger than that obtained using the PhotoSpray design. Additionally, to prevent the negative effect of solvent on the photoionization yield, a curtain electrode was mounted in front of the UV lamp to divide the ionization zone into two distinct regions: the dopant and the solvent regions. Dopant was introduced in the vicinity of the lamp, and vaporized solvent was introduced into the solvent region. The curtain electrode prevented the solvent from entering the dopant region where dopant was directly photoionized. This design consumes much less dopant (approximately 1/10 less) than the conventional source, which minimizes the presence of photofragmented radicals and dopant trace contaminants in the ionization region. As a result, unlike PhotoSpray, the mass spectra contained mainly the analyte and solvent peaks. Additionally, the source was tested using an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS). The effect of the curtain electrode on signal intensity and performance of the source using IMS was also proved to be positive. PMID:22017507

  17. Note: Ion source design for ion trap systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noriega, J. R.; Quevedo, M.; Gnade, B.; Vasselli, J.

    2013-06-01

    A small plasma (glow discharge) based ion source and circuit are described in this work. The ion source works by producing a high voltage pulsed discharge between two electrodes in a pressure range of 50-100 mTorr. A third mesh electrode is used for ion extraction. The electrodes are small stainless steel screws mounted in a MACOR ionization chamber in a linear arrangement. The electrode arrangement is driven by a circuit, design for low power operation. This design is a proof of concept intended for applications on small cylindrical ion traps.

  18. Design of Beamline BL9 at Saga Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Tooru; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Kamada, Masao; Nishio, Mitsuhiro; Guo, Qixin; Masuda, Masataka; Motooka, Teruaki; Kondo, Yuzi; Hayashida, Kazuki; Yoshimura, Daisuke; Setoyama, Hiroyuki; Okajima, Toshihiro

    2007-01-19

    Saga Light Source (SAGA-LS), which has been constructed at Tosu city in Saga prefecture, is a compact synchrotron light source with storage electron energy of 1.4 GeV. A new beamline for the development of advanced materials and processing has been designed, and is now under construction at BL9 of SAGA-LS. This beamline is one of the three bending magnet beamlines (BL9, BL12, and BL15) constructed by Saga Prefectural Government. In this paper, we describe the design and the expected optical performance of the beamline BL9 at SAGA-LS.

  19. RCRA designation of discarded americium/beryllium sealed sources

    SciTech Connect

    Kirner, N.P.

    1994-09-01

    Many sealed sources containing americium and beryllium are used throughout construction, industry, and research, and will eventually require disposal. For planning purposes it is necessary to determine whether these sources, when disposed, constitute a mixed waste, i.e., a waste containing hazardous constituents regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and radioactive constituents regulated under the Atomic Energy Act. Waste designation criteria contained in 40 CFR 261 are evaluated in detail in this report. It is determined that discarded americium/beryllium sealed sources do not contain any wastes listed in Subpart D of 40 CFR 261, nor do the discarded sources exhibit any hazardous characteristics. Therefore, it is concluded that discarded americium/beryllium sealed sources are not a mixed waste under regulations established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Hazardous waste regulatory programs delegated to States, however, may have regulations that differ from those of the Federal government.

  20. Institutional Change for Improving Accessibility in the Design and Delivery of Distance Learning--The Role of Faculty Accessibility Specialists at the Open University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Rachel; Pearson, Victoria K.; Warren, James P.; Forbes, Tina

    2015-01-01

    The Open University (OU) has an established infrastructure for supporting disabled students. Historically, the thrust of this has focused on providing accessible adjustments post-production. In 2012, the OU implemented securing greater accessibility (SeGA) to raise awareness and bring about an institutional change to curriculum design so that the…

  1. Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source (ORSNS) target station design integration

    SciTech Connect

    McManamy, T.; Booth, R.; Cleaves, J.; Gabriel, T.

    1996-06-01

    The conceptual design for a 1- to 3-MW short pulse spallation source with a liquid mercury target has been started recently. The design tools and methods being developed to define requirements, integrate the work, and provide early cost guidance will be presented with a summary of the current target station design status. The initial design point was selected with performance and cost estimate projections by a systems code. This code was developed recently using cost estimates from the Brookhaven Pulsed Spallation Neutron Source study and experience from the Advanced Neutron Source Project`s conceptual design. It will be updated and improved as the design develops. Performance was characterized by a simplified figure of merit based on a ratio of neutron production to costs. A work breakdown structure was developed, with simplified systems diagrams used to define interfaces and system responsibilities. A risk assessment method was used to identify potential problems, to identify required research and development (R&D), and to aid contingency development. Preliminary 3-D models of the target station are being used to develop remote maintenance concepts and to estimate costs.

  2. Design of acoustic logging signal source of imitation based on field programmable gate array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.; Ju, X. D.; Lu, J. Q.; Men, B. Y.

    2014-08-01

    An acoustic logging signal source of imitation is designed and realized, based on the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), to improve the efficiency of examining and repairing acoustic logging tools during research and field application, and to inspect and verify acoustic receiving circuits and corresponding algorithms. The design of this signal source contains hardware design and software design,and the hardware design uses an FPGA as the control core. Four signals are made first by reading the Random Access Memory (RAM) data which are inside the FPGA, then dealing with the data by digital to analog conversion, amplification, smoothing and so on. Software design uses VHDL, a kind of hardware description language, to program the FPGA. Experiments illustrate that the ratio of signal to noise for the signal source is high, the waveforms are stable, and also its functions of amplitude adjustment, frequency adjustment and delay adjustment are in accord with the characteristics of real acoustic logging waveforms. These adjustments can be used to imitate influences on sonic logging received waveforms caused by many kinds of factors such as spacing and span of acoustic tools, sonic speeds of different layers and fluids, and acoustic attenuations of different cementation planes.

  3. Supporting the whole student: Inclusive program design for making undergraduate research experiences accessible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haacker-Santos, R.; Allen, L.; Batchelor, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    As undergraduate research experiences have become an unofficial pre-requisite to enter graduate school programs in the sciences, we have to make sure that these experiences are inclusive and accessible to all students. Program managers who make a conscious effort to recruit students from traditionally under-represented groups, including veterans, non-traditional students or students with disabilities, are often unaware of the financial and program implications these students require, and discover that their current program design might inadvertently exclude or not fully support these students. The SOARS Program, an undergraduate-to-graduate bridge program in the atmospheric sciences, has supported this group of students for over 15 years. We have found that we needed to adjust some program elements and secure extra funding sources to holistically support our students in their research experience, however, the program and the students have reaped tremendous benefits. Involving non-traditional students or veterans in our program has raised the maturity level and problem solving skills of the group, and having students with disabilities participate has been a vehicle for broadening perspective and diverse knowledge into the field of study, e.g. researching weather and climate beyond what you can 'see'. This presentation will highlight some of the findings from the SOARS program experience, and will share practices for recruitment and holistic support to ensure student success. We will share resources and tips on inclusive program design, including working with students with family commitments or physical disabilities, and will report on the enormous program benefits and peer learning these students have brought to the student cohorts and research labs they are working in.

  4. The influence of electrospray ion source design on matrix effects.

    PubMed

    Stahnke, Helen; Kittlaus, Stefan; Kempe, Günther; Hemmerling, Christlieb; Alder, Lutz

    2012-07-01

    This study investigates to which extent the design of electrospray ion sources influences the susceptibility to matrix effects (MEs) in liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). For this purpose, MEs were measured under comparable conditions (identical sample extracts, identical LC column, same chromatographic method and always positive ion mode) on four LC-MS/MS instrument platforms. The instruments were combined with five electrospray ion sources, viz. Turbo Ion Spray, Turbo V(TM) Source, Standard ESI, Jet Stream ESI and Standard Z-Spray Source. The comparison of MEs could be made at all retention times because the method of permanent postcolumn infusion was applied. The MEs ascertained for 45 pesticides showed for each electrospray ion source the same pattern, i.e. the same number of characteristic signal suppressions at equivalent retention times in the chromatogram. The Turbo Ion Spray (off-axis geometry), Turbo V(TM) Source (orthogonal geometry) and the Standard Z-Spray Source (double orthogonal geometry) did not differ much in their susceptibility to MEs. The Jet Stream ESI (orthogonal geometry) reaches a higher sensitivity by an additional heated sheath gas, but suffers at the same time from significantly stronger signal suppressions than the comparable Standard ESI (orthogonal geometry) without sheath gas. No relation between source geometry and extent of signal suppression was found in this study.

  5. 40 CFR 61.170 - Applicability and designation of source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Primary Copper Smelters § 61.170 Applicability and designation of source. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to each copper converter at any new or existing primary copper smelter, except as noted in § 61.172(a)....

  6. Optical polarizing neutron devices designed for pulsed neutron sources

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, M.; Kurahashi, K.; Endoh, Y.; Itoh, S.

    1997-09-01

    We have designed two polarizing neutron devices for pulsed cold neutrons. The devices have been tested at the pulsed neutron source at the Booster Synchrotron Utilization Facility of the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. These two devices proved to have a practical use for experiments to investigate condensed matter physics using pulsed cold polarized neutrons.

  7. Design of a miniature hydraulic compression load frame for microdiffraction tests at the Advanced Photon Source.

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, D.; Varma, R.; Krasnicki, S.; Sinha, S.

    1999-10-11

    In support of the x-ray synchrotrons radiation multidiffraction project of Los Alamos National Laboratory at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), we have designed and fabricated a miniature hydraulic compression load frame with 20000 N load capacity for metal specimen tests at the APS. The compact design allows the load frame to sit on the center of a 6-circle goniometer with six degrees of freedom and maximum solid angle accessibility for the incoming x-ray beam and diffraction beam detectors. A set of compact precision stages with submicron resolution has been designed for the load frame positioning to compensate the sample internal elastic and/or plastic deformation during the loading process. The system design, specifications, and test results are presented.

  8. Conceptional design of the laser ion source based hadrontherapy facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xiu-Cui; Song, Ming-Tao; Zhang, Xiao-Hu

    2014-04-01

    A laser ion source (LIS), which can provide a carbon beam with highly stripped state (C6+) and high intensity (several tens mA), would significantly change the overall design of the hadrontherapy facility. The proposed LIS based hadrontherapy facility has the advantages of short linac length, simple injection scheme, and small synchrotron size. With the experience from the DPIS and HITFiL projects that have been conducted in IMP, a conceptional design of the LIS based hadrontherapy facility will be presented, with special attention given to APF type IH DTL design and simulation.

  9. Designing and Testing Energy Harvesters Suitable for Renewable Power Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Synkiewicz, B.; Guzdek, P.; Piekarski, J.; Zaraska, K.

    2016-01-01

    Energy harvesters convert waste power (heat, light and vibration) directly to electric power . Fast progress in their technology, design and areas of application (e.g. “Internet of Things”) has been observed recently. Their effectiveness is steadily growing which makes their application to powering sensor networks with wireless data transfer reasonable. The main advantage is the independence from wired power sources, which is especially important for monitoring state of environmental parameters. In this paper we describe the design and realization of a gas sensor monitoring CO level (powered by TEG) and two, designed an constructed in ITE, autonomous power supply modules powered by modern photovoltaic cells.

  10. 34 CFR 370.7 - What shall the designated agency do to make its services accessible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION CLIENT... accessible to clients or client applicants who seek or receive CAP services. (Authority: 29 U.S.C. 711(c)) ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true What shall the designated agency do to make its...

  11. Design of access-tube TDR sensor for soil water content: Testing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil water measurement is important in water management for irrigation and hydrologic sciences. The purpose of this paper is to develop and test the design of a cylindrical access-tube mounted waveguide for use in time-domain reflectometry (TDR) for in-situ soil water content sensing. Several prot...

  12. Increasing Accessibility: Using Universal Design Principles to Address Disability Impairments in the Online Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Candice N.; Heiselt, April K.

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing number of students enrolling in distance education, there is a need to consider the accessibility of course materials in online learning environments. Four major groups of disabilities: mobility, auditory, visual, and cognitive are explored as they relate to their implementation into instructional design and their impact on…

  13. Exploring the Design, Development and Use of Websites through Accessibility and Usability Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Alan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, data obtained from a university website accessibility and usability validation process are analyzed and used to demonstrate how the design process can affect the online experience for users with disabilities. Interviews, observations, and use data (e.g. where users clicked on a page or what path taken through a site) were collected.…

  14. Man-computer Inactive Data Access System (McIDAS). [design, development, fabrication, and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A technical description is given of the effort to design, develop, fabricate, and test the two dimensional data processing system, McIDAS. The system has three basic sections: an access and data archive section, a control section, and a display section. Areas reported include hardware, system software, and applications software.

  15. The Impact of Providing Unlimited Access to Programmable Boards in Digital Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radu, M. E.; Cole, C.; Dabacan, M. A.; Harris, J.; Sexton, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the benefits and costs of providing students with unlimited access to programmable boards in digital design education, allowing hands-on experiences outside traditional laboratory settings. Studies were conducted at three universities in two different countries--Rose Hulman Institute of Technology, Terre Haute, IN; Washington…

  16. Final design of the beam source for the MITICA injector.

    PubMed

    Marcuzzi, D; Agostinetti, P; Dalla Palma, M; De Muri, M; Chitarin, G; Gambetta, G; Marconato, N; Pasqualotto, R; Pavei, M; Pilan, N; Rizzolo, A; Serianni, G; Toigo, V; Trevisan, L; Visentin, M; Zaccaria, P; Zaupa, M; Boilson, D; Graceffa, J; Hemsworth, R S; Choi, C H; Marti, M; Roux, K; Singh, M J; Masiello, A; Froeschle, M; Heinemann, B; Nocentini, R; Riedl, R; Tobari, H; de Esch, H P L; Muvvala, V N

    2016-02-01

    The megavolt ITER injector and concept advancement experiment is the prototype and the test bed of the ITER heating and current drive neutral beam injectors, currently in the final design phase, in view of the installation in Padova Research on Injector Megavolt Accelerated facility in Padova, Italy. The beam source is the key component of the system, as its goal is the generation of the 1 MeV accelerated beam of deuterium or hydrogen negative ions. This paper presents the highlights of the latest developments for the finalization of the MITICA beam source design, together with a description of the most recent analyses and R&D activities carried out in support of the design.

  17. Final design of the beam source for the MITICA injector.

    PubMed

    Marcuzzi, D; Agostinetti, P; Dalla Palma, M; De Muri, M; Chitarin, G; Gambetta, G; Marconato, N; Pasqualotto, R; Pavei, M; Pilan, N; Rizzolo, A; Serianni, G; Toigo, V; Trevisan, L; Visentin, M; Zaccaria, P; Zaupa, M; Boilson, D; Graceffa, J; Hemsworth, R S; Choi, C H; Marti, M; Roux, K; Singh, M J; Masiello, A; Froeschle, M; Heinemann, B; Nocentini, R; Riedl, R; Tobari, H; de Esch, H P L; Muvvala, V N

    2016-02-01

    The megavolt ITER injector and concept advancement experiment is the prototype and the test bed of the ITER heating and current drive neutral beam injectors, currently in the final design phase, in view of the installation in Padova Research on Injector Megavolt Accelerated facility in Padova, Italy. The beam source is the key component of the system, as its goal is the generation of the 1 MeV accelerated beam of deuterium or hydrogen negative ions. This paper presents the highlights of the latest developments for the finalization of the MITICA beam source design, together with a description of the most recent analyses and R&D activities carried out in support of the design. PMID:26932037

  18. Design parameters and source terms: Volume 2, Source terms: Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    The Design Parameters and Source Terms Document was prepared in accordance with DOE request and to provide data for the environmental impact study to be performed in the future for the Deaf Smith County, Texas site for a nuclear waste repository in salt. This document updates a previous unpublished report to the level of the Site Characterization Plan---Conceptual Design Report SCP-CDR. The previous study identifies the data needs for the Environmental Assessment effort for seven possible salt repository sites. Volume 2 contains tables of source terms.

  19. Design of source coders and joint source/channel coders for noisy channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayood, Khalid; Rost, Martin C.; Michels, Alan

    1987-01-01

    A theory behind a proposed joint source/channel coding approach is developed and a variable rate design approach which provides substantial improvement over current joint source/channel coder designs is obtained. The Rice algorithm as applied to the output of the Gamma Ray Detector of the Mars Orbiter is evaluated. An alternative algorithm is obtained which outperforms the Rice both in terms of data compression and noisy channel performance. A high-fidelity low-rate image compression algorithm is developed which provides almost distortionless compression of high resolution images.

  20. 5 MW pulsed spallation neutron source, Preconceptual design study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This report describes a self-consistent base line design for a 5 MW Pulsed Spallation Neutron Source (PSNS). It is intended to establish feasibility of design and as a basis for further expanded and detailed studies. It may also serve as a basis for establishing project cost (30% accuracy) in order to intercompare competing designs for a PSNS not only on the basis of technical feasibility and technical merit but also on the basis of projected total cost. The accelerator design considered here is based on the objective of a pulsed neutron source obtained by means of a pulsed proton beam with average beam power of 5 MW, in {approx} 1 {mu}sec pulses, operating at a repetition rate of 60 Hz. Two target stations are incorporated in the basic facility: one for operation at 10 Hz for long-wavelength instruments, and one operating at 50 Hz for instruments utilizing thermal neutrons. The design approach for the proton accelerator is to use a low energy linear accelerator (at 0.6 GeV), operating at 60 Hz, in tandem with two fast cycling booster synchrotrons (at 3.6 GeV), operating at 30 Hz. It is assumed here that considerations of cost and overall system reliability may favor the present design approach over the alternative approach pursued elsewhere, whereby use is made of a high energy linear accelerator in conjunction with a dc accumulation ring. With the knowledge that this alternative design is under active development, it was deliberately decided to favor here the low energy linac-fast cycling booster approach. Clearly, the present design, as developed here, must be carried to the full conceptual design stage in order to facilitate a meaningful technology and cost comparison with alternative designs.

  1. Design, manufacture, and calibration of infrared radiometric blackbody sources

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, D.A.; Michaud, F.D.; Bender, S.C.

    1996-04-01

    A Radiometric Calibration Station (RCS) is being assembled at the Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL) which will allow for calibration of sensors with detector arrays having spectral capability from about 0.4-15 {mu}m. The configuration of the LANL RCS. Two blackbody sources have been designed to cover the spectral range from about 3-15 {mu}m, operating at temperatures ranging from about 180-350 K within a vacuum environment. The sources are designed to present a uniform spectral radiance over a large area to the sensor unit under test. The thermal uniformity requirement of the blackbody cavities has been one of the key factors of the design, requiring less than 50 mK variation over the entire blackbody surface to attain effective emissivity values of about 0.999. Once the two units are built and verified to the level of about 100 mK at LANL, they will be sent to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), where at least a factor of two improvement will be calibrated into the blackbody control system. The physical size of these assemblies will require modifications of the existing NIST Low Background Infrared (LBIR) Facility. LANL has constructed a bolt-on addition to the LBIR facility that will allow calibration of our large aperture sources. Methodology for attaining the two blackbody sources at calibrated levels of performance equivalent to present state of the art will be explained in the following.

  2. Recent Developments in the Design of the NLC Positron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotseroglou, T.; Bharadwaj, V.; Clendenin, J. E.; Ecklund, S.; Frisch, J.

    1999-11-01

    Recent developments in the design of the Next Linear Collider (NLC) positron source based on updated beam parameters are described. The unpolarized NLC positron source (1,2) consists of a dedicated 6.2 GeV S-band electron accelerator, a high-Z positron production target, a capture system and an L-band positron linac. The 1998 failure of the SLC target, which is currently under investigation, may lead to a variation of the target design. Progress towards a polarized positron source is also presented. A moderately polarized positron beam colliding with a highly polarized electron beam results in an effective polarization large enough to explore new physics at NLC. One of the schemes towards a polarized positron source incorporates a polarized electron source, a 50 MeV electron accelerator, a thin target for positron production and a new capture system optimized for high-energy, small angular-divergence positrons. The yield for such a process, checked using the EGS4 code, is of the order of 10-3. The EGS4 code has being enhanced to include the effect of polarization in bremsstrahlung and pair-production process.

  3. Limited electricity access in health facilities of sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review of data on electricity access, sources, and reliability

    PubMed Central

    Adair-Rohani, Heather; Zukor, Karen; Bonjour, Sophie; Wilburn, Susan; Kuesel, Annette C; Hebert, Ryan; Fletcher, Elaine R

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Access to electricity is critical to health care delivery and to the overarching goal of universal health coverage. Data on electricity access in health care facilities are rarely collected and have never been reported systematically in a multi-country study. We conducted a systematic review of available national data on electricity access in health care facilities in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: We identified publicly-available data from nationally representative facility surveys through a systematic review of articles in PubMed, as well as through websites of development agencies, ministries of health, and national statistics bureaus. To be included in our analysis, data sets had to be collected in or after 2000, be nationally representative of a sub-Saharan African country, cover both public and private health facilities, and include a clear definition of electricity access. Results: We identified 13 health facility surveys from 11 sub-Saharan African countries that met our inclusion criteria. On average, 26% of health facilities in the surveyed countries reported no access to electricity. Only 28% of health care facilities, on average, had reliable electricity among the 8 countries reporting data. Among 9 countries, an average of 7% of facilities relied solely on a generator. Electricity access in health care facilities increased by 1.5% annually in Kenya between 2004 and 2010, and by 4% annually in Rwanda between 2001 and 2007. Conclusions: Energy access for health care facilities in sub-Saharan African countries varies considerably. An urgent need exists to improve the geographic coverage, quality, and frequency of data collection on energy access in health care facilities. Standardized tools should be used to collect data on all sources of power and supply reliability. The United Nations Secretary-General's “Sustainable Energy for All” initiative provides an opportunity to comprehensively monitor energy access in health care

  4. CUAHSI-HIS: an Internet based system to facilitate public discovery, access, and exploration of different water science data sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrigo, J. S.; Hooper, R. P.; Choi, Y.; Ames, D. P.; Kadlec, J.; Whiteaker, T.

    2011-12-01

    "Water is everywhere." This sentiment underscores the importance of instilling hydrologic and earth science literacy in educators, students, and the general public, but also presents challenges for water scientists and educators. Scientific data about water is collected and distributed by several different sources, from federal agencies to scientific investigators to citizen scientists. As competition for limited water resources increase, increasing access to and understanding of the wealth of information about the nation's and the world's water will be critical. The CUAHSI-HIS system is a web based system for sharing hydrologic data that can help address this need. HydroDesktop is a free, open source application for finding, getting, analyzing and using hydrologic data from the CUAHSI-HIS system. It works with HydroCatalog which indexes the data to find out what data exists and where it is, and then it retrieves the data from HydroServers where it is stored communicating using WaterOneFlow web services. Currently, there are over 65 services registered in HydroCatalog providing central discovery of water data from several federal and state agencies, university projects, and other sources. HydroDesktop provides a simplified GIS that allows users to incorporate spatial data, and simple analysis tools to facilitate graphing and visualization. HydroDesktop is designed to be useful for a number of different groups of users with a wide variety of needs and skill levels including university faculty, graduate and undergraduate students, K-12 students, engineering and scientific consultants, and others. This presentation will highlight some of the features of HydroDesktop and the CUAHSI-HIS system that make it particularly appropriate for use in educational and public outreach settings, and will present examples of educational use. The incorporation of "real data," localization to an area of interest, and problem-based learning are all recognized as effective strategies for

  5. Universal Design and Study Abroad: (Re-)Designing Programs for Effectiveness and Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soneson, Heidi M.; Cordano, Roberta J.

    2009-01-01

    Universal Design provides a framework to effectively increase the number of students studying abroad by creating and expanding supportive environments designed to meet a wide range of student needs. While the concept of Universal Design originated with the needs of students with disabilities, its value and application extend to a much wider…

  6. Optical access network using centralized light source, single-mode fiber + broad wavelength window multimode fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yam, Scott S.-H.; Kim, Jaedon; Gutierrez, David; Achten, Frank

    2006-08-01

    Access networks based on a single-mode fiber (SMF) using a centralized light source (CLS) have attracted much attention recently due to their wavelength management flexibility and potential for cost reduction at customers' premises. Future networks, in addition, are likely to contain segments of multimode fiber (MMF), whose core dimension is relatively large in comparison with its single-mode counterpart, substantially reducing fiber alignment constraints and the subsequent network construction and installation cost. In this study, a CLS-based passive optical network (PON) is proposed, which will use a new generation of high-performance MMF optimized for a broad wavelength transmission window spanning from 1300to1550 nm, with a bandwidth distance product (BDP) of 40 Gbit/s-km. The proposed architecture is implemented in a test bed, and its performance is verified by bit error ratio (BER) measurement. Results show that we can implement high-performance CLS-based PONs containing both an SMF and an MMF infrastructure, simultaneously.

  7. 7-GeV advanced photon source beamline initiative: Conceptual design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The DOE is building a new generation 6-7 GeV Synchrotron Radiation Source known as the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory. This facility, to be completed in FY 1996, can provide 70 x-ray sources of unprecedented brightness to meet the research needs of virtually all scientific disciplines and numerous technologies. The technological research capability of the APS in the areas of energy, communications and health will enable a new partnership between the DOE and US industry. Current funding for the APS will complete the current phase of construction so that scientists can begin their applications in FY 1996. Comprehensive utilization of the unique properties of APS beams will enable cutting-edge research not currently possible. It is now appropriate to plan to construct additional radiation sources and beamline standard components to meet the excess demands of the APS users. In this APS Beamline Initiative, 2.5-m-long insertion-device x-ray sources will be built on four straight sections of the APS storage ring, and an additional four bending-magnet sources will also be put in use. The front ends for these eight x-ray sources will be built to contain and safeguard access to these bright x-ray beams. In addition, funds will be provided to build standard beamline components to meet scientific and technological research demands of the Collaborative Access Teams. The Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the APS Beamline Initiative describes the scope of all the above technical and conventional construction and provides a detailed cost and schedule for these activities. The document also describes the preconstruction R&D plans for the Beamline Initiative activities and provides the cost estimates for the required R&D.

  8. Final design of thermal diagnostic system in SPIDER ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brombin, M.; Dalla Palma, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Pomaro, N.

    2016-11-01

    The prototype radio frequency source of the ITER heating neutral beams will be first tested in SPIDER test facility to optimize H- production, cesium dynamics, and overall plasma characteristics. Several diagnostics will allow to fully characterise the beam in terms of uniformity and divergence and the source, besides supporting a safe and controlled operation. In particular, thermal measurements will be used for beam monitoring and system protection. SPIDER will be instrumented with mineral insulated cable thermocouples, both on the grids, on other components of the beam source, and on the rear side of the beam dump water cooled elements. This paper deals with the final design and the technical specification of the thermal sensor diagnostic for SPIDER. In particular the layout of the diagnostic, together with the sensors distribution in the different components, the cables routing and the conditioning and acquisition cubicles are described.

  9. Design parameters and source terms: Volume 1, Design parameters: Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-10-01

    The Design Parameters and Source Terms Document was prepared in accordance with DOE request and to provide data for the environmental impact study to be performed in the future for the Deaf Smith County, Texas site for a nuclear waste repository in salt. This document updates a previous unpublished report by Stearns Catalytic Corporation (SCC), entitled ''Design Parameters and Source Terms for a Two-Phase Repository in Salt,'' 1985, to the level of the Site Characterization Plan - Conceptual Design Report. The previous unpublished SCC Study identifies the data needs for the Environmental Assessment effort for seven possible Salt Repository sites.

  10. Improved design of proton source and low energy beam transport line for European Spallation Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neri, L.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Torrisi, G.; Cheymol, B.; Ponton, A.; Galatà, A.; Patti, G.; Gozzo, A.; Lega, L.; Ciavola, G.

    2014-02-01

    The design update of the European Spallation Source (ESS) accelerator is almost complete and the construction of the prototype of the microwave discharge ion source able to provide a proton beam current larger than 70 mA to the 3.6 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) started. The source named PS-ESS (Proton Source for ESS) was designed with a flexible magnetic system and an extraction system able to merge conservative solutions with significant advances. The ESS injector has taken advantage of recent theoretical updates and new plasma diagnostics tools developed at INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The design strategy considers the PS-ESS and the low energy beam transport line as a whole, where the proton beam behaves like an almost neutralized non-thermalized plasma. Innovative solutions have been used as hereinafter described. Thermo-mechanical optimization has been performed to withstand the chopped beam and the misaligned focused beam over the RFQ input collimator; the results are reported here.

  11. Improved design of proton source and low energy beam transport line for European Spallation Source.

    PubMed

    Neri, L; Celona, L; Gammino, S; Mascali, D; Castro, G; Torrisi, G; Cheymol, B; Ponton, A; Galatà, A; Patti, G; Gozzo, A; Lega, L; Ciavola, G

    2014-02-01

    The design update of the European Spallation Source (ESS) accelerator is almost complete and the construction of the prototype of the microwave discharge ion source able to provide a proton beam current larger than 70 mA to the 3.6 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) started. The source named PS-ESS (Proton Source for ESS) was designed with a flexible magnetic system and an extraction system able to merge conservative solutions with significant advances. The ESS injector has taken advantage of recent theoretical updates and new plasma diagnostics tools developed at INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The design strategy considers the PS-ESS and the low energy beam transport line as a whole, where the proton beam behaves like an almost neutralized non-thermalized plasma. Innovative solutions have been used as hereinafter described. Thermo-mechanical optimization has been performed to withstand the chopped beam and the misaligned focused beam over the RFQ input collimator; the results are reported here.

  12. Improved design of proton source and low energy beam transport line for European Spallation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Neri, L. Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Ciavola, G.; Torrisi, G.; Cheymol, B.; Ponton, A.; Galatà, A.; Patti, G.; Gozzo, A.; Lega, L.

    2014-02-15

    The design update of the European Spallation Source (ESS) accelerator is almost complete and the construction of the prototype of the microwave discharge ion source able to provide a proton beam current larger than 70 mA to the 3.6 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) started. The source named PS-ESS (Proton Source for ESS) was designed with a flexible magnetic system and an extraction system able to merge conservative solutions with significant advances. The ESS injector has taken advantage of recent theoretical updates and new plasma diagnostics tools developed at INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The design strategy considers the PS-ESS and the low energy beam transport line as a whole, where the proton beam behaves like an almost neutralized non-thermalized plasma. Innovative solutions have been used as hereinafter described. Thermo-mechanical optimization has been performed to withstand the chopped beam and the misaligned focused beam over the RFQ input collimator; the results are reported here.

  13. A prototype computerized synthesis methodology for generic space access vehicle (SAV) conceptual design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiao

    2006-04-01

    Today's and especially tomorrow's competitive launch vehicle design environment requires the development of a dedicated generic Space Access Vehicle (SAV) design methodology. A total of 115 industrial, research, and academic aircraft, helicopter, missile, and launch vehicle design synthesis methodologies have been evaluated. As the survey indicates, each synthesis methodology tends to focus on a specific flight vehicle configuration, thus precluding the key capability to systematically compare flight vehicle design alternatives. The aim of the research investigation is to provide decision-making bodies and the practicing engineer a design process and tool box for robust modeling and simulation of flight vehicles where the ultimate performance characteristics may hinge on numerical subtleties. This will enable the designer of a SAV for the first time to consistently compare different classes of SAV configurations on an impartial basis. This dissertation presents the development steps required towards a generic (configuration independent) hands-on flight vehicle conceptual design synthesis methodology. This process is developed such that it can be applied to any flight vehicle class if desired. In the present context, the methodology has been put into operation for the conceptual design of a tourist Space Access Vehicle. The case study illustrates elements of the design methodology & algorithm for the class of Horizontal Takeoff and Horizontal Landing (HTHL) SAVs. The HTHL SAV design application clearly outlines how the conceptual design process can be centrally organized, executed and documented with focus on design transparency, physical understanding and the capability to reproduce results. This approach offers the project lead and creative design team a management process and tool which iteratively refines the individual design logic chosen, leading to mature design methods and algorithms. As illustrated, the HTHL SAV hands-on design methodology offers growth

  14. HTGR nuclear heat source component design and experience

    SciTech Connect

    Peinado, C.O.; Wunderlich, R.G.; Simon, W.A.

    1982-05-01

    The high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) nuclear heat source components have been under design and development since the mid-1950's. Two power plants have been designed, constructed, and operated: the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station and the Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Generating Station. Recently, development has focused on the primary system components for a 2240-MW(t) steam cycle HTGR capable of generating about 900 MW(e) electric power or alternately producing high-grade steam and cogenerating electric power. These components include the steam generators, core auxiliary heat exchangers, primary and auxiliary circulators, reactor internals, and thermal barrier system. A discussion of the design and operating experience of these components is included.

  15. Failure: A Source of Progress in Maintenance and Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaïb, R.; Taleb, M.; Benidir, M.; Verzea, I.; Bellaouar, A.

    This approach, allows using the failure as a source of progress in maintenance and design to detect the most critical components in equipment, to determine the priority order maintenance actions to lead and direct the exploitation procedure towards the most penalizing links in this equipment, even define the necessary changes and recommendations for future improvement. Thus, appreciate the pathological behaviour of the material and increase its availability, even increase its lifespan and improve its future design. In this context and in the light of these points, the failures are important in managing the maintenance function. Indeed, it has become important to understand the phenomena of failure and degradation of equipments in order to establish an appropriate maintenance policy for the rational use of mechanical components and move to the practice of proactive maintenance [1], do maintenance at the design [2].

  16. Designed, synthetically accessible bryostatin analogues potently induce activation of latent HIV reservoirs in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dechristopher, Brian A.; Loy, Brian A.; Marsden, Matthew D.; Schrier, Adam J.; Zack, Jerome A.; Wender, Paul A.

    2012-09-01

    Bryostatin is a unique lead in the development of potentially transformative therapies for cancer, Alzheimer's disease and the eradication of HIV/AIDS. However, the clinical use of bryostatin has been hampered by its limited supply, difficulties in accessing clinically relevant derivatives, and side effects. Here, we address these problems through the step-economical syntheses of seven members of a new family of designed bryostatin analogues using a highly convergent Prins-macrocyclization strategy. We also demonstrate for the first time that such analogues effectively induce latent HIV activation in vitro with potencies similar to or better than bryostatin. Significantly, these analogues are up to 1,000-fold more potent in inducing latent HIV expression than prostratin, the current clinical candidate for latent virus induction. This study provides the first demonstration that designed, synthetically accessible bryostatin analogues could serve as superior candidates for the eradication of HIV/AIDS through induction of latent viral reservoirs in conjunction with current antiretroviral therapy.

  17. Design of Unstructured Adaptive (UA) NAS Parallel Benchmark Featuring Irregular, Dynamic Memory Accesses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, Hui-Yu; VanderWijngaart, Rob; Biswas, Rupak; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We describe the design of a new method for the measurement of the performance of modern computer systems when solving scientific problems featuring irregular, dynamic memory accesses. The method involves the solution of a stylized heat transfer problem on an unstructured, adaptive grid. A Spectral Element Method (SEM) with an adaptive, nonconforming mesh is selected to discretize the transport equation. The relatively high order of the SEM lowers the fraction of wall clock time spent on inter-processor communication, which eases the load balancing task and allows us to concentrate on the memory accesses. The benchmark is designed to be three-dimensional. Parallelization and load balance issues of a reference implementation will be described in detail in future reports.

  18. Design for a source-agile automatic direction finder (ADF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myler, Harley

    2015-05-01

    The design is intended for aircraft although any vehicle or even a man-mobile system could use the concept. An automatically reconfigurable antenna using MEMS RF switches is driven to seek signals consistent with the current location of the system. The antenna feeds a Software Defined Radio (SDR) that scans for signals and when a signal is found, it is identified and then the azimuth to the signal is used, along with a signal strength parameter, to confirm the location of the system. This is an extension of the now obsolete Automatic Direction Finder (ADF) aircraft navigation tool that used AM broadcast non-directional beacons (NDB), many of which are still in service. The current system can access any radio signal within the limits of the reconfigurable antenna and the SDR.

  19. Economic Insights into Providing Access to Improved Groundwater Sources in Remote, Low-Resource Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramson, A.; Lazarovitch, N.; Adar, E.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater is often the most or only feasible drinking water source in remote, low-resource areas. Yet the economics of its development have not been systematically outlined. We applied CBARWI (Cost-Benefit Analysis for Remote Water Improvements), a recently developed Decision Support System, to investigate the economic, physical and management factors related to the costs and benefits of non-networked groundwater supply in remote areas. Synthetic profiles of community water services (n = 17,962), defined across 14 parameters' values and ranges relevant to remote areas, were imputed into the decision framework, and the parameter effects on economic outcomes were investigated through regression analysis (Table 1). Several approaches were included for financing the improvements, after Abramson et al, 2011: willingness-to -pay (WTP), -borrow (WTB) and -work (WTW) in community irrigation (';water-for-work'). We found that low-cost groundwater development approaches are almost 7 times more cost-effective than conventional boreholes fitted with handpumps. The costs of electric, submersible borehole pumps are comparable only when providing expanded water supplies, and off-grid communities pay significantly more for such expansions. In our model, new source construction is less cost-effective than improvement of existing wells, but necessary for expanding access to isolated households. The financing approach significantly impacts the feasibility of demand-driven cost recovery; in our investigation, benefit exceeds cost in 16, 32 and 48% of water service configurations financed by WTP, WTB and WTW, respectively. Regressions of total cost (R2 = 0.723) and net benefit under WTW (R2 = 0.829) along with analysis of output distributions indicate that parameters determining the profitability of irrigation are different from those determining costs and other measures of net benefit. These findings suggest that the cost-benefit outcomes associated with groundwater-based water

  20. Design parameters and source terms: Volume 3, Source terms: Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    The Design Parameters and Source Terms Document was prepared in accordance with DOE request and to provide data for the environmental impact study to be performed in the future for the Deaf Smith County, Texas site for a nuclear waste repository in salt. This document updates a previous unpublished report to the level of the Site Characterization Plan /endash/ Conceptual Design Report, SCP-CDR. The previous unpublished SCC Study identifies the data needs for the Environmental Assessment effort for seven possible salt repository sites.

  1. Design and application of an electromagnetic vibrator seismic source

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    Vibrational seismic sources frequently provide a higher-frequency seismic wavelet (and therefore better resolution) than other sources, and can provide a superior signal-to-noise ratio in many settings. However, they are often prohibitively expensive for lower-budget shallow surveys. In order to address this problem, I designed and built a simple but effective vibrator source for about one thousand dollars. The "EMvibe" is an inexpensive electromagnetic vibrator that can be built with easy-to-machine parts and off-the-shelf electronics. It can repeatably produce pulse and frequency-sweep signals in the range of 5 to 650 Hz, and provides sufficient energy for recording at offsets up to 20 m. Analysis of frequency spectra show that the EMvibe provides a broader frequency range than the sledgehammer at offsets up to ??? 10 m in data collected at a site with soft sediments in the upper several meters. The EMvibe offers a high-resolution alternative to the sledgehammer for shallow surveys. It is well-suited to teaching applications, and to surveys requiring a precisely-repeatable source signature.

  2. ILC Polarized Electron Source Design and R&D Program

    SciTech Connect

    Brachmann, A.; Sheppard, J.; Zhou, F.; Poelker, M.; /SLAC

    2012-04-06

    The R and D program for the ILC electron focuses on three areas. These are the source drive laser system, the electron gun and photo cathodes necessary to produce a highly polarized electron beam. Currently, the laser system and photo cathode development take place at SLAC's 'ILC Injector Test facility', which is an integrated lab (laser and gun) that allows the production of the electron beam and is equipped with a set of diagnostics, necessary to characterize the source performance. Development of the ILC electron gun takes place at Jefferson Lab, where advanced concepts and technologies for HV DC electron guns for polarized beams are being developed. The goal is to combine both efforts at one facility to demonstrate an electron beam with ILC specifications, which are electron beam charge and polarization as well as the cathode's lifetime. The source parameters are summarized in Table 1. The current schematic design of the ILC central complex is depicted in Figure 1. The electron and positron sources are located and laid out approximately symmetric on either side of the damping rings.

  3. The Starchive: An open access, open source archive of nearby and young stars and their planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Angelle; Gelino, Chris; Elfeki, Mario

    2015-12-01

    Historically, astronomers have utilized a piecemeal set of archives such as SIMBAD, the Washington Double Star Catalog, various exoplanet encyclopedias and electronic tables from the literature to cobble together stellar and exo-planetary parameters in the absence of corresponding images and spectra. As the search for planets around young stars through direct imaging, transits and infrared/optical radial velocity surveys blossoms, there is a void in the available set of to create comprehensive lists of the stellar parameters of nearby stars especially for important parameters such as metallicity and stellar activity indicators. For direct imaging surveys, we need better resources for downloading existing high contrast images to help confirm new discoveries and find ideal target stars. Once we have discovered new planets, we need a uniform database of stellar and planetary parameters from which to look for correlations to better understand the formation and evolution of these systems. As a solution to these issues, we are developing the Starchive - an open access stellar archive in the spirit of the open exoplanet catalog, the Kepler Community Follow-up Program and many others. The archive will allow users to download various datasets, upload new images, spectra and metadata and will contain multiple plotting tools to use in presentations and data interpretations. While we will highly regulate and constantly validate the data being placed into our archive the open nature of its design is intended to allow the database to be expanded efficiently and have a level of versatility which is necessary in today's fast moving, big data community. Finally, the front-end scripts will be placed on github and users will be encouraged to contribute new plotting tools. Here, I will introduce the community to the content and expected capabilities of the archive and query the audience for community feedback.

  4. Design mobile satellite system architecture as an integral part of the cellular access digital network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, E. S. K.; Marinho, J. A.; Russell, J. E., Sr.

    1988-01-01

    The Cellular Access Digital Network (CADN) is the access vehicle through which cellular technology is brought into the mainstream of the evolving integrated telecommunications network. Beyond the integrated end-to-end digital access and per call network services provisioning of the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), the CADN engenders the added capability of mobility freedom via wireless access. One key element of the CADN network architecture is the standard user to network interface that is independent of RF transmission technology. Since the Mobile Satellite System (MSS) is envisioned to not only complement but also enhance the capabilities of the terrestrial cellular telecommunications network, compatibility and interoperability between terrestrial cellular and mobile satellite systems are vitally important to provide an integrated moving telecommunications network of the future. From a network standpoint, there exist very strong commonalities between the terrestrial cellular system and the mobile satellite system. Therefore, the MSS architecture should be designed as an integral part of the CADN. This paper describes the concept of the CADN, the functional architecture of the MSS, and the user-network interface signaling protocols.

  5. A new fuel loading design for the Advanced Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Gehin, J.C.; Renier, J.P.; Worley, B.A.

    1994-06-01

    A new fuel loading design has been developed for the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor. In this reactor the combination of a small core volume and high power results in a very high power density. Using a direct optimization procedure the thermal-hydraulic margins for oxide temperature drop, centerline temperature and incipient boiling (and thus critical heat flux) were maximized to increase the limiting thermal power from 298 MW to 346 MW compared to the previous fuel grading, while maintaining the desired peak reflector thermal flux.

  6. Accelerator shield design of KIPT neutron source facility

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Z.; Gohar, Y.

    2013-07-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) of the United States and Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine have been collaborating on the design development of a neutron source facility at KIPT utilizing an electron-accelerator-driven subcritical assembly. Electron beam power is 100 kW, using 100 MeV electrons. The facility is designed to perform basic and applied nuclear research, produce medical isotopes, and train young nuclear specialists. The biological shield of the accelerator building is designed to reduce the biological dose to less than 0.5-mrem/hr during operation. The main source of the biological dose is the photons and the neutrons generated by interactions of leaked electrons from the electron gun and accelerator sections with the surrounding concrete and accelerator materials. The Monte Carlo code MCNPX serves as the calculation tool for the shield design, due to its capability to transport electrons, photons, and neutrons coupled problems. The direct photon dose can be tallied by MCNPX calculation, starting with the leaked electrons. However, it is difficult to accurately tally the neutron dose directly from the leaked electrons. The neutron yield per electron from the interactions with the surrounding components is less than 0.01 neutron per electron. This causes difficulties for Monte Carlo analyses and consumes tremendous computation time for tallying with acceptable statistics the neutron dose outside the shield boundary. To avoid these difficulties, the SOURCE and TALLYX user subroutines of MCNPX were developed for the study. The generated neutrons are banked, together with all related parameters, for a subsequent MCNPX calculation to obtain the neutron and secondary photon doses. The weight windows variance reduction technique is utilized for both neutron and photon dose calculations. Two shielding materials, i.e., heavy concrete and ordinary concrete, were considered for the shield design. The main goal is to maintain the total

  7. Phase 1 Space Fission Propulsion Energy Source Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Mike; VanDyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Pedersen, Kevin; Martin, James; Dickens, Ricky; Salvail, Pat; Hrbud, Ivana; Carter, Robert; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Fission technology can enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. If fission propulsion systems are to be developed to their full potential; however, near-term customers must be identified and initial fission systems successfully developed, launched, and operated. Studies conducted in fiscal year 2001 (IISTP, 2001) show that fission electric propulsion (FEP) systems with a specific mass at or below 50 kg/kWjet could enhance or enable numerous robotic outer solar system missions of interest. At the required specific mass, it is possible to develop safe, affordable systems that meet mission requirements. To help select the system design to pursue, eight evaluation criteria were identified: system integration, safety, reliability, testability, specific mass, cost, schedule, and programmatic risk. A top-level comparison of four potential concepts was performed: a Testable, Passive, Redundant Reactor (TPRR), a Testable Multi-Cell In-Core Thermionic Reactor (TMCT), a Direct Gas Cooled Reactor (DGCR), and a Pumped Liquid Metal Reactor.(PLMR). Development of any of the four systems appears feasible. However, for power levels up to at least 500 kWt (enabling electric power levels of 125-175 kWe, given 25-35% power conversion efficiency) the TPRR has advantages related to several criteria and is competitive with respect to all. Hardware-based research and development has further increased confidence in the TPRR approach. Successful development and utilization of a "Phase I" fission electric propulsion system will enable advanced Phase 2 and Phase 3 systems capable of providing rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system.

  8. THE RF SYSTEM DESIGN FOR THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    D. REES; M. LYNCH; ET AL

    2001-06-01

    Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator includes a nominally 1000 MeV, 2 mA average current linac consisting of a radio frequency quadrapole (RFQ), drift tube linac (DTL), coupled cavity linac (CCL), a medium and high beta super conducting (SC) linac, and two buncher cavities for beam transport to the ring. Los Alamos is responsible for the RF systems for all sections of the linac. The SNS linac is a pulsed proton linac and the RF system must support a 1 msec beam pulse at up to a 60 Hz repetition rate. The RFQ and DTL utilize seven, 2.5 MW klystrons and operate at 402.5 MHz. The CCL, SC, and buncher cavities operate at 805 MHz. Six, 5 MW klystrons are utilized for the CCL and buncher cavities while eighty-one 550 kW klystrons are used for the SC cavities. All of the RF hardware for the SNS linac is currently in production. This paper will present details of the RF system-level design as well as specific details of the SNS RF equipment. The design parameters will be discussed. One of the design challenges has been achieving a reasonable cost with the very large number of high-power klystrons. The approaches we used to reduce cost and the resulting design compromises will be discussed.

  9. Slow-sand water filter: design, implementation, accessibility and sustainability in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Clark, Peter A; Pinedo, Catalina Arango; Fadus, Matthew; Capuzzi, Stephen

    2012-07-01

    The need for clean water has risen exponentially over the globe. Millions of people are affected daily by a lack of clean water, especially women and children, as much of their day is dedicated to collecting water. The global water crisis not only has severe medical implications, but social, political, and economic consequences as well. The Institute of Catholic Bioethics at Saint Joseph's University has recognized this, and has designed a slow-sand water filter that is accessible, cost-effective, and sustainable. Through the implementation of the Institute's slow-sand water filter and the utilization of microfinancing services, developing countries will not only have access to clean, drinkable water, but will also have the opportunity to break out of a devastating cycle of poverty.

  10. Slow-sand water filter: Design, implementation, accessibility and sustainability in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Peter A.; Pinedo, Catalina Arango; Fadus, Matthew; Capuzzi, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Summary The need for clean water has risen exponentially over the globe. Millions of people are affected daily by a lack of clean water, especially women and children, as much of their day is dedicated to collecting water. The global water crisis not only has severe medical implications, but social, political, and economic consequences as well. The Institute of Catholic Bioethics at Saint Joseph’s University has recognized this, and has designed a slow-sand water filter that is accessible, cost-effective, and sustainable. Through the implementation of the Institute’s slow-sand water filter and the utilization of microfinancing services, developing countries will not only have access to clean, drinkable water, but will also have the opportunity to break out of a devastating cycle of poverty. PMID:22739748

  11. Status of PEP-X Light Source Design Study

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, K.L.F.; Bertsche, K.J.; Cai, Y.; Chao, A.; Huang, X.; Jiao, Y.; Ng, C.-K.; Nosochkov, Y.; Novokhatski, A.; Rivetta, C.H.; Safranek, J.A.; Stupakov, G.V.; Wang, L.; Wang, M.-H.; Xiao, L.; Hettel, R.O.; Rabedeau, T.; /SLAC

    2011-12-14

    The SLAC Beam Physics group and other SLAC collaborators continue to study options for implementing a near diffraction-limited ring-based light source in the 2.2-km PEP-II tunnel that will serve the SSRL scientific program in the future. The study team has completed the baseline design for a 4.5-GeV storage ring having 160 pm-rad emittance with stored beam current of 1.5 A, providing >10{sup 22} brightness for multi-keV photon beams from 3.5-m undulator sources. The team has also investigated possible 5-GeV ERL configurations which, similar to the Cornell and KEK ERL plans, would have {approx}30 pm-rad emittance with 100 mA current, and {approx}10 pm-rad emittance with 25 mA or less. Now a 4.5-GeV 'ultimate' storage ring having emittance similar to the ERL and operating with {approx}200 mA is under study. An overview of the progress of the PEP-X design study and SSRL's plans for defining performance parameters that will guide the choice of ring options is presented.

  12. King's College laser plasma x-ray source design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alnaimi, Radhwan; Adjei, Daniel; Alatabi, Saleh; Appuhamilage, Indika Arachchi; Michette, Alan

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this work is to design and build a source for a range of applications, with optimized multilayer structures in order to use the source output as efficiently as possible. The source is built around a Nd:YAG laser with fundamental wavelength 1064 nm, frequency doubled 532 nm (green) and tripled 355 nm, with a pulse length of about 800 ps and a repetition rate up to 50 Hz. The target material is Mylar (C10H8O4) tape, which is cheap, readily available and has many benefits as explained in this article. A versatile cubic target chamber and a set of computer controlled stage motors are used to allow positioning of the X-ray emission point. A range of measures is used to protect delicate components and optics, including a glass slide between the focusing lens and the target to prevent the lens being coated with debris. A low pressure gas (typically 3-6 mbar) is used inside the chamber as collision of atomic size debris particles with gas molecules reduces their kinetic energy and consequently their adhesion to the surrounding surfaces. The gas used is typically helium or nitrogen, the latter also acting as a spectral filter. Finally, the chamber is continually pumped to ensure that more than 70% of the debris particles are pumped out of the chamber.

  13. Frequency-selective design of wireless power transfer systems for controlled access applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maschino, Tyler Stephen

    Wireless power transfer (WPT) has become a common way to charge or power many types of devices, ranging from cell phones to electric toothbrushes. WPT became popular through the introduction of a transmission mode known as strongly coupled magnetic resonance (SCMR). This means of transmission is non-radiative and enables mid-range WPT. Shortly after the development of WPT via SCMR, a group of researchers introduced the concept of resonant repeaters, which allows power to hop from the source to the device. These repeaters are in resonance with the WPT system, which enables them to propagate the power wirelessly with minimal losses to the environment. Resonant repeaters have rekindled the dream of ubiquitous wireless power. Inherent risks come with the realization of such a dream. One of the most prominent risks, which we set out in this thesis to address, is that of accessibility to the WPT system. We propose the incorporation of a controlled access schema within a WPT system to prevent unwarranted use of wireless power. Our thesis discusses the history of electromagnetism, examines the inception of WPT via SCMR, evaluates recent developments in WPT, and further elaborates on the controlled access schema we wish to contribute to the field.

  14. Design of the 3rd generation ECR ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Lyneis, C.M.; Xie, Z.Q.; Taylor, C.E.

    1997-02-01

    Development of the 3rd Generation ECR ion source has progressed from a concept described in the last ECR Ion Source Workshop to the fabrication of a full scale prototype superconducting magnet structure. The prototype consists of three solenoid coils and six race track coils with iron poles forming the sextupole. The design calls for mirror fields of 4 T at injection and 3 T at extraction and for a radial field strength at the wall of 2.4 T. The prototype magnet will be tested this spring in an existing vertical cryostat to determine its operating characteristics including maximum operating values, training characteristics and to study the interaction between the solenoid and sextupole coils. Design of the ECR plasma chamber includes aluminum walls to provide an enhanced source of cold electrons, up to three separate microwave feeds to allow simultaneous heating of the plasma electrons at 10, 14 and 18 GHz or at 6, 10 and 14 GHz. Water cooling of the plasma chamber walls and the injection and extraction plates is planned so that up to 10 kW of microwave power can be used without excessive heating of the chamber components. Experience with the AECR-U at LBNL shows that increasing the magnetic fields and using two frequency heating allows operation at lower neutral pressures and higher microwave power density. Both of these conditions are needed to produce very high charge states from elements with masses greater than xenon and the resulting higher energy, more intense heavy beams from the 88-Inch Cyclotron would provide new research opportunities.

  15. 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source Instrumentation Initiative conceptual design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    In this APS Instrumentation Initiative, 2.5-m-long and 5-m-long insertion-device x-ray sources will be built on 9 straight sections of the APS storage ring, and an additional 9 bending-magnet sources will also be put in use. The front ends for these 18 x-ray sources will be built to contain and safeguard access to these bright x-ray beams. In addition, funds will be provided to build state-of-the-art insertion-device beamlines to meet scientific and technological research demands well into the next century. This new initiative will also include four user laboratory modules and a special laboratory designed to meet the x-ray imaging research needs of the users. The Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the APS Instrumentation Initiative describes the scope of all the above technical and conventional construction and provides a detailed cost and schedule for these activities. According to these plans, this new initiative begins in FY 1994 and ends in FY 1998. The document also describes the preconstruction R D plans for the Instrumentation Initiative activities and provides the cost estimates for the required R D.

  16. 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source Instrumentation Initiative conceptual design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    In this APS Instrumentation Initiative, 2.5-m-long and 5-m-long insertion-device x-ray sources will be built on 9 straight sections of the APS storage ring, and an additional 9 bending-magnet sources will also be put in use. The front ends for these 18 x-ray sources will be built to contain and safeguard access to these bright x-ray beams. In addition, funds will be provided to build state-of-the-art insertion-device beamlines to meet scientific and technological research demands well into the next century. This new initiative will also include four user laboratory modules and a special laboratory designed to meet the x-ray imaging research needs of the users. The Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the APS Instrumentation Initiative describes the scope of all the above technical and conventional construction and provides a detailed cost and schedule for these activities. According to these plans, this new initiative begins in FY 1994 and ends in FY 1998. The document also describes the preconstruction R&D plans for the Instrumentation Initiative activities and provides the cost estimates for the required R&D.

  17. Terahertz Systems Engineering: Detectors, Sources, Propagation, Phenomenology, Design and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suen, Jonathan Ying-Yan

    The terahertz (THz) band, from 300 GHz to 20 THz, is the last remaining frontier of the electromagnetic spectrum. Fundamentally, the frequency is too high to use current electronic technologies, yet the photon energy is too low for optical systems. However, there is a rich set of phenomenology, science, and applications, which are only available with THz radiation. In order to exploit this, the THz engineer who is designing systems must be adept at integrating components with very limited performance into a system. This requires understanding and knowledge of a wide range of fields, including microwaves, infrared optics, material science, software development, atmospheric science, and the overall analysis and design of a system. Any THz system involves the sensing of some phenomena, which can be under the direct control of the engineer, such as in a communication system, or set by the laws of physics, such as in an astronomical telescope, or some variant in between. Thus, the design of such a system is fundamentally related to sensing science. Here, we have to consider detector and source technology, the propagation of radiation, target phenomenology, and the overall design and analysis of the system. This dissertation presents research in all of these areas. Specifically, in the field of THz phenomenology, I conducted a study to show the primary contrast mechanism in reflective biomedical imaging is water concentration. For source technology, I detail the development and characterization of photoconductive switches with record-breaking optical efficiency. In a separate study I developed a model which explains the complex photocarrier dynamics in fast-trapping THz photoconductive materials and show that high-frequency THz generation (>1 THz) is caused by beaching saturation. My work in detectors shows the design of a quasi-optical radar that exploits low 1/f noise Schottky diodes for detection of slow moving objects, useful for biomedical sensing of respiration and

  18. The deaf and the classroom design: a contribution of the built environmental ergonomics for the accessibility.

    PubMed

    Martins, Laura Bezerra; Gaudiot, Denise Mariasimões Freire

    2012-01-01

    In any concept of school design, classroom occupies the central place. Dimensions, lighting, the equipment needed, ventilation are old questions already answered, even in form of laws and standards adopted. However, the best use of available materials and physical conditions of comfort is not sufficient for a classroom design guaranteed success. The classroom should provide deaf students elements to facilitate the learning process, eliminating as much as possible the obstacles created by lack of hearing and allowing them to have the same access to learning as a listener student. As users of a school building, teachers, students, parents and staff are the best evaluators of the physical environment of schools. The environmental comfort is a largest ally of pedagogy. The learning comes from the perception and the concentration of students in the classroom. The purpose of this study is to detect the role of direct perception (physical) and indirect (intangible) elements that informs and have symbolic value, and propose layouts for accessible classrooms to deaf students. The ergonomics of the built environment evaluation methods could use the participatory design method tools as basis to assessing how users perceive and use the school environment.

  19. 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source Conceptual Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-04-01

    During the past decade, synchrotron radiation emitted by circulating electron beams has come into wide use as a powerful, versatile source of x-rays for probing the structure of matter and for studying various physical processes. Several synchrotron radiation facilities with different designs and characteristics are now in regular operation throughout the world, with recent additions in this country being the 0.8-GeV and 2.5-GeV rings of NSLS at Brookhaven National Laboratory. However, none of the operating facilities has been designed to use a low-emittance, high-energy stored beam, together with modern undulator devices, to produce a large number of hard x-ray beams of extremely high brilliance. This document is a proposal to the Department of Energy to construct and operate high-energy synchrotron radiation facility at Argonne National Laboratory. We have now chosen to set the design energy of this facility at 7.0 GeV, with the capability to operate at up to 7.5 GeV.

  20. Advanced neutron source final preconceptual reference core design

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, G.L.; Gambill, W.R.; Harrington, R.M.; Johnson, J.A.; Peretz, F.J.; Reutler, H.; Ryskamp, J.M.; Selby, D.L.; West, C.D.; Yoder, G.L.

    1989-08-01

    The preconceptual design phase of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Project ended with the selection of a reference reactor core that will be used to begin conceptual design work. The new reference core consists of two involute fuel elements, of different diameters, aligned axially with a small axial gap between them. The use of different element diameters permits a separate flow of coolant to be provided for each one, thus enhancing the heat removal capability and increasing the thermal-hydraulic margins. The improved cooling allows the elements to be relatively long and thin, so self-shielding is reduced and an acceptable core life can be achieved with a relatively small loading of highly enriched uranium silicide fuel clad in aluminium. The new reference design has a fueled volume 67.4 L, each element having a heated length of 474 mm and a radial fuel thickness of 66 mm. The end-of-cycle peak thermal flux in the large heavy-water reflector tank around the core is estimated to be in the range of 0.8 to 1.0 /times/ 10/sup 20/ m/sup /minus/2/ /center dot/ s/sup /minus/1/. 7 refs., 23 figs., 15 tabs.

  1. U.S. Minority Homeless Youth's Access to and Use of Mobile Phones: Implications for mHealth Intervention Design.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Larissa; Lee, Nicole; Shore, Deborah; Strohminger, Nancy; Allison, Burgundi; Conserve, Donaldson F; Cheskin, Lawrence J

    2016-07-01

    Few interventions for homeless youth have leveraged the potential of mHealth technologies, in part because of the limited data on phone behaviors, perceptions, and intervention preferences among youth experiencing homelessness. We conducted 9 focus groups (n = 52 homeless youth) and 41 individual structured interviews also with homeless youth in underserved communities in Baltimore and Washington, DC, to ascertain how youth perceived their mobile phone, acquired and maintained mobile services over time, and thought mHealth programs for this population should be designed. We also measured phone use, functionality, source, duration of ownership, and reasons for changing phones or numbers. Results showed that mobile coverage was high, as most youth self-purchased phones or received gift payments from others. Maintaining mobile connectivity was often challenging because of financial constraints and interpersonal conflict. Youth valued phones to access social support but used several tactics to avoid perceived negative consequences of phone ownership, such as harassment, theft, or relational disputes. Youth most preferred mHealth content relating to sexual, reproductive, and mental health provided that mobile communication was confidential, empowering, and integrated with other digital media. Integrating hidden phones, financial support, and safety management may improve homeless youth's access to and engagement with mHealth strategies over time. PMID:27232544

  2. Design and Experimental Verification of Vibration Suppression Device on the Lift of Wheelchair-accessible Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatano, Yasuyoshi; Takahashi, Masaki

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, the number of wheelchair-accessible vehicles has increased with the aging of the population. Such vehicles are effective in reducing the burden on caregivers because the wheelchair user does not have to move from his/her wheelchair to a seat of the vehicle. Wheelchair-accessible vehicles are expected to be widely used in the future. However, wheelchair users have reported poor ride comfort. It is thus necessary to suppress the vibration of the vehicle considering the wheelchair user. We designed a passive damping device on the lift of wheelchair-accessible vehicles to improve the ride comfort for wheelchair users. The vibration due to road disturbances reaches the wheelchair user's body through the vehicle and wheelchair. Our control device decreases the acceleration of the torso and improves the ride comfort by ensuring that the frequency of the vibration reaching the wheelchair user differs from the resonance frequency band of the acceleration of the torso, which is the body part that feels the most discomfort. The effectiveness of the control device is verified experimentally.

  3. Managing the Internet at School: Limits and Access to the Greatest Source.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Eliot; Grohe, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    Discusses educational use of the Internet, concerns regarding acceptable use, and limits to access. Compares differences between German and American school Internet use and offers recommendations from the Bertelsmann Foundation, a European organization, to ensure responsible use of the Internet including media competence, codes of conduct,…

  4. High intensity neutrino source superconducting solenoid cyrostat design

    SciTech Connect

    Page, T.M.; Nicol, T.H.; Feher, S.; Terechkine, I.; Tompkins, J.; /Fermilab

    2006-06-01

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) is involved in the development of a 100 MeV superconducting linac. This linac is part of the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) R&D Program. The initial beam acceleration in the front end section of the linac is achieved using room temperature spoke cavities, each of which is combined with a superconducting focusing solenoid. These solenoid magnets are cooled with liquid helium at 4.5K, operate at 250 A and have a maximum magnetic field strength of 7.5 T. The solenoid cryostat will house the helium vessel, suspension system, thermal shield, multilayer insulation, power leads, instrumentation, a vacuum vessel and cryogenic distribution lines. This paper discusses the requirements and detailed design of these superconducting solenoid cryostats.

  5. High Intensity Neutrino Source Superconducting Solenoid Cryostat Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, T. M.; Nicol, T. H.; Feher, S.; Terechkine, I.; Tompkins, J.

    2008-03-01

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) is involved in the development of a 100 MeV superconducting linac. This linac is part of the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) R&D Program. The initial beam acceleration in the front end section of the linac is achieved using room temperature spoke cavities, each of which is combined with a superconducting focusing solenoid. These solenoid magnets are cooled with liquid helium at 4.5 K, operate at 250 A and have a maximum magnetic field strength of 7.5 T. The solenoid cryostat will house the helium vessel, suspension system, thermal shield, multilayer insulation, power leads, instrumentation, a vacuum vessel and cryogenic distribution lines. This paper discusses the requirements and detailed design of these superconducting solenoid cryostats.

  6. The Advanced Photon Source (APS) Linear Accelerator: design and performance

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.M.

    1996-06-01

    The Advanced Photon Source linear accelerator (linac) system consists of a 200-MeV, 2856-MHz S-band electron linac and a 2-radiation-length- thick tungsten target followed by a 450-MeV positron linac. The linac system has operated 24 hours per day for the past two years to support accelerator commissioning and beam studies, and to provide beam for the experimental program. It achieves the design goal for positron current of 8 mA, and produces electron energies up to 650 MeV without the target in place. The linac is described, and its operation and performance are discussed. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Status and design of the Advanced Photon Source control system

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, W.; Knott, M.; Lenkszus, F.; Kraimer, M.; Arnold, N.; Daly, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the current status of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) control system. It will discuss the design decisions which led us to use industrial standards and collaborations with other laboratories to develop the APS control system. The system uses high performance graphic workstations and the X-windows Graphical User Interface (GUI) at the operator interface level. It connects to VME/VXI-based microprocessors at the field level using TCP/IP protocols over high performance networks. This strategy assures the flexibility and expansibility of the control system. A defined interface between the system components will allow the system to evolve with the direct addition of future, improved equipment and new capabilities.

  8. Status and design of the Advanced Photon Source control system

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, W.; Knott, M.; Lenkszus, F.; Kraimer, M.; Arnold, N.; Daly, R.

    1993-06-01

    This paper presents the current status of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) control system. It will discuss the design decisions which led us to use industrial standards and collaborations with other laboratories to develop the APS control system. The system uses high performance graphic workstations and the X-windows Graphical User Interface (GUI) at the operator interface level. It connects to VME/VXI-based microprocessors at the field level using TCP/IP protocols over high performance networks. This strategy assures the flexibility and expansibility of the control system. A defined interface between the system components will allow the system to evolve with the direct addition of future, improved equipment and new capabilities.

  9. iDrug: a web-accessible and interactive drug discovery and design platform

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The progress in computer-aided drug design (CADD) approaches over the past decades accelerated the early-stage pharmaceutical research. Many powerful standalone tools for CADD have been developed in academia. As programs are developed by various research groups, a consistent user-friendly online graphical working environment, combining computational techniques such as pharmacophore mapping, similarity calculation, scoring, and target identification is needed. Results We presented a versatile, user-friendly, and efficient online tool for computer-aided drug design based on pharmacophore and 3D molecular similarity searching. The web interface enables binding sites detection, virtual screening hits identification, and drug targets prediction in an interactive manner through a seamless interface to all adapted packages (e.g., Cavity, PocketV.2, PharmMapper, SHAFTS). Several commercially available compound databases for hit identification and a well-annotated pharmacophore database for drug targets prediction were integrated in iDrug as well. The web interface provides tools for real-time molecular building/editing, converting, displaying, and analyzing. All the customized configurations of the functional modules can be accessed through featured session files provided, which can be saved to the local disk and uploaded to resume or update the history work. Conclusions iDrug is easy to use, and provides a novel, fast and reliable tool for conducting drug design experiments. By using iDrug, various molecular design processing tasks can be submitted and visualized simply in one browser without installing locally any standalone modeling softwares. iDrug is accessible free of charge at http://lilab.ecust.edu.cn/idrug. PMID:24955134

  10. Advanced Neutron Source: Plant Design Requirements. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source will be a new world-class facility for research using hot, thermal, cold, and ultra-cold neutrons. The heart of the facility will be a 330-MW (fission), heavy-water cooled and heavy-water moderated reactor. The reactor will be housed in a central reactor building, with supporting equipment located in an adjoining reactor support building. An array of cold neutron guides will fan out into a large guide hall, housing about 30 neutron research stations. Appropriate office, laboratory, and shop facilities will be included to provide a complete facility for users. The ANS is scheduled to begin operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory early in the next decade. This PDR document defines the plant-level requirements for the design, construction, and operation of ANS. It also defines and provides input to the individual System Design Description (SDD) documents. Together, this PDR document and the set of SDD documents will define and control the baseline configuration of ANS.

  11. Design parameters and source terms: Volume 1, Design parameters: Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    The Design Parameters and Source Terms Document was prepared in accordance with DOE request and to provide data for the environmental impact study to be performed in the future for the Deaf Smith County, Texas site for a nuclear waste repository in salt. This document updates a previous unpublished report to the level of the Site Characterization Plan - Conceptual Design Report, SCP-CDR. The previous unpublished SCC Study identified the data needs for the Environmental Assessment effort for seven possible salt repository sites.

  12. Design and Coordination Kinematics of an Insertable Robotic Effectors Platform for Single-Port Access Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jienan; Goldman, Roger E.; Xu, Kai; Allen, Peter K.; Fowler, Dennis L.

    2012-01-01

    Single port access surgery (SPAS) presents surgeons with added challenges that require new surgical tools and surgical assistance systems with unique capabilities. To address these challenges, we designed and constructed a new insertable robotic end-effectors platform (IREP) for SPAS. The IREP can be inserted through a Ø15 mm trocar into the abdomen and it uses 21 actuated joints for controlling two dexterous arms and a stereo-vision module. Each dexterous arm has a hybrid mechanical architecture comprised of a two-segment continuum robot, a parallelogram mechanism for improved dual-arm triangulation, and a distal wrist for improved dexterity during suturing. The IREP is unique because of the combination of continuum arms with active and passive segments with rigid parallel kinematics mechanisms. This paper presents the clinical motivation, design considerations, kinematics, statics, and mechanical design of the IREP. The kinematics of coordination between the parallelogram mechanisms and the continuum arms is presented using the pseudo-rigid-body model of the beam representing the passive segment of each snake arm. Kinematic and static simulations and preliminary experiment results are presented in support of our design choices. PMID:23963105

  13. Design and Coordination Kinematics of an Insertable Robotic Effectors Platform for Single-Port Access Surgery.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jienan; Goldman, Roger E; Xu, Kai; Allen, Peter K; Fowler, Dennis L; Simaan, Nabil

    2013-10-01

    Single port access surgery (SPAS) presents surgeons with added challenges that require new surgical tools and surgical assistance systems with unique capabilities. To address these challenges, we designed and constructed a new insertable robotic end-effectors platform (IREP) for SPAS. The IREP can be inserted through a Ø15 mm trocar into the abdomen and it uses 21 actuated joints for controlling two dexterous arms and a stereo-vision module. Each dexterous arm has a hybrid mechanical architecture comprised of a two-segment continuum robot, a parallelogram mechanism for improved dual-arm triangulation, and a distal wrist for improved dexterity during suturing. The IREP is unique because of the combination of continuum arms with active and passive segments with rigid parallel kinematics mechanisms. This paper presents the clinical motivation, design considerations, kinematics, statics, and mechanical design of the IREP. The kinematics of coordination between the parallelogram mechanisms and the continuum arms is presented using the pseudo-rigid-body model of the beam representing the passive segment of each snake arm. Kinematic and static simulations and preliminary experiment results are presented in support of our design choices.

  14. Laser Design for Next Generation Compton Scattering Source at LLNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shverdin, Miro; Albert, Felicie; Anderson, Scott; Bayramian, Andy; Betts, Shawn; Cross, Rick; Ebbers, Chris; Gibson, David; Marsh, Roark; Messerly, Michael; Hartemann, Fred; Scarpetti, Ray; Siders, Craig; Barty, Chris

    2010-11-01

    We describe laser systems designed for the next generation Mono-Energetic Gamma-Ray (MEGa-ray) Compton scattering light source at LLNL. An 80 fs Yb:doped fiber oscillator seeds a photogun drive laser (PDL) and a high energy interaction system laser (ILS). Utilizing chirped pulse amplification (CPA) in fiber, the PDL will generate 80 μJ, spatially and temporally shaped pulses at 263 nm at 120 Hz precisely synchronized to the linac RF. The PDL system employs large mode photonic bandgap fibers and large area multi-layer dielectric gratings to generate over 1mJ per pulse with high recompression fidelity prior to frequency quadrupling. The high energy, 120 W ILS utilizes (CPA) in Nd:YAG to amplify a sub-nanometer bandwidth 20 μJ pulses from a fiber system to 1 J. A novel pulse stretcher provides a dispersion of over 7000 ps/nm to expand a several picosecond wide seed pulse to 6 ns. After amplification, the pulse is recompressed to 10 ps with a hyper-dispersive pulse compressor. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  15. Versatile Design Principles for Facile Access to Unstrained Conjugated Organoborane Macrocycles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pangkuan; Yin, Xiaodong; Baser-Kirazli, Nurcan; Jäkle, Frieder

    2015-09-01

    A facile and versatile approach was developed to access ambipolar boron-containing macrocycles. Two examples of new conjugated cyclic motifs are presented with carbazole moieties as donors and borane moieties as acceptors embedded into the ring system. They were first predicted using computational methods. Possible targets with appropriately shaped π-conjugated bridges that minimize the overall ring strain were identified and their geometry was optimized by DFT methods. The synthetic demonstration was then accomplished using organometallic condensation reactions under high dilution conditions. The resulting monodisperse macrocycles provide important insights into the design principles necessary for the preparation of new unstrained macrocycles with interesting optical and electronic characteristics. The current research also offers a more general approach to conjugated ambipolar B/N macrocycles as a promising new family of (opto)electronic materials. PMID:26119860

  16. Design of an Event-Driven, Random-Access, Windowing CCD-Based Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monacos, S. P.; Lam, R. K.; Portillo, A. A.; Zhu, D. Q.; Ortiz, G. G.

    2003-11-01

    Commercially available cameras are not designed for a combination of single-frame and high-speed streaming digital video with real-time control of size and location of multiple regions-of-interest (ROIs). A message-passing paradigm is defined to achieve low-level camera control with high-level system operation. This functionality is achieved by asynchronously sending messages to the camera for event-driven operation, where an event is defined as image capture or pixel readout of a ROI, without knowledge of detailed in-camera timing. This methodology provides a random access, real-time, event-driven (RARE) camera for adaptive camera control and is well suited for target-tracking applications requiring autonomous control of multiple ROIs. This methodology additionally provides for reduced ROI readout time and higher frame rates as compared to a predecessor architecture [1] by avoiding external control intervention during the ROI readout process.

  17. [Access to health information sources in Spain. how to combat "infoxication"].

    PubMed

    Navas-Martin, Miguel Ángel; Albornos-Muñoz, Laura; Escandell-García, Cintia

    2012-01-01

    Internet has become a priceless source for finding health information for both patients and healthcare professionals. However, the universality and the abundance of information can lead to unfounded conclusions about health issues that can confuse further than clarify the health information. This aspect causes intoxication of information: infoxication. The question lies in knowing how to filter the information that is useful, accurate and relevant for our purposes. In this regard, integrative portals, such as the Biblioteca Virtual de Salud, compile information at different levels (international, national and regional), different types of resources (databases, repositories, bibliographic sources, etc.), becoming a starting point for obtaining quality information.

  18. Asymmetric hollow POF coupler design for portable optical access card system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehsan, Abang Annuar; Shaari, Sahbudin; Abd Rahman, Mohd Kamil

    2009-05-01

    An optical code generating device using plastic optical fiber (POF) coupler for portable optical access card system is presented. The code generating device constructed using asymmetric hollow POF coupler design provides a unique series of output light intensities which are successively used as an optical code. Each coupler will be assigned with a unique optical code based on the asymmetrical waveguide design. Non-sequential ray tracing simulation of various coupler designs showed a linear relationship between the tap-off ratio (TOFR) and the waveguide tap width. The results for the simulated and fabricated 1x2 asymmetric couplers show the same linear characteristics between the TOFR and the tap width. The simulated devices show a TOFR variation from 18.6% to 49.9% whereas the TOFR for the fabricated metal-based devices varies from 10.7% up to 47.7%, for a tap width of 500 μm to 1 mm. The insertion loss for the 1x2 asymmetric coupler at the tap line varies from 12.7 dB to 21.2 dB whereas for the bus line, the average insertion loss is about 12 dB.

  19. 40 CFR 63.190 - Applicability and designation of source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... have an effect on the compliance status of the source with respect to subpart I. (i) Sections stayed... source. 63.190 Section 63.190 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE...

  20. 40 CFR 63.190 - Applicability and designation of source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... have an effect on the compliance status of the source with respect to subpart I. (i) Sections stayed... source. 63.190 Section 63.190 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE...

  1. Universal Design and LGBTQ (Lesbian, Gay, Transgender, Bisexual, and Queer) Issues: Creating Equal Access and Opportunities for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Jennifer R.; Geiger, Tracy J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors extend the ideals set forth by the universal design (UD) framework seeking to include the unique needs of students in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) community. Universal design is a philosophy that, when applied to higher education, constitutes acceptance of, equal access for, and equal opportunities for…

  2. Designing to Promote Access, Quality, and Student Support in an Advanced Certificate Programme for Rural Teachers in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fresen, Jill W.; Hendrikz, Johan

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the re-design of the Advanced Certificate in Education (ACE) programme, which is offered by the University of Pretoria through distance education (DE) to teachers in rural South Africa. In 2007, a team re-designed the programme with the goal of promoting access, quality, and student support. The team included an independent…

  3. Structural informatics, modeling and design with an open-source Molecular Software Library (MSL)

    PubMed Central

    Kulp, Daniel W.; Subramaniam, Sabareesh; Donald, Jason E.; Hannigan, Brett T.; Mueller, Benjamin K.; Grigoryan, Gevorg; Senes, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    We present the Molecular Software Library (MSL), a C++ library for molecular modeling. MSL is a set of tools that supports a large variety of algorithms for the design, modeling and analysis of macromolecules. Among the main features supported by the library are methods for applying geometric transformations and alignments, the implementation of a rich set of energy functions, side chain optimization, backbone manipulation, calculation of Solvent Accessible Surface Area (SASA) and other tools. MSL has a number of unique features, such as the ability of storing alternative atomic coordinates (for modeling) and multiple amino acid identities at the same backbone position (for design). It has a straightforward mechanism for extending its energy functions and can work with any type of molecules. While the code base is large, MSL was created with ease of developing in mind. It allows the rapid implementation of simple tasks while fully supporting the creation of complex applications. Some of the potentialities of the software are demonstrated here with examples that show how to program complex and essential modeling tasks with few lines of code. MSL is an ongoing and evolving project, with new features and improvements being introduced regularly, but it is mature and suitable for production and has been used in numerous protein modeling and design projects. MSL is open source software, freely downloadable at http://msl-libraries.org. We propose it as a common platform for the development of new molecular algorithms, and to promote the distribution, sharing and reutilization of computational methods. PMID:22565567

  4. Investigation of radiation streaming and maze design for the Taiwan Photon Source.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Rong-Jiun; Liu, Joseph

    2010-04-01

    This study investigates the radiation streaming through the personnel access maze designed for the Taiwan Photon Source, with special interest in the characteristics of radiation fields along the labyrinth and the comparison of different estimation methods. The effect of maze orientation with respect to the beam direction has also been examined in detail. The FLUKA Monte Carlo code was used to simulate the radiation production and transport for a beam loss occurring near a typical three-legged maze. In addition, we have also tested three factorized approximation formulae for the neutron and gamma-ray attenuation in our maze design. It was found that Cossairt's expression fits better and can predict satisfactory results for the neutron attenuation along the maze. We accordingly proposed a set of fitting parameters used with Cossairt's formulae for estimating the gamma-ray attenuation in labyrinths for high-energy electron accelerators. The information presented here will be valuable for our further design revisions and may be useful to those performing similar studies. PMID:20220363

  5. Investigation of radiation streaming and maze design for the Taiwan Photon Source.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Rong-Jiun; Liu, Joseph

    2010-04-01

    This study investigates the radiation streaming through the personnel access maze designed for the Taiwan Photon Source, with special interest in the characteristics of radiation fields along the labyrinth and the comparison of different estimation methods. The effect of maze orientation with respect to the beam direction has also been examined in detail. The FLUKA Monte Carlo code was used to simulate the radiation production and transport for a beam loss occurring near a typical three-legged maze. In addition, we have also tested three factorized approximation formulae for the neutron and gamma-ray attenuation in our maze design. It was found that Cossairt's expression fits better and can predict satisfactory results for the neutron attenuation along the maze. We accordingly proposed a set of fitting parameters used with Cossairt's formulae for estimating the gamma-ray attenuation in labyrinths for high-energy electron accelerators. The information presented here will be valuable for our further design revisions and may be useful to those performing similar studies.

  6. Accessing and Using Public Educational Data Sources for School and Leadership Research. Implications from UCEA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Much educational policy research can be conducted with existing data sources, either created for research purposes or for managing and maintaining information on public schooling systems. These often under-used resources offer rich research opportunities on the relationship between teacher and principal careers, school and district differences and…

  7. Source coherence impairments in a direct detection direct sequence optical code-division multiple-access system.

    PubMed

    Fsaifes, Ihsan; Lepers, Catherine; Lourdiane, Mounia; Gallion, Philippe; Beugin, Vincent; Guignard, Philippe

    2007-02-01

    We demonstrate that direct sequence optical code- division multiple-access (DS-OCDMA) encoders and decoders using sampled fiber Bragg gratings (S-FBGs) behave as multipath interferometers. In that case, chip pulses of the prime sequence codes generated by spreading in time-coherent data pulses can result from multiple reflections in the interferometers that can superimpose within a chip time duration. We show that the autocorrelation function has to be considered as the sum of complex amplitudes of the combined chip as the laser source coherence time is much greater than the integration time of the photodetector. To reduce the sensitivity of the DS-OCDMA system to the coherence time of the laser source, we analyze the use of sparse and nonperiodic quadratic congruence and extended quadratic congruence codes.

  8. Semi-device-independent randomness expansion with partially free random sources using 3 →1 quantum random access code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yu-Qian; Gao, Fei; Li, Dan-Dan; Li, Xin-Hui; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2016-09-01

    We have proved that new randomness can be certified by partially free sources using 2 →1 quantum random access code (QRAC) in the framework of semi-device-independent (SDI) protocols [Y.-Q. Zhou, H.-W. Li, Y.-K. Wang, D.-D. Li, F. Gao, and Q.-Y. Wen, Phys. Rev. A 92, 022331 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.92.022331]. To improve the effectiveness of the randomness generation, here we propose the SDI randomness expansion using 3 →1 QRAC and obtain the corresponding classical and quantum bounds of the two-dimensional quantum witness. Moreover, we get the condition which should be satisfied by the partially free sources to successfully certify new randomness, and the analytic relationship between the certified randomness and the two-dimensional quantum witness violation.

  9. Underutilized chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa, Aronia arbutifolia, Aronia prunifolia) accessions are rich sources of anthocyanins, flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids, and proanthocyanidins.

    PubMed

    Taheri, Rod; Connolly, Bryan A; Brand, Mark H; Bolling, Bradley W

    2013-09-11

    Polyphenols from underutilized black, purple, and red aronia (Aronia melanocarpa, Aronia prunifolia, and Aronia arbutifolia) and 'Viking' (Aronia mitschurinii) berries were characterized. Anthocyanin and nonanthocyanin flavonoids were quantitated by UHPLC-DAD-MS and proanthocyanidins by normal-phase HPLC. On a dry weight basis, anthocyanins were mainly cyanidin-3-galactoside, highest in black aronia (3.4-14.8 mg/g) and lowest in red aronia (0.5-0.8 mg/g) as cyandin-3-galactoside equivalents. Berries from 'Viking' and the red accession UC021 had substantially more proanthocyanidins than the other accessions, with 3.3 and 3.8 mg catechin equiv/g, respectively. Chlorogenic acids and quercetin glycosides were most abundant in purple UC047 berries, at 17.3 and 1.3 mg/g, respectively. In contrast to anthocyanin content, total phenol values were highest in berries from red and purple accessions and attributed to phenolic acid and proanthocyanin content. Thus, red, purple, and black aronia berries are rich sources of polyphenols with various levels of polyphenol classes.

  10. Encoding and retrieval processes involved in the access of source information in the absence of item memory.

    PubMed

    Ball, B Hunter; DeWitt, Michael R; Knight, Justin B; Hicks, Jason L

    2014-09-01

    The current study sought to examine the relative contributions of encoding and retrieval processes in accessing contextual information in the absence of item memory using an extralist cuing procedure in which the retrieval cues used to query memory for contextual information were related to the target item but never actually studied. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants studied 1 category member (e.g., onion) from a variety of different categories and at test were presented with an unstudied category label (e.g., vegetable) to probe memory for item and source information. In Experiments 3 and 4, 1 member of unidirectional (e.g., credit or card) or bidirectional (e.g., salt or pepper) associates was studied, whereas the other unstudied member served as a test probe. When recall failed, source information was accessible only when items were processed deeply during encoding (Experiments 1 and 2) and when there was strong forward associative strength between the retrieval cue and target (Experiments 3 and 4). These findings suggest that a retrieval probe diagnostic of semantically related item information reinstantiates information bound in memory during encoding that results in reactivation of associated contextual information, contingent upon sufficient learning of the item itself and the association between the item and its context information.

  11. 10 CFR 39.41 - Design and performance criteria for sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Design and performance criteria for sources. 39.41 Section... LOGGING Equipment § 39.41 Design and performance criteria for sources. (a) A licensee may use a sealed...) Vibration test. The test source must be subject to a vibration from 25 Hz to 500 Hz at 5 g amplitude for...

  12. 10 CFR 39.41 - Design and performance criteria for sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Design and performance criteria for sources. 39.41 Section 39.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.41 Design and performance criteria for sources. (a) A licensee may use a sealed source for use in well logging applications if—...

  13. 10 CFR 39.41 - Design and performance criteria for sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Design and performance criteria for sources. 39.41 Section 39.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.41 Design and performance criteria for sources. (a) A licensee may use a sealed source for use in well logging applications if—...

  14. 10 CFR 39.41 - Design and performance criteria for sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Design and performance criteria for sources. 39.41 Section 39.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.41 Design and performance criteria for sources. (a) A licensee may use a sealed source for use in well logging applications if—...

  15. 40 CFR 63.821 - Designation of affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in 40 CFR 63.2, that complies with the criteria of paragraphs (b)(1) or (b)(2) on and after the... affected source at a facility that is a major source of HAP, as defined in 40 CFR 63.2, that complies with... mass of inks, coatings, varnishes, adhesives, primers, solvents, thinners, reducers, and...

  16. 40 CFR 63.821 - Designation of affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in 40 CFR 63.2, that complies with the criteria of paragraphs (b)(1) or (b)(2) on and after the... affected source at a facility that is a major source of HAP, as defined in 40 CFR 63.2, that complies with... mass of inks, coatings, varnishes, adhesives, primers, solvents, thinners, reducers, and...

  17. 40 CFR 63.190 - Applicability and designation of source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... start-up of the new or reconstructed source or by April 22, 1994, whichever is later; and (ii) The owner...., different companies, affiliates, departments, divisions, etc.) those items of equipment may be aggregated... this rule no later than 18 months after April 22, 1994. (1) New sources that commence construction...

  18. Data processing with microcode designed with source coding

    DOEpatents

    McCoy, James A; Morrison, Steven E

    2013-05-07

    Programming for a data processor to execute a data processing application is provided using microcode source code. The microcode source code is assembled to produce microcode that includes digital microcode instructions with which to signal the data processor to execute the data processing application.

  19. The mechanical design and simulation of a scaled H⁻ Penning ion source.

    PubMed

    Rutter, T; Faircloth, D; Turner, D; Lawrie, S

    2016-02-01

    The existing ISIS Penning H(-) source is unable to produce the beam parameters required for the front end test stand and so a new, high duty factor, high brightness scaled source is being developed. This paper details first the development of an electrically biased aperture plate for the existing ISIS source and second, the design, simulation, and development of a prototype scaled source.

  20. The mechanical design and simulation of a scaled H- Penning ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutter, T.; Faircloth, D.; Turner, D.; Lawrie, S.

    2016-02-01

    The existing ISIS Penning H- source is unable to produce the beam parameters required for the front end test stand and so a new, high duty factor, high brightness scaled source is being developed. This paper details first the development of an electrically biased aperture plate for the existing ISIS source and second, the design, simulation, and development of a prototype scaled source.

  1. Avoiding Design Fixation: Transformation and Abstraction in Mapping from Source to Target

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldschmidt, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    Designers try to "enlist" whatever they can to help themselves arrive at high quality, novel and original designs. When stimuli are used for this purpose, usually provided at the onset of the design process, these stimuli, or sources, may have one of two effects: they may enhance the design search and contribute to a high-quality, creative design,…

  2. Does the source migration pathway of HBCDs to household dust influence their bio-accessibility?

    PubMed

    García-Alcega, Sonia; Rauert, Cassie; Harrad, Stuart; Collins, Chris D

    2016-11-01

    A study was conducted to assess the human bioaccessibility of dust contaminated with hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) via two migration pathways a) volatilisation with subsequent partitioning to dust particles, and b) abrasion of treated textile fibres directly to the dust. This was achieved using previously developed experimental chamber designs to generate dust samples contaminated with HBCDs emitted from a HBCD treated textile curtain. The generated dust samples were exposed to an in vitro colon extended physiologically based extraction test (CE-PBET). The bioaccessibility of the HBCDs which were incorporated within dust as a result of volatilisation from the curtain material with subsequent partitioning to dust was higher than in dusts contaminated with HBCDs via abrasion of the curtain (35% and 15% respectively). We propose this occurs due to a stronger binding of HBCDs to treated fabric fibres than that experienced following volatilisation and sorption of HBCDs to dust particles. PMID:27343943

  3. Design methodology for micro-discrete planar optics with minimum illumination loss for an extended source.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jongmyeong; Park, Changsu; Lee, Jinhyung; Kang, Shinill

    2016-08-01

    Recently, studies have examined techniques for modeling the light distribution of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for various applications owing to their low power consumption, longevity, and light weight. The energy mapping technique, a design method that matches the energy distributions of an LED light source and target area, has been the focus of active research because of its design efficiency and accuracy. However, these studies have not considered the effects of the emitting area of the LED source. Therefore, there are limitations to the design accuracy for small, high-power applications with a short distance between the light source and optical system. A design method for compensating for the light distribution of an extended source after the initial optics design based on a point source was proposed to overcome such limits, but its time-consuming process and limited design accuracy with multiple iterations raised the need for a new design method that considers an extended source in the initial design stage. This study proposed a method for designing discrete planar optics that controls the light distribution and minimizes the optical loss with an extended source and verified the proposed method experimentally. First, the extended source was modeled theoretically, and a design method for discrete planar optics with the optimum groove angle through energy mapping was proposed. To verify the design method, design for the discrete planar optics was achieved for applications in illumination for LED flash. In addition, discrete planar optics for LED illuminance were designed and fabricated to create a uniform illuminance distribution. Optical characterization of these structures showed that the design was optimal; i.e., we plotted the optical losses as a function of the groove angle, and found a clear minimum. Simulations and measurements showed that an efficient optical design was achieved for an extended source.

  4. Design methodology for micro-discrete planar optics with minimum illumination loss for an extended source.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jongmyeong; Park, Changsu; Lee, Jinhyung; Kang, Shinill

    2016-08-01

    Recently, studies have examined techniques for modeling the light distribution of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for various applications owing to their low power consumption, longevity, and light weight. The energy mapping technique, a design method that matches the energy distributions of an LED light source and target area, has been the focus of active research because of its design efficiency and accuracy. However, these studies have not considered the effects of the emitting area of the LED source. Therefore, there are limitations to the design accuracy for small, high-power applications with a short distance between the light source and optical system. A design method for compensating for the light distribution of an extended source after the initial optics design based on a point source was proposed to overcome such limits, but its time-consuming process and limited design accuracy with multiple iterations raised the need for a new design method that considers an extended source in the initial design stage. This study proposed a method for designing discrete planar optics that controls the light distribution and minimizes the optical loss with an extended source and verified the proposed method experimentally. First, the extended source was modeled theoretically, and a design method for discrete planar optics with the optimum groove angle through energy mapping was proposed. To verify the design method, design for the discrete planar optics was achieved for applications in illumination for LED flash. In addition, discrete planar optics for LED illuminance were designed and fabricated to create a uniform illuminance distribution. Optical characterization of these structures showed that the design was optimal; i.e., we plotted the optical losses as a function of the groove angle, and found a clear minimum. Simulations and measurements showed that an efficient optical design was achieved for an extended source. PMID:27505823

  5. An application of design knowledge captured from multiple sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Preston A.; Forbes, John H.

    1990-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope Operational Readiness Expert Safemode Investigation System (HSTORESIS) is a reusable knowledge base shell used to demonstrate the integration and application of design knowledge captured from multiple technical domains. The design of HSTORESIS is based on a partitioning of knowledge to maximize the potential for reuse of certain types of knowledge.

  6. Mimicking a natural pathway for de novo biosynthesis: natural vanillin production from accessible carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jun; Tao, Fei; Du, Huaiqing; Xu, Ping

    2015-09-02

    Plant secondary metabolites have been attracting people's attention for centuries, due to their potentials; however, their production is still difficult and costly. The rich diversity of microbes and microbial genome sequence data provide unprecedented gene resources that enable to develop efficient artificial pathways in microorganisms. Here, by mimicking a natural pathway of plants using microbial genes, a new metabolic route was developed in E. coli for the synthesis of vanillin, the most widely used flavoring agent. A series of factors were systematically investigated for raising production, including efficiency and suitability of genes, gene dosage, and culture media. The metabolically engineered strain produced 97.2 mg/L vanillin from l-tyrosine, 19.3 mg/L from glucose, 13.3 mg/L from xylose and 24.7 mg/L from glycerol. These results show that the metabolic route enables production of natural vanillin from low-cost substrates, suggesting that it is a good strategy to mimick natural pathways for artificial pathway design.

  7. Mimicking a natural pathway for de novo biosynthesis: natural vanillin production from accessible carbon sources

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Jun; Tao, Fei; Du, Huaiqing; Xu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Plant secondary metabolites have been attracting people’s attention for centuries, due to their potentials; however, their production is still difficult and costly. The rich diversity of microbes and microbial genome sequence data provide unprecedented gene resources that enable to develop efficient artificial pathways in microorganisms. Here, by mimicking a natural pathway of plants using microbial genes, a new metabolic route was developed in E. coli for the synthesis of vanillin, the most widely used flavoring agent. A series of factors were systematically investigated for raising production, including efficiency and suitability of genes, gene dosage, and culture media. The metabolically engineered strain produced 97.2 mg/L vanillin from l-tyrosine, 19.3 mg/L from glucose, 13.3 mg/L from xylose and 24.7 mg/L from glycerol. These results show that the metabolic route enables production of natural vanillin from low-cost substrates, suggesting that it is a good strategy to mimick natural pathways for artificial pathway design. PMID:26329726

  8. Utilizing Free and Open Source Software to access, view and compare in situ observations, EO products and model output data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vines, Aleksander; Hamre, Torill; Lygre, Kjetil

    2014-05-01

    The GreenSeas project (Development of global plankton data base and model system for eco-climate early warning) aims to advance the knowledge and predictive capacities of how marine ecosystems will respond to global change. A main task has been to set up a data delivery and monitoring core service following the open and free data access policy implemented in the Global Monitoring for the Environment and Security (GMES) programme. The aim is to ensure open and free access to historical plankton data, new data (EO products and in situ measurements), model data (including estimates of simulation error) and biological, environmental and climatic indicators to a range of stakeholders, such as scientists, policy makers and environmental managers. To this end, we have developed a geo-spatial database of both historical and new in situ physical, biological and chemical parameters for the Southern Ocean, Atlantic, Nordic Seas and the Arctic, and organized related satellite-derived quantities and model forecasts in a joint geo-spatial repository. For easy access to these data, we have implemented a web-based GIS (Geographical Information Systems) where observed, derived and forcasted parameters can be searched, displayed, compared and exported. Model forecasts can also be uploaded dynamically to the system, to allow modelers to quickly compare their results with available in situ and satellite observations. We have implemented the web-based GIS(Geographical Information Systems) system based on free and open source technologies: Thredds Data Server, ncWMS, GeoServer, OpenLayers, PostGIS, Liferay, Apache Tomcat, PRTree, NetCDF-Java, json-simple, Geotoolkit, Highcharts, GeoExt, MapFish, FileSaver, jQuery, jstree and qUnit. We also wanted to used open standards to communicate between the different services and we use WMS, WFS, netCDF, GML, OPeNDAP, JSON, and SLD. The main advantage we got from using FOSS was that we did not have to invent the wheel all over again, but could use

  9. Designing a Competence-Based Syllabus for Turkish Speaking Learners of English in Terms of Accessibility to Universal Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seker, Emrullah

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on designing an English grammar syllabus for Turkish speaking English learners, which is based on the assumption that learning English grammar will be simpler and easier for Turkish speaking learners if it is introduced in a way by which they can achieve accessibility to Universal Grammar. In this study, I analyze almost all…

  10. 28 CFR Appendix D to Part 36 - 1991 Standards for Accessible Design as Originally Published on July 26, 1991

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Originally Published on July 26, 1991 D Appendix D to Part 36 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Pt. 36, App. D Appendix D to Part 36—1991 Standards for Accessible Design as Originally Published on July 26,...

  11. 28 CFR Appendix D to Part 36 - 1991 Standards for Accessible Design as Originally Published on July 26, 1991

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Originally Published on July 26, 1991 D Appendix D to Part 36 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Pt. 36, App. D Appendix D to Part 36—1991 Standards for Accessible Design as Originally Published on July 26,...

  12. Making It Work for Everyone: HTML5 and CSS Level 3 for Responsive, Accessible Design on Your Library's Web Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Stewart C.

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that accessibility and universality are essential to good Web design. A brief review of library science literature sets the issue of Web accessibility in context. The bulk of the article explains the design philosophies of progressive enhancement and responsive Web design, and summarizes recent updates to WCAG 2.0, HTML5, CSS…

  13. Examining How Web Designers' Activity Systems Address Accessibility: Activity Theory as a Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    While accessibility of information technologies is often acknowledged as important, it is frequently not well addressed in practice. The purpose of this study was to examine the work of web developers and content managers to explore why and how accessibility is or is not addressed as an objective as websites are planned, built and maintained.…

  14. Enhancing Access to Information: Designing Catalogs for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyckoson, David A., Ed.

    This book addresses the problem of when a library has limited catalog access, and explores various technological methods to expand the catalog beyond its traditional boundaries. Fourteen chapters describe catalog projects in individual libraries: (1) "Enhancing Access to Information: Building Catalogs for the Future" (David A. Tyckoson); (2) "The…

  15. 40 CFR 61.160 - Applicability and designation of source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Glass Manufacturing Plants § 61.160 Applicability and designation... commercial arsenic as a raw material. This subpart does not apply to pot furnaces. (b) Rebricking is...

  16. 40 CFR 61.160 - Applicability and designation of source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Glass Manufacturing Plants § 61.160 Applicability and designation... commercial arsenic as a raw material. This subpart does not apply to pot furnaces. (b) Rebricking is...

  17. 40 CFR 61.160 - Applicability and designation of source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Glass Manufacturing Plants § 61.160 Applicability and designation... commercial arsenic as a raw material. This subpart does not apply to pot furnaces. (b) Rebricking is...

  18. 40 CFR 61.160 - Applicability and designation of source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Glass Manufacturing Plants § 61.160 Applicability and designation... commercial arsenic as a raw material. This subpart does not apply to pot furnaces. (b) Rebricking is...

  19. 40 CFR 61.160 - Applicability and designation of source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Glass Manufacturing Plants § 61.160 Applicability and designation... commercial arsenic as a raw material. This subpart does not apply to pot furnaces. (b) Rebricking is...

  20. Preconceptual design requirements for the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Rochau, G.E.; Hands, J.A.; Raglin, P.S.; Ramirez, J.J.; Goldstein, S.A.; Cereghino, S.J.; MacLeod, G.

    1998-09-01

    The X-1 Advanced Radiation Source represents the next step in providing the US Department of Energy`s Stockpile Stewardship Program with the high-energy, large volume, laboratory x-ray source for the Radiation Effects Science and Simulation, Inertial Confinement Fusion, and Weapon Physics Programs. Advances in fast pulsed power technology and in z-pinch hohlraums on Sandia National Laboratories` Z Accelerator provide sufficient basis for pursuing the development of X-1. The X-1 plan follows a strategy based on scaling the 2 MJ x-ray output on Z via a 3-fold increase in z-pinch load current. The large volume (>5 cm{sup 3}), high temperature (>150 eV), temporally long (>10 ns) hohlraums are unique outside of underground nuclear weapon testing. Analytical scaling arguments and hydrodynamic simulations indicate that these hohlraums at temperatures of 230--300 eV will ignite thermonuclear fuel and drive the reaction to a yield of 200 to 1,000 MJ in the laboratory. X-1 will provide the high-fidelity experimental capability to certify the survivability and performance of non-nuclear weapon components in hostile radiation environments. Non-ignition sources will provide cold x-ray environments (<15 keV), and high yield fusion burn sources will provide high fidelity warm x-ray environments (15 keV--80 keV).

  1. 40 CFR 63.520 - Applicability and designation of sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Epoxy Resins Production and Non-Nylon... in section 112(a) of the Clean Air Act. Research and development facilities, as defined in §...

  2. 40 CFR 63.520 - Applicability and designation of sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Epoxy Resins Production and Non-Nylon... in section 112(a) of the Clean Air Act. Research and development facilities, as defined in §...

  3. 40 CFR 63.460 - Applicability and designation of source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... source subject to this subpart, you are exempt from the obligation to obtain a permit under 40 CFR part 70 or 71, provided you are not required to obtain a permit under 40 CFR 70.3(a) or 71.3(a) for a... cleaning machines, except solvent cleaning machines used in the manufacture and maintenance of...

  4. 40 CFR 63.100 - Applicability and designation of source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., recovery, or recycling operations at hazardous waste TSDF facilities requiring a permit under 40 CFR part... (i)(3) and (i)(5) of this section to determine whether the vent(s) from a distillation unit is part of the source to which this subpart applies. (1) Where a distillation unit is dedicated to a...

  5. 40 CFR 63.340 - Applicability and designation of sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... subject to this subpart. An example of such a tank is a chrome conversion coating tank where no electrical current is applied. (d) Affected sources in which research and laboratory operations are performed are... permit under 40 CFR part 70 or 71, provided you are not required to obtain a permit under 40 CFR...

  6. 40 CFR 63.340 - Applicability and designation of sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... subject to this subpart. An example of such a tank is a chrome conversion coating tank where no electrical current is applied. (d) Affected sources in which research and laboratory operations are performed are... permit under 40 CFR part 70 or 71, provided you are not required to obtain a permit under 40 CFR...

  7. 40 CFR 63.340 - Applicability and designation of sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... subject to this subpart. An example of such a tank is a chrome conversion coating tank where no electrical current is applied. (d) Affected sources in which research and laboratory operations are performed are... permit under 40 CFR part 70 or 71, provided you are not required to obtain a permit under 40 CFR...

  8. 40 CFR 63.340 - Applicability and designation of sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... subject to this subpart. An example of such a tank is a chrome conversion coating tank where no electrical current is applied. (d) Affected sources in which research and laboratory operations are performed are... permit under 40 CFR part 70 or 71, provided you are not required to obtain a permit under 40 CFR...

  9. 40 CFR 63.340 - Applicability and designation of sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... subject to this subpart. An example of such a tank is a chrome conversion coating tank where no electrical current is applied. (d) Affected sources in which research and laboratory operations are performed are... permit under 40 CFR part 70 or 71, provided you are not required to obtain a permit under 40 CFR...

  10. 40 CFR 63.821 - Designation of affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ingredients prior to application; ink or coating mixing for viscosity adjustment, color tint or additive... in 40 CFR 63.2, that complies with the criteria of paragraphs (b)(1) or (b)(2) on and after the... §§ 63.829(e) and 63.830(b)(1) of this subpart. (1) The owner or operator of the affected source...

  11. 40 CFR 63.821 - Designation of affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ingredients prior to application; ink or coating mixing for viscosity adjustment, color tint or additive... in 40 CFR 63.2, that complies with the criteria of paragraphs (b)(1) or (b)(2) on and after the... §§ 63.829(e) and 63.830(b)(1) of this subpart. (1) The owner or operator of the affected source...

  12. 40 CFR 63.821 - Designation of affected sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ingredients prior to application; ink or coating mixing for viscosity adjustment, color tint or additive... in 40 CFR 63.2, that complies with the criteria of paragraphs (b)(1) or (b)(2) on and after the... §§ 63.829(e) and 63.830(b)(1) of this subpart. (1) The owner or operator of the affected source...

  13. 40 CFR 63.190 - Applicability and designation of source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... source as defined in section 112(a) of the Act. The specified processes are further defined in § 63.191...) Chlorothalonil, (iv) Dacthal, and (v) Tordon ® acid. (4) Processes producing the polymers/resins or other...). (6) Processes producing the polymers/resins or other chemical products listed in paragraphs...

  14. Design of an electron gun for terahertz radiation source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ji; Pei, Yuan-Ji; Hu, Tong-Ning; Chen, Qu-Shan; Feng, Guang-Yao; Shang, Lei; Li, Cheng-Long

    2014-04-01

    An EC-ITC (External-Cathode Independently Tunable Cells) RF gun was employed with the aim of obtaining short-pulse bunches with high peak current for a terahertz radiation source. A gridded DC gun plays a key role as the external injecting electron source of the ITC RF gun, the performance of which determines the beam quality in the injector and transport line. In order to make the beam well compressed in the ITC RF gun, the energy of the electrons acquired from the gridded DC gun should be 15 keV at most. A proper structure of the gridded gun with double-anode is shown to overcome the strong space- charge force on the cathode, which is able to generate 6 μs beam with 4.5 A current successfully.

  15. The design of the multipurpose Lusi drone. When technology can access harsh environments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeo, Giovanni; Di Stefano, Giuseppe; Mazzini, Adriano; Iarocci, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Extreme and inaccessible environments are a new frontier that unmanned and remotely operated vehicles can today safely access and monitor. The Lusi mud eruption (NE Java Island, Indonesia) represents one of these harsh environments that are totally unreachable with traditional techniques. Here boiling mud is constantly spewed tens of meters in height and tall gas clouds surround the 100 meters wide active crater. The crater is surrounded by a 600 meters circular zone of hot mud that prevents any approach to investigate and sample the eruption site. In the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n° 308126) we assembled and designed a multipurpose drone to survey the eruption site. The Lusi drone is equipped with numerous airborne devices suitable for use on board of other multicopters. During the missions three cameras can complete 1) video survey, 2) high resolution photogrammetry of desired and preselected polygons, and 3) thermal photogrammetry surveys with infra-red camera to locate hot fluids seepage areas or faulted zones. Crater sampling and monitoring operations can be pre-planned with a flight software, and the pilot is required only for take-off and landing. An automatic winch allows the deployment of gas, mud and water samplers and contact thermometers to be operated with no risk for the aircraft. During the winch operations (that can be performed automatically) the aircraft hovers at a safety height until the tasks are completed while being controlled by the winch embedded processor. The drone is also equipped with a GPS connected CO2 and CH4 sensors. Gridded surveys using these devices allowed obtaining 2D maps of the concentration and distribution of various gasses over the area covered by the flight path.

  16. Impact of access port diameter on the long reach manipulator design

    SciTech Connect

    Stoughton, R.S.

    1994-04-01

    Many of the single shell storage tanks (SSTs) on the Hanford site appear to have central 42-in. risers which could be used as access ports for the Long Reach Manipulator (LRM). However, about half of the tanks are known to not have a central 42-in. riser and it has recently been discovered that of the tanks whose drawings indicate central 42-in. risers, the majority have been plugged, sealed, or taper down to a much smaller diameter at ground level. Thus, it can be assumed that a central access port for the LRM will have to be made. There are many issues involved in determining the best diameter for this access port such as radiation exposure, contamination prevention, and availability of remote excavation technology. This report analyzes the relationship between the access port diameter and the performance characteristics of the LRM. Previous work has assumed that the mast diameter would be 80% of the access port diameter. In this report, the maximum mast diameter will be varied rather than the access port diameter, leaving the issue of the required clearance between the mast and the access port open.

  17. High School Students' Use of Paper-Based and Internet-Based Information Sources in the Engineering Design Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieper, Jon; Mentzer, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    Mentzer and Becker (2011) and Becker and Mentzer (2012) demonstrated that high school students engaged in engineering design problems spent more time accessing information and spent more time designing when provided with Internet access. They studied high school students engaged in an engineering design challenge. The two studies attempted to…

  18. Integrated source and channel encoded digital communication system design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alem, W. K.; Huth, G. K.; Simon, M. K.

    1978-01-01

    The particular Ku-band carrier, PN despreading, and symbol synchronization strategies, which were selected for implementation in the Ku-band transponder aboard the orbiter, were assessed and evaluated from a systems performance viewpoint, verifying that system specifications were met. A study was performed of the design and implementation of tracking techniques which are suitable for incorporation into the Orbiter Ku-band communication system. Emphasis was placed on maximizing tracking accuracy and communication system flexibility while minimizing cost, weight, and system complexity of Orbiter and ground systems hardware. The payload communication study assessed the design and performance of the forward link and return link bent-pipe relay modes for attached and detached payloads. As part of this study, a design for a forward link bent-pipe was proposed which employs a residual carrier but which is tracked by the existing Costas loop.

  19. The Design of Passive Optical Networking+Ethernet over Coaxial Cable Access Networking and Video-on-Demand Services Carrying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Wei

    2013-07-01

    Video on demand is a very attractive service used for entertainment, education, and other purposes. The design of passive optical networking+Ethernet over coaxial cable accessing and a home gateway system is proposed. The network integrates the passive optical networking and Ethernet over coaxial cable to provide high dedicated bandwidth for the metropolitan video-on-demand services. Using digital video broadcasting, IP television protocol, unicasting, and broadcasting mechanisms maximizes the system throughput. The home gateway finishes radio frequency signal receiving and provides three kinds of interfaces for high-definition video, voice, and data, which achieves triple-play and wire/wireless access synchronously.

  20. Atomic hydrogen beam source: a convenient, extended cavity, microwave discharge design.

    PubMed

    Murphy, E J; Brophy, J H

    1979-05-01

    An extended cavity design of a microwave discharge source for production of intense beams of atomic, radical, and metastable species in vacuo is described. The extended cavity enables the discharge to be run at the beam source nozzle while the power connection and tuning elements remain conveniently outside the apparatus. This design minimizes wall recombination losses to produce intense atomic hydrogen beams with considerably less engineering than previous discharge sources.

  1. 40 CFR 61.110 - Applicability and designation of sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-ended valves or lines, valves, connectors, surge control vessels, bottoms receivers, and control devices... equipment in benzene service that is located at a plant site designed to produce or use less than 1,000... is also subject to the provisions of 40 CFR part 60 only will be required to comply with...

  2. 40 CFR 61.110 - Applicability and designation of sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-ended valves or lines, valves, connectors, surge control vessels, bottoms receivers, and control devices... equipment in benzene service that is located at a plant site designed to produce or use less than 1,000... is also subject to the provisions of 40 CFR part 60 only will be required to comply with...

  3. 40 CFR 61.110 - Applicability and designation of sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-ended valves or lines, valves, connectors, surge control vessels, bottoms receivers, and control devices... equipment in benzene service that is located at a plant site designed to produce or use less than 1,000... is also subject to the provisions of 40 CFR part 60 only will be required to comply with...

  4. 40 CFR 61.110 - Applicability and designation of sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-ended valves or lines, valves, connectors, surge control vessels, bottoms receivers, and control devices... equipment in benzene service that is located at a plant site designed to produce or use less than 1,000... is also subject to the provisions of 40 CFR part 60 only will be required to comply with...

  5. 40 CFR 61.110 - Applicability and designation of sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-ended valves or lines, valves, connectors, surge control vessels, bottoms receivers, and control devices... equipment in benzene service that is located at a plant site designed to produce or use less than 1,000... is also subject to the provisions of 40 CFR part 60 only will be required to comply with...

  6. Monitoring Design for Source Identification in Water Distribution Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The design of sensor networks for the purpose of monitoring for contaminants in water distribution systems is currently an active area of research. Much of the effort has been directed at the contamination detection problem and the expression of public health protection objective...

  7. Integrated source and channel encoded digital communication system design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huth, G. K.; Trumpis, B. D.; Udalov, S.

    1975-01-01

    Various aspects of space shuttle communication systems were studied. The following major areas were investigated: burst error correction for shuttle command channels; performance optimization and design considerations for Costas receivers with and without bandpass limiting; experimental techniques for measuring low level spectral components of microwave signals; and potential modulation and coding techniques for the Ku-band return link. Results are presented.

  8. Integrated source and channel encoded digital communication system design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huth, G. K.; Udalov, S.

    1974-01-01

    This study investigated the configuration and integration of a wideband communication system with a Ku-band rendezvous radar system. The goal of the study was to provide as much commonality between the two systems as possible. The antenna design was described with the only change being the requirement for dual polarization (linear for the radar system and circular for the communication system).

  9. Dosimetric comparison of four new design {sup 103}Pd brachytherapy sources: Optimal design using silver and copper rod cores

    SciTech Connect

    Hosseini, S. Hamed; Sadeghi, Mahdi; Ataeinia, Vahideh

    2009-07-15

    Four new brachytherapy sources, IRA1-{sup 103}Pd, IRA2-{sup 103}Pd, IRA3-{sup 103}Pd, and IRA4-{sup 103}Pd, have been developed at Agricultural, Medical, and Industrial Research School and are designed for permanent implant application. With the goal of determining an optimal design for a {sup 103}Pd source, this article compares the dosimetric properties of these sources with reference to the authors' earlier IRA-{sup 103}Pd source. The four new sources differ in end cap configuration and thickness and in the core material, silver or copper, that carries the adsorbed {sup 103}Pd. Dosimetric data derived from the authors' Monte Carlo simulation results are reported in accordance with the updated AAPM Task Group No. 43 report (TG-43U1). For each source, the authors obtained detailed results for the dose rate constant {Lambda}, the radial dose function g(r), the anisotropy function F(r,{theta}), and the anisotropy factor {phi}{sub an}(r). In this study, the optimal source IRA3-{sup 103}Pd provides the most isotropic dose distribution in water with the dose rate constant of 0.678({+-}0.1%) cGy h{sup -1} U{sup -1}. The IRA3-{sup 103}Pd design has a silver rod core combined with thin-wall, concave end caps. Finally, the authors compared the results for their optimal source with published results for those of other source manufacturers.

  10. Beam position monitor design for a third generation light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhichu; Leng, Yongbin; Ye, Kairong; Zhao, Guobi; Yuan, Renxian

    2014-11-01

    The measurement of the beam orbit plays a very important role in particle accelerators. The button-type beam position monitor (BPM) was designed for the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility to reduce the impedances and to guarantee a high resolution of the measurement. Position resolution, beam impedance, higher-order mode, and impedance matching have been studied during the design based on the physical parameters of the storage ring at the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility. Meanwhile, an analytic formula of the BPM broadband impedance was derived based on a resistor-capacitor equivalent circuit. Thus, the impedance of the BPM could be analyzed quantitatively by simply measuring the capacitance of the electrode. This formula had been verified by comparing the results of the calculations of the formula and the simulations in MAFIA.

  11. Tumor cell lysates as immunogenic sources for cancer vaccine design

    PubMed Central

    González, Fermín E; Gleisner, Alejandra; Falcón-Beas, Felipe; Osorio, Fabiola; López, Mercedes N; Salazar-Onfray, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    Autologous dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) are a promising immunological tool for cancer therapy. These stimulate the antitumor response and immunological memory generation. Nevertheless, many patients remain refractory to DC approaches. Antigen (Ag) delivery to DCs is relevant to vaccine success, and antigen peptides, tumor-associated proteins, tumor cells, autologous tumor lysates, and tumor-derived mRNA have been tested as Ag sources. Recently, DCs loaded with allogeneic tumor cell lysates were used to induce a potent immunological response. This strategy provides a reproducible pool of almost all potential Ags suitable for patient use, independent of MHC haplotypes or autologous tumor tissue availability. However, optimizing autologous tumor cell lysate preparation is crucial to enhancing efficacy. This review considers the role of cancer cell-derived lysates as a relevant source of antigens and as an activating factor for ex vivo therapeutic DCs capable of responding to neoplastic cells. These promising therapies are associated with the prolonged survival of advanced cancer patients. PMID:25625929

  12. Conceptual design for one megawatt spallation neutron source at Argonne

    SciTech Connect

    Chio, Y.; Bailey, J.; Brown, B.

    1993-12-31

    The feasibility study of a spallation neutron source based on a rapid cycling synchrotron which delivers a proton beam of 2 GeV in energy and 0.5mA time-average current at a 30-Hz repetition rate is presented. The lattice consists of 90-degree phase advanced FODO cells with dispersion-free straight sections, and has a three-fold symmetry. The ring magnet system will be energized by 20-Hz and 60-Hz resonant circuits to decrease the dB/dt during the acceleration cycle. This lowers the peak acceleration voltage requirement to 130kV. The single turn extraction system will be used to extract the beam alternatively to two target stations. The first station will operate at 10Hz for research using long wavelength neutrons, and the second station will use the remaining pulses, collectively, providing 36 neutron beams. The 400-MeV negative-hydrogen-ion injector linac consists of an ion source, rf quadrupole, matching section, 100MeV drift-tube linac, and a 300-Mev coupled-cavity linac.

  13. ELECTRON BEAM ION SOURCE PREINJECTOR PROJECT (EBIS) CONCEPTUAL DESIGN REPORT.

    SciTech Connect

    ALESSI, J.; BARTON, D.; BEEBE, E.; GASSNER, D.; ET AL.

    2005-02-28

    This report describes a new heavy ion pre-injector for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) based on a high charge state Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, and a short Linac. The highly successful development of an EBIS at BNL now makes it possible to replace the present pre-injector that is based on an electrostatic Tandem with a reliable, low maintenance Linac-based pre-injector. Linac-based pre-injectors are presently used at most accelerator and collider facilities with the exception of RHIC, where the required gold beam intensities could only be met with a Tandem until the recent EBIS development. EBIS produces high charge state ions directly, eliminating the need for the two stripping foils presently used with the Tandem. Unstable stripping efficiencies of these foils are a significant source of luminosity degradation in RHIC. The high reliability and flexibility of the new Linac-based pre-injector will lead to increased integrated luminosity at RHIC and is an essential component for the long-term success of the RHIC facility. This new pre-injector, based on an EBIS, also has the potential for significant future intensity increases and can produce heavy ion beams of all species including uranium beams and, as part of a future upgrade, might also be used to produce polarized {sup 3}He beams. These capabilities will be critical to the future luminosity upgrades and electron-ion collisions in RHIC. The new RFQ and Linac that are used to accelerate beams from the EBIS to an energy sufficient for injection into the Booster are both very similar to existing devices already in operation at other facilities. Injection into the Booster will occur at the same location as the existing injection from the Tandem.

  14. Optical design method of freeform lens for a high-power extended LED source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong; Du, Naifeng; Wu, Yuefeng; Huang, Huamao

    2012-10-01

    In view of limitation for LED optical design method as ideal point source, a new uniform illumination optical design method of freeform lens for a high-power LED is present in the paper.By establishing an energy corresponding relationship between the extended LED source and the point illumination of the receiving surface, a freeform lens optical model achieving uniform illumination in target plane is obtained.The optical simulation results of uniform light intensity curve of the model are compared with the one designed by an approximate point source method. The results show that the new method can effectively overcome the shortages from the point source design.It is more accurately to control the correspondence relationship of light energy and the outgoing direction of light.The illumination uniformity of the freeform lens is greater than 75% and also meets the design requirements.

  15. ELECTRON BEAM ION SOURCE PREINJECTOR PROJECT (EBIS) CONCEPTUAL DESIGN REPORT.

    SciTech Connect

    ALESSI, J.; BARTON, D.; BEEBE, E.; GASSNER, D.; GRANDINETTI, R.; HSEUH, H.; JAVIDFAR, A.; KPONOU, A.; LAMBIASE, R.; LESSARD, E.; LOCKEY, R.; LODESTRO, V.; MAPES, M.; MIRABELLA, D.; NEHRING, T.; OERTER, B.; PENDZICK, A.; PIKIN, A.; RAPARIA, D.; RITTER, J.; ROSER, T.; RUSSO, T.; SNYDSTRUP, L.; WILINSKI, M.; ZALTSMAN, A.; ZHANG, S.

    2005-09-01

    This report describes a new heavy ion pre-injector for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) based on a high charge state Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, and a short Linear accelerator (Linac). The highly successful development of an EBIS at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) now makes it possible to replace the present pre-injector that is based on an electrostatic Tandem with a reliable, low maintenance Linac-based pre-injector. Linac-based preinjectors are presently used at most accelerator and collider facilities with the exception of RHIC, where the required gold beam intensities could only be met with a Tandem until the recent EBIS development. EBIS produces high charge state ions directly, eliminating the need for the two stripping foils presently used with the Tandem. Unstable stripping efficiencies of these foils are a significant source of luminosity degradation in RHIC. The high reliability and flexibility of the new Linac-based pre-injector will lead to increased integrated luminosity at RHIC and is an essential component for the long-term success of the RHIC facility. This new pre-injector, based on an EBIS, also has the potential for significant future intensity increases and can produce heavy ion beams of all species including uranium beams and, as part of a future upgrade, might also be used to produce polarized {sup 3}He beams. These capabilities will be critical to the future luminosity upgrades and electron-ion collisions in RHIC. The proposed pre-injector system would also provide for a major enhancement in capability for the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL), which utilizes heavy-ion beams from the RHIC complex. EBIS would allow for the acceleration of all important ion species for the NASA radiobiology program, such as, helium, argon, and neon which are unavailable with the present Tandem injector. In addition, the new system would allow for very rapid switching of ion species for

  16. Design of pulse waveform for waveform division multiple access UWB wireless communication system.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhendong; Wang, Zhirui; Liu, Xiaohui; Wu, Zhilu

    2014-01-01

    A new multiple access scheme, Waveform Division Multiple Access (WDMA) based on the orthogonal wavelet function, is presented. After studying the correlation properties of different categories of single wavelet functions, the one with the best correlation property will be chosen as the foundation for combined waveform. In the communication system, each user is assigned to different combined orthogonal waveform. Demonstrated by simulation, combined waveform is more suitable than single wavelet function to be a communication medium in WDMA system. Due to the excellent orthogonality, the bit error rate (BER) of multiuser with combined waveforms is so close to that of single user in a synchronous system. That is to say, the multiple access interference (MAI) is almost eliminated. Furthermore, even in an asynchronous system without multiuser detection after matched filters, the result is still pretty ideal and satisfactory by using the third combination mode that will be mentioned in the study.

  17. Forbidden pitches: causes, source optimization, and their role in design rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostol, Štefan; Hurley, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Forbidden pitches are the result of unwanted, non-linear effects that limit yield and not always well understood. Yet, as approximations, they are implicitly deployed through design rules. Many believe they result as a consequence of more complicated light sources. We develop an analytical model of aerial image quality as a function of light source. We show the effect is most pronounced for a point light source, the simplest of all. We develop a method to improve print image quality by illumination source optimization, and show promising first results. Additionally, it is shown how design rules capture forbidden pitches unsatisfactorily.

  18. Note: Design principles of a linear array multi-channel effusive metal-vapor atom source

    SciTech Connect

    Jana, B.; Majumder, A.; Thakur, K. B.; Das, A. K.

    2013-10-15

    Atomic beams can easily be produced by allowing atoms to effuse through a channel. In an earlier investigation [A. Majumder et al., Vacuum 83, 989 (2009)], we had designed, fabricated, and characterized an effusive metal-vapor source using collinear-array of multi-channel. In this note, we describe the theoretical basis of designing the source. Atom density in atomic beam has been estimated using a set of analytical expressions for long-channel operated in transparent mode. Parametric studies on aspect ratio of channel, inter-channel separation, beam width, and vertical distance from the source are carried out. They are useful in providing physical picture and optimizing design parameters.

  19. Design of compact and smooth free-form optical system with uniform illuminance for LED source.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yi; Feng, Zexin; Han, Yanjun; Li, Hongtao

    2010-04-26

    A feedback modification method based on variable separation mapping is proposed in the design of free-form optical system with uniform illuminance for LED source. In this method, the non-negligible size of LED source is taken into account, and a smooth optical system is established with single freeform surface regenerated by adding feedback to the lens design for a point light source. More rounds of feedback can improve the lens performance. As an example, a smooth free-form lens with rectangular illuminance distribution is designed, and the illuminance uniformity is improved from 18.75% to 81.08% after eight times feedback.

  20. Francium sources at Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro: Design and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Stancari, G.; Veronesi, S.; Corradi, L.; Atutov, S.N.; Calabrese, R.; Dainelli, A.; Mariotti, E.; Moi, L.; Sanguinetti, S.; Tomassetti, L.

    2006-03-15

    A facility for the production of radioactive francium is operating at the laboratories of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) in Legnaro, Italy. The goal is to collect a cold sample of radioactive atoms in a magneto-optical trap for studies in atomic, nuclear, and particle physics. Production of francium is achieved via the fusion-evaporation reaction {sup 197}Au({sup 18}O,kn){sup 215-k}Fr generated by a {approx}100-MeV {sup 18}O{sup 6+} beam on a thick gold target. The production target is heated to {approx}1200 K and kept at a potential of +3 kV to enhance Fr diffusion and surface desorption. Average production rates are 0.7x10{sup 6} ions/s for {sup 210}Fr with a primary beam flux of 10{sup 12} particles/s, with peaks of 2x10{sup 6} ions/s. Details are given on the design and construction of the production targets and on the measurements that characterize their performance.

  1. Francium sources at Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro: Design and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stancari, G.; Veronesi, S.; Corradi, L.; Atutov, S. N.; Calabrese, R.; Dainelli, A.; Mariotti, E.; Moi, L.; Sanguinetti, S.; Tomassetti, L.

    2006-03-01

    A facility for the production of radioactive francium is operating at the laboratories of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) in Legnaro, Italy. The goal is to collect a cold sample of radioactive atoms in a magneto-optical trap for studies in atomic, nuclear, and particle physics. Production of francium is achieved via the fusion-evaporation reaction Au197(O18,kn)215-kFr generated by a ˜100-MeV O6+18 beam on a thick gold target. The production target is heated to ˜1200K and kept at a potential of +3kV to enhance Fr diffusion and surface desorption. Average production rates are 0.7×106ions/s for Fr210 with a primary beam flux of 1012particles/s, with peaks of 2×106ions/s. Details are given on the design and construction of the production targets and on the measurements that characterize their performance.

  2. Gender Differences in South African Men and Women's Access to and Evaluation of Informal Sources of Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Erin; Cooper, Diane; Gibbs, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    While much research has documented unsatisfactory sexual and reproductive health (SRH) awareness among young people in South Africa, understanding of gender differences in access to and evaluation of SRH information is limited. This paper concerned itself with men and women's informal sources and content of SRH, and gendered divergences…

  3. Access for Disabled People to School Buildings: Management and Design Guide. Building Bulletin 91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Sue

    England's Department for Education and Employment provides construction standards with regard to access to school buildings for people with disabilities. This bulletin gives supplementary nonstatutory guidance for school governors and commissioning bodies, seeking to promote a general understanding of the issues and providing guidelines for the…

  4. Interface design challenges for single point access to diverse and dispersed science databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harberts, R. L.; Pfister, R. G.; Dobinson, E. R.

    1992-01-01

    Efforts to relate the diversity of terminology in science data bases in a logical way for information system interfaces are discussed. Attention is given to the NASA development of the Information Management System (V. 0 IMS), a prototypic common interface for accessing dispersed earth science data.

  5. Design and Operation of an Optically-Accessible Modular Reactor for Diagnostics of Thermal Thin Film Deposition Processes.

    PubMed

    Kimes, W A; Sperling, B A; Maslars, J E

    2015-01-01

    The design and operation of a simple, optically-accessible modular reactor for probing thermal thin film deposition processes, such as atomic layer deposition processes (ALD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD), is described. This reactor has a nominal footprint of 225 cm(2) and a mass of approximately 6.6 kg, making it small enough to conveniently function as a modular component of an optical train. The design is simple, making fabrication straightforward and relatively inexpensive. Reactor operation is characterized using two infrared absorption measurements to determine exhaust times for tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium and water, proto-typical ALD precursors, in a pressure and flow regime commonly used for ALD.

  6. Equal Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Patta, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Presents an interview with Stephen McCarthy, co-partner and president of Equal Access ADA Consulting Architects of San Diego, California, about designing schools to naturally integrate compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). (EV)

  7. Mini-Brayton heat source assembly design study. Volume 1: Space shuttle mission. [feasibility of Brayton isotope power system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Conceptual design definitions of a heat source assembly for use in nominal 500 watt electrical (W(e)) 1200 W(e)and 2000 W(e) mini-Brayton isotope power systems are reported. The HSA is an independent package which maintains thermal and nuclear control of an isotope fueled heat source and transfers the thermal energy to a Brayton rotating unit turbine-alternator-compressor power conversion unit.

  8. Design of nest access grids and perches in front of the nests: Influence on the behavior of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Stämpfli, K; Buchwalder, T; Fröhlich, E K F; Roth, B A

    2013-04-01

    In aviary systems for laying hens, it is important to provide suitable nest access platforms in front of the nests, allowing hens to reach and explore each of the nests easily. This access platform is needed to achieve good nest acceptance by the hens and thereby prevent mislaid eggs. In the present experiment, the behavior of hens using 2 different nest access platforms, a plastic grid and 2 wooden perches, was examined. Furthermore, the nests were placed on both sides of the aviary rack (corridor side and outdoor side), either integrated into the aviary rack itself (integrated nest; IN) or placed on the walls of the pens (wall nest; WN), resulting in a 2 × 2 factorial design Four thousand five hundred white laying hens were housed in 20 test pens. The eggs in the nests and mislaid eggs were collected daily, and the behavior of hens on the nest accesses was filmed during wk 25 and 26, using focal observation and scan sampling methods. More balancing, body contact, and agonistic interactions were expected for nests with perches, whereas more walking and nest inspections were expected for nests with grids. There were more mislaid eggs and balancing found in pens equipped with nests with wooden perches. More agonistic interactions and balancing, less standing, and a longer duration of nest inspection were found with the WN compared with the IN. Interactions between platform design and position of the nests were found for duration of nest visits, body contact, and walking, with the highest amount for WN equipped with plastic grids. Nests on the corridor side were favored by the hens. Nest-related behaviors, such as nest inspection, standing, and walking, decreased over time as did the number of hens on the nest accesses, whereas sitting increased. These results indicate that the hens had more difficulties in gripping the perches as designed. The lower number of hens on the nest access platforms in front of IN may be due to a better distribution around nests and tier

  9. Light source design using Kagome-lattice hollow core photonic crystal fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Md. Anwar; Namihira, Yoshinori

    2014-09-01

    Supercontinuum (SC) light source is designed using high pressure Xe-filled hollow core Kagome-lattice photonic crystal fiber. Using finite element method with perfectly matched layer, SC spectra in normal chromatic dispersion region have been generated using picosecond optical pulses from relatively less expensive laser sources.

  10. An Evaluation of Open Source Learning Management Systems According to Administration Tools and Curriculum Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdamli, Fezile

    2007-01-01

    Distance education is becoming more important in the universities and schools. The aim of this research is to evaluate the current existing Open Source Learning Management Systems according to Administration tool and Curriculum Design. For this, seventy two Open Source Learning Management Systems have been subjected to a general evaluation. After…

  11. Visuals for Information Access: A New Philosophy for Screen and Interface Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Marshall G.

    Computer-based instruction (CBI) has undergone tremendous changes in the past decade. This paper focuses on the following three areas of designing information presentation: (1) screen design literature is dated, and the existing guidelines do not allow for advances in computer technology; (2) open-ended guidelines may offer designers sufficient…

  12. Linac Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) Conceptual Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stohr, J

    2011-11-16

    The LCLS-II Project is designed to support the DOE Office of Science mission, as described in the 22 April 2010 Mission Need Statement. The scope of the Project was chosen to provide an increase in capabilities and capacity for the facility both at project completion in 2017 and in the subsequent decade. The Project is designed to address all points of the Mission Need Statement (MNS): (1) Expanded spectral reach; (2) Capability to provide x-ray beams with controllable polarization; (3) Capability to provide 'pump' pulses over a vastly extended range of photon energies to a sample, synchronized to LCLS-II x-ray probe pulses with controllable inter-pulse time delay; and (4) Increase of user access through parallel rather than serial x-ray beam use within the constraint of a $300M-$400M Total Project Cost (TPC) range. The LCLS-II Project will construct: (1) A hard x-ray undulator source (2-13 keV); (2) A soft x-ray undulator source (250-2,000 eV); (3) A dedicated, independent electron source for these new undulators, using sectors 10-20 of the SLAC linac; (4) Modifications to existing SLAC facilities for the injector and new shielded enclosures for the undulator sources, beam dumps and x-ray front ends; (5) A new experiment hall capable of accommodating four experiment stations; and (6) Relocation of the two soft x-ray instruments in the existing Near Experiment Hall (NEH) to the new experiment hall (Experiment Hall-II). A key objective of LCLS-II is to maintain near-term international leadership in the study of matter on the fundamental atomic length scale and the associated ultrafast time scales of atomic motion and electronic transformation. Clearly, such studies promise scientific breakthroughs in key areas of societal needs like energy, environment, health and technology, and they are uniquely enabled by forefront X-ray Free Electron Laser (X-FEL) facilities. While the implementation of LCLS-II extends to about 2017, it is important to realize that LCLS-II only

  13. Data Governance and Stewardship: Designing Data Stewardship Entities and Advancing Data Access

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, Sara

    2010-01-01

    U.S. health policy is engaged in a struggle over access to health information, in particular, the conditions under which information should be accessible for research when appropriate privacy protections and security safeguards are in place. The expanded use of health information—an inevitable step in an information age—is widely considered be essential to health system reform. Models exist for the creation of data-sharing arrangements that promote proper use of information in a safe and secure environment and with attention to ethical standards. Data stewardship is a concept with deep roots in the science and practice of data collection, sharing, and analysis. Reflecting the values of fair information practice, data stewardship denotes an approach to the management of data, particularly data that can identify individuals. The concept of a data steward is intended to convey a fiduciary (or trust) level of responsibility toward the data. Data governance is the process by which responsibilities of stewardship are conceptualized and carried out. As the concept of health information data stewardship advances in a technology-enabled environment, the question is whether legal barriers to data access and use will begin to give way. One possible answer may lie in defining the public interest in certain data uses, tying provider participation in federal health programs to the release of all-payer data to recognized data stewardship entities for aggregation and management, and enabling such entities to foster and enable the creation of knowledge through research. PMID:21054365

  14. Design Strategies for Optically-Accessible, High-Temperature, High-Pressure Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. F. Rice; R. R. Steeper; C. A. LaJeunesse; R. G. Hanush; J. D. Aiken

    2000-02-01

    The authors have developed two optical cell designs for high-pressure and high-temperature fluid research: one for flow systems, and the other for larger batch systems. The flow system design uses spring washers to balance the unequal thermal expansions of the reactor and the window materials. A typical design calculation is presented showing the relationship between system pressure, operating temperature, and torque applied to the window-retaining nut. The second design employs a different strategy more appropriate for larger windows. This design uses two seals: one for the window that benefits from system pressure, and a second one that relies on knife-edge, metal-to-metal contact.

  15. Design strategies for optically-accessible, high-temperature, high-pressure reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. F. Rice; R. R. Steeper; C. A. LaJeunesse; R. G. Hanush; J. D. Aiken

    2000-02-01

    The authors have developed two optical cell designs for high-pressure and high-temperature fluid research: one for flow systems, and the other for larger batch systems. The flow system design uses spring washers to balance the unequal thermal expansions of the reactor and the window materials. A typical design calculation is presented showing the relationship between system pressure, operating temperature, and torque applied to the window-retaining nut. The second design employs a different strategy more appropriate for larger windows. This design uses two seals: one for the window that benefits from system pressure, and a second one that relies on knife-edge, metal-to-metal contact.

  16. Design of a new electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Oshima National College of Maritime Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Asaji, T. Hirabara, N.; Izumihara, T.; Nakamizu, T.; Ohba, T.; Nakamura, T.; Furuse, M.; Hitobo, T.; Kato, Y.

    2014-02-15

    A new electron cyclotron resonance ion/plasma source has been designed and will be built at Oshima National College of Maritime Technology by early 2014. We have developed an ion source that allows the control of the plasma parameters over a wide range of electron temperatures for material research. A minimum-B magnetic field composed of axial mirror fields and radial cusp fields was designed using mainly Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets. The axial magnetic field can be varied by three solenoid coils. The apparatus has 2.45 GHz magnetron and 2.5–6.0 GHz solid-state microwave sources.

  17. A constrained joint source/channel coder design and vector quantization of nonstationary sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayood, Khalid; Chen, Y. C.; Nori, S.; Araj, A.

    1993-01-01

    The emergence of broadband ISDN as the network for the future brings with it the promise of integration of all proposed services in a flexible environment. In order to achieve this flexibility, asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) has been proposed as the transfer technique. During this period a study was conducted on the bridging of network transmission performance and video coding. The successful transmission of variable bit rate video over ATM networks relies on the interaction between the video coding algorithm and the ATM networks. Two aspects of networks that determine the efficiency of video transmission are the resource allocation algorithm and the congestion control algorithm. These are explained in this report. Vector quantization (VQ) is one of the more popular compression techniques to appear in the last twenty years. Numerous compression techniques, which incorporate VQ, have been proposed. While the LBG VQ provides excellent compression, there are also several drawbacks to the use of the LBG quantizers including search complexity and memory requirements, and a mismatch between the codebook and the inputs. The latter mainly stems from the fact that the VQ is generally designed for a specific rate and a specific class of inputs. In this work, an adaptive technique is proposed for vector quantization of images and video sequences. This technique is an extension of the recursively indexed scalar quantization (RISQ) algorithm.

  18. A constrained joint source/channel coder design and vector quantization of nonstationary sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayood, Khalid; Chen, Y. C.; Nori, S.; Araj, A.

    1993-12-01

    The emergence of broadband ISDN as the network for the future brings with it the promise of integration of all proposed services in a flexible environment. In order to achieve this flexibility, asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) has been proposed as the transfer technique. During this period a study was conducted on the bridging of network transmission performance and video coding. The successful transmission of variable bit rate video over ATM networks relies on the interaction between the video coding algorithm and the ATM networks. Two aspects of networks that determine the efficiency of video transmission are the resource allocation algorithm and the congestion control algorithm. These are explained in this report. Vector quantization (VQ) is one of the more popular compression techniques to appear in the last twenty years. Numerous compression techniques, which incorporate VQ, have been proposed. While the LBG VQ provides excellent compression, there are also several drawbacks to the use of the LBG quantizers including search complexity and memory requirements, and a mismatch between the codebook and the inputs. The latter mainly stems from the fact that the VQ is generally designed for a specific rate and a specific class of inputs. In this work, an adaptive technique is proposed for vector quantization of images and video sequences. This technique is an extension of the recursively indexed scalar quantization (RISQ) algorithm.

  19. Conceptual design and expected performance of Iranian light source facility injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasem, H.; Ahmadi, E.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we present conceptual design of the Iranian Light Source Facility (ILSF) injection systems. Beam dynamics issue and expected performance of the designed injectors have been described. We introduce layout of the injection systems, give the optimized parameters of the components and discuss the injection and extraction procedures with detail.

  20. Design study of primary ion provider for relativistic heavy ion collider electron beam ion source.

    PubMed

    Kondo, K; Kanesue, T; Tamura, J; Okamura, M

    2010-02-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has developed the new preinjector system, electron beam ion source (EBIS) for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory. Design of primary ion provider is an essential problem since it is required to supply beams with different ion species to multiple users simultaneously. The laser ion source with a defocused laser can provide a low charge state and low emittance ion beam, and is a candidate for the primary ion source for RHIC-EBIS. We show a suitable design with appropriate drift length and solenoid, which helps to keep sufficient total charge number with longer pulse length. The whole design of primary ion source, as well as optics arrangement, solid targets configuration and heating about target, is presented.

  1. Direct design of aspherical lenses for extended non-Lambertian sources in two-dimensional geometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rengmao; Hua, Hong; Benítez, Pablo; Miñano, Juan C

    2015-07-01

    Illumination design for extended sources is very important for practical applications. The existing direct methods that are all developed for extended Lambertian sources are not applicable to extended non-Lambertian sources whose luminance is a function of position and direction. What we present in this Letter is to our knowledge the first direct method for extended non-Lambertian sources. In this method, the edge rays and the interior rays are both used, and the output intensity at a given direction is calculated to be the integral of the luminance function of all the outgoing rays at this direction. No cumbersome iterative illuminance compensation is needed. Two examples are presented to demonstrate the elegance of this method in prescribed intensity design for extended non-Lambertian sources in two-dimensional geometry. PMID:26125361

  2. Light source design for double reflection transmission-type visibility meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhen, Xiaoqiong; Yang, Ling; Niu, Zhiqiang; Zeng, Qiangyu

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a novel transmission-type visibility meter which is also named double reflection transmission-type visibility meter is introduced and developed. The novel visibility meter uses a charge coupled device (CCD) as an image acquiring unit, the CCD acquires light spot images which generated by a light source, an air extinction coefficient is calculated, and then the meteorology visibility is obtained. The light source is an important unit in this novel visibility meter, and influences the meteorology visibility calculation results. In this paper, several light source design schemes are proposed and researched. Each light source scheme is tested and the experimental results are analyzed. Finally the novel visibility meter which employs a determined light source design scheme finished a measurement result comparison experiment and the reliability and accuracy of the visibility meter are proved.

  3. Direct design of aspherical lenses for extended non-Lambertian sources in two-dimensional geometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rengmao; Hua, Hong; Benítez, Pablo; Miñano, Juan C

    2015-07-01

    Illumination design for extended sources is very important for practical applications. The existing direct methods that are all developed for extended Lambertian sources are not applicable to extended non-Lambertian sources whose luminance is a function of position and direction. What we present in this Letter is to our knowledge the first direct method for extended non-Lambertian sources. In this method, the edge rays and the interior rays are both used, and the output intensity at a given direction is calculated to be the integral of the luminance function of all the outgoing rays at this direction. No cumbersome iterative illuminance compensation is needed. Two examples are presented to demonstrate the elegance of this method in prescribed intensity design for extended non-Lambertian sources in two-dimensional geometry.

  4. Direct design of aspherical lenses for extended non-Lambertian sources in two-dimensional geometry

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Rengmao; Hua, Hong; Benítez, Pablo; Miñano, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    Illumination design for extended sources is very important for practical applications. The existing direct methods that are all developed for extended Lambertian sources are not applicable to extended non-Lambertian sources whose luminance is a function of position and direction. What we present in this Letter is to our knowledge the first direct method for extended non-Lambertian sources. In this method, the edge rays and the interior rays are both used, and the output intensity at a given direction is calculated to be the integral of the luminance function of all the outgoing rays at this direction. No cumbersome iterative illuminance compensation is needed. Two examples are presented to demonstrate the elegance of this method in prescribed intensity design for extended non-Lambertian sources in two-dimensional geometry. PMID:26125361

  5. Design and performance of a compact collimator on GM/CA-CAT at the Advanced Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, S.; Fischetti, R. F.

    2007-09-01

    A new macromolecular crystallographic facility developed by The General Medicine and Cancer Institutes Collaborative Access Team (GM/CA-CAT) at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a part of the Biosciences Division (BIO), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The facility consists of three beamlines: two lines based on the first "hard" dual canted undulators and one bending magnet beamline [1]. Several compact collimator systems have been developed for the purpose of background reduction in macromolecular crystallography experiments. The apparatus consists of a tube collimator, pinhole and kinematics mount. This paper will present a series of compact collimator designs and crystallographic applications based on experimental requirements [2]. We also describe the magnet-based kinematic mounting structures [3] developed as a collimator holder.

  6. Design of a High Resolution Open Access Global Snow Cover Web Map Service Using Ground and Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadlec, J.; Ames, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the presented work is creating a freely accessible, dynamic and re-usable snow cover map of the world by combining snow extent and snow depth datasets from multiple sources. The examined data sources are: remote sensing datasets (MODIS, CryoLand), weather forecasting model outputs (OpenWeatherMap, forecast.io), ground observation networks (CUAHSI HIS, GSOD, GHCN, and selected national networks), and user-contributed snow reports on social networks (cross-country and backcountry skiing trip reports). For adding each type of dataset, an interface and an adapter is created. Each adapter supports queries by area, time range, or combination of area and time range. The combined dataset is published as an online snow cover mapping service. This web service lowers the learning curve that is required to view, access, and analyze snow depth maps and snow time-series. All data published by this service are licensed as open data; encouraging the re-use of the data in customized applications in climatology, hydrology, sports and other disciplines. The initial version of the interactive snow map is on the website snow.hydrodata.org. This website supports the view by time and view by site. In view by time, the spatial distribution of snow for a selected area and time period is shown. In view by site, the time-series charts of snow depth at a selected location is displayed. All snow extent and snow depth map layers and time series are accessible and discoverable through internationally approved protocols including WMS, WFS, WCS, WaterOneFlow and WaterML. Therefore they can also be easily added to GIS software or 3rd-party web map applications. The central hypothesis driving this research is that the integration of user contributed data and/or social-network derived snow data together with other open access data sources will result in more accurate and higher resolution - and hence more useful snow cover maps than satellite data or government agency produced data by

  7. 47 CFR 76.977 - Minority and educational programming used in lieu of designated commercial leased access capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Minority and educational programming used in... Cable Rate Regulation § 76.977 Minority and educational programming used in lieu of designated... of programming from a qualified minority programming source or from any qualified...

  8. 47 CFR 76.977 - Minority and educational programming used in lieu of designated commercial leased access capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minority and educational programming used in... Cable Rate Regulation § 76.977 Minority and educational programming used in lieu of designated... of programming from a qualified minority programming source or from any qualified...

  9. 47 CFR 76.977 - Minority and educational programming used in lieu of designated commercial leased access capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minority and educational programming used in... Cable Rate Regulation § 76.977 Minority and educational programming used in lieu of designated... of programming from a qualified minority programming source or from any qualified...

  10. 47 CFR 76.977 - Minority and educational programming used in lieu of designated commercial leased access capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Minority and educational programming used in... Cable Rate Regulation § 76.977 Minority and educational programming used in lieu of designated... of programming from a qualified minority programming source or from any qualified...

  11. 47 CFR 76.977 - Minority and educational programming used in lieu of designated commercial leased access capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Minority and educational programming used in... Cable Rate Regulation § 76.977 Minority and educational programming used in lieu of designated... of programming from a qualified minority programming source or from any qualified...

  12. Data Collection, Access and Presentation Technologies in the National Ecological Observatory (NEON) Design (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulenbach, S. M.; Berukoff, S. J.

    2010-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will collect data across the United States on the impacts of climate change, land use change and invasive species on ecosystem functions and biodiversity. In-situ sampling and distributed sensor networks, linked by an advanced cyberinfrastructure, will collect site-based data on a variety of organisms, soils, aquatic systems, atmosphere and climate. Targeted airborne remote sensing observations made by NEON as well as geographical data sets and satellite resources produced by Federal agencies will provide data at regional and national scales. The resulting data streams, collected over a 30-year period, will be synthesized into fully traceable information products that are freely and openly accessible to all users. We provide an overview of several collection, access and presentation technologies evaluated for use by observatory systems throughout the data product life cycle. Specifically, we discuss smart phone applications for citizen scientists as well as the use of handheld devices for sample collection and reporting from the field. Protocols for storing, queuing, and retrieving data from observatory sites located throughout the nation are highlighted as are the application of standards throughout the pipelined production of data products. We discuss the automated incorporation of provenance information and digital object identifiers for published data products. The use of widgets and personalized user portals for the discovery and dissemination of NEON data products are also presented.

  13. Design of an Yb-169 source optimized for gold nanoparticle-aided radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Reynoso, Francisco J.; Manohar, Nivedh; Cho, Sang Hyun

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: To find an optimum design of a new high-dose rate ytterbium (Yb)-169 brachytherapy source that would maximize the dose enhancement during gold nanoparticle-aided radiation therapy (GNRT), while meeting practical constraints for manufacturing a clinically relevant brachytherapy source. Methods: Four different Yb-169 source designs were considered in this investigation. The first three source models had a single encapsulation made of one of the following materials: aluminum, titanium, and stainless steel. The last source model adopted a dual encapsulation design with an inner aluminum capsule surrounding the Yb-core and an outer titanium capsule. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using the Monte Carlo N-Particle code version 5 (MCNP5) were conducted initially to investigate the spectral changes caused by these four source designs and the associated variations in macroscopic dose enhancement across the tumor loaded with gold nanoparticles (GNPs) at 0.7% by weight. Subsequent MC simulations were performed using the EGSnrc and NOREC codes to determine the secondary electron spectra and microscopic dose enhancement as a result of irradiating the GNP-loaded tumor with the MCNP-calculated source spectra. Results: Effects of the source filter design were apparent in the current MC results. The intensity-weighted average energy of the Yb-169 source varied from 108.9 to 122.9 keV, as the source encapsulation material changed from aluminum to stainless steel. Accordingly, the macroscopic dose enhancement calculated at 1 cm away from the source changed from 51.0% to 45.3%. The sources encapsulated by titanium and aluminum/titanium combination showed similar levels of dose enhancement, 49.3% at 1 cm, and average energies of 113.0 and 112.3 keV, respectively. While the secondary electron spectra due to the investigated source designs appeared to look similar in general, some differences were noted especially in the low energy region (<50 keV) of the spectra suggesting the

  14. A typology of intellectual property management for public health innovation and access: design considerations for policymakers.

    PubMed

    Taubman, Antony

    2010-01-01

    This paper seeks to set the practical discipline of public interest intellectual property (IP) management in public health into its broader policy context. The most immediate and direct impact of IP systems on public welfare results not from international standards nor from national legislation - though these norms are fundamentally important - but rather from the accumulated impact of numerous practical choices whether or not to seek IP protection; where and where not; and how any exclusive rights are deployed, by whom, and to what end. IP management is the essentially practical exercise of limited exclusive rights over protected subject matter, the judicious use of those rights to leverage outcomes that advance an institution's or a firm's objectives. Exclusive rights are used to construct and define knowledge-based relationships, to leverage access to technology and other necessary resources, and to enhance market-based incentives. IP management choices range across a broad spectrum, spanning public domain strategies, open or exclusive licensing, and strong exclusivity. The idea of 'exclusive rights', as a specific legal mechanism, can run counter to expectations of greater openness and accessibility, but actual outcomes will depend very much on how these mechanisms are used in practice. For public interest or public sector institutions concerned with health research and development, particularly the development of new medicines, IP management choices can be just as critical as they are for private firms, although a predominant institutional concentration on advancing direct public interest objectives may lead to significantly different approaches in weighing and exercising practical choices for IP management: even so, a private sector approach should not be conflated with exclusivity as an end in itself, nor need public interest IP management eschew all leverage over IP. This paper offers a tentative framework for a richer typology of those choices, to give a

  15. Design of a nuclear isotope heat source assembly for a spaceborne mini-Brayton power module.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wein, D.; Gorland, S. H.

    1973-01-01

    Results of a study to develop a feasible design definition of a heat source assembly (HSA) for use in nominal 500-, 1200-, or 2000-W(e) mini-Brayton spacecraft power systems. The HSA is a modular design which is used either as a single unit to provide thermal energy to the 500-W(e) mini-Brayton power module or in parallel with one or two additional HSAs for the 1200- or 2000-W(e) power module systems. Principal components consist of a multihundred watt RTG isotope heat source, a heat source heat exchanger which transfers the thermal energy from the heat source to the mini-Brayton power conversion system, an auxiliary cooling system which provides requisite cooling during nonoperation of the power conversion module and an emergency cooling system which precludes accidental release of isotope fuel in the event of system failure.

  16. A new design of 238Pu activity sources for use in intercomparison exercises.

    PubMed

    Leprince, B; de Sanoit, J

    2002-08-01

    In the framework of a BIPM 238Pu comparison exercise, a new design for a-radiation counting sources was developed. These sources are constructed with a gold-coated Vyns film stretched over a stainless-steel disk. To improve the crystallization of the radioactive salt, the physical properties of the gold-coated polymer surface which receives the radioactivity deposit is modified. A pad of polystyrene micro-spheres (Estapor K-007) mixed with a wetting agent (Tween 20) is directly electrosprayed before the radioactive drop is deposited. After hot air-drying, the source is finally sealed with a thin Vyns film covering the entire radioactive spot. This new design makes it possible to create 238Pu sources that are easy and safe to handle, homogeneous and stable during ageing.

  17. Design and Operation of an Optically-Accessible Modular Reactor for Diagnostics of Thermal Thin Film Deposition Processes

    PubMed Central

    Kimes, W. A.; Sperling, B. A.; Maslars, J. E.

    2015-01-01

    The design and operation of a simple, optically-accessible modular reactor for probing thermal thin film deposition processes, such as atomic layer deposition processes (ALD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD), is described. This reactor has a nominal footprint of 225 cm2 and a mass of approximately 6.6 kg, making it small enough to conveniently function as a modular component of an optical train. The design is simple, making fabrication straightforward and relatively inexpensive. Reactor operation is characterized using two infrared absorption measurements to determine exhaust times for tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium and water, proto-typical ALD precursors, in a pressure and flow regime commonly used for ALD. PMID:26958438

  18. Design and experimental study of a secondary hohlraum radiation source with laser focal spots blocked

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Tianming; Zhu, Tuo; Yang, Jiamin; Huang, Chengwu; Wang, Feng; Peng, Xiaoshi; Xu, Tao; Li, Zhichao; Zhang, Huan

    2016-01-01

    A design of secondary hohlraum radiation source with laser focal spots blocked is introduced. The hard x-ray radiation such as the gold M-band emission and hot electrons from the coronal plasma were designed to be shielded using a cylindrical shield. Three-dimensional view factor analysis was carried out to optimize the shield structure to achieve higher radiation temperature. An experiment was performed at Shenguang III prototype laser facility to verify the design. Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector was used to measure the shock wave speed in a three-stepped Al sample driven by this radiation source and the peak radiation temperature of the radiation source was estimated to be about 90 eV.

  19. Preliminary Design Considerations for Access and Operations in Earth-Moon L1/L2 Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David C.; Pavlak, Thomas A.; Haapala, Amanda F.; Howell, Kathleen C.

    2013-01-01

    Within the context of manned spaceflight activities, Earth-Moon libration point orbits could support lunar surface operations and serve as staging areas for future missions to near-Earth asteroids and Mars. This investigation examines preliminary design considerations including Earth-Moon L1/L2 libration point orbit selection, transfers, and stationkeeping costs associated with maintaining a spacecraft in the vicinity of L1 or L2 for a specified duration. Existing tools in multi-body trajectory design, dynamical systems theory, and orbit maintenance are leveraged in this analysis to explore end-to-end concepts for manned missions to Earth-Moon libration points.

  20. Unifying Water Data Sources: How the CUAHSI Water Data Center is Enabling and Improving Access to a Growing Catalog of over 100 Data Providers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollak, J.; Berry, K.; Couch, A.; Arrigo, J.; Hooper, R. P.

    2013-12-01

    Scientific data about water are collected and distributed by numerous sources which can differ tremendously in scale. As competition for water resources increases, increasing access to and understanding of information about water will be critical. The mission of the new CUAHSI Water Data Center (WDC) is to provide those researchers who collect data a medium to publish their datasets and give those wanting to discover data the proper tools to efficiently find the data that they seek. These tools include standards-based data publication, data discovery tools based upon faceted and telescoping search, and a data analysis tool HydroDesktop that downloads and unifies data in standardized formats. The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (HIS) is a community developed and open source system for sharing water data. As a federated, web service oriented system it enables data publication for a diverse user population including scientific investigators (Research Coordination Networks, Critical Zone Observatories), government agencies (USGS, NASA, EPA), and citizen scientists (watershed associations). HydroDesktop is an end user application for data consumption in this system that the WDC supports. This application can be used for finding, downloading, and analyzing data from the HIS. It provides a GIS interface that allows users to incorporate spatial data that are not accessible via HIS, simple analysis tools to facilitate graphing and visualization, tools to export data to common file types, and provides an extensible architecture that developers can build upon. HydroDesktop, however, is just one example of a data access client for HIS. The web service oriented architecture enables data access by an unlimited number of clients provided they can consume the web services used in HIS. One such example developed at the WDC is the 'Faceted Search Client', which capitalizes upon exploratory search concepts to improve accuracy and precision during search. We highlight such

  1. Design and construction of a compact microwave proton source for a proton linac.

    PubMed

    Hong, I S; Park, B S; Jang, J H; Kwon, H J; Cho, Y S; Hwang, Y S

    2010-02-01

    A 100 MeV, 20 mA proton linear accelerator is being developed by the Proton Engineering Frontier Project at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. 20 MeV acceleration system using radio frequency quadrupole and drift tube linac was already developed and has been tested. To operate this acceleration system with a long time, more reliable proton source is needed. A compact microwave proton source was proposed and has been designed and constructed as a prototype ion source for the 100 MeV proton linear accelerator. The design of microwave power injection system is based on the microwave proton injector at LANL and CEA. The wave power from a 2.45 GHz, 2 kW magnetron source is introduced into a compact plasma chamber with 7 cm diameter and 5 cm length through a standard tapered, double-ridged waveguide (WRD250) and a quartz window. The microwave power supply is installed on high voltage platform. Axial magnetic fields up to 1 kG can be provided with a water-cooled solenoid coil. A single-hole three electrode extraction system is designed for an extraction current up to 30 mA at a 50 kV extraction voltage. The design and initial operations of the proton source are presented.

  2. Design and construction of a compact microwave proton source for a proton linac

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, I. S.; Park, B. S.; Jang, J. H.; Kwon, H. J.; Cho, Y. S.; Hwang, Y. S.

    2010-02-15

    A 100 MeV, 20 mA proton linear accelerator is being developed by the Proton Engineering Frontier Project at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. 20 MeV acceleration system using radio frequency quadrupole and drift tube linac was already developed and has been tested. To operate this acceleration system with a long time, more reliable proton source is needed. A compact microwave proton source was proposed and has been designed and constructed as a prototype ion source for the 100 MeV proton linear accelerator. The design of microwave power injection system is based on the microwave proton injector at LANL and CEA. The wave power from a 2.45 GHz, 2 kW magnetron source is introduced into a compact plasma chamber with 7 cm diameter and 5 cm length through a standard tapered, double-ridged waveguide (WRD250) and a quartz window. The microwave power supply is installed on high voltage platform. Axial magnetic fields up to 1 kG can be provided with a water-cooled solenoid coil. A single-hole three electrode extraction system is designed for an extraction current up to 30 mA at a 50 kV extraction voltage. The design and initial operations of the proton source are presented.

  3. Access, Astronomy and Science Fiction. A Case Study in Curriculum Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Danny; Brake, Mark; Griffiths, Martin; Thornton, Rosi

    2004-01-01

    It is argued that a positive response to lifelong learning policies involves the use of imaginative curriculum design in order to attract learners from disadvantaged backgrounds who are otherwise alienated from higher education. In this article a case study is presented based on the popularity of science fiction within popular culture, beginning…

  4. Accessible by Design: Applying UDL Principles in a First Year Undergraduate Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Kari Lynne; Wideman, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a case study of a technology-enhanced face-to-face health sciences course in which the principles of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) were applied. Students were offered a variety of means of representation, engagement, and expression throughout the course, and were surveyed and interviewed at the end of the term to…

  5. Design Guidelines: Study of Handicapped Accessibility in South Carolina State Parks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism, Columbia. Div. of Engineering and Planning.

    The publication provides guidelines for the design of new facilities or rehabilitation of existing facilities to accommodate physically handicapped persons in the South Carolina State Parks system. The guidelines are also recommended for use in regional, special district, county, and municipal parks within the state. The guidelines were developed…

  6. Increasing Community Access to Solar: Designing and Developing a Shared Solar Photovoltaic System (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-06-01

    This document introduces the Energy Department's new Guide to Community Shared Solar: Utility, Private, and Nonprofit Project Development. The guide is designed to help those who want to develop community shared solar projects - from community organizers and advocates to utility managers and government officials - navigate the process of developing shared systems, from early planning to implementation.

  7. Note: The design of thin gap chamber simulation signal source based on field programmable gate array

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Kun; Wang, Xu; Li, Feng; Jin, Ge; Lu, Houbing; Liang, Futian

    2015-01-15

    The Thin Gap Chamber (TGC) is an important part of ATLAS detector and LHC accelerator. Targeting the feature of the output signal of TGC detector, we have designed a simulation signal source. The core of the design is based on field programmable gate array, randomly outputting 256-channel simulation signals. The signal is generated by true random number generator. The source of randomness originates from the timing jitter in ring oscillators. The experimental results show that the random number is uniform in histogram, and the whole system has high reliability.

  8. LLNL Precision Compton Scattering Light Source: X-band RF Photoinjector and Accelerator Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, Roark; Anderson, S. G.; Gibson, D. J.; Wu, S. S.; Hartemann, F. V.; Houck, T. L.; Ebbers, C.; Scarpetti, R. D.; Barty, C. P. J.; Adolphsen, C.; Chu, T. S.; Li, Z.; Tantawi, S. G.; Vlieks, A. E.; Wang, J. W.; Raubenheimer, T. O.

    2010-11-01

    The design and optimization of a Mono-Energetic Gamma-Ray (MEGa-Ray) Compton scattering source are presented. This precision light source with up to 2.5 MeV photon energy is currently being built at LLNL using high gradient X-band accelerator technology in collaboration with SLAC. The design of a high brightness 5.59 cell X-band RF photoinjector will be presented. An ``early light'' machine has been designed using the 250 pC, <1mm-mrad electron bunches from the photoinjector, a single T53 traveling wave accelerator section, and Joule-class diode pumped laser pulses to produce diagnostic Compton scattered photons. Design of this ``early-light'' machine will be presented with discussion of the various components, layout considerations, and plans for the full 250 MeV linear accelerator.

  9. Note: A heated-air curtain design using the Coanda effect to protect optical access windows in high-temperature, condensing, and corrosive stack environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Gustavious Paul; Keenan, Thomas L.; Herning, James; Kimblin, Clare; DiBenedetto, John; Anthony, Glen

    2011-01-01

    We present an air knife design for creating a heated air curtain to protect optical infrared access windows in high-temperature, condensing, and corrosive stack environments. The design uses the Coanda effect to turn the air curtain and to attach the air curtain to the window surface. The design was tested and verified on our 24 m stack and used extensively over a 6 yr period on several release stacks. During testing and subsequent use no detrimental changes to access window materials have been noted. This design allows stack monitoring without significantly affecting the stack flow profile or chemical concentration.

  10. Note: A heated-air curtain design using the Coanda effect to protect optical access windows in high-temperature, condensing, and corrosive stack environments.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gustavious Paul; Keenan, Thomas L; Herning, James; Kimblin, Clare; DiBenedetto, John; Anthony, Glen

    2011-01-01

    We present an air knife design for creating a heated air curtain to protect optical infrared access windows in high-temperature, condensing, and corrosive stack environments. The design uses the Coanda effect to turn the air curtain and to attach the air curtain to the window surface. The design was tested and verified on our 24 m stack and used extensively over a 6 yr period on several release stacks. During testing and subsequent use no detrimental changes to access window materials have been noted. This design allows stack monitoring without significantly affecting the stack flow profile or chemical concentration. PMID:21280868

  11. Encoding and Retrieval Processes Involved in the Access of Source Information in the Absence of Item Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, B. Hunter; DeWitt, Michael R.; Knight, Justin B.; Hicks, Jason L.

    2014-01-01

    The current study sought to examine the relative contributions of encoding and retrieval processes in accessing contextual information in the absence of item memory using an extralist cuing procedure in which the retrieval cues used to query memory for contextual information were "related" to the target item but never actually studied.…

  12. Investigation of an efficient source design for Cobalt-60-based tomotherapy using EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Chandra P.; Darko, Johnson; Vidyasagar, P. B.; Schreiner, L. John

    2008-02-01

    Recent investigations demonstrate a strong potential for Cobalt-60 (Co-60)-based tomotherapy. Reported work suggests that Co-60-based tomotherapy offers a clinically and commercially viable alternative to megavoltage x-ray-based tomotherapy. Tomotherapy applications use a combination of intensity-modulated fan beams to deliver highly conformal radiotherapy. However, conventional Co-60 units are designed to give large uniform rectangular fields using an isotropic radioactive source in a cylindrical geometry. Such cylindrical source geometry likely provides a sub-optimal use of the radioactivity within the source volume for tomotherapy applications due to a significant loss of radiated energy outside the fan beam collimation system. To investigate a more efficient source geometry suitable for Co-60 tomotherapy applications, a computer code was written to model an isotropic source in a 6-faced polyhedron geometry such as cube, parallelepiped, prism and truncated pyramid. This code was integrated with the existing EGSnrc/BEAMnrc Monte Carlo (MC) code. The integrated source code was thoroughly tested, validated and used to investigate the energy spectra, radiation output and self-shielding properties of various rectangular-shaped (RS) Co-60 sources. Fan beam dose profiles were calculated for various cylindrical and RS Co-60 sources for a range of source-to-axis distances (SAD), multi-leaf collimator-to-isocentre distances (CID) and modified collimator systems. Fringe and penumbra distances were analysed for the simulated dose profiles. Our results demonstrate that clinically acceptable fringe and penumbra distances can be achieved by a careful selection of SAD, CID, source shape and dimensions and modified collimator system. Significant overall gain in radiation output of the 20 × 1 cm2 fan beams can be achieved by an optimal selection of the source geometry for a given active volume of Co-60. The overall gain includes the effects of change in packing density

  13. {sup 103}Pd strings: Monte Carlo assessment of a new approach to brachytherapy source design

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, Mark J.; Reed, Joshua L.; DeWerd, Larry A.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: A new type of{sup 103}Pd source (CivaString and CivaThin by CivaTech Oncology, Inc.) is examined. The source contains {sup 103}Pd and Au radio-opaque marker(s), all contained within low-Z{sub eff} organic polymers that permit source flexibility. The CivaString source is available in lengths L of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 mm, and referred to in the current study as CS10–CS60, respectively. A thinner design, CivaThin, has sources designated as CT10–CT60, respectively. The CivaString and CivaThin sources are 0.85 and 0.60 mm in diameter, respectively. The source design is novel and offers an opportunity to examine its interesting dosimetric properties in comparison to conventional {sup 103}Pd seeds. Methods: The MCNP5 radiation transport code was used to estimate air-kerma rate and dose rate distributions with polar and cylindrical coordinate systems. Doses in water and prostate tissue phantoms were compared to determine differences between the TG-43 formalism and realistic clinical circumstances. The influence of Ti encapsulation and 2.7 keV photons was examined. The accuracy of superposition of dose distributions from shorter sources to create longer source dose distributions was also assessed. Results: The normalized air-kerma rate was not highly dependent onL or the polar angle θ, with results being nearly identical between the CivaString and CivaThin sources for common L. The air-kerma strength was also weakly dependent on L. The uncertainty analysis established a standard uncertainty of 1.3% for the dose-rate constant Λ, where the largest contributors were μ{sub en}/ρ and μ/ρ. The Λ values decreased with increasing L, which was largely explained by differences in solid angle. The radial dose function did not substantially vary among the CivaString and CivaThin sources for r ≥ 1 cm. However, behavior for r < 1 cm indicated that the Au marker(s) shielded radiation for the sources having L = 10, 30, and 50 mm. The 2D anisotropy function

  14. The development and design of an electronic patient record using open source web-based technology.

    PubMed

    Syed-Mohamad, Sharifa Mastura; Ali, Siti Hawa; Mat-Husin, Mohd Nazri

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the method used to develop the One Stop Crisis Centre (OSCC) Portal, an open source web-based electronic patient record system (EPR) for the One Stop Crisis Center, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) in Kelantan, Malaysia. Features and functionalities of the system are presented to demonstrate the workflow. Use of the OSCC Portal improved data integration and data communication and contributed to improvements in care management. With implementation of the OSCC portal, improved coordination between disciplines and standardisation of data in HUSM were noticed. It is expected that this will in turn result in improved data confidentiality and data integrity. The collected data will also be useful for quality assessment and research. Other low-resource centers with limited computer hardware and access to open-source software could benefit from this endeavour. PMID:20335647

  15. 40 CFR 63.760 - Applicability and designation of affected source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... may use the facility's design maximum natural gas or hydrocarbon liquid throughput to estimate the maximum potential emissions. Other means to determine the facility's major source status are allowed, provided the information is documented and recorded to the Administrator's satisfaction in accordance...

  16. 40 CFR 63.760 - Applicability and designation of affected source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... may use the facility's design maximum natural gas or hydrocarbon liquid throughput to estimate the maximum potential emissions. Other means to determine the facility's major source status are allowed, provided the information is documented and recorded to the Administrator's satisfaction in accordance...

  17. An adaptable dual species effusive source and Zeeman slower design demonstrated with Rb and Li

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, William; Gunton, Will; Semczuk, Mariusz; Dare, Kahan; Madison, Kirk W.

    2016-04-01

    We present a dual-species effusive source and Zeeman slower designed to produce slow atomic beams of two elements with a large mass difference and with very different oven temperature requirements. We demonstrate this design for the case of 6Li and 85Rb and achieve magneto-optical trap (MOT) loading rates equivalent to that reported in prior work on dual species (Rb+Li) Zeeman slowers operating at the same oven temperatures. Key design choices, including thermally separating the effusive sources and using a segmented coil design to enable computer control of the magnetic field profile, ensure that the apparatus can be easily modified to slow other atomic species. By performing the final slowing using the quadrupole magnetic field of the MOT, we are able to shorten our Zeeman slower length making for a more compact system without compromising performance. We outline the construction and analyze the emission properties of our effusive sources. We also verify the performance of the source and slower, and we observe sequential loading rates of 12 × 108 atoms/s for a Rb oven temperature of 140 °C and 1.1 × 108 atoms/s for a Li reservoir at 460 °C, corresponding to reservoir lifetimes for continuous operation of 10 and 4 years, respectively.

  18. Improvements of the magnetic field design for SPIDER and MITICA negative ion beam sources

    SciTech Connect

    Chitarin, G.; Agostinetti, P.; Aprile, D.; Marconato, N.; Veltri, P.

    2015-04-08

    The design of the magnetic field configuration in the SPIDER and MITICA negative ion beam sources has evolved considerably during the past four years. This evolution was driven by three factors: 1) the experimental results of the large RF-driven ion sources at IPP, which have provided valuable indications on the optimal magnetic configurations for reliable RF plasma source operation and for large negative ion current extraction, 2) the comprehensive beam optics and heat load simulations, which showed that the magnetic field configuration in the accelerator is crucial for keeping the heat load due to electrons on the accelerator grids within tolerable limits, without compromising the optics of the negative ion beam in the foreseen operating scenarios, 3) the progress of the detailed mechanical design of the accelerator, which stimulated the evaluation of different solutions for the correction of beamlet deflections of various origin and for beamlet aiming. On this basis, new requirements and solution concepts for the magnetic field configuration in the SPIDER and MITICA beam sources have been progressively introduced and updated until the design converged. The paper presents how these concepts have been integrated into a final design solution based on a horizontal “long-range” field (few mT) in combination with a “local” vertical field of some tens of mT on the acceleration grids.

  19. An adaptable dual species effusive source and Zeeman slower design demonstrated with Rb and Li.

    PubMed

    Bowden, William; Gunton, Will; Semczuk, Mariusz; Dare, Kahan; Madison, Kirk W

    2016-04-01

    We present a dual-species effusive source and Zeeman slower designed to produce slow atomic beams of two elements with a large mass difference and with very different oven temperature requirements. We demonstrate this design for the case of (6)Li and (85)Rb and achieve magneto-optical trap (MOT) loading rates equivalent to that reported in prior work on dual species (Rb+Li) Zeeman slowers operating at the same oven temperatures. Key design choices, including thermally separating the effusive sources and using a segmented coil design to enable computer control of the magnetic field profile, ensure that the apparatus can be easily modified to slow other atomic species. By performing the final slowing using the quadrupole magnetic field of the MOT, we are able to shorten our Zeeman slower length making for a more compact system without compromising performance. We outline the construction and analyze the emission properties of our effusive sources. We also verify the performance of the source and slower, and we observe sequential loading rates of 12 × 10(8) atoms/s for a Rb oven temperature of 140 °C and 1.1 × 10(8) atoms/s for a Li reservoir at 460 °C, corresponding to reservoir lifetimes for continuous operation of 10 and 4 years, respectively. PMID:27131658

  20. Orion: Design of a system for assured low-cost human access to space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvander, Josh; Heifetz, Andy; Hunt, Teresa; Zhu, Martin

    1994-01-01

    In recent years, Congress and the American people have begun to seriously question the role and importance of future manned spaceflight. This is mainly due to two factors: a decline in technical competition caused by the collapse of communism, and the high costs associated with the Space Shuttle transportation system. With these factors in mind, the ORION system was designed to enable manned spaceflight at a low cost, while maintaining the ability to carry out diverse missions, each with a high degree of flexibility. It is capable of performing satellite servicing missions, supporting a space station via crew rotation and resupply, and delivering satellites into geosynchronous orbit. The components of the system are a primary launch module, an upper stage, and a manned spacecraft capable of dynamic reentry. For satellite servicing and space station resupply missions, the ORION system utilizes three primary modules, an upper stage, and the spacecraft, which is delivered to low earth orbit and used to rendezvous, transfer materials, and make repairs. For launching a geosynchronous satellite, one primary module and an upper stage are used to deliver the satellite, along with an apogee kick motor, into orbit. The system is designed with reusability and modularity in mind in an attempt to lower cost.

  1. BROADBAND ANTENNA MATCHING NETWORK DESIGN AND APPLICATION FOR RF PLASMA ION SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Ki; Kang, Yoon W; Piller, Chip; Fathy, Aly

    2011-01-01

    The RF ion source at Spallation Neutron Source has been upgraded to meet higher beam power requirement. One important subsystem for efficient operation of the ion source is the 2MHz RF impedance matching network. The real part of the antenna impedance is very small and is affected by plasma density for 2MHz operating frequency. Previous impedance matching network for the antenna has limited tuning capability to cover this potential variation of the antenna impedance since it employed a single tuning element and an impedance transformer. A new matching network with two tunable capacitors has been built and tested. This network can allow precision matching and increase the tunable range without using a transformer. A 5-element broadband matching network also has been designed, built and tested. The 5-element network allows wide band matching up to 50 kHz bandwidth from the resonance center of 2 MHz. The design procedure, simulation and test results are presented.

  2. Preliminary design study of an alternate heat source assembly for a Brayton isotope power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strumpf, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    Results are presented for a study of the preliminary design of an alternate heat source assembly (HSA) intended for use in the Brayton isotope power system (BIPS). The BIPS converts thermal energy emitted by a radioactive heat source into electrical energy by means of a closed Brayton cycle. A heat source heat exchanger configuration was selected and optimized. The design consists of a 10 turn helically wound Hastelloy X tube. Thermal analyses were performed for various operating conditions to ensure that post impact containment shell (PICS) temperatures remain within specified limits. These limits are essentially satisfied for all modes of operation except for the emergency cooling system for which the PICS temperatures are too high. Neon was found to be the best choice for a fill gas for auxiliary cooling system operation. Low cycle fatigue life, natural frequency, and dynamic loading requirements can be met with minor modifications to the existing HSA.

  3. Radiation shielding design of BNCT treatment room for D-T neutron source.

    PubMed

    Pouryavi, Mehdi; Farhad Masoudi, S; Rahmani, Faezeh

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that D-T neutron generator can be used as a proper neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of deep-seated brain tumors. In this paper, radiation shielding calculations have been conducted based on the computational method for designing a BNCT treatment room for a recent proposed D-T neutron source. By using the MCNP-4C code, the geometry of the treatment room has been designed and optimized in such a way that the equivalent dose rate out of the treatment room to be less than 0.5μSv/h for uncontrolled areas. The treatment room contains walls, monitoring window, maze and entrance door. According to the radiation protection viewpoint, dose rate results of out of the proposed room showed that using D-T neutron source for BNCT is safe.

  4. Design of a cavity ring-down spectroscopy diagnostic for negative ion rf source SPIDER

    SciTech Connect

    Pasqualotto, R.; Alfier, A.; Lotto, L.

    2010-10-15

    The rf source test facility SPIDER will test and optimize the source of the 1 MV neutral beam injection systems for ITER. Cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) will measure the absolute line-of-sight integrated density of negative (H{sup -} and D{sup -}) ions, produced in the extraction region of the source. CRDS takes advantage of the photodetachment process: negative ions are converted to neutral hydrogen atoms by electron stripping through absorption of a photon from a laser. The design of this diagnostic is presented with the corresponding simulation of the expected performance. A prototype operated without plasma has provided CRDS reference signals, design validation, and results concerning the signal-to-noise ratio.

  5. Design of narrow-band Compton scattering sources for nuclear resonance fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, F.; Anderson, S. G.; Gibson, D. J.; Marsh, R. A.; Wu, S. S.; Siders, C. W.; Barty, C. P. J.; Hartemann, F. V.

    2011-05-01

    The design of narrow-band Compton scattering sources for specific applications using nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) is presented. NRF lines are extremely narrow (ΔE/Ẽ10-6) and require spectrally narrow sources to be excited selectively and efficiently. This paper focuses on the theory of spectral broadening mechanisms involved during Compton scattering of laser photons from relativistic electron beams. It is shown that in addition to the electron beam emittance, energy spread, and the laser parameters, nonlinear processes during the laser-electron interaction can have a detrimental effect on the gamma-ray source bandwidth, including a newly identified weakly nonlinear phase shift accumulated over the effective interaction duration. Finally, a design taking these mechanisms into consideration is outlined.

  6. Cholera at the Crossroads: The Association Between Endemic Cholera and National Access to Improved Water Sources and Sanitation

    PubMed Central

    Nygren, Benjamin L.; Blackstock, Anna J.; Mintz, Eric D.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated World Health Organization (WHO) national water and sanitation coverage levels and the infant mortality rate as predictors of endemic cholera in the 5-year period following water and sanitation coverage estimates using logistic regression, receiver operator characteristic curves, and different definitions of endemicity. Each was a significant predictors of endemic cholera at P < 0.001. Using a value of 250 for annual cases reported in 3 of 5 years, a national water access level of 71% has 65% sensitivity and 65% specificity in predicting endemic cholera, a sanitation access level of 39% has 63% sensitivity and 62% specificity, and an infant mortality rate of 65/1,000 has 67% sensitivity and 69% specificity. Our findings reveal the tradeoff between sensitivity and specificity for these predictors of endemic cholera and highlight the substantial uncertainty in the data. More accurate global surveillance data will enable more precise characterization of the benefits of improved water and sanitation. PMID:25200265

  7. Electron Linac design to drive bright Compton back-scattering gamma-ray sources

    SciTech Connect

    Bacci, A.; Rossi, A. R.; Serafini, L.; Alesini, D.; Bellaveglia, M.; Boni, R.; Chiadroni, E.; Di Pirro, G.; Esposito, A.; Ferrario, M.; Gallo, A.; Gatti, G.; Ghigo, A.; Spataro, B.; Vaccarezza, C.; Antici, P.; Migliorati, M.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Cianchi, A.; and others

    2013-05-21

    The technological development in the field of high brightness linear accelerators and high energy/high quality lasers enables today designing high brilliance Compton-X and Gamma-photon beams suitable for a wide range of applications in the innovative field of nuclear photonics. The challenging requirements of this kind of source comprise: tunable energy (1-20 MeV), very narrow bandwidth (0.3%), and high spectral density (10{sup 4} photons/s/eV). We present here a study focused on the design and the optimization of an electron Linac aimed to meet the source specifications of the European Extreme Light Infrastructure-Nuclear Physics project, currently funded and seeking for an innovative machine design in order to outperform state-of-the-art facilities. We show that the phase space density of the electron beam, at the collision point against the laser pulse, is the main quality factor characterizing the Linac.

  8. Measurement of spatial distribution of total and accessible porosity in sedimentary rocks using isotopic radiation transmission: device design and testing.

    PubMed

    Subudhi, Ranjit K; Hussein, Esam M A; Al, Tom A

    2010-03-01

    An isotopic radiation transmission technique for quantifying the spatial distribution of porosity in sedimentary rocks is presented. A device was designed and constructed to examine rock samples of volumes sufficiently large for studying solute migration in rocks, so that a one-millimeter spatial resolution is attained with measurement acquisition time of one point per second. The paper demonstrates how the device was optimized for these specifications, while abiding by the restrictions implicit in the utilization of the exponential law of radiation attenuation to quantify physical parameters. Total porosity was obtained from measurements of radiation attenuation in dry samples, while solute-accessible porosity was determined from measurements with samples saturated with either KNO(3) or KI solutions. Results are presented for three different rock types to demonstrate the capabilities and limitations of the technique.

  9. Soot and liquid-phase fuel distributions in a newly designed optically accessible D.I. diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Dec, J.E.; Espey, C.

    1993-10-01

    Two-dimensional (2-D) laser-sheet imaging has been used to examine the soot and liquid-phase fuel distributions in a newly designed, optically accessible, direct-injection Diesel engine of the heavy-duty size class. The design of this engine preserves the intake port geometry and basic dimensions of a Cummins N-series production engine. It also includes several unique features to provide considerable optical access. Liquid-phase fuel and soot distribution studies were conducted at a medium speed (1,200 rpm) using a Cummins closed-nozzle fuel injector. The scattering was used to obtain planar images of the liquid-phase fuel distribution. These images show that the leading edge of the liquid-phase portion of the fuel jet reaches a maximum length of 24 mm, which is about half the combustion bowl radius for this engine. Beyond this point virtually all the fuel has vaporized. Soot distribution measurements were made at a high load condition using three imaging diagnostics: natural flame luminosity, 2-D laser-induced incandescence, and 2-D elastic scattering. This investigation showed that the soot distribution in the combusting fuel jet develops through three stages. First, just after the onset of luminous combustion, soot particles are small and nearly uniformly distributed throughout the luminous region of the fuel jet. Second, after about 2 crank angle degrees a pattern develops of a higher soot concentration of larger sized particles in the head vortex region of the jet and a lower soot concentration of smaller sized particles upstream toward the injector. Third, after fuel injection ends, both the soot concentration and soot particle size increase rapidly in the upstream portion of the fuel jet.

  10. GT0 Explosion Sources for IMS Infrasound Calibration: Charge Design and Yield Estimation from Near-source Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitterman, Y.; Hofstetter, R.

    2014-03-01

    Three large-scale on-surface explosions were conducted by the Geophysical Institute of Israel (GII) at the Sayarim Military Range, Negev desert, Israel: about 82 tons of strong high explosives in August 2009, and two explosions of about 10 and 100 tons of ANFO explosives in January 2011. It was a collaborative effort between Israel, CTBTO, USA and several European countries, with the main goal to provide fully controlled ground truth (GT0) infrasound sources, monitored by extensive observations, for calibration of International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound stations in Europe, Middle East and Asia. In all shots, the explosives were assembled like a pyramid/hemisphere on dry desert alluvium, with a complicated explosion design, different from the ideal homogenous hemisphere used in similar experiments in the past. Strong boosters and an upward charge detonation scheme were applied to provide more energy radiated to the atmosphere. Under these conditions the evaluation of the actual explosion yield, an important source parameter, is crucial for the GT0 calibration experiment. Audio-visual, air-shock and acoustic records were utilized for interpretation of observed unique blast effects, and for determination of blast wave parameters suited for yield estimation and the associated relationships. High-pressure gauges were deployed at 100-600 m to record air-blast properties, evaluate the efficiency of the charge design and energy generation, and provide a reliable estimation of the charge yield. The yield estimators, based on empirical scaled relations for well-known basic air-blast parameters—the peak pressure, impulse and positive phase duration, as well as on the crater dimensions and seismic magnitudes, were analyzed. A novel empirical scaled relationship for the little-known secondary shock delay was developed, consistent for broad ranges of ANFO charges and distances, which facilitates using this stable and reliable air-blast parameter as a new potential

  11. Optimal characterization of pollutant sources in contaminated aquifers by integrating sequential-monitoring-network design and source identification: methodology and an application in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Om; Datta, Bithin

    2015-09-01

    Often, when pollution is first detected in groundwater, very few spatiotemporal pollutant concentration measurements are available. The contaminant concentration measurement data initially available are generally sparse and insufficient for accurate source characterization. This requires development of a contaminant monitoring plan and its field implementation to collect more data. The location of scientifically chosen monitoring points and the number of measurements are important considerations in improving the source-characterization process, especially in a complex contamination scenario. In order to improve the efficiency of source characterization, a feedback-based methodology is implemented, integrating sequential-monitoring-network design and a source identification method. The simulated annealing (SA) optimization algorithm is used to solve the models for optimal source identification and the monitoring-network-design optimization. This sequence is repeated a few times to improve the accuracy of source characterization. The methodology is based on the premise that concentration measurements from a sequence of implemented monitoring networks provide feedback information on the actual concentration in the site. This additional information, obtained as feedback from monitoring networks designed and implemented based on intermediate source characterization, can result in sequential improvement in the resulting source characterization. The performance of this methodology is evaluated by application to a contaminated aquifer site in New South Wales, Australia, where source location, source-activity initiation time and source-flux (mass per unit time) release history are considered as unknown variables. The performance evaluation results demonstrate potential applicability of the proposed sequential methodology.

  12. Thermal-hydraulic criteria for the APT tungsten neutron source design

    SciTech Connect

    Pasamehmetoglu, K.

    1998-03-01

    This report presents the thermal-hydraulic design criteria (THDC) developed for the tungsten neutron source (TNS). The THDC are developed for the normal operations, operational transients, and design-basis accidents. The requirements of the safety analyses are incorporated into the design criteria, consistent with the integrated safety management and the safety-by-design philosophy implemented throughout the APT design process. The phenomenology limiting the thermal-hydraulic design and the confidence level requirements for each limit are discussed. The overall philosophy of the uncertainty analyses and the confidence level requirements also are presented. Different sets of criteria are developed for normal operations, operational transients, anticipated accidents, unlikely accidents, extremely unlikely accidents, and accidents during TNS replacement. In general, the philosophy is to use the strictest criteria for the high-frequency events. The criteria is relaxed as the event frequencies become smaller. The THDC must be considered as a guide for the design philosophy and not as a hard limit. When achievable, design margins greater than those required by the THDC must be used. However, if a specific event sequence cannot meet the THDC, expensive design changes are not necessary if the single event sequence results in sufficient margin to safety criteria and does not challenge the plant availability or investment protection considerations.

  13. Evaluating the impact of patients' online access to doctors' visit notes: designing and executing the OpenNotes project

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Providers and policymakers are pursuing strategies to increase patient engagement in health care. Increasingly, online sections of medical records are viewable by patients though seldom are clinicians' visit notes included. We designed a one-year multi-site trial of online patient accessible office visit notes, OpenNotes. We hypothesized that patients and primary care physicians (PCPs) would want it to continue and that OpenNotes would not lead to significant disruptions to doctors' practices. Methods/Design Using a mixed methods approach, we designed a quasi-experimental study in 3 diverse healthcare systems in Boston, Pennsylvania, and Seattle. Two sites had existing patient internet portals; the third used an experimental portal. We targeted 3 key areas where we hypothesized the greatest impacts: beliefs and attitudes about OpenNotes, use of the patient internet portals, and patient-doctor communication. PCPs in the 3 sites were invited to participate in the intervention. Patients who were registered portal users of participating PCPs were given access to their PCPs' visit notes for one year. PCPs who declined participation in the intervention and their patients served as the comparison groups for the study. We applied the RE-AIM framework to our design in order to capture as comprehensive a picture as possible of the impact of OpenNotes. We developed pre- and post-intervention surveys for online administration addressing attitudes and experiences based on interviews and focus groups with patients and doctors. In addition, we tracked use of the internet portals before and during the intervention. Results PCP participation varied from 19% to 87% across the 3 sites; a total of 114 PCPs enrolled in the intervention with their 22,000 patients who were registered portal users. Approximately 40% of intervention and non-intervention patients at the 3 sites responded to the online survey, yielding a total of approximately 38,000 patient surveys. Discussion

  14. Design of a multi-bend achromat lattice for 3 GeV synchrotron light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eun-San

    2016-03-01

    We present a lattice design for a low-emittance and high-brilliance 3 GeV synchrotron light source that has been widely investigated in the world. We show the design results for a MBA (Multi-Bend Achromat) lattice with an emittance of 1.3 nm and 282.4 m circumference. Each cell has 5 bending magnets that consist of outer two with bending angle of 4.5° and inner three with bending angle of 7°. The lattice is designed to be flexible and consists of 12 straight sections in which one straight section has a length of 5.9 m. We have studied the dynamic aperture in the lattice with machine errors. It is shown that the designed low-emittance lattice provides sufficient dynamic aperture after COD correction. We present the results of variations of emittance, energy spread and dynamic aperture due to in-vacuum undulators in the straight sections. We performed particle tracking after the beam injection to investigate the efficiency of the injection scheme. We show the designed results of an injection scheme that shows the space allocation in injection section and the particle motions of injected beam. Our designed lattice provides a good optimization in terms of the emittance and brilliance as a light source for 3 GeV energy and circumference of 28 m.

  15. Waste heat recovery from the European Spallation Source cryogenic helium plants - implications for system design

    SciTech Connect

    Jurns, John M.; Bäck, Harald; Gierow, Martin

    2014-01-29

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) neutron spallation project currently being designed will be built outside of Lund, Sweden. The ESS design includes three helium cryoplants, providing cryogenic cooling for the proton accelerator superconducting cavities, the target neutron source, and for the ESS instrument suite. In total, the cryoplants consume approximately 7 MW of electrical power, and will produce approximately 36 kW of refrigeration at temperatures ranging from 2-16 K. Most of the power consumed by the cryoplants ends up as waste heat, which must be rejected. One hallmark of the ESS design is the goal to recycle waste heat from ESS to the city of Lund district heating system. The design of the cooling system must optimize the delivery of waste heat from ESS to the district heating system and also assure the efficient operation of ESS systems. This report outlines the cooling scheme for the ESS cryoplants, and examines the effect of the cooling system design on cryoplant design, availability and operation.

  16. Waste heat recovery from the European Spallation Source cryogenic helium plants - implications for system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurns, John M.; Bäck, Harald; Gierow, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) neutron spallation project currently being designed will be built outside of Lund, Sweden. The ESS design includes three helium cryoplants, providing cryogenic cooling for the proton accelerator superconducting cavities, the target neutron source, and for the ESS instrument suite. In total, the cryoplants consume approximately 7 MW of electrical power, and will produce approximately 36 kW of refrigeration at temperatures ranging from 2-16 K. Most of the power consumed by the cryoplants ends up as waste heat, which must be rejected. One hallmark of the ESS design is the goal to recycle waste heat from ESS to the city of Lund district heating system. The design of the cooling system must optimize the delivery of waste heat from ESS to the district heating system and also assure the efficient operation of ESS systems. This report outlines the cooling scheme for the ESS cryoplants, and examines the effect of the cooling system design on cryoplant design, availability and operation.

  17. Improved source design for p-type tunnel field-effect transistors: Towards truly complementary logic

    SciTech Connect

    Verreck, Devin Groeseneken, Guido; Verhulst, Anne S.; Collaert, Nadine; Mocuta, Anda; Thean, Aaron; Sorée, Bart

    2014-12-15

    Complementary logic based on tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs) would drastically reduce power consumption thanks to the TFET's potential to obtain a sub-60 mV/dec subthreshold swing (SS). However, p-type TFETs typically do not meet the performance of n-TFETs for direct bandgap III-V configurations. The p-TFET SS stays well above 60 mV/dec, due to the low density of states in the conduction band. We therefore propose a source configuration in which a highly doped region is maintained only near the tunnel junction. In the remaining part of the source, the hot carriers in the exponential tail of the Fermi-Dirac distribution are blocked by reducing the doping degeneracy, either with a source section with a lower doping concentration or with a heterostructure. We apply this concept to n-p-i-p configurations consisting of In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As and an InP-InAs heterostructure. 15-band quantum mechanical simulations predict that the configurations with our source design can obtain sub-60 mV/dec SS, with an on-current comparable to the conventional source design.

  18. Improved source design for p-type tunnel field-effect transistors: Towards truly complementary logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verreck, Devin; Verhulst, Anne S.; Sorée, Bart; Collaert, Nadine; Mocuta, Anda; Thean, Aaron; Groeseneken, Guido

    2014-12-01

    Complementary logic based on tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs) would drastically reduce power consumption thanks to the TFET's potential to obtain a sub-60 mV/dec subthreshold swing (SS). However, p-type TFETs typically do not meet the performance of n-TFETs for direct bandgap III-V configurations. The p-TFET SS stays well above 60 mV/dec, due to the low density of states in the conduction band. We therefore propose a source configuration in which a highly doped region is maintained only near the tunnel junction. In the remaining part of the source, the hot carriers in the exponential tail of the Fermi-Dirac distribution are blocked by reducing the doping degeneracy, either with a source section with a lower doping concentration or with a heterostructure. We apply this concept to n-p-i-p configurations consisting of In0.53Ga0.47As and an InP-InAs heterostructure. 15-band quantum mechanical simulations predict that the configurations with our source design can obtain sub-60 mV/dec SS, with an on-current comparable to the conventional source design.

  19. Design and optimization of MeV class Compton scattering MEGa-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Felicie; Anderson, S. G.; Betts, S. M.; Cross, R. R.; Ebbers, C. A.; Houck, T. L.; Gibson, D. J.; Marsh, R. A.; Messerly, M.; Shverdin, M. Y.; Wu, S. S.; Hartemann, F. V.; Siders, C. W.; Scarpetti, R. D.; Barty, C. P. J.

    2010-11-01

    The design and optimization of a Mono-Energetic Gamma-Ray (MEGa-Ray) Compton scattering source are presented. A new precision source with up to 2.5 MeV photon energies, enabled by state of the art laser and x-band linac technologies, is currently being built at LLNL. Various aspects of the theoretical design, including dose and brightness optimization, will be presented. In particular, while it is known that nonlinear effects occur in such light sources when the laser normalized potential is close to unity, we show that these can appear at lower values of the potential. A three dimensional analytical model and numerical benchmarks have been developed to model the source characteristics, including nonlinear spectra. Since MEGa-ray sources are being developed for precision applications such as nuclear resonance fluorescence, assessing spectral broadening mechanisms is essential. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  20. Social equity and access to the World Wide Web and E-mail: implications for design and implementation of medical applications.

    PubMed Central

    Mandl, K. D.; Katz, S. B.; Kohane, I. S.

    1998-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The distribution and types of Internet connectivity will determine the equity of access by patient populations to emerging health technologies. We sought to measure the rates, types, and predictors of access in a patient population targeted for Web-based medical services. METHODS: Design. Cross sectional in-person interview. Setting. Emergency department of a large urban pediatric teaching hospital. Subjects. Primary caretakers of patients or patients at least 16 years old. Procedure and measures. Subjects were asked about access to e-mail and the Internet as well as about willingness to use and concerns about Web-based services. Views of equity and access and sociodemographic data were also elicited. RESULTS: 132 subjects were enrolled in the study. Of respondents, 67.2% use a computer and 36.4% can access the Internet or e-mail from home. Including Internet connections and/or e-mail accounts at work, school and public libraries, 50.7% of the sample has access. Forty percent of families have e-mail accounts. The rate at which families have connectivity is primarily correlated with income (r = 0.6, p < 0.01). At all income levels, rates of access to the World Wide Web are higher than to e-mail. White patients are much more likely to have e-mail (OR 5.0, 95% CI 2.4-10.8) and Web access (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.7-7.5). CONCLUSIONS: Connectivity is directly correlated with income and distributed unevenly across racial and ethnic groups. World Wide Web access is more prevalent than e-mail accounts, and both are often obtained outside the home. Design of health applications should account for these attributes of patient access. PMID:9929213

  1. Design evolution and verification of the general-purpose heat source

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, A

    1980-01-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a radioisotope heat source for use in space power systems. It employs a modular design, to make it adaptable to a wide range of energy conversion systems and power levels. Each 250 W module is completely autonomous, with its own passive safety provisions to prevent fuel release under all abort modes, including atmospheric reentry and earth impact. Prior development tests had demonstrated good impact survival as long as the iridium fuel capsules retained their ductility. This requires high impact temperatures, typically above 900/sup 0/C and reasonably fine grain size, which in turn requires avoidance of excessive operating temperatures and reentry temperatures. These three requirements - on operating, reentry, and impact temperatures - are in mutual conflict, since thermal design changes to improve any one of these temperatures tend to worsen one or both of the others. This conflict creates a difficult design problem, which for a time threatened the success of the program. The present paper describes how this problem was overcome by successive design revisions, supplemented by thermal analyses and confirmatory vibration and impact tests; and how this may be achieved while raising the specific power of the GPHS to 83 W/lb, a 50% improvement over previously flown radioisotope heat sources.

  2. Design and qualification testing of a strontium-90 fluoride heat source

    SciTech Connect

    Fullam, H.T.

    1981-12-01

    The Strontium Heat Source Development Program began at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in 1972 and is scheduled to be completed by the end of FY-1981. The program is currently funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) By-Product Utilization Program. The primary objective of the program has been to develop the data and technology required to permit the licensing of power systems for terrestrial applications that utilize /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/-fueled radioisotope heat sources. A secondary objective of the program has been to design and qualification-test a general purpose /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/-fueled heat source. The effort expended in the design and testing of the heat source is described. Detailed information is included on: heat source design, licensing requirements, and qualification test requirements; the qualification test procedures; and the fabrication and testing of capsules of various materials. The results obtained in the qualification tests show that the outer capsule design proposed for the /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ heat source is capable of meeting current licensing requirements when Hastelloy S is used as the outer capsule material. The data also indicate that an outer capsule of Hastelloy C-4 would probably also meet licensing requirements, although Hastelloy S is the preferred material. Therefore, based on the results of this study, the general purpose /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ heat source will consist of a standard WESF Hastelloy C-276 inner capsule filled with /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ and a Hastelloy S outer capsule having a 2.375-in. inner diameter and 0.500-in. wall thickness. The end closures for this study, the general purpose /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ heat a Hastelloy S outer capsule having a 2.375-in. inner diameter and 0.500-in. wall thickness. The end closures for the outer capsule will utilize an interlocking joint design requiring a 0.1-in. penetration closure weld. (LCL)

  3. Fundamental design problems and properties of microwave plasma/ion sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Root, J.; Rogers, J.; Asmussen, J.; Hawley, M. C.

    1981-01-01

    Design problems and procedures associated with microwave plasma sources are applied to cylindrical plasmas inside coaxial and cylindrical cavities. The experimental performance of these cavities is presented. Measurements of electron density and electron temperature for several inert gases, and different tube diameters and pressures are presented and compared with microwave and positive column discharge theories. Results show that plasmas with electron densities in excess of 10 to the 12th/cu cm are easily produced from microwave S band energy. The potential for these sources for ion engines is evaluated.

  4. STUDY OF GENERIC FRONT-END DESIGNS FOR ERL BASED LIGHT SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Guimei Wang; Yu-Chiu Chao; KUI Zhao; Xiangyang Lu; Jiejia Zhuang; Chuyu Liu; Jiaer Chen; George Neil; Pavel Evtushenko

    2007-06-01

    We present work directed at examining the performance of various front end components of an ERL based light source. These include electron source, bunch compression, merger, and accelerating sections, with parameter space dictated by proposed facilities (at FSU and Beijing University). These facilities share enough common structural features to make the study applicable to both to a large extent. In this report we will discuss the 6D phase space evolution through the front end based on simulation, with reliable modeling of magnetic and superconducting RF fields. Discussion will be devoted to relative merits of alternative designs, robustness and operational scenarios.

  5. Design of a setup for 252Cf neutron source for storage and analysis purpose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hei, Daqian; Zhuang, Haocheng; Jia, Wenbao; Cheng, Can; Jiang, Zhou; Wang, Hongtao; Chen, Da

    2016-11-01

    252Cf is a reliable isotopic neutron source and widely used in the prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) technique. A cylindrical barrel made by polymethyl methacrylate contained with the boric acid solution was designed for storage and application of a 5 μg 252Cf neutron source. The size of the setup was optimized with Monte Carlo code. The experiments were performed and the results showed the doses were reduced with the setup and less than the allowable limit. The intensity and collimating radius of the neutron beam could also be adjusted through different collimator.

  6. Designing, selecting and installing a residential ground-source heat pump system

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Patrick; Liu, Xiaobing; Munk, Jeffrey D

    2010-01-01

    It's a compelling proposition: Use the near-constant-temperature heat underground to heat and cool your home and heat domestic water, slashing your energy bills. Yet despite studies demonstrating significant energy savings from ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems, their adoption has been hindered by high upfront costs. Fewer than 1% of US homes use a GSHP system. However, compared to a minimum-code-compliant conventional space-conditioning system, when properly designed and installed, a GSHP retrofit at current market prices offers simple payback of 4.3 years on national average, considering existing federal tax credits. Most people understand how air-source heat pumps work: they move heat from indoor air to outdoor air when cooling and from outdoor air to indoor air when heating. The ground-source heat pump operates on the same principle, except that it moves heat to or from the ground source instead of outdoor air. The ground source is usually a vertical or horiontal ground heat exchanger. Because the ground usually has a more favorable temperature than ambient air for the heating and cooling operation of the vapor-compression refrigeration cycle, GSHP sysems can operate with much higher energy efficiencies than air-source heat pump systems when properly designed and installed. A GSHP system used in a residual building typically provides space conditioning and hot water and comprises three major components: a water-source heat pump unit designed to operate at a wider range of entering fluid temperatures (typically from 30 F to 110 F, or 1 C to 43 C) than a conventional water-source heat pump unit; a ground heat exchanger (GHX); and distribution systems to deliver hot water to the storage tank and heating or cooling to the conditioned rooms. In most residual GSHP systems, the circulation pumps and associated valves are integrated with the heat pump to circulate the heat-carrier fluid (water or aqueous antifreeze solution) through the heat pump and the GHX. A

  7. Evaluation of cobalt sources in Westinghouse-designed three- and four-loop plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bergmann, C.A.

    1982-10-01

    Sources of cobalt input in two typical Westinghouse-designed three- and four-loop plants are identified. Quantification of the sources was based on a detailed analysis of the construction materials. The best available information was used to establish the corrosion and wear release rates. This analysis concludes that approximately 70% of the cobalt input arises from corrosion release of Inconel steam generator tubing. Corrosion and wear of high-cobalt alloys account for about 25%. Recommendations are made concerning cobalt reduction options based on a cost-benefit analysis.

  8. Freeform lens design using a complementary optimization method for uniform illumination with extended LED light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Te-Yuan; Chen, Jin-Jia; Huang, Kuang-Lung; Wang, Chuen-Ching

    2014-11-01

    We propose a complementary optimization method to design a freeform lens for uniform illumination with extended LED sources. With this method, a primary freeform lens is first constructed based on a source-target energy mapping approach; then a complementary illuminance on the target plane is introduced to optimize the primary freeform lens so that it can produce uniform illumination with an extended COB LED. The computer simulation results show that the illuminance uniformity of the optimized lens can be improved nearby 30% as compared with that of the primary lens; meanwhile, the optical efficiency achieves above 94%.

  9. Rat Strain Ontology: structured controlled vocabulary designed to facilitate access to strain data at RGD

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Rat Genome Database (RGD) ( http://rgd.mcw.edu/) is the premier site for comprehensive data on the different strains of the laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus). The strain data are collected from various publications, direct submissions from individual researchers, and rat providers worldwide. Rat strain, substrain designation and nomenclature follow the Guidelines for Nomenclature of Mouse and Rat Strains, instituted by the International Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice. While symbols and names aid in identifying strains correctly, the flat nature of this information prohibits easy search and retrieval, as well as other data mining functions. In order to improve these functionalities, particularly in ontology-based tools, the Rat Strain Ontology (RS) was developed. Results The Rat Strain Ontology (RS) reflects the breeding history, parental background, and genetic manipulation of rat strains. This controlled vocabulary organizes strains by type: inbred, outbred, chromosome altered, congenic, mutant and so on. In addition, under the chromosome altered category, strains are organized by chromosome, and further by type of manipulations, such as mutant or congenic. This allows users to easily retrieve strains of interest with modifications in specific genomic regions. The ontology was developed using the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontology (OBO) file format, and is organized on the Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) structure. Rat Strain Ontology IDs are included as part of the strain report (RS: ######). Conclusions As rat researchers are often unaware of the number of substrains or altered strains within a breeding line, this vocabulary now provides an easy way to retrieve all substrains and accompanying information. Its usefulness is particularly evident in tools such as the PhenoMiner at RGD, where users can now easily retrieve phenotype measurement data for related strains, strains with similar backgrounds or those with similar

  10. Lattice Design for PEP-X Ultimate Storage Ring Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, K.L.F.; Cai, Y.; Nosochkov, Y.; Wang, M.-H.; Hettel, R.O.; /SLAC

    2011-12-13

    SLAC expertise in designing and operating high current storage rings and the availability of the 2.2-km PEP-II tunnel present an opportunity for building a next generation light source - PEP-X - that would replace the SPEAR3 storage ring in the future. The PEP-X 'baseline' design, with 164 pm-rad emittance at 4.5 GeV beam energy and a current of 1.5 A, was completed in 2010. As a next step, a so-called 'ultimate' PEP-X lattice, reducing the emittance to 11 pm-rad at zero current, has been designed. This emittance approaches the diffraction limited photon emittance for multi-keV photons, providing near maximum photon brightness and high coherence. It is achieved by using 7-bend achromat cells in the ring arcs and a 90-m damping wiggler in one of the 6 long straight sections. Details of the lattice design, dynamic aperture, and calculations of the intra-beam scattering effect and Touschek lifetime at a nominal 0.2 A current are presented. Accelerator-based light sources are in high demand for many experimental applications. The availability of the 2.2-km PEP-II tunnel at SLAC presents an opportunity for building a next generation light source - PEP-X - that would replace the existing SPEAR3 light source in the future. The PEP-X study started in 2008, and the 'baseline' design, yielding 164 pm-rad emittance at 4.5 GeV beam energy and a current of 1.5 A, was completed in 2010. This relatively conservative design can be built using existing technology. However, for a long term future, it is natural to investigate a more aggressive, so-called 'ultimate' ring design. The goal is to reduce the electron emittance in both x and y planes to near the diffraction limited photon emittance of 8 pm-rad at hard X-ray photon wavelength of 0.1 nm. This would provide a near maximum photon brightness and significant increase in photon coherence. This study was motivated by the advances in low emittance design at MAX-IV. The latter was used as a starting point for the PEP-X arc lattice

  11. Interactive access to LP DAAC satellite data archives through a combination of open-source and custom middleware web services

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Brian N.; Werpy, Jason; Friesz, Aaron M.; Impecoven, Kevin; Quenzer, Robert; Maiersperger, Tom; Meyer, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Current methods of searching for and retrieving data from satellite land remote sensing archives do not allow for interactive information extraction. Instead, Earth science data users are required to download files over low-bandwidth networks to local workstations and process data before science questions can be addressed. New methods of extracting information from data archives need to become more interactive to meet user demands for deriving increasingly complex information from rapidly expanding archives. Moving the tools required for processing data to computer systems of data providers, and away from systems of the data consumer, can improve turnaround times for data processing workflows. The implementation of middleware services was used to provide interactive access to archive data. The goal of this middleware services development is to enable Earth science data users to access remote sensing archives for immediate answers to science questions instead of links to large volumes of data to download and process. Exposing data and metadata to web-based services enables machine-driven queries and data interaction. Also, product quality information can be integrated to enable additional filtering and sub-setting. Only the reduced content required to complete an analysis is then transferred to the user.

  12. Open-Source, Platform-Independent Library and Online Scripting Environment for Accessing Thermo Scientific RAW Files.

    PubMed

    Kelchtermans, Pieter; Silva, Ana S C; Argentini, Andrea; Staes, An; Vandenbussche, Jonathan; Laukens, Kris; Valkenborg, Dirk; Martens, Lennart

    2015-11-01

    Mass spectrometers typically output data in proprietary binary formats. While converter suites and standardized XML formats have been developed in response, these conversion steps come with non-negligible computational time and storage space overhead. As a result, simple, everyday data inspection tasks are often beyond the skills of the mass spectrometrist, who is unable to freely access the acquired data. We therefore here describe the unthermo library for convenient, platform-independent access to Thermo Scientific RAW files and the associated online playground to transform small and easily understandable scriptlets into executable programs for end-users. By fostering the provision of code examples and snippet exchange, the interested mass spectrometrist or researcher can use this playground to quickly assemble custom scripts for their particular purpose. In this way, the data in these RAW files can be mined much more readily and directly by the user, and fast, automated raw data extraction or analysis can finally become part of the daily routine of the mass spectrometrist.

  13. Open-Source, Platform-Independent Library and Online Scripting Environment for Accessing Thermo Scientific RAW Files.

    PubMed

    Kelchtermans, Pieter; Silva, Ana S C; Argentini, Andrea; Staes, An; Vandenbussche, Jonathan; Laukens, Kris; Valkenborg, Dirk; Martens, Lennart

    2015-11-01

    Mass spectrometers typically output data in proprietary binary formats. While converter suites and standardized XML formats have been developed in response, these conversion steps come with non-negligible computational time and storage space overhead. As a result, simple, everyday data inspection tasks are often beyond the skills of the mass spectrometrist, who is unable to freely access the acquired data. We therefore here describe the unthermo library for convenient, platform-independent access to Thermo Scientific RAW files and the associated online playground to transform small and easily understandable scriptlets into executable programs for end-users. By fostering the provision of code examples and snippet exchange, the interested mass spectrometrist or researcher can use this playground to quickly assemble custom scripts for their particular purpose. In this way, the data in these RAW files can be mined much more readily and directly by the user, and fast, automated raw data extraction or analysis can finally become part of the daily routine of the mass spectrometrist. PMID:26477298

  14. Software Architectures Expressly Designed to Promote Open Source Development: Using the Hyrax Data Server as a Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, J.; West, P.; Potter, N.; Johnson, M.

    2009-12-01

    Data providers are continually looking for new, faster, and more functional ways of providing data to researchers in varying scientific communities. To help achieve this, OPeNDAP has developed a modular framework that provides the ability to pick and choose existing module plug-ins, as well as develop new module plug-ins, to construct customizable data servers. The data server framework uses the Data Access Protocol as the basis of its network interface, so any client application that can read that protocol can read data from one of these servers. In this poster/presentation we explore three new capabilities recently developed using new plug-in modules and how the framework's architecture enables considerable economy of design and implementation for those plug-in modules. The three capabilities are to return data packaged in a specific file format, regardless of the original format in which the data were stored; combining an existing data set with new metadata information without modifying the original data; and building and returning an RDF representation for data. In all cases these new features are independent of the data's native storage format, meaning that they will work both with all of the existing format modules as well as modules as yet undeveloped. In addition, we discuss how this architecture has characteristics that are very desirable for a highly distributed open source project where individual developers have minimal (or no) person-to-person contact. Such a design enables a project to make the most of open source development's strengths.

  15. Cone beam computed tomographic evaluation of two access cavity designs and instrumentation on the thickness of peri-cervical dentin in mandibular anterior teeth

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Vinny Sara; George, John V.; Mathew, Sylvia; Nagaraja, Shruthi; Indiresha, H. N.; Madhu, K. S.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of two access cavity designs on the peri-cervical dentin thickness before and after instrumentation using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods: Sixty mandibular anterior teeth were divided into two groups of thirty teeth each: Group I: conventional access cavity preparation, where access was prepared just above the cingulum and Group II: incisal access cavity preparation, where access was prepared in proximity to the incisal edge. CBCT scans were taken preoperatively, following access cavity preparation and post instrumentation. 200 μm thick slices were obtained 4mm apical and coronal to the cemento-enamel junction. The peri-cervical dentin thickness was calculated on the facial, lingual, mesial, and distal for all the three obtained scans. Results: The analysis showed that access cavity preparation and instrumentation resulted in a significant loss of tooth structure in Group I on all surfaces, but in Group II, there was a significant loss of tooth structure only in the mesial, lingual, and distal surfaces (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Incisal access cavity preparation resulted in lesser loss of dentin in the peri-cervical region.

  16. Cone beam computed tomographic evaluation of two access cavity designs and instrumentation on the thickness of peri-cervical dentin in mandibular anterior teeth

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Vinny Sara; George, John V.; Mathew, Sylvia; Nagaraja, Shruthi; Indiresha, H. N.; Madhu, K. S.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of two access cavity designs on the peri-cervical dentin thickness before and after instrumentation using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods: Sixty mandibular anterior teeth were divided into two groups of thirty teeth each: Group I: conventional access cavity preparation, where access was prepared just above the cingulum and Group II: incisal access cavity preparation, where access was prepared in proximity to the incisal edge. CBCT scans were taken preoperatively, following access cavity preparation and post instrumentation. 200 μm thick slices were obtained 4mm apical and coronal to the cemento-enamel junction. The peri-cervical dentin thickness was calculated on the facial, lingual, mesial, and distal for all the three obtained scans. Results: The analysis showed that access cavity preparation and instrumentation resulted in a significant loss of tooth structure in Group I on all surfaces, but in Group II, there was a significant loss of tooth structure only in the mesial, lingual, and distal surfaces (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Incisal access cavity preparation resulted in lesser loss of dentin in the peri-cervical region. PMID:27656065

  17. New chicane magnet design for insertion device straights at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, Steve; Schlueter, Ross; Anderson, David; Gath, William; Jung, Jin-Young; Robin, David; Steier, Christoph; Stevens, Troy

    2001-12-10

    A chicane magnet incorporating counter-rotating permanent magnet pairs together with trim coils has been designed for use in the Advanced Light Source (ALS) straights in conjunction with two insertion devices. In particular, this design is being developed for use in the existing beam line (BL) 4 elliptically polarizing undulator (EPU) straight and in the BL11 EPU straight, currently under design and construction. The purpose of the chicane is to provide a fixed angular separation between two successive EPU photon fans, and to correct steering perturbations resulting from EPU polarization state changes. Polarization changes occur on the time scale of one second; associated steering corrections must be accomplished in less than a second. Hysteresis associated with conventional iron core electromagnets prevents fast steering correction to the required precision. This consideration motivated the iron-free design presented here.

  18. Mirror mounts designed for the Advanced Photon Source SRI-CAT

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, D.; Benson, C.; Chang, J.

    1997-09-01

    Use of a mirror for beamlines at third-generation synchrotron radiation facilities, such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National laboratory, has many advantages. A mirror as a first optical component provides significant reduction in the beam peak heat flux and total power on the downstream monochromator and simplifies the bremsstrahlung shielding design for the beamline transport. It also allows one to have a system for multibeamline branching and switching. More generally, a mirror is used for beam focusing and/or low-pass filtering. Six different mirror mounts have been designed for the SRI-CAT beamlines. Four of them are designed as water-cooled mirrors for white or pink beam use, and the other two are for monochromatic beam use. Mirror mount designs, including vacuum vessel structure and precision supporting stages, are presented in this paper.

  19. Annex to 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source Conceptual Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    The Annex to the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source Conceptual Design Report updates the Conceptual Design Report of 1987 (CDR-87) to include the results of further optimization and changes of the design during the past year. The design changes can be summarized as affecting three areas: the accelerator system, conventional facilities, and experimental systems. Most of the changes in the accelerator system result from inclusion of a positron accumulator ring (PAR), which was added at the suggestion of the 1987 DOE Review Committee, to speed up the filling rate of the storage ring. The addition of the PAR necessitates many minor changes in the linac system, the injector synchrotron, and the low-energy beam transport lines. 63 figs., 18 tabs.

  20. Design of the Prototype Negative Ion Source for Neutral Beam Injector at ASIPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jianglong; Xie, Yahong; Liang, Lizhen; Gu, Yuming; Yi, Wei; Li, Jun; Hu, Chundong; Xie, Yuanlai; Jiang, Caichao; Tao, Ling; Sheng, Peng; Xu, Yongjian

    2016-09-01

    In order to support the design, manufacture and commissioning of the negative-ion-based neutral beam injection (NBI) system for the Chinese Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR), the Hefei utility negative ion test equipment with RF source (HUNTER) was proposed at ASIPP. A prototype negative ion source will be developed at first. The main bodies of plasma source and accelerator of the prototype negative ion source are similar to that of the ion source for EAST-NBI. But instead of the filament-arc driver, an RF driver is adopted for the prototype negative ion source to fulfill the requirement of long pulse operation. A cesium seeding system and a magnetic filter are added for enhancing the negative ion density near the plasma grid and minimizing co-extracted electrons. Besides, an ITER-like extraction system is applied inside the accelerator, where the negative ion beam is extracted and accelerated up to 50 kV. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11505224, 11575240, 11405207), the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB101001, 2013GB101002, 2013GB101003), International Science and Technology Cooperation Program of China (No. 2014DFG61950), and Foundation of ASIPP (No. DSJJ-14-JC07)

  1. Design of an intense ion source and LEBT for Jinping Underground Nuclear Astrophysics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Q.; Sun, L. T.; Cui, B. Q.; Lian, G.; Yang, Y.; Ma, H. Y.; Tang, X. D.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhang, Z. M.; Liu, W. P.

    2016-09-01

    The ongoing Jinping Underground Nuclear Astrophysics experiment (JUNA) will take the advantage of the ultralow background in China Jinping Underground Laboratory (CJPL), high current accelerator driven by on an ECR source and highly sensitive detector to study directly a number of important reactions for the first time within their relevant stellar energy range. A 2.45 GHz ECR ion source is one of its key components to provide 10 emA H+, 10 emA He+ and 2.0 emA He2+ beams for the study of (p,γ), (p,α), (α,p) and (α,γ) reactions in the first phase of the JUNA project. Ion beam is extracted from the source with energies up to 50 kV/q. The following low energy beam transport (LEBT) system transports and matches the ion beam from the exit of ion source to the acceleration tube (AT). The design status of the ECR ion source and LEBT system for the JUNA project are presented. The potential risks of the ion source are also discussed and analysed.

  2. Mechanical design of a pinger system for the LBNL Advanced Light Source Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Thur, W.; Akre, J.; Gavidia, A.; Guigli, J.

    1997-05-01

    A fast magnet ''Pinger System'' has been designed for the Advanced Light Source 1.9 GeV electron Storage Ring. Intended for beam dynamics studies, its purpose is to provide a fast (< 600 ns) transverse magnetic field pulse to perturb the orbit of an electron bunch in a single turn. A key component is the special resistive-coated ceramic beam tube which is needed for fast magnetic field penetration. The evolution of the design concept is described, with emphasis on simplifications to provide an economical and mechanically robust device.

  3. Mechanical Design of a Pinger System for the Advanced Light Source Accelerator.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thur, William; Guigli, Jim; Gavidia, Alex

    1997-05-01

    A fast magnet "Pinger System" has been designed for the Advanced Light Source 1.9 GEV electron Storage Ring. Intended for beam dynamics studies, its purpose is to provide a fast ( < 600 ns ) transverse magnetic field pulse to perturb the orbit of an electron bunch in a single turn. A key component is the special resistive-coated ceramic beam tube which is needed for fast magnetic field penetration. The evolution of the design concept is described, with emphasis on simplifications to provide an economical and mechanically robust device.

  4. RF design of normal conducting deflecting structures for the Advanced Photon Source.

    SciTech Connect

    Dolgashev, V.; Borland, M.; Waldschmidt, G.; Accelerator Systems Division; SLAC

    2007-08-01

    Use of normal conducting deflecting structures for production of short X-ray pulses is now under consideration at Argonne's Advanced Photon Source (APS). The structures have to produce up to 4 MV maximum deflection per pair of structures with a 1 kHz repetition rate. At the same time, the structures should not cause deterioration of beam properties in the APS ring. Following these requirements, we proposed 2815 MHz standing wave deflecting structures with heavy wakefield damping. In this paper we discuss design considerations and present our current design.

  5. Design of electrostatic microcolumn for nanoscale photoemission source in massively parallel electron-beam lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Ye; Du, Zhidong; Pan, Liang

    2015-10-01

    Microcolumns are widely used for parallel electron-beam lithography because of their compactness and the ability to achieve high spatial resolution. A design of an electrostatic microcolumn for our recent nanoscale photoemission sources is presented. We proposed a compact column structure (as short as several microns in length) for the ease of microcolumn fabrication and lithography operation. We numerically studied the influence of several design parameters on the optical performance such as microcolumn diameter, electrode thickness, beam current, working voltages, and working distance. We also examined the effect of fringing field between adjacent microcolumns during parallel lithography operations.

  6. Design of a swept-source, anatomical OCT system for pediatric bronchoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijesundara, Kushal C.; Iftimia, Nicusor V.; Oldenburg, Amy L.

    2013-03-01

    We describe the design and performance of a long coherence length, swept-source anatomical OCT (aOCT) system for pediatric airway imaging. A fiber-optic catheter is designed to be accommodated by a small-bore bronchoscope, and is scanned distally in a helical scan pattern to provide aOCT during bronchoscopy. We discuss particular challenges associated with the need for large imaging range, low SNR roll-off, and small catheter diameter. We present 3-D visualizations of airway phantoms and discuss optimization of the airway surface geometry obtained by aOCT. Accurate reconstruction of airway geometry will enable predictive modeling of patients suffering from airway obstruction.

  7. How Do Mathematics Teachers Decide What to Teach? Curriculum Authority and Sources of Information Accessed by Australian Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, David J.; Clarke, Doug M.; Sullivan, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Essential to teachers' planning are decisions regarding what should be taught. Curriculum documents are the most obvious authority. But what is a "curriculum document" for a mathematics teacher in Australia? Are there other credible sources of information that Australian teachers draw on when deciding what to teach? This article examines the…

  8. A Citation Comparison of Sourcebooks for Audiovisuals to AVLINE Records: Access and the Chief Source of Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weimer, Katherine Hart

    1994-01-01

    Discusses cataloging audiovisual materials and the concept of chief source of information and describes a study that compared citations from fully cataloged audiovisual records with their corresponding citations from bibliographic sourcebooks, based on records in AVLINE (National Library of Medicine's Audiovisual On-Line Catalog). Examples of…

  9. General-purpose heat source development: Safety test program. Postimpact evaluation, design iteration test 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonfeld, F. W.

    1984-04-01

    The general purpose heat source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of (238)PuO decay to thermoelectric elements. Because of the inevitable return of certain missions, the heat source must be designed and constructed to survive reentry and Earth impact. The Design Iteration Test (DIT) series is part of an ongoing impact test program. The first DIT used a full GPHS module containing two graphite impact shells (GISs); each GIS contained two iridium (0.3 wt%) capsules filled with (238)PuO. It was impacted at 57 m/s and 930 C. All four fuel capsules survived and none was breached. However, serious cracking of the iridium alloy capsules was found; some cracks extended through approx. 70% of the wall thickness. Postimpact analyses of the unit are described with emphasis on weld structure and performance.

  10. Optimal Design of a Tunable Thomson-Scattering Based Gamma-Ray Source

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, D J; Anderson, S G; Betts, S M; Hartemann, F V; Jovanovic, I; McNabb, D P; Messerly, M J; Pruet, J A; Shverdin, M Y; Siders, C W; Tremaine, A M; Barty, C J

    2007-06-07

    Thomson-Scattering based systems offer a path to high-brightness high-energy (> 1 MeV) x-ray and {gamma}-ray sources due to their favorable scaling with electron energy. LLNL is currently engaged in an effort to optimize such a device, dubbed the ''Thomson-Radiated Extreme X-Ray'' (T-REX) source, targeting up to 680 keV photon energy. Such a system requires precise design of the interaction between a high-intensity laser pulse and a high-brightness electron beam. Presented here are the optimal design parameters for such an interaction, including factors such as the collision angle, focal spot size, optimal bunch charge, and laser energy. These parameters were chosen based on extensive modeling using PARMELA and in-house, well-benchmarked scattering simulation codes.

  11. Identification of Sources of Resistance to Phoma medicaginis Isolates in Medicago truncatula SARDI Core Collection Accessions, and Multigene Differentiation of Isolates.

    PubMed

    Ellwood, Simon R; Kamphuis, Lars G; Oliver, Richard P

    2006-12-01

    ABSTRACT Phoma medicaginis is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen, commonly found infecting the annual medic Medicago truncatula. To differentiate eight P. medicaginis isolates, five gene regions were examined: actin, beta-tubulin, calmodulin, translation elongation factor 1-alpha (EF-1alpha), and the internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA. Sequence comparisons showed that specimens isolated from M. truncatula in Western Australia formed a group that was consistently different from, but allied to, a P. medicaginis var. medicaginis type specimen. EF-1alpha contained a hyper-variable 55-bp repeat unit, which forms the basis of a rapid polymerase chain reaction-based method of reliably distinguishing isolates. Characterization of three isolates showed that all exhibited a narrow host range, causing disease only in M. sativa and M. truncatula among eight commonly cultivated legume species sampled. Infection of 86 M. truncatula single-seeded accessions showed a continuous distribution in disease phenotypes, with the majority of accessions susceptible. On a 1-to-5 disease reaction scale increasing in severity, individual fungal isolates showed means of 2.6 to 3.2, and scores ranged from 1 to 4.8 among accessions. The results presented here suggest that M. truncatula harbors specific and diverse sources of resistance to individual P. medicaginis genotypes. PMID:18943665

  12. Nuclear heat source component design considerations for HTGR process heat reactor plant concept

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, C.F.; Kapich, D.; King, J.H.; Venkatesh, M.C.

    1982-05-01

    The coupling of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) and a chemical process facility has the potential for long-term synthetic fuel production (i.e., oil, gasoline, aviation fuel, hydrogen, etc) using coal as the carbon source. Studies are in progress to exploit the high-temperature capability of an advanced HTGR variant for nuclear process heat. The process heat plant discussed in this paper has a 1170-MW(t) reactor as the heat source and the concept is based on indirect reforming, i.e., the high-temperature nuclear thermal energy is transported (via an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX)) to the externally located process plant by a secondary helium transport loop. Emphasis is placed on design considerations for the major nuclear heat source (NHS) components, and discussions are presented for the reactor core, prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV), rotating machinery, and heat exchangers.

  13. Roadmap for the design of a superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for Spiral2

    SciTech Connect

    Thuillier, T.; Angot, J.; Lamy, T.; Peaucelle, C.

    2012-02-15

    A review of today achieved A/Q = 3 heavy ions beams is proposed. The daily operation A/Q = 3 ion beam intensities expected at Spiral2 are at the limit or above best record 3rd generation electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) intensities. The necessity to build a new fully superconducting to fulfill these requirements is outlined. A discussion on the volume of the future source is proposed and the minimum value of 12 liters is derived. An analysis of the x-ray absorption superconducting ECRIS is presented based on VENUS experimental data and geometry. This study underlines the necessity to include a complete x-ray study at the time of source conception. The specifications foreseen for the new ECRIS are presented, followed with the roadmap for the design.

  14. Design and Initial Operation of a Tunable Compton-Scattering Based Gamma-Ray Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, David; Anderson, Scott; Betts, Shawn; Johnson, Micah; McNabb, Dennis; Messerly, Mike; Pruet, Jason; Shverdin, Miroslav; Tremaine, Aaron; Hartemann, Fred; Siders, Craig; Barty, Chris

    2007-11-01

    Tunable, monochromatic gamma-ray sources are currently being developed at LLNL for nuclear photo-science and related applications. These novel systems are based on Compton scattering of laser photons by a high brightness relativistic electron beam produced by an rf photoinjector and offer a path to high-brightness high-energy (> 1 MeV) x-ray & gamma-rays due to their favorable scaling with electron energy. The current demonstration source, called the ``Thomson-Radiated Extreme X-Ray" (T-REX) source, targets photon energies up to 1 MeV. With extensive modeling using PARMELA and well-benchmarked custom Compton-scattering simulation codes, the optimal design parameters for an interaction (including factors such as the collision angle, focal spot size, bunch charge, laser intensity, pulse duration, and laser beam path) can be determined. Here we present the results of this optimization, including early experimental results from the newly commissioned system.

  15. 6 GeV synchrotron x-ray source: Conceptual design report. Supplement B - conceptual design of proposed beam lines for the 6 GeV light source

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    In this document, preliminary conceptual designs are presented for ten sample beamlines for the 6 GeV Light Source. These beamlines will accommodate investigations in solid-state physics, materials science, materials technology, chemical technology, and biological and medical sciences. In future, the designs will be altered to include new developments in x-ray optics and hardware technologies. The research areas addressed by the samples beamlines are as follows: Topography and Radiography/Tomography (section 2); Inelastic Scattering with Ultrahigh Energy Resolution (Section 3); Surface and Bulk Studies Using High Momentum Resolution (Section 4); Inelastic Scattering from Charge and Spin (Section 5); Advanced X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Studies (Section 6); Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Studies (Section 7); General Purpose Scattering for Materials Studies (Section 8); Multiple-Energy Anomalous-Dispersion Studies of Proteins (Section 9); Protein Crystallography (Section 10); Time- and Space-resolved X-Ray Spectroscopy (Section 11); Medical Diagnostic Facility (Section 12); and Transuranium Research Facility (Section 13). The computer systems to be used on the beamlines are also discussed in Section 14 of this document.

  16. Design and Performance of a Triple Source Air Mass Zero Solar Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Phillip; Scheiman, David; Snyder, David

    2005-01-01

    Simulating the sun in a laboratory for the purpose of measuring solar cells has long been a challenge for engineers and scientists. Multi-junction cells demand higher fidelity of a solar simulator than do single junction cells, due to a need for close spectral matching as well as AM0 intensity. A GaInP/GaAs/Ge solar cell for example, requires spectral matching in three distinct spectral bands (figure 1). A commercial single source high-pressure xenon arc solar simulator such as the Spectrolab X-25 at NASA Glenn Research Center, can match the top two junctions of a GaInP/GaAs/Ge cell to within 1.3% mismatch, with the GaAs cell receiving slightly more current than required. The Ge bottom cell however, is mismatched +8.8%. Multi source simulators are designed to match the current for all junctions but typically have small illuminated areas, less uniformity and less beam collimation compared to an X-25 simulator. It was our intent when designing a multi source simulator to preserve as many aspects of the X-25 while adding multi-source capability.

  17. A rainfall design method for spatial flood risk assessment: considering multiple flood sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, X.; Tatano, H.

    2015-08-01

    Information about the spatial distribution of flood risk is important for integrated urban flood risk management. Focusing on urban areas, spatial flood risk assessment must reflect all risk information derived from multiple flood sources: rivers, drainage, coastal flooding etc. that may affect the area. However, conventional flood risk assessment deals with each flood source independently, which leads to an underestimation of flood risk in the floodplain. Even in floodplains that have no risk from coastal flooding, flooding from river channels and inundation caused by insufficient drainage capacity should be considered simultaneously. For integrated flood risk management, it is necessary to establish a methodology to estimate flood risk distribution across a floodplain. In this paper, a rainfall design method for spatial flood risk assessment, which considers the joint effects of multiple flood sources, is proposed. The concept of critical rainfall duration determined by the concentration time of flooding is introduced to connect response characteristics of different flood sources with rainfall. A copula method is then adopted to capture the correlation of rainfall amount with different critical rainfall durations. Rainfall events are designed taking advantage of the copula structure of correlation and marginal distribution of rainfall amounts within different critical rainfall durations. A case study in the Otsu River Basin, Osaka prefecture, Japan was conducted to demonstrate this methodology.

  18. Distributed watershed modeling of design storms to identify nonpoint source loading areas

    SciTech Connect

    Endreny, T.A.; Wood, E.F.

    1999-03-01

    Watershed areas that generate nonpoint source (NPS) polluted runoff need to be identified prior to the design of basin-wide water quality projects. Current watershed-scale NPS models lack a variable source area (VSA) hydrology routine, and are therefore unable to identify spatially dynamic runoff zones. The TOPLATS model used a watertable-driven VSA hydrology routine to identify runoff zones in a 17.5 km{sup 2} agricultural watershed in central Oklahoma. Runoff areas were identified in a static modeling framework as a function of prestorm watertable depth and also in a dynamic modeling framework by simulating basin response to 2, 10, and 25 yr return period 6 h design storms. Variable source area expansion occurred throughout the duration of each 6 h storm and total runoff area increased with design storm intensity. Basin-average runoff rates of 1 mm h{sup {minus}1} provided little insight into runoff extremes while the spatially distributed analysis identified saturation excess zones with runoff rates equaling effective precipitation. The intersection of agricultural landcover areas with these saturation excess runoff zones targeted the priority potential NPS runoff zones that should be validated with field visits. These intersected areas, labeled as potential NPS runoff zones, were mapped within the watershed to demonstrate spatial analysis options available in TOPLATS for managing complex distributions of watershed runoff. TOPLATS concepts in spatial saturation excess runoff modelling should be incorporated into NPS management models.

  19. Ultracold neutron source at the PULSTAR reactor: Engineering design and cryogenic testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobkina, E.; Medlin, G.; Wehring, B.; Hawari, A. I.; Huffman, P. R.; Young, A. R.; Beaumont, B.; Palmquist, G.

    2014-12-01

    Construction is completed and commissioning is in progress for an ultracold neutron (UCN) source at the PULSTAR reactor on the campus of North Carolina State University. The source utilizes two stages of neutron moderation, one in heavy water at room temperature and the other in solid methane at ~ 40 K, followed by a converter stage, solid deuterium at 5 K, that allows a single down scattering of cold neutrons to provide UCN. The UCN source rolls into the thermal column enclosure of the PULSTAR reactor, where neutrons will be delivered from a bare face of the reactor core by streaming through a graphite-lined assembly. The source infrastructure, i.e., graphite-lined assembly, heavy-water system, gas handling system, and helium liquefier cooling system, has been tested and all systems operate as predicted. The research program being considered for the PULSTAR UCN source includes the physics of UCN production, fundamental particle physics, and material surface studies of nanolayers containing hydrogen. In the present paper we report details of the engineering and cryogenic design of the facility as well as results of critical commissioning tests without neutrons.

  20. Vibration considerations in the design of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Wambsganss, M.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), a new synchrotron radiation facility being built at Argonne National Laboratory, will provide the world's most brilliant X-ray beams for research in a wide range of technical fields. Successful operation of the APS requires an extremely stable positron closed orbit. Vibration of the storage ring quadrupole magnets, even in the submicron range, can lead to distortion of the positron closed orbit and to potentially unacceptable beam emittance growth, which results in degraded performance. This paper presents an overview of the technical approach used to minimize vibration response, beginning at the conceptual stage, through design and construction, and on to successful operation. Acceptance criteria relating to maximum allowable quadrupole magnet vibration are discussed. Soil properties are used to determine resonant frequencies of foundations and to predict attenuation characteristics. Two sources are considered to have the potential to excite the foundation: far-field sources, which are produced external to the facility, and near-field sources, which are produced within the facility. Measurements of ambient ground motion, monitored to determine far- field excitation, are presented. Ambient vibration was measured at several operating facilities within Argonne to gain insight on typical near-field excitation sources. Discussion covers the dynamic response characteristics of a prototypic magnet support structure to various excitations, including ambient floor motion, coolant flow, and magnet power. 19 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. General-Purpose Heat Source development: safety test program. Postimpact evaluation, Design Iteration Test 2

    SciTech Connect

    Schonfeld, F.W.; George, T.G.

    1984-06-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ decay to thermoelectric elements. Because of the inevitable return of certain missions, the heat source must be Designed and constructed to survive both re-entry and Earth impact. The Design Iteration Test (DIT) series is part of an ongoing test program. In the first Design Iteration Test (DIT-1), a full GPHS module ontaining four iridium-alloy capsules loaded with /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ was impacted at 57 m/s and 930/sup 0/C. All four capsules survived and none was breached. The capsules used in DIT-1 were loaded and welded at Los Alamos. The second Design Iteration Test (DIT-2) also used a full GPHS module and was impacted at 58 m/s and 930/sup 0/C. The four iridium-alloy capsules used in this test were loaded and welded at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Postimpact examination revealed that two capsules had survived and two capsules had breached; a small quantity (approx. = 50 ..mu..g) of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ was released from the breached capsules. Internal cracking similar to that observed in the DIT-1 capsules was evident in all four of the DIT-2 capsules. Postimpact analyses of the units are described with emphasis on weld structure and performance.

  2. A coaxial subharmonic cavity design for direct injection at the Advanced Photon Source.

    SciTech Connect

    Waldschmidt, G.; Nassiri, A.; Accelerator Systems Division

    2006-01-01

    Coaxial subharmonic cavity designs are being investigated at the Advanced Photon Source to improve injector reliability by injecting beam directly from the linac to the booster in storage ring top-up mode. The subharmonic system must operate jointly with the present 352-MHz booster to accelerate the beam to 7 GeV with minimal beam degradation. Design considerations must be made to ensure that bunch purity is maintained and that a large percentage of the linac macropulse is captured. An analysis of rf cavity designs using electromagnetic simulation software has been conducted at 29 MHz and 117 MHz. Higher-order modes are evaluated as well as the total power loss and peak surface fields produced at the required gap voltage.

  3. Mechanical design and development of a high power target system for the SLC Positron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Reuter, E.; Mansour, D.; Porter, T.; Sax, W.; Szumillo, A.

    1991-12-01

    In order to bring the SLC Positron Source luminosity up to design specifications, the previous (stationary) positron target had to be replaced with a version which could reliably dissipate the higher power levels and cyclic pulsed thermal stresses of the high intensity 33GeV electron beam. In addition to this basic requirement, the new target system had to meet SLAC`s specifications for Ultra High Vacuum, be remotely controllable, ``radiation hard,`` and designed in such a way that it could be removed and replaced quickly and easily with minimum personnel exposure to radiation. It was also desirable to integrate the target and collection components into a compact, easily manufacturable, and easily maintainable module. This paper briefly summarize the mechanical design and development of the new modular target system, its associated controls and software, alignment, and the quick removal system. Operational experience gained with the new system over the first running cycle is also summarized.

  4. Mechanical design and development of a high power target system for the SLC Positron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Reuter, E.; Mansour, D.; Porter, T.; Sax, W.; Szumillo, A.

    1991-12-01

    In order to bring the SLC Positron Source luminosity up to design specifications, the previous (stationary) positron target had to be replaced with a version which could reliably dissipate the higher power levels and cyclic pulsed thermal stresses of the high intensity 33GeV electron beam. In addition to this basic requirement, the new target system had to meet SLAC's specifications for Ultra High Vacuum, be remotely controllable, radiation hard,'' and designed in such a way that it could be removed and replaced quickly and easily with minimum personnel exposure to radiation. It was also desirable to integrate the target and collection components into a compact, easily manufacturable, and easily maintainable module. This paper briefly summarize the mechanical design and development of the new modular target system, its associated controls and software, alignment, and the quick removal system. Operational experience gained with the new system over the first running cycle is also summarized.

  5. An Open-Source Sandbox for Increasing the Accessibility of Functional Programming to the Bioinformatics and Scientific Communities.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, Matthew; Sesanker, Colbert; Schiller, Martin R; Ellis, Heidi Jc; Hinman, M Lee; Vyas, Jay; Gryk, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    Scientists are continually faced with the need to express complex mathematical notions in code. The renaissance of functional languages such as LISP and Haskell is often credited to their ability to implement complex data operations and mathematical constructs in an expressive and natural idiom. The slow adoption of functional computing in the scientific community does not, however, reflect the congeniality of these fields. Unfortunately, the learning curve for adoption of functional programming techniques is steeper than that for more traditional languages in the scientific community, such as Python and Java, and this is partially due to the relative sparseness of available learning resources. To fill this gap, we demonstrate and provide applied, scientifically substantial examples of functional programming, We present a multi-language source-code repository for software integration and algorithm development, which generally focuses on the fields of machine learning, data processing, bioinformatics. We encourage scientists who are interested in learning the basics of functional programming to adopt, reuse, and learn from these examples. The source code is available at: https://github.com/CONNJUR/CONNJUR-Sandbox (see also http://www.connjur.org).

  6. An Open-Source Sandbox for Increasing the Accessibility of Functional Programming to the Bioinformatics and Scientific Communities.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, Matthew; Sesanker, Colbert; Schiller, Martin R; Ellis, Heidi Jc; Hinman, M Lee; Vyas, Jay; Gryk, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    Scientists are continually faced with the need to express complex mathematical notions in code. The renaissance of functional languages such as LISP and Haskell is often credited to their ability to implement complex data operations and mathematical constructs in an expressive and natural idiom. The slow adoption of functional computing in the scientific community does not, however, reflect the congeniality of these fields. Unfortunately, the learning curve for adoption of functional programming techniques is steeper than that for more traditional languages in the scientific community, such as Python and Java, and this is partially due to the relative sparseness of available learning resources. To fill this gap, we demonstrate and provide applied, scientifically substantial examples of functional programming, We present a multi-language source-code repository for software integration and algorithm development, which generally focuses on the fields of machine learning, data processing, bioinformatics. We encourage scientists who are interested in learning the basics of functional programming to adopt, reuse, and learn from these examples. The source code is available at: https://github.com/CONNJUR/CONNJUR-Sandbox (see also http://www.connjur.org). PMID:25328913

  7. An Open-Source Sandbox for Increasing the Accessibility of Functional Programming to the Bioinformatics and Scientific Communities

    PubMed Central

    Fenwick, Matthew; Sesanker, Colbert; Schiller, Martin R.; Ellis, Heidi JC; Hinman, M. Lee; Vyas, Jay; Gryk, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Scientists are continually faced with the need to express complex mathematical notions in code. The renaissance of functional languages such as LISP and Haskell is often credited to their ability to implement complex data operations and mathematical constructs in an expressive and natural idiom. The slow adoption of functional computing in the scientific community does not, however, reflect the congeniality of these fields. Unfortunately, the learning curve for adoption of functional programming techniques is steeper than that for more traditional languages in the scientific community, such as Python and Java, and this is partially due to the relative sparseness of available learning resources. To fill this gap, we demonstrate and provide applied, scientifically substantial examples of functional programming, We present a multi-language source-code repository for software integration and algorithm development, which generally focuses on the fields of machine learning, data processing, bioinformatics. We encourage scientists who are interested in learning the basics of functional programming to adopt, reuse, and learn from these examples. The source code is available at: https://github.com/CONNJUR/CONNJUR-Sandbox (see also http://www.connjur.org). PMID:25328913

  8. Ion collector design for an energy recovery test proposal with the negative ion source NIO1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Variale, V.; Cavenago, M.; Agostinetti, P.; Sonato, P.; Zanotto, L.

    2016-02-01

    Commercial viability of thermonuclear fusion power plants depends also on minimizing the recirculation power used to operate the reactor. The neutral beam injector (NBI) remains one of the most important method for plasma heating and control. For the future fusion power plant project DEMO, a NBI wall plug efficiency at least of 0.45 is required, while efficiency of present NBI project is about 0.25. The D- beam from a negative ion source is partially neutralized by a gas cell, which leaves more than 40% of energy in residual beams (D- and D+), so that an ion beam energy recovery system can significantly contribute to optimize efficiency. Recently, the test negative ion source NIO1 (60 keV, 9 beamlets with 15 mA H- each) has been designed and built at RFX (Padua) for negative ion production efficiency and the beam quality optimization. In this paper, a study proposal to use the NIO1 source also for a beam energy recovery test experiment is presented and a preliminary design of a negative ion beam collector with simulations of beam energy recovery is discussed.

  9. Stress analysis and testing of the outer capsule design for the Strontium Heat Source Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Simonen, F.A.; Shippell, R.J. Jr.; Atteridge, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of the Strontium Heat Source Development Program is to obtain the data needed to license /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ heat sources - specifically the /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ capsules produced in the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) at Hanford. Toward this end, a high integrity outer capsule has been designed to replace the present outer capsule of the WESF /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ capsule. The proposed design of a Hastelloy S outer capsule which features a mechanical interlock type of end closure is described. Qualification testing requirements are outlined, and stress analyses and developmental tests are described. These tests were performed on AISI-1018 steel stand-in capsules, and included both external pressure and impact tests. The external pressure tests showed that stress calculations seriously overestimated the pressure capability of the outer capsule. Possible reasons for the lack of agreement between the tests and the analyses are evaluated. The stress analyses and tests results indicate that the proposed outer capsule will meet the heat source qualification requirements. Future tests will be conducted to experimentally verify that the Hastelloy S outer capsule in an aged condition meets the structural integrity requirements.

  10. Assessment and modification of an ion source grid design in KSTAR neutral beam system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Won; Shin, Kyu In; Jin, Hyung Gon; Choi, Bo Guen; Kim, Tae-Seong; Jeong, Seung Ho

    2014-02-01

    A new 2 MW NB (Neutral Beam) ion source for supplying 3.5 MW NB heating for the KSTAR campaign was developed in 2012 and its grid was made from OFHC (Oxygen Free High Conductivity) copper with rectangular cooling channels. However, the plastic deformation such as a bulging in the plasma grid of the ion source was found during the overhaul period after the 2012 campaign. A thermal-hydraulic and a thermo-mechanical analysis using the conventional code, ANSYS, were carried out and the thermal fatigue life assessment was evaluated. It was found that the thermal fatigue life of the OFHC copper grid was about 335 cycles in case of 0.165 MW/m(2) heat flux and it gave too short fatigue life to be used as a KSTAR NB ion source grid. To overcome the limited fatigue life of the current design, the following methods were proposed in the present study: (1) changing the OHFC copper to CuCrZr, copper-alloy or (2) adopting a new design with a pure Mo metal grid and CuCrZr tubes. It is confirmed that the proposed methods meet the requirements by performing the same assessment. PMID:24593583

  11. Open-Source Medical Devices (OSMD) Design of a Small Animal Radiotherapy System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prajapati, S.; Mackie, T. R.; Jeraj, R.

    2014-03-01

    Open-Source Medical Devices (OSMD) was initiated with the goal of facilitating medical research by developing medical technologies including both hardware and software on an open-source platform. Our first project was to develop an integrated imaging and radiotherapy device for small animals that includes computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET) and radiation therapy (RT) modalities for which technical specifications were defined in the first OSMD conference held in Madison, Wisconsin, USA in December 2011. This paper specifically focuses on the development of a small animal RT (micro-RT) system by designing a binary micro multileaf collimator (bmMLC) and a small animal treatment planning system (SATPS) to enable intensity modulated RT (IMRT). Both hardware and software projects are currently under development and their current progresses are described. After the development, both bmMLC and TPS will be validated and commissioned for a micro-RT system. Both hardware design and software development will be open-sourced after completion.

  12. Design Evolution of an Open Source Project Using an Improved Modularity Metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milev, Roberto; Muegge, Steven; Weiss, Michael

    Modularity of an open source software code base has been associated with community growth, incentives for voluntary contribution, and a reduction in free riding. As a theoretical construct, it links open source software to other domains of research, including organization theory, the economics of industry structure, and new product development; however, measuring the modularity of an open source software design has proven difficult, especially for large and complex systems. Building on previous work on Design Structure Matrices (DSMs), this paper describes two contributions towards a method for examining the evolving modularity of large-scale software systems: (1) an algorithm and new modularity metric for comparing code bases of different size; and (2) evolution analysis of Apache Tomcat to illustrate the insights gained from this approach. Over a ten-year period, the modularity of Tomcat continually increased, except in three instances: with each major change to the architecture or implementation, modularity first declined, then increased in the subsequent version to fully compensate for the decline.

  13. Ion collector design for an energy recovery test proposal with the negative ion source NIO1.

    PubMed

    Variale, V; Cavenago, M; Agostinetti, P; Sonato, P; Zanotto, L

    2016-02-01

    Commercial viability of thermonuclear fusion power plants depends also on minimizing the recirculation power used to operate the reactor. The neutral beam injector (NBI) remains one of the most important method for plasma heating and control. For the future fusion power plant project DEMO, a NBI wall plug efficiency at least of 0.45 is required, while efficiency of present NBI project is about 0.25. The D(-) beam from a negative ion source is partially neutralized by a gas cell, which leaves more than 40% of energy in residual beams (D(-) and D(+)), so that an ion beam energy recovery system can significantly contribute to optimize efficiency. Recently, the test negative ion source NIO1 (60 keV, 9 beamlets with 15 mA H(-) each) has been designed and built at RFX (Padua) for negative ion production efficiency and the beam quality optimization. In this paper, a study proposal to use the NIO1 source also for a beam energy recovery test experiment is presented and a preliminary design of a negative ion beam collector with simulations of beam energy recovery is discussed. PMID:26932033

  14. Design of reflector contours to satisfy photometric criteria using physically realizable light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Domina E.

    2001-11-01

    Traditionally reflector design has been confined to the use of surfaces defined in terms of conic sections, assuming that all light sources can be considered to be point sources. In the middle of the twentieth century, it was recognized that major improvements could be made if the shape of the reflector was designed to produce a desired distribution of light form an actual light source. Cylindrical reflectors were created which illuminated airport runways using fluorescent lamps in such a way that pilots could make visual landings safely even in fog. These reflector contours were called macrofocal parabolic cylinders. Other new reflector contours introduced were macrofocal elliptic cylinders which confined the light to long rectangles. Surfaces of revolution the fourth degree were also developed which made possible uniform floodlighting of a circular region. These were called horned and peaked quartics. The optimum solution of the automotive head lighting problem has not yet been found. The paper concludes with a discussion of the possibility of developing reflectors which are neither cylindrical nor rotational but will produce the optimum field of view for the automobile driver both in clear weather and in fog.

  15. Sequential optimal monitoring network design and iterative spatial estimation of pollutant concentration for identification of unknown groundwater pollution source locations.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Om; Datta, Bithin

    2013-07-01

    One of the difficulties in accurate characterization of unknown groundwater pollution sources is the uncertainty regarding the number and the location of such sources. Only when the number of source locations is estimated with some degree of certainty that the characterization of the sources in terms of location, magnitude, and activity duration can be meaningful. A fairly good knowledge of source locations can substantially decrease the degree of nonuniqueness in the set of possible aquifer responses to subjected geochemical stresses. A methodology is developed to use a sequence of dedicated monitoring network design and implementation and to screen and identify the possible source locations. The proposed methodology utilizes a combination of spatial interpolation of concentration measurements and simulated annealing as optimization algorithm for optimal design of the monitoring network. These monitoring networks are to be designed and implemented sequentially. The sequential design is based on iterative pollutant concentration measurement information from the sequentially designed monitoring networks. The optimal monitoring network design utilizes concentration gradient information from the monitoring network at previous iteration to define the objective function. The capability of the feedback information based iterative methodology is shown to be effective in estimating the source locations when no such information is initially available. This unknown pollution source locations identification methodology should be very useful as a screening model for subsequent accurate estimation of the unknown pollution sources in terms of location, magnitude, and activity duration.

  16. Preponderance of toxigenic Escherichia coli in stool pathogens correlates with toxin detection in accessible drinking-water sources.

    PubMed

    Igbokwe, H; Bhattacharyya, S; Gradus, S; Khubbar, M; Griswold, D; Navidad, J; Igwilo, C; Masson-Meyers, D; Azenabor, A A

    2015-02-01

    Since early detection of pathogens and their virulence factors contribute to intervention and control strategies, we assessed the enteropathogens in diarrhoea disease and investigated the link between toxigenic strains of Escherichia coli from stool and drinking-water sources; and determined the expression of toxin genes by antibiotic-resistant E. coli in Lagos, Nigeria. This was compared with isolates from diarrhoeal stool and water from Wisconsin, USA. The new Luminex xTAG GPP (Gastroplex) technique and conventional real-time PCR were used to profile enteric pathogens and E. coli toxin gene isolates, respectively. Results showed the pathogen profile of stool and indicated a relationship between E. coli toxin genes in water and stool from Lagos which was absent in Wisconsin isolates. The Gastroplex technique was efficient for multiple enteric pathogens and toxin gene detection. The co-existence of antibiotic resistance with enteroinvasive E. coli toxin genes suggests an additional prognostic burden on patients.

  17. Uncertainty Analysis of non-point source pollution control facilities design techniques in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Okjeong, L.; Gyeong, C. B.; Park, M. W.; Kim, S.

    2015-12-01

    The design of non-point sources control facilities in Korea is divided largely by the stormwater capture ratio, the stormwater load capture ratio, and the pollutant reduction efficiency of the facility. The stormwater capture ratio is given by a design formula as a function of the water quality treatment capacity, the greater the capacity, the more the amount of stormwater intercepted by the facility. The stormwater load capture ratio is defined as the ratio of the load entering the facility of the total pollutant load generated in the target catchment, and is given as a design formula represented by a function of the stormwater capture ratio. In order to estimate the stormwater capture ratio and load capture ratio, a lot of quantitative analysis of hydrologic processes acted in pollutant emission is required, but these formulas have been applied without any verification. Since systematic monitoring programs were insufficient, verification of these formulas was fundamentally impossible. However, recently the Korean ministry of Environment has conducted an long-term systematic monitoring project, and thus the verification of the formulas became possible. In this presentation, the stormwater capture ratio and load capture ratio are re-estimated using actual TP data obtained from long-term monitoring program at Noksan industrial complex located in Busan, Korea. Through the re-estimated process, the uncertainty included in the design process that has been applied until now will be shown in a quantitative extent. In addition, each uncertainty included in the stormwater capture ratio estimation and in the stormwater load capture ratio estimation will be expressed to quantify the relative impact on the overall non-point pollutant control facilities design process. Finally, the SWMM-Matlab interlocking module for model parameters estimation will be introduced. Acknowledgement This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as "The Eco Innovation Project : Non

  18. General-purpose heat source development: Safety test program. Postimpact evaluation, design iteration test 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, T. G.; Schonfeld, F. W.

    1984-12-01

    The general-purpose heat source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of Pu-238 decay to thermoelectric elements. Because of the inevitable return of certain aborted missions, the heat source must be designed and constructed to survive both reentry and Earth impact. The design iteration test (DIT) series is part of an ongoing impact test program. The DIT-5 was designed to compare the impact response of a GPHS fueled clad that was welded with a four-pole arc oscillator with the impact response of a clad welded with a two-pole oscillator. In DIT-5 a partial GPHS module containing two fueled clads was impacted at 60.5 m/s and 930 C. The fuel capsules were severly deformed by the impact; both clads breached. The capsule welded with a four-pole oscillator failed extensively. Neither failure was related to the welding technique. Postimpact analyses of the test components are described, with emphasis on microstructure and impact response.

  19. General-Purpose Heat Source Development: safety test program. Postimpact evaluation, Design Iteration Test 4

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.; Schonfeld, F.W.

    1984-12-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of /sup 238/Pu decay to thermoelectric elements. Because of the inevitable return of certain aborted missions, the heat source must be designed and constructed to survive both re-entry and Earth impact. The Design Iteration Test (DIT) series is part of an ongoing test program. The fourth test (DIT-4) was designed to evaluate the effect on impact behavior of changing the procedure used at the Mound Facility (MF) to remove surface defects from drawn cups. The change involved switching from a manual abrasion technique to a motorized, rubber-bonded abrasive wheel. In DIT-4 a partial GPHS module containing two fueled clads (one cleaned manually, and one cleaned with an abrasive wheel) was impacted at a velocity of 58 m/s and a temperature of 930/sup 0/C. Both capsules were severely deformed by the impact and contained large internal cracks. Although the manually cleaned capsule breached, the breaching crack was only 2 ..mu..m wide and released negligible amounts of fuel. There did not appear to be any correlation between cleaning method and capsule performance. Postimpact analyses of the DIT-4 test components are described with emphasis on microstructure and impact response.

  20. General-Purpose Heat Source Development: safety test program. Postimpact evaluation, Design Iteration Test 5

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.; Schonfeld, F.W.

    1984-12-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of /sup 238/Pu decay to thermoelectric elements. Because of the inevitable return of certain aborted missions, the heat source must be designed and constructed to survive both re-entry and Earth impact. The Design Iteration Test (DIT) series is part of an ongoing impact test program. The fifth test (DIT-5) was designed to compare the impact response of a GPHS fueled clad that had been welded with a four-pole arc oscillator with the impact response of a clad welded with a two-pole oscillator. In DIT-5 a partial GPHS module containing two fueled clads (one welded with a four-pole oscillator and one welded with a two-pole oscillator) was impacted at 60.5 m/s and 930/sup 0/C. The fuel capsules were severely deformed by the impact; both clads breached. The capsule welded with a four-pole oscillator failed extensively. Neither failure was related to the welding technique. Postimpact analyses of the test components are described, with emphasis on microstructure and impact response.

  1. Design of a Nb3Sn Magnet for a 4th Generation ECR Ion Source

    SciTech Connect

    Prestemon, S,; Trillaud, F.; Caspi, S.; Ferracin, P.; Sabbi, G. L.; Lyneis, C. M.; Leitner, D.; Todd, D. S.; Hafalia, R.

    2008-08-17

    The next generation of Electron Cyclotron Resonant (ECR) ion sources are expected to operate at a heating radio frequency greater than 40 GHz. The existing 3rd generation systems, exemplified by the state of the art system VENUS, operate in the 10-28 GHz range, and use NbTi superconductors for the confinement coils. The magnetic field needed to confine the plasma scales with the rf frequency, resulting in peak fields on the magnets of the 4th generation system in excess of 10 T. High field superconductors such as Nb{sub 3}Sn must therefore be considered. The magnetic design of a 4th. generation ECR ion source operating at an rf frequency of 56 GHz is considered. The analysis considers both internal and external sextupole configurations, assuming commercially available Nb{sub 3}Sn material properties. Preliminary structural design issues are discussed based on the forces and margins associated with the coils in the different configurations, leading to quantitative data for the determination of a final magnet design.

  2. ASPUN: design for an Argonne super-intense pulsed neutron source

    SciTech Connect

    Khoe, T.K.; Kustom, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Argonne pioneered the pulsed spallation neutron source with the ZING-P and IPNS-I concepts. IPNS-I is now a reliable and actively used source for pulsed spallation neutrons. The accelerator is a 500-MeV, 8 to 9 ..mu..a, 30-Hz rapid-cycling proton synchrotron. Other proton spallation sources are now in operation or in construction. These include KENS-I at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics in Japan, the WNR/PSR at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the USA, and the SNS at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in England. Newer and bolder concepts are being developed for more-intense pulsed spallation neutron sources. These include SNQ at the KFA Laboratory in Juelich, Germany, ASTOR at the Swiss Institute for Nuclear Physics in Switzerland, and ASPUN, the Argonne concept. ASPUN is based on the Fixed-Field Alternating Gradient concept. The design goal is to provide a time-averaged beam of 3.5 ma at 1100 MeV on a spallation target in intense bursts, 100 to 200 nanoseconds long, at a repetition rate of no more than 60 to 85 Hz.

  3. Assume-Guarantee Verification of Source Code with Design-Level Assumptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giannakopoulou, Dimitra; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Cobleigh, Jamieson M.

    2004-01-01

    Model checking is an automated technique that can be used to determine whether a system satisfies certain required properties. To address the 'state explosion' problem associated with this technique, we propose to integrate assume-guarantee verification at different phases of system development. During design, developers build abstract behavioral models of the system components and use them to establish key properties of the system. To increase the scalability of model checking at this level, we have developed techniques that automatically decompose the verification task by generating component assumptions for the properties to hold. The design-level artifacts are subsequently used to guide the implementation of the system, but also to enable more efficient reasoning at the source code-level. In particular we propose to use design-level assumptions to similarly decompose the verification of the actual system implementation. We demonstrate our approach on a significant NASA application, where design-level models were used to identify; and correct a safety property violation, and design-level assumptions allowed us to check successfully that the property was presented by the implementation.

  4. MySchoolDayOnline: Applying Universal Design Principles to the Development of a Fully Accessible Online Scheduling Tool for Students with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the universal design features that were identified during the alpha development of a scheduler software program, known as MySchoolDayOnline, for use in schools, and provides preliminary research on the usability of these features. The study presented here investigated the accessibility and usability of MySchoolDayOnline for…

  5. Physics design of the injector source for ITER neutral beam injector (invited).

    PubMed

    Antoni, V; Agostinetti, P; Aprile, D; Cavenago, M; Chitarin, G; Fonnesu, N; Marconato, N; Pilan, N; Sartori, E; Serianni, G; Veltri, P

    2014-02-01

    Two Neutral Beam Injectors (NBI) are foreseen to provide a substantial fraction of the heating power necessary to ignite thermonuclear fusion reactions in ITER. The development of the NBI system at unprecedented parameters (40 A of negative ion current accelerated up to 1 MV) requires the realization of a full scale prototype, to be tested and optimized at the Test Facility under construction in Padova (Italy). The beam source is the key component of the system and the design of the multi-grid accelerator is the goal of a multi-national collaborative effort. In particular, beam steering is a challenging aspect, being a tradeoff between requirements of the optics and real grids with finite thickness and thermo-mechanical constraints due to the cooling needs and the presence of permanent magnets. In the paper, a review of the accelerator physics and an overview of the whole R&D physics program aimed to the development of the injector source are presented.

  6. Physics design of the injector source for ITER neutral beam injector (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Antoni, V.; Agostinetti, P.; Aprile, D.; Chitarin, G.; Fonnesu, N.; Marconato, N.; Pilan, N.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G. Veltri, P.; Cavenago, M.

    2014-02-15

    Two Neutral Beam Injectors (NBI) are foreseen to provide a substantial fraction of the heating power necessary to ignite thermonuclear fusion reactions in ITER. The development of the NBI system at unprecedented parameters (40 A of negative ion current accelerated up to 1 MV) requires the realization of a full scale prototype, to be tested and optimized at the Test Facility under construction in Padova (Italy). The beam source is the key component of the system and the design of the multi-grid accelerator is the goal of a multi-national collaborative effort. In particular, beam steering is a challenging aspect, being a tradeoff between requirements of the optics and real grids with finite thickness and thermo-mechanical constraints due to the cooling needs and the presence of permanent magnets. In the paper, a review of the accelerator physics and an overview of the whole R and D physics program aimed to the development of the injector source are presented.

  7. Laboratory experiments designed to provide limits on the radionuclide source term for the NNWSI Project

    SciTech Connect

    Oversby, V.M.; McCright, R.D.

    1984-11-01

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project is investigating the suitability of the tuffaceous rocks at Yucca Mountain Nevada for potential use as a high-level nuclear waste repository. The horizon under investigation lies above the water table, and therefore offers a setting that differs substantially from other potential repository sites. The unsaturated zone environment allows a simple, but effective, waste package design. The source term for radionuclide release from the waste package will be based on laboratory experiments that determine the corrosion rates and mechanisms for the metal container and the dissolution rate of the waste form under expected long term conditions. This paper describes the present status of laboratory results and outlines the approach to be used in combining the data to develop a realistic source term for release of radionuclides from the waste package. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Support document for designation of the Lewiston Basin aquifer as a sole source aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    The Asotin County (Washington) Public Utility District petitioned the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to declare its drinking-water supply as a sole-source aquifer under Section 1424(e) of the Safe Drinking Water Act. In response, EPA prepared a document which briefly describes the geology, ground-water hydrology, and drinking-water consumption of the Lewiston Basin. The report describes the technical basis for EPA's decision to designate the Lewiston Basin Aquifer System as a sole-source aquifer. The Lewiston Basin is an approximately 500 square mile structural and topographic depression in southeastern Washington and western north-central Idaho, including part of the Nez Perce Indian Reservation. Ground water provides about 68% of the drinking water consumed in the Lewiston Basin. Community water supply wells all withdraw drinking water from the Grande Ronde Basalt. However, according to EPA guidelines, those supplies cannot economically serve all those who depend upon the aquifer system for drinking water.

  9. ESRF-type lattice design and optimization for the High Energy Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Gang; Jiao, Yi; Peng, Yue-Mei

    2016-02-01

    A new generation of storage ring-based light sources, called diffraction-limited storage rings (DLSRs), with emittance approaching the diffraction limit for multi-keV photons by means of multi-bend achromat lattices, has attracted extensive studies worldwide. Among various DLSR proposals, the hybrid multi-bend achromat concept developed at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) predicts an effective way of minimizing the emittance while keeping the required chromatic sextupole strengths to an achievable level. For the High Energy Photon Source planned to be built in Beijing, an ESRF-type lattice design consisting of 48 hybrid seven-bend achromats is proposed to reach emittance as low as 60 pm·rad with a circumference of about 1296 m. Sufficient dynamic aperture, allowing vertical on-axis injection, and moderate momentum acceptance are achieved simultaneously for a promising ring performance. Supported by NSFC (11475202, 11405187) and Youth Innovation Promotion Association CAS (2015009)

  10. Interim measure conceptual design for remediation of source area contamination at Agra, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-07-31

    This document presents a conceptual design for the implementation of a non-emergency interim measure (IM) at the site of the grain storage facility formerly operated by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) in Agra, Kansas. The IM is recommended to mitigate localized carbon tetrachloride contamination in the vadose zone soils at the former CCC/USDA facility and eliminate ongoing soil-to-groundwater contamination. The objectives of this IM conceptual design report include the following: 1. Obtain written acknowledgement from the Kansas Department of Health and the Environment (KDHE) that remediation on the former CCC/USDA property is required. 2. Provide information (IM description, justification for the IM, and project schedule) that the KDHE can include in a pending fact sheet. 3. Obtain KDHE approval for the IM conceptual design, so that the CCC/USDA can initiate a formal request for access to the privately owned property and proceed with preparation of a remedial design plan (RDP). Investigations conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne 2006) have demonstrated that soil and groundwater at the Agra site are contaminated with carbon tetrachloride. The levels in groundwater exceed the Kansas Tier 2 Risk-Based Screening Level (RBSL) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 5.0 {micro}g/L for this compound. The soil and groundwater contamination identified at the former CCC/USDA facility currently poses no unacceptable health risks.

  11. Design and Fabrication of Nereid-UI: A Remotely Operated Underwater Vehicle for Oceanographic Access Under Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitcomb, L. L.; Bowen, A. D.; Yoerger, D.; German, C. R.; Kinsey, J. C.; Mayer, L. A.; Jakuba, M. V.; Gomez-Ibanez, D.; Taylor, C. L.; Machado, C.; Howland, J. C.; Kaiser, C. L.; Heintz, M.; Pontbriand, C.; Suman, S.; O'hara, L.

    2013-12-01

    The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and collaborators from the Johns Hopkins University and the University of New Hampshire are developing for the Polar Science Community a remotely-controlled underwater robotic vehicle capable of being tele-operated under ice under remote real-time human supervision. The Nereid Under-Ice (Nereid-UI) vehicle will enable exploration and detailed examination of biological and physical environments at glacial ice-tongues and ice-shelf margins, delivering high-definition video in addition to survey data from on board acoustic, chemical, and biological sensors. Preliminary propulsion system testing indicates the vehicle will be able to attain standoff distances of up to 20 km from an ice-edge boundary, as dictated by the current maximum tether length. The goal of the Nereid-UI system is to provide scientific access to under-ice and ice-margin environments that is presently impractical or infeasible. FIBER-OPTIC TETHER: The heart of the Nereid-UI system is its expendable fiber optic telemetry system. The telemetry system utilizes many of the same components pioneered for the full-ocean depth capable HROV Nereus vehicle, with the addition of continuous fiber status monitoring, and new float-pack and depressor designs that enable single-body deployment. POWER SYSTEM: Nereid-UI is powered by a pressure-tolerant lithium-ion battery system composed of 30 Ah prismatic pouch cells, arranged on a 90 volt bus and capable of delivering 15 kW. The cells are contained in modules of 8 cells, and groups of 9 modules are housed together in oil-filled plastic boxes. The power distribution system uses pressure tolerant components extensively, each of which have been individually qualified to 10 kpsi and operation between -20 C and 40 C. THRUSTERS: Nereid-UI will employ eight identical WHOI-designed thrusters, each with a frameless motor, oil-filled and individually compensated, and designed for low-speed (500 rpm max) direct drive. We expect an end

  12. Design of a superconducting 28 GHz ion source magnet for FRIB using a shell-based support structure

    SciTech Connect

    Felice, H.; Rochepault, E.; Hafalia, R.; Caspi, S.; Dietderich, D. R.; Prestemon, S. O.; Machicoane, G.; Pozdeyev, E.; Bultman, N.; Rao, X.

    2014-12-05

    The Superconducting Magnet Program at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is completing the design of a 28 GHz NbTi ion source magnet for the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). The design parameters are based on the parameters of the ECR ion source VENUS in operation at LBNL since 2002 featuring a sextupole-in-solenoids configuration. Whereas most of the magnet components (such as conductor, magnetic design, protection scheme) remain very similar to the VENUS magnet components, the support structure of the FRIB ion source uses a different concept. A shell-based support structure using bladders and keys is implemented in the design allowing fine tuning of the sextupole preload and reversibility of the magnet assembly process. As part of the design work, conductor insulation scheme, coil fabrication processes and assembly procedures are also explored to optimize performance. We present the main features of the design emphasizing the integrated design approach used at LBNL to achieve this result.

  13. Design of a Pulsed Flux Concentrator for the ILC Positron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Gronberg, J; Abbott, R; Brown, C; Javedani, J; Piggott, W T; Clarke, J

    2010-05-17

    The Positron Source for the International Linear Collider requires an optical matching device after the target to increase the capture efficiency for positrons. Pulsed flux concentrators have been used by previous machines to improve the capture efficiency but the ILC has a 1 ms long pulse train which is too long for a standard flux concentrator. A pulsed flux concentrator with a 40 ms flat top was created for a hyperon experiment in 1965 which used liquid nitrogen cooling to reduce the resistance of the concentrating plates and extend the lifetime of the pulse. We report on a design for a 1 ms device based on this concept.

  14. The Reversed-Field-Pinch (RFP) fusion neutron source: A conceptual design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bathke, C. G.; Krakowski, R. A.; Miller, R. L.; Werley, K. A.

    The conceptual design of an ohmically heated, reversed-field pinch (RFP) operating at approximately 5-MW/m(2) steady-state DT fusion neutron wall loading and approximately 124-MW total fusion power is presented. These results are useful in projecting the development of a cost effective, low input power, approximately 206 MW, source of DT neutrons for large-volume approximately 10 m(3), high-fluence, 3.4 MW yr/m(2), fusion nuclear materials and technology testing.

  15. THE CHANDRA SOURCE CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Ian N.; Primini, Francis A.; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Anderson, Craig S.; Bonaventura, Nina R.; Chen, Judy C.; Doe, Stephen M.; Evans, Janet D.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C.; Gibbs, Danny G.; Grier, John D.; Hain, Roger M.; Harbo, Peter N.; He Xiangqun; Karovska, Margarita; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Davis, John E.; Houck, John C.; Hall, Diane M.

    2010-07-15

    The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is a general purpose virtual X-ray astrophysics facility that provides access to a carefully selected set of generally useful quantities for individual X-ray sources, and is designed to satisfy the needs of a broad-based group of scientists, including those who may be less familiar with astronomical data analysis in the X-ray regime. The first release of the CSC includes information about 94,676 distinct X-ray sources detected in a subset of public Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer imaging observations from roughly the first eight years of the Chandra mission. This release of the catalog includes point and compact sources with observed spatial extents {approx}<30''. The catalog (1) provides access to the best estimates of the X-ray source properties for detected sources, with good scientific fidelity, and directly supports scientific analysis using the individual source data; (2) facilitates analysis of a wide range of statistical properties for classes of X-ray sources; and (3) provides efficient access to calibrated observational data and ancillary data products for individual X-ray sources, so that users can perform detailed further analysis using existing tools. The catalog includes real X-ray sources detected with flux estimates that are at least 3 times their estimated 1{sigma} uncertainties in at least one energy band, while maintaining the number of spurious sources at a level of {approx}<1 false source per field for a 100 ks observation. For each detected source, the CSC provides commonly tabulated quantities, including source position, extent, multi-band fluxes, hardness ratios, and variability statistics, derived from the observations in which the source is detected. In addition to these traditional catalog elements, for each X-ray source the CSC includes an extensive set of file-based data products that can be manipulated interactively, including source images, event lists, light curves, and spectra from each observation

  16. Creating a clinical video-conferencing facility in a security-constrained environment using open-source AccessGrid software and consumer hardware.

    PubMed

    Terrazas, Enrique; Hamill, Timothy R; Wang, Ye; Channing Rodgers, R P

    2007-10-11

    The Department of Laboratory Medicine at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) has been split into widely separated facilities, leading to much time being spent traveling between facilities for meetings. We installed an open-source AccessGrid multi-media-conferencing system using (largely) consumer-grade equipment, connecting 6 sites at 5 separate facilities. The system was accepted rapidly and enthusiastically, and was inexpensive compared to alternative approaches. Security was addressed by aspects of the AG software and by local network administrative practices. The chief obstacles to deployment arose from security restrictions imposed by multiple independent network administration regimes, requiring a drastically reduced list of network ports employed by AG components.

  17. Creating a Clinical Video-Conferencing Facility in a Security-Constrained Environment Using Open-Source AccessGrid Software and Consumer Hardware

    PubMed Central

    Terrazas, Enrique; Hamill, Timothy R.; Wang, Ye; Channing Rodgers, R. P.

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Laboratory Medicine at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) has been split into widely separated facilities, leading to much time being spent traveling between facilities for meetings. We installed an open-source AccessGrid multi-media-conferencing system using (largely) consumer-grade equipment, connecting 6 sites at 5 separate facilities. The system was accepted rapidly and enthusiastically, and was inexpensive compared to alternative approaches. Security was addressed by aspects of the AG software and by local network administrative practices. The chief obstacles to deployment arose from security restrictions imposed by multiple independent network administration regimes, requiring a drastically reduced list of network ports employed by AG components. PMID:18693930

  18. Design and development of multi functional confocal laser scanning microscope with UV / VIS laser source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanai, Yoshikazu; Kanzaki, Yousuke; Wakaki, Moriaki; Takeyama, Norihide

    2005-08-01

    A high resolution Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM) with UV / VIS light sources was developed as the first step of multi-functional microscope. The optical system is designed to optimize for both UV and VIS wavelengths. An UV laser is used to achieve higher resolution, and a VIS is for multi functions. A new objective lens specialized for this application was designed and fabricated. Specification of the lens and the optical system is NA:0.95, EFL:2.5mm, WD:1.5mm, Resolution:160nm and achromatic for two wavelengths of UV 325.0nm / VIS 632.8nm. Several specimens were characterized to check the performance of the system. Some optical materials under study were measured for evaluation, and interesting results could be obtained. Multi-functional measurements are being planed as a next step. This system will help the research of nano-structures, photonic-crystals and biology.

  19. Design and application of CVD diamond windows for x-rays at the Advanced Photon Source.

    SciTech Connect

    Jaski, Y.; Cookson, D.; Experimental Facilities Division; Univ. of Chicago

    2007-01-01

    Two types of directly cooled, 0.2-mm-thick, 8-mm-diameter clear aperture CVD diamond windows have been designed and successfully fabricated by two different vendors for use at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Both windows contain a direct braze joint between the diamond and the cooled OFHC copper. These windows can be used to replace the front-end beryllium windows in high-heat-load applications and can be used as white beam windows in the beamlines. This paper presents the detailed design of the diamond windows, the thermal analysis of the diamond window under different thermal load configurations, as well as a complete list of the existing APS front-end beryllium window configurations and replacement scenarios. Small-angle scattering experiments have been conducted on both diamond windows and a polished beryllium window, and the results are presented.

  20. Design of Quasi-Travelling Wave Pinger Magnet for Beam Diagnostics on the Advanced Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. E.; Stover, G.; Thur, W.

    1997-05-01

    A beam diagnostic tool to modify single bunch orbits in all four quadrants is proposed for measuring various machine physics parameters at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). Quasi-Travelling Wave Pinger magnets were chosen to provide programmable bipolar horizontal and vertical kicks of sufficient duration while providing negligible deflection on subsequent beam revolutions in the storage ring. This magnet technology, originally investigated at the SSC(D. Anderson and L. Schneider, "Design and Preliminary Testing of the LEB Extraction Kicker Magnet at the SSC", Proceedings of 1993 Particle Accelerator Conference, May 1993, pp. 1354-6.), provides a cost-effective method of achieving the moderately fast pulse requirements of the pinger application. The design of the pinger magnet and associated pulsed power drive unit will be presented. Electrical response results of initial pinger magnet prototypes and ceramic beampipe coatings will also be given.

  1. Challenges and design solutions of the liquid hydrogen circuit at the European Spallation Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallimore, S.; Nilsson, P.; Sabbagh, P.; Takibayev, A.; Weisend, J. G., II; Beßler, Y.; Klaus, M.

    2014-01-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS), Lund, Sweden will be a 5MW long-pulse neutron spallation research facility and will enable new opportunities for researchers in the fields of life sciences, energy, environmental technology, cultural heritage and fundamental physics. Neutrons are produced by accelerating a high-energy proton beam into a rotating helium-cooled tungsten target. These neutrons pass through moderators to reduce their energy to an appropriate range (< 5 meV for cold neutrons); two of which will use liquid hydrogen at 17 K as the moderating and cooling medium. There are several technical challenges to overcome in the design of a robust system that will operate under such conditions, not least the 20 kW of deposited heat. These challenges and the associated design solutions will be detailed in this paper.

  2. DESIGN, PROTOTYPE AND MEASUREMENT OF A SINGLE-CELL DEFLECTING CAVITY FOR THE ADVANCED PHOTON SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Haipeng Wang, Guangfeng Cheng, Gianluigi Ciovati, Peter Kneisel, Robert Rimmer, Kai Tian, Larry Turlington, Alireza Nassiri, Geoff Waldschmidt

    2009-05-01

    After the design optimization of a squashed elliptical shape, single-cell, superconducting (SC) deflecting cavity at 2.815 GHz, a copper prototype has been bench measured to determine its rf properties and the effectiveness of waveguide damping of parasitic modes [1]. RF cold tests were also performed at 2K on niobium single-cell and two-cell prototype cavities. Details of impedance calculation using wakefiled analysis of the single-cell cavity are shown to meet the strict 200 mA beam stability requirement of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Lab where a total of 16 single-cell cavities will be divided into two cryomodule. The design of higher-order mode (HOM) waveguide damping, the simulations of the Lorenz force detuning, and the prototype of on-cell damping are presented.

  3. 3D Method for the Design of Multi Sheet Beam RF Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2002-08-14

    Lowering the voltage of the RF sources can reduce the cost of future accelerator systems. This can be accomplished using multiple beam guns or guns with sheet beam in tubes creating high RF power. However, the optical design is almost impossible without 3D analysis, since the devices are no longer axis-symmetric. A new approach for 3D analysis of the electron gun and beam optics utilizes a combination of 3D MAFIA and TOPAZ computer programs. An algorithm based on perturbation theory provides a 3D correction to the 2D, self-consistent field solutions. This information is used to study propagated charged particles through the problem domain. Applications of this technique to the design of a high power multiple beam guns is discussed.

  4. Conceptual design of an RFQ accelerator-based neutron source for boron neutron-capture therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wangler, T.P.; Stovall, J.E.; Bhatia, T.S.; Wang, C.K.; Blue, T.E.; Gahbauer, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    We present a conceptual design of a low-energy neutron generator for treatment of brain tumors by boron neutron capture theory (BNCT). The concept is based on a 2.5-MeV proton beam from a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac, and the neutrons are produced by the /sup 7/Li(p,n)/sup 7/Be reaction. A liquid lithium target and modulator assembly are designed to provide a high flux of epithermal neutrons. The patient is administered a tumor-specific /sup 10/Be-enriched compound and is irradiated by the neutrons to create a highly localized dose from the reaction /sup 10/B(n,..cap alpha..)/sup 7/Li. An RFQ accelerator-based neutron source for BNCT is compact, which makes it practical to site the facility within a hospital. 11 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  5. The new Cold Neutron Chopper Spectrometer at the Spallation Neutron Source -- Design and Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Ehlers, Georg; Podlesnyak, Andrey A.; Niedziela, Jennifer L.; Iverson, Erik B.; Sokol, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    The design and performance of the new cold neutron chopper spectrometer (CNCS) at the Spallation Neutron Source in Oak Ridge are described. CNCS is a direct-geometry inelastic time-of-flight spectrometer, designed essentially to cover the same energy and momentum transfer ranges as IN5 at ILL, LET at ISIS, DCS at NIST, TOFTOF at FRM-II, AMATERAS at J-PARC, PHAROS at LANSCE, and NEAT at HZB, at similar energy resolution. Measured values of key figures such as neutron flux at sample position and energy resolution are compared between measurements and ray tracing Monte Carlo simulations, and good agreement (better than 20% of absolute numbers) has been achieved. The instrument performs very well in the cold and thermal neutron energy ranges, and promises to become a workhorse for the neutron scattering community for quasielastic and inelastic scattering experiments.

  6. The new cold neutron chopper spectrometer at the Spallation Neutron Source: Design and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Ehlers, G.; Podlesnyak, A. A.; Niedziela, J. L.; Iverson, E. B.; Sokol, P. E.

    2011-08-15

    The design and performance of the new cold neutron chopper spectrometer (CNCS) at the Spallation Neutron Source in Oak Ridge are described. CNCS is a direct-geometry inelastic time-of-flight spectrometer, designed essentially to cover the same energy and momentum transfer ranges as IN5 at ILL, LET at ISIS, DCS at NIST, TOFTOF at FRM-II, AMATERAS at J-PARC, PHAROS at LANSCE, and NEAT at HZB, at similar energy resolution. Measured values of key figures such as neutron flux at sample position and energy resolution are compared between measurements and ray tracing Monte Carlo simulations, and good agreement (better than 20% of absolute numbers) has been achieved. The instrument performs very well in the cold and thermal neutron energy ranges, and promises to become a workhorse for the neutron scattering community for quasielastic and inelastic scattering experiments.

  7. Synchrotron radiation shielding design for the Brockhouse sector at the Canadian light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassey, Bassey; Moreno, Beatriz; Gomez, Ariel; Ahmed, Asm Sabbir; Ullrich, Doug; Chapman, Dean

    2014-05-01

    At the Canadian Light Source (CLS), the plans for the construction of three beamlines under the Brockhouse Project are underway. The beamlines, to be classified under the CLS Phase III beamlines, will comprise of a wiggler and an undulator, and will be dedicated to x-ray diffraction and scattering experiments. The energy range of these beamlines will be 7-22 keV (low energy wiggler beamline), 20-94 keV (high energy wiggler beamline), and 5-21 keV (undulator beamline). The beamlines will have a total of five hutches. Presented is the shielding design against target scattered white and monochromatic synchrotron radiations for these beamlines. The shielding design is based on: scatter target material-water, dose object-anthropomorphic phantom of the adult human (anteroposterior-AP geometry), and shielding thicknesses of steel and lead that will drop the radiation leakage from the hutches to below 0.5 μSv/h.

  8. Utilizing Public Access Data and Open Source Statistical Programs to Teach Climate Science to Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, L.

    2014-12-01

    Students in the Environmental Studies major at the University of Southern California fulfill their curriculum requirements by taking a broad range of courses in the social and natural sciences. Climate change is often taught in 1-2 lectures in these courses with limited examination of this complex topic. Several upper division elective courses focus on the science, policy, and social impacts of climate change. In an upper division course focused on the scientific tools used to determine paleoclimate and predict future climate, I have developed a project where students download, manipulate, and analyze data from the National Climatic Data Center. Students are required to download 100 or more years of daily temperature records and use the statistical program R to analyze that data, calculating daily, monthly, and yearly temperature averages along with changes in the number of extreme hot or cold days (≥90˚F and ≤30˚F, respectively). In parallel, they examine population growth, city expansion, and changes in transportation looking for correlations between the social data and trends observed in the temperature data. Students examine trends over time to determine correlations to urban heat island effect. This project exposes students to "real" data, giving them the tools necessary to critically analyze scientific studies without being experts in the field. Utilizing the existing, public, online databases provides almost unlimited, free data. Open source statistical programs provide a cost-free platform for examining the data although some in-class time is required to help students navigate initial data importation and analysis. Results presented will highlight data compiled over three years of course projects.

  9. Design progress of cryogenic hydrogen system for China Spallation Neutron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G. P.; Zhang, Y.; Xiao, J.; He, C. C.; Ding, M. Y.; Wang, Y. Q.; Li, N.; He, K.

    2014-01-01

    China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) is a large proton accelerator research facility with 100 kW beam power. Construction started in October 2011 and is expected to last 6.5 years. The cryogenic hydrogen circulation is cooled by a helium refrigerator with cooling capacity of 2200 W at 20 K and provides supercritical hydrogen to neutron moderating system. Important progresses of CSNS cryogenic system were concluded as follows. Firstly, process design of cryogenic system has been completed including helium refrigerator, hydrogen loop, gas distribution, and safety interlock. Secondly, an accumulator prototype was designed to mitigate pressure fluctuation caused by dynamic heat load from neutron moderation. Performance test of the accumulator has been carried out at room and liquid nitrogen temperature. Results show the accumulator with welding bellows regulates hydrogen pressure well. Parameters of key equipment have been identified. The contract for the helium refrigerator has been signed. Mechanical design of the hydrogen cold box has been completed, and the hydrogen pump, ortho-para hydrogen convertor, helium-hydrogen heat exchanger, hydrogen heater, and cryogenic valves are in procurement. Finally, Hydrogen safety interlock has been finished as well, including the logic of gas distribution, vacuum, hydrogen leakage and ventilation. Generally, design and construction of CSNS cryogenic system is conducted as expected.

  10. Design progress of cryogenic hydrogen system for China Spallation Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G. P.; Zhang, Y.; Xiao, J.; He, C. C.; Ding, M. Y.; Wang, Y. Q.; Li, N.; He, K.

    2014-01-29

    China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) is a large proton accelerator research facility with 100 kW beam power. Construction started in October 2011 and is expected to last 6.5 years. The cryogenic hydrogen circulation is cooled by a helium refrigerator with cooling capacity of 2200 W at 20 K and provides supercritical hydrogen to neutron moderating system. Important progresses of CSNS cryogenic system were concluded as follows. Firstly, process design of cryogenic system has been completed including helium refrigerator, hydrogen loop, gas distribution, and safety interlock. Secondly, an accumulator prototype was designed to mitigate pressure fluctuation caused by dynamic heat load from neutron moderation. Performance test of the accumulator has been carried out at room and liquid nitrogen temperature. Results show the accumulator with welding bellows regulates hydrogen pressure well. Parameters of key equipment have been identified. The contract for the helium refrigerator has been signed. Mechanical design of the hydrogen cold box has been completed, and the hydrogen pump, ortho-para hydrogen convertor, helium-hydrogen heat exchanger, hydrogen heater, and cryogenic valves are in procurement. Finally, Hydrogen safety interlock has been finished as well, including the logic of gas distribution, vacuum, hydrogen leakage and ventilation. Generally, design and construction of CSNS cryogenic system is conducted as expected.

  11. Standards and the design of the Advanced Photon Source control system

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, W.P.; Knott, M.J.; Lenkszus, F.R.; Kraimer, M.R.; Daly, R.T.; Arnold, N.D.; Anderson, M.D.; Anderson, J.B.; Zieman, R.C.; Cha, Ben-Chin K.; Vong, F.C.; Nawrocki, G.J.; Gunderson, G.R.; Karonis, N.T.; Winans, J.R.

    1991-12-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), now under construction at Argonne National Laboratory is a 7 GeV positron storage ring dedicated to research facilities using synchrotron radiation. This ring, along with its injection accelerators is to be controlled and monitored with a single, flexible, and expandable control system. In the conceptual stage the control system design group faced the challenges that face all control system designers: to force the machine designers to quantify and codify the system requirements, to protect the investment in hardware and software from rapid obsolescence, and to find methods of quickly incorporating new generations of equipment and replace of obsolete equipment without disrupting the exiting system. To solve these and related problems, the APS control system group made an early resolution to use standards in the design of the system. This paper will cover the present status of the APS control system as well as discuss the design decisions which led us to use industrial standards and collaborations with other laboratories whenever possible to develop a control system. It will explain the APS control system and illustrate how the use of standards has allowed APS to design a control system whose implementation addresses these issues. The system will use high performance graphic workstations using an X-Windows Graphical User Interface at the operator interface level. It connects to VME-based microprocessors at the field level using TCP/IP protocols over high performance networks. This strategy assures the flexibility and expansibility of the control system. A defined interface between the system components will allow the system to evolve with the direct addition of future, improved equipment and new capabilities.

  12. Standards and the design of the Advanced Photon Source control system

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, W.P.; Knott, M.J.; Lenkszus, F.R.; Kraimer, M.R.; Daly, R.T.; Arnold, N.D.; Anderson, M.D.; Anderson, J.B.; Zieman, R.C.; Cha, Ben-Chin K.; Vong, F.C.; Nawrocki, G.J.; Gunderson, G.R.; Karonis, N.T.; Winans, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), now under construction at Argonne National Laboratory is a 7 GeV positron storage ring dedicated to research facilities using synchrotron radiation. This ring, along with its injection accelerators is to be controlled and monitored with a single, flexible, and expandable control system. In the conceptual stage the control system design group faced the challenges that face all control system designers: to force the machine designers to quantify and codify the system requirements, to protect the investment in hardware and software from rapid obsolescence, and to find methods of quickly incorporating new generations of equipment and replace of obsolete equipment without disrupting the exiting system. To solve these and related problems, the APS control system group made an early resolution to use standards in the design of the system. This paper will cover the present status of the APS control system as well as discuss the design decisions which led us to use industrial standards and collaborations with other laboratories whenever possible to develop a control system. It will explain the APS control system and illustrate how the use of standards has allowed APS to design a control system whose implementation addresses these issues. The system will use high performance graphic workstations using an X-Windows Graphical User Interface at the operator interface level. It connects to VME-based microprocessors at the field level using TCP/IP protocols over high performance networks. This strategy assures the flexibility and expansibility of the control system. A defined interface between the system components will allow the system to evolve with the direct addition of future, improved equipment and new capabilities.

  13. Flow characteristics of the raw sewage for the design of sewage-source heat pump systems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Wu, Yuebin; Sun, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    The flow characteristics of raw sewage directly affect the technical and economic performance of sewage-source heat pump systems. The purpose of this research is to characterize the flow characteristics of sewage by experimental means. A sophisticated and flexible experimental apparatus was designed and constructed. Then the flow characteristics of the raw sewage were studied through laboratorial testing and theoretical analyses. Results indicated that raw sewage could be characterized as a power-law fluid with the rheological exponent n being 0.891 and the rheological coefficient k being 0.00175. In addition, the frictional loss factor formula in laminar flow for raw sewage was deduced by theoretical analysis of the power-law fluid. Furthermore, an explicit empirical formula for the frictional loss factor in turbulent flow was obtained through curve fitting of the experimental data. Finally, the equivalent viscosity of the raw sewage is defined in order to calculate the Reynolds number in turbulent flow regions; it was found that sewage had two to three times the viscosity of water at the same temperature. These results contributed to appropriate parameters of fluid properties when designing and operating sewage-source heat pump systems.

  14. Design and validation of a wind tunnel system for odour sampling on liquid area sources.

    PubMed

    Capelli, L; Sironi, S; Del Rosso, R; Céntola, P

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the methods adopted for the design and the experimental validation of a wind tunnel, a sampling system suitable for the collection of gaseous samples on passive area sources, which allows to simulate wind action on the surface to be monitored. The first step of the work was the study of the air velocity profiles. The second step of the work consisted in the validation of the sampling system. For this purpose, the odour concentration of some air samples collected by means of the wind tunnel was measured by dynamic olfactometry. The results of the air velocity measurements show that the wind tunnel design features enabled the achievement of a uniform and homogeneous air flow through the hood. Moreover, the laboratory tests showed a very good correspondence between the odour concentration values measured at the wind tunnel outlet and the odour concentration values predicted by the application of a specific volatilization model, based on the Prandtl boundary layer theory. The agreement between experimental and theoretical trends demonstrate that the studied wind tunnel represents a suitable sampling system for the simulation of specific odour emission rates from liquid area sources without outward flow.

  15. Design and Experimental Demonstration of Cherenkov Radiation Source Based on Metallic Photonic Crystal Slow Wave Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Tao; Yang, Zi-Qiang; Ouyang, Zheng-Biao

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a kind of Cherenkov radiation source based on metallic photonic crystal (MPC) slow-wave structure (SWS) cavity. The Cherenkov source designed by linear theory works at 34.7 GHz when the cathode voltage is 550 kV. The three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation of the SWS shows the operating frequency of 35.56 GHz with a single TM01 mode is basically consistent with the theoretically one under the same parameters. An experiment was implemented to testify the results of theory and PIC simulation. The experimental system includes a cathode emitting unit, the SWS, a magnetic system, an output antenna, and detectors. Experimental results show that the operating frequency through detecting the retarded time of wave propagation in waveguides is around 35.5 GHz with a single TM01 mode and an output power reaching 54 MW. It indicates that the MPC structure can reduce mode competition. The purpose of the paper is to show in theory and in preliminary experiment that a SWS with PBG can produce microwaves in TM01 mode. But it still provides a good experimental and theoretical foundation for designing high-power microwave devices.

  16. Flow characteristics of the raw sewage for the design of sewage-source heat pump systems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Wu, Yuebin; Sun, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    The flow characteristics of raw sewage directly affect the technical and economic performance of sewage-source heat pump systems. The purpose of this research is to characterize the flow characteristics of sewage by experimental means. A sophisticated and flexible experimental apparatus was designed and constructed. Then the flow characteristics of the raw sewage were studied through laboratorial testing and theoretical analyses. Results indicated that raw sewage could be characterized as a power-law fluid with the rheological exponent n being 0.891 and the rheological coefficient k being 0.00175. In addition, the frictional loss factor formula in laminar flow for raw sewage was deduced by theoretical analysis of the power-law fluid. Furthermore, an explicit empirical formula for the frictional loss factor in turbulent flow was obtained through curve fitting of the experimental data. Finally, the equivalent viscosity of the raw sewage is defined in order to calculate the Reynolds number in turbulent flow regions; it was found that sewage had two to three times the viscosity of water at the same temperature. These results contributed to appropriate parameters of fluid properties when designing and operating sewage-source heat pump systems. PMID:24987735

  17. LIGHT SOURCE: Physical design of a 10 MeV LINAC for polymer radiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Guang-Yao; Pei, Yuan-Ji; Wang, Lin; Zhang, Shan-Cai; Wu, Cong-Feng; Jin, Kai; Li, Wei-Min

    2009-06-01

    In China, polymer radiation processing has become one of the most important processing industries. The radiation processing source may be an electron beam accelerator or a radioactive source. Physical design of an electron beam facility applied for radiation crosslinking is introduced in this paper because of it's much higher dose rate and efficiency. Main part of this facility is a 10 MeV travelling wave electron linac with constant impedance accelerating structure. A start to end simulation concerning the linac is reported in this paper. The codes Opera-3d, Poisson-superfish and Parmela are used to describe electromagnetic elements of the accelerator and track particle distribution from the cathode to the end of the linac. After beam dynamic optimization, wave phase velocities in the structure have been chosen to be 0.56, 0.9 and 0.999 respectively. Physical parameters about the main elements such as DC electron gun, iris-loaded periodic structure, solenoids, etc, are presented. Simulation results proves that it can satisfy the industrial requirement. The linac is under construction. Some components have been finished. Measurements proved that they are in a good agreement with the design values.

  18. Conceptual Design of Dielectric Accelerating Structures for Intense Neutron and Monochromatic X-ray Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Blanovsky, Anatoly

    2004-12-07

    Bright compact photon sources, which utilize electron beam interaction with periodic structures, may benefit a broad range of medical, industrial and scientific applications. A class of dielectric-loaded periodic structures for hard and soft X-ray production has been proposed that would provide a high accelerating gradient when excited by an external RF and/or primary electron beam. Target-distributed accelerators (TDA), in which an additional electric field compensates for lost beam energy in internal targets, have been shown to provide the necessary means to drive a high flux subcritical reactor (HFSR) for nuclear waste transmutation. The TDA may also be suitable for positron and nuclear isomer production, X-ray lithography and monochromatic computer tomography. One of the early assumptions of the theory of dielectric wake-field acceleration was that, in electrodynamics, the vector potential was proportional to the scalar potential. The analysis takes into consideration a wide range of TDA design aspects including the wave model of observed phenomena, a layered compound separated by a Van der Waals gap and a compact energy source based on fission electric cells (FEC) with a multistage collector. The FEC is a high-voltage power source that directly converts the kinetic energy of the fission fragments into electrical potential of about 2MV.

  19. Design of the new extraction grid for the NIO1 negative ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veltri, P.; Cavenago, M.; Baltador, C.

    2015-04-01

    NIO1 is a compact source of negative ions jointly developed by RFX and INFN, to study the physics of production and acceleration of H- beams. Negative ions, up to 120 mA of current, are extracted from a radiofrequency driven plasma, by means of a gridded electrode (plasma grid, PG) featuring 9 apertures arranged in a 3x3 square lattice. The same aperture pattern is replicated in the following electrodes, allowing ion acceleration up to 60 keV. All electrodes are realized in copper, by electro-deposition technique, leaving empty slots in the metal to place magnets and to flow water for the grid cooling. The first set of electrodes was completed, installed in the source and tested. At the same time, an upgrade of the extraction system was carried out, in order to optimize the beam optics and to explore alternative electrostatic configurations. In particular, the accelerator will be modified by completely replacing the EG grid, exploiting the modularity of NIO1. The new electrode will feature other slots in between apertures, to place additional magnets. This allows testing different magnetic configurations, to optimize electron filtering and residual ion deflection. The present paper describes the theoretical activities driving the design of these new extractors, carried out with most updated numerical codes, and exploiting the synergy with the refined modeling of the 40 A ITER negative ion sources, under development at Consorzio RFX. Beam simulations are performed both with tracing codes (SLACCAD and OPERA) and with particle in cell codes (ACCPIC)

  20. Design and characterization of the annular cathode high current pulsed electron beam source for circular components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wei; Wang, Langping; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2016-08-01

    In order to irradiate circular components with high current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB), an annular cathode based on carbon fiber bunches was designed and fabricated. Using an acceleration voltage of 25 kV, the maximum pulsed irradiation current and energy of this annular cathode can reach 7.9 kA and 300 J, respectively. The irradiation current density distribution of the annular cathode HCPEB source measured along the circumferential direction shows that the annular cathode has good emission uniformity. In addition, four 9310 steel substrates fixed uniformly along the circumferential direction of a metal ring substrate were irradiated by this annular cathode HCPEB source. The surface and cross-section morphologies of the irradiated samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM images of the surface reveal that crater and surface undulation have been formed, which hints that the irradiation energy of the HCPEB process is large enough for surface modification of 9310 steel. Meanwhile, SEM cross-section images exhibit that remelted layers with a thickness of about 5.4 μm have been obtained in all samples, which proves that a good practical irradiation uniformity can be achieved by this annular cathode HCPEB source.

  1. Computer Access for the Visually Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krolick, Bettye

    1984-01-01

    Provides information on and evaluation of microcomputer equipment modifications for improving accessibility to the visually impaired. Equipment discussed includes input and visual output modification techniques and devices, software designed for visually impaired users, and braille output peripherals. Lists sources for available peripherals,…

  2. Design and dosimetric characteristics of a new endocavitary contact radiotherapy system using an electronic brachytherapy source

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Susan; Garcia-Ramirez, Jose; Lu Wei; Myerson, Robert J.; Parikh, Parag

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To present design aspects and acceptance tests performed for clinical implementation of electronic brachytherapy treatment of early stage rectal adenocarcinoma. A dosimetric comparison is made between the historically used Philips RT-50 unit and the newly developed Axxent{sup Registered-Sign} Model S700 electronic brachytherapy source manufactured by Xoft (iCad, Inc.). Methods: Two proctoscope cones were manufactured by ElectroSurgical Instruments (ESI). Two custom surface applicators were manufactured by Xoft and were designed to fit and interlock with the proctoscope cones from ESI. Dose rates, half value layers (HVL), and percentage depth dose (PDD) measurements were made with the Xoft system and compared to historical RT-50 data. A description of the patient treatment approach and exposure rates during the procedure is also provided. Results: The electronic brachytherapy system has a lower surface dose rate than the RT-50. The dose rate to water on the surface from the Xoft system is approximately 2.1 Gy/min while the RT-50 is 10-12 Gy/min. However, treatment times with Xoft are still reasonable. The HVLs and PDDs between the two systems were comparable resulting in similar doses to the target and to regions beyond the target. The exposure rate levels around a patient treatment were acceptable. The standard uncertainty in the dose rate to water on the surface is approximately {+-}5.2%. Conclusions: The Philips RT-50 unit is an out-of-date radiotherapy machine that is no longer manufactured with limited replacement parts. The use of a custom-designed proctoscope and Xoft surface applicators allows delivery of a well-established treatment with the ease of a modern radiotherapy device. While the dose rate is lower with the use of Xoft, the treatment times are still reasonable. Additionally, personnel may stand farther away from the Xoft radiation source, thus potentially reducing radiation exposure to the operator and other personnel.

  3. Exploring experimental sources of multiple protein conformations in structure-based drug design.

    PubMed

    Damm, Kelly L; Carlson, Heather A

    2007-07-01

    Receptor flexibility must be incorporated into structure-based drug design in order to portray a more accurate representation of a protein in solution. Our approach is to generate pharmacophore models based on multiple conformations of a protein and is very similar to solvent mapping of hot spots. Previously, we had success using computer-generated conformations of apo human immunodeficiency virus-1 protease (HIV-1p). Here, we examine the use of an NMR ensemble versus a collection of crystal structures, and we compare back to our previous study based on computer-generated conformations. To our knowledge, this is the first direct comparison of an NMR ensemble and a collection of crystal structures to incorporate protein flexibility in structure-based drug design. To provide an accurate comparison between the experimental sources, we used bound structures for our multiple protein structure (MPS) pharmacophore models. The models from an NMR ensemble and a collection of crystal structures were both able to discriminate known HIV-1p inhibitors from decoy molecules and displayed superior performance over models created from single conformations of the protein. Although the active-site conformations were already predefined by bound ligands, the use of MPS allows us to overcome the cross-docking problem and generate a model that does not simply reproduce the chemical characteristics of a specific ligand class. We show that there is more structural variation between 28 structures in an NMR ensemble than 90 crystal structures bound to a variety of ligands. MPS models from both sources performed well, but the model determined using the NMR ensemble appeared to be the most general yet accurate representation of the active site. This work encourages the use of NMR models in structure-based design.

  4. Design support of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) of the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, E. A., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Engineering design specifications and development of the large area detector and photomultiplier tube assemblies for the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) of the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) mission are examined.

  5. 6-T SRAM cell design with nanoscale double-gate SOI MOSFETs: impact of source/drain engineering and circuit topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashmi; Kranti, Abhinav; Armstrong, G. Alastair

    2008-07-01

    The impact of source/drain engineering on the performance of a six-transistor (6-T) static random access memory (SRAM) cell, based on 22 nm double-gate (DG) SOI MOSFETs, has been analyzed using mixed-mode simulation, for three different circuit topologies for low voltage operation. The trade-offs associated with the various conflicting requirements relating to read/write/standby operations have been evaluated comprehensively in terms of eight performance metrics, namely retention noise margin, static noise margin, static voltage/current noise margin, write-ability current, write trip voltage/current and leakage current. Optimal design parameters with gate-underlap architecture have been identified to enhance the overall SRAM performance, and the influence of parasitic source/drain resistance and supply voltage scaling has been investigated. A gate-underlap device designed with a spacer-to-straggle (s/σ) ratio in the range 2 3 yields improved SRAM performance metrics, regardless of circuit topology. An optimal two word-line double-gate SOI 6-T SRAM cell design exhibits a high SNM ~ 162 mV, Iwr ~ 35 µA and low Ileak ~ 70 pA at VDD = 0.6 V, while maintaining SNM ~ 30%VDD over the supply voltage (VDD) range of 0.4 0.9 V.

  6. Direct design of aspherical lenses for extended non-Lambertian sources in three-dimensional rotational geometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rengmao; Hua, Hong

    2016-01-25

    Illumination design used to redistribute the spatial energy distribution of light source is a key technique in lighting applications. However, there is still no effective illumination design method for extended sources, especially for extended non-Lambertian sources. What we present here is to our knowledge the first direct method for extended non-Lambertian sources in three-dimensional (3D) rotational geometry. In this method, both meridional rays and skew rays of the extended source are taken into account to tailor the lens profile in the meridional plane. A set of edge rays and interior rays emitted from the extended source which will take a given direction after the refraction of the aspherical lens are found by the Snell's law, and the output intensity at this direction is then calculated to be the integral of the luminance function of the outgoing rays at this direction. This direct method is effective for both extended non-Lambertian sources and extended Lambertian sources in 3D rotational symmetry, and can directly find a solution to the prescribed design problem without cumbersome iterative illuminance compensation. Two examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in terms of performance and capacity for tackling complex designs. PMID:26832484

  7. Direct design of aspherical lenses for extended non-Lambertian sources in three-dimensional rotational geometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rengmao; Hua, Hong

    2016-01-25

    Illumination design used to redistribute the spatial energy distribution of light source is a key technique in lighting applications. However, there is still no effective illumination design method for extended sources, especially for extended non-Lambertian sources. What we present here is to our knowledge the first direct method for extended non-Lambertian sources in three-dimensional (3D) rotational geometry. In this method, both meridional rays and skew rays of the extended source are taken into account to tailor the lens profile in the meridional plane. A set of edge rays and interior rays emitted from the extended source which will take a given direction after the refraction of the aspherical lens are found by the Snell's law, and the output intensity at this direction is then calculated to be the integral of the luminance function of the outgoing rays at this direction. This direct method is effective for both extended non-Lambertian sources and extended Lambertian sources in 3D rotational symmetry, and can directly find a solution to the prescribed design problem without cumbersome iterative illuminance compensation. Two examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in terms of performance and capacity for tackling complex designs.

  8. Anthropogenic point and area source CO2 plume measurements: Implications for spaceborne CO2 sensor design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, A. E.; Ryerson, T. B.; Peischl, J.; Parrish, D. D.; Trainer, M.; Tans, P. P.

    2011-12-01

    Anthropogenic point and area source CO2 plume measurements: Implications for spaceborne CO2 sensor design A. Andrews, T. Ryerson, J. Peischl, D. Parrish, M. Trainer, P. Tans An extensive dataset of CO2 concentrations including enhancements in point and area source plumes is available from in situ measurements collected using the NOAA P-3 and NCAR Electra research aircraft during seven major field projects from 1999 through 2010. Research flights sampled emission plumes from coal-, oil-, and natural gas-fired electric utility power plants, industrial facilities, and urban areas. Plume sampling often included horizontal transects at several altitudes and multiple distances downwind. CO2 data from crosswind transects upwind and downwind, coupled with ancillary measurements of co-emitted nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide, along with plume location, and wind speed and direction permit unambiguous attribution and quantification of atmospheric plumes from individual sources. Certain point sources were revisited on multiple flights over the course of 1-2 month long field projects and on successive field projects spanning several years. Sampling occurred primarily in the summertime, daytime continental boundary layer, with some plume studies performed after dark and in the spring, fall, and winter seasons. The data provide rigorously calibrated, measurement-based constraints on the expected range of atmospheric CO2 plume enhancements that can be used to assess satellite sensor concepts. Crosswind near-field (~5 km) transects in the summer daytime mixed-layer downwind of the strongest point sources were characterized by peak plume CO2 mixing ratio enhancements >100 ppm above background for the 100-m spatial averages reported from the moving aircraft. On many flights, the aircraft tracked such emissions plumes beyond 150 km downwind, or up to 10 hours of transport time, until plume enhancements were indistinguishable from background variability in CO2

  9. Design, status and first operations of the spallation neutron source polyphase resonant converter modulator system

    SciTech Connect

    Reass, W. A.; Apgar, S. E.; Baca, D. M.; Doss, James D.; Gonzales, J.; Gribble, R. F.; Hardek, T. W.; Lynch, M. T.; Rees, D. E.; Tallerico, P. J.; Trujillo, P. B.; Anderson, D. E.; Heidenreich, D. A.; Hicks, J. D.; Leontiev, V. N.

    2003-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a new 1.4 MW average power beam, 1 GeV accelerator being built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The accelerator requires 15 converter-modulator stations each providing between 9 and 11 MW pulses with up to a 1 .I MW average power. The converter-modulator can be described as a resonant 20 kHz polyphase boost inverter. Each converter modulator derives its buss voltage from a standard substation cast-core transformer. Each substation is followed by an SCR pre-regulator to accommodate voltage changes from no load to full load, in addition to providing a soft-start function. Energy storage is provided by self-clearing metallized hazy polypropylene traction capacitors. These capacitors do not fail short, but clear any internal anomaly. Three 'H-Bridge' IGBT transistor networks are used to generate the polyphase 20 kHz transformer primary drive waveforms. The 20 kHz drive waveforms are time-gated to generate the desired klystron pulse width. Pulse width modulation of the individual 20 lcHz pulses is utilized to provide regulated output waveforms with DSP based adaptive feedforward and feedback techniques. The boost transformer design utilizes nanocrystalline alloy that provides low core loss at design flux levels and switching frequencies. Capacitors are used on the transformer secondary networks to resonate the leakage inductance. The transformers are wound for a specific leakage inductance, not turns ratio. This design technique generates multiple secondary volts per turn as compared to the primary. With the appropriate tuning conditions, switching losses are minimized. The resonant topology has the added benefit of being deQed in a klystron fault condition, with little energy deposited in the arc. This obviates the need of crowbars or other related networks. A review of these design parameters, operational performance, production status, and OWL installation and performance to date will be presented.

  10. Microwave frequency sweep interferometer for plasma density measurements in ECR ion sources: Design and preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrisi, Giuseppe; Mascali, David; Neri, Lorenzo; Leonardi, Ornella; Sorbello, Gino; Celona, Luigi; Castro, Giuseppe; Agnello, Riccardo; Caruso, Antonio; Passarello, Santi; Longhitano, Alberto; Isernia, Tommaso; Gammino, Santo

    2016-02-01

    The Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRISs) development is strictly related to the availability of new diagnostic tools, as the existing ones are not adequate to such compact machines and to their plasma characteristics. Microwave interferometry is a non-invasive method for plasma diagnostics and represents the best candidate for plasma density measurement in hostile environment. Interferometry in ECRISs is a challenging task mainly due to their compact size. The typical density of ECR plasmas is in the range 1011-1013 cm-3 and it needs a probing beam wavelength of the order of few centimetres, comparable to the chamber radius. The paper describes the design of a microwave interferometer developed at the LNS-INFN laboratories based on the so-called "frequency sweep" method to filter out the multipath contribution in the detected signals. The measurement technique and the preliminary results (calibration) obtained during the experimental tests will be presented.

  11. Microwave frequency sweep interferometer for plasma density measurements in ECR ion sources: Design and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Torrisi, Giuseppe; Mascali, David; Neri, Lorenzo; Leonardi, Ornella; Sorbello, Gino; Celona, Luigi; Castro, Giuseppe; Agnello, Riccardo; Caruso, Antonio; Passarello, Santi; Longhitano, Alberto; Isernia, Tommaso; Gammino, Santo

    2016-02-01

    The Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRISs) development is strictly related to the availability of new diagnostic tools, as the existing ones are not adequate to such compact machines and to their plasma characteristics. Microwave interferometry is a non-invasive method for plasma diagnostics and represents the best candidate for plasma density measurement in hostile environment. Interferometry in ECRISs is a challenging task mainly due to their compact size. The typical density of ECR plasmas is in the range 10(11)-10(13) cm(-3) and it needs a probing beam wavelength of the order of few centimetres, comparable to the chamber radius. The paper describes the design of a microwave interferometer developed at the LNS-INFN laboratories based on the so-called "frequency sweep" method to filter out the multipath contribution in the detected signals. The measurement technique and the preliminary results (calibration) obtained during the experimental tests will be presented.

  12. Design of quasi-traveling wave pinger magnet for beam diagnostics on the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.E.; Stover, G.

    1997-05-01

    A beam diagnostic tool to modify single bunch orbits in all four quadrants is proposed for measuring various machine physics parameters at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). Quasi-Traveling Wave pinger magnets were chosen to provide programmable bipolar horizontal and vertical kicks of sufficient duration while providing negligible deflection on subsequent beam revolutions in the storage ring. This magnet technology, originally investigated at the SSC, provides a cost-effective method of achieving the moderately fast pulse requirements of the pinger application. The design of the pinger magnet and associated pulsed power drive unit will be presented. Electrical response results of initial pinger magnet prototypes and ceramic beam pipe coatings will be given.

  13. SEDS: The Spitzer Extended Deep Survey. Survey Design, Photometry, and Deep IRAC Source Counts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, M. L. N.; Willner, S. P.; Fazio, G. G.; Huang, J.-S.; Arendt, A.; Barmby, P.; Barro, G; Bell, E. F.; Bouwens, R.; Cattaneo, A.; Croton, D.; Dave, R.; Dunlop, J. S.; Egami, E.; Faber, S.; Finlator, K.; Grogin, N. A.; Guhathakurta, P.; Hernquist, L.; Hora, J. L.; Illingworth, G.; Kashlinsky, A; Koekmoer, A. M.; Koo, D. C.; Moseley, H.

    2013-01-01

    The Spitzer Extended Deep Survey (SEDS) is a very deep infrared survey within five well-known extragalactic science fields: the UKIDSS Ultra-Deep Survey, the Extended Chandra Deep Field South, COSMOS, the Hubble Deep Field North, and the Extended Groth Strip. SEDS covers a total area of 1.46 deg(exp 2) to a depth of 26 AB mag (3sigma) in both of the warm Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) bands at 3.6 and 4.5 micron. Because of its uniform depth of coverage in so many widely-separated fields, SEDS is subject to roughly 25% smaller errors due to cosmic variance than a single-field survey of the same size. SEDS was designed to detect and characterize galaxies from intermediate to high redshifts (z = 2-7) with a built-in means of assessing the impact of cosmic variance on the individual fields. Because the full SEDS depth was accumulated in at least three separate visits to each field, typically with six-month intervals between visits, SEDS also furnishes an opportunity to assess the infrared variability of faint objects. This paper describes the SEDS survey design, processing, and publicly-available data products. Deep IRAC counts for the more than 300,000 galaxies detected by SEDS are consistent with models based on known galaxy populations. Discrete IRAC sources contribute 5.6 +/- 1.0 and 4.4 +/- 0.8 nW / square m/sr at 3.6 and 4.5 micron to the diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB). IRAC sources cannot contribute more than half of the total CIB flux estimated from DIRBE data. Barring an unexpected error in the DIRBE flux estimates, half the CIB flux must therefore come from a diffuse component.

  14. LOW LOSS DESIGN OF THE LINAC AND ACCUMULATOR RING FOR THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE.

    SciTech Connect

    RAPARIA,D.

    2003-02-03

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a second generation pulsed neutron source and is presently in the fourth year of a seven-year construction cycle at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A collaboration of six national laboratories (ANL, BNL, LANL, LBNL, ORNL, TJNAF) is responsible for the design and construction of the various subsystems. The operation of the facility will begin in 2006 and deliver a 1.0 GeV, 1.4 MW proton beam with pulse length of 650 nanosecond at a repetition rate of 60 Hz, on a liquid mercury target. It consists of an RF volume H{sup -} source of 50 mA peak current at 6% duty; an all electrostatic Low-Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) which also serves as a first stage beam chopper with {+-} 25 ns rise/fall time; a 402.5 MHz, 4-vane Radio-Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) for acceleration up to 2.5 MeV; a Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) housing a second stage chopper (<{+-} 10ns rise/fall), an adjustable beam halo scraper, and diagnostics devices; a 6-tank Drift Tube Linac (DTL) with permanent magnet quadrupoles up to 87 MeV; an 805 MHz, 4-module, Side Coupled Cavity Linac (CCL) up to 186 MeV; an 805 MHz, superconducting RF (SRF) linac with eleven medium beta ({beta} = 0.61) cryo-modules and twelve high beta ({beta} = 0.81) cryo-modules accelerating the beam to the full energy; a High Energy Beam transport (HEBT) for diagnostics, transverse and longitudinal collimation, energy correction, painting and matching; an accumulator ring compressing the 1 GeV, 1 ms pulse to 650 ns for delivery onto the target through a Ring to Target Beam Transport (RTBT) with transverse collimators.

  15. Design of the new extraction grid for the NIO1 negative ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Veltri, P. Baltador, C.; Cavenago, M.

    2015-04-08

    NIO1 is a compact source of negative ions jointly developed by RFX and INFN, to study the physics of production and acceleration of H{sup −} beams. Negative ions, up to 120 mA of current, are extracted from a radiofrequency driven plasma, by means of a gridded electrode (plasma grid, PG) featuring 9 apertures arranged in a 3x3 square lattice. The same aperture pattern is replicated in the following electrodes, allowing ion acceleration up to 60 keV. All electrodes are realized in copper, by electro-deposition technique, leaving empty slots in the metal to place magnets and to flow water for the grid cooling. The first set of electrodes was completed, installed in the source and tested. At the same time, an upgrade of the extraction system was carried out, in order to optimize the beam optics and to explore alternative electrostatic configurations. In particular, the accelerator will be modified by completely replacing the EG grid, exploiting the modularity of NIO1. The new electrode will feature other slots in between apertures, to place additional magnets. This allows testing different magnetic configurations, to optimize electron filtering and residual ion deflection. The present paper describes the theoretical activities driving the design of these new extractors, carried out with most updated numerical codes, and exploiting the synergy with the refined modeling of the 40 A ITER negative ion sources, under development at Consorzio RFX. Beam simulations are performed both with tracing codes (SLACCAD and OPERA) and with particle in cell codes (ACCPIC)

  16. Design of Coherent Femto-Second THz Radiation Source Using 60-MeV Electron Linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, H. S.; Lim, C. M.; Kang, T. H.; Choi, J.; Ko, I. S.

    2007-01-01

    A coherent femto-second THz radiation source using 60-MeV electron linac is under construction at PAL. The linac consists of an S-band photocathode RF-gun, two S-band accelerating structures (AC1 and AC2), two chicane bunch compressors (Chicane-1 and Chicane-2), and a 1-m long planar undulator. Chicane 1 will be located between AC1 and AC2, and Chicane-2 after AC2. Two kinds of radiation sources will be prepared: optical transition radiation (OTR) after Chicane-2, and undulator radiation at the end of linac. The PARMELA code simulation result shows that the beam with 0.2 nC charge can be compressed down to a few tens of femto-second by Chicane-2 for OTR and also by Chicane-1 for undulator radiation. Beam dynamics design was also done for higher charge of 0.5nC, and the bunch length is expected to be about one hundred femto-seconds.

  17. Driver linac design for a femtosecond head-on inverse Compton scatteringX-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, N. Y.; Lau, W. K.; Liang, C. C.; Lee, A. P.; Cheng, W. C.; Yang, S. S.

    2011-05-01

    The feasibility of generating an ultra-short relativistic electron beam with a thermionic cathode rf gun driver linac for a femtosecond head-on inverse Compton scattering (ICS) X-ray source has been examined by space charge tracking throughout the entire beamline, from the cathode to the interaction point. It has been determined that GHz-repetition-rate electron pulses as short as 49 fs can be produced by compressing the energy-chirped beam from a 2998-MHz, 1.5-cell rf gun with an alpha magnet and an rf linac operating at the injection phase near the zero crossing. These electron pulses, with a 42-pC bunch charge, are accelerated to 27 MeV with an S-band traveling-wave constant-gradient linac structure for the ICS in an interaction chamber located downstream. The driver linac design that allows the operation of an ultra-short ICS X-ray source at a 0.7-Å wavelength, with a peak photon flux of 9.08×1017 photons/s, is presented in this paper.

  18. Design and Performance of a High-Flux Electrospray Ionization Source for Ion Soft-Landing

    SciTech Connect

    Gunaratne, Kalupathirannehelage Don D.; Prabhakaran, Venkateshkumar; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Johnson, Grant E.; Laskin, Julia

    2015-01-01

    We report the design and evaluation of a new high-intensity electrospray ionization source for ion soft-landing experiments. The source incorporates a dual ion funnel, which enables operation with a higher gas load through an expanded heated inlet into the additional first region of differential pumping. This capability allowed us to examine the effect of the inner diameter (ID) of the heated stainless steel inlet on the total ion current transmitted through the dual funnel interface and, more importantly, the mass-selected ion current delivered to the deposition target. The ion transmission of the dual funnel is similar to the transmission of the single funnel used in our previous soft landing studies. However, substantially higher ion currents were obtained using larger ID heated inlets and an orthogonal inlet geometry, in which the heated inlet is positioned perpendicular to the direction of ion propagation through the instrument. The highest ion currents were obtained using the orthogonal geometry and a 1.4 mm ID heated inlet. The corresponding stable deposition rate of ~1 μg of mass-selected ions per day will facilitate future studies focused on the controlled deposition of biological molecules on substrates and preparation of materials for studies in catalysis, energy storage, and self-assembly

  19. Design of a beam emission spectroscopy diagnostic for negative ions radio frequency source SPIDER

    SciTech Connect

    Zaniol, B.; Pasqualotto, R.; Barbisan, M.

    2012-04-15

    A facility will be built in Padova (Italy) to develop, commission, and optimize the neutral beam injection system for ITER. The full scale prototype negative ion radio frequency source SPIDER, featuring up to 100 kV acceleration voltage, includes a full set of diagnostics, required for safe operation and to measure and optimize the beam performance. Among them, beam emission spectroscopy (BES) will be used to measure the line integrated beam uniformity, divergence, and neutralization losses inside the accelerator (stripping losses). In the absence of the neutralization stage, SPIDER beam is mainly composed by H{sup -} or D{sup -} particles, according to the source filling gas. The capability of a spectroscopic diagnostic of an H{sup -} (D{sup -}) beam relies on the interaction of the beam particles with the background gas particles. The BES diagnostic will be able to acquire the H{sub {alpha}} (D{sub {alpha}}) spectrum from up to 40 lines of sight. The system is capable to resolve stripping losses down to 2 keV and to measure beam divergence with an accuracy of about 10%. The design of this diagnostic is reported, with discussion of the layout and its components, together with simulations of the expected performance.

  20. Design and performance of a high-flux electrospray ionization source for ion soft landing.

    PubMed

    Gunaratne, K Don D; Prabhakaran, Venkateshkumar; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Norheim, Randolph V; Johnson, Grant E; Laskin, Julia

    2015-05-01

    We report the design and evaluation of a new high-intensity electrospray ionization source for ion soft-landing experiments. The source incorporates a dual ion funnel, which enables operation with a higher gas load through an expanded diameter heated inlet into the additional first region of differential pumping. This capability allowed us to examine the effect of the inner diameter (ID) of the heated stainless steel inlet on the total ion current transmitted through the dual funnel interface and, more importantly, the mass-selected ion current delivered to the deposition target. The ion transmission of the dual funnel is similar to the transmission of the single funnel used in our previous soft landing studies. However, substantially higher ion currents were obtained using larger ID heated inlets and an orthogonal inlet geometry, in which the heated inlet was positioned perpendicular to the direction of ion propagation through the instrument. The highest ion currents were obtained using the orthogonal geometry and a 1.4 mm ID heated inlet. The corresponding stable deposition rate of ∼1 μg of mass-selected ions per day will facilitate future studies focused on the controlled deposition of complex molecules on substrates for studies in catalysis, energy storage, and self-assembly.

  1. Design of the X-ray Nanoprobe Beamline at the Taiwan Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, S. H.; Yin, G. C.; Wang, D. J.; Chang, C. H.; Juang, J. M.; Huang, L. J.; Liu, C. Y.; Chang, C. F.; Chu, C. H.; Tang, M. T.

    2013-03-01

    The X-ray Nanoprobe (XNP) Beamline Project has been granted as one of the first seven beamlines at the Taiwan Photon Source (TPS). The XNP beamline and the associated instruments are designed to utilize the highly brilliant TPS light source for resolving the atomic, chemical and electronic structures of semiconductor-based devices with tens nm spatial resolution in tomographic and nondestructive manners. The beamline optics is deliberated to deliver focal spot around 40 nm with photon flux in the level of 1010 photons/sec. The stability of the focal position will be highly improved by operating the double crystal monochromator (DCM) in horizontally diffracting geometry, with minor sacrifice in energy resolution. The relative movement between sample and focusing optics is controlled by ultra-precise linear translational/flexure stages and monitored by laser interferometers. The end stations will provide conventional X-ray probes including, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray absorption fine structures (XAFS), X-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL), and the emerging techniques, such as the Bragg-ptychography (BP) to overcome the spatial resolution set by the focusing optics. A novel scanning mechanism incorporating surface diffraction and BP for mapping the 3D interfacial strains is under development. The XNP beamline and associated instruments are expected to take the first synchrotron light by the end of 2015.

  2. Design and construction of a superconducting magnet system for an Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyfert, Peter; Briand, Paul; Ciavola, Giovanni; Gammino, Santo; Melin, Gérard; Lagnier, Robert; Losasso, Marcello; Menicatti, Antonella; Penco, Roberto

    1994-08-01

    The cyclotron accelerator at Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud in Catania, Italy will be equipped with a high-performance ECR ion source. This source which is presently under construction comprises a so-called Minimum-B magnetic bottle of 130 mm diameter and 480 mm length. The specified magnetic field values are 2.7 T, 1.6 T and 0.37 T respectively for the axial component at the two ends and at the center. The transverse field component is required to reach 1.4 T at the cylindrical boundary. The complex field configuration is produced by means of a compound superconducting coil system whose essential parts are an approximately 800 mm long sextupole and three coaxial solenoids surrounding the sextupole. All windings will be made from NbTi composite conductors and impregnated with epoxy resins. Bath cooling at 4.5 K for all coils will be provided by a warm-bore type cryostat with horizontal axis. The paper presents design and construction of the coil system, its support structure and the cryostat.

  3. Design of a beam emission spectroscopy diagnostic for negative ions radio frequency source SPIDER.

    PubMed

    Zaniol, B; Pasqualotto, R; Barbisan, M

    2012-04-01

    A facility will be built in Padova (Italy) to develop, commission, and optimize the neutral beam injection system for ITER. The full scale prototype negative ion radio frequency source SPIDER, featuring up to 100 kV acceleration voltage, includes a full set of diagnostics, required for safe operation and to measure and optimize the beam performance. Among them, beam emission spectroscopy (BES) will be used to measure the line integrated beam uniformity, divergence, and neutralization losses inside the accelerator (stripping losses). In the absence of the neutralization stage, SPIDER beam is mainly composed by H(-) or D(-) particles, according to the source filling gas. The capability of a spectroscopic diagnostic of an H(-) (D(-)) beam relies on the interaction of the beam particles with the background gas particles. The BES diagnostic will be able to acquire the H(α) (D(α)) spectrum from up to 40 lines of sight. The system is capable to resolve stripping losses down to 2 keV and to measure beam divergence with an accuracy of about 10%. The design of this diagnostic is reported, with discussion of the layout and its components, together with simulations of the expected performance.

  4. Design of an inexpensive integrating sphere student laboratory setup for the optical characterization of light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leloup, Frédéric B.; Leyre, Sven; Bauwens, Eva; Van den Abeele, Toon; Hanselaer, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the design of an inexpensive integrating sphere setup is presented, enabling students to perform optical characterization of light sources with reasonable accuracy, in a student laboratory context. Instead of using an expensive sphere with magnesium oxide or barium sulfate coating, a cheap polystyrene sphere is employed. In combination with a low-cost USB spectroradiometer, the system enables the direct measurement of the spectral radiant power of a light source. In addition to the radiant power, the luminous flux, luminous efficacy, and distinctive colorimetric quantities (colour coordinates, colour temperature, and colour rendering index) can be determined. Besides a description of the equipment used, the experimental measurement procedure and some typical measurement results are presented. A comparison between the data and the results obtained with scientific metrology instrumentation indicates reasonable accuracy. As a result, it can be concluded that the purpose of the presented experiments, being that students become acquainted with applications of radiometry and photometry, and with data collection and data analysis as in a professional context, is fully achieved with the described test setup.

  5. The Chandra Source Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Ian N.; Primini, F. A.; Glotfelty, K. J.; Anderson, C. S.; Bonaventura, N. R.; Chen, J. C.; Davis, J. E.; Doe, S. M.; Evans, J. D.; Fabbiano, G.; Galle, E. C.; Gibbs, D. G., II; Grier, J. D.; Hain, R. M.; Hall, D. M.; Harbo, P. N.; He, X.; Houck, J. C.; Karovska, M.; Kashyap, V. L.; Lauer, J.; McCollough, M. L.; McDowell, J. C.; Miller, J. B.; Mitschang, A. W.; Morgan, D. L.; Mossman, A. E.; Nichols, J. S.; Nowak, M. A.; Plummer, D. A.; Refsdal, B. L.; Rots, A. H.; Siemiginowska, A.; Sundheim, B. A.; Tibbetts, M. S.; Van Stone, D. W.; Winkelman, S. L.; Zografou, P.

    2010-03-01

    The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is a general purpose virtual X-ray astrophysics facility that provides access to a carefully selected set of generally useful quantities for individual X-ray sources, and is designed to satisfy the needs of a broad-based group of scientists, including those who may be less familiar with astronomical data analysis in the X-ray regime. The first release of the CSC includes information about 94,676 distinct X-ray sources detected in a subset of public ACIS imaging observations from roughly the first eight years of the Chandra mission. This release of the catalog includes point and compact sources with observed spatial extents < 30". The catalog (1) provides access to estimates of the X-ray source properties for detected sources with good scientific fidelity; (2) facilitates analysis of a wide range of statistical properties for classes of X-ray sources; and (3) provides efficient access to calibrated observational data and ancillary data products for individual X-ray sources. The catalog includes real X-ray sources detected with flux estimates that are at least 3 times their estimated 1σ uncertainties in at least one energy band, while maintaining the number of spurious sources at a level of < 1 false source per field for a 100 ks observation. For each detected source, the CSC provides commonly tabulated quantities, including source position, extent, multi-band fluxes, hardness ratios, and variability statistics. In addition, for each X-ray source the CSC includes an extensive set of file-based data products that can be manipulated interactively, including source images, event lists, light curves, and spectra. Support for development of the CSC is provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration through the Chandra X-ray Center, which is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for and on behalf of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under contract NAS 8-03060.

  6. Shielding analysis and design of the KIPT experimental neutron source facility of Ukraine.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Z.; Gohar, M. Y. A.; Naberezhnev, D.; Duo, J.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-10-31

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) of USA and Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine have been collaborating on the conceptual design development of an experimental neutron source facility based on the use of an electron accelerator driven subcritical (ADS) facility [1]. The facility uses the existing electron accelerators of KIPT in Ukraine. The neutron source of the sub-critical assembly is generated from the interaction of 100 KW electron beam with a natural uranium target. The electron beam has a uniform spatial distribution and the electron energy in the range of 100 to 200 MeV, [2]. The main functions of the facility are the production of medical isotopes and the support of the Ukraine nuclear power industry. Reactor physics experiments and material performance characterization will also be carried out. The subcritical assembly is driven by neutrons generated by the electron beam interactions with the target material. A fraction of these neutrons has an energy above 50 MeV generated through the photo nuclear interactions. This neutron fraction is very small and it has an insignificant contribution to the subcritical assembly performance. However, these high energy neutrons are difficult to shield and they can be slowed down only through the inelastic scattering with heavy isotopes. Therefore the shielding design of this facility is more challenging relative to fission reactors. To attenuate these high energy neutrons, heavy metals (tungsten, iron, etc.) should be used. To reduce the construction cost, heavy concrete with 4.8 g/cm{sup 3} density is selected as a shielding material. The iron weight fraction in this concrete is about 0.6. The shape and thickness of the heavy concrete shield are defined to reduce the biological dose equivalent outside the shield to an acceptable level during operation. At the same time, special attention was give to reduce the total shield mass to reduce the construction cost. The shield design is configured

  7. Design study of a 17.3 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source at Louvain-la-Neuve

    SciTech Connect

    Standaert, L. Davin, F.; Loiselet, M.

    2014-02-15

    The Cyclotron Resources Center of the Louvain-la-Neuve University is developing a new electron cyclotron resonance ion source to increase the energy of the accelerated beam by injection of higher charge state ions into the cyclotron. The design of the source is based on a 17.3 GHz frequency and classical coils to produce the axial field. The field reaches 2 T at the injection side and 1.2 T at extraction. The total power consumption for the coils is limited to 80 kW. The design features of the source are presented.

  8. Network unites payers, physicians, hospitals. System participants work together to improve access to care and to design cost-saving incentives.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, J

    1993-05-01

    Through Sacred Heart Health System (SHHS), Eugene, OR, physicians, payers, and hospitals are designing a network that will integrate care and improve access by reducing healthcare costs. Together, system members design cost-saving incentives and the products the system offers the community. They promote managed care as the most efficient means to coordinate care and reduce costs. All participants share in the risks of a capitated payment system. Since the system pulled together the payers, physician groups, and hospitals, many of these entities' management functions were consolidated at the system level to avoid duplication and reduce administrative costs. Bringing in physicians was the most difficult yet important aspect of forming a successful network. Working with two physician groups in the community, the system's sponsor-the Sisters of St. Joseph of Peace, Health and Hospital Services-developed the Physician Practice Board. The board, representing 300 physicians, meets weekly and makes recommendations on issues that affect physicians. SHHS also added innovative new functions such as an integrated medical cost management and continuous quality improvement program. Another key to success is a clinically oriented information system, which will allow the system to track patients once they leave the hospital. It also will provide a better understanding of what things have an impact on outcomes and will reduce paperwork. A portion of the system's revenue is designated for initiatives to improve access. And the system recently appointed a tack force on access to explore what they can do in cooperation with others in the community. PMID:10125358

  9. A neutron pinhole camera for PF-24 source: Conceptual design and optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielecki, J.; Wójcik-Gargula, A.; Wiacek, U.; Scholz, M.; Igielski, A.; Drozdowicz, K.; Woźnicka, U.

    2015-07-01

    A fast-neutron pinhole camera based on small-area (5mm × 5 mm) BCF-12 scintillation detectors with nanosecond time resolution has been designed. The pinhole camera is dedicated to the investigation of the spatial and temporal distributions of DD neutrons from the Plasma Focus (PF-24) source. The geometrical parameters of the camera have been optimized in terms of maximum neutron flux at the imaging plane by means of MCNP calculations. The detection system consists of four closely packed scintillation detectors coupled via long optical fibres to Hamamatsu H3164-10 photomultiplier tubes. The pinhole consists of specially designed 420 mm long copper collimator with an effective aperture of 1.7 mm mounted inside a cylindrical polyethylene tube. The performance of the presented detection system in the mixed (hard X-ray and neutron) radiation field of the PF-24 plasma focus device has been tested. The results of the tests showed that the small-area BCF-12 scintillation detectors can be successfully applied as the detection system of the neutron pinhole camera for the PF-24 device.

  10. On sustainable and efficient design of ground-source heat pump systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassi, W.; Conti, P.; Schito, E.; Testi, D.

    2015-11-01

    This paper is mainly aimed at stressing some fundamental features of the GSHP design and is based on a broad research we are performing at the University of Pisa. In particular, we focus the discussion on an environmentally sustainable approach, based on performance optimization during the entire operational life. The proposed methodology aims at investigating design and management strategies to find the optimal level of exploitation of the ground source and refer to other technical means to cover the remaining energy requirements and modulate the power peaks. The method is holistic, considering the system as a whole, rather than focusing only on some components, usually considered as the most important ones. Each subsystem is modeled and coupled to the others in a full set of equations, which is used within an optimization routine to reproduce the operative performances of the overall GSHP system. As a matter of fact, the recommended methodology is a 4-in-1 activity, including sizing of components, lifecycle performance evaluation, optimization process, and feasibility analysis. The paper reviews also some previous works concerning possible applications of the proposed methodology. In conclusion, we describe undergoing research activities and objectives of future works.

  11. The U5. 0 undulator design for the advanced light source at LBL

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyer, E.; Chin, J.; Halbach, K.; Hassenzahl, W.; Humphries, D.; Kincaid, B.; Lancaster, H.; Plate, D.; Savoy, R.

    1989-08-01

    The U5.0 undulator, currently under design, is the first in a series of insertion devices planned for the Advanced Light Source at LBL. U5.0 parameters include a 5 cm period, 5 m length with a 0.837 T maximum field at a 14 mm gap. A hybrid configuration utilizing Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet material and Vanadium Permendur poles is used for the magnetic structure. Construction is modular with many pole assemblies attached to a pole mount, which in turn is fastened onto one of the backing beams. Vertical field integral correction at the ends is with permanent magnet rotators. The supports structure features a 4-post configuration, a rigid base with 3 kinematic floor supports and 2 rigid 5 m long backing beams that fit within the 2.4 m high accelerator enclosure. The drive system is computer controlled utilizing a stepper motor and shaft encode coupled to a roller-screw/nut and chain drive train. Vacuum chamber design is a rigid configuration with a 10 mm vertical by 218 mm horizontal aperture of 5.5 m length. Chamber fabrication features a two-piece welded chamber of 5083 H321 aluminum. Pumping is with ion and titanium sublimation pumps. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Feasibility and conceptual design of a C.W. positron source at CEBAF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golge, Serkan

    A feasibility study of a CW positron source for the 12 GeV upgrade at Jefferson Lab (JLAB) is provided. The proposed ≥ 100 nA Continuous Wave (CW) positron source at JLAB has several unique and challenging characteristics: high current incident electron beam at 126 MeV with a high beam power (up to a MW); CW e- beam and CW e+ production. The multiple scattering is a dominant process when creating e+ in a target, which results a large phase space area of the emitted positrons. An admittance study was done at CEBAF to find the maximum phase space area, which is tolerated in the machine. The measured geometrical transverse admittance (A) were Ax =10 and Ay = 5 mm·mrad at the injector. Energy spread measurement was also done at the ARC1. The fractional spread limit in the ARC1 was measured as delta = 3 x 10-3 at 653 MeV. By using the optimized results and the CEBAF parameters, three positron injector configurations are proposed; Combined Function Magnet, Two-Dipole and Microtron Dipole configurations. With the assumptions made, by using 126 MeV⊗10 mA e- beam impinging on a 2 mm W target with a 100 mum spot size, we can get up to 3 muA useful e+ current at the North Linac connection. One of the biggest challenges is the target design, which the deposited power is about 60 kW. ILC designs project power deposition up to 13 kW, which would allow the creation of a e+ beam of up to 650 nA otherwise. The results of analytic and monte carlo simulations of the positron production, capture and acceleration are presented. For the target design, a review is presented of solutions for the high power production target. Portions of this dissertation work have been published in two conference proceedings. 1,2 1S. Golge et al., in Proceedings of PAC07, Albuquerque, New Mexico, June 2007 2S. Golge et al., AIP Conf. Proc., 1160, 109 (2009)

  13. Feasibility and conceptual design of a C.W. positron source at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Golge, Serkan

    2010-08-01

    A feasibility study of a CW positron source for the 12 GeV upgrade at Jefferson Lab (JLAB) is provided. The proposed ≥ 100 nA Continuous Wave (CW) positron source at JLAB has several unique and challenging characteristics: high current incident electron beam at 126 MeV with a high beam power (up to a MW); CW e- beam and CW e+ production. The multiple scattering is a dominant process when creating e+ in a target, which results a large phase space area of the emitted positrons. An admittance study was done at CEBAF to find the maximum phase space area, which is tolerated in the machine. The measured geometrical transverse admittance (A) were Ax =10 and Ay = 5 mm∙mrad at the injector. Energy spread measurement was also done at the ARC1. The fractional spread limit in the ARC1 was measured as δ = 3×10-3 at 653 MeV. By using the optimized results and the CEBAF parameters, three positron injector configurations are proposed; Combined Function Magnet, Two-Dipole and Microtron Dipole configurations. With the assumptions made, by using 126 MeV Ⓧ10 mA e- beam impinging on a 2 mm W target with a 100 μm spot size, we can get up to 3 μA useful e+ current at the North Linac connection. One of the biggest challenges is the target design, which the deposited power is about 60 kW. ILC designs project power deposition up to 13 kW, which would allow the creation of a e+ beam of up to 650 nA otherwise. The results of analytic and monte carlo simulations of the positron production, capture and acceleration are presented. For the target design, a review is presented of solutions for the high power production target. Portions of this dissertation work have been published in two conference proceedings.

  14. Design, implementation and practice of JBEI-ICE: an open source biological part registry platform and tools.

    PubMed

    Ham, Timothy S; Dmytriv, Zinovii; Plahar, Hector; Chen, Joanna; Hillson, Nathan J; Keasling, Jay D

    2012-10-01

    The Joint BioEnergy Institute Inventory of Composable Elements (JBEI-ICEs) is an open source registry platform for managing information about biological parts. It is capable of recording information about 'legacy' parts, such as plasmids, microbial host strains and Arabidopsis seeds, as well as DNA parts in various assembly standards. ICE is built on the idea of a web of registries and thus provides strong support for distributed interconnected use. The information deposited in an ICE installation instance is accessible both via a web browser and through the web application programming interfaces, which allows automated access to parts via third-party programs. JBEI-ICE includes several useful web browser-based graphical applications for sequence annotation, manipulation and analysis that are also open source. As with open source software, users are encouraged to install, use and customize JBEI-ICE and its components for their particular purposes. As a web application programming interface, ICE provides well-developed parts storage functionality for other synthetic biology software projects. A public instance is available at public-registry.jbei.org, where users can try out features, upload parts or simply use it for their projects. The ICE software suite is available via Google Code, a hosting site for community-driven open source projects.

  15. 28 CFR Appendix B to Part 36 - Analysis and Commentary on the 2010 ADA Standards for Accessible Design

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... final rules for title II (28 CFR part 35) and title III (28 CFR part 36) of the Americans with... the Department's revised ADA title II regulation, 28 CFR 35.104 Definitions, the Department defines... consist of the 2004 ADA Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG) and the requirements contained in 28 CFR...

  16. 28 CFR Appendix B to Part 36 - Analysis and Commentary on the 2010 ADA Standards for Accessible Design

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... final rules for title II (28 CFR part 35) and title III (28 CFR part 36) of the Americans with... the Department's revised ADA title II regulation, 28 CFR 35.104 Definitions, the Department defines... consist of the 2004 ADA Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG) and the requirements contained in 28 CFR...

  17. Educating in the Design and Construction of Built Environments Accessible to Disabled People: The Leonardo da Vinci AWARD Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frattari, Antonio; Dalpra, Michela; Bernardi, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    An interdisciplinary partnership within an European Leonardo da Vinci project has developed a new approach aimed at educating secondary school students in the creation of built environments accessible to disabled people and at sensitizing them towards the inclusion of people with disabilities in all realms of social life. The AWARD (Accessible…

  18. 28 CFR Appendix B to Part 36 - Analysis and Commentary on the 2010 ADA Standards for Accessible Design

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... final rules for title II (28 CFR part 35) and title III (28 CFR part 36) of the Americans with... the Department's revised ADA title II regulation, 28 CFR 35.104 Definitions, the Department defines... consist of the 2004 ADA Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG) and the requirements contained in 28 CFR...

  19. 28 CFR Appendix B to Part 36 - Analysis and Commentary on the 2010 ADA Standards for Accessible Design

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... final rules for title II (28 CFR part 35) and title III (28 CFR part 36) of the Americans with... the Department's revised ADA title II regulation, 28 CFR 35.104 Definitions, the Department defines... consist of the 2004 ADA Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG) and the requirements contained in 28 CFR...

  20. Design and analysis of a dual-axis resonator fiber-optic gyroscope employing a single source.

    PubMed

    Pinnoji, Prerana Dabral; Nayak, Jagannath

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, design of a resonator fiber-optic gyroscope comprised of a single laser source and two optical fiber resonator rings is presented. A typical gyroscope measures angular rotation around a fixed axis, whereas the proposed design can sense simultaneous rotation about two orthogonal axes. Two variants of the design are proposed and analyzed using a mathematical model based on Jones matrix methodology.