Science.gov

Sample records for accessible targets study

  1. Accurate guidance for percutaneous access to a specific target in soft tissues: preclinical study of computer-assisted pericardiocentesis.

    PubMed

    Chavanon, O; Barbe, C; Troccaz, J; Carrat, L; Ribuot, C; Noirclerc, M; Maitrasse, B; Blin, D

    1999-06-01

    In the field of percutaneous access to soft tissues, our project was to improve classical pericardiocentesis by performing accurate guidance to a selected target, according to a model of the pericardial effusion acquired through three-dimensional (3D) data recording. Required hardware is an echocardiographic device and a needle, both linked to a 3D localizer, and a computer. After acquiring echographic data, a modeling procedure allows definition of the optimal puncture strategy, taking into consideration the mobility of the heart, by determining a stable region, whatever the period of the cardiac cycle. A passive guidance system is then used to reach the planned target accurately, generally a site in the middle of the stable region. After validation on a dynamic phantom and a feasibility study in dogs, an accuracy and reliability analysis protocol was realized on pigs with experimental pericardial effusion. Ten consecutive successful punctures using various trajectories were performed on eight pigs. Nonbloody liquid was collected from pericardial effusions in the stable region (5 to 9 mm wide) within 10 to 15 minutes from echographic acquisition to drainage. Accuracy of at least 2.5 mm was demonstrated. This study demonstrates the feasibility of computer-assisted pericardiocentesis. Beyond the simple improvement of the current technique, this method could be a new way to reach the heart or a new tool for percutaneous access and image-guided puncture of soft tissues. Further investigation will be necessary before routine human application.

  2. Vascular Accessibility of Endothelial Targeted Ferritin Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Khoshnejad, Makan; Shuvaev, Vladimir V; Pulsipher, Katherine W; Dai, Chuanyun; Hood, Elizabeth D; Arguiri, Evguenia; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo; Dmochowski, Ivan J; Greineder, Colin F; Muzykantov, Vladimir R

    2016-03-16

    Targeting nanocarriers to the endothelium, using affinity ligands to cell adhesion molecules such as ICAM-1 and PECAM-1, holds promise to improve the pharmacotherapy of many disease conditions. This approach capitalizes on the observation that antibody-targeted carriers of 100 nm and above accumulate in the pulmonary vasculature more effectively than free antibodies. Targeting of prospective nanocarriers in the 10-50 nm range, however, has not been studied. To address this intriguing issue, we conjugated monoclonal antibodies (Ab) to ICAM-1 and PECAM-1 or their single chain antigen-binding fragments (scFv) to ferritin nanoparticles (FNPs, size 12 nm), thereby producing Ab/FNPs and scFv/FNPs. Targeted FNPs retained their typical symmetric core-shell structure with sizes of 20-25 nm and ∼4-5 Ab (or ∼7-9 scFv) per particle. Ab/FNPs and scFv/FNPs, but not control IgG/FNPs, bound specifically to cells expressing target molecules and accumulated in the lungs after intravenous injection, with pulmonary targeting an order of magnitude higher than free Ab. Most intriguing, the targeting of Ab/FNPs to ICAM-1, but not PECAM-1, surpassed that of larger Ab/carriers targeted by the same ligand. These results indicate that (i) FNPs may provide a platform for targeting endothelial adhesion molecules with carriers in the 20 nm size range, which has not been previously reported; and (ii) ICAM-1 and PECAM-1 (known to localize in different domains of endothelial plasmalemma) differ in their accessibility to circulating objects of this size, common for blood components and nanocarriers. PMID:26718023

  3. The Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS) List of Near-Earth Asteroids: Identifying Potential Targets for Future Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul A.; Barbee, B. W.; Mink, R. G.; Alberding, C. M.; Adamo, D. R.; Mazanek, D. D.; Johnson, L. N.; Yeomans, D. K.; Chodas, P. W.; Chamberlin, A. B.; Benner, L. A. M.; Drake, B. G.; Friedensen, V. P.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several years, much attention has been focused on the human exploration of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). Two independent NASA studies examined the feasibility of sending piloted missions to NEAs [1, 2], and in 2009, the Augustine Commission identified NEAs as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system [3]. More recently the current U.S. presidential administration directed NASA to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010 [4]. Detailed planning for such deep space exploration missions and identifying potential NEAs as targets for human spaceflight requires selecting objects from the ever growing list of newly discovered NEAs. Hence NASA developed and implemented the Near-Earth Object (NEO) Human Space Flight (HSF) Accessible Target Study (NHATS), which identifies potential candidate objects on the basis of defined dynamical trajectory performance constraints.

  4. Methodology and Results of the Near-Earth Object (NEO) Human Space Flight (HSF) Accessible Targets Study (NHATS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbee, Brent; Mink, Ronald; Adamo, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) have been identified by the current administration as potential destinations for human explorers during the mid-2020s. While the close proximity of these objects' orbits to Earth's orbit creates a risk of highly damaging or catastrophic impacts, it also makes some of these objects particularly accessible to spacecraft departing Earth, and this presents unique opportunities for solar system science and humanity's first ventures beyond cislunar space. Planning such ambitious missions first requires the selection of potentially accessible targets from the growing population of nearly 7,800 NEAs. To accomplish this, NASA is conducting the Near-Earth Object (NEO) Human Space Flight (HSF) Accessible Targets Study (NHATS). Phase I of the NHATS was executed during September of 2010, and Phase II was completed by early March of 2011. The study is ongoing because previously undetected NEAs are being discovered constantly, which has motivated an effort to automate the analysis algorithms in order to provide continuous monitoring of NEA accessibility. The NHATS analysis process consists of a trajectory filter and a minimum maximum estimated size criterion. The trajectory filter employs the method of embedded trajectory grids to compute all possible ballistic round-trip mission trajectories to every NEA in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Small-Body Database (SBDB) and stores all solutions that satisfy the trajectory filter criteria. An NEA must offer at least one qualifying trajectory solution to pass the trajectory filter. The Phase II NHATS filter criteria were purposely chosen to be highly inclusive, requiring Earth departure date between January 1st, 2015 and December 31st, 2040, total round-trip flight time <= 450 days, stay time at the NEA >= 8 days, Earth departure C(sub 3) energy <= 60 km(exp 2)/s(exp 2), total mission delta-v <= 12 km/s (including an Earth departure maneuver from a 400 km altitude circular parking orbit), and a maximum

  5. Open access chemical probes for epigenetic targets

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Peter J; Müller, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Background High attrition rates in drug discovery call for new approaches to improve target validation. Academia is filling gaps, but often lacks the experience and resources of the pharmaceutical industry resulting in poorly characterized tool compounds. Discussion The SGC has established an open access chemical probe consortium, currently encompassing ten pharmaceutical companies. One of its mandates is to create well-characterized inhibitors (chemical probes) for epigenetic targets to enable new biology and target validation for drug development. Conclusion Epigenetic probe compounds have proven to be very valuable and have not only spurred a plethora of novel biological findings, but also provided starting points for clinical trials. These probes have proven to be critical complementation to traditional genetic targeting strategies and provided sometimes surprising results. PMID:26397018

  6. Access to space studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James A.

    1993-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is currently considering possible directions in Earth-to-orbit vehicle development under a study called 'Access to Space.' This agency-wide study is considering commercial launch vehicles, human transportation, space station logistics, and other space transportation requirements over the next 40 years. Three options are being considered for human transportation: continued use of the Space Shuttle; development of a small personnel carrier (personnel logistics system (PLS)); or development of an advanced vehicle such as a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO). Several studies related to the overall Access to Space study are reported in this document.

  7. A selection system for identifying accessible sites in target RNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Pan, W H; Devlin, H F; Kelley, C; Isom, H C; Clawson, G A

    2001-01-01

    Although ribozymes offer tremendous potential for posttranscriptionally controlling expression of targeted genes, their utility is often limited by the accessibility of the targeted regions within the RNA transcripts. Here we describe a method that identifies RNA regions that are accessible to oligonucleotides. Based on this selection protocol, we show that construction of hammerhead ribozymes targeted to the identified regions results in catalytic activities that are consistently and substantially greater than those of ribozymes designed on the basis of computer modeling. Identification of accessible sites should also be widely applicable to design of antisense oligonucleotides and DNAzymes. PMID:11345439

  8. Access to space study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a comprehensive NASA in-house study to identify and assess alternate approaches to access to space through the year 2030, and to select and recommend a preferred cause of action. The goals of the study were to identify the best vehicles and transportation architectures to make major reductions in the cost of space transportation (at least 50%), while at the same time increasing safety for flight crews by at least an order of magnitude. In addition, vehicle reliability was to exceed 0.98 percent, and, as important, the robustness, pad time, turnaround time, and other aspects of operability were to be vastly improved. This study examined three major optional architectures: (1) retain and upgrade the Space Shuttle and expendable launch vehicles; (2) develop new expendable vehicles using conventional technologies and transition from current vehicles beginning in 2005; and (3) develop new reusable vehicles using advanced technology, and transition from current vehicles beginning in 2008. The launch-needs, mission model utilized for for the study was based upon today's projection of civil, defense, and commercial mission payload requirements.

  9. Multiple Access Trade Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motamedi, Masoud

    1990-01-01

    The Personal Access Satellite System (PASS) strawman design uses a hybrid Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)/Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) implementation. TDMA is used for the forward direction (from Suppliers to Users), and FDMA for the return direction (from Users to Suppliers). An alternative architecture is proposed that will require minimal real time coordination and yet provide a fast access method by using random access Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). The CDMA system issues are addressed such as connecting suppliers and users, both of whom may be located anywhere in the CONUS, when the user terminals are constrained in size and weight; and providing efficient traffic routing under highly variable traffic requirements. It is assumed that bandwidth efficiency is not of paramount importance. CDMA or Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (SSMA) communication is a method in which a group of carriers operate at the same nominal center frequency but are separable from each other by the low cross correlation of the spreading codes used. Interference and multipath rejection capability, ease of selective addressing and message screening, low density power spectra for signal hiding and security, and high resolution ranging are among the benefits of spread spectrum communications.

  10. Disentangling Mathematics Target and Access Skills: Implications for Accommodation Assignment Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketterlin-Geller, Leanne R.; Jamgochian, Elisa M.; Nelson-Walker, Nancy J.; Geller, Joshua P.

    2012-01-01

    Appropriate assignment of accommodations is predicated on a clear distinction between target skills and access skills. In this study, we examine the agreement between test developer/researchers' and educators' classification of target and access skills as a possible explanatory mechanism for assigning accommodations. Findings indicate that…

  11. Mobile multiple access study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Multiple access techniques (FDMA, CDMA, TDMA) for the mobile user and attempts to identify the current best technique are discussed. Traffic loading is considered as well as voice and data modulation and spacecraft and system design. Emphasis is placed on developing mobile terminal cost estimates for the selected design. In addition, design examples are presented for the alternative techniques of multiple access in order to compare with the selected technique.

  12. The state of a central inhibition system predicts access to visual targets: An ERP study on distractor-induced blindness (DIB).

    PubMed

    Niedeggen, Michael; Busch, Niko A; Winther, Gesche N

    2015-09-01

    Distractor-induced blindness (DIB) is elicited in a temporal selection task based on rapid serial visual presentation: Following the onset of a central cue (color change of fixation), a target in a global stream has to be detected (orientation change of tilted bars). Distractors are occasional target-like events presented prior to the onset of the cue. Depending on the number of distractor episodes, a frontal ERP negativity (FN) is evoked, and the detection rate of the forthcoming target is reduced. Here, we provide a concise review of the DIBs' functional characteristics, and examine the relationship between FN activation on target processing and detectability. To this end, ERP responses collected in a set of participants (n=14) were analysed separately with respect to detection performance (hits vs. misses). A gradual increase in the amplitude of the FN with increasing number of distractor events was only observed for forthcoming misses, but not for hits. The FN activation can be linked to a target-related ERP component: The amplitude of a late centro-parietal positivity (LPC) was significantly diminished for misses. In sum, the data support the notion that the DIB reflects the controlled activation of a central inhibition system. Depending on its state of activation, conscious access to stimuli defined by distinctive visual features is restricted.

  13. An accessible pharmacodynamic transcriptional biomarker for notch target engagement.

    PubMed

    Tanis, K Q; Podtelezhnikov, A A; Blackman, S C; Hing, J; Railkar, R A; Lunceford, J; Klappenbach, J A; Wei, B; Harman, A; Camargo, L M; Shah, S; Finney, E M; Hardwick, J S; Loboda, A; Watters, J; Bergstrom, D A; Demuth, T; Herman, G A; Strack, P R; Iannone, R

    2016-04-01

    γ-Secretase mediates amyloid production in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and oncogenic activity of Notch. γ-Secretase inhibitors (GSIs) are thus of interest for AD and oncology. A peripheral biomarker of Notch activity would aid determination of the therapeutic window and dosing regimen for GSIs, given toxicities associated with chronic Notch inhibition. This study examined the effects of GSI MK-0752 on blood and hair follicle transcriptomes in healthy volunteers. The effects of a structurally diverse GSI on rhesus blood and hair follicles were also compared. Significant dose-related effects of MK-0752 on transcription were observed in hair follicles, but not blood. The GSI biomarker identified in follicles exhibited 100% accuracy in a clinical test cohort, and was regulated in rhesus by a structurally diverse GSI. This study identified a translatable, accessible pharmacodynamic biomarker of GSI target engagement and provides proof of concept of hair follicle RNA as a translatable biomarker source.

  14. Remote Memory Access Protocol Target Node Intellectual Property

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, Omar

    2013-01-01

    The MagnetoSpheric Multiscale (MMS) mission had a requirement to use the Remote Memory Access Protocol (RMAP) over its SpaceWire network. At the time, no known intellectual property (IP) cores were available for purchase. Additionally, MMS preferred to implement the RMAP functionality with control over the low-level details of the design. For example, not all the RMAP standard functionality was needed, and it was desired to implement only the portions of the RMAP protocol that were needed. RMAP functionality had been previously implemented in commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) products, but the IP core was not available for purchase. The RMAP Target IP core is a VHDL (VHSIC Hardware Description Language description of a digital logic design suitable for implementation in an FPGA (field-programmable gate array) or ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit) that parses SpaceWire packets that conform to the RMAP standard. The RMAP packet protocol allows a network host to access and control a target device using address mapping. This capability allows SpaceWire devices to be managed in a standardized way that simplifies the hardware design of the device, as well as the development of the software that controls the device. The RMAP Target IP core has some features that are unique and not specified in the RMAP standard. One such feature is the ability to automatically abort transactions if the back-end logic does not respond to read/write requests within a predefined time. When a request times out, the RMAP Target IP core automatically retracts the request and returns a command response with an appropriate status in the response packet s header. Another such feature is the ability to control the SpaceWire node or router using RMAP transactions in the extended address range. This allows the SpaceWire network host to manage the SpaceWire network elements using RMAP packets, which reduces the number of protocols that the network host needs to support.

  15. Quantity and accessibility for specific targeting of receptors in tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Sajid; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Maria; Braun, Gary B.; Doyle, Francis J.; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2014-06-01

    Synaphic (ligand-directed) targeting of drugs is an important potential new approach to drug delivery, particularly in oncology. Considerable success with this approach has been achieved in the treatment of blood-borne cancers, but the advances with solid tumours have been modest. Here, we have studied the number and availability for ligand binding of the receptors for two targeting ligands. The results show that both paucity of total receptors and their poor availability are major bottlenecks in drug targeting. A tumour-penetrating peptide greatly increases the availability of receptors by promoting transport of the drug to the extravascular tumour tissue, but the number of available receptors still remains low, severely limiting the utility of the approach. Our results emphasize the importance of using drugs with high specific activity to avoid exceeding receptor capacity because any excess drug conjugate would lose the targeting advantage. The mathematical models we describe make it possible to focus on those aspects of the targeting mechanism that are most likely to have a substantial effect on the overall efficacy of the targeting.

  16. Policies and Programs to Facilitate Access to Targeted Cancer Therapies in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Sruamsiri, Rosarin; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Lu, Christine Y.; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Wagner, Anita K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing access to clinically beneficial targeted cancer medicines is a challenge in every country due to their high cost. We describe the interplay of innovative policies and programs involving multiple stakeholders to facilitate access to these medicines in Thailand, as well as the utilization of selected targeted therapies over time. Methods We selected two medicines on the 2013 Thai national list of essential medicines (NLEM) [letrozole and imatinib] and three unlisted medicines for the same indications [trastuzumab, nilotinib and dasatinib]. We created timelines of access policies and programs for these products based on scientific and grey literature. Using IMS Health sales data, we described the trajectories of sales volumes of the study medicines between January 2001 and December 2012. We compared estimated average numbers of patients treated before and after the implementation of policies and programs for each product. Results Different stakeholders implemented multiple interventions to increase access to the study medicines for different patient populations. During 2007–2009, the Thai Government created a special NLEM category with different coverage requirements for payers and issued compulsory licenses; payers negotiated prices with manufacturers and engaged in pooled procurement; pharmaceutical companies expanded patient assistance programs and lowered prices in different ways. Compared to before the interventions, estimated numbers of patients treated with each medicine increased significantly afterwards: for letrozole from 645 (95% CI 366–923) to 3683 (95% CI 2,748–4,618); for imatinib from 103 (95% CI 72–174) to 350 (95% CI 307–398); and for trastuzumab from 68 (95% CI 45–118) to 412 (95% CI 344–563). Conclusions Government, payers, and manufacturers implemented multi-pronged approaches to facilitate access to targeted cancer therapies for the Thai population, which differed by medicine. Routine monitoring is needed to

  17. Finding a Target with an Accessible Global Positioning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponchillia, Paul E.; MacKenzie, Nancy; Long, Richard G.; Denton-Smith, Pamela; Hicks, Thomas L.; Miley, Priscilla

    2007-01-01

    This article presents two target-location experiments. In the first experiment, 19 participants located a 25-foot chalk circle 93% of the time with a Global Positioning System (GPS) compared to 12% of the time without it. In a single-subject follow-up experiment, the participant came within 1 foot of the target on all GPS trials. Target-location…

  18. Summary of Recent Target Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bieniosek, F.; O'Day, S.

    1993-02-04

    This report describes recent measurements that have been performed with the new target stack (Fig. 1). Highlights of these measurements are: (1) Pbar yields of nickel and powdered rhenium are comparable to that of copper. (2) Enhancement of pbar yield at the interface between copper and aluminum disks in the target stack has been observed. This effect occurs only when the lens is focused near the upstream edge of the target. (3) The target density depletion study in powdered rhenium showed an apparent yield reduction on the time scale of a single proton pulse, accompanied by release of airborne radioactive material.

  19. Accessing targeted nanoparticles to the brain: the vascular route.

    PubMed

    Burkhart, A; Azizi, M; Thomsen, M S; Thomsen, L B; Moos, T

    2014-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB), formed by brain capillary endothelial cells, prevents the entry of several drug molecules to the brain, especially molecules hydrophilic in nature. Advanced drug carriers like nanoparticles share the potential to allow entry of therapeutic proteins and genetic molecules into the central nervous system (CNS). Taking a targeting approach by conjugating molecules acting as ligands or monoclonal antibodies with affinity for proteins expressed on the luminal side of brain capillary endothelial cells, the nanoparticles can be designed to enable transport into the brain endothelium, or perhaps even through the endothelium leading to blood to brain transport. Currently, the iron-binding protein transferrin or antibodies raised against the transferrin receptor denote the most feasible molecule for targeting purposes at the BBB. This manuscript reviews the targetability of nanoparticles to the brain capillary endothelial cells, how nanocarriers may enter and transfer through the brain endothelium, and how likely restraints denoted by the threedimensional mesh of the extracellular proteins forming the brain capillary basement membrane challenge the possibilities for enabling transport of large molecules through the BBB encapsulated in nanoparticles.

  20. Suppressing NOM access to controlled porous TiO2 particles enhances the decomposition of target water contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Suppressing access of natural organic matter (NOM) to TiO2 is a key to the successful photocatalytic decomposition of a target contaminant in water. This study first demonstrates simply controlling the porous structure of TiO2 can significantly improve the selective oxidation.

  1. The ACCESS Mission: ISS Accommodation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wefel, John P.; Wilson, Thomas L.; McKay, Gordon A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    ACCESS (Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for Space Station) is a new mission concept payload for the International Space Station (ISS) which has undergone a preliminary accommodation study. ACCESS science goals include new measurements of the rare ultra-high energy and ultra-heavy components of the cosmic radiation above the Earth's atmosphere. The critical resource made available by the ISS is collecting power; up to 10,000 square meters-sr-days, for a four-year stay on-orbit, allows ACCESS to go beyond balloon-borne detectors. The instrument, consisting of a charge module, a transition radiation detector, and a calorimeter, measures nuclei throughout the periodic table. The study demonstrates that the ISS as a stable science platform at the threshold of space, can make improved cosmic-ray investigations possible in the next century.

  2. Pilot evaluation of a web-based intervention targeting sexual health service access.

    PubMed

    Brown, K E; Newby, K; Caley, M; Danahay, A; Kehal, I

    2016-04-01

    Sexual health service access is fundamental to good sexual health, yet interventions designed to address this have rarely been implemented or evaluated. In this article, pilot evaluation findings for a targeted public health behavior change intervention, delivered via a website and web-app, aiming to increase uptake of sexual health services among 13-19-year olds are reported. A pre-post questionnaire-based design was used. Matched baseline and follow-up data were identified from 148 respondents aged 13-18 years. Outcome measures were self-reported service access, self-reported intention to access services and beliefs about services and service access identified through needs analysis. Objective service access data provided by local sexual health services were also analyzed. Analysis suggests the intervention had a significant positive effect on psychological barriers to and antecedents of service access among females. Males, who reported greater confidence in service access compared with females, significantly increased service access by time 2 follow-up. Available objective service access data support the assertion that the intervention may have led to increases in service access. There is real promise for this novel digital intervention. Further evaluation is planned as the model is licensed to and rolled out by other local authorities in the United Kingdom. PMID:26928566

  3. Target accessibility and signal specificity in live-cell detection of BMP-4 mRNA using molecular beacons.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Won Jong; Santangelo, Philip J; Jo, Hanjoong; Bao, Gang

    2008-03-01

    The ability to visualize mRNA in single living cells and monitor in real-time the changes of mRNA level and localization can provide unprecedented opportunities for biological and disease studies. However, the mRNA detection specificity and sensitivity are critically dependent on the selection of target sequences and their accessibility. We carried out an extensive study of the target accessibility of BMP-4 mRNA using 10 different designs of molecular beacons (MBs), and identified the optimal beacon design. Specifically, for MB design 1 and 8 (MB1 and MB8), the fluorescent intensities from BMP-4 mRNA correlated well with the GFP signal after upregulating BMP-4 and co-expressing GFP using adenovirus, and the knockdown of BMP-4 mRNA using siRNA significantly reduced the beacon signals, demonstrating detection specificity. The beacon specificity was further confirmed using blocking RNA and in situ hybridization. We found that fluorescence signal from MBs depends critically on target sequences; the target sequences corresponding to siRNA sites may not be good sites for beacon-based mRNA detection, and vice versa. Possible beacon design rules are identified and approaches for enhancing target accessibility are discussed. This has significant implications to MB design for live cell mRNA detection.

  4. Report on the 4-h rule and National Emergency Access Target (NEAT) in Australia: time to review.

    PubMed

    Staib, Andrew; Sullivan, Clair; Griffin, Bronwyn; Bell, Anthony; Scott, Ian

    2016-06-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to provide a summary of a systematic review of literature reporting benefits and limitations of implementing National Emergency Access Target (NEAT), a target stipulating that a certain proportion of patients presenting to hospital emergency departments are admitted or discharged within 4h of presentation. Methods A systematic review of published literature using specific search terms, snowballing techniques applied to retrieved references and Google searches was performed. Results are presented as a narrative synthesis given the heterogeneity of included studies. Results Benefits of a time-based target for emergency care are improved timeliness of emergency care and reduced in-hospital mortality for emergency admissions to hospital. Limitations centre on using a process measure (time) alone devoid of any monitoring of patient outcomes, the threshold nature of a time target and the fact that currently NEAT combines the measurement of clinical management of two very different patient cohorts seeking emergency care: less acute patients discharged home and more acute patients admitted to hospital. Conclusions Time-based access targets for emergency presentations are associated with significant improvements in in-hospital mortality for emergency admissions. However, other patient-important outcomes are deserving of attention, choice of targets needs to be validated by empirical evidence of patient benefit and single targets need to be partitioned into separate targets pertaining to admitted and discharged patients. What is known about the topic? Time targets for emergency care originated in the UK. The introduction of NEAT in Australia has been controversial. NEAT directs that a certain proportion of patients will be admitted or discharged from an emergency department (ED) within 4h. Recent dissolution of the Australian National Partnership Agreement (which provided hospitals with financial incentives for achieving NEAT

  5. Urban Studies: A Study of Bibliographic Access and Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Barbara E.

    This paper analyzes: (1) the bibliographic access to publications in urban studies via printed secondary sources; (2) development and scope of classification systems and of vocabulary control for urban studies; and (3) currently accessible automated collections of bibliographic citations. Urban studies is defined as "an agglomeration of…

  6. Pilot Evaluation of a Web-Based Intervention Targeting Sexual Health Service Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, K. E.; Newby, K.; Caley, M.; Danahay, A.; Kehal, I.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual health service access is fundamental to good sexual health, yet interventions designed to address this have rarely been implemented or evaluated. In this article, pilot evaluation findings for a targeted public health behavior change intervention, delivered via a website and web-app, aiming to increase uptake of sexual health services among…

  7. Scaling the Drosophila Wing: TOR-Dependent Target Gene Access by the Hippo Pathway Transducer Yorkie

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Joseph; Struhl, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Organ growth is controlled by patterning signals that operate locally (e.g., Wingless/Ints [Wnts], Bone Morphogenetic Proteins [BMPs], and Hedgehogs [Hhs]) and scaled by nutrient-dependent signals that act systemically (e.g., Insulin-like peptides [ILPs] transduced by the Target of Rapamycin [TOR] pathway). How cells integrate these distinct inputs to generate organs of the appropriate size and shape is largely unknown. The transcriptional coactivator Yorkie (Yki, a YES-Associated Protein, or YAP) acts downstream of patterning morphogens and other tissue-intrinsic signals to promote organ growth. Yki activity is regulated primarily by the Warts/Hippo (Wts/Hpo) tumour suppressor pathway, which impedes nuclear access of Yki by a cytoplasmic tethering mechanism. Here, we show that the TOR pathway regulates Yki by a separate and novel mechanism in the Drosophila wing. Instead of controlling Yki nuclear access, TOR signaling governs Yki action after it reaches the nucleus by allowing it to gain access to its target genes. When TOR activity is inhibited, Yki accumulates in the nucleus but is sequestered from its normal growth-promoting target genes—a phenomenon we term “nuclear seclusion.” Hence, we posit that in addition to its well-known role in stimulating cellular metabolism in response to nutrients, TOR also promotes wing growth by liberating Yki from nuclear seclusion, a parallel pathway that we propose contributes to the scaling of wing size with nutrient availability. PMID:26474042

  8. Scaling the Drosophila Wing: TOR-Dependent Target Gene Access by the Hippo Pathway Transducer Yorkie.

    PubMed

    Parker, Joseph; Struhl, Gary

    2015-10-01

    Organ growth is controlled by patterning signals that operate locally (e.g., Wingless/Ints [Wnts], Bone Morphogenetic Proteins [BMPs], and Hedgehogs [Hhs]) and scaled by nutrient-dependent signals that act systemically (e.g., Insulin-like peptides [ILPs] transduced by the Target of Rapamycin [TOR] pathway). How cells integrate these distinct inputs to generate organs of the appropriate size and shape is largely unknown. The transcriptional coactivator Yorkie (Yki, a YES-Associated Protein, or YAP) acts downstream of patterning morphogens and other tissue-intrinsic signals to promote organ growth. Yki activity is regulated primarily by the Warts/Hippo (Wts/Hpo) tumour suppressor pathway, which impedes nuclear access of Yki by a cytoplasmic tethering mechanism. Here, we show that the TOR pathway regulates Yki by a separate and novel mechanism in the Drosophila wing. Instead of controlling Yki nuclear access, TOR signaling governs Yki action after it reaches the nucleus by allowing it to gain access to its target genes. When TOR activity is inhibited, Yki accumulates in the nucleus but is sequestered from its normal growth-promoting target genes--a phenomenon we term "nuclear seclusion." Hence, we posit that in addition to its well-known role in stimulating cellular metabolism in response to nutrients, TOR also promotes wing growth by liberating Yki from nuclear seclusion, a parallel pathway that we propose contributes to the scaling of wing size with nutrient availability.

  9. An Imaging Calorimeter for Access-Concept Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parnell, T. A.; Adams, James H.; Binns, R. W.; Christl, M. J.; Derrickson, J. H.; Fountain, W. F.; Howell, L. W.; Gregory, J. C.; Hink, P. L.; Israel, M. H.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A mission concept study to define the "Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for Space Station (ACCESS)" was sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The ACCESS instrument complement contains a transition radiation detector and an ionization calorimeter to measure tile spectrum of protons, helium, and heavier nuclei up to approximately 10(exp 15) eV to search for the limit of S/N shock wave acceleration, or evidence for other explanations of the spectra. Several calorimeter configurations have been studied, including the "baseline" totally active bismuth germanate instrument and sampling calorimeters utilizing various detectors. The Imaging Calorimeter for ACCESS (ICA) concept comprises a carbon target and a calorimeter using a high atomic number absorber sampled approximately each radiation length (rl) by thin scintillating fiber (SCIFI) detectors. The main features and options of the ICA instrument configuration are described in this paper. Since direct calibration is not possible over most of the energy range, the best approach must be decided from simulations of calorimeter performance extrapolated from CERN calibrations at 0.375 TeV. This paper presents results from the ICA simulations study.

  10. Targeted Access to the Genomes of Low Abundance Organisms in Complex Microbial Communities

    SciTech Connect

    Podar, Mircea; Abulencia, Carl; Walcher, Marion; Hutchinson, Don; Zengler, Karsten; Garcia, Joseph; Holland, Trevin; Cotton, Dave; Hauser, Loren John; Keller, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Current metagenomic approaches to the study of complex microbial consortia provide a glimpse into the community metabolism, and occasionally allow genomic assemblies for the most abundant organisms. However, little information is gained for the members of the community present at low frequency, especially those representing yet uncultured taxa-which includes the bulk of the diversity present in most environments. Here we used phylogenetically directed cell separation by fluorescence in situ hybridization and flow cytometry, followed by amplification and sequencing of a fraction of the genomic DNA of several bacterial cells that belong to the TM7 phylum. Partial genomic assembly allowed, for the first time, a look into the evolution and potential metabolism of a soil representative from this group of organisms for which there are no species in stable laboratory cultures. Genomic reconstruction from targeted cells of uncultured organisms directly isolated from the environment represents a powerful approach to access any specific members of a community and an alternative way to assess the community metabolic potential.

  11. Reviewing the literature on access to prompt and effective malaria treatment in Kenya: implications for meeting the Abuja targets

    PubMed Central

    Chuma, Jane; Abuya, Timothy; Memusi, Dorothy; Juma, Elizabeth; Akhwale, Willis; Ntwiga, Janet; Nyandigisi, Andrew; Tetteh, Gladys; Shretta, Rima; Amin, Abdinasir

    2009-01-01

    Background Effective case management is central to reducing malaria mortality and morbidity worldwide, but only a minority of those affected by malaria, have access to prompt effective treatment. In Kenya, the Division of Malaria Control is committed to ensuring that 80 percent of childhood fevers are treated with effective anti-malarial medicines within 24 hours of fever onset, but this target is largely unmet. This review aimed to document evidence on access to effective malaria treatment in Kenya, identify factors that influence access, and make recommendations on how to improve prompt access to effective malaria treatment. Since treatment-seeking patterns for malaria are similar in many settings in sub-Saharan Africa, the findings presented in this review have important lessons for other malaria endemic countries. Methods Internet searches were conducted in PUBMED (MEDLINE) and HINARI databases using specific search terms and strategies. Grey literature was obtained by soliciting reports from individual researchers working in the treatment-seeking field, from websites of major organizations involved in malaria control and from international reports. Results The review indicated that malaria treatment-seeking occurs mostly in the informal sector; that most fevers are treated, but treatment is often ineffective. Irrational drug use was identified as a problem in most studies, but determinants of this behaviour were not documented. Availability of non-recommended medicines over-the-counter and the presence of substandard anti-malarials in the market are well documented. Demand side determinants of access include perception of illness causes, severity and timing of treatment, perceptions of treatment efficacy, simplicity of regimens and ability to pay. Supply side determinants include distance to health facilities, availability of medicines, prescribing and dispensing practices and quality of medicines. Policy level factors are around the complexity and unclear

  12. Availability and Accessibility in an Open Access Institutional Repository: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jongwook; Burnett, Gary; Vandegrift, Micah; Baeg, Jung Hoon; Morris, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study explores the extent to which an institutional repository makes papers available and accessible on the open Web by using 170 journal articles housed in DigiNole Commons, the institutional repository at Florida State University. Method: To analyse the repository's impact on availability and accessibility, we conducted…

  13. Does Curriculum Matter?: Revisiting Women's Access and Rights to Education in the Context of the UN Millennium Development Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Lyn

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the relevance of curriculum to current UN Millennium targets to extend access to education and equality in education for women. It argues, firstly, that it is contradictory to be concerned about women's access to education but leave curriculum out of the discussion; secondly, that curriculum is not adequately seen as a…

  14. Transcytosis of Listeria monocytogenes across the intestinal barrier upon specific targeting of goblet cell accessible E-cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Nikitas, Georgios; Deschamps, Chantal; Disson, Olivier; Niault, Théodora; Cossart, Pascale

    2011-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a foodborne pathogen that crosses the intestinal barrier upon interaction between its surface protein InlA and its species-specific host receptor E-cadherin (Ecad). Ecad, the key constituent of adherens junctions, is typically situated below tight junctions and therefore considered inaccessible from the intestinal lumen. In this study, we investigated how Lm specifically targets its receptor on intestinal villi and crosses the intestinal epithelium to disseminate systemically. We demonstrate that Ecad is luminally accessible around mucus-expelling goblet cells (GCs), around extruding enterocytes at the tip and lateral sides of villi, and in villus epithelial folds. We show that upon preferential adherence to accessible Ecad on GCs, Lm is internalized, rapidly transcytosed across the intestinal epithelium, and released in the lamina propria by exocytosis from where it disseminates systemically. Together, these results show that Lm exploits intrinsic tissue heterogeneity to access its receptor and reveal transcytosis as a novel and unanticipated pathway that is hijacked by Lm to breach the intestinal epithelium and cause systemic infection. PMID:21967767

  15. A Conserved Target Site in HIV-1 Gag RNA is Accessible to Inhibition by Both an HDV Ribozyme and a Short Hairpin RNA

    PubMed Central

    Scarborough, Robert J; Lévesque, Michel V; Boudrias-Dalle, Etienne; Chute, Ian C; Daniels, Sylvanne M; Ouellette, Rodney J; Perreault, Jean-Pierre; Gatignol, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Antisense-based molecules targeting HIV-1 RNA have the potential to be used as part of gene or drug therapy to treat HIV-1 infection. In this study, HIV-1 RNA was screened to identify more conserved and accessible target sites for ribozymes based on the hepatitis delta virus motif. Using a quantitative screen for effects on HIV-1 production, we identified a ribozyme targeting a highly conserved site in the Gag coding sequence with improved inhibitory potential compared to our previously described candidates targeting the overlapping Tat/Rev coding sequence. We also demonstrate that this target site is highly accessible to short hairpin directed RNA interference, suggesting that it may be available for the binding of antisense RNAs with different modes of action. We provide evidence that this target site is structurally conserved in diverse viral strains and that it is sufficiently different from the human transcriptome to limit off-target effects from antisense therapies. We also show that the modified hepatitis delta virus ribozyme is more sensitive to a mismatch in its target site compared to the short hairpin RNA. Overall, our results validate the potential of a new target site in HIV-1 RNA to be used for the development of antisense therapies. PMID:25072692

  16. Accessing Digital Libraries: A Study of ARL Members' Digital Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Chad M.; Williams, Sarah C.

    2006-01-01

    To ensure efficient access to and integrated searching capabilities for their institution's new digital library projects, the authors studied Web sites of the Association of Research Libraries' (ARL) 111 academic, English-language libraries. Data were gathered on 1117 digital projects, noting library Web site and project access, metadata, and…

  17. Study Abroad in Egypt: Identity, Access, and Arabic Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trentman, Emma Gale

    2012-01-01

    Study abroad is often viewed as an ideal setting to improve target language proficiency due to opportunities for extensive contact with locals in the target language. However, research on study abroad demonstrates that this local contact and target language use can be quite limited, and that there is considerable variation in the linguistic…

  18. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING OF ACCESSIBLE SURROGATE TISSUES TO MONITOR MOLECULAR CHANGES IN INACCESSIBLE TARGET TISSUES FOLLOWING TOXICANT EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gene Expression Profiling Of Accessible Surrogate Tissues To Monitor Molecular Changes In Inaccessible Target Tissues Following Toxicant Exposure
    John C. Rockett, Chad R. Blystone, Amber K. Goetz, Rachel N. Murrell, Judith E. Schmid and David J. Dix
    Reproductive Toxicology ...

  19. Study of Laser Interaction with Thin Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Boley, C D; Cutter, K P; Fochs, S N; Pax, P H; Rotter, M D; Rubenchik, A M; Yamamoto, R M

    2009-03-06

    For many targets of interest, the thickness is small compared to the conduction length during the engagement. In addition, the laser-material interaction region can be treated as flat. We have studied this regime with our 25 kW solid-state laser. We have demonstrated that airflow can reduce by approximately 40% the energy required to break through a thin target. This reduction is caused by the bulging of the softened material and the tearing and removal of the material by aerodynamic forces. We present elastic modeling which explains these results.

  20. Advanced Cosmic-Ray Composition Experiment for Space Station (ACCESS): ACCESS Accommodation Study Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas L. (Editor); Wefel, John P. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    In 1994 NASA Administrator selected the first high-energy particle physics experiment for the Space Station, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), to place a magnetic spectrometer in Earth orbit and search for cosmic antimatter. A natural consequence of this decision was that NASA would begin to explore cost-effective ways through which the design and implementation of AMS might benefit other promising payload experiments. The first such experiment to come forward was Advanced Cosmic-Ray Composition Experiment for Space Station (ACCESS) in 1996. It was proposed as a new mission concept in space physics to attach a cosmic-ray experiment of weight, volume, and geometry similar to the AMS on the International Space Station (ISS), and replace the latter as its successor when the AMS is returned to Earth. This was to be an extension of NASA's suborbital balloon program, with balloon payloads serving as the precursor flights and heritage for ACCESS. The balloon programs have always been a cost-effective NASA resource since the particle physics instrumentation for balloon and space applications are directly related. The next step was to expand the process, pooling together expertise from various NASA centers and universities while opening up definition of the ACCESS science goals to the international community through the standard practice of peer review. This process is still ongoing, and the accommodation study presented here will discuss the baseline definition of ACCESS as we understand it today.

  1. Advanced Cosmic-Ray Composition Experiment for Space Station (ACCESS): ACCESS Accommodation Study Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Thomas L.; Wefel, John P.

    1999-06-01

    In 1994 NASA Administrator selected the first high-energy particle physics experiment for the Space Station, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), to place a magnetic spectrometer in Earth orbit and search for cosmic antimatter. A natural consequence of this decision was that NASA would begin to explore cost-effective ways through which the design and implementation of AMS might benefit other promising payload experiments. The first such experiment to come forward was Advanced Cosmic-Ray Composition Experiment for Space Station (ACCESS) in 1996. It was proposed as a new mission concept in space physics to attach a cosmic-ray experiment of weight, volume, and geometry similar to the AMS on the International Space Station (ISS), and replace the latter as its successor when the AMS is returned to Earth. This was to be an extension of NASA's suborbital balloon program, with balloon payloads serving as the precursor flights and heritage for ACCESS. The balloon programs have always been a cost-effective NASA resource since the particle physics instrumentation for balloon and space applications are directly related. The next step was to expand the process, pooling together expertise from various NASA centers and universities while opening up definition of the ACCESS science goals to the international community through the standard practice of peer review. This process is still ongoing, and the accommodation study presented here will discuss the baseline definition of ACCESS as we understand it today.

  2. A systematic review of fast food access studies.

    PubMed

    Fleischhacker, S E; Evenson, K R; Rodriguez, D A; Ammerman, A S

    2011-05-01

    The frequent consumption of energy-dense fast food is associated with increased body mass index. This systematic review aims to examine the methodology and current evidence on fast food access and its associations with outcomes. Six databases were searched using terms relating to fast food. Only peer-reviewed studies published in English during a 10-year period, with data collection and analysis regarding fast food access were included. Forty articles met the aforementioned criteria. Nearly half of the studies (n = 16) used their own set of features to define fast food. Studies predominantly examined the relationship between fast food access and socioeconomic factors (n = 21) and 76% indicated fast food restaurants were more prevalent in low-income areas compared with middle- to higher-income areas. Ten of 12 studies found fast food restaurants were more prevalent in areas with higher concentrations of ethnic minority groups in comparison with Caucasians. Six adult studies found higher body mass index was associated with living in areas with increased exposure to fast food; four studies, however, did not find associations. Further work is needed to understand if and how fast food access impacts dietary intake and health outcomes; and if fast food access has disparate socioeconomic, race/ethnicity and age associations.

  3. Experiences among undocumented migrants accessing primary care in the United Kingdom: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Poduval, Shoba; Howard, Natasha; Jones, Lucy; Murwill, Phil; McKee, Martin; Legido-Quigley, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Immigration is a key political issue in the United Kingdom. The 2014 Immigration Act includes a number of measures intended to reduce net immigration, including removing the right of non-European Economic Area migrants to access free health care. This change risks widening existing health and social inequalities. This study explored the experiences of undocumented migrants trying to access primary care in the United Kingdom, their perspectives on proposed access restrictions, and suggestions for policymakers. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 undocumented migrants and four volunteer staff at a charity clinic in London. Inductive thematic analysis drew out major themes. Many undocumented migrants already faced challenges accessing primary care. None of the migrants interviewed said that they would be able to afford charges to access primary care and most said they would have to wait until they were much more unwell and access care through Accident & Emergency (A&E) services. The consequences of limiting access to primary care, including threats to individual and public health consequences and the additional burden on the National Health Service, need to be fully considered by policymakers. The authors argue that an evidence-based approach would avoid legislation that targets vulnerable groups and provides no obvious economic or societal benefit.

  4. Systemic barriers accessing HIV treatment among people who inject drugs in Russia: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Sarang, Anya; Rhodes, Tim; Sheon, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Achieving ‘universal access’ to antiretroviral HIV treatment (ART) in lower income and transitional settings is a global target. Yet, access to ART is shaped by local social condition and is by no means universal. Qualitative studies are ideally suited to describing how access to ART is socially situated. We explored systemic barriers to accessing ART among people who inject drugs (PWID) in a Russian city (Ekaterinburg) with a large burden of HIV treatment demand. We undertook 42 in-depth qualitative interviews with people living with HIV with current or recent experience of injecting drug use. Accounts were analysed thematically, and supplemented here with an illustrative case study. Three core themes were identified: ‘labyrinthine bureaucracy’ governing access to ART; a ‘system Catch 22’ created by an expectation that access to ART was conditional upon treated drug use in a setting of limited drug treatment opportunity; and ‘system verticalization’, where a lack of integration across HIV, tuberculosis (TB) and drug treatment compromised access to ART. Taken together, we find that systemic factors play a key role in shaping access to ART with the potential adverse effects of reproducing treatment initiation delay and disengagement from treatment. We argue that meso-level systemic factors affecting access to ART for PWID interact with wider macro-level structural forces, including those related to drug treatment policy and the social marginalization of PWID. We note the urgent need for systemic and structural changes to improve access to ART for PWID in this setting, including to simplify bureaucratic procedures, foster integrated HIV, TB and drug treatment services, and advocate for drug treatment policy reform. PMID:23197431

  5. Boston solar retrofits: Studies of solar access and economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, M.; Doyle, S.

    1980-11-01

    Studies of solar access and solar retrofit economics are described for residential applications in the City of Boston. The study of solar access was based upon a random sample of 94 buildings; the sample was stratified to ensure a broad geographic representation from the city's various sections. Using available data on the heights and orientations of the sampled structures and surrounding buildings, each building's hourly access to sunlight was computed separately for the roof and south facing walls. The second study was a comparative analysis of the economics of several solar heating and hot water systems. Next, a number of alternative approaches for solar space and water heating were identified from interviews with individuals and groups involved in solar retrofit projects in the Boston area.

  6. Widening Access to Higher Education: An Evaluative Case Study of a Foundation Year Alternative to Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Peter A.; Moores, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    Universities are encouraged to widen access to a broad range of applicants, including mature students taking Access qualifications. Admissions tutors can find it difficult to compare and choose between Access and A-level applications, and Access applicants for popular courses may be disadvantaged relative to students with good A-levels. In this…

  7. Policies to Spur Energy Access. Executive Summary; Volume 1, Engaging the Private Sector in Expanding Access to Electricity; Volume 2, Case Studies to Public-Private Models to Finance Decentralized Electricity Access

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, Terri; Rai, Neha; Esterly, Sean; Cox, Sadie; Reber, Tim; Muzammil, Maliha; Mahmood, Tasfiq; Kaur, Nanki; Tesfaye, Lidya; Mamuye, Simret; Knuckles, James; Morris, Ellen; de Been, Merijn; Steinbach, Dave; Acharya, Sunil; Chhetri, Raju Pandit; Bhushal, Ramesh

    2015-09-01

    Government policy is one of the most important factors in engaging the private sector in providing universal access to electricity. In particular, the private sector is well positioned to provide decentralized electricity products and services. While policy uncertainty and regulatory barriers can keep enterprises and investors from engaging in the market, targeted policies can create opportunities to leverage private investment and skills to expand electricity access. However, creating a sustainable market requires policies beyond traditional electricity regulation. The report reviews the range of policy issues that impact the development and expansion of a market for decentralized electricity services from establishing an enabling policy environment to catalyzing finance, building human capacity, and integrating energy access with development programs. The case studies in this report show that robust policy frameworks--addressing a wide range of market issues--can lead to rapid transformation in energy access. The report highlights examples of these policies in action Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Mali, Mexico, and Nepal.

  8. Coalition in New York studies improving access to capital.

    PubMed

    Pallarito, K

    1992-11-16

    A coalition convened by the Greater New York Hospital Association is studying ways to improve access to capital, an area of healthcare reform the group says has been largely overlooked. The group, including representatives from hospitals, investment banking, accounting firms and the state, will issue a report outlining its recommendations. The findings also will be presented to the White House. PMID:10122217

  9. Spatial access to health care in Costa Rica and its equity: a GIS-based study.

    PubMed

    Rosero-Bixby, Luis

    2004-04-01

    This study assembles a geographic information system (GIS) to relate the 2000 census population (demand) with an inventory of health facilities (supply). It assesses the equity in access to health care by Costa Ricans and the impact on it by the ongoing reform of the health sector. It uses traditional measurements of access based on the distance to the closest facility and proposes a more comprehensive index of accessibility that results from the aggregation of all facilities weighted by their size, proximity, and characteristics of both the population and the facility. The weighting factors of this index were determined with an econometric analysis of clinic choice in a national household sample. Half Costa Ricans reside less than 1 km away from an outpatient care outlet and 5 km away from a hospital. In equity terms, 12-14% of population are underserved according to three indicators: having an outpatient outlet within 4 km, a hospital within 25 km, and less than 0.2 MD yearly hours per person. The data show substantial improvements in access (and equity) to outpatient care between 1994 and 2000. These improvements are linked to the health sector reform implemented since 1995. The share of the population whose access to outpatient health care (density indicator) was inequitable declined from 30% to 22% in pioneering areas where reform began in 1995-96. By contrast, in areas where reform has not occurred by 2001, the proportion underserved has slightly increased from 7% to 9%. Similar results come from a simpler index based on the distance to the nearest facility. Access to hospital care has held steady in this period. The reform achieved this result by targeting the least privileged population first, and by including such measures as new community medical offices and Basic Teams for Integrated Health Care (EBAIS) to work with these populations. The GIS platform developed for this study allows pinpointing communities with inadequate access to health care, where

  10. Combining apps targeting professionals and senior citizens to improve housing accessibility and influence housing provision policies.

    PubMed

    Helle, Tina; Iwarsson, Susanne; Lunn, Tine Bieber; Iversen, Mogens Holm; Jonsson, Oskar; Mårtensson, Knut; Svarre, Tanja; Slaug, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Two separate apps that address the increasingly important issue of accessible housing for senior citizens have been developed in different project settings. One of the apps was developed to facilitate the process for professional raters to assess housing accessibility in the context of individual housing adaptations. The other app was developed for senior citizens to raise their awareness of possible accessibility problems in their current dwelling and in other apartments within the available housing stock. Both apps were developed with a high degree of active user involvement in processes utilizing multiple state of the art methods. The results are two well accepted prototype apps perceived as user-friendly and appropriate for the intended user groups. By combining these two apps, our ambition is for the professional raters to benefit by gaining knowledge of their clients' perceived needs and desires, and for senior citizens to benefit by getting access to a database of professionally rated dwellings. The ultimate goal is the generation of sound knowledge reflecting the needs and desires of senior citizens and professional requirements regarding accessible housing as a means to inform and influence housing provision policies. PMID:26294488

  11. Genomic Access to Monarch Migration Using TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Targeted Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Markert, Matthew J.; Zhang, Ying; Enuameh, Metewo S.; Reppert, Steven M.; Wolfe, Scot A.; Merlin, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The eastern North American monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus, is an emerging model system to study the neural, molecular, and genetic basis of animal long-distance migration and animal clockwork mechanisms. While genomic studies have provided new insight into migration-associated and circadian clock genes, the general lack of simple and versatile reverse-genetic methods has limited in vivo functional analysis of candidate genes in this species. Here, we report the establishment of highly efficient and heritable gene mutagenesis methods in the monarch butterfly using transcriptional activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and CRISPR-associated RNA-guided nuclease Cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9). Using two clock gene loci, cryptochrome 2 and clock (clk), as candidates, we show that both TALENs and CRISPR/Cas9 generate high-frequency nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ)-mediated mutations at targeted sites (up to 100%), and that injecting fewer than 100 eggs is sufficient to recover mutant progeny and generate monarch knockout lines in about 3 months. Our study also genetically defines monarch CLK as an essential component of the transcriptional activation complex of the circadian clock. The methods presented should not only greatly accelerate functional analyses of many aspects of monarch biology, but are also anticipated to facilitate the development of these tools in other nontraditional insect species as well as the development of homology-directed knock-ins. PMID:26837953

  12. Genomic Access to Monarch Migration Using TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Targeted Mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Markert, Matthew J; Zhang, Ying; Enuameh, Metewo S; Reppert, Steven M; Wolfe, Scot A; Merlin, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The eastern North American monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus, is an emerging model system to study the neural, molecular, and genetic basis of animal long-distance migration and animal clockwork mechanisms. While genomic studies have provided new insight into migration-associated and circadian clock genes, the general lack of simple and versatile reverse-genetic methods has limited in vivo functional analysis of candidate genes in this species. Here, we report the establishment of highly efficient and heritable gene mutagenesis methods in the monarch butterfly using transcriptional activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and CRISPR-associated RNA-guided nuclease Cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9). Using two clock gene loci, cryptochrome 2 and clock (clk), as candidates, we show that both TALENs and CRISPR/Cas9 generate high-frequency nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ)-mediated mutations at targeted sites (up to 100%), and that injecting fewer than 100 eggs is sufficient to recover mutant progeny and generate monarch knockout lines in about 3 months. Our study also genetically defines monarch CLK as an essential component of the transcriptional activation complex of the circadian clock. The methods presented should not only greatly accelerate functional analyses of many aspects of monarch biology, but are also anticipated to facilitate the development of these tools in other nontraditional insect species as well as the development of homology-directed knock-ins. PMID:26837953

  13. Boston solar retrofits: studies of solar access and economics

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, M.

    1980-11-01

    Studies of solar access and solar retrofit economics are described for residential applications in the City of Boston. The study of solar access was based upon a random sample of 94 buildings; the sample was stratified to ensure a broad geographic representation from the city's various sections. Using available data on the heights and orientations of the sampled structures and surrounding buildings, each building's hourly access to sunlight was computed separately for the roof and south facing walls. These data were then aggregated by broad structural classifications in order to provide general measures of solar access. The second study was a comparative analysis of the economics of several solar heating and hot water systems. An active hot water system, installed using pre-assembled, commercially purchased equipment, was selected as a reference technology. A variety of measures of economic performance were computed for this system, with and without existing tax credits and under various financing arrangements. Next, a number of alternative approaches for solar space and water heating were identified from interviews with individuals and groups involved in solar retrofit projects in the Boston area. The objective was to identify approaches that many of those interviewed believe to be low-cost means of applying solar energy in residential settings. The approaches selected include thermal window covers, wall collectors, bread box water heaters, and sun spaces. Preliminary estimates of the performance of several representative designs were developed and the economics of these designs evaluated.

  14. Next generation communications satellites: Multiple access and network studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, T. E.; Schwartz, M.; Meadows, H. E.; Ahmadi, H. K.; Gadre, J. G.; Gopal, I. S.; Matsmo, K.

    1980-01-01

    Following an overview of issues involved in the choice of promising system architectures for efficient communication with multiple small inexpensive Earth stations serving hetergeneous user populations, performance evaluation via analysis and simulation for six SS/TDMA (satellite-switched/time-division multiple access) system architectures is discussed. These configurations are chosen to exemplify the essential alternatives available in system design. Although the performance evaluation analyses are of fairly general applicability, whenever possible they are considered in the context of NASA's 30/20 GHz studies. Packet switched systems are considered, with the assumption that only a part of transponder capacit is devoted to packets, the integration of circuit and packet switched traffic being reserved for further study. Three types of station access are distinguished: fixed (FA), demand (DA), and random access (RA). Similarly, switching in the satellite can be assigned on a fixed (FS) or demand (DS) basis, or replaced by a buffered store-and-forward system (SF) onboard the satellite. Since not all access/switching combinations are practical, six systems are analyzed in detail: three FS SYSTEMS, FA/FS, DA/ES, RA/FS; one DS system, DA/DS; and two SF systems, FA/SF, DA/SF. Results are presented primarily in terms of delay-throughput characteristics.

  15. Open Access on a Zero Budget: A Case Study of "Postcolonial Text": Case Studies in Open Access Publishing. Number Three

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willinsky, John; Mendis, Ranjini

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The founding of a new open access journal is described in terms of its use of the open source software Open Journal Systems, its contribution to a new field of inquiry and its ability to operate on a zero budget in terms of regular expenses. Method: A case study method is deployed describing the circumstances of the journal's…

  16. Flightless I (Drosophila) homolog facilitates chromatin accessibility of the estrogen receptor α target genes in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Kwang Won

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • H3K4me3 and Pol II binding at TFF1 promoter were reduced in FLII-depleted MCF-7 cells. • FLII is required for chromatin accessibility of the enhancer of ERalpha target genes. • Depletion of FLII causes inhibition of proliferation of MCF-7 cells. - Abstract: The coordinated activities of multiple protein complexes are essential to the remodeling of chromatin structure and for the recruitment of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) to the promoter in order to facilitate the initiation of transcription in nuclear receptor-mediated gene expression. Flightless I (Drosophila) homolog (FLII), a nuclear receptor coactivator, is associated with the SWI/SNF-chromatin remodeling complex during estrogen receptor (ER)α-mediated transcription. However, the function of FLII in estrogen-induced chromatin opening has not been fully explored. Here, we show that FLII plays a critical role in establishing active histone modification marks and generating the open chromatin structure of ERα target genes. We observed that the enhancer regions of ERα target genes are heavily occupied by FLII, and histone H3K4me3 and Pol II binding induced by estrogen are decreased in FLII-depleted MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, formaldehyde-assisted isolation of regulatory elements (FAIRE)-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) experiments showed that depletion of FLII resulted in reduced chromatin accessibility of multiple ERα target genes. These data suggest FLII as a key regulator of ERα-mediated transcription through its role in regulating chromatin accessibility for the binding of RNA Polymerase II and possibly other transcriptional coactivators.

  17. Studies in target-based treatment.

    PubMed

    Kurzrock, Razelle

    2007-05-01

    In this issue, Molecular Cancer Therapeutics inaugurates a new feature-The Cutting Edge: Spotlight on Clinical Response-whose objective is the rapid publication of breaking discoveries regarding target- or mechanism-based clinical responses in cancer. Targeted molecules are poised to alter the landscape of clinical cancer treatment. For example, because they can distinguish cancer cells from their normal counterparts, agents such as imatinib mesylate, a Bcr-Abl and Kit kinase inhibitor, can result in remarkable responses with minimal host toxicity in patients suffering from diseases characterized by abnormalities in the targeted kinases. Indeed, studies of imatinib mesylate in early-stage chronic myelogenous leukemia, whose hallmark is the aberrant Bcr-Abl, show response rates of more than 90%. Furthermore, gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), a notoriously chemotherapy-refractory sarcoma, characterized by activating Kit kinase mutations, can show dramatic metabolic responses within days after initiation of treatment. With the wealth of new knowledge in this field, and numerous novel targeted molecules entering clinical trials, the above examples are likely to represent the tip of the iceberg. Indeed, in this issue, a paper by Senzer et al. documents, for the first time, successful use of adenoviral p53 therapy to treat a tumor in a patient with Li Fraumeni Syndrome, a hereditary cancer syndrome caused by the mutation of the p53 tumor suppressor gene. Some of the features of this response, such as the early disappearance of metabolic activity on fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography scans, are reminiscent of those of GIST responses to imatinib. These findings have important implications for patients with this syndrome, who are prone to develop numerous tumors and often succumb at a young age. In addition, because mutations in p53 are one of the more common aberrations in cancer in general, identification of these mutations and exploration of this

  18. Study Identifies New Lymphoma Treatment Target

    Cancer.gov

    NCI researchers have identified new therapeutic targets for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Drugs that hit these targets are under clinical development and the researchers hope to begin testing them in clinical trials of patients with DLBCL.

  19. Access to a polymerase chain reaction assay method targeting 13 respiratory viruses can reduce antibiotics: a randomised, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Viral respiratory infections are common worldwide and range from completely benign disease to life-threatening illness. Symptoms can be unspecific, and an etiologic diagnosis is rarely established because of a lack of suitable diagnostic tools. Improper use of antibiotics is common in this setting, which is detrimental in light of the development of bacterial resistance. It has been suggested that the use of diagnostic tests could reduce antibiotic prescription rates. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether access to a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay panel for etiologic diagnosis of acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) would have an impact on antibiotic prescription rate in primary care clinical settings. Methods Adult patients with symptoms of ARTI were prospectively included. Nasopharyngeal and throat swabs were analysed by using a multiplex real-time PCR method targeting thirteen viruses and two bacteria. Patients were recruited at 12 outpatient units from October 2006 through April 2009, and samples were collected on the day of inclusion (initial visit) and after 10 days (follow-up visit). Patients were randomised in an open-label treatment protocol to receive a rapid or delayed result (on the following day or after eight to twelve days). The primary outcome measure was the antibiotic prescription rate at the initial visit, and the secondary outcome was the total antibiotic prescription rate during the study period. Results A total sample of 447 patients was randomised. Forty-one were excluded, leaving 406 patients for analysis. In the group of patients randomised for a rapid result, 4.5% (9 of 202) of patients received antibiotics at the initial visit, compared to 12.3% (25 of 204) (P = 0.005) of patients in the delayed result group. At follow-up, there was no significant difference between the groups: 13.9% (28 of 202) in the rapid result group and 17.2% (35 of 204) in the delayed result group (P = 0

  20. PLUTONIUM-238 PRODUCTION TARGET DESIGN STUDIES

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, Christopher J; Wham, Robert M; Hobbs, Randall W; Owens, R Steven; Chandler, David; Freels, James D; Maldonado, G Ivan

    2014-01-01

    A new supply chain is planned for plutonium-238 using existing reactors at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and existing chemical recovery facilities at ORNL. Validation and testing activities for new irradiation target designs have been conducted in three phases over a 2 year period to provide data for scale-up to production. Target design, qualification, target fabrication, and irradiation of fully-loaded targets have been accomplished. Data from post-irradiation examination (PIE) supports safety analysis and irradiation of future target designs.

  1. Charge Detector Study for a Thin Sampling Calorimeter for ACCESS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jeongin; Adams, James H., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Advanced Cosmic ray Composition Experiment for Space Station (ACCESS) is a NASA's new mission concept that is now being studied. The scientific objective is to measure cosmic ray elemental energy spectra in the energy range from I TeV up to 1000 TeV. ACCESS will carry two instruments and measure the energy and charge of incoming particles. One of these will be a calorimeter with a charge detector. The charge detector will see not only signals from the incident cosmic rays but also signals from radiation backscattered from the calorimeter. In that case, bias information on particle identification is unavoidable. This study shows how much the charge detector will be affected by backscatter and how it can be designed with a minimized effect.

  2. Personal Access Satellite System (PASS) study. Fiscal year 1989 results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sue, Miles K. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is exploring the potential and feasibility of a personal access satellite system (PASS) that will offer the user greater freedom and mobility than existing or currently planned communications systems. Studies performed in prior years resulted in a strawman design and the identification of technologies that are critical to the successful implementation of PASS. The study efforts in FY-89 were directed towards alternative design options with the objective of either improving the system performance or alleviating the constraints on the user terminal. The various design options and system issues studied this year and the results of the study are presented.

  3. Target studies for surface muon production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, F.; Desorgher, L.; Fuchs, A.; Hajdas, W.; Hodge, Z.; Kettle, P.-R.; Knecht, A.; Lüscher, R.; Papa, A.; Rutar, G.; Wohlmuther, M.

    2016-02-01

    Meson factories are powerful drivers of diverse physics programs. With beam powers already in the MW-regime attention has to be turned to target and beam line design to further significantly increase surface muon rates available for experiments. For this reason we have explored the possibility of using a neutron spallation target as a source of surface muons by performing detailed Geant4 simulations with pion production cross sections based on a parametrization of existing data. While the spallation target outperforms standard targets in the backward direction by more than a factor 7 it is not more efficient than standard targets viewed under 90°. Not surprisingly, the geometry of the target plays a large role in the generation of surface muons. Through careful optimization, a gain in surface muon rate of between 30% and 60% over the standard "box-like" target used at the Paul Scherrer Institute could be achieved by employing a rotated slab target. An additional 10% gain could also be possible by utilizing novel target materials such as, e.g., boron carbide.

  4. Accessible GPS: Reorientation and Target Location among Users with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponchillia, Paul E.; Rak, Eniko C.; Freeland, Amy L.; LaGrow, Steven J.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the results of two single-subject experiments that were designed to determine consumers' ability to use a BrailleNote GPS. The participants decreased their mean orientation time from 6 minutes to 45 seconds and increased their target-location efficiency fourfold with BGPS than without BGPS. Additional results and implications…

  5. Accessibility of outpatient healthcare providers for wheelchair users: Pilot study.

    PubMed

    Frost, Karen L; Bertocci, Gina; Stillman, Michael D; Smalley, Craig; Williams, Steve

    2015-01-01

    The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) requires full and equal access to healthcare services and facilities, yet studies indicate individuals with mobility disabilities receive less than thorough care as a result of ADA noncompliance. The objective of our pilot study was to assess ADA compliance within a convenience sample of healthcare clinics affiliated with a statewide healthcare network. Site assessments based on the ADA Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities were performed at 30 primary care and specialty care clinics. Clinical managers completed a questionnaire on standard practices for examining and treating patients whose primary means of mobility is a wheelchair. We found a majority of restrooms (83%) and examination rooms (93%) were noncompliant with one or more ADA requirements. Seventy percent of clinical managers reported not owning a height-adjustable examination table or wheelchair accessible weight scale. Furthermore, patients were examined in their wheelchairs (70%-87%), asked to bring someone to assist with transfers (30%), or referred elsewhere due to an inaccessible clinic (6%). These methods of accommodation are not compliant with the ADA. We recommend clinics conduct ADA self-assessments and provide training for clinical staff on the ADA and requirements for accommodating individuals with mobility disabilities.

  6. A study of multiple access schemes in satellite control network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Zijian; Wang, Zhonghai; Xiang, Xingyu; Wang, Gang; Chen, Genshe; Nguyen, Tien; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik

    2016-05-01

    Satellite Control Networks (SCN) have provided launch control for space lift vehicles; tracking, telemetry and commanding (TTC) for on-orbit satellites; and, test support for space experiments since the 1960s. Currently, SCNs encounter a new challenge: how to maintain the high reliability of services when sharing the spectrum with emerging commercial services. To achieve this goal, the capability of multiple satellites reception is deserved as an update/modernization of SCN in the future. In this paper, we conducts an investigation of multiple access techniques in SCN scenario, e.g., frequency division multiple access (FDMA) and coded division multiple access (CDMA). First, we introduce two upgrade options of SCN based on FDMA and CDMA techniques. Correspondingly, we also provide their performance analysis, especially the system improvement in spectrum efficiency and interference mitigation. Finally, to determine the optimum upgrade option, this work uses CRISP, i.e., Cost, Risk, Installation, Supportability and Performance, as the baseline approach for a comprehensive trade study of these two options. Extensive numerical and simulation results are presented to illustrate the theoretical development.

  7. Challenges to dental access - England as a case study.

    PubMed

    Bedi, Raman

    2006-06-01

    Access to dental services because of an insufficient workforce is a historic challenge faced by many developing countries. In recent years, however, it has become a major issue for many industrialized countries. The growing demand for cosmetic dentistry, an increase in patients' willingness to pay for dental treatment, and growing numbers of older dentate patients have all put pressure on dental systems. Ways of meeting these challenges and ensuring reasonable dental access will vary from country to country, but the solutions often lie in how the dental workforce is regulated. This case study of the dental reforms currently being implemented in England highlights progress at a particular point in time (Summer 2005). It is clear that it will take a number of years to find a new national dental payment system (the National Health Service) to replace the system which has changed little since 1948. However, the political pressure to address poor access to state-funded dental services calls for more immediate actions. The initial approach was to increase the dental workforce via international recruitment, and in the medium term to increase the number of dental students in training and to expand the numbers of other members of the dental team. An additional stratagem is to retain those already providing dental care under the National Health Service by the introduction of a new method of remuneration. England is trying to improve both access to care and the oral health of the population by creating a workforce more suitable to public demands and changing oral health needs. PMID:16674754

  8. A Study of Innovative Features in Scholarly Open Access Journals

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The emergence of the Internet has triggered tremendous changes in the publication of scientific peer-reviewed journals. Today, journals are usually available in parallel electronic versions, but the way the peer-review process works, the look of articles and journals, and the rigid and slow publication schedules have remained largely unchanged, at least for the vast majority of subscription-based journals. Those publishing firms and scholarly publishers who have chosen the more radical option of open access (OA), in which the content of journals is freely accessible to anybody with Internet connectivity, have had a much bigger degree of freedom to experiment with innovations. Objective The objective was to study how open access journals have experimented with innovations concerning ways of organizing the peer review, the format of journals and articles, new interactive and media formats, and novel publishing revenue models. Methods The features of 24 open access journals were studied. The journals were chosen in a nonrandom manner from the approximately 7000 existing OA journals based on available information about interesting journals and include both representative cases and highly innovative outlier cases. Results Most early OA journals in the 1990s were founded by individual scholars and used a business model based on voluntary work close in spirit to open-source development of software. In the next wave, many long-established journals, in particular society journals and journals from regions such as Latin America, made their articles OA when they started publishing parallel electronic versions. From about 2002 on, newly founded professional OA publishing firms using article-processing charges to fund their operations have emerged. Over the years, there have been several experiments with new forms of peer review, media enhancements, and the inclusion of structured data sets with articles. In recent years, the growth of OA publishing has also been

  9. Introduction to the Personal Access Satellite System Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sue, Miles K.

    1990-01-01

    A recent study by the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) has concluded that the 21st century will be the age of information in which the telecommunication infrastructure will be vital to the social and economic well being of society. To meet the challenge of the coming age, JPL has been performing studies on a personal access satellite system (PASS) for the 21st century. The PASS study can be traced back to a study in which the technical feasibility and potential applications of a high frequency, low data rate satellite system were identified using small fixed terminals. Herein, the PASS concept is described along with the strawman design. Then the key challenges are identified along with possible solutions. Finally, the plan for the future is summarized from the key results.

  10. How Accessible Are Public Libraries' Web Sites? A Study of Georgia Public Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingle, Emma; Green, Ravonne A.; Huprich, Julia

    2009-01-01

    One issue that public librarians must consider when planning Web site design is accessibility for patrons with disabilities. This article reports a study of Web site accessibility of public libraries in Georgia. The focus of the report is whether public libraries use accessible guidelines and standards in making their Web sites accessible. An…

  11. Ontology-based federated data access to human studies information.

    PubMed

    Sim, Ida; Carini, Simona; Tu, Samson W; Detwiler, Landon T; Brinkley, James; Mollah, Shamim A; Burke, Karl; Lehmann, Harold P; Chakraborty, Swati; Wittkowski, Knut M; Pollock, Brad H; Johnson, Thomas M; Huser, Vojtech

    2012-01-01

    Human studies are one of the most valuable sources of knowledge in biomedical research, but data about their design and results are currently widely dispersed in siloed systems. Federation of these data is needed to facilitate large-scale data analysis to realize the goals of evidence-based medicine. The Human Studies Database project has developed an informatics infrastructure for federated query of human studies databases, using a generalizable approach to ontology-based data access. Our approach has three main components. First, the Ontology of Clinical Research (OCRe) provides the reference semantics. Second, a data model, automatically derived from OCRe into XSD, maintains semantic synchrony of the underlying representations while facilitating data acquisition using common XML technologies. Finally, the Query Integrator issues queries distributed over the data, OCRe, and other ontologies such as SNOMED in BioPortal. We report on a demonstration of this infrastructure on data acquired from institutional systems and from ClinicalTrials.gov. PMID:23304360

  12. Accessing the Soil Metagenome for Studies of Microbial Diversity▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Delmont, Tom O.; Robe, Patrick; Cecillon, Sébastien; Clark, Ian M.; Constancias, Florentin; Simonet, Pascal; Hirsch, Penny R.; Vogel, Timothy M.

    2011-01-01

    Soil microbial communities contain the highest level of prokaryotic diversity of any environment, and metagenomic approaches involving the extraction of DNA from soil can improve our access to these communities. Most analyses of soil biodiversity and function assume that the DNA extracted represents the microbial community in the soil, but subsequent interpretations are limited by the DNA recovered from the soil. Unfortunately, extraction methods do not provide a uniform and unbiased subsample of metagenomic DNA, and as a consequence, accurate species distributions cannot be determined. Moreover, any bias will propagate errors in estimations of overall microbial diversity and may exclude some microbial classes from study and exploitation. To improve metagenomic approaches, investigate DNA extraction biases, and provide tools for assessing the relative abundances of different groups, we explored the biodiversity of the accessible community DNA by fractioning the metagenomic DNA as a function of (i) vertical soil sampling, (ii) density gradients (cell separation), (iii) cell lysis stringency, and (iv) DNA fragment size distribution. Each fraction had a unique genetic diversity, with different predominant and rare species (based on ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis [RISA] fingerprinting and phylochips). All fractions contributed to the number of bacterial groups uncovered in the metagenome, thus increasing the DNA pool for further applications. Indeed, we were able to access a more genetically diverse proportion of the metagenome (a gain of more than 80% compared to the best single extraction method), limit the predominance of a few genomes, and increase the species richness per sequencing effort. This work stresses the difference between extracted DNA pools and the currently inaccessible complete soil metagenome. PMID:21183646

  13. A study of the bio-accessibility of welding fumes.

    PubMed

    Berlinger, Balázs; Ellingsen, Dag G; Náray, Miklós; Záray, Gyula; Thomassen, Yngvar

    2008-12-01

    The respiratory bio-accessibility of a substance is the fraction that is soluble in the respiratory environment and is available for absorption. In the case of respiratory exposure the amount of absorbed substance plays a main role in the biological effects. Extensive bio-accessibility studies have always been an essential requirement for a better understanding of the biological effects of different workplace aerosols, such as welding fumes. Fumes generated using three different welding techniques, manual metal arc (MMA) welding, metal inert gas (MIG) welding, and tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding were investigated in the present study. Each technique was used for stainless steel welding. Welding fumes were collected on PVC membrane filters in batches of 114 using a multiport air sampler. Three different fluids were applied for the solubility study: deionised water and two kinds of lung fluid simulants: lung epithelial lining fluid simulant (Gamble's solution) and artificial lung lining fluid simulant (Hatch's solution). In order to obtain sufficient data to study the tendencies in solubility change with time, seven different leaching periods were used (0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24 h), each of them with three replicates. The effect of dissolution temperature was also studied. The total amounts of selected metals in the three different welding fumes were determined after microwave-assisted digestion with the mixture of aqua regia and hydrofluoric acid. The most obvious observation yielded by the results is that the solubility of individual metals varies greatly depending on the welding technique, the composition of the leaching fluid and leaching time. This study shows that the most reasonable choice as a media for the bio-assessment of solubility might be Hatch's solution by a dissolution time of 24 h. PMID:19037486

  14. A study of the bio-accessibility of welding fumes.

    PubMed

    Berlinger, Balázs; Ellingsen, Dag G; Náray, Miklós; Záray, Gyula; Thomassen, Yngvar

    2008-12-01

    The respiratory bio-accessibility of a substance is the fraction that is soluble in the respiratory environment and is available for absorption. In the case of respiratory exposure the amount of absorbed substance plays a main role in the biological effects. Extensive bio-accessibility studies have always been an essential requirement for a better understanding of the biological effects of different workplace aerosols, such as welding fumes. Fumes generated using three different welding techniques, manual metal arc (MMA) welding, metal inert gas (MIG) welding, and tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding were investigated in the present study. Each technique was used for stainless steel welding. Welding fumes were collected on PVC membrane filters in batches of 114 using a multiport air sampler. Three different fluids were applied for the solubility study: deionised water and two kinds of lung fluid simulants: lung epithelial lining fluid simulant (Gamble's solution) and artificial lung lining fluid simulant (Hatch's solution). In order to obtain sufficient data to study the tendencies in solubility change with time, seven different leaching periods were used (0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24 h), each of them with three replicates. The effect of dissolution temperature was also studied. The total amounts of selected metals in the three different welding fumes were determined after microwave-assisted digestion with the mixture of aqua regia and hydrofluoric acid. The most obvious observation yielded by the results is that the solubility of individual metals varies greatly depending on the welding technique, the composition of the leaching fluid and leaching time. This study shows that the most reasonable choice as a media for the bio-assessment of solubility might be Hatch's solution by a dissolution time of 24 h.

  15. Conceptual studies for a mercury target circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Sigg, B.

    1996-06-01

    For the now favored target design of the European Spallation Source project, i.e. the version using mercury as target material, a basic concept of the primary system has been worked out. It does not include a detailed design of the various components of the target circuit, but tries to outline a feasible solution for the system. Besides the removal of the thermal power of about 3MW produced in the target by the proton beam, the primary system has to satisfy a number of other requirements related to processing, safety, and operation. The basic proposal uses an electromagnetic pump and a mercury-water intermediate heat excanger, but other alternatives are also being discussed. Basic safety requirements, i.e. protection against radiation and toxic mercury vapours, are satisfied by a design using an air-tight primary system containment, double-walled tubes in the intermediate heat exchanger, a fail-safe system for decay heat removal, and a remote handling facility for the active part of the system. Much engineering work has still to be done, because many details of the design of the mercury and gas processing systems remain to be clarified, the thermal-hydraulic components need further optimisation, the system for control and instrumentation is only known in outline and a through safety analysis will be required.

  16. Open access and openly accessible: a study of scientific publications shared via the internet

    PubMed Central

    Wren, Jonathan D

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To determine how often reprints of scientific publications are shared online, whether journal readership level is a predictor, how the amount of file sharing changes with the age of the article, and to what degree open access publications are shared on non-journal websites. Design The internet was searched using an application programming interface to Google, a popular and freely available search engine. Main outcome measures The proportion of reprints of journal articles published between 1994 and 2004 from within 13 subscription based and four open access journals that could be located online at non-journal websites. Results The probability that an article could be found online at a non-journal website correlated with the journal impact factor and the time since initial publication. Papers from higher impact journals and more recent articles were more likely to be located. On average, for the high impact journal articles published in 2003, over a third could be located at non-journal websites. Similar trends were observed for the delayed or full open access publications. Conclusions Decentralised sharing of scientific reprints through the internet creates a degree of de facto open access that, though highly incomplete in its coverage, is none the less biased towards publications of higher popular demand. PMID:15827063

  17. Global access to surgical care: a modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Alkire, Blake C; Raykar, Nakul P; Shrime, Mark G; Weiser, Thomas G; Bickler, Stephen W; Rose, John A; Nutt, Cameron T; Greenberg, Sarah L M; Kotagal, Meera; Riesel, Johanna N; Esquivel, Micaela; Uribe-Leitz, Tarsicio; Molina, George; Roy, Nobhojit; Meara, John G; Farmer, Paul E

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background More than 2 billion people are unable to receive surgical care based on operating theatre density alone. The vision of the Lancet Commission on Global Surgery is universal access to safe, affordable surgical and anaesthesia care when needed. We aimed to estimate the number of individuals worldwide without access to surgical services as defined by the Commission’s vision. Methods We modelled access to surgical services in 196 countries with respect to four dimensions: timeliness, surgical capacity, safety, and affordability. We built a chance tree for each country to model the probability of surgical access with respect to each dimension, and from this we constructed a statistical model to estimate the proportion of the population in each country that does not have access to surgical services. We accounted for uncertainty with one-way sensitivity analyses, multiple imputation for missing data, and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Findings At least 4·8 billion people (95% posterior credible interval 4·6–5·0 [67%, 64–70]) of the world’s population do not have access to surgery. The proportion of the population without access varied widely when stratified by epidemiological region: greater than 95% of the population in south Asia and central, eastern, and western sub-Saharan Africa do not have access to care, whereas less than 5% of the population in Australasia, high-income North America, and western Europe lack access. Interpretation Most of the world’s population does not have access to surgical care, and access is inequitably distributed. The near absence of access in many low-income and middle-income countries represents a crisis, and as the global health community continues to support the advancement of universal health coverage, increasing access to surgical services will play a central role in ensuring health care for all. Funding None. PMID:25926087

  18. Titan LEAF: A Sky Rover Granting Targeted Access to Titan's Lakes and Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Floyd; Lee, Greg; Sokol, Daniel; Goldman, Benjamin; Bolisay, Linden

    2016-10-01

    Northrop Grumman, in collaboration with L'Garde Inc. and Global Aerospace Corporation (GAC), has been developing the Titan Lifting Entry Atmospheric Flight (T-LEAF) sky rover to roam the atmosphere and observe at close quarters the lakes and plains of Titan. T-LEAF also supports surface exploration and science by providing precision delivery of in situ instruments to the surface.T-LEAF is a maneuverable, buoyant air vehicle. Its aerodynamic shape provides its maneuverability, and its internal helium envelope reduces propulsion power requirements and also the risk of crashing. Because of these features, T-LEAF is not restricted to following prevailing wind patterns. This freedom of mobility allows it be commanded to follow the shorelines of Titan's methane lakes, for example, or to target very specific surface locations.T-LEAF utilizes a variable power propulsion system, from high power at ~200W to low power at ~50W. High power mode uses the propellers and control surfaces for additional mobility and maneuverability. It also allows the vehicle to hover over specific locations for long duration surface observations. Low power mode utilizes GAC's Titan Winged Aerobot (TWA) concept, currently being developed with NASA funding, which achieves guided flight without the use of propellers or control surfaces. Although slower than high powered flight, this mode grants increased power to science instruments while still maintaining control over direction of travel.Additionally, T-LEAF is its own entry vehicle, with its leading edges protected by flexible thermal protection system (f-TPS) materials already being tested by NASA's Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) group. This f-TPS technology allows T-LEAF to inflate in space, like HIAD, and then enter the atmosphere fully deployed. This approach accommodates entry velocities from as low as ~1.8 km/s if entering from Titan orbit, up to ~6 km/s if entering directly from Saturn orbit, like the Huygens probe

  19. Parametric study of a target factory for laser fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Sherohman, J.W.; Meier, W.R.

    1980-10-08

    An analysis of a target factory leading to the derivation of production rate equations has provided the basis for a parametric study. Rate equations describing the production of laser fusion targets have been developed for the purpose of identifying key parameters, attractive production techniques and cost scaling relationships for a commercial target factory.

  20. Understanding delayed access to antenatal care: a qualitative interview study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Delayed access to antenatal care ('late booking’) has been linked to increased maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. The aim of this qualitative study was to understand why some women are late to access antenatal care. Methods 27 women presenting after 19 completed weeks gestation for their first hospital booking appointment were interviewed, using a semi-structured format, in community and maternity hospital settings in South Yorkshire, United Kingdom. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and entered onto NVivo 8 software. An interdisciplinary, iterative, thematic analysis was undertaken. Results The late booking women were diverse in terms of: age (15–37 years); parity (0–4); socioeconomic status; educational attainment and ethnicity. Three key themes relating to late booking were identified from our data: 1) 'not knowing’: realisation (absence of classic symptoms, misinterpretation); belief (age, subfertility, using contraception, lay hindrance); 2) 'knowing’: avoidance (ambivalence, fear, self-care); postponement (fear, location, not valuing care, self-care); and 3) 'delayed’ (professional and system failures, knowledge/empowerment issues). Conclusions Whilst vulnerable groups are strongly represented in this study, women do not always fit a socio-cultural stereotype of a 'late booker’. We report a new taxonomy of more complex reasons for late antenatal booking than the prevalent concepts of denial, concealment and disadvantage. Explanatory sub-themes are also discussed, which relate to psychological, empowerment and socio-cultural factors. These include poor reproductive health knowledge and delayed recognition of pregnancy, the influence of a pregnancy 'mindset’ and previous pregnancy experience, and the perceived value of antenatal care. The study also highlights deficiencies in early pregnancy diagnosis and service organisation. These issues should be considered by practitioners and service commissioners in order to promote

  1. Studying "exposure" to firearms: household ownership v access

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, R; Dahlberg, L; Kresnow, M; Sacks, J; Mercy, J

    2003-01-01

    Background: Firearm ownership has often been used to measure access to weapons. However, persons who own a firearm may not have access to it and conversely, persons who do not own a firearm may be able to access one quickly. Objectives: To examine whether using firearm ownership is a reasonable proxy for access by describing the demographic characteristics associated with ownership and access. Methods: Data are from the 1994 Injury Control and Risk Survey, a national, random digit dial survey. Information about household firearm ownership and ready access to a loaded firearm were collected and weighted to provide national estimates. Adjusted odds ratios for three separate models were calculated using logistic regression. Results: A total of 1353 (27.9%) respondents reported both having a firearm in the household and ready access to one. An additional 313 respondents (8.1%) reported having a firearm, but were not able to access these weapons. Another 421 respondents (7.2%) did not have a firearm in or around their home, yet reported being able to retrieve and fire one within 10 minutes. Based on the logistic regression findings, the demographic characteristics of this latter group are quite different from those who report ownership. Those who do not have a firearm, but report ready access to one, are more likely to be ethnic minorities, single, and living in attached homes. Conclusions: Asking only about the presence of a firearm in a household may miss some respondents with ready access to a loaded firearm. More importantly, those who do not own a firearm, but report ready access to one, appear to be qualitatively different from those who report ownership. Caution should be exercised when using measures of ownership as a proxy for access. PMID:12642560

  2. Optimization Studies for ISOL Type High-Powered Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Remec, Igor; Ronningen, Reginald Martin

    2013-09-24

    The research studied one-step and two-step Isotope Separation on Line (ISOL) targets for future radioactive beam facilities with high driver-beam power through advanced computer simulations. As a target material uranium carbide in the form of foils was used because of increasing demand for actinide targets in rare-isotope beam facilities and because such material was under development in ISAC at TRIUMF when this project started. Simulations of effusion were performed for one-step and two step targets and the effects of target dimensions and foil matrix were studied. Diffusion simulations were limited by availability of diffusion parameters for UCx material at reduced density; however, the viability of the combined diffusion?effusion simulation methodology was demonstrated and could be used to extract physical parameters such as diffusion coefficients and effusion delay times from experimental isotope release curves. Dissipation of the heat from the isotope-producing targets is the limiting factor for high-power beam operation both for the direct and two-step targets. Detailed target models were used to simulate proton beam interactions with the targets to obtain the fission rates and power deposition distributions, which were then applied in the heat transfer calculations to study the performance of the targets. Results indicate that a direct target, with specification matching ISAC TRIUMF target, could operate in 500-MeV proton beam at beam powers up to ~40 kW, producing ~8 1013 fission/s with maximum temperature in UCx below 2200 C. Targets with larger radius allow higher beam powers and fission rates. For the target radius in the range 9-mm to 30-mm the achievable fission rate increases almost linearly with target radius, however, the effusion delay time also increases linearly with target radius.

  3. Target signature modeling and bistatic scattering measurement studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnside, W. D.; Lee, T. H.; Rojas, R.; Marhefka, R. J.; Bensman, D.

    1989-01-01

    Four areas of study are summarized: bistatic scattering measurements studies for a compact range; target signature modeling for test and evaluation hardware in the loop situation; aircraft code modification study; and SATCOM antenna studies on aircraft.

  4. Refractoriness and the healthy brain: a behavioural study on semantic access.

    PubMed

    Campanella, Fabio; Shallice, Tim

    2011-03-01

    While many behavioural studies on refractory phenomena in lexical/semantic access have focused on the mechanisms involved in the oral production of names, comprehension tasks have been almost exclusively used in neuropsychological studies on brain damaged patients. We report the results of two experiments on healthy participants conducted by means of speeded word to picture matching tasks. They assess the effects of the same variables examined in the study of refractory access dysphasic patients: semantic distance and word frequency (experiment 1) and presentation rate and serial position effects (experiment 2). Semantic access patients usually show little effect of word frequency but a large semantic distance effect. However, critical in characterising the syndrome as 'refractory', effects of presentation rate and serial position should also be present. The experiments involved the use of a deadline response procedure. The critical manipulation was the absence of a Response Stimulus Interval (RSI) in the fast presentation rate conditions; slower presentation rates involved 1 s RSI. With these manipulations the typical behavioural pattern of performance provided by semantic access dysphasic patients was reproduced. Semantic distance effects were more powerful than word frequency effects (experiment1). Presentation rate effects were found and, most important for a "refractory" account of the effects, a serial position effect was obtained (experiment 2). These results provide the first evidence of such a broad range of refractory effects at the same time in comprehension tasks in healthy subjects and support a purely semantic account for the locus of refractoriness. Moreover, error analysis showed a predominance of perseverative errors with subsequent representations of the same target, supporting a failure of cognitive control mechanisms as the cause of refractory behaviour. The findings are discussed in the light of current models of lexical and semantic processing.

  5. Identification of Novel Ezrin Inhibitors Targeting Metastatic Osteosarcoma by Screening Open Access Malaria Box.

    PubMed

    Çelik, Haydar; Hong, Sung-Hyeok; Colón-López, Daisy D; Han, Jenny; Kont, Yasemin Saygideger; Minas, Tsion Z; Swift, Matthew; Paige, Mikell; Glasgow, Eric; Toretsky, Jeffrey A; Bosch, Jürgen; Üren, Aykut

    2015-11-01

    Ezrin is a member of the ERM (ezrin, radixin, moesin) family of proteins and functions as a linker between the plasma membrane and the actin cytoskeleton. Ezrin is a key driver of tumor progression and metastatic spread of osteosarcoma. We discovered a quinoline-based small molecule, NSC305787, that directly binds to ezrin and inhibits its functions in promoting invasive phenotype. NSC305787 possesses a very close structural similarity to commonly used quinoline-containing antimalarial drugs. On the basis of this similarity and of recent findings that ezrin has a likely role in the pathogenesis of malaria infection, we screened antimalarial compounds in an attempt to identify novel ezrin inhibitors with better efficacy and drug properties. Screening of Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) Malaria Box compounds for their ability to bind to recombinant ezrin protein yielded 12 primary hits with high selective binding activity. The specificity of the hits on ezrin function was confirmed by inhibition of the ezrin-mediated cell motility of osteosarcoma cells. Compounds were further tested for phenocopying the morphologic defects associated with ezrin suppression in zebrafish embryos as well as for inhibiting the lung metastasis of high ezrin-expressing osteosarcoma cells. The compound MMV667492 exhibited potent anti-ezrin activity in all biologic assays and had better physicochemical properties for drug-likeness than NSC305787. The drug-like compounds MMV020549 and MMV666069 also showed promising activities in functional assays. Thus, our study suggests further evaluation of antimalarial compounds as a novel class of antimetastatic agents for the treatment of metastatic osteosarcoma. PMID:26358752

  6. Identification of Novel Ezrin Inhibitors Targeting Metastatic Osteosarcoma by Screening Open Access Malaria Box.

    PubMed

    Çelik, Haydar; Hong, Sung-Hyeok; Colón-López, Daisy D; Han, Jenny; Kont, Yasemin Saygideger; Minas, Tsion Z; Swift, Matthew; Paige, Mikell; Glasgow, Eric; Toretsky, Jeffrey A; Bosch, Jürgen; Üren, Aykut

    2015-11-01

    Ezrin is a member of the ERM (ezrin, radixin, moesin) family of proteins and functions as a linker between the plasma membrane and the actin cytoskeleton. Ezrin is a key driver of tumor progression and metastatic spread of osteosarcoma. We discovered a quinoline-based small molecule, NSC305787, that directly binds to ezrin and inhibits its functions in promoting invasive phenotype. NSC305787 possesses a very close structural similarity to commonly used quinoline-containing antimalarial drugs. On the basis of this similarity and of recent findings that ezrin has a likely role in the pathogenesis of malaria infection, we screened antimalarial compounds in an attempt to identify novel ezrin inhibitors with better efficacy and drug properties. Screening of Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) Malaria Box compounds for their ability to bind to recombinant ezrin protein yielded 12 primary hits with high selective binding activity. The specificity of the hits on ezrin function was confirmed by inhibition of the ezrin-mediated cell motility of osteosarcoma cells. Compounds were further tested for phenocopying the morphologic defects associated with ezrin suppression in zebrafish embryos as well as for inhibiting the lung metastasis of high ezrin-expressing osteosarcoma cells. The compound MMV667492 exhibited potent anti-ezrin activity in all biologic assays and had better physicochemical properties for drug-likeness than NSC305787. The drug-like compounds MMV020549 and MMV666069 also showed promising activities in functional assays. Thus, our study suggests further evaluation of antimalarial compounds as a novel class of antimetastatic agents for the treatment of metastatic osteosarcoma.

  7. Perceived Barriers to Health Care Access among Rural Older Adults: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goins, R. Turner; Williams, Kimberly A.; Carter, Mary W.; Spencer, S. Melinda; Solovieva, Tatiana

    2005-01-01

    Context: Many rural elders experience limited access to health care. The majority of what we know about this issue has been based upon quantitative studies, yet qualitative studies might offer additional insight into individual perceptions of health care access. Purpose: To examine what barriers rural elders report when accessing needed health…

  8. Perceived Barriers to Health Care Access Among Rural Older Adults: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goins, R. Turner; Williams, Kimberly A.; Carter, Mary W.; Spencer, S. Melinda; Solovieva, Tatiana

    2005-01-01

    Context: Many rural elders experience limited access to health care. The majority of what we know about this issue has been based upon quantitative studies, yet qualitative studies might offer additional insight into individual perceptions of health care access. Purpose: To examine what barriers rural elders report when accessing needed health…

  9. Power System Trade Studies for the Lunar Surface Access Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohout, Lisa, L.

    2008-01-01

    A Lunar Lander Preparatory Study (LLPS) was undertaken for NASA's Lunar Lander Pre-Project in 2006 to explore a wide breadth of conceptual lunar lander designs. Civil servant teams from nearly every NASA center responded with dozens of innovative designs that addressed one or more specific lander technical challenges. Although none of the conceptual lander designs sought to solve every technical design issue, each added significantly to the technical database available to the Lunar Lander Project Office as it began operations in 2007. As part of the LLPS, a first order analysis was performed to identify candidate power systems for the ascent and descent stages of the Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM). A power profile by mission phase was established based on LSAM subsystem power requirements. Using this power profile, battery and fuel cell systems were modeled to determine overall mass and volume. Fuel cell systems were chosen for both the descent and ascent stages due to their low mass. While fuel cells looked promising based on these initial results, several areas have been identified for further investigation in subsequent studies, including the identification and incorporation of peak power requirements into the analysis, refinement of the fuel cell models to improve fidelity and incorporate ongoing technology developments, and broadening the study to include solar power.

  10. Group disparities and health information: a study of online access for the underserved.

    PubMed

    Lorence, Daniel; Park, Heeyoung

    2008-03-01

    The Internet is an oft-cited learning resource, useful to consumers who seek to educate themselves on specific technical issues or knowledge-intensive topics. Availability of public-access Internet portals and decreasing costs of personal computers have created a consensus that unequal access to information, or a "Digital Divide", presents a like problem specific to information for uninsured or under-insured healthcare consumers. Access to information, however, is now an essential part of consumer-centric healthcare management. To date little research has been done to differentiate levels of health information access on the Web by different subgroups, linking online socioeconomic characteristics and health seeking behaviors. This analysis of a landmark Pew Foundation survey seeks to differentiate and delineate information access, or lack of desired access, across targeted, "digitally underserved" subgroups.

  11. Design study of the accessible focal plane telescope for shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The design and cost analysis of an accessible focal plane telescope for Spacelab is presented in blueprints, tables, and graphs. Topics covered include the telescope tube, the telescope mounting, the airlock plus Spacelab module aft plate, the instrument adapter, and the instrument package. The system allows access to the image plane with instrumentation that can be operated by a scientist in a shirt sleeve environment inside a Spacelab module.

  12. Study of target heating induced by fast electrons in mass limited targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessio, Morace; Alexander, Magunov; Dimitri, Batani; Renato, Redaelli; Claude, Fourment; Jorge, Santos Joao; Gerard, Malka; Alain, Boscheron; Alexis, Casner; Wigen, Nazarov; Tommaso, Vinci; Yasuaki, Okano; Yuichi, Inubushi; Hiroaki, Nishimura; Alessandro, Flacco; Chris, Spindloe; Martin, Tolley

    2010-02-01

    We studied the induced plasma heating in three different kind of targets: mass limited, foam targets and large mass targets. The experiment was performed at Alisé laser facility of CEA/CESTA. The laser system emitted a ˜1-ps pulse with ˜10 J energy at a wavelength of ˜1 μm. Mass limited targets had three layers with thickness 10 μm C8H8, 1 μm C8H7Cl, 10 μm C8H8 with size 100 μm×100 μm. Detailed spectroscopic analysis of X-rays emitted from the Cl tracer showed that it was possible to heat up the plasma mass limited targets to a temperature ˜250 eV with density ˜1021 cm-3. The plasma heating is only produced by fast electron transport in the target, being the 10 μm C8H8 overcoating thick enough to prevent any possible direct irradiation of the tracer layer even taking into account mass-ablation due to the pre-pulse. These results demonstrate that with mass limited targets is possible to generate a plasma heated up to several hundreds eV. It is also very important for research concerning high energy density phenomena and for fast ignition (in particular for the study of fast electrons transport and induced heating).

  13. Study of target heating induced by fast electrons in mass limited targets

    SciTech Connect

    Alessio, Morace; Dimitri, Batani; Renato, Redaelli; Alexander, Magunov; Claude, Fourment; Jorge, Santos Joao; Gerard, Malka; Alain, Boscheron; Wigen, Nazarov; Tommaso, Vinci; Yasuaki, Okano; Yuichi, Inubushi; Hiroaki, Nishimura; Alessandro, Flacco; Chris, Spindloe; Martin, Tolley

    2010-02-02

    We studied the induced plasma heating in three different kind of targets: mass limited, foam targets and large mass targets. The experiment was performed at Alise laser facility of CEA/CESTA. The laser system emitted a {approx}1-ps pulse with {approx}10 J energy at a wavelength of {approx}1 {mu}m. Mass limited targets had three layers with thickness 10 {mu}m C{sub 8}H{sub 8}, 1 {mu}m C{sub 8}H{sub 7}Cl, 10 {mu}m C{sub 8}H{sub 8} with size 100 {mu}mx100 {mu}m. Detailed spectroscopic analysis of X-rays emitted from the Cl tracer showed that it was possible to heat up the plasma mass limited targets to a temperature {approx}250 eV with density {approx}10{sup 21} cm{sup -3}. The plasma heating is only produced by fast electron transport in the target, being the 10 {mu}m C{sub 8}H{sub 8} overcoating thick enough to prevent any possible direct irradiation of the tracer layer even taking into account mass-ablation due to the pre-pulse. These results demonstrate that with mass limited targets is possible to generate a plasma heated up to several hundreds eV. It is also very important for research concerning high energy density phenomena and for fast ignition (in particular for the study of fast electrons transport and induced heating).

  14. Target sequence accessibility limits activation-induced cytidine deaminase activity in primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Popov, Sergey W; Moldenhauer, Gerhard; Wotschke, Beate; Brüderlein, Silke; Barth, Thomas F; Dorsch, Karola; Ritz, Olga; Möller, Peter; Leithäuser, Frank

    2007-07-15

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) initiates somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR) in activated B lymphocytes and is potentially implicated in genomic instability of B-cell malignancies. For unknown reasons, B-cell neoplasms often lack SHM and CSR in spite of high AID expression. Here, we show that primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMBL), an immunoglobulin (Ig)-negative lymphoma that possesses hypermutated, class-switched Ig genes, expresses high levels of AID with an intact primary structure but does not do CSR in 14 of 16 cases analyzed. Absence of CSR coincided with low Ig germ-line transcription, whereas high level germ-line transcription was observed only in those two cases with active CSR. Interleukin-4/CD40L costimulation induced CSR and a marked up-regulation of germ-line transcription in the PMBL-derived cell line MedB-1. In the PMBL cell line Karpas 1106P, CSR was not inducible and germ-line transcription remained low on stimulation. However, Karpas 1106P, but not MedB-1, had ongoing SHM of the Ig gene and BCL6. These genes were transcribed in Karpas 1106P, whereas transcription was undetectable or low in MedB-1 cells. Thus, accessibility of the target sequences seems to be a major limiting factor for AID-dependent somatic gene diversification in PMBL. PMID:17638864

  15. A Bibliometric Study of Scholarly Articles Published by Library and Information Science Authors about Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grandbois, Jennifer; Beheshti, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study aims to gain a greater understanding of the development of open access practices amongst library and information science authors, since their role is integral to the success of the broader open access movement. Method: Data were collected from scholarly articles about open access by library and information science authors…

  16. Access to regulatory information in Malaysia - a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Razak, D A

    1996-01-01

    In 1984 Malaysia introduced legislation pertaining to drug regulatory control under The Control of Drugs and Cosmetics Regulations, 1984. A decade after its implementation, the general drug situation in the country has improved considerably and this is reflected in the number of drugs registered using the criteria of quality, safety and efficacy. However, not much attention has been paid to the question of access to regulatory information. This paper reports a preliminary survey on access to regulatory information in Malaysia, and examines the process of drug registration since the implementation of the 1984 regulations.

  17. Minority Access and Persistence Study: A Working Bibliography with Annotations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowart, Vinette; And Others

    One of the working papers in the final report of the Arizona Board of Regents' Task Force on Excellence, Efficiency and Competitiveness, this contribution offers an annotated bibliography on minority access and persistence. It cites the following: nine books (e.g., "Student Outcome Questionnaires: An Implementation Handbook" by P. Ewell and…

  18. Communicating the Open Access Message: A Case Study from Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawton, Aoife

    2016-01-01

    Since 2009, Open Access (OA) Week has been celebrated worldwide in October each year. It is an opportunity for librarians to engage with the research community and demonstrate the value that they bring to their organisations in the area of disseminating scholarly output. Although thousands of events have been held since the inception of OA Week, a…

  19. Widening Access, Widening Participation, Widening Success: An Indian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Multiple deprivations are widespread in rural India. Literacy levels remain stubbornly low, albeit gradually improving. Caste, class, religion, gender, age and disability all impact on access to education, participation and successful completion. The education of girls remains problematic given the higher value attached to sons, especially in…

  20. Creating a Culture of Access in Composition Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Elizabeth; Selfe, Cynthia L.; Yergeau, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    While the teaching profession has long been committed to the goal of accessibility, the movement toward that goal has proved dismally slow and frustratingly uneven. Consider, for instance, the printed articles and books that so many educators publish. They have not, as yet, taken on the professional responsibility of making sure that all such…

  1. 76 FR 27287 - Port Access Route Study: In the Bering Strait; Extension of Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... of Study and request for comments for the Port Access Route Study: In the Bering Strait (75 FR 68568..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). This notice is issued under authority of 33 U.S.C... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 167 Port Access Route Study: In the Bering Strait; Extension of...

  2. Taking Targets to Task Revisited: How Indicators of Progress on Access to Education can Mislead. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 54

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Keith M.

    2011-01-01

    "Education for All" (EFA) identifies goals and targets and translates these into indicators which are used to evaluate progress and influence flows of external financing. The search for evidence based policy depends on measures of performance that can link cause and effect and that represent real gains in progress towards desired outcomes.…

  3. The Physical Accessibility of Public Libraries to Users: A GIS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sung Jae

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to gain a finer-grained picture and better understanding of the travel patterns of library users, and the activities, demographics, and other factors that affect library access. Previous studies of physical accessibility of public libraries, which have focused on library users' single-destination trips and their travel…

  4. Postsecondary Web Accessibility for Students with Disabilities: A Collective Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgione-Barkas, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This collective case study reviewed the current state of Web accessibility at 102 postsecondary colleges and universities in North Carolina. The study examined themes within Web-accessibility compliance and identified which disability subgroups were most and least affected, why the common errors were occurring, and how the errors could be fixed.…

  5. Do Disadvantaged Students Have Equal Access to Effective Teaching? NCEE Study Snapshot. NCEE 2014-4001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This study snapshot offers a summary of "Access to Effective Teaching for Disadvantaged Students. NCEE 2014-4001," the first report from a study initiated by the U.S. Department of Education's Institute of Education Sciences to examine access to effective teaching for disadvantaged students in 29 diverse school districts. The study…

  6. Developing an agenda for research about policies to improve access to healthy foods in rural communities: a concept mapping study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Policies that improve access to healthy, affordable foods may improve population health and reduce health disparities. In the United States most food access policy research focuses on urban communities even though residents of rural communities face disproportionately higher risk for nutrition-related chronic diseases compared to residents of urban communities. The purpose of this study was to (1) identify the factors associated with access to healthy, affordable food in rural communities in the United States; and (2) prioritize a meaningful and feasible rural food policy research agenda. Methods This study was conducted by the Rural Food Access Workgroup (RFAWG), a workgroup facilitated by the Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network. A national sample of academic and non-academic researchers, public health and cooperative extension practitioners, and other experts who focus on rural food access and economic development was invited to complete a concept mapping process that included brainstorming the factors that are associated with rural food access, sorting and organizing the factors into similar domains, and rating the importance of policies and research to address these factors. As a last step, RFAWG members convened to interpret the data and establish research recommendations. Results Seventy-five participants in the brainstorming exercise represented the following sectors: non-extension research (n = 27), non-extension program administration (n = 18), “other” (n = 14), policy advocacy (n = 10), and cooperative extension service (n = 6). The brainstorming exercise generated 90 distinct statements about factors associated with rural food access in the United States; these were sorted into 5 clusters. Go Zones were established for the factors that were rated highly as both a priority policy target and a priority for research. The highest ranked policy and research priorities include strategies designed to

  7. Target debris collection studies for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grim, G. P.; Archuleta, T. N.; Bradley, P. A.; Fowler, M. M.; Hayes, A. C.; Jungman, G.; Obst, A. W.; Rundberg, R. S.; Vieira, D. J.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2010-08-01

    At the recently completed National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the initial set of diagnostics to be deployed are focused on measuring neutrons and γ's generated by d(t,n)α reactions in the imploded capsule. Although valuable for understanding pre-ignition experiments, this abbreviated diagnostic suite provides an incomplete picture of the plasma conditions obtained. Prompt radiochemical techniques, based on induced neutron and charged particle reactions within the imploded target, provide a novel and interesting new perspective. To enable these techniques requires the collection and assay of activated target material. In Nov. 2008, experiments were performed using the Omega Laser at the University of Rochester to study the efficiency of collecting debris from directly driven targets. Results from these experiments indicate that target debris was successfully collected, and the debris thermalization and transport scheme enhanced the debris collection up to 347% over direct collection.

  8. Artificial neural network study on organ-targeting peptides.

    PubMed

    Jung, Eunkyoung; Kim, Junhyoung; Choi, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Minkyoung; Rhee, Hokyoung; Shin, Jae-Min; Choi, Kihang; Kang, Sang-Kee; Lee, Nam Kyung; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Jung, Dong Hyun

    2010-01-01

    We report a new approach to studying organ targeting of peptides on the basis of peptide sequence information. The positive control data sets consist of organ-targeting peptide sequences identified by the peroral phage-display technique for four organs, and the negative control data are prepared from random sequences. The capacity of our models to make appropriate predictions is validated by statistical indicators including sensitivity, specificity, enrichment curve, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (the ROC score). VHSE descriptor produces statistically significant training models and the models with simple neural network architectures show slightly greater predictive power than those with complex ones. The training and test set statistics indicate that our models could discriminate between organ-targeting and random sequences. We anticipate that our models will be applicable to the selection of organ-targeting peptides for generating peptide drugs or peptidomimetics.

  9. Human Exploration of Near-Earth Objects Accessibility Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul; Drake, Bret; Friedensen, Victoria; Mazanek, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Key questions addressed: How short can the trip times be reduced in order to reduce crew exposure to the deep-space radiation and microgravity environment? Are there options to conduct easy, early missions?. What is the affect of infusion of advanced propulsion technologies on target availability When do the departure opportunities open up, how frequent and how long are they? How many launches are required to conduct a round trip human mission to a NEA? And, based on the above, how many Near-Earth Asteroids are available

  10. Molecular genetic variability of commercial and wild accessions of passion fruit (Passiflora spp.) targeting ex situ conservation and breeding.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira-Silva, Carlos Bernard M; Santos, Elisa S L; Jesus, Onildo N; Vieira, João G P; Mori, Gustavo M; Corrêa, Ronan X; Souza, Anete P

    2014-01-01

    Passiflora species are distributed throughout Latin America, and Brazil and Colombia serve as the centers of diversity for this genus. We performed cross-species amplification to evaluate 109 microsatellite loci in 14 Passiflora species and estimated the diversity and genetic structure of Passiflora cincinnata, Passiflora setaceae and Passiflora edulis. A total of 127 accessions, including 85 accessions of P. edulis, a commercial species, and 42 accessions of 13 wild species, were examined. The cross-species amplification was effective for obtaining microsatellite loci (average cross-amplification of 70%). The average number of alleles per locus (five) was relatively low, and the average diversity ranged from 0.52 in P. cincinnata to 0.32 in P. setacea. The Bayesian analyses indicated that the P. cincinnata and P. setacea accessions were distributed into two groups, and the P. edulis accessions were distributed into five groups. Private alleles were identified, and suggestions for core collections are presented. Further collections are necessary, and the information generated may be useful for breeding and conservation. PMID:25514245

  11. Molecular Genetic Variability of Commercial and Wild Accessions of Passion Fruit (Passiflora spp.) Targeting ex Situ Conservation and Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Cerqueira-Silva, Carlos Bernard M.; Santos, Elisa S. L.; Jesus, Onildo N.; Vieira, João G. P.; Mori, Gustavo M.; Corrêa, Ronan X.; Souza, Anete P.

    2014-01-01

    Passiflora species are distributed throughout Latin America, and Brazil and Colombia serve as the centers of diversity for this genus. We performed cross-species amplification to evaluate 109 microsatellite loci in 14 Passiflora species and estimated the diversity and genetic structure of Passiflora cincinnata, Passiflora setaceae and Passiflora edulis. A total of 127 accessions, including 85 accessions of P. edulis, a commercial species, and 42 accessions of 13 wild species, were examined. The cross-species amplification was effective for obtaining microsatellite loci (average cross-amplification of 70%). The average number of alleles per locus (five) was relatively low, and the average diversity ranged from 0.52 in P. cincinnata to 0.32 in P. setacea. The Bayesian analyses indicated that the P. cincinnata and P. setacea accessions were distributed into two groups, and the P. edulis accessions were distributed into five groups. Private alleles were identified, and suggestions for core collections are presented. Further collections are necessary, and the information generated may be useful for breeding and conservation. PMID:25514245

  12. Molecular genetic variability of commercial and wild accessions of passion fruit (Passiflora spp.) targeting ex situ conservation and breeding.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira-Silva, Carlos Bernard M; Santos, Elisa S L; Jesus, Onildo N; Vieira, João G P; Mori, Gustavo M; Corrêa, Ronan X; Souza, Anete P

    2014-12-10

    Passiflora species are distributed throughout Latin America, and Brazil and Colombia serve as the centers of diversity for this genus. We performed cross-species amplification to evaluate 109 microsatellite loci in 14 Passiflora species and estimated the diversity and genetic structure of Passiflora cincinnata, Passiflora setaceae and Passiflora edulis. A total of 127 accessions, including 85 accessions of P. edulis, a commercial species, and 42 accessions of 13 wild species, were examined. The cross-species amplification was effective for obtaining microsatellite loci (average cross-amplification of 70%). The average number of alleles per locus (five) was relatively low, and the average diversity ranged from 0.52 in P. cincinnata to 0.32 in P. setacea. The Bayesian analyses indicated that the P. cincinnata and P. setacea accessions were distributed into two groups, and the P. edulis accessions were distributed into five groups. Private alleles were identified, and suggestions for core collections are presented. Further collections are necessary, and the information generated may be useful for breeding and conservation.

  13. Promise vs. Performance: A Case Study of Four Public Access Channels in Connecticut.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardenbergh, Margot

    A study examined the organization, content and audiences of four public access channels to determine whether public access on cable television can be described as mini-communication and, if so, whether cable television is fulfilling some of its promises as a mini-medium. Organization was categorized as reflecting little or no hierarchy of…

  14. Increasing Access to Evidence-Based Practices and Knowledge and Attitudes: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leathers, Sonya J.; Strand, Tonya C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study examined the effect of increasing field instructors access to information about evidence-based practices (EBPs) on their level of knowledge and attitudes about EBPs. Method: Eighteen field instructors received training and access to a library with extensive online journals. Half were randomly selected to also receive a…

  15. Rebuilding Haiti's Educational Access: A Phenomenological Study of Technology Use in Education Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandiford, Gladwyn A.

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of access to technology blended with face-to-face instruction and learning in Haiti. Despite this lack of access, some Haitian college students have nevertheless leveraged technology to overcome the obstacles of poverty and obtain a higher education. This phenomenological study explored the lived experiences of 20 adult…

  16. Access to and Use of Internet by Adolescents Who Have a Physical Disability: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lathouwers, Karen; de Moor, Jan; Didden, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine access to and use of Internet by 97 physically disabled adolescents. Four main objectives were to: (1) explore frequency and nature of Internet use and the role of care givers, (2) compare these results with non-disabled adolescents, (3) explore associations between access to and use of Internet and…

  17. Potential impact of public access defibrillators on survival after out of hospital cardiopulmonary arrest: retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Pell, Jill P; Sirel, Jane M; Marsden, Andrew K; Ford, Ian; Walker, Nicola L; Cobbe, Stuart M

    2002-01-01

    Objective To estimate the potential impact of public access defibrillators on overall survival after out of hospital cardiac arrest. Design Retrospective cohort study using data from an electronic register. A statistical model was used to estimate the effect on survival of placing public access defibrillators at suitable or possibly suitable sites. Setting Scottish Ambulance Service. Subjects Records of all out of hospital cardiac arrests due to heart disease in Scotland in 1991-8. Main outcome measures Observed and predicted survival to discharge from hospital. Results Of 15 189 arrests, 12 004 (79.0%) occurred in sites not suitable for the location of public access defibrillators, 453 (3.0%) in sites where they may be suitable, and 2732 (18.0%) in suitable sites. Defibrillation was given in 67.9% of arrests that occurred in possibly suitable sites for locating defibrillators and in 72.9% of arrests that occurred in suitable sites. Compared with an actual overall survival of 744 (5.0%), the predicted survival with public access defibrillators ranged from 942 (6.3%) to 959 (6.5%), depending on the assumptions made regarding defibrillator coverage. Conclusions The predicted increase in survival from targeted provision of public access defibrillators is less than the increase achievable through expansion of first responder defibrillation to non-ambulance personnel, such as police or firefighters, or of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Additional resources for wide scale coverage of public access defibrillators are probably not justified by the marginal improvement in survival. What is already known on this topicThree quarters of all deaths from acute coronary events occur before the patient reaches a hospitalDefibrillation is an independent predictor of survival from out of hospital cardiac arrestThe probability of a rhythm being amenable to defibrillation declines with timeInterest in providing public access defibrillators to reduce the time to

  18. Electronic doors to education: study of high school website accessibility in Iowa.

    PubMed

    Klein, David; Myhill, William; Hansen, Linda; Asby, Gary; Michaelson, Susan; Blanck, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), and Sections 504 and 508 of the Rehabilitation Act, prohibit discrimination against people with disabilities in all aspects of daily life, including education, work, and access to places of public accommodations. Increasingly, these antidiscrimination laws are used by persons with disabilities to ensure equal access to e-commerce, and to private and public Internet websites. To help assess the impact of the anti-discrimination mandate for educational communities, this study examined 157 website home pages of Iowa public high schools (52% of high schools in Iowa) in terms of their electronic accessibility for persons with disabilities. We predicted that accessibility problems would limit students and others in obtaining information from the web pages as well as limiting ability to navigate to other web pages. Findings show that although many web pages examined included information in accessible formats, none of the home pages met World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standards for accessibility. The most frequent accessibility problem was lack of alternative text (ALT tags) for graphics. Technical sophistication built into pages was found to reduce accessibility. Implications are discussed for schools and educational institutions, and for laws, policies, and procedures on website accessibility. PMID:12579616

  19. Electronic doors to education: study of high school website accessibility in Iowa.

    PubMed

    Klein, David; Myhill, William; Hansen, Linda; Asby, Gary; Michaelson, Susan; Blanck, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), and Sections 504 and 508 of the Rehabilitation Act, prohibit discrimination against people with disabilities in all aspects of daily life, including education, work, and access to places of public accommodations. Increasingly, these antidiscrimination laws are used by persons with disabilities to ensure equal access to e-commerce, and to private and public Internet websites. To help assess the impact of the anti-discrimination mandate for educational communities, this study examined 157 website home pages of Iowa public high schools (52% of high schools in Iowa) in terms of their electronic accessibility for persons with disabilities. We predicted that accessibility problems would limit students and others in obtaining information from the web pages as well as limiting ability to navigate to other web pages. Findings show that although many web pages examined included information in accessible formats, none of the home pages met World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standards for accessibility. The most frequent accessibility problem was lack of alternative text (ALT tags) for graphics. Technical sophistication built into pages was found to reduce accessibility. Implications are discussed for schools and educational institutions, and for laws, policies, and procedures on website accessibility.

  20. Target Material Irradiation Studies for High-Intensity Accelerator Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Simos, N.; Kirk, H.; Ludewig, H.; Thieberger, P.; Weng, W.T.; McDonald, K.; Sheppard, J.; Evangelakis, G.; Yoshimura, K.; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2005-08-16

    This paper presents results of recent experimental studies focusing on the behavior of special materials and composites under irradiation conditions and their potential use as accelerator targets. The paper also discusses the approach and goals of on-going investigations on an expanded material matrix geared toward the neutrino superbeam and muon collider initiatives.

  1. Noise Studies of Polarimetry Systems for Polarized 3 He Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katugampola, Sumudu K.; Matyas, Daniel J.; Nelyubin, Vladimir; Wang, Yunxiao; Cates, Gordon D.

    2015-04-01

    The NMR technique of adiabatic fast passage (AFP) plays an important role in 3 He targets polarized using spin-exchange optical pumping. Since AFP signals before amplification are generally small, identifying these signals amidst noise caused by external electromagnetic interference and micro-phonics can be challenging. When using thermally polarized water samples for absolute calibration of AFP signals, electromagnetic and micro-phonic noise can easily dominate. Although both types of interference have often been cited as the predominant sources of noise during AFP, few studies of these effects have been done under the conditions that are typical for a polarized 3 He target. This talk will describe studies of electromagnetic and micro-phonic noise using a small-scale prototype NMR system similar to those we use to study polarized 3 He targets. We will describe the effect of using aluminum metal shielding and other methods to minimize noise. We are using these studies to inform the design of a full-scale set up that will be used to test next-generation targets for use at Jefferson Lab, and measure atomic parameters relevant to polarimetry.

  2. Double and single ionization of He and other targets studied using cold target recoil momentum spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Doerner, R.; Feagin, J. M.; Brauning, H.; Jagutzki, O.; Jung, M.; Kanter, E. P.; Khemliche, H.; Kravis, S.; Mergel, V.; Prior, M. H.; Schmidt-Boeking, H.; Spielberger, L.; Ullrich, J.; Unverzagt, M.; Vogt, T.

    1997-04-01

    Double ionization of an atom by a single photon is the simplest and most fundamental many-electron process. The ejection of two electrons following the absorption of one photon is strictly prohibited in an independent electron approximation. Thus determining the probability of double photoionization alone is already a challenging test of the understanding of electron-electron correlation. Furthermore, in the slow breakup of a bound system into three charged particles, the final state wave function must represent a high degree of few-body Coulomb correlation involving the simultaneous interaction of all three particles. The case of double photoionization is again particularly well suited to study this problem as the energy and the angular momentum delivered to the system can be very well controlled. Helium, as the most basic three body system, has been the target of extensive studies over the past decades. The purpose of this project has been to study double and single ionization using cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy (COLTRIMS). This technique has been widely applied within the area of ion-atom collisions to study the dynamics of energy and momentum transfer in collisions between few-electron systems, and the entire technical machinery has been transferred to photon-atom collisions. The technique uses space- and time-imaging of He{sup +} and He{sup ++} recoil ions created in photon-He collisions to measure the full momentum vector of each ion produced. Event-mode recording is used and a solid angle of nearly 4{pi} is realized, allowing an extremely high data-collection efficiency. In order to reduce the initial momentum spread of the He target a precooled supersonic He jet is used.

  3. Targeting cancer metabolism at the plasma membrane by limiting amino acid access through SLC6A14.

    PubMed

    McCracken, Alison N; Edinger, Aimee L

    2015-09-15

    Rapidly proliferating cancer cells increase flux through anabolic pathways to build the mass necessary to support cell division. Imported amino acids and glucose lie at the apex of the anabolic pyramid. Consistent with this, elevated expression of nutrient transporter proteins is characteristic of aggressive and highly malignant cancers. Because tumour cells are more dependent than their normal neighbours on accelerated nutrient import, these up-regulated transporters could be excellent targets for selective anti-cancer therapies. A study by Babu et al. in a recent issue of the Biochemical Journal definitively shows that SLC6A14 (where SLC is solute carrier) is one such cancer-specific amino acid transporter. Although mice completely lacking SLC6A14 are viable and exhibit normal mammary gland development, these animals are highly resistant to mammary tumour initiation and progression driven by potent oncogenes. Because SLC6A14 is essential for tumour growth yet dispensable for normal development and tissue maintenance, small molecules that block amino acid import through this transporter could be effective and selective anti-cancer agents, particularly as components of rational drug combinations.

  4. Targeting cancer metabolism at the plasma membrane by limiting amino acid access through SLC6A14

    PubMed Central

    McCracken, Alison N.; Edinger, Aimee L.

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly proliferating cancer cells increase flux through anabolic pathways to build the mass necessary to support cell division. Imported amino acids and glucose lie at the apex of the anabolic pyramid. Consistent with this, elevated expression of nutrient transporter proteins is characteristic of aggressive and highly malignant cancers. Because tumour cells are more dependent than their normal neighbours on accelerated nutrient import, these up-regulated transporters could be excellent targets for selective anti-cancer therapies. A study by Babu et al. in a recent issue of the Biochemical Journal definitively shows that SLC6A14 (where SLC is solute carrier) is one such cancer-specific amino acid transporter. Although mice completely lacking SLC6A14 are viable and exhibit normal mammary gland development, these animals are highly resistant to mammary tumour initiation and progression driven by potent oncogenes. Because SLC6A14 is essential for tumour growth yet dispensable for normal development and tissue maintenance, small molecules that block amino acid import through this transporter could be effective and selective anti-cancer agents, particularly as components of rational drug combinations. PMID:26341486

  5. Lexical Access in Early Stages of Visual Word Processing: A Single-Trial Correlational MEG Study of Heteronym Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomyak, Olla; Marantz, Alec

    2009-01-01

    We present an MEG study of heteronym recognition, aiming to distinguish between two theories of lexical access: the "early access" theory, which entails that lexical access occurs at early (pre 200 ms) stages of processing, and the "late access" theory, which interprets this early activity as orthographic word-form identification rather than…

  6. Accelerators/decelerators of achieving universal access to sexual and reproductive health services: a case study of Iranian health system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background At the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), held in Cairo, the global community agreed to the goal of achieving universal access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and rights by 2015. This research explores the accelerators and decelerators of achieving universal access to the sexual and reproductive health targets and accordingly makes some suggestions. Method We have critically reviewed the latest national reports and extracted the background data on each SRH indicator. The key stakeholders, both national and international, were visited and interviewed at two sites. A total of 55 in-depth interviews were conducted with religious leaders, policy-makers, senior managers, senior academics, and health care managers. Six focus-group discussions were also held among health care providers. The study was qualitative in nature. Results Obstacles on the road to achieving universal access to SRH can be viewed from two perspectives. One gap exists between current achievements and the targets. The other gap arises due to age, marital status, and residency status. The most recently observed trends in the indicators of the universal access to SRH shows that the achievements in the “unmet need for family planning” have been poor. Unmet need for family planning could directly be translated to unwanted pregnancies and unwanted childbirths; the former calls for sexual education to underserved people, including adolescents; and the latter calls for access to safe abortion. Local religious leaders have not actively attended international goal-setting programs. Therefore, they usually do not presume a positive attitude towards these goals. Such negative attitudes seem to be the most important factors hindering the progress towards universal access to SRH. Lack of international donors to fund for SRH programs is also another barrier. In national levels both state and the society are interactively playing their roles. We have used a

  7. Web Accessibility and Accessibility Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Ravonne A.; Huprich, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Section 508 of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) mandates that programs and services be accessible to people with disabilities. While schools of library and information science (SLIS*) and university libraries should model accessible Web sites, this may not be the case. This article examines previous studies about the Web accessibility of…

  8. Taking the Plunge: Open Access at the "Canadian Journal of Sociology." Case Studies in Open Access Publishing. Number Five

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggerty, Kevin D.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Presents a personal account of the transfer to open access of the leading Canadian journal of sociology. Background: The Canadian Journal of Sociology had established a strong position, internationally, among sociology journals. However, subscriptions were falling as readers increasingly accessed the resource through libraries and a…

  9. Data acquisition systems for the high energy and Nuclotron internal target polarimeters with network access to polarization calculation results and raw data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isupov, A. Yu.

    2005-01-01

    Online data acquisition (DAQ) system for the Nuclotron Internal Target Polarimeter (ITP) at the LHE, JINR is explained in respects of design and implementation, based on the distributed data acquisition and processing system qdpb. Software modules specific for this implementation (dependent of ITP data contents and hardware layout) are discussed briefly in comparison with them for the High Energy Polarimeter (HEP) at the LHE, JINR. User access methods to both raw data and results of polarization calculations of the ITP and HEP are described.

  10. A factor analytic study of attitudinal structure and its impact on rural landowners' access policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Brett A.; Fesenmaier, Daniel R.

    1990-03-01

    Previous research has shown that rural landowners' hunter access policies are determined in large part by their attitudes towards hunters, legal liability, conservation, and economic incentives. The results of this study support this research and indicate that East Texas, USA, landowners' decisions to allow or restrict access are based, in part, on attitudes toward hunter behavior, hunting as a social activity, leasing as a management practice, and a perceived obligation toward wildlife stewardship. Attitude-based profiles of landowners who adopted one of four access policies are compared.

  11. An Observational Study of Consumers’ Accessing of Nutrition Information in Chain Restaurants

    PubMed Central

    Agnew, Henry; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2009-01-01

    In this observational study, we determined how frequently consumers accessed on-premises nutrition information provided at chain restaurants. The number of patrons entering and accessing nutrition information was recorded at 8 locations that were part of 4 major restaurant chains (McDonald's, Burger King, Starbucks, and Au Bon Pain). Only 6 (0.1%) of 4311 patrons accessed on-premises nutrition information before purchasing food. This very small percentage suggests that such information should be more prominently displayed, such as on restaurant menu boards, to help customers make informed decisions. PMID:19299679

  12. An observational study of consumers' accessing of nutrition information in chain restaurants.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Christina A; Agnew, Henry; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-05-01

    In this observational study, we determined how frequently consumers accessed on-premises nutrition information provided at chain restaurants. The number of patrons entering and accessing nutrition information was recorded at 8 locations that were part of 4 major restaurant chains (McDonald's, Burger King, Starbucks, and Au Bon Pain). Only 6 (0.1%) of 4311 patrons accessed on-premises nutrition information before purchasing food. This very small percentage suggests that such information should be more prominently displayed, such as on restaurant menu boards, to help customers make informed decisions.

  13. Lessons Learned from a Disabilities Accessible Study Abroad Trip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twill, Sarah E.; Guzzo, Gaetano R.

    2012-01-01

    In the summer of 2009, a two-week study abroad program was specifically designed and executed to include students with disabilities. Recruitment efforts resulted in 11 student participants, six of who were identified as having a disability by the University's Office of Disability Services. Students participated in a two-course academic program;…

  14. Frame Your Images: Making Digital Images Accessible for Study & Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gepner, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Images, whether at the level of molecules, cells, organs, organisms, or environments, are at the core of many biological disciplines. Even with the contemporary emphasis on molecular analysis, biology has retained its traditional strong visual component. In courses that rely on the study of biological structure, the presentation of images for…

  15. Women's Access to Higher Education in Tanzania: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Megan Patricia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal the ways in which first-generation women in Tanzania explained their success in pursuing a university education despite cultural and social obstacles. Such obstacles include social policies, socio-cultural factors, and academic factors. A review of the literature revealed that issues such as patriarchy,…

  16. Regional University Access: A Case Study from the South West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eversole, Robyn

    A study examined university service delivery in an isolated, inland region of south Western Australia. Surveys, focus groups, and interviews with students and former students found that many pre-university youths leave the area because education is only offered through year 10. Therefore, college students in the area tend to be mature-aged. Key…

  17. Avenues of access to future science teachers: An interview study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Richard

    2007-12-01

    This research study explored the experiences of individuals who chose careers in secondary science education by examining two cohorts of science education students in a teacher credential program and a group of current secondary science teachers in their first five years of teaching. Issues of how these individuals became interested in science education and the characteristics common among them were examined. This study explored the educational experiences that appeared to contribute to people becoming science teachers. This study also explored the participants' motivation and key turning point moments that appeared to contribute to their choice to pursue a career in science education. The research design used in this study was a two-year, semi-structured interview protocol. Research was conducted at one main university site and within one local unified school district. During the 2004-2005 and 2005-2006 academic years, twenty-five secondary science pre-service teacher candidates at a University of California were interviewed, and during the 2005-2006 academic year, twenty-five current practicing science teachers within a Southern California unified school district were also interviewed. Data collection consisted of interviews with the fifty participants typically between 30-45 minutes in length. The EZ-Text software program was employed to aid in the analysis of the transcribed interview data. This study found that much of the previous research on the characteristics of entrants to teaching in general was supported, but that some specific differences exist among science teachers and the general population of teachers. The majority of the participants had exposure to internships or tutoring experiences and indicated that this made them more willing to pursue science teaching as a profession. This study found that high achieving female students constituted the entire female portion of the sample and cited teaching as a friendly avenue for females in science. Teacher

  18. Hard-to-Reach? Using Health Access Status as a Way to More Effectively Target Segments of the Latino Audience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkin, Holley A.; Ball-Rokeach, Sandra J.

    2011-01-01

    Health issues disproportionately affect Latinos, but variations within this ethnic group may mean that some Latinos are harder to reach with health messages than others. This paper introduces a methodology grounded in communication infrastructure theory to better target "hard-to-reach" audiences. A random digit dialing telephone survey of 739…

  19. Study of compact stereoscopic system for target distance estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bankman, Daniel J.

    2006-05-01

    Distance measurement is necessary in a variety of fields, including targeting, surveillance, reconnaissance, robotics, and cartography. Today, the most commonly used method for distance measurement is laser ranging. However, laser rangers being active systems require more energy and cost more than passive systems, and they can be detected by the adversary. Stereoscopic vision, a passive system, requires low levels of power and allows covert operation. This study considers stereoscopic vision with a compact, portable system, and investigates its essential parameters that can be optimized for accurate distance measurement. The main parameters addressed in this study are the distance between the two cameras, the kernel size used for correlation between the two images, and the quality of the image measured by the standard deviation of pixel values. The distance estimation accuracy is determined as a function of these parameters and the range to target. To represent a compact, portable system, the study considered parallel camera pairs placed 6 inches or 12 inches apart. Using small, visible light digital cameras, the slant range measurement error is less than 3% with 12 inches camera spacing, and a correlation kernel of 30 pixels in width. Larger camera spacing and shorter ranges to target increase the disparity and decrease the distance estimate error. Analytical error predictions explain the experimental results.

  20. Condensed Matter Deuterium Cluster Target for Study of Pycnonuclear Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaoling; George, Miley

    2009-11-01

    Fusion reactions have two main classes: thermonuclear and the pycnonuclear. Thermonuclear fusion occurs in low density high temperature plasmas, and is very sensitive to the ion temperature due to Columbic repulsion effects. As the density increases, the Columbic potential barrier is depressed by increased electron screening, allowing fusion at lower temperatures. This type of nuclear reaction is termed a pycnonuclear fusion and is the basis for astrophysical fusion. Ichimarua [1] proposed a laboratory study of this process using explosive mechanical compression of H/D to metallic densities, which would be extremely difficult to implement. Instead, our recent research suggests that metallic-like H/D ``clusters'' can be formed in dislocation loops of thin Palladium foils through electrochemical processes. [2] If this technique is used as a laser compression target, the compressed cluster density would allow study of pycnonuclear reactions. This provides a means of studying astrophysical fusion process, and could also lead to an important non-cryogenic ICF target. [2] [4pt] [1] S. Ichimaru, H. Kitamura. Phys. Plasmas, 6, 2649 (1999) [0pt] [2] G. Miley and X. Yang, Deuterium Cluster Target for Ultra-High Density, 18TH TOFE, San Francisco, CA Sep. 28 -- Oct. 2, 2008

  1. Lexical access changes in patients with multiple sclerosis: a two-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Sepulcre, Jorge; Peraita, Herminia; Goni, Joaquin; Arrondo, Gonzalo; Martincorena, Inigo; Duque, Beatriz; Velez de Mendizabal, Nieves; Masdeu, Joseph C; Villoslada, Pablo

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze lexical access strategies in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and their changes over time. We studied lexical access strategies during semantic and phonemic verbal fluency tests and also confrontation naming in a 2-year prospective cohort of 45 MS patients and 20 healthy controls. At baseline, switching lexical access strategy (both in semantic and in phonemic verbal fluency tests) and confrontation naming were significantly impaired in MS patients compared with controls. After 2 years follow-up, switching score decreased, and cluster size increased over time in semantic verbal fluency tasks, suggesting a failure in the retrieval of lexical information rather than an impairment of the lexical pool. In conclusion, these findings underline the significant presence of lexical access problems in patients with MS and could point out their key role in the alterations of high-level communications abilities in MS. PMID:20835944

  2. Marine-target craters on Mars? An assessment study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ormo, J.; Dohm, J.M.; Ferris, J.C.; Lepinette, A.; Fairen, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    Observations of impact craters on Earth show that a water column at the target strongly influences lithology and morphology of the resultant crater. The degree of influence varies with the target water depth and impactor diameter. Morphological features detectable in satellite imagery include a concentric shape with an inner crater inset within a shallower outer crater, which is cut by gullies excavated by the resurge of water. In this study, we show that if oceans, large seas, and lakes existed on Mars for periods of time, marine-target craters must have formed. We make an assessment of the minimum and maximum amounts of such craters based on published data on water depths, extent, and duration of putative oceans within "contacts 1 and 2," cratering rate during the different oceanic phases, and computer modeling of minimum impactor diameters required to form long-lasting craters in the seafloor of the oceans. We also discuss the influence of erosion and sedimentation on the preservation and exposure of the craters. For an ocean within the smaller "contact 2" with a duration of 100,000 yr and the low present crater formation rate, only ???1-2 detectable marine-target craters would have formed. In a maximum estimate with a duration of 0.8 Gyr, as many as 1400 craters may have formed. An ocean within the larger "contact 1-Meridiani," with a duration of 100,000 yr, would not have received any seafloor craters despite the higher crater formation rate estimated before 3.5 Gyr. On the other hand, with a maximum duration of 0.8 Gyr, about 160 seafloor craters may have formed. However, terrestrial examples show that most marine-target craters may be covered by thick sediments. Ground penetrating radar surveys planned for the ESA Mars Express and NASA 2005 missions may reveal buried craters, though it is uncertain if the resolution will allow the detection of diagnostic features of marine-target craters. The implications regarding the discovery of marine-target craters on

  3. High-affinity DNA-targeting using Readily Accessible Mimics of N2′-Functionalized 2′-Amino-α-L-LNA

    PubMed Central

    Karmakar, Saswata; Anderson, Brooke A.; Rathje, Rie L.; Andersen, Sanne; Jensen, Troels B.; Nielsen, Poul; Hrdlicka, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    N2′-Pyrene-functionalized 2′-amino-α-L-LNAs (Locked Nucleic Acids) display extraordinary affinity toward complementary DNA targets due to favorable preorganization of the pyrene moieties for hybridization-induced intercalation. Unfortunately, the synthesis of these monomers is challenging (~20 steps, <3% overall yield), which has precluded full characterization of DNA-targeting applications based on these materials. Access to more readily accessible functional mimics would be highly desirable. Here we describe short synthetic routes toward a series of O2′-intercalator-functionalized uridine and N2′-intercalator-functionalized 2′-N-methyl-2′-aminouridine monomers and demonstrate – via thermal denaturation, UV-visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy experiments – that several of them mimic the DNA-hybridization properties of N2′-pyrene-functionalized 2′-amino-α-L-LNAs. For example, oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ONs) modified with 2′-O-(coronen-1-yl)methyluridine monomer Z, 2′-O-(pyren-1-yl)methyluridine monomer Y or 2′-N-(pyren-1-ylmethyl)-2′-N-methylaminouridine monomer Q, display prominent increases in thermal affinity toward complementary DNA relative to reference strands (average ΔTm/mod up to +12 °C), pronounced DNA-selectivity, and higher target specificity than 2′-amino-β-L-LNA benchmark probes. In contrast, ONs modified with 2′-O-(2-napthyl)uridine monomer W, 2′-O-(pyren-1-yl)uridine monomer X or 2′-N-(pyren-1-ylcarbonyl)-2′-N-methylaminouridine monomer S display very low affinity toward DNA targets. This demonstrates that even conservative alterations in linker chemistry, linker length and surface area of the appended intercalators have marked impact on DNA-hybridization characteristics. Straightforward access to high-affinity building blocks such as Q/Y/Z is likely to accelerate their use in DNA-targeting applications within nucleic acid based diagnostics, therapeutics, and material science. PMID:21827174

  4. A Qualitative Study of Barriers to Accessing Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Disabled People in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Kuper, Hannah; Itimu-Phiri, Ambumulire; Holm, Rochelle; Biran, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Globally, millions of people lack access to improved water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). Disabled people, disadvantaged both physically and socially, are likely to be among those facing the greatest inequities in WASH access. This study explores the WASH priorities of disabled people and uses the social model of disability and the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework to look at the relationships between impairments, contextual factors and barriers to WASH access. 36 disabled people and 15 carers from urban and rural Malawi were purposively selected through key informants. The study employed a range of qualitative methods including interviews, emotion mapping, free-listing of priorities, ranking, photo voice, observation and WASH demonstrations. A thematic analysis was conducted using nVivo 10. WASH access affected all participants and comprised almost a third of the challenges of daily living identified by disabled people. Participants reported 50 barriers which related to water and sanitation access, personal and hand hygiene, social attitudes and participation in WASH programs. No two individuals reported facing the same set of barriers. This study found that being female, being from an urban area and having limited wealth and education were likely to increase the number and intensity of the barriers faced by an individual. The social model proved useful for classifying the majority of barriers. However, this model was weaker when applied to individuals who were more seriously disabled by their body function. This study found that body function limitations such as incontinence, pain and an inability to communicate WASH needs are in and of themselves significant barriers to adequate WASH access. Understanding these access barriers is important for the WASH sector at a time when there is a global push for equitable access. PMID:27171520

  5. A Qualitative Study of Barriers to Accessing Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Disabled People in Malawi.

    PubMed

    White, Sian; Kuper, Hannah; Itimu-Phiri, Ambumulire; Holm, Rochelle; Biran, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Globally, millions of people lack access to improved water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). Disabled people, disadvantaged both physically and socially, are likely to be among those facing the greatest inequities in WASH access. This study explores the WASH priorities of disabled people and uses the social model of disability and the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework to look at the relationships between impairments, contextual factors and barriers to WASH access. 36 disabled people and 15 carers from urban and rural Malawi were purposively selected through key informants. The study employed a range of qualitative methods including interviews, emotion mapping, free-listing of priorities, ranking, photo voice, observation and WASH demonstrations. A thematic analysis was conducted using nVivo 10. WASH access affected all participants and comprised almost a third of the challenges of daily living identified by disabled people. Participants reported 50 barriers which related to water and sanitation access, personal and hand hygiene, social attitudes and participation in WASH programs. No two individuals reported facing the same set of barriers. This study found that being female, being from an urban area and having limited wealth and education were likely to increase the number and intensity of the barriers faced by an individual. The social model proved useful for classifying the majority of barriers. However, this model was weaker when applied to individuals who were more seriously disabled by their body function. This study found that body function limitations such as incontinence, pain and an inability to communicate WASH needs are in and of themselves significant barriers to adequate WASH access. Understanding these access barriers is important for the WASH sector at a time when there is a global push for equitable access.

  6. Spatial accessibility to specific sport facilities and corresponding sport practice: the RECORD Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical activity is considered as a major component of a healthy lifestyle. However, few studies have examined the relationships between the spatial accessibility to sport facilities and sport practice with a sufficient degree of specificity. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between the spatial accessibility to specific types of sports facilities and the practice of the corresponding sports after carefully controlling for various individual socio-demographic characteristics and neighborhood socioeconomic variables. Methods Data from the RECORD Study involving 7290 participants recruited in 2007–2008, aged 30–79 years, and residing in the Paris metropolitan area were analyzed. Four categories of sports were studied: team sports, racket sports, swimming and related activities, and fitness. Spatial accessibility to sport facilities was measured with two complementary approaches that both take into account the street network (distance to the nearest facility and count of facilities around the dwelling). Associations between the spatial accessibility to sport facilities and the practice of the corresponding sports were assessed using multilevel logistic regression after adjusting for individual and contextual characteristics. Results High individual education and high household income were associated with the practice of racket sports, swimming or related activities, and fitness over the previous 7 days. The spatial accessibility to swimming pools was associated with swimming and related sports, even after adjustment for individual/contextual factors. The spatial accessibility to facilities was not related to the practice of other sports. High neighborhood income was associated with the practice of a racket sport and fitness. Conclusions Accessibility is a multi-dimensional concept that integrates educational, financial, and geographical aspects. Our work supports the evidence that strategies to increase participation in sport

  7. A Qualitative Study of Barriers to Accessing Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Disabled People in Malawi.

    PubMed

    White, Sian; Kuper, Hannah; Itimu-Phiri, Ambumulire; Holm, Rochelle; Biran, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Globally, millions of people lack access to improved water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). Disabled people, disadvantaged both physically and socially, are likely to be among those facing the greatest inequities in WASH access. This study explores the WASH priorities of disabled people and uses the social model of disability and the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework to look at the relationships between impairments, contextual factors and barriers to WASH access. 36 disabled people and 15 carers from urban and rural Malawi were purposively selected through key informants. The study employed a range of qualitative methods including interviews, emotion mapping, free-listing of priorities, ranking, photo voice, observation and WASH demonstrations. A thematic analysis was conducted using nVivo 10. WASH access affected all participants and comprised almost a third of the challenges of daily living identified by disabled people. Participants reported 50 barriers which related to water and sanitation access, personal and hand hygiene, social attitudes and participation in WASH programs. No two individuals reported facing the same set of barriers. This study found that being female, being from an urban area and having limited wealth and education were likely to increase the number and intensity of the barriers faced by an individual. The social model proved useful for classifying the majority of barriers. However, this model was weaker when applied to individuals who were more seriously disabled by their body function. This study found that body function limitations such as incontinence, pain and an inability to communicate WASH needs are in and of themselves significant barriers to adequate WASH access. Understanding these access barriers is important for the WASH sector at a time when there is a global push for equitable access. PMID:27171520

  8. The Public Access Defibrillation (PAD) trial: study design and rationale.

    PubMed

    Ornato, Joseph P; McBurnie, Mary Ann; Nichol, Graham; Salive, Marcel; Weisfeldt, Myron; Riegel, Barbara; Christenson, James; Terndrup, Thomas; Daya, Mohamud

    2003-02-01

    The PAD Trial is a prospective, multicenter, randomized clinical study testing whether volunteer, non-medical responders can improve survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOH-CA) by using automated external defibrillators (AEDs). These lay volunteers, who have no traditional responsibility to respond to a medical emergency as part of their primary job description, will form part of a comprehensive, integrated community approach to the treatment of OOH-CA. The study is being conducted at 24 field centers in the United States and Canada. Approximately 1000 community units (e.g. apartment or office buildings, gated communities, sports facilities, senior centers, shopping malls, etc.) were randomized to treatment by trained laypersons who will provide either cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) alone or CPR plus use of an AED, while awaiting arrival of the community's emergency medical services responders. The primary endpoint is the number of OOH-CA victims who survive to hospital discharge. Secondary endpoints include neurological status, health-related quality of life (HRQL), cost, and cost-effectiveness. Data collection will last approximately 15 months and is expected to be completed in September 2003.

  9. Feasibility study of an active target for the MEG experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papa, A.; Cavoto, G.; Ripiccini, E.

    2014-03-01

    We consider the possibility to have an active target for the upgrade of the MEG experiment (MEG II). The active target should work as (1) a beam monitoring, to continuously measure the muon stopping rate and therefore provide a direct evaluation of the detector acceptance (or an absolute normalization of the stopped muon); and as (2) an auxiliary device for the spectrometer, to improve the determination of the muon decay vertex and consequently to achieve a better positron momentum and angular resolutions, detecting the positron from the muon decay. In this work we studied the feasibility of detecting minimum ionizing particle with a single layer of 250 μm fiber and the capability to discriminate between the signal induced by either a muon or a positron.

  10. 76 FR 35805 - Port Access Route Study: The Approaches to San Francisco

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... study in the Federal Register on December 10, 2009 (74 FR 65543), entitled ``Port Access Route Study... announced the notice of study in the Federal Register on December 10, 2009 (74 FR 65543), entitled ``Port..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: If you...

  11. Video game access, parental rules, and problem behavior: a study of boys with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, Christopher R; Mazurek, Micah O

    2014-07-01

    Environmental correlates of problem behavior among individuals with autism spectrum disorder remain relatively understudied. The current study examined the contribution of in-room (i.e. bedroom) access to a video game console as one potential correlate of problem behavior among a sample of 169 boys with autism spectrum disorder (ranging from 8 to 18 years of age). Parents of these children reported on (1) whether they had specific rules regulating their child's video game use, (2) whether their child had in-room access to a variety of screen-based media devices (television, computer, and video game console), and (3) their child's oppositional behaviors. Multivariate regression models showed that in-room access to a video game console predicted oppositional behavior while controlling for in-room access to other media devices (computer and television) and relevant variables (e.g. average number of video game hours played per day). Additionally, the association between in-room access to a video game console and oppositional behavior was particularly large when parents reported no rules on their child's video game use. The current findings indicate that both access and parental rules regarding video games warrant future experimental and longitudinal research as they relate to problem behavior in boys with autism spectrum disorder.

  12. Access to tuberculosis services for individuals with disability in rural Malawi, a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Grut, Lisbet; Sanudi, Lifah; Braathen, Stine Hellum; Jürgens, Thomas; Eide, Arne H

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis occurs in all populations, but with higher prevalence in poor contexts. Vulnerable groups, including individuals with disability, run a particular risk due to poorer access to information and health services. Studying access to tuberculosis services for vulnerable groups in poor contexts may provide useful insight into the quality of such services in low-income contexts. This article aims to present a contextual understanding of access to tuberculosis services for people with disabilities in one district in southern Malawi. A qualitative method with semi-structured interviews and site observations was applied. In all, 89 participants were interviewed: 47 persons with disability, 11 parents/guardians of youths with disability, and the remaining 31 comprising eight health workers, four community rehabilitation assistants and volunteers, and 19 leaders in the community.Our main findings are that lack of information and knowledge, and considerable confusion related to tuberculosis, its cause and how to protect oneself, are major barrier to accessing services. Disease awareness and personal risk perception are key factors in this regard. Further findings concerns the pathways to tuberculosis related health services, in particular having a test and completing the treatment. The combination of lack of knowledge and barriers in accessing tests implies substantial availability and access problems.It is of importance to understand the combined impact of individual, social, contextual, and systems barriers to fully address the complexity of accessing tuberculosis services for vulnerable groups in poor populations. Lack of disability specific strategies in the local health services may be part of the reason why individuals with disability to not access such services. PMID:25830950

  13. Access to Tuberculosis Services for Individuals with Disability in Rural Malawi, a Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Grut, Lisbet; Sanudi, Lifah; Braathen, Stine Hellum; Jürgens, Thomas; Eide, Arne H.

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis occurs in all populations, but with higher prevalence in poor contexts. Vulnerable groups, including individuals with disability, run a particular risk due to poorer access to information and health services. Studying access to tuberculosis services for vulnerable groups in poor contexts may provide useful insight into the quality of such services in low-income contexts. This article aims to present a contextual understanding of access to tuberculosis services for people with disabilities in one district in southern Malawi. A qualitative method with semi-structured interviews and site observations was applied. In all, 89 participants were interviewed: 47 persons with disability, 11 parents/guardians of youths with disability, and the remaining 31 comprising eight health workers, four community rehabilitation assistants and volunteers, and 19 leaders in the community.Our main findings are that lack of information and knowledge, and considerable confusion related to tuberculosis, its cause and how to protect oneself, are major barrier to accessing services. Disease awareness and personal risk perception are key factors in this regard. Further findings concerns the pathways to tuberculosis related health services, in particular having a test and completing the treatment. The combination of lack of knowledge and barriers in accessing tests implies substantial availability and access problems.It is of importance to understand the combined impact of individual, social, contextual, and systems barriers to fully address the complexity of accessing tuberculosis services for vulnerable groups in poor populations. Lack of disability specific strategies in the local health services may be part of the reason why individuals with disability to not access such services. PMID:25830950

  14. Access to tuberculosis services for individuals with disability in rural Malawi, a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Grut, Lisbet; Sanudi, Lifah; Braathen, Stine Hellum; Jürgens, Thomas; Eide, Arne H

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis occurs in all populations, but with higher prevalence in poor contexts. Vulnerable groups, including individuals with disability, run a particular risk due to poorer access to information and health services. Studying access to tuberculosis services for vulnerable groups in poor contexts may provide useful insight into the quality of such services in low-income contexts. This article aims to present a contextual understanding of access to tuberculosis services for people with disabilities in one district in southern Malawi. A qualitative method with semi-structured interviews and site observations was applied. In all, 89 participants were interviewed: 47 persons with disability, 11 parents/guardians of youths with disability, and the remaining 31 comprising eight health workers, four community rehabilitation assistants and volunteers, and 19 leaders in the community.Our main findings are that lack of information and knowledge, and considerable confusion related to tuberculosis, its cause and how to protect oneself, are major barrier to accessing services. Disease awareness and personal risk perception are key factors in this regard. Further findings concerns the pathways to tuberculosis related health services, in particular having a test and completing the treatment. The combination of lack of knowledge and barriers in accessing tests implies substantial availability and access problems.It is of importance to understand the combined impact of individual, social, contextual, and systems barriers to fully address the complexity of accessing tuberculosis services for vulnerable groups in poor populations. Lack of disability specific strategies in the local health services may be part of the reason why individuals with disability to not access such services.

  15. Accuracy of positioning and irradiation targeting for multiple targets in intracranial image-guided radiation therapy: a phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tominaga, Hirofumi; Araki, Fujio; Shimohigashi, Yoshinobu; Ishihara, Terunobu; Kawasaki, Keiichi; Kanetake, Nagisa; Sakata, Junichi; Iwashita, Yuki

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the accuracy of positioning and irradiation targeting for multiple off-isocenter targets in intracranial image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). A phantom with nine circular targets was created to evaluate both accuracies. First, the central point of the isocenter target was positioned with a combination of an ExacTrac x-ray (ETX) and a 6D couch. The positioning accuracy was determined from the deviations of coordinates of the central point in each target obtained from the kV-cone beam computed tomography (kV-CBCT) for IGRT and the planning CT. Similarly, the irradiation targeting accuracy was evaluated from the deviations of the coordinates between the central point of each target and the central point of each multi-leaf collimator (MLC) field for multiple targets. Secondly, the 6D couch was intentionally rotated together with both roll and pitch angles of 0.5° and 1° at the isocenter and similarly the deviations were evaluated. The positioning accuracy for all targets was less than 1 mm after 6D positioning corrections. The irradiation targeting accuracy was up to 1.3 mm in the anteroposterior (AP) direction for a target 87 mm away from isocenter. For the 6D couch rotations with both roll and pitch angles of 0.5° and 1°, the positioning accuracy was up to 1.0 mm and 2.3 mm in the AP direction for the target 87 mm away from the isocenter, respectively. The irradiation targeting accuracy was up to 2.1 mm and 2.6 mm in the AP direction for the target 87 mm away from the isocenter, respectively. The off-isocenter irradiation targeting accuracy became worse than the positioning accuracy. Both off-isocenter accuracies worsened in proportion to rotation angles and the distance from the isocenter to the targets. It is necessary to examine the set-up margin for off-isocenter multiple targets at each institution because irradiation targeting accuracy is peculiar to the linac machine.

  16. Refractoriness and the Healthy Brain: A Behavioural Study on Semantic Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campanella, Fabio; Shallice, Tim

    2011-01-01

    While many behavioural studies on refractory phenomena in lexical/semantic access have focused on the mechanisms involved in the oral production of names, comprehension tasks have been almost exclusively used in neuropsychological studies on brain damaged patients. We report the results of two experiments on healthy participants conducted by means…

  17. 75 FR 56919 - Port Access Route Study: The Approaches to San Francisco

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... and Purpose We published a notice of study in the Federal Register on December 10, 2009 (74 FR 65543... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Information on Service for Individuals With Disabilities For information on... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 167 Port Access Route Study: The Approaches to San Francisco AGENCY:...

  18. Decomposition into Multiple Morphemes during Lexical Access: A Masked Priming Study of Russian Nouns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazanina, Nina; Dukova-Zheleva, Galina; Geber, Dana; Kharlamov, Viktor; Tonciulescu, Keren

    2008-01-01

    The study reports the results of a masked priming experiment with morphologically complex Russian nouns. Participants performed a lexical decision task to a visual target that differed from its prime in one consonant. Three conditions were included: (1) "transparent," in which the prime was morphologically related to the target and contained the…

  19. Exploring Situational Factors Shaping Access in a Laptop Program for Socially Disadvantaged Children in India: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padmanabhan, Poornima; Wise, Alyssa Friend

    2012-01-01

    Low-cost laptop programs attempt to address gaps in access to computers in developing countries. However, the translation of computing access from intention to actuality is mediated by many situational factors. This research presents a case study of how access to a set of laptops donated to a school for socially disadvantaged children in India was…

  20. A study of institutional spending on open access publication fees in Germany.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Najko; Tullney, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Publication fees as a revenue source for open access publishing hold a prominent place on the agendas of researchers, policy makers, and academic publishers. This study contributes to the evolving empirical basis for funding these charges and examines how much German universities and research organisations spent on open access publication fees. Using self-reported cost data from the Open APC initiative, the analysis focused on the amount that was being spent on publication fees, and compared these expenditure with data from related Austrian (FWF) and UK (Wellcome Trust, Jisc) initiatives, in terms of both size and the proportion of articles being published in fully and hybrid open access journals. We also investigated how thoroughly self-reported articles were indexed in Crossref, a DOI minting agency for scholarly literature, and analysed how the institutional spending was distributed across publishers and journal titles. According to self-reported data from 30 German universities and research organisations between 2005 and 2015, expenditures on open access publication fees increased over the years in Germany and amounted to € 9,627,537 for 7,417 open access journal articles. The average payment was € 1,298, and the median was € 1,231. A total of 94% of the total article volume included in the study was supported in accordance with the price cap of € 2,000, a limit imposed by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) as part of its funding activities for open access funding at German universities. Expenditures varied considerably at the institutional level. There were also differences in how much the institutions spent per journal and publisher. These differences reflect, at least in part, the varying pricing schemes in place including discounted publication fees. With an indexing coverage of 99%, Crossref thoroughly indexed the open access journals articles included in the study. A comparison with the related openly available cost data from Austria and

  1. A study of institutional spending on open access publication fees in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Tullney, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Publication fees as a revenue source for open access publishing hold a prominent place on the agendas of researchers, policy makers, and academic publishers. This study contributes to the evolving empirical basis for funding these charges and examines how much German universities and research organisations spent on open access publication fees. Using self-reported cost data from the Open APC initiative, the analysis focused on the amount that was being spent on publication fees, and compared these expenditure with data from related Austrian (FWF) and UK (Wellcome Trust, Jisc) initiatives, in terms of both size and the proportion of articles being published in fully and hybrid open access journals. We also investigated how thoroughly self-reported articles were indexed in Crossref, a DOI minting agency for scholarly literature, and analysed how the institutional spending was distributed across publishers and journal titles. According to self-reported data from 30 German universities and research organisations between 2005 and 2015, expenditures on open access publication fees increased over the years in Germany and amounted to € 9,627,537 for 7,417 open access journal articles. The average payment was € 1,298, and the median was € 1,231. A total of 94% of the total article volume included in the study was supported in accordance with the price cap of € 2,000, a limit imposed by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) as part of its funding activities for open access funding at German universities. Expenditures varied considerably at the institutional level. There were also differences in how much the institutions spent per journal and publisher. These differences reflect, at least in part, the varying pricing schemes in place including discounted publication fees. With an indexing coverage of 99%, Crossref thoroughly indexed the open access journals articles included in the study. A comparison with the related openly available cost data from Austria and

  2. A study of institutional spending on open access publication fees in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Tullney, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Publication fees as a revenue source for open access publishing hold a prominent place on the agendas of researchers, policy makers, and academic publishers. This study contributes to the evolving empirical basis for funding these charges and examines how much German universities and research organisations spent on open access publication fees. Using self-reported cost data from the Open APC initiative, the analysis focused on the amount that was being spent on publication fees, and compared these expenditure with data from related Austrian (FWF) and UK (Wellcome Trust, Jisc) initiatives, in terms of both size and the proportion of articles being published in fully and hybrid open access journals. We also investigated how thoroughly self-reported articles were indexed in Crossref, a DOI minting agency for scholarly literature, and analysed how the institutional spending was distributed across publishers and journal titles. According to self-reported data from 30 German universities and research organisations between 2005 and 2015, expenditures on open access publication fees increased over the years in Germany and amounted to € 9,627,537 for 7,417 open access journal articles. The average payment was € 1,298, and the median was € 1,231. A total of 94% of the total article volume included in the study was supported in accordance with the price cap of € 2,000, a limit imposed by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) as part of its funding activities for open access funding at German universities. Expenditures varied considerably at the institutional level. There were also differences in how much the institutions spent per journal and publisher. These differences reflect, at least in part, the varying pricing schemes in place including discounted publication fees. With an indexing coverage of 99%, Crossref thoroughly indexed the open access journals articles included in the study. A comparison with the related openly available cost data from Austria and

  3. A study of institutional spending on open access publication fees in Germany.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Najko; Tullney, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Publication fees as a revenue source for open access publishing hold a prominent place on the agendas of researchers, policy makers, and academic publishers. This study contributes to the evolving empirical basis for funding these charges and examines how much German universities and research organisations spent on open access publication fees. Using self-reported cost data from the Open APC initiative, the analysis focused on the amount that was being spent on publication fees, and compared these expenditure with data from related Austrian (FWF) and UK (Wellcome Trust, Jisc) initiatives, in terms of both size and the proportion of articles being published in fully and hybrid open access journals. We also investigated how thoroughly self-reported articles were indexed in Crossref, a DOI minting agency for scholarly literature, and analysed how the institutional spending was distributed across publishers and journal titles. According to self-reported data from 30 German universities and research organisations between 2005 and 2015, expenditures on open access publication fees increased over the years in Germany and amounted to € 9,627,537 for 7,417 open access journal articles. The average payment was € 1,298, and the median was € 1,231. A total of 94% of the total article volume included in the study was supported in accordance with the price cap of € 2,000, a limit imposed by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) as part of its funding activities for open access funding at German universities. Expenditures varied considerably at the institutional level. There were also differences in how much the institutions spent per journal and publisher. These differences reflect, at least in part, the varying pricing schemes in place including discounted publication fees. With an indexing coverage of 99%, Crossref thoroughly indexed the open access journals articles included in the study. A comparison with the related openly available cost data from Austria and

  4. QSAR and docking studies on xanthone derivatives for anticancer activity targeting DNA topoisomerase IIα

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Sarfaraz; Khan, Feroz

    2014-01-01

    Due to the high mortality rate in India, the identification of novel molecules is important in the development of novel and potent anticancer drugs. Xanthones are natural constituents of plants in the families Bonnetiaceae and Clusiaceae, and comprise oxygenated heterocycles with a variety of biological activities along with an anticancer effect. To explore the anticancer compounds from xanthone derivatives, a quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) model was developed by the multiple linear regression method. The structure–activity relationship represented by the QSAR model yielded a high activity–descriptors relationship accuracy (84%) referred by regression coefficient (r2=0.84) and a high activity prediction accuracy (82%). Five molecular descriptors – dielectric energy, group count (hydroxyl), LogP (the logarithm of the partition coefficient between n-octanol and water), shape index basic (order 3), and the solvent-accessible surface area – were significantly correlated with anticancer activity. Using this QSAR model, a set of virtually designed xanthone derivatives was screened out. A molecular docking study was also carried out to predict the molecular interaction between proposed compounds and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) topoisomerase IIα. The pharmacokinetics parameters, such as absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity, were also calculated, and later an appraisal of synthetic accessibility of organic compounds was carried out. The strategy used in this study may provide understanding in designing novel DNA topoisomerase IIα inhibitors, as well as for other cancer targets. PMID:24516330

  5. Fluorescence-Guided Probes of Aptamer-Targeted Gold Nanoparticles with Computed Tomography Imaging Accesses for in Vivo Tumor Resection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cheng-Hung; Kuo, Tsung-Rong; Su, Hsin-Jan; Lai, Wei-Yun; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Chen, Jinn-Shiun; Wang, Di-Yan; Wu, Yi-Chun; Chen, Chia-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Recent development of molecular imaging probes for fluorescence-guided surgery has shown great progresses for determining tumor margin to execute the tissue resection. Here we synthesize the fluorescent gold nanoparticles conjugated with diatrizoic acid and nucleolin-targeted AS1411 aptamer. The nanoparticle conjugates exhibit high water-solubility, good biocompatibility, visible fluorescence and strong X-ray attenuation for computed tomography (CT) contrast enhancement. The fluorescent nanoparticle conjugates are applied as a molecular contrast agent to reveal the tumor location in CL1-5 tumor-bearing mice by CT imaging. Furthermore, the orange-red fluorescence emitting from the conjugates in the CL1-5 tumor can be easily visualized by the naked eyes. After the resection, the IVIS measurements show that the fluorescence signal of the nanoparticle conjugates in the tumor is greatly enhanced in comparison to that in the controlled experiment. Our work has shown potential application of functionalized nanoparticles as a dual-function imaging agent in clinical fluorescence-guided surgery. PMID:26507179

  6. Frontal activations associated with accessing and evaluating information in working memory: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, John X; Leung, Hoi-Chung; Johnson, Marcia K

    2003-11-01

    To investigate the involvement of frontal cortex in accessing and evaluating information in working memory, we used a variant of a Sternberg paradigm and compared brain activations between positive and negative responses (known to differentially tax access/evaluation processes). Participants remembered two trigrams in each trial and were then cued to discard one of them and maintain the other one as the target set. After a delay, a probe letter was presented and participants made decisions about whether or not it was in the target set. Several frontal areas--anterior cingulate (BA32), middle frontal gyrus (bilateral BA9, right BA10, and right BA46), and left inferior frontal gyrus (BA44/45)--showed increased activity when participants made correct negative responses relative to when they made correct positive responses. No areas activated significantly more for the positive responses than for the negative responses. It is suggested that the multiple frontal areas involved in the test phase of this task may reflect several component processes that underlie more general frontal functions. PMID:14642465

  7. Frontal activations associated with accessing and evaluating information in working memory: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, John X; Leung, Hoi-Chung; Johnson, Marcia K

    2003-11-01

    To investigate the involvement of frontal cortex in accessing and evaluating information in working memory, we used a variant of a Sternberg paradigm and compared brain activations between positive and negative responses (known to differentially tax access/evaluation processes). Participants remembered two trigrams in each trial and were then cued to discard one of them and maintain the other one as the target set. After a delay, a probe letter was presented and participants made decisions about whether or not it was in the target set. Several frontal areas--anterior cingulate (BA32), middle frontal gyrus (bilateral BA9, right BA10, and right BA46), and left inferior frontal gyrus (BA44/45)--showed increased activity when participants made correct negative responses relative to when they made correct positive responses. No areas activated significantly more for the positive responses than for the negative responses. It is suggested that the multiple frontal areas involved in the test phase of this task may reflect several component processes that underlie more general frontal functions.

  8. Tracking the time course of lexical access in orthographic production: An event-related potential study of word frequency effects in written picture naming.

    PubMed

    Qu, Qingqing; Zhang, Qingfang; Damian, Markus F

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies of spoken picture naming using event-related potentials (ERPs) have shown that speakers initiate lexical access within 200ms after stimulus onset. In the present study, we investigated the time course of lexical access in written, rather than spoken, word production. Chinese participants wrote target object names which varied in word frequency, and written naming times and ERPs were measured. Writing latencies exhibited a classical frequency effect (faster responses for high- than for low-frequency names). More importantly, ERP results revealed that electrophysiological activity elicited by high- and low frequency target names started to diverge as early as 168ms post picture onset. We conclude that lexical access during written word production is initiated within 200ms after picture onset. This estimate is compatible with previous studies on spoken production which likewise showed a rapid onset of lexical access (i.e., within 200ms after stimuli onset). We suggest that written and spoken word production share the lexicalization stage. PMID:27393929

  9. Low-income individuals’ perceptions about fruit and vegetable access programs: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Haynes-Maslow, Lindsey; Auvergne, Lauriane; Mark, Barbara; Ammerman, Alice; Weiner, Bryan J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine how fruit and vegetable (F&V) programs address barriers to F&V access and consumption as perceived by low-income individuals. Design From 2011–2012 thirteen focus groups were used to better understand low-income individuals’ perceptions about F&V programs. Setting Five North Carolina counties at community-serving organizations. Participants Low-income participants ages 18 or older were included in the study. A majority were African American females with a high school education or less and received government assistance. Phenomenon of Interest Low-income individuals’ perceptions about how F&V access programs can reduce barriers and increase consumption. Analysis A socioecological framework guided data analysis, and 2 trained researchers coded transcripts, identified major themes, and summarized findings. Results A total of 105 participants discussed that mobile markets could overcome barriers such as availability, convenience, transportation, and quality/variety. Some were worried about safety in higher crime communities. Participants’ opinions about how successful food assistance programs were at overcoming cost barriers were mixed. Participants agreed that community gardens could increase access to affordable, conveniently located produce, but worried about feasibility/implementation issues. Implications for Research and Practice Addressing access barriers through F&V programs could improve consumption. Programs have the potential to be successful if they address multiple access barriers. (200 words). PMID:25910929

  10. Retina-on-a-chip: a microfluidic platform for point access signaling studies

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, Kirsten H.; Echevarria, Franklin D.; Li, Deyu; Sappington, Rebecca M.; Edd, Jon F.

    2016-01-01

    We report on a microfluidic platform for culture of whole organs or tissue slices with the capability of point access reagent delivery to probe the transport of signaling events. Whole mice retina were maintained for multiple days with negative pressure applied to tightly but gently bind the bottom of the retina to a thin poly-(dimethylsiloxane) membrane, through which twelve 100 μm diameter through-holes served as fluidic access points. Staining with toluidine blue, transport of locally applied cholera toxin beta, and transient response to lipopolysaccharide in the retina demonstrated the capability of the microfluidic platform. The point access fluidic delivery capability could enable new assays in the study of various kinds of excised tissues, including retina. PMID:26559199

  11. Target and Non-Target Processing during Oddball and Cyberball: A Comparative Event-Related Potential Study

    PubMed Central

    Weschke, Sarah; Niedeggen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of social exclusion can be investigated by using a virtual ball-tossing game called Cyberball. In neuroimaging studies, structures have been identified which are activated during social exclusion. But to date the underlying mechanisms are not fully disclosed. In previous electrophysiological studies it was shown that the P3 complex is sensitive to exclusion manipulations in the Cyberball paradigm and that there is a correlation between P3 amplitude and self-reported social pain. Since this posterior event-related potential (ERP) was widely investigated using the oddball paradigm, we directly compared the ERP effects elicited by the target (Cyberball: “ball possession”) and non-target (Cyberball: “ball possession of a co-player) events in both paradigms. Analyses mainly focused on the effect of altered stimulus probabilities of the target and non-target events between two consecutive blocks of the tasks. In the first block, the probability of the target and non-target event was 33% (Cyberball: inclusion), in the second block target probability was reduced to 17%, and accordingly, non-target probability was increased to 66% (Cyberball: exclusion). Our results indicate that ERP amplitude differences between inclusion and exclusion are comparable to ERP amplitude effects in a visual oddball task. We therefore suggest that ERP effects–especially in the P3 range–in the Oddball and Cyberball paradigm rely on similar mechanisms, namely the probability of target and non-target events. Since the simulation of social exclusion (Cyberball) did not trigger a unique ERP response, the idea of an exclusion-specific neural alarm system is not supported. The limitations of an ERP-based approach will be discussed. PMID:27100787

  12. Target and Non-Target Processing during Oddball and Cyberball: A Comparative Event-Related Potential Study.

    PubMed

    Weschke, Sarah; Niedeggen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of social exclusion can be investigated by using a virtual ball-tossing game called Cyberball. In neuroimaging studies, structures have been identified which are activated during social exclusion. But to date the underlying mechanisms are not fully disclosed. In previous electrophysiological studies it was shown that the P3 complex is sensitive to exclusion manipulations in the Cyberball paradigm and that there is a correlation between P3 amplitude and self-reported social pain. Since this posterior event-related potential (ERP) was widely investigated using the oddball paradigm, we directly compared the ERP effects elicited by the target (Cyberball: "ball possession") and non-target (Cyberball: "ball possession of a co-player) events in both paradigms. Analyses mainly focused on the effect of altered stimulus probabilities of the target and non-target events between two consecutive blocks of the tasks. In the first block, the probability of the target and non-target event was 33% (Cyberball: inclusion), in the second block target probability was reduced to 17%, and accordingly, non-target probability was increased to 66% (Cyberball: exclusion). Our results indicate that ERP amplitude differences between inclusion and exclusion are comparable to ERP amplitude effects in a visual oddball task. We therefore suggest that ERP effects--especially in the P3 range--in the Oddball and Cyberball paradigm rely on similar mechanisms, namely the probability of target and non-target events. Since the simulation of social exclusion (Cyberball) did not trigger a unique ERP response, the idea of an exclusion-specific neural alarm system is not supported. The limitations of an ERP-based approach will be discussed.

  13. Building College Access with Families in New Bedford, Massachusetts: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Sue Anne

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study was an investigation into improving college access through family engagement with minority and low-income students in an urban school district. Critical theory concepts of cultural capital, field, and habitus, as well as organizational communication theory, formed the theoretical framework that guided a literature review and…

  14. Factors Influencing Access Students' Persistence in an Undergraduate Science Programme: A South African Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubben, Fred; Davidowitz, Bette; Buffler, Andy; Allie, Saalih; Scott, Ian

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the reasons underlying access students' decisions on their study programmes as they progress through their extended science degree, including the role of career aspirations in these decisions. Data from semi-structured interviews with 20 third year undergraduates show two groups according to their decision criteria.…

  15. Access Barriers to Dental Health Care in Children with Disability. A Questionnaire Study of Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerreth, Karolina; Borysewicz-Lewicka, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background: A patient's with disability everyday life is rife with many limitations such as architectural, transport, information as well as medical, psychological, legal, economic and social barriers. The aim of this study was to evaluate access to dental health care of special-care schoolchildren with intellectual disability on the basis of…

  16. Using Case Study Methodology to Examine Practices in Exemplary College Access Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stillisano, Jacqueline R.; Waxman, Hersh C.; Brown, Danielle B.; Alford, Beverly L.

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the unique qualities of selected college access centers established in Texas high schools with the dual goal of assisting students with college preparation activities and of creating a school-wide college going culture. Six centers demonstrating estimable outcomes on at least one of several different variables were…

  17. Fulfilling an Institutional and Public Good Mission: A Case Study of Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Renee F.

    2013-01-01

    Access to higher education has been and remains a critical issue, yet research typically focuses on students and programs which may overlook the role of the faculty. Through an in-depth case study, the perspectives of tenured and tenure-track faculty at a predominately White, Midwestern land-grant, research institution are described as they relate…

  18. Local Music Collections: Strategies for Digital Access, Presentation, and Preservation--A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doi, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    The Saskatchewan Music Collection (SMC) is a local music collection held at the University of Saskatchewan. This case study examines a project to digitize and present this unique special collection in the online environment. The project aims to facilitate access to the collection, preserve the collection and promote scholarship and interest in the…

  19. Restrictive Access to Books in School Library Media Centers in Georgia. Research Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPree, Vi

    This study sought to determine the extent of restrictive access to books in Georgia school library media centers and to discover by whose authority and for what reason these books might be placed on restrictive shelves. Questionnaires were completed and received from a stratified random sampling of 119 media specialists in high schools, middle or…

  20. Access through the Ages at an Elite Boarding School: A Case Study of Phillips Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    This study is about access for low-income students at an elite boarding school. As "feeder schools" to elite colleges and universities, elite boarding schools play a significant role in determining which students will be in the upper class in America; however, little is known about the history of low-income students at these schools. The…

  1. Mobilizing Curriculum Studies in a (Virtual) World: Open Access, Edupunks, and the Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Julie Ann; Ng-A-Fook, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Despite societal imperatives for equity--whether espoused by nation states or transnational agencies like UNESCO--current models of higher education are unequivocally failing to provide universal access. This paper seeks to explore the (cyber)spaces (un)occupied by higher education, specifically in the area of curriculum studies, arguing that the…

  2. Knowing, Acting and Being: Epistemological and Ontological Access in a Science Extended Studies Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellery, K.

    2011-01-01

    Gross participation and throughput rates in higher education institutions in South Africa indicate an inequitable and poorly functioning system. This interpretive study argues for an approach that enhances epistemological and ontological access and examines how an intervention that includes an overt approach in dealing with the nature of science,…

  3. A Study of the Access to the Scholarly Record From a Hospital Health Science Core Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, James F., II; Pings, Vern M.

    This study is an effort to determine possible service performance levels in hospital libraries, based on access to the scholarly record of medicine through selected lists of clinical journals and indexing and abstracting journals. Specific emphasis is placed on (1) the citation verification through the use of the index and abstract journals, (2)…

  4. Minority Access to Information Technology: Lessons Learned. Occasional Paper No. 67. Latino Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pachon, Harry P.; Macias, Elsa E.; Bagasao, Paula Y.

    The Digital Steppingstones (DSS) project is a 3-year study exploring access to advanced information technologies and related training in low-income and minority communities. The project is also identifying exemplary information technology programs in schools, libraries, and community centers in disadvantaged areas of five large cities. Site…

  5. Access to the Archives of United Nations Agencies: A RAMP Study with Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulate-Segura, Bodil

    Prepared under contract with the International Council on Archives (ICA), this study reviews expanded applications of archival research, the growing popular demand for information, and the resultant effect on the role of archives and archivists, especially in terms of access to records. Following an introductory discussion of the concept and role…

  6. Enhancing Digital Access to Learning Materials for Canadians with Perceptual Disabilities: A Pilot Study. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockerby, Christina; Breau, Rachel; Zuvela, Biljana

    2006-01-01

    By exploring the experiences of participants with DAISY (Digital Accessible Information System) Talking Books, the study reported in this article not only discovered how people who are blind, visually impaired, and/or print-disabled read DAISY books, but also identified participants' perceptions of DAISY as being particularly useful in their…

  7. Video Game Access, Parental Rules, and Problem Behavior: A Study of Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Christopher R.; Mazurek, Micah O.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental correlates of problem behavior among individuals with autism spectrum disorder remain relatively understudied. The current study examined the contribution of in-room (i.e. bedroom) access to a video game console as one potential correlate of problem behavior among a sample of 169 boys with autism spectrum disorder (ranging from 8 to…

  8. Processing infrared images for target detection: A literature study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alblas, B. P.

    1988-07-01

    Methods of image processing applied to IR images to obtain better detection and/or recognition of military targets, particularly vehicles, are reviewed. The following subjects are dealt with: histogram specification, scanline degradation, correlation, clutter and noise. Only a few studies deal with the effects of image processing on human performance. Most of the literature concerns computer vision. Local adaptive and image dependent techniques appear to be the most promising methods of obtaining higher observation performance. In particular the size-contrast box filter and histogram specification methods seem to be suitable. There is a need for a generally applicable definition of image quality and clutter level to evaluate the utility of a specified algorithm. Proposals for further research are given.

  9. A Comparative Study of Ethylene Emanation upon Nitrogen Deficiency in Natural Accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    De Gernier, Hugues; De Pessemier, Jérôme; Xu, Jiajia; Cristescu, Simona M.; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Verbruggen, Nathalie; Hermans, Christian

    2016-01-01

    An original approach to develop sustainable agriculture with less nitrogen fertilizer inputs is to tackle the cross-talk between nitrogen nutrition and plant growth regulators. In particular the gaseous hormone, ethylene, is a prime target for that purpose. The variation of ethylene production in natural accessions of the model species Arabidopsis thaliana was explored in response to the nitrate supply. Ethylene was measured with a laser-based photoacoustic detector. First, experimental conditions were established with Columbia-0 (Col-0) accession, which was grown in vitro on horizontal plates across a range of five nitrate concentrations (0.5, 1, 2.5, 5, or 10 mM). The concentrations of 1 and 10 mM nitrate were retained for further characterization. Along with a decrease of total dry biomass and higher biomass allocation to the roots, the ethylene production was 50% more important at 1 mM than at 10 mM nitrate. The total transcript levels of 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLIC ACID SYNTHASES (ACS) in roots and those of ACC OXIDASES (ACO) in shoots increased by 100% between the same treatments. This was mainly due to higher transcript levels of ACS6 and of ACO2 and ACO4 respectively. The assumption was that during nitrogen deficiency, the greater biomass allocation in favor of the roots was controlled by ethylene being released in the shoots after conversion of ACC originating from the roots. Second, biomass and ethylene productions were measured in 20 additional accessions. Across all accessions, the total dry biomass and ethylene production were correlated negatively at 1 mM but positively at 10 mM nitrate. Furthermore, polymorphism was surveyed in ACC and ethylene biosynthesis genes and gene products among accessions. Very few substitutions modifying the amino acids properties in conserved motifs of the enzymes were found in the accessions. Natural variation of ethylene production could be further explored to improve Nitrogen Use Efficiency (NUE), in particular by

  10. A Comparative Study of Ethylene Emanation upon Nitrogen Deficiency in Natural Accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    De Gernier, Hugues; De Pessemier, Jérôme; Xu, Jiajia; Cristescu, Simona M; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Verbruggen, Nathalie; Hermans, Christian

    2016-01-01

    An original approach to develop sustainable agriculture with less nitrogen fertilizer inputs is to tackle the cross-talk between nitrogen nutrition and plant growth regulators. In particular the gaseous hormone, ethylene, is a prime target for that purpose. The variation of ethylene production in natural accessions of the model species Arabidopsis thaliana was explored in response to the nitrate supply. Ethylene was measured with a laser-based photoacoustic detector. First, experimental conditions were established with Columbia-0 (Col-0) accession, which was grown in vitro on horizontal plates across a range of five nitrate concentrations (0.5, 1, 2.5, 5, or 10 mM). The concentrations of 1 and 10 mM nitrate were retained for further characterization. Along with a decrease of total dry biomass and higher biomass allocation to the roots, the ethylene production was 50% more important at 1 mM than at 10 mM nitrate. The total transcript levels of 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLIC ACID SYNTHASES (ACS) in roots and those of ACC OXIDASES (ACO) in shoots increased by 100% between the same treatments. This was mainly due to higher transcript levels of ACS6 and of ACO2 and ACO4 respectively. The assumption was that during nitrogen deficiency, the greater biomass allocation in favor of the roots was controlled by ethylene being released in the shoots after conversion of ACC originating from the roots. Second, biomass and ethylene productions were measured in 20 additional accessions. Across all accessions, the total dry biomass and ethylene production were correlated negatively at 1 mM but positively at 10 mM nitrate. Furthermore, polymorphism was surveyed in ACC and ethylene biosynthesis genes and gene products among accessions. Very few substitutions modifying the amino acids properties in conserved motifs of the enzymes were found in the accessions. Natural variation of ethylene production could be further explored to improve Nitrogen Use Efficiency (NUE), in particular by

  11. Household food access and child malnutrition: results from the eight-country MAL-ED study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Stunting results from decreased food intake, poor diet quality, and a high burden of early childhood infections, and contributes to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although food insecurity is an important determinant of child nutrition, including stunting, development of universal measures has been challenging due to cumbersome nutritional questionnaires and concerns about lack of comparability across populations. We investigate the relationship between household food access, one component of food security, and indicators of nutritional status in early childhood across eight country sites. Methods We administered a socioeconomic survey to 800 households in research sites in eight countries, including a recently validated nine-item food access insecurity questionnaire, and obtained anthropometric measurements from children aged 24 to 60 months. We used multivariable regression models to assess the relationship between household food access insecurity and anthropometry in children, and we assessed the invariance of that relationship across country sites. Results Average age of study children was 41 months. Mean food access insecurity score (range: 0–27) was 5.8, and varied from 2.4 in Nepal to 8.3 in Pakistan. Across sites, the prevalence of stunting (42%) was much higher than the prevalence of wasting (6%). In pooled regression analyses, a 10-point increase in food access insecurity score was associated with a 0.20 SD decrease in height-for-age Z score (95% CI 0.05 to 0.34 SD; p = 0.008). A likelihood ratio test for heterogeneity revealed that this relationship was consistent across countries (p = 0.17). Conclusions Our study provides evidence of the validity of using a simple household food access insecurity score to investigate the etiology of childhood growth faltering across diverse geographic settings. Such a measure could be used to direct interventions by identifying children at risk of illness and death related to

  12. Review of target studies for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Lindl, J.D.; Bangerter, R.D.; Mark, J.W.K.; Pan, Y.L.

    1986-10-24

    We present an updated set of gain curves for radiation driven ion beam targets. The improved target performance calculated with nuclear spin polarized fuel will also be discussed. We discuss the conditions required for efficient conversion to x-rays of ion beam energy. These requirements are compared with those obtained for lasers. Recent results on symmetry requirements for direct drive ion beam targets are presented.

  13. Are transnational tobacco companies' market access strategies linked to economic development models? A case study of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sungkyu; Holden, Chris; Lee, Kelley

    2013-01-01

    Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) have used varied strategies to access previously closed markets. Using TTCs' efforts to enter the South Korean market from the late 1980s as a case study, this article asks whether there are common patterns in these strategies that relate to the broader economic development models adopted by targeted countries. An analytical review of the existing literature on TTCs' efforts to access emerging markets was conducted to develop hypotheses relating TTCs' strategies to countries' economic development models. A case study of Korea was then undertaken based on analysis of internal tobacco industry documents. Findings were consistent with the hypothesis that TTCs' strategies in Korea were linked to Korea's export-oriented economic development model and its hostile attitude towards foreign investment. A fuller understanding of TTCs' strategies for expansion globally can be derived by locating them within the economic development models of specific countries or regions. Of foremost importance is the need for governments to carefully balance economic and public health policies when considering liberalisation.

  14. Are transnational tobacco companies’ market access strategies linked to economic development models? A case study of South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sungkyu; Holden, Chris; Lee, Kelley

    2013-01-01

    Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) have used varied strategies to access previously closed markets. Using TTCs’ efforts to enter the South Korean market from the late 1980s as a case study, this article asks whether there are common patterns in these strategies that relate to the broader economic development models adopted by targeted countries. An analytical review of the existing literature on TTCs’ efforts to access emerging markets was conducted to develop hypotheses relating TTCs’ strategies to countries’ economic development models. A case study of Korea was then undertaken based on analysis of internal tobacco industry documents. Findings were consistent with the hypothesis that TTCs’ strategies in Korea were linked to Korea’s export-oriented economic development model and its hostile attitude toward foreign investment. A fuller understanding of TTCs’ strategies for expansion globally can be derived by locating them within the economic development models of specific countries or regions. Of foremost importance is the need for governments to carefully balance economic and public health policies when considering liberalisation. PMID:23327486

  15. Are transnational tobacco companies' market access strategies linked to economic development models? A case study of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sungkyu; Holden, Chris; Lee, Kelley

    2013-01-01

    Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) have used varied strategies to access previously closed markets. Using TTCs' efforts to enter the South Korean market from the late 1980s as a case study, this article asks whether there are common patterns in these strategies that relate to the broader economic development models adopted by targeted countries. An analytical review of the existing literature on TTCs' efforts to access emerging markets was conducted to develop hypotheses relating TTCs' strategies to countries' economic development models. A case study of Korea was then undertaken based on analysis of internal tobacco industry documents. Findings were consistent with the hypothesis that TTCs' strategies in Korea were linked to Korea's export-oriented economic development model and its hostile attitude towards foreign investment. A fuller understanding of TTCs' strategies for expansion globally can be derived by locating them within the economic development models of specific countries or regions. Of foremost importance is the need for governments to carefully balance economic and public health policies when considering liberalisation. PMID:23327486

  16. Towards achieving Abuja targets: identifying and addressing barriers to access and use of insecticides treated nets among the poorest populations in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ensuring that the poor and vulnerable population benefit from malaria control interventions remains a challenge for malaria endemic countries. Until recently, ownership and use of insecticides treated nets (ITNs) in most countries was low and inequitable, although coverage has increased in countries where free ITN distribution is integrated into mass vaccination campaigns. In Kenya, free ITNs were distributed to children aged below five years in 2006 through two mass campaigns. High and equitable coverage were reported after the campaigns in some districts, although national level coverage remained low, suggesting that understanding barriers to access remains important. This study was conducted to explore barriers to ownership and use of ITNs among the poorest populations before and after the mass campaigns, to identify strategies for improving coverage, and to make recommendations on how increased coverage levels can be sustained. Methods The study was conducted in the poorest areas of four malaria endemic districts in Kenya. Multiple data collection methods were applied including: cross-sectional surveys (n = 708 households), 24 focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews with 70 ITN suppliers. Results Affordability was reported as a major barrier to access but non-financial barriers were also shown to be important determinants. On the demand side key barriers to access included: mismatch between the types of ITNs supplied through interventions and community preferences; perceptions and beliefs on illness causes; physical location of suppliers and; distrust in free delivery and in the distribution agencies. Key barriers on the supply side included: distance from manufacturers; limited acceptability of ITNs provided through interventions; crowding out of the commercial sector and the price. Infrastructure, information and communication played a central role in promoting or hindering access. Conclusions Significant resources have been directed

  17. Study of underwater laser propulsion using different target materials.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Hao; Chen, Jun; Han, Bing; Shen, Zhong-Hua; Lu, Jian; Ni, Xiao-Wu

    2014-07-14

    In order to investigate the influence of target materials, including aluminum (Al), titanium (Ti) and copper (Cu), on underwater laser propulsion, the analytical formula of the target momentum IT is deduced from the enhanced coupling theory of laser propulsion in atmosphere with transparent overlay metal target. The high-speed photography method and numerical simulation are employed to verify the IT model. It is shown that the enhanced coupling theory, which was developed originally for laser propulsion in atmosphere, is also applicable to underwater laser propulsion with metal targets.

  18. Increasing access to healthful foods: a qualitative study with residents of low-income communities

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Inadequate access to healthful foods has been identified as a significant barrier to healthful dietary behaviors among individuals who live in low-income communities. The purpose of this study was to gather low-income community members’ opinions about their food purchasing choices and their perceptions of the most effective ways to increase access to healthful foods in their communities. Methods Spanish and English focus groups were conducted in low-income, ethnically-diverse communities. Participants were asked about their knowledge, factors influencing their food purchasing decisions, and their perceptions regarding solutions to increase access to healthful foods. Results A total of 148 people participated in 13 focus groups. The majority of participants were female and ethnically diverse (63% Hispanic, 17% African American, 16% Caucasian, and 4% “other”). More than 75% of the participants reported making less than $1999 USD per month. Participants reported high levels of knowledge and preference for healthful foods. The most important barriers influencing healthful shopping behaviors included high price of healthful food, inadequate geographical access to healthful food, poor quality of available healthful food, and lack of overall quality of the proximate retail stores. Suggested solutions to inadequate access included placement of new chain supermarkets in their communities. Strategies implemented in convenience stores were not seen as effective. Farmers’ markets, with specific stipulations, and community gardens were regarded as beneficial supplementary solutions. Conclusion The results from the focus groups provide important input from a needs assessment perspective from the community, identify gaps in access, and offer potential effective solutions to provide direction for the future. PMID:26222910

  19. Vascular targets for cannabinoids: animal and human studies

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Christopher; O'Sullivan, Saoirse E

    2014-01-01

    Application of cannabinoids and endocannabinoids to perfused vascular beds or individual isolated arteries results in changes in vascular resistance. In most cases, the result is vasorelaxation, although vasoconstrictor responses are also observed. Cannabinoids also modulate the actions of vasoactive compounds including acetylcholine, methoxamine, angiotensin II and U46619 (thromboxane mimetic). Numerous mechanisms of action have been proposed including receptor activation, potassium channel activation, calcium channel inhibition and the production of vasoactive mediators such as calcitonin gene-related peptide, prostanoids, NO, endothelial-derived hyperpolarizing factor and hydrogen peroxide. The purpose of this review is to examine the evidence for the range of receptors now known to be activated by cannabinoids. Direct activation by cannabinoids of CB1, CBe, TRPV1 (and potentially other TRP channels) and PPARs in the vasculature has been observed. A potential role for CB2, GPR55 and 5-HT1A has also been identified in some studies. Indirectly, activation of prostanoid receptors (TP, IP, EP1 and EP4) and the CGRP receptor is involved in the vascular responses to cannabinoids. The majority of this evidence has been obtained through animal research, but recent work has confirmed some of these targets in human arteries. Vascular responses to cannabinoids are enhanced in hypertension and cirrhosis, but are reduced in obesity and diabetes, both due to changes in the target sites of action. Much further work is required to establish the extent of vascular actions of cannabinoids and the application of this research in physiological and pathophysiological situations. Linked ArticlesThis article is part of a themed section on Cannabinoids 2013. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-6 PMID:24329566

  20. Inequity of access to ACE inhibitors in Swedish heart failure patients: a register-based study

    PubMed Central

    Lindahl, Bertil; Hanning, Marianne; Westerling, Ragnar

    2016-01-01

    Background Several international studies suggest inequity in access to evidence-based heart failure (HF) care. Specifically, studies of ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) point to reduced ACEI access related to female sex, old age and socioeconomic position. Thus far, most studies have either been rather small, lacking diagnostic data, or lacking the possibility to account for several individual-based sociodemographic factors. Our aim was to investigate differences, which could reflect inequity in access to ACEIs based on sex, age, socioeconomic status or immigration status in Swedish patients with HF. Methods Individually linked register data for all Swedish adults hospitalised for HF in 2005–2010 (n=93 258) were analysed by multivariate regression models to assess the independent risk of female sex, high age, low employment status, low income level, low educational level or foreign country of birth, associated with lack of an ACEI dispensation within 1 year of hospitalisation. Adjustment for possible confounding was made for age, comorbidity, Angiotensin receptor blocker therapy, period and follow-up time. Results Analysis revealed an adjusted OR for no ACEI dispensation for women of 1.31 (95% CI 1.27 to 1.35); for the oldest patients of 2.71 (95% CI 2.53 to 2.91); and for unemployed patients of 1.59 (95% CI 1.46 to 1.73). Conclusions Access to ACEI treatment was reduced in women, older patients and unemployed patients. We conclude that access to ACEIs is inequitable among Swedish patients with HF. Future studies should include clinical data, as well as mortality outcomes in different groups. PMID:26261264

  1. Commissioning a Rotating Target Wheel Assembly for Heavy Element Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fields, L. D.; Bennett, M. E.; Mayorov, D. A.; Folden, C. M.

    2013-10-01

    The heaviest elements are produced artificially by fusing nuclei of light elements within an accelerator to form heavier nuclei. The most direct method to increase the production rate of nuclei is to increase the beam intensity, necessitating the use of a rotating target to minimize damage to the target by deposited heat. Such a target wheel was constructed for heavy element research at Texas A&M University, Cyclotron Institute, consisting of a wheel with three banana-shaped target cutouts. The target is designed to rotate at 1700 rpm, and a fiber optic cable provides a signal to trigger beam pulsing in order to avoid irradiating the spokes between target segments. Following minor mechanical modifications and construction of a dedicated electrical panel, the rotating target assembly was commissioned for a beam experiment. A 15 MeV/u beam of 20Ne was delivered from the K500 cyclotron and detected by a ruggedized silicon detector. The beam pulsing response time was characterized as a function of the rational frequency of the target wheel. Preliminary analysis suggests that the K500 is capable of pulsing at rates of up to 250 Hz, which is sufficient for planned future experiments. Funded by DOE and NSF-REU Program.

  2. Study of optoelectronic switch for satellite-switched time-division multiple access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Shing-Fong; Jou, Liz; Lenart, Joe

    1987-01-01

    The use of optoelectronic switching for satellite switched time division multiple access will improve the isolation and reduce the crosstalk of an IF switch matrix. The results are presented of a study on optoelectronic switching. Tasks include literature search, system requirements study, candidate switching architecture analysis, and switch model optimization. The results show that the power divided and crossbar switching architectures are good candidates for an IF switch matrix.

  3. Chemical and semisynthetic approaches to study and target deubiquitinases.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Pushparathinam; Ohayon, Shimrit; Nawatha, Mickal; Brik, Ashraf

    2016-07-25

    Ubiquitination is a key posttranslational modification, which affects numerous biological processes and is reversed by a class of enzymes known as deubiquitinases (DUBs). This family of enzymes cleaves mono-ubiquitin or poly-ubiquitin chains from a target protein through different mechanisms and mode of interactions with their substrates. Studying the role of DUBs in health and diseases has been a major goal for many laboratories both in academia and in industry. However, the field has been challenged by the difficulties in obtaining native substrates and novel reagents using traditional enzymatic and molecular biology approaches. Recent advancements in the synthesis and semisynthesis of proteins made it possible to prepare several unique ubiquitin conjugates to study various aspects of DUBs such as their specificities and structures. Moreover, these approaches enable the preparation of novel activity based probes and assays to monitor DUB activities in vitro and in cellular contexts. Efforts made to bring new chemical entities for the selective inhibition of DUBs based on these tools are also highlighted with selected examples.

  4. Intraosseous Vascular Access through the Anterior Mandible – A Cadaver Model Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Goldschalt, Christin; Doll, Sara; Ihle, Brit; Kirsch, Joachim; Mutzbauer, Till Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Background Several insertion sites have been described for intraosseous puncture in cases of emergencies when a conventional vascular access cannot be established. This pilot study has been designed to evaluate the feasibility of the mandibular bone for the use of an intraosseous vascular access in a cadaver model. Methodology/Principal Findings 17 dentistry and 16 medical students participating in a voluntary course received a short introduction into the method and subsequently used the battery powered EZ-IO system with a 15 mm cannula for a puncture of the anterior mandible in 33 cadavers. The time needed to perform each procedure was evaluated. India ink was injected into the accesses and during the anatomy course cadavers were dissected to retrace the success or failure of the puncture. Dental students needed 25.5±18.9(mean±standard deviation)s and medical students 33±20.4 s for the procedure (p = 0.18). Floor of mouth extravasation occurred in both groups in 3 cases. Success rates were 82 and 75% (p = 0.93). Conclusions/Significance Despite floor of mouth extravasation of injected fluid into a mandibular intraosseous access might severely complicate this procedure, the anterior mandible may be helpful as an alternative to other intraosseous and intravenous insertion sites when these are not available in medical emergencies. PMID:25405476

  5. Characterization studies of prototype ISOL targets for the RIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, John P.; Burtseva, Tatiana; Neubauer, Janelle; Nolen, Jerry A.; Villari, Antonio C. C.; Gomes, Itacil C.

    2005-12-01

    Targets employing refractory compounds are being developed for the rare isotope accelerator (RIA) facility to produce ion species far from stability. With the 100 kW beams proposed for the production targets, dissipation of heat becomes a challenging issue. In our two-step target design, neutrons are generated in a refractory primary target, inducing fission in the surrounding uranium carbide. The interplay of density, grain size, thermal conductivity and diffusion properties of the UC2 needs to be well understood before fabrication. Thin samples of uranium carbide were prepared for thermal conductivity measurements using an electron beam to heat the sample and an optical pyrometer to observe the thermal radiation. Release efficiencies and independent thermal analysis on these samples are being undertaken at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). An alternate target concept for RIA, the tilted slab approach promises to be simple with fast ion release and capable of withstanding high beam intensities while providing considerable yields via spallation. A proposed small business innovative research (SBIR) project will design a prototype tilted target, exploring the materials needed for fabrication and testing at an irradiation facility to address issues of heat transfer and stresses within the target.

  6. Bridging the Gap between Access and Success: A Study of the Impact of an Access and Success Program on Academic Outcomes of Low-Income College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Sarah R.

    2012-01-01

    In response to the increasing cost of college, colleges and universities are leveraging financial aid and academic support services to implement access and success programs intended to help financially disadvantaged students afford and persist through a baccalaureate degree program. This research is a study of the efficacy of one such program at a…

  7. The Cornell/Xerox Commission on Preservation and Access Joint Study in Digital Preservation. Report: Phase 1 (January 1990-December 1991). Digital Capture, Paper Facsimiles, and Network Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Anne R.; Personius, Lynne K.

    The primary emphasis of this study of the use of digital technology to preserve library materials was the capture of brittle books as digital images and the production of printed paper facsimiles. Of equal interest, however, was the role of digital technology in providing access to library resources, and preliminary work in this area has also been…

  8. A study of HIV positive undocumented African migrants' access to health services in the UK.

    PubMed

    Whyte, James; Whyte, Maria D; Hires, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Newly immigrated persons, whatever their origin, tend to fall in the lower socioeconomic levels. In fact, failure of an asylum application renders one destitute in a large proportion of cases, often resulting in a profound lack of access to basic necessities. With over a third of HIV positive failed asylum seekers reporting no income, and the remainder reporting highly limited resources, poverty is a reality for the vast majority. The purpose of the study was to determine the basic social processes that guide HIV positive undocumented migrant's efforts to gain health services in the UK. The study used the Grounded Theory Approach. Theoretical saturation occurred after 16 participants were included in the study. The data included reflections of the prominent factors related to the establishment of a safe and productive life and the ability of individuals to remain within the UK. The data reflected heavily upon the ability of migrants to enter the medical care system during their asylum period, and on an emerging pattern of service denial after loss on immigration appeal. The findings of this study are notable in that they have demonstrated sequence of events along a timeline related to the interaction between the asylum process and access to health-related services. The results reflect that African migrants maintain a degree of formal access to health services during the period that they possess legal access to services and informal access after the failure of their asylum claim. The purpose of this paper is to examine the basic social processes that characterize efforts to gain access to health services among HIV positive undocumented African migrants to the UK. The most recent estimates indicate that there are a total of 618,000 migrants who lack legal status within the UK. Other studies have placed the number of undocumented migrants within the UK in the range of 525,000-950,000. More than 442,000 are thought to dwell in the London metropolitan area. Even in

  9. TCGA Bladder Cancer Study Reveals Potential Drug Targets - TCGA

    Cancer.gov

    Investigators with the TCGA Research Network have identified new potential therapeutic targets for a major form of bladder cancer, including important genes and pathways that are disrupted in the disease.

  10. TCGA bladder cancer study reveals potential drug targets

    Cancer.gov

    Investigators with TCGA have identified new potential therapeutic targets for a major form of bladder cancer, including important genes and pathways that are disrupted in the disease. They also discovered that, at the molecular level, some subtypes of bla

  11. Medicare immunosuppressant coverage and access to kidney transplantation: a retrospective national cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In December 2000, Medicare eliminated time limitations in immunosuppressant coverage after kidney transplant for beneficiaries age ≥65 and those who were disabled. This change did not apply to younger non-disabled beneficiaries who qualified for Medicare only because of their end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We sought to examine access to waitlisting for kidney transplantation in a cohort spanning this policy change. Methods This was a retrospective cohort analysis of 241,150 Medicare beneficiaries in the United States Renal Data System who initiated chronic dialysis between 1/1/96 and 11/30/03. We fit interrupted time series Cox proportional hazard models to compare access to kidney transplant waitlist within 12 months of initiating chronic dialysis by age/disability status, accounting for secular trends. Results Beneficiaries age <65 who were not disabled were less likely to be waitlisted after the policy change (hazard ratio (HR) for the later vs. earlier period, 0.93, p = 0.002), after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, co-morbid conditions, income, and ESRD network. There was no evidence of secular trend in this group (HR per year, 1.00, p = 0.989). Likelihood of being waitlisted among those age ≥65 or disabled increased steadily throughout the study period (HR per year, 1.04, p < 0.001), but was not clearly affected by the policy change (HR for the immediate effect of policy change, 0.93, p = 0.135). Conclusions The most recent extension in Medicare immunosuppressant coverage appears to have had little impact on the already increasing access to waitlisting among ≥65/ disabled beneficiaries eligible for the benefit but may have decreased access for younger, non-disabled beneficiaries who were not. The potential ramifications of policies on candidacy appeal for access to kidney transplantation should be considered. PMID:22894737

  12. Increasing access--a qualitative study of homelessness and palliative care in a major urban center.

    PubMed

    Krakowsky, Yonah; Gofine, Mirriam; Brown, Pnina; Danziger, Jana; Knowles, Holly

    2013-05-01

    Rates of morbidity and mortality are significantly higher in homeless populations. Homeless people experience many barriers to receive adequate palliative care. This qualitative study examines how a major urban city's palliative care resources can be improved to increase access and better serve the homeless. Audiotaped interviews were preformed with 7 homeless care providers in Toronto, Canada, and their transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. The findings of the study suggest that in order to increase access and to serve the city's terminally ill homeless better, the following 4 areas must be addressed: (1) increasing positive interaction between the health care system and the homeless, (2) training staff to deal with the unique issues confronting the homeless, (3) providing patient-centered care, and (4) diversifying the methods of delivery.

  13. Accessing Suicide-Related Information on the Internet: A Retrospective Observational Study of Search Behavior

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Internet’s potential impact on suicide is of major public health interest as easy online access to pro-suicide information or specific suicide methods may increase suicide risk among vulnerable Internet users. Little is known, however, about users’ actual searching and browsing behaviors of online suicide-related information. Objective To investigate what webpages people actually clicked on after searching with suicide-related queries on a search engine and to examine what queries people used to get access to pro-suicide websites. Methods A retrospective observational study was done. We used a web search dataset released by America Online (AOL). The dataset was randomly sampled from all AOL subscribers’ web queries between March and May 2006 and generated by 657,000 service subscribers. Results We found 5526 search queries (0.026%, 5526/21,000,000) that included the keyword "suicide". The 5526 search queries included 1586 different search terms and were generated by 1625 unique subscribers (0.25%, 1625/657,000). Of these queries, 61.38% (3392/5526) were followed by users clicking on a search result. Of these 3392 queries, 1344 (39.62%) webpages were clicked on by 930 unique users but only 1314 of those webpages were accessible during the study period. Each clicked-through webpage was classified into 11 categories. The categories of the most visited webpages were: entertainment (30.13%; 396/1314), scientific information (18.31%; 240/1314), and community resources (14.53%; 191/1314). Among the 1314 accessed webpages, we could identify only two pro-suicide websites. We found that the search terms used to access these sites included “commiting suicide with a gas oven”, “hairless goat”, “pictures of murder by strangulation”, and “photo of a severe burn”. A limitation of our study is that the database may be dated and confined to mainly English webpages. Conclusions Searching or browsing suicide-related or pro-suicide webpages was

  14. Expanding access to primary care without additional budgets? A case study from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Marschall, Paul; Flessa, Steffen

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study is to demonstrate the impact of increased access to primary care on provider costs in the rural health district of Nouna, Burkina Faso. This study question is crucial for health care planning in this district, as other research work shows that the population has a higher need for health care services. From a public health perspective, an increase of utilisation of first-line health facilities would be necessary. However, the governmental budget that is needed to finance improved access was not known. The study is based on data of 2004 of a comprehensive provider cost information system. This database provides us with the actual costs of each primary health care facility (Centre de Santé et de Promotion Sociale, CSPS) in the health district. We determine the fixed and variable costs of each institution and calculate the average cost per service unit rendered in 2004. Based on the cost structure of each CSPS, we calculate the total costs if the demand for health care services increased. We conclude that the total provider costs of primary care (and therefore the governmental budget) would hardly rise if the coverage of the population were increased. This is mainly due to the fact that the highest variable costs are drugs, which are fully paid for by the customers (Bamako Initiative). The majority of other costs are fixed. Consequently, health care reforms that improve access to health care institutions must not fear dramatically increasing the costs of health care services. PMID:18197447

  15. A descriptive study of access to services in a random sample of Canadian rural emergency departments

    PubMed Central

    Fleet, Richard; Poitras, Julien; Maltais-Giguère, Julie; Villa, Julie; Archambault, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine 24/7 access to services and consultants in a sample of Canadian rural emergency departments (EDs). Design Cross-sectional study—mixed methods (structured interview, survey and government data bases) with random sampling of hospitals. Setting Canadian rural EDs (rural small town (RST) definition—Statistics Canada). Participants 28% (95/336) of Canadian rural EDs providing 24/7 physician coverage located in hospitals with acute care hospitalisation beds. Main outcome measures General characteristics of the rural EDs, information about 24/7 access to consultants, equipment and services, and the proportion of rural hospitals more than 300 km from levels 1 and 2 trauma centres. Results Of the 336 rural EDs identified, 122 (36%) were randomly selected and contacted. Overall, 95 EDs participated in the study (participation rate, 78%). Hospitals had, on an average, 23 acute care beds, 7 ED stretchers and 13 500 annual ED visits. The proportion of rural hospitals with local access to the following 24/7 services was paediatrician, 5%; obstetrician, 10%; psychiatrist, 11%; internist, 12%; intensive care unit, 17%; CT scanner, 20%; surgeon, 26%; ultrasound, 28%; basic X-ray, 97% and laboratory services, 99%. Forty-four per cent and 54% of the RST EDs were more than 300 km from a level 1 and level 2 trauma centre, respectively. Conclusions This is the first study describing the services available in Canadian rural EDs. Apart from basic laboratory and X-ray services, most rural EDs have limited access to consultants, advanced imaging and critical care services. A detailed study is needed to evaluate the impact of these limited services on patient outcomes, costs and interfacility transport demands. PMID:24285633

  16. A study of Iranian immigrants’ experiences of accessing Canadian health care services: a grounded theory

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Immigration is not a new phenomenon but, rather, has deep roots in human history. Documents from every era detail individuals who left their homelands and struggled to reestablish their lives in other countries. The aim of this study was to explore and understand the experience of Iranian immigrants who accessed Canadian health care services. Research with immigrants is useful for learning about strategies that newcomers develop to access health care services. Methods The research question guiding this study was, “What are the processes by which Iranian immigrants learn to access health care services in Canada?” To answer the question, a constructivist grounded theory approach was applied. Initially, unstructured interviews were conducted with 17 participants (11 women and six men) who were adults (at least 18 years old) and had immigrated to Canada within the past 15 years. Eight participants took part in a second interview, and four participants took part in a third interview. Results Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, “tackling the stumbling blocks of access” emerged as the core category. The basic social process (BSP), becoming self-sufficient, was a transitional process and had five stages: becoming a stranger; feeling helpless; navigating/seeking information; employing strategies; and becoming integrated and self-sufficient. We found that “tackling the stumbling blocks of access” was the main struggle throughout this journey. Some of the immigrants were able to overcome these challenges and became proficient in accessing health care services, but others were unable to make the necessary changes and thus stayed in earlier stages/phases of transition, and sometimes returned to their country of origin. Conclusion During the course of this journey a substantive grounded theory was developed that revealed the challenges and issues confronted by this particular group of immigrants. This process explains why some Iranian

  17. Target studies for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.R.; Ludewig, H.; Todosow, M.; Reich, M.

    1996-03-01

    Two new concepts, NIFTI and DISCOS, are described. These concepts enable the efficient production of epithermal neutrons for BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) medical treatment, utilizing a low current, low energy proton beam impacting on a lithium target. The NIFTI concept uses an iron layer that strongly impedes the transmission of neutrons with energies above 24 KeV. Lower energy neutrons readily pass through this iron ``filter``, which has a deep ``window`` in its scattering cross section at 24 KeV. The DISCOS concept uses a rapidly rotating, high g disc to create a series of thin ({approximately} 1 micron thickness) liquid lithium targets in the form of continuous films through which the proton beam passes. The average energy lost by a proton as it passes through a single target is small, approximately 10 KeV. Between the targets, the proton beam is reaccelerated by an applied DC electric field. The DISCOS approach enables the accelerator -- target facility to operate with a beam energy only slightly above the threshold value for neutron production -- resulting in an output beam of low-energy epithermal neutrons -- while achieving a high yield of neutrons per milliamp of proton beam current.

  18. Target analysis studies of red cell water and urea transport.

    PubMed

    Dix, J A; Ausiello, D A; Jung, C Y; Verkman, A S

    1985-12-01

    Radiation inactivation was used to determine the nature and molecular weight of water and urea transporters in the human red cell. Red cells were frozen to -50 degrees C in a cryoprotectant solution, irradiated with 1.5 MeV electrons, thawed, washed and assayed for osmotic water and urea permeability by stopped-flow light scattering. The freezing and thawing process did not affect the rates of water or urea transport or the inhibitory potency of p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonate (pCMBS) on water transport and of phloretin on urea transport. Red cell urea transport inactivated with radiation (0-4 Mrad) with a single target size of 469 +/- 36 kDa. 40 microM phloretin inhibited urea flux by approx. 50% at each radiation dose, indicating that urea transporters surviving radiation were inhibitable. Water transport did not inactivate with radiation; however, the inhibitory potency of 2.5 mM pCMBS decreased from 86 +/- 1% to 4 +/- 9% over a 0-2 Mrad dose range. These studies suggest that red cell water transport either required one or more low-molecular-weight proteins, or is lipid-mediated, and that the pCMBS-binding site which regulates water flow inactivates with radiation. These results also suggest that red cell urea transport is mediated by a specific, high-molecular-weight protein. These results do not support the hypothesis that a band 3 dimer (190 kDa) mediates red cell osmotic water and urea transport. PMID:2998469

  19. Comparative analysis of linker histone H1, MeCP2, and HMGD1 on nucleosome stability and target site accessibility

    PubMed Central

    Riedmann, Caitlyn; Fondufe-Mittendorf, Yvonne N.

    2016-01-01

    Chromatin architectural proteins (CAPs) bind the entry/exit DNA of nucleosomes and linker DNA to form higher order chromatin structures with distinct transcriptional outcomes. How CAPs mediate nucleosome dynamics is not well understood. We hypothesize that CAPs regulate DNA target site accessibility through alteration of the rate of spontaneous dissociation of DNA from nucleosomes. We investigated the effects of histone H1, high mobility group D1 (HMGD1), and methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2), on the biophysical properties of nucleosomes and chromatin. We show that MeCP2, like the repressive histone H1, traps the nucleosome in a more compact mononucleosome structure. Furthermore, histone H1 and MeCP2 hinder model transcription factor Gal4 from binding to its cognate DNA site within the nucleosomal DNA. These results demonstrate that MeCP2 behaves like a repressor even in the absence of methylation. Additionally, MeCP2 behaves similarly to histone H1 and HMGD1 in creating a higher-order chromatin structure, which is susceptible to chromatin remodeling by ISWI. Overall, we show that CAP binding results in unique changes to nucleosome structure and dynamics. PMID:27624769

  20. Comparative analysis of linker histone H1, MeCP2, and HMGD1 on nucleosome stability and target site accessibility.

    PubMed

    Riedmann, Caitlyn; Fondufe-Mittendorf, Yvonne N

    2016-01-01

    Chromatin architectural proteins (CAPs) bind the entry/exit DNA of nucleosomes and linker DNA to form higher order chromatin structures with distinct transcriptional outcomes. How CAPs mediate nucleosome dynamics is not well understood. We hypothesize that CAPs regulate DNA target site accessibility through alteration of the rate of spontaneous dissociation of DNA from nucleosomes. We investigated the effects of histone H1, high mobility group D1 (HMGD1), and methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2), on the biophysical properties of nucleosomes and chromatin. We show that MeCP2, like the repressive histone H1, traps the nucleosome in a more compact mononucleosome structure. Furthermore, histone H1 and MeCP2 hinder model transcription factor Gal4 from binding to its cognate DNA site within the nucleosomal DNA. These results demonstrate that MeCP2 behaves like a repressor even in the absence of methylation. Additionally, MeCP2 behaves similarly to histone H1 and HMGD1 in creating a higher-order chromatin structure, which is susceptible to chromatin remodeling by ISWI. Overall, we show that CAP binding results in unique changes to nucleosome structure and dynamics. PMID:27624769

  1. A Study of the Access to the Scholarly Record from a Hospital Health Science Core Collection *

    PubMed Central

    Williams, James F.; Pings, Vern M.

    1973-01-01

    This study is an effort to determine possible service performance levels in hospital libraries based on access to the scholarly record of medicine through selected lists of clinical journals and indexing and abstracting journals. The study was designed to test a methodology as well as to provide data for planning and management decisions for health science libraries. Findings and conclusions cover the value of a core collection of journals, length of journal files, performance of certain bibliographic instruments in citation verification, and the implications of study data for library planning and management. PMID:4744345

  2. Access to Care and Cardiovascular Disease Prevention: A Cross-Sectional Study in 2 Latino Communities.

    PubMed

    Alcalá, Héctor E; Albert, Stephanie L; Roby, Dylan H; Beckerman, Jacob; Champagne, Philippe; Brookmeyer, Ron; Prelip, Michael L; Glik, Deborah C; Inkelas, Moira; Garcia, Rosa-Elenna; Ortega, Alexander N

    2015-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading killer of Americans. CVD is understudied among Latinos, who have high levels of CVD risk factors. This study aimed to determine whether access to health care (ie, insurance status and having a usual source of care) is associated with 4 CVD prevention factors (ie, health care utilization, CVD screening, information received from health care providers, and lifestyle factors) among Latino adults and to evaluate whether the associations depended on CVD clinical risk/disease.Data were collected as part of a community-engaged food environment intervention study in East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights, CA. Logistic regressions were fitted with insurance status and usual source of care as predictors of the 4 CVD prevention factors while controlling for demographics. Analyses were repeated with interactions between self-reported CVD clinical risk/disease and access to care measures.Access to health care significantly increased the odds of CVD prevention. Having a usual source of care was associated with all factors of prevention, whereas being insured was only associated with some factors of prevention. CVD clinical risk/disease did not moderate any associations.Although efforts to reduce CVD risk among Latinos through the Affordable Care Act could be impactful, they might have limited impact in curbing CVD among Latinos, via the law's expansion of insurance coverage. CVD prevention efforts must expand beyond the provision of insurance to effectively lower CVD rates.

  3. Physical and Visual Accessibilities in Intensive Care Units: A Comparative Study of Open-Plan and Racetrack Units.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Mahbub; Khan, Nayma; Jones, Belinda

    2016-01-01

    This study compared physical and visual accessibilities and their associations with staff perception and interaction behaviors in 2 intensive care units (ICUs) with open-plan and racetrack layouts. For the study, physical and visual accessibilities were measured using the spatial analysis techniques of Space Syntax. Data on staff perception were collected from 81 clinicians using a questionnaire survey. The locations of 2233 interactions, and the location and length of another 339 interactions in these units were collected using systematic field observation techniques. According to the study, physical and visual accessibilities were different in the 2 ICUs, and clinicians' primary workspaces were physically and visually more accessible in the open-plan ICU. Physical and visual accessibilities affected how well clinicians' knew their peers and where their peers were located in these units. Physical and visual accessibilities also affected clinicians' perception of interaction and communication and of teamwork and collaboration in these units. Additionally, physical and visual accessibilities showed significant positive associations with interaction behaviors in these units, with the open-plan ICU showing stronger associations. However, physical accessibilities were less important than visual accessibilities in relation to interaction behaviors in these ICUs. The implications of these findings for ICU design are discussed. PMID:27575795

  4. Assessment of the vaccine industry in Iran in context of accession to WTO: a survey study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The vaccine industry is one of the most important health-related industries. It can be affected by accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) because of probable dramatic changes in the business environment. Iran has already initiated accession negotiations. Purpose of the study In this paper, we investigate the position of, challenges to, and opportunities for vaccine manufacturing in Iran with regard to accession to the WTO. Methods This is a qualitative and cross sectional study. To collect information, we designed a questionnaire and interviewed some of the vaccine industry’s key opinion leaders in Iran. Before the interviews were conducted, the questionnaires were sent to these individuals by email. Results According to the interviewees, the country’s main challenges with regard to accession to the WTO are the lack of firm internal intellectual property (IP) rules, not being recognized as pre-qualified by the World Health Organization (WHO), the use of old equipment, and a lack of cooperation with global vaccine companies. Major conclusions Iran’s local vaccine industry, with a long history and international reputation that could be used as an advantage, is faced with several challenges, such as problems with keeping up with Current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP), a lack of adequate and meaningful investment in research and development (R&D), and limitations on private sector participation in the production of vaccines. Gradual privatization of the industry, improved international relations, utilization of the R&D power of small hi-tech companies, consistent education of human resources, and modernization of infrastructures and equipment are among the suggested solutions. PMID:23351841

  5. Radar target classification studies: Software development and documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamis, A.; Garber, F.; Walton, E.

    1985-09-01

    Three computer programs were developed to process and analyze calibrated radar returns. The first program, called DATABASE, was developed to create and manage a random accessed data base. The second program, called FTRAN DB, was developed to process horizontal and vertical polarizations radar returns into different formats (i.e., time domain, circular polarizations and polarization parameters). The third program, called RSSE, was developed to simulate a variety of radar systems and to evaluate their ability to identify radar returns. Complete computer listings are included in the appendix volumes.

  6. A Unique, Optically Accessible Flame Tube Facility for Lean Combustor Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, Yolanda R.; Locke, Randy J.; Wey, Chowen C.; Bianco, Jean

    1995-01-01

    A facility that allows interrogation of combusting flows by advanced diagnostic methods and instrumentation has been developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. An optically accessible flame tube combustor is described which has high temperature, pressure, and air flow capabilities. The windows in the combustor measure 3.8 cm axially by 5.1 cm radially, providing 67% optical access to the 7.6 cm x 7.6 cm cross section flow chamber. Advanced gas analysis instrumentation is available through a gas chromatography/mass spectrometer system (GC/MS), which has on-line capability for heavy hydrocarbon measurement with resolution to the parts per billion level. The instrumentation allows one to study combusting flows and combustor subcomponents, such as fuel injectors and air swirlers. Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) can measure unstable combustion species, which cannot be obtained with traditional gas sampling. This type of data is especially useful to combustion modellers. The optical access allows measurements to have high spatial and temporal resolution. GC/MS data and PLIF images of OH- are presented from experiments using a lean direct injection (LDI) combustor burning Jet-A fuel at inlet temperatures ranging from 810 K to 866 K, combustor pressures up to 1380 kPa, and equivalence ratios from 0.41 to 0.59.

  7. Challenges with participant reimbursement: experiences from a post-trial access study.

    PubMed

    Mngadi, Kathryn Therese; Frohlich, Janet; Montague, Carl; Singh, Jerome; Nkomonde, Nelisiwe; Mvandaba, Nomzamo; Ntombeka, Fanelesibonge; Luthuli, Londiwe; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Mansoor, Leila

    2015-11-01

    Reimbursement of trial participants remains a frequently debated issue, with specific guidance lacking. Trials combining post-trial access and implementation science may necessitate new strategies and models. CAPRISA 008, a post-trial access study testing the feasibility of using family planning services to rollout a prelicensure HIV prevention intervention, tried to balance the real-life scenario of no reimbursement for attendance at public sector clinics with that of a trial including some visits that focused on research procedures and others that focused on standard of care procedures. A reduced reimbursement was offered for 'standard of care' visits, meant primarily to cover transport costs to and from the clinic only. This impacted negatively on accrual, retention and participant morale, primarily due to the protracted delay in regulatory approval, during which time, the costs of living, including travel costs had increased. Relevant guidelines were reviewed and institutional policy was updated to incorporate the South African National Health Research Ethics Committee guidelines on reimbursement (taking into account participant time, travel and inconvenience). The reimbursement amount for 'standard of care' visits was increased accordingly. The question remains whether a trial that combines post-trial access with implementation science, with clear benefits for the participants and the provision of above standard medical care, should have reimbursement rates that approach those of a proof-of-concept trial, for 'standard of care' visits. PMID:26392172

  8. Deficient arithmetic fact retrieval--storage or access problem? A case study.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Liane; Lochy, Aliette; Drexler, Arthur; Semenza, Carlo

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims at clarifying the nature of fact retrieval difficulties in an 18-year-old young man (MO) who exhibited a puzzling pattern of developmental dyscalculia. Contrasting performance on explicit (production and verification tasks) and implicit (priming) tasks we observed poor overt retrieval of addition and multiplication facts, classical interference effects in verification tasks and inconsistency of error patterns. Hence, MO's performance pattern is suggestive of the existence of a partly stored network of facts (reflecting imperfect storage), but is also compatible with an access deficit according to Warrington and Cipolotti's [Brain 119 (1996) 611] criteria for distinguishing access and storage deficits in dysphasic patients. Furthermore, while MO displayed interference effects in verification tasks, he did not show automatic access to arithmetic facts in implicit tasks. Finally, similar to the findings of Roussel, Fayol, and Barrouillet [European Journal of Cognitive Psychology 14(1) (2002) 61] on normal subjects, MO's performance pattern is suggestive of the existence of differential processing mechanisms for addition and multiplication facts. We propose a unifying mechanism, namely a deficit of the central executive of working memory (WM), that accounts both for the constitution of a fuzzy network of fact representations, and for an access deficit modulated by attentional demands as required in explicit/implicit task paradigms. Overall, our results clearly provide evidence that even in (a developmental) case of a non-perfect network of memory representations (e.g. [Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 117 (1988) 258]), interference effects might be observed. Future studies thus need to be cautious before concluding that interference effects prove the existence of a well-established associative memory network of arithmetic facts. PMID:14728921

  9. [Study on spectral detection of green plant target].

    PubMed

    Deng, Wei; Zhao, Chun-jiang; He, Xiong-kui; Chen, Li-ping; Zhang, Lu-da; Wu, Guang-wei; Mueller, J; Zhai, Chang-yuan

    2010-08-01

    Weeds grow scatteredly in fields, where many insentient objects exist, for example, withered grasses, dry twig and barriers. In order to improve the precision level of spraying, it is important to study green plant detecting technology. The present paper discussed detecting method of green plant by using spectral recognizing technology, because of the real-time feature of spectral recognition. By analyzing the reflectivity difference between each of the two sides of the "red edge" of the spectrum from plants and surrounding environment, green plant discriminat index (GPDI) is defined as the value which equals the reflectivity ratio at the wavelength of 850 nm divided by the reflectivity ratio at the wavelength of 650 nm. The original spectral data of green plants and the background were measured by using the handhold FieldSpec 3 Spectroradiometer manufactured by ASD Inc. in USA. The spectral data were processed to get the reflectivity of each measured objects and to work out the GPDI thereof as well. The classification model of green plant and its background was built up using decision tree method in order to obtain the threshold of GPDI to distinguish green plants and the background. The threshold of GPDI was chosen as 5.54. The detected object was recognized as green plant when it is GPDI>GPDITH, and vice versa. Through another test, the accuracy rate was verified which was 100% by using the threshold. The authors designed and developed the green plant detector based on single chip microcomputer (SCM) "AT89S51" and photodiode "OPT101" to realize detecting green plants from the background. After passing through two optical filters, the center wavelengths of which are 650 and 850 nm respectively, the reflected light from measured targets was detected by two photodiodes and converted into electrical signals. These analog signals were then converted to digital signals via an analog-to-digital converter (ADS7813) after being amplified by a signal amplifier (OP400

  10. A Cross-Sectional Study about Meaning Access Processes for Homographs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nievas, Francisco; Justicia, Fernando

    2004-01-01

    A cross-sectional study examined the effect of meaning frequency, referred to as ''dominance'' in the semantic priming paradigm, where ambiguous words (primes) were processed in isolation. Participants made lexical decisions to target words that were associates of the more frequent (dominant) or less frequent (subordinate) meaning of a homograph…

  11. Enhancing Independent Internet Access for Individuals with Mental Retardation through Use of a Specialized Web Browser: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Daniel K.; Stock, Steven E.; Wehmeyer, Michael L.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, a prototype web browser, called Web Trek, that utilizes multimedia to provide access for individuals with cognitive disabilities was developed and pilot-tested with 12 adults with mental retardation. The Web Trek browser provided greater independence in accessing the Internet compared to Internet Explorer. (Contains references.)…

  12. Access to Academic Curriculum in Australian Secondary Schools: A Case Study of a Highly Marketised Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Laura B.; Southwell, Leonie

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how access to academic curriculum differs between secondary schools in Australia, a country whose education system is marked by high levels of choice, privatisation and competition. Equitable access to academic curriculum is important for both individual students and their families as well as the larger society. Previous…

  13. Photoemission optogalvanic studies with copper as target electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajithprasad, K. C.; Nampoori, V. P. N.; Vallabhan, C. P. G.

    1996-12-01

    Photoemission optogalvanaic (POG) effect has been observed by irradiating copper target electrode, in a nitrogen discharge cell using 1.06 μm and frequency doubled 532 nm Nd:YAG laser pulse. Measurement of the nature of the variation of POG signal strength with 532 nm laser fluence confirms the two photon induced photoelectric emission from copper. However, using 1.06 μm laser pulses thermally assisted photoemission is observed.

  14. Cryogneic-Target Performance and Implosion Physics Studies on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Smalyuk, V.A.; Betti, R.; Boehly, T.R.; Craxton, R.S.; Delettrez, J.A.; Edgell, D.H.; Glebov, V.Yu.; Goncharov, V.N.; Harding, D.R.; Hu, S.X.; Knauer, J.P.; Marshall, F.J.; McCrory, R.L.; McKenty, P.W.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Radha, R.B.; Regan, S.P.; Sangster, T.C.; Seka, W.; Short, R.W.; Shvarts, D.; Skupsky, S.; Soures, J.M.; Stoeckl, C.; Yaakobi, B.; Frenje, J.A.; Li, C.K.; Petrasso, R.D.; Seguin, F.H.

    2009-03-06

    Recent progress in direct-drive cryogenic implosions on the OMEGA Laser Facility [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] is reviewed. Ignition-relevant areal densities of ~200 mg/cm^2 in cryogenic D2 implosions with peak laser-drive intensities of ~5 x 10^14 W/cm^2 were previously reported [T. C. Sangster et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 185006 (2008)]. The laser intensity is increased to ~10^15 W/cm^2 to demonstrate ignition-relevant implosion velocities of 3–4 x 10^7 cm/ s, providing an understanding of the relevant target physics. Planar-target acceleration experiments show the importance of the nonlocal electron-thermal-transport effects for modeling the laser drive. Nonlocal and hot-electron preheat is observed to stabilize the Rayleigh–Taylor growth at a peak drive intensity of ~10^15 W/cm^2. The shell preheat caused by hot electrons generated by two-plasmon-decay instability was reduced by using Si-doped ablators. The measured compressibility of planar plastic targets driven with high-compression shaped pulses agrees well with one-dimensional simulations at these intensities. Shock mistiming has contributed to compression degradation of recent cryogenic implosions driven with continuous pulses. Multiple-picket (shock-wave) target designs make it possible for a more robust tuning of the shock-wave arrival times. Cryogenic implosions driven with double-picket pulses demonstrate somewhat improved compression performance at a peak drive intensity of ~10^15 W/cm^2.

  15. A study on the utilization of tritide titanium targets for monoenergetic neutron production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamanis, D.

    2002-10-01

    Proton beam interaction with a tritide titanium target in an electrostatic accelerator was studied by measuring the produced neutron rate as a function of bombarding time. The results are analyzed in the frame of target temperature increase, extension of existing low energy interaction model and SRIM simulation. Special emphasis is put on the evaluation of the release of radiotoxic tritium from the solid target.

  16. Demand and access to mental health services: a qualitative formative study in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nepal is experiencing a significant ‘treatment gap’ in mental health care. People with mental disorders do not always receive appropriate treatment due to a range of structural and individual issues, including stigma and poverty. The PRIME (Programme for Improving Mental Health Care) programme has developed a mental health care plan to address this issue in Nepal and four other low and middle income countries. This study aims to inform the development of this comprehensive care plan by investigating the perceptions of stakeholders at different levels of the care system in the district of Chitwan in southern Nepal: health professionals, lay workers and community members. It focuses specifically on issues of demand and access to care, and aims to identify barriers and potential solutions for reaching people with priority mental disorders. Methods This qualitative study consisted of key informant interviews (33) and focus group discussions (83 participants in 9 groups) at community and health facility levels. Data were analysed using a framework analysis approach. Results As well as pragmatic barriers at the health facility level, mental health stigma and certain cultural norms were found to reduce access and demand for services. Respondents perceived the lack of awareness about mental health problems to be a major problem underlying this, even among those with high levels of education or status. They proposed strategies to improve awareness, such as channelling education through trusted and respected community figures, and responding to the need for openness or privacy in educational programmes, depending on the issue at hand. Adapting to local perceptions of stigmatised treatments emerged as another key strategy to improve demand. Conclusions This study identifies barriers to accessing care in Nepal that reach beyond the health facility and into the social fabric of the community. Stakeholders in PRIME’s integrated care plan advocate strategic

  17. Advancing Migrant Access to Health Services in Europe (AMASE): Protocol for a Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-del Arco, Débora; Monge, Susana; Copas, Andrew J; Gennotte, Anne-Francoise; Volny-Anne, Alain; Göpel, Siri; Touloumi, Giota; Prins, Maria; Barros, Henrique; Staehelin, Cornelia; del Amo, Julia; Burns, Fiona M

    2016-01-01

    Background Migrants form a substantial proportion of the population affected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in Europe, yet HIV prevention for this population is hindered by poor understanding of access to care and of postmigration transmission dynamics. Objective We present the design and methods of the advancing Migrant Access to health Services in Europe (aMASE) study, the first European cross-cultural study focused on multiple migrant populations. It aims to identify the structural, cultural, and financial barriers to HIV prevention, diagnosis, and treatment and to determine the likely country of HIV acquisition in HIV-positive migrant populations. Methods We delivered 2 cross-sectional electronic surveys across 10 countries (Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, and United Kingdom). A clinic survey aimed to recruit up to 2000 HIV-positive patients from 57 HIV clinics in 9 countries. A unique study number linked anonymized questionnaire data to clinical records data (viral loads, CD4 cell counts, viral clades, etc). This questionnaire was developed by expert panel consensus and cognitively tested, and a pilot study was carried out in 2 countries. A Web-based community survey (n=1000) reached those living with HIV but not currently accessing HIV clinics, as well as HIV-negative migrants. It was developed in close collaboration with a community advisory group (CAG) made up of representatives from community organizations in 9 of the participating countries. The CAG played a key role in data collection by promoting the survey to higher-risk migrant groups (sub-Saharan Africans, Latin Americans, men who have sex with men, and people who inject drugs). The questionnaires have considerable content overlap, allowing for comparison. Questions cover ethnicity, migration, immigration status, HIV testing and treatment, health-seeking behavior, sexual risk, and drug use. The electronic questionnaires

  18. Access to women's health care: a qualitative study of barriers perceived by homeless women.

    PubMed

    Gelberg, Lillian; Browner, C H; Lejano, Elena; Arangua, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    Homelessness is an escalating national problem and women are disproportionately affected. Nevertheless, few studies have focused on the special circumstances associated with being a homeless woman. For instance, while both genders experience serious barriers to obtaining health care, homeless women face an additional burden by virtue of their sexual and reproductive health needs. The current study was conducted as the first stage of a qualitative/quantitative investigation of homeless women's access and barriers to family planning and women's health care. We interviewed 47 homeless women of diverse ages and ethnic backgrounds. A qualitative approach was initially taken to explore the factors homeless women themselves perceive as barriers to their use of birth control and women's health services, and factors they believe would facilitate their use. Key findings are that health is not a priority for homeless women, that transportation and scheduling can be particularly burdensome for homeless women, and that being homeless leads some to feel stigmatized by health care providers. Despite being homeless, having children was extremely important to the women in our study. At the same time, those interested in contraception confronted significant barriers in their efforts to prevent pregnancies. We conclude with suggested interventions that would make general, gynecological, and reproductive health care more accessible to homeless women.

  19. Estimating solar access of typical residential rooftops: A case study in San Jose, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Levinson, Ronnen M.; Gupta, Smita; Akbari, Hashem; Pomerantz, Melvin

    2008-03-03

    Shadows cast by trees and buildings can limit the solar access of rooftop solar-energy systems, including photovoltaic panels and thermal collectors. This study characterizes rooftop shading in a residential neighborhood of San Jose, CA, one of four regions analyzed in a wider study of the solar access of California homes.High-resolution orthophotos and LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) measurements of surface height were used to create a digital elevation model of all trees and buildings in a 4 km2 residential neighborhood. Hourly shading of roofing planes (the flat elements of roofs) was computed geometrically from the digital elevation model. Parcel boundaries were used to determine the extent to which roofing planes were shaded by trees and buildings in neighboring parcels.In the year in which surface heights were measured (2005), shadows from all sources ("total shading") reduced the insolation received by S-, SW-, and W-facing residential roofing planes in the study area by 13 - 16percent. Shadows cast by trees and buildings in neighboring parcels reduced insolation by no more than 2percent. After 30 years of simulated maximal tree growth, annual total shading increased to 19 - 22percent, and annual extraparcel shading increased to 3 - 4percent.

  20. Access to green space, physical activity and mental health: a twin study

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Cline, Hannah; Turkheimer, Eric; Duncan, Glen E

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing global urbanisation has resulted in a greater proportion of the world’s population becoming exposed to risk factors unique to urban areas, and understanding these effects on public health is essential. The aim of this study was to examine the association between access to green space and mental health among adult twin pairs. Methods We used a multilevel random intercept model of same-sex twin pairs (4338 individuals) from the community-based University of Washington Twin Registry to analyse the association between access to green space, as measured by the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index and self-reported depression, stress, and anxiety. The main parameter of interest was the within-pair effect for identical (monozygotic, MZ) twins because it was not subject to confounding by genetic or shared childhood environment factors. Models were adjusted for income, physical activity, neighbourhood deprivation and population density. Results When treating twins as individuals and not as members of a twin pair, green space was significantly inversely associated with each mental health outcome. The association with depression remained significant in the within-pair MZ univariate and adjusted models; however, there was no within-pair MZ effect for stress or anxiety among the models adjusted for income and physical activity. Conclusions These results suggest that greater access to green space is associated with less depression, but provide less evidence for effects on stress or anxiety. Understanding the mechanisms linking neighbourhood characteristics to mental health has important public health implications. Future studies should combine twin designs and longitudinal data to strengthen causal inference. PMID:25631858

  1. Montreal Archive of Sleep Studies: an open-access resource for instrument benchmarking and exploratory research.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Christian; Gosselin, Nadia; Carrier, Julie; Nielsen, Tore

    2014-12-01

    Manual processing of sleep recordings is extremely time-consuming. Efforts to automate this process have shown promising results, but automatic systems are generally evaluated on private databases, not allowing accurate cross-validation with other systems. In lacking a common benchmark, the relative performances of different systems are not compared easily and advances are compromised. To address this fundamental methodological impediment to sleep study, we propose an open-access database of polysomnographic biosignals. To build this database, whole-night recordings from 200 participants [97 males (aged 42.9 ± 19.8 years) and 103 females (aged 38.3 ± 18.9 years); age range: 18-76 years] were pooled from eight different research protocols performed in three different hospital-based sleep laboratories. All recordings feature a sampling frequency of 256 Hz and an electroencephalography (EEG) montage of 4-20 channels plus standard electro-oculography (EOG), electromyography (EMG), electrocardiography (ECG) and respiratory signals. Access to the database can be obtained through the Montreal Archive of Sleep Studies (MASS) website (http://www.ceams-carsm.ca/en/MASS), and requires only affiliation with a research institution and prior approval by the applicant's local ethical review board. Providing the research community with access to this free and open sleep database is expected to facilitate the development and cross-validation of sleep analysis automation systems. It is also expected that such a shared resource will be a catalyst for cross-centre collaborations on difficult topics such as improving inter-rater agreement on sleep stage scoring.

  2. Access to Interdental Brushing in Periodontal Healthy Young Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Santamaria, Julie; Bravo, Manuel; Bourgeois, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Interdental diameter space is largely undefined in adults, which compromises the decision support for daily interdental cleaning during routine practice in individual oral prophylaxis. This study assesses the distribution of diameter access of interdental spaces in an 18- to 25-year-old adult population free of periodontal disease. Methods In March-April 2015, a cross-sectional study using random sampling was performed at the University Lyon 1, France. The interproximal dental spaces of 99 individuals were examined using a colorimetric calibrated probe associated with the corresponding calibrated interdental brush (IDB). Results Of the 2,408 out of 2,608 sites, the overall accessibility prevalence of any interdental brushing was 92.3%. In total, 80.6% of the sites required interdental brushes with smaller diameters (0.6–0.7 mm). In anterior sites, the diameter of the interdental brushes used was smaller (55.8% of IDB with 0.6 mm) than the diameter of the interdental brushes used in posterior sites (26.1% of IDB with 0.6 mm) (p < 0.01). The adjusted ORs indicate a significant association with the location of the sites (approximately doubling the risk of bleeding, i.e., OR = 1.9, in posterior sites). Conclusions Most interdental sites can be cleaned using interdental brushes. Even in healthy people, interdental hygiene requirements are very high. Strengthening the oral hygiene capacity by specifically using interdental brushes can have an effect on the health of the entire population. Screening of the accessibility of the interdental space should be a component of a routine examination for all patients. PMID:27192409

  3. Personality trait inferences of Turkish immigrant and neutral targets: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Sandal, Gro M; Bye, Hege H; Pallesen, Ståle

    2012-12-01

    The study investigated whether personality traits attributed to immigrant targets differ from personality inferences made for a neutral target, and whether trait attributions differ for assimilated and integrated immigrant targets. Participants (n = 340) were randomized to one of three conditions in which they read the same story about a person, but where the person was described as either: (a) an assimilated Turkish immigrant; (b) an integrated Turkish immigrant; or (c) neutral (no nationality or religious practice indicated). Subsequently, they rated the personality of the described person on the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (observer rating version) and completed the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (Impression Management scale) with reference to themselves. Both immigrant targets were rated as significantly higher on extraversion and lower on neuroticism than the neutral target. The integrated target was rated as more open than the neutral target, and as higher than the assimilated target on neuroticism when controlling for impression management. PMID:23170867

  4. Open Access Theses in Institutional Repositories: An Exploratory Study of the Perceptions of Doctoral Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Kate Valentine; Liew, Chern Li

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: We examine doctoral students' awareness of and attitudes to open access forms of publication. Levels of awareness of open access and the concept of institutional repositories, publishing behaviour and perceptions of benefits and risks of open access publishing were explored. Method: Qualitative and quantitative data were collected…

  5. Protocol for ACCESS: a qualitative study exploring barriers and facilitators to accessing the emergency contraceptive pill from community pharmacies in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Hussainy, Safeera Yasmeen; Ghosh, Ayesha; Taft, Angela; Mazza, Danielle; Black, Kirsten Isla; Clifford, Rhonda; Mc Namara, Kevin Peter; Ryan, Kath; Jackson, John Keith

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The rate of unplanned pregnancy in Australia remains high, which has contributed to Australia having one of the highest abortion rates of developed countries with an estimated 1 in 5 women having an abortion. The emergency contraceptive pill (ECP) offers a safe way of preventing unintended pregnancy after unprotected sex has occurred. While the ECP has been available over-the-counter in Australian pharmacies for over a decade, its use has not significantly increased. This paper presents a protocol for a qualitative study that aims to identify the barriers and facilitators to accessing the ECP from community pharmacies in Australia. Methods and analysis Data will be collected through one-on-one interviews that are semistructured and in-depth. Partnerships have been established with 2 pharmacy groups and 2 women's health organisations to aid with the recruitment of women and pharmacists for data collection purposes. Interview questions explore domains from the Theoretical Domains Framework in order to assess the factors aiding and/or hindering access to ECP from community pharmacies. Data collected will be analysed using deductive content analysis. The expected benefits of this study are that it will help develop evidence-based workforce interventions to strengthen the capacity and performance of community pharmacists as key ECP providers. Ethics and dissemination The findings will be disseminated to the research team and study partners, who will brainstorm ideas for interventions that would address barriers and facilitators to access identified from the interviews. Dissemination will also occur through presentations and peer-reviewed publications and the study participants will receive an executive summary of the findings. The study has been evaluated and approved by the Monash Human Research Ethics Committee. PMID:26656987

  6. Disparities in access to preventive health care services among insured children in a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    King, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Children with insurance have better access to care and health outcomes if their parents also have insurance. However, little is known about whether the type of parental insurance matters. This study attempts to determine whether the type of parental insurance affects the access to health care services of children.I used data from the 2009-2013 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and estimated multivariate logistic regressions (N = 26,152). I estimated how family insurance coverage affects the probability that children have a usual source of care, well-child visits in the past year, unmet medical and prescription needs, less than 1 dental visit per year, and unmet dental needs.Children in families with mixed insurance (child publicly insured and parent privately insured) were less likely to have a well-child visit than children in privately insured families (odds ratio = 0.86, 95% confidence interval 0.76-0.98). When restricting the sample to publicly insured children, children with privately insured parents were less likely to have a well-child visit (odds ratio = 0.82, 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.92), less likely to have a usual source of care (odds ratio = 0.79, 95% confidence interval 0.67-0.94), and more likely to have unmet dental needs (odds ratio = 1.68, 95% confidence interval 1.10-2.58).Children in families with mixed insurance tend to fare poorly compared to children in publicly insured families. This may indicate that children in these families may be underinsured. Expanding parental eligibility for public insurance or subsidizing private insurance for children would potentially improve their access to preventive care. PMID:27428239

  7. Disparities in access to preventive health care services among insured children in a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    King, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Children with insurance have better access to care and health outcomes if their parents also have insurance. However, little is known about whether the type of parental insurance matters. This study attempts to determine whether the type of parental insurance affects the access to health care services of children. I used data from the 2009–2013 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and estimated multivariate logistic regressions (N = 26,152). I estimated how family insurance coverage affects the probability that children have a usual source of care, well-child visits in the past year, unmet medical and prescription needs, less than 1 dental visit per year, and unmet dental needs. Children in families with mixed insurance (child publicly insured and parent privately insured) were less likely to have a well-child visit than children in privately insured families (odds ratio = 0.86, 95% confidence interval 0.76–0.98). When restricting the sample to publicly insured children, children with privately insured parents were less likely to have a well-child visit (odds ratio = 0.82, 95% confidence interval 0.73–0.92), less likely to have a usual source of care (odds ratio = 0.79, 95% confidence interval 0.67–0.94), and more likely to have unmet dental needs (odds ratio = 1.68, 95% confidence interval 1.10–2.58). Children in families with mixed insurance tend to fare poorly compared to children in publicly insured families. This may indicate that children in these families may be underinsured. Expanding parental eligibility for public insurance or subsidizing private insurance for children would potentially improve their access to preventive care. PMID:27428239

  8. Disparities in access to preventive health care services among insured children in a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    King, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Children with insurance have better access to care and health outcomes if their parents also have insurance. However, little is known about whether the type of parental insurance matters. This study attempts to determine whether the type of parental insurance affects the access to health care services of children.I used data from the 2009-2013 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and estimated multivariate logistic regressions (N = 26,152). I estimated how family insurance coverage affects the probability that children have a usual source of care, well-child visits in the past year, unmet medical and prescription needs, less than 1 dental visit per year, and unmet dental needs.Children in families with mixed insurance (child publicly insured and parent privately insured) were less likely to have a well-child visit than children in privately insured families (odds ratio = 0.86, 95% confidence interval 0.76-0.98). When restricting the sample to publicly insured children, children with privately insured parents were less likely to have a well-child visit (odds ratio = 0.82, 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.92), less likely to have a usual source of care (odds ratio = 0.79, 95% confidence interval 0.67-0.94), and more likely to have unmet dental needs (odds ratio = 1.68, 95% confidence interval 1.10-2.58).Children in families with mixed insurance tend to fare poorly compared to children in publicly insured families. This may indicate that children in these families may be underinsured. Expanding parental eligibility for public insurance or subsidizing private insurance for children would potentially improve their access to preventive care.

  9. Novel Epigenetic Target Therapy for Prostate Cancer: A Preclinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Gherardini, Lisa; Pelosi, Gualtiero; Viglione, Federica; Grimaldi, Settimio; Pani, Luca; Cinti, Caterina

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic events are critical contributors to the pathogenesis of cancer, and targeting epigenetic mechanisms represents a novel strategy in anticancer therapy. Classic demethylating agents, such as 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine (Decitabine), hold the potential for reprograming somatic cancer cells demonstrating high therapeutic efficacy in haematological malignancies. On the other hand, epigenetic treatment of solid tumours often gives rise to undesired cytotoxic side effects. Appropriate delivery systems able to enrich Decitabine at the site of action and improve its bioavailability would reduce the incidence of toxicity on healthy tissues. In this work we provide preclinical evidences of a safe, versatile and efficient targeted epigenetic therapy to treat hormone sensitive (LNCap) and hormone refractory (DU145) prostate cancers. A novel Decitabine formulation, based on the use of engineered erythrocyte (Erythro-Magneto-Hemagglutinin Virosomes, EMHVs) drug delivery system (DDS) carrying this drug, has been refined. Inside the EMHVs, the drug was shielded from the environment and phosphorylated in its active form. The novel magnetic EMHV DDS, endowed with fusogenic protein, improved the stability of the carried drug and exhibited a high efficiency in confining its delivery at the site of action in vivo by applying an external static magnetic field. Here we show that Decitabine loaded into EMHVs induces a significant tumour mass reduction in prostate cancer xenograft models at a concentration, which is seven hundred times lower than the therapeutic dose, suggesting an improved pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of drug. These results are relevant for and discussed in light of developing personalised autologous therapies and innovative clinical approach for the treatment of solid tumours. PMID:24851905

  10. Novel epigenetic target therapy for prostate cancer: a preclinical study.

    PubMed

    Naldi, Ilaria; Taranta, Monia; Gherardini, Lisa; Pelosi, Gualtiero; Viglione, Federica; Grimaldi, Settimio; Pani, Luca; Cinti, Caterina

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic events are critical contributors to the pathogenesis of cancer, and targeting epigenetic mechanisms represents a novel strategy in anticancer therapy. Classic demethylating agents, such as 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (Decitabine), hold the potential for reprograming somatic cancer cells demonstrating high therapeutic efficacy in haematological malignancies. On the other hand, epigenetic treatment of solid tumours often gives rise to undesired cytotoxic side effects. Appropriate delivery systems able to enrich Decitabine at the site of action and improve its bioavailability would reduce the incidence of toxicity on healthy tissues. In this work we provide preclinical evidences of a safe, versatile and efficient targeted epigenetic therapy to treat hormone sensitive (LNCap) and hormone refractory (DU145) prostate cancers. A novel Decitabine formulation, based on the use of engineered erythrocyte (Erythro-Magneto-Hemagglutinin Virosomes, EMHVs) drug delivery system (DDS) carrying this drug, has been refined. Inside the EMHVs, the drug was shielded from the environment and phosphorylated in its active form. The novel magnetic EMHV DDS, endowed with fusogenic protein, improved the stability of the carried drug and exhibited a high efficiency in confining its delivery at the site of action in vivo by applying an external static magnetic field. Here we show that Decitabine loaded into EMHVs induces a significant tumour mass reduction in prostate cancer xenograft models at a concentration, which is seven hundred times lower than the therapeutic dose, suggesting an improved pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of drug. These results are relevant for and discussed in light of developing personalised autologous therapies and innovative clinical approach for the treatment of solid tumours.

  11. Parametric study of spallation targets for the MYRRHA reactor using MCNPX simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebello, A. L. P.; Martinez, A. S.; Gonçalves, A. C.

    2014-06-01

    The present work aims to evaluate the behavior of neutron multiplicity in a spallation target using MCNPX simulations, focusing on its application in the MYRRHA reactor. It was studied the two types of spallation target proposed for the MYRRHA project, windowless and windows target, in order to compare them and find saturation boundaries. Some saturation boundaries were found and the windowless target proved to be as viable as the windows one. Each one produced nearly the same number of neutrons per incident proton. Using the concept of neutron cost, it was also observed that the optimum conditions on neutron production occur at about 1GeV, for both target designs.

  12. Overcoming barriers to health-care access: A qualitative study among African migrants in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lavinia; Brown, Katherine B; Hall, Brian J; Yu, Fan; Yang, Jingqi; Wang, Jason; Schrock, Joshua M; Bodomo, Adams B; Yang, Ligang; Yang, Bin; Nehl, Eric J; Tucker, Joseph D; Wong, Frank Y

    2016-10-01

    Guangzhou is China's third most populous city, and the region's burgeoning manufacturing economy has attracted many young African businessmen and entrepreneurs to the city. The aims of this study were to examine strategies that African migrants in Guangzhou have adopted in response to health-care barriers, and explore their perceptions of how to address their needs. Twenty-five semi-structured interviews and two focus groups were conducted among African migrants residing in Guangzhou, China. Facing multiple barriers to care, African migrants have adopted a number of suboptimal and unsustainable approaches to access health care. These included: using their Chinese friends or partners as interpreters, self-medicating, using personal connections to medical doctors, and travelling to home countries or countries that offer English-speaking doctors for health care. Health-care providers and health organisations in Guangzhou have not yet acquired sufficient cultural competence to address the needs of African migrants residing in the city. Introducing linguistically and culturally competent health-care services in communities concentrated with African migrants may better serve the population. With the growing international migration to China, it is essential to develop sustainable approaches to improving health-care access for international migrants, particularly those who are marginalised.

  13. Income Related Inequality of Health Care Access in Japan: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Misuzu; Hata, Akira

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to analyze the association between income level and health care access in Japan. Data from a total of 222,259 subjects (age range, 0–74 years) who submitted National Health Insurance claims in Chiba City from April 2012 to March 2014 and who declared income for the tax period from January 1 to December 31, 2012 were integrated and analyzed. The generalized estimating equation, in which household was defined as a cluster, was used to evaluate the association between equivalent income and utilization and duration of hospitalization and outpatient care services. A significant positive linear association was observed between income level and outpatient visit rates among all age groups of both sexes; however, a significantly higher rate and longer period of hospitalization, and longer outpatient care, were observed among certain lower income subgroups. To control for decreased income due to hospitalization, subjects hospitalized during the previous year were excluded, and the data was then reanalyzed. Significant inverse associations remained in the hospitalization rate among 40–59-year-old men and 60–69-year-old women, and in duration of hospitalization among 40–59 and 60–69-year-olds of both sexes and 70–74-year-old women. These results suggest that low-income individuals in Japan have poorer access to outpatient care and more serious health conditions than their higher income counterparts. PMID:26978270

  14. Income Related Inequality of Health Care Access in Japan: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Misuzu; Sato, Yasunori; Nagashima, Kengo; Takahashi, Sho; Hata, Akira

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to analyze the association between income level and health care access in Japan. Data from a total of 222,259 subjects (age range, 0-74 years) who submitted National Health Insurance claims in Chiba City from April 2012 to March 2014 and who declared income for the tax period from January 1 to December 31, 2012 were integrated and analyzed. The generalized estimating equation, in which household was defined as a cluster, was used to evaluate the association between equivalent income and utilization and duration of hospitalization and outpatient care services. A significant positive linear association was observed between income level and outpatient visit rates among all age groups of both sexes; however, a significantly higher rate and longer period of hospitalization, and longer outpatient care, were observed among certain lower income subgroups. To control for decreased income due to hospitalization, subjects hospitalized during the previous year were excluded, and the data was then reanalyzed. Significant inverse associations remained in the hospitalization rate among 40-59-year-old men and 60-69-year-old women, and in duration of hospitalization among 40-59 and 60-69-year-olds of both sexes and 70-74-year-old women. These results suggest that low-income individuals in Japan have poorer access to outpatient care and more serious health conditions than their higher income counterparts. PMID:26978270

  15. Enhanced heme accessibility in horse heart mini-myoglobin: Insights from molecular modelling and reactivity studies.

    PubMed

    Polticelli, Fabio; Zobnina, Veranika; Ciaccio, Chiara; de Sanctis, Giampiero; Ascenzi, Paolo; Coletta, Massimo

    2015-11-01

    Mini-myoglobin (mini-HHMb) is a fragment of horse-heart myoglobin (HHMb) considered to be the prototype of the product encoded by the central exon of the HHMb gene. For this reason, mini-HHMb has been studied extensively showing that carbonylation and oxygenation properties of the ferrous form are similar to those of the full-length protein, while kinetics and thermodynamics of azide binding to the ferric form are significantly different from those of HHMb. To analyze the structure-function relationships in mini-HHMb and the role of conformational fluctuations in ligand accessibility, the molecular model of mini-HHMb has been built and refined by molecular dynamics simulations, and analyzed in parallel with that of full length HHMb. Moreover, imidazole binding parameters of ferric mini-HHMb and HHMb have been determined. Furthermore, structural data of ferric mini-HHMb and HHMb have been correlated with the imidazole and previously determined azide binding properties. Present results indicate that, despite the extensive trimming, the heme-α-helices E-F substructure is essentially unaltered in mini-HHMb with respect to HHMb. However, the heme-Fe atom displays an enhanced accessibility in mini-HHMb, which may affect both ligand association and dissociation kinetics. PMID:26363214

  16. Income Related Inequality of Health Care Access in Japan: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Misuzu; Sato, Yasunori; Nagashima, Kengo; Takahashi, Sho; Hata, Akira

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to analyze the association between income level and health care access in Japan. Data from a total of 222,259 subjects (age range, 0-74 years) who submitted National Health Insurance claims in Chiba City from April 2012 to March 2014 and who declared income for the tax period from January 1 to December 31, 2012 were integrated and analyzed. The generalized estimating equation, in which household was defined as a cluster, was used to evaluate the association between equivalent income and utilization and duration of hospitalization and outpatient care services. A significant positive linear association was observed between income level and outpatient visit rates among all age groups of both sexes; however, a significantly higher rate and longer period of hospitalization, and longer outpatient care, were observed among certain lower income subgroups. To control for decreased income due to hospitalization, subjects hospitalized during the previous year were excluded, and the data was then reanalyzed. Significant inverse associations remained in the hospitalization rate among 40-59-year-old men and 60-69-year-old women, and in duration of hospitalization among 40-59 and 60-69-year-olds of both sexes and 70-74-year-old women. These results suggest that low-income individuals in Japan have poorer access to outpatient care and more serious health conditions than their higher income counterparts.

  17. The Road from the NASA Access to Space Study to a Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Richard W.; Cook, Stephen A.; Lockwood, Mary Kae

    1998-01-01

    NASA is cooperating with the aerospace industry to develop a space transportation system that provides reliable access-to-space at a much lower cost than is possible with today's launch vehicles. While this quest has been on-going for many years it received a major impetus when the U.S. Congress mandated as part of the 1993 NASA appropriations bill that: "In view of budget difficulties, present and future..., the National Aeronautics and Space Administration shall ... recommend improvements in space transportation." NASA, working with other organizations, including the Department of Transportation, and the Department of Defense identified three major transportation architecture options that were to be evaluated in the areas of reliability, operability and cost. These architectural options were: (1) retain and upgrade the Space Shuttle and the current expendable launch vehicles; (2) develop new expendable launch vehicles using conventional technologies and transition to these new vehicles beginning in 2005; and (3) develop new reusable vehicles using advanced technology, and transition to these vehicles beginning in 2008. The launch needs mission model was based on 1993 projections of civil, defense, and commercial payload requirements. This "Access to Space" study concluded that the option that provided the greatest potential for meeting the cost, operability, and reliability goals was a rocket-powered single-stage-to-orbit fully reusable launch vehicle (RLV) fleet designed with advanced technologies.

  18. Overcoming barriers to health-care access: A qualitative study among African migrants in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lavinia; Brown, Katherine B; Hall, Brian J; Yu, Fan; Yang, Jingqi; Wang, Jason; Schrock, Joshua M; Bodomo, Adams B; Yang, Ligang; Yang, Bin; Nehl, Eric J; Tucker, Joseph D; Wong, Frank Y

    2016-10-01

    Guangzhou is China's third most populous city, and the region's burgeoning manufacturing economy has attracted many young African businessmen and entrepreneurs to the city. The aims of this study were to examine strategies that African migrants in Guangzhou have adopted in response to health-care barriers, and explore their perceptions of how to address their needs. Twenty-five semi-structured interviews and two focus groups were conducted among African migrants residing in Guangzhou, China. Facing multiple barriers to care, African migrants have adopted a number of suboptimal and unsustainable approaches to access health care. These included: using their Chinese friends or partners as interpreters, self-medicating, using personal connections to medical doctors, and travelling to home countries or countries that offer English-speaking doctors for health care. Health-care providers and health organisations in Guangzhou have not yet acquired sufficient cultural competence to address the needs of African migrants residing in the city. Introducing linguistically and culturally competent health-care services in communities concentrated with African migrants may better serve the population. With the growing international migration to China, it is essential to develop sustainable approaches to improving health-care access for international migrants, particularly those who are marginalised. PMID:26400191

  19. New Jersey migrant and seasonal farm workers: enumeration and access to healthcare study.

    PubMed

    Borjan, Marija; Constantino, Patricia; Robson, Mark G

    2008-01-01

    Despite the demanding physical labor Migrant and Seasonal Farm Workers (MSFW) provide to meet consumer demands and keep the nation's agricultural industry gainful, MSFWs are the most economically disadvantaged population in the nation. MSFWs lack sufficient access to health care and suffer more illnesses than the general population. Besides the difficulties in providing adequate health care to this population, enumeration of MSFWs has been an even greater challenge due to their mobility and illegal status. Through the analysis of secondary data sources, this study looks to approximate the number of MSFWs in the state of New Jersey and to investigate MSFW access to health care. Farm workers are a vital part of not only New Jersey's agricultural economy but also the entire nation's economy. Understanding the health needs of this population, and knowing the number of individuals that comprise this population, would not only help eliminate many health problems but it also would better prepare health officials in meeting the needs of the MSFW population. PMID:18375372

  20. Intravenous access during pre-hospital emergency care of non-injured patients: a population-based outcome study

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, Christopher W.; Cooke, Colin R.; Hebert, Paul L.; Rea, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    Study objective Advanced, pre-hospital procedures such as intravenous access are commonly performed by emergency medical services (EMS) personnel, yet little evidence supports their use among non-injured patients. We evaluated the association between pre-hospital, intravenous access and mortality among non-injured, non-arrest patients. Methods We analyzed a population-based cohort of adult (aged ≥18 years) non-injured, non-arrest patients transported by four advanced life support agencies to one of 16 hospitals from January 1, 2002 until December 31, 2006. We linked eligible EMS records to hospital administrative data, and used multivariable logistic regression to determine the risk-adjusted association between pre-hospital, intravenous access and hospital mortality. We also tested whether this association differed by patient acuity using a previously published, out-of-hospital triage score. Results Among 56,332 eligible patients, one half (N=28,978, 50%) received pre-hospital intravenous access from EMS personnel. Overall hospital mortality in patients who did and did not receive intravenous access was 3%. However, in multivariable analyses, the placement of pre-hospital, intravenous access was associated with an overall reduction in odds of hospital mortality (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.56, 0.81). The beneficial association of intravenous access appeared to depend on patient acuity (p=0.13 for interaction). For example, the OR of mortality associated with intravenous access was 1.38 (95%CI: 0.28, 7.0) among those with lowest acuity (score = 0). In contrast, the OR of mortality associated with intravenous access was 0.38 (95%CI: 0.17, 0.9) among patients with highest acuity (score ≥ 6). Conclusions In this population-based cohort, pre-hospital, intravenous access was associated with a reduction in hospital mortality among non-injured, non-arrest patients with the highest acuity. PMID:21872970

  1. Semantic Priming from Letter-Searched Primes Occurs for Low- but Not High-Frequency Targets: Automatic Semantic Access May Not Be a Myth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tse, Chi-Shing; Neely, James H.

    2007-01-01

    Letter-search (LS) within a prime often eliminates semantic priming. In 2 lexical decision experiments, the authors found that priming from LS primes occurred for low-frequency (LF) but not high-frequency (HF) targets whether the target's word frequency was manipulated between or within participants and whether the prime-target pairs were…

  2. Periodicity in tumor vasculature targeting kinetics of ligand-functionalized nanoparticles studied by dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and intravital microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Cebulla, Jana; Huuse, Else Marie; Davies, Catharina de L.; Mulder, Willem J. M.; Larsson, Henrik B.W.; Haraldseth, Olav

    2014-01-01

    In the past two decades advances in the development of targeted nanoparticles have facilitated their application as molecular imaging agents and targeted drug delivery vehicles. Nanoparticle-enhanced molecular imaging of the angiogenic tumor vasculature has been of particular interest. Not only because angiogenesis plays an important role in various pathologies, but also since endothelial cell surface receptors are directly accessible for relatively large circulating nanoparticles. Typically, nanoparticle targeting towards these receptors is studied by analyzing the contrast distribution on tumor images acquired before and at set time points after administration. Although several exciting proof-of-concept studies demonstrated qualitative assessment of relative target concentration and distribution, these studies did not provide quantitative information on the nanoparticle targeting kinetics. These kinetics will not only depend on nanoparticle characteristics, but also on receptor binding and recycling. In this study, we monitored the in vivo targeting kinetics of αvβ3-integrin specific nanoparticles with intravital microscopy and dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, and using compartment modeling we were able to quantify nanoparticle targeting rates. As such, this approach can facilitate optimization of targeted nanoparticle design and it holds promise for providing more quantitative information on in vivo receptor levels. Interestingly, we also observed a periodicity in the accumulation kinetics of αvβ3-integrin targeted nanoparticles and hypothesize that this periodicity is caused by receptor binding, internalization and recycling dynamics. Taken together, this demonstrates that our experimental approach provides new insights in in vivo nanoparticle targeting, which may proof useful for vascular targeting in general. PMID:23982332

  3. Access of energetic particles to Titan's exobase: A study of Cassini's T9 flyby

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regoli, L. H.; Roussos, E.; Feyerabend, M.; Jones, G. H.; Krupp, N.; Coates, A. J.; Simon, S.; Motschmann, U.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2016-10-01

    We study how the local electromagnetic disturbances introduced by Titan affect the ionization rates of the atmosphere. For this, we model the precipitation of energetic particles, specifically hydrogen and oxygen ions with energies between 1 keV and 1 MeV, into Titan's exobase for the specific magnetospheric configuration of the T9 flyby. For the study, a particle tracing software package is used which consists of an integration of the single particle Lorentz force equation using a 4th order Runge-Kutta numerical method. For the electromagnetic disturbances, the output of the A.I.K.E.F. hybrid code (kinetic ions, fluid electrons) is used, allowing the possibility of analyzing the disturbances and asymmetries in the access of energetic particles originated by their large gyroradii. By combining these methods, 2D maps showing the access of each set of particles were produced. We show that the access of different particles is largely dominated by their gyroradii, with the complexity of the maps increasing with decreasing gyroradius, due to the larger effect that local disturbances introduced by the presence of the moon have in the trajectory of the particles with lower energies. We also show that for particles with gyroradii much larger than the moon's radius, simpler descriptions of the electromagnetic environment can reproduce similar results to those obtained when using the full hybrid simulation description, with simple north-south fields being sufficient to reproduce the hybrid code results for O+ ions with energies larger than 10 keV but not enough to reproduce those for H+ ions at any of the energies covered in the present study. Finally, by combining the maps created with upstream plasma flow measurements by the MIMI/CHEMS instrument, we are able to estimate normalized fluxes arriving at different selected positions of the moon's exobase. We then use these fluxes to calculate energy deposition and non-dissociative N2 ionization rates for precipitating O+ and H

  4. Mifamurtide in Metastatic and Recurrent Osteosarcoma: A Patient Access Study with Pharmacokinetic, Pharmacodynamic, and Safety Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, P.M.; Meyers, P.; Kleinerman, E.; Venkatakrishnan, K.; Hughes, D.P.; Herzog, C.; Huh, W.; Sutphin, R.; Vyas, Y. M.; Shen, V.; Warwick, A.; Yeager, N.; Oliva, C.; Wang, B.; Liu, Y.; Chou, A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This non-randomized, patient-access protocol, assessed both safety and efficacy outcomes following liposomal muramyl –tripeptide-phosphatidylethanolamine (L-MTP-PE; mifamurtide) in patients with high-risk, recurrent and/or metastatic osteosarcoma. Methods Patients received mifamurtide 2 mg/m2 intravenously twice-weekly ×12 weeks, then weekly ×24 weeks with and without chemotherapy. Serum concentration-time profiles were collected. Adverse events within 24 hours of drug administration were classified as infusion-related adverse events (IRAE); other AEs and overall survival (OS) were assessed. Results The study began therapy in January 2008; the last patient completed therapy in October 2012. 205 patients were enrolled; median age was 16.5 years and 143/204 (72%) had active disease. Mifamurtide serum concentrations declined rapidly in the first 30 minutes post-infusion, then in a loglinear manner 2–6 hours post-dose; t1/2 was 2 hours. There were no readily apparent relationships between age and BSA-normalized clearance, half-life, or pharmacodynamic effects, supporting the dose of 2 mg/m2 mifamurtide across the age range. Patients reported 3,415 IRAE after 7,122 mifamurtide infusions. These were very rarely grade 3 or 4 and most commonly included chills+fever or headache+fatigue symptom clusters. One and two year OS was 70.6% and 41.4%. Patients with initial metastatic disease or progression approximated by within 9 months of diagnosis (N=40) had similar 2-year OS (38.8%) as the entire cohort (41.4%) Conclusions Mifamurtide had a manageable safety profile; PK/PD of mifamurtide in this patient access study was consistent with prior studies. Two-year OS was 41.4%. A randomized clinical trial would be required to definitively determine impact on patient outcomes. PMID:23997016

  5. Language nonselective lexical access in bilingual toddlers.

    PubMed

    Von Holzen, Katie; Mani, Nivedita

    2012-12-01

    We examined how words from bilingual toddlers' second language (L2) primed recognition of related target words in their first language (L1). On critical trials, prime-target word pairs were either (a) phonologically related, with L2 primes overlapped phonologically with L1 target words [e.g., slide (L2 prime)-Kleid (L1 target, "dress")], or (b) phonologically related through translation, with L1 translations of L2 primes rhymed with the L1 target words [e.g., leg (L2 prime, L1 translation, "Bein")-Stein (L1 target, "stone"). Evidence of facilitated target recognition in the phonological priming condition suggests language nonselective access but not necessarily lexical access. However, a late interference effect on target recognition in the phonological priming through translation condition provides evidence for language nonselective lexical access: The L2 prime (leg) could influence L1 target recognition (Stein) in this condition only if both the L2 prime (leg) and its L1 translation ("Bein") were concurrently activated. In addition, age- and gender-matched monolingual toddler controls showed no difference between conditions, providing further evidence that the results with bilingual toddlers were driven by cross-language activation. The current study, therefore, presents the first-ever evidence of cross-talk between the two languages of bilinguals even as they begin to acquire fluency in their second language.

  6. Language nonselective lexical access in bilingual toddlers.

    PubMed

    Von Holzen, Katie; Mani, Nivedita

    2012-12-01

    We examined how words from bilingual toddlers' second language (L2) primed recognition of related target words in their first language (L1). On critical trials, prime-target word pairs were either (a) phonologically related, with L2 primes overlapped phonologically with L1 target words [e.g., slide (L2 prime)-Kleid (L1 target, "dress")], or (b) phonologically related through translation, with L1 translations of L2 primes rhymed with the L1 target words [e.g., leg (L2 prime, L1 translation, "Bein")-Stein (L1 target, "stone"). Evidence of facilitated target recognition in the phonological priming condition suggests language nonselective access but not necessarily lexical access. However, a late interference effect on target recognition in the phonological priming through translation condition provides evidence for language nonselective lexical access: The L2 prime (leg) could influence L1 target recognition (Stein) in this condition only if both the L2 prime (leg) and its L1 translation ("Bein") were concurrently activated. In addition, age- and gender-matched monolingual toddler controls showed no difference between conditions, providing further evidence that the results with bilingual toddlers were driven by cross-language activation. The current study, therefore, presents the first-ever evidence of cross-talk between the two languages of bilinguals even as they begin to acquire fluency in their second language. PMID:22980955

  7. Anatomy of open access publishing: a study of longitudinal development and internal structure

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Open access (OA) is a revolutionary way of providing access to the scholarly journal literature made possible by the Internet. The primary aim of this study was to measure the volume of scientific articles published in full immediate OA journals from 2000 to 2011, while observing longitudinal internal shifts in the structure of OA publishing concerning revenue models, publisher types and relative distribution among scientific disciplines. The secondary aim was to measure the share of OA articles of all journal articles, including articles made OA by publishers with a delay and individual author-paid OA articles in subscription journals (hybrid OA), as these subsets of OA publishing have mostly been ignored in previous studies. Methods Stratified random sampling of journals in the Directory of Open Access Journals (n = 787) was performed. The annual publication volumes spanning 2000 to 2011 were retrieved from major publication indexes and through manual data collection. Results An estimated 340,000 articles were published by 6,713 full immediate OA journals during 2011. OA journals requiring article-processing charges have become increasingly common, publishing 166,700 articles in 2011 (49% of all OA articles). This growth is related to the growth of commercial publishers, who, despite only a marginal presence a decade ago, have grown to become key actors on the OA scene, responsible for 120,000 of the articles published in 2011. Publication volume has grown within all major scientific disciplines, however, biomedicine has seen a particularly rapid 16-fold growth between 2000 (7,400 articles) and 2011 (120,900 articles). Over the past decade, OA journal publishing has steadily increased its relative share of all scholarly journal articles by about 1% annually. Approximately 17% of the 1.66 million articles published during 2011 and indexed in the most comprehensive article-level index of scholarly articles (Scopus) are available OA through journal

  8. S4AC Case Study: Enhancing Underserved Seniors' Access to Health Promotion Programs.

    PubMed

    Koehn, Sharon; Habib, Sanzida; Bukhari, Syeda

    2016-03-01

    The Seniors Support Services for South Asian Community (S4AC) project was developed in response to the underutilization of available recreation and seniors' facilities by South Asian seniors who were especially numerous in a suburban neighbourhood in British Columbia. Addressing the problem required the collaboration of the municipality and a registered non-profit agency offering a wide range of services and programs to immigrant and refugee communities. Through creative outreach and accommodation, the project has engaged more than 100 Punjabi-speaking seniors annually in diverse exercise activities. Case study research methods with staff and current and former senior participants of S4AC include participant observation, individual interviews, and focus groups. Viewed through the critical interpretive lens of the "candidacy framework", findings reveal the myriad ways in which access to health promotion and physical activity for immigrant older adults is a complex iterative process of negotiation at multiple levels.

  9. Characteristics and mechanism study of cerium oxide based random access memories

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Cheng-Chih; Roy, Anupam; Rai, Amritesh; Chang, Yao-Feng; Banerjee, Sanjay K.

    2015-04-27

    In this work, low operating voltage and high resistance ratio of different resistance states of binary transition metal oxide based resistive random access memories (RRAMs) are demonstrated. Binary transition metal oxides with high dielectric constant have been explored for RRAM application for years. However, CeO{sub x} is considered as a relatively new material to other dielectrics. Since research on CeO{sub x} based RRAM is still at preliminary stage, fundamental characteristics of RRAM such as scalability and mechanism studies need to be done before moving further. Here, we show very high operation window and low switching voltage of CeO{sub x} RRAMs and also compare electrical performance of Al/CeO{sub x}/Au system between different thin film deposition methods and discuss characteristics and resistive switching mechanism.

  10. Quantum molecular study of the Z access for the phosphodiester linkage in nucleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Broch, H.; Viani, R.; Grassi, H.; Vasilescu, D. )

    1989-01-01

    As emphasized by principal investigators on Z-DNA structures, on the basis of crystallographic analyses, it can be inferred that left-handed double-helical Z-DNA molecules can exist as a family of structures with varying conformations of phosphate groups in the sugar phosphate backbone. The aim of this paper is to explore the Z access for the phosphodiester linkage in DNAs using quantum mechanical computations on a disugar triphosphate model. The core of this study is based on the influence of the rotation around the exocyclic bond situated between the two sugars. One of our principal results is that the Z,-DNA structure is energetically preferred to the Z, one.

  11. S-band multiple-access interference study for advanced tracking and data relay satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, Wei-Chung; Yang, Chau-Chin

    1990-01-01

    The results of a study on the effect of mutual interference among S-band multiple access (SMA) system users of advanced tracking and data relay satellite system (ATDRSS) are presented. In the ATDRSS era, the SMA system is required to support data rates ranging from 10 kb/s to 3 Mb/s. The system will consist of four advanced tracking and data relay satellites (ATDRS) each supporting up to five telemetry links. All users have 10 MHz bandwidth with their carrier frequency equal to 2.2875 GHz. A hybrid SDMA/CDMA scheme is used to mitigate the effect of the interference among system users. SMA system interference probability is evaluated with CLASS software. User link margin degradation due to mutual interference between two users is evaluated. System interference probability is evaluated for the projected 1996 mission model, a reference mission model, and a modified reference mission model.

  12. A Human Rights Approach for Access to Clean Drinking Water: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Kanaaneh; McKay; Sims

    1995-01-01

    In northern and central Israel are some 70 villages that are not recognized by the state of Israel. At least half of these villages are not connected to the national drinking water networks and lack sufficient quality and quantity of water. Outbreaks of diseases associated with contaminated water supply have occurred, as well as substantial environmental distress. An outbreak of hepatitis A led to the cooperation of a public health physician, a nurse, an environmental engineer, and a human rights lawyer in successfully taking a case to the International Water Tribunal to get access to safe drinking water for these communities. This case study provides a model for cooperation between proponents and practitioners of health and human rights.

  13. Breaking inertia: increasing access to journals during a period of declining budgets: a case study.

    PubMed

    Fought, Rick L

    2014-07-01

    Beginning in January 2012, a 1-year pilot pay-per-view (PPV) service was implemented. Twenty-four journal subscriptions were canceled to fund the service, and through the PPV service, the library was able to offer patrons access to over 700 previously unavailable biomedical journals. At the end of the pilot period, the total PPV cost for each journal accessed was compared to the subscription cost to determine if PPV was an effective use of library money. While remaining essentially budget neutral, the number of full-text articles accessed increased over 400%. PPV can be a cost-effective method for expanding access to journals. PMID:25031560

  14. Sizing the Problem of Improving Discovery and Access to NIH-Funded Data: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study informs efforts to improve the discoverability of and access to biomedical datasets by providing a preliminary estimate of the number and type of datasets generated annually by research funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH). It focuses on those datasets that are “invisible” or not deposited in a known repository. Methods We analyzed NIH-funded journal articles that were published in 2011, cited in PubMed and deposited in PubMed Central (PMC) to identify those that indicate data were submitted to a known repository. After excluding those articles, we analyzed a random sample of the remaining articles to estimate how many and what types of invisible datasets were used in each article. Results About 12% of the articles explicitly mention deposition of datasets in recognized repositories, leaving 88% that are invisible datasets. Among articles with invisible datasets, we found an average of 2.9 to 3.4 datasets, suggesting there were approximately 200,000 to 235,000 invisible datasets generated from NIH-funded research published in 2011. Approximately 87% of the invisible datasets consist of data newly collected for the research reported; 13% reflect reuse of existing data. More than 50% of the datasets were derived from live human or non-human animal subjects. Conclusion In addition to providing a rough estimate of the total number of datasets produced per year by NIH-funded researchers, this study identifies additional issues that must be addressed to improve the discoverability of and access to biomedical research data: the definition of a “dataset,” determination of which (if any) data are valuable for archiving and preservation, and better methods for estimating the number of datasets of interest. Lack of consensus amongst annotators about the number of datasets in a given article reinforces the need for a principled way of thinking about how to identify and characterize biomedical datasets. PMID:26207759

  15. The TARGET pain study: Lessons from a painful marathon.

    PubMed

    Thom, Ogilvie N; Keijzers, Gerben; Taylor, David McD; Fatovich, Daniel M; Finucci, Daniel P; Furyk, Jeremy; Jin, Sang-Won; Macdonald, Stephen Pj; Mitenko, Hugh Ma; Richardson, Joanna R; Ting, Joseph Ys; Gibbs, Clinton R; Chalkley, Dane R

    2016-10-01

    This perspective article summarises the experience of conducting a multicentre research project. We describe expected and unexpected hurdles we experienced as well as suggesting possible solutions for researchers embarking on multicentre studies. PMID:27346063

  16. The TARGET pain study: Lessons from a painful marathon.

    PubMed

    Thom, Ogilvie N; Keijzers, Gerben; Taylor, David McD; Fatovich, Daniel M; Finucci, Daniel P; Furyk, Jeremy; Jin, Sang-Won; Macdonald, Stephen Pj; Mitenko, Hugh Ma; Richardson, Joanna R; Ting, Joseph Ys; Gibbs, Clinton R; Chalkley, Dane R

    2016-10-01

    This perspective article summarises the experience of conducting a multicentre research project. We describe expected and unexpected hurdles we experienced as well as suggesting possible solutions for researchers embarking on multicentre studies.

  17. Computational Studies of Venom Peptides Targeting Potassium Channels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rong; Chung, Shin-Ho

    2015-12-01

    Small peptides isolated from the venom of animals are potential scaffolds for ion channel drug discovery. This review article mainly focuses on the computational studies that have advanced our understanding of how various toxins interfere with the function of K⁺ channels. We introduce the computational tools available for the study of toxin-channel interactions. We then discuss how these computational tools have been fruitfully applied to elucidate the mechanisms of action of a wide range of venom peptides from scorpions, spiders, and sea anemone. PMID:26633507

  18. Computational Studies of Venom Peptides Targeting Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rong; Chung, Shin-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Small peptides isolated from the venom of animals are potential scaffolds for ion channel drug discovery. This review article mainly focuses on the computational studies that have advanced our understanding of how various toxins interfere with the function of K+ channels. We introduce the computational tools available for the study of toxin-channel interactions. We then discuss how these computational tools have been fruitfully applied to elucidate the mechanisms of action of a wide range of venom peptides from scorpions, spiders, and sea anemone. PMID:26633507

  19. Fearful contextual expression impairs the encoding and recognition of target faces: an ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Huiyan; Schulz, Claudia; Straube, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Previous event-related potential (ERP) studies have shown that the N170 to faces is modulated by the emotion of the face and its context. However, it is unclear how the encoding of emotional target faces as reflected in the N170 is modulated by the preceding contextual facial expression when temporal onset and identity of target faces are unpredictable. In addition, no study as yet has investigated whether contextual facial expression modulates later recognition of target faces. To address these issues, participants in the present study were asked to identify target faces (fearful or neutral) that were presented after a sequence of fearful or neutral contextual faces. The number of sequential contextual faces was random and contextual and target faces were of different identities so that temporal onset and identity of target faces were unpredictable. Electroencephalography (EEG) data was recorded during the encoding phase. Subsequently, participants had to perform an unexpected old/new recognition task in which target face identities were presented in either the encoded or the non-encoded expression. ERP data showed a reduced N170 to target faces in fearful as compared to neutral context regardless of target facial expression. In the later recognition phase, recognition rates were reduced for target faces in the encoded expression when they had been encountered in fearful as compared to neutral context. The present findings suggest that fearful compared to neutral contextual faces reduce the allocation of attentional resources towards target faces, which results in limited encoding and recognition of target faces. PMID:26388751

  20. Clinical Validation Study of Percutaneous Cochlear Access Using Patient Customized Micro-Stereotactic Frames

    PubMed Central

    Balachandran, Ramya; Mitchell, Jason; Noble, Jack H.; Majdani, Omid; Haynes, David; Bennett, Marc; Dawant, Benoit M.; Fitzpatrick, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objective Percutaneous cochlear implant (PCI) surgery consists of drilling a single trough from the lateral skull to the cochlea avoiding vital anatomy. To accomplish PCI, we utilize a patient-customized, micro-stereotactic frame, which we call a “microtable” because it consists of a small tabletop sitting on legs. The orientation of the legs controls the alignment of the tabletop such that it is perpendicular to a specified trajectory. Study design Prospective. Setting Tertiary referral center. Patients Thirteen patients (eighteen ears) undergoing traditional CI surgery. Intervention(s) With IRB approval, each patient had three fiducial markers implanted in bone surrounding the ear. Temporal bone CT scans were obtained and the markers were localized, as was vital anatomy. A linear trajectory from the lateral skull through the facial recess to the cochlea was planned. A microtable was fabricated to follow the specified trajectory. Main outcome measure(s) After mastoidectomy and posterior tympanotomy, accuracy of trajectories was validated by mounting microtables on bone-implanted markers and then passing sham drill bits across the facial recess to the cochlea. Distance from the drill to vital anatomy was measured. Results Microtables were constructed on a CNC milling machine in under 5 minutes each. Successful access across the facial recess to the cochlea was achieved in all 18 cases. The mean ± standard deviation from mid-portion of the drill to the facial nerve was 1.20 ± 0.36 mm and from the chorda tympani was 1.25 ± 0.33 mm. Conclusions These results demonstrate the feasibility of PCI access using customized, micro-stereotactic frames. PMID:20019561

  1. Target Practice: A Batesonian "Field" Guide for Communication Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcomb, Horace

    1993-01-01

    Uses three quotations from Gregory Bateson to inform the author's comments on the discipline of communication. Argues that communication teachers and scholars must aim for a curriculum and a mode of study, research, and teaching that leads to means of recognizing, addressing, and responding to truly significant questions, rather than disciplinary,…

  2. Targeting Prosody: A Case Study of an Adolescent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellon-Harn, Monica L.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, there are few published treatment studies to address prosody in clinical populations. Developing treatment protocols is challenging due to the considerable degree of heterogeneity across individuals with prosodic disturbances and the multiple aspects of prosody, voice, speech, and language that can be affected. The purpose of this…

  3. A Tale of Two Cities: A Study of Access to Food, Lessons for Public Health Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caraher, Martin; Lloyd, Susan; Lawton, Julie; Singh, Gulab; Horsley, Kayt; Mussa, Fozia

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To map food access in the city of Preston in the north-west of England in order to determine access, availability and affordability of healthy food options. Design and methodology: The research design employed a number of distinct methods including: surveys of shops; interviews with local people and shopkeepers; a cost and availability…

  4. Providing Internet Access to the Ohio Career Information System for All Residents: A Feasibility Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Morgan V.

    Expanded Internet access to the Ohio Career Information System (OCIS) would provide adults in Ohio who need to or wish to make career changes with the best available information about occupations, education and training programs, and financial aid. In order to determine the feasibility of improving access without cost to users, an advisory group,…

  5. Study finds Devonian gas resources of western Canada attractive target

    SciTech Connect

    Reinson, G.E.; Lee, P.J. )

    1993-09-13

    This report summarizes results of a recently completed study on the conventional natural gas resources estimated to be contained in Devonian strata of the Western Canada sedimentary basin. This study is the first in a series dealing with conventional gas resources of the basin south of 62[degree] N. Lat. Estimates of regional resource potential have been prepared periodically by the Geological Survey of Canada, using systematic geological basin analysis and statistical resource evaluation methods. The major play groups in the western Canada gas project are Devonian, Permo-Carboniferous, Triassic, Deformed Belt, Lower Cretaceous Mannville group, Middle Cretaceous Colorado group, and Upper Cretaceous-Tertiary. The Devonian assessment was undertaken first because of the existing comprehensive geological data base and because there is an upside potential for finding significant reserves in relatively large economic pools. The paper describes the assessment procedures andanalyzes mature plays and conceptual plays of gas.

  6. A targeted genetic association study of epithelial ovarian cancer susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Earp, Madalene; Winham, Stacey J.; Larson, Nicholas; Permuth, Jennifer B.; Sicotte, Hugues; Chien, Jeremy; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berchuck, Andrew; Cook, Linda S.; Cramer, Daniel; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Goodman, Marc T.; Levine, Douglas A.; Monteiro, Alvaro N.A.; Ness, Roberta B.; Pearce, Celeste L.; Rossing, Mary Anne; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Bisogna, Maria; Brinton, Louise; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Carney, Michael E.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Edwards, Robert P.; Fogarty, Zachary C.; Iversen, Edwin S.; Kraft, Peter; Larson, Melissa C.; Le, Nhu D.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Lissowska, Jolanta; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Olson, Sara H.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Rider, David N.; Terry, Kathryn L.; Thompson, Pamela J.; van den Berg, David; Vierkant, Robert A.; Vitonis, Allison F.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Wu, Anna H.; Yang, Hannah P.; Ziogas, Argyrios; Phelan, Catherine M.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Chen, Yian Ann; Sellers, Thomas A.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Goode, Ellen L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies have identified several common susceptibility alleles for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). To further understand EOC susceptibility, we examined previously ungenotyped candidate variants, including uncommon variants and those residing within known susceptibility loci. Results At nine of eleven previously published EOC susceptibility regions (2q31, 3q25, 5p15, 8q21, 8q24, 10p12, 17q12, 17q21.31, and 19p13), novel variants were identified that were more strongly associated with risk than previously reported variants. Beyond known susceptibility regions, no variants were found to be associated with EOC risk at genome-wide statistical significance (p <5×10−8), nor were any significant after Bonferroni correction for 17,000 variants (p< 3×10-6). Methods A customized genotyping array was used to assess over 17,000 variants in coding, non-coding, regulatory, and known susceptibility regions in 4,973 EOC cases and 5,640 controls from 13 independent studies. Susceptibility for EOC overall and for select histotypes was evaluated using logistic regression adjusted for age, study site, and population substructure. Conclusion Given the novel variants identified within the 2q31, 3q25, 5p15, 8q21, 8q24, 10p12, 17q12, 17q21.31, and 19p13 regions, larger follow-up genotyping studies, using imputation where necessary, are needed for fine-mapping and confirmation of low frequency variants that fall below statistical significance. PMID:26848776

  7. Capillary electrophoresis and fluorescence studies on molecular beacon-based variable length oligonucleotide target discrimination.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Akhilesh; Zhang, Minquan; Goad, David; Olah, Glenn; Malayer, Jerry R; El-Rassi, Ziad

    2003-01-01

    Molecular beacons (MBs) are oligonucleotide probes having a compact hairpin structure, with a fluorophore attached to one end and a quencher molecule attached to the other end. In its native state, the fluorophore is quenched by virtue of its proximity to the quencher molecule. Upon hybridization with its complementary oligonucleotide target, fluorescence is elicited due to a conformational change that results in separation of the fluorophore and quencher molecule. The present study describes the hybridization interaction of an MB to various complementary target sequences. The effects of temperature and length of complementary target sequences on hybridization were investigated using capillary electrophoresis and solution-based fluorescence techniques. Hybridization efficiency was dependent on the ability of the target sequences to destabilize the stem region by binding directly to the stem region. Optimal hybridization occurred between 40 and 50 degrees C for all targets tested, with the true target forming a more stable hybrid complex.

  8. Usage Trends of Open Access and Local Journals: A Korean Case Study.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jeong-Wook; Chung, Hosik; Yun, Jungmin; Park, Jin Young; Park, Eunsun; Ahn, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Articles from open access and local journals are important resources for research in Korea and the usage trends of these articles are important indicators for the assessment of the current research practice. We analyzed an institutional collection of published papers from 1998 to 2014 authored by researchers from Seoul National University, and their references from papers published between 1998 and 2011. The published papers were collected from Web of Science or Scopus and were analyzed according to the proportion of articles from open access journals. Their cited references from published papers in Web of Science were analyzed according to the proportion of local (South Korean) or open access journals. The proportion of open access papers was relatively stable until 2006 (2.5 ~ 5.2% in Web of Science and 2.7 ~ 4.2% in Scopus), but then increased to 15.9% (Web of Science) or 18.5% (Scopus) in 2014. We analyzed 2,750,485 cited references from 52,295 published papers. We found that the overall proportion of cited articles from local journals was 1.8% and that for open access journals was 3.0%. Citations of open access articles have increased since 2006 to 4.1% in 2011, although the increase in open access article citations was less than for open access publications. The proportion of citations from local journals was even lower. We think that the publishing / citing mismatch is a term to describe this difference, which is an issue at Seoul National University, where the number of published papers at open access or local journals is increasing but the number of citations is not. The cause of this discrepancy is multi-factorial but the governmental / institutional policies, social / cultural issues and authors' citing behaviors will explain the mismatch. However, additional measures are also necessary, such as the development of an institutional citation database and improved search capabilities with respect to local and open access documents. PMID:27195948

  9. Usage Trends of Open Access and Local Journals: A Korean Case Study.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jeong-Wook; Chung, Hosik; Yun, Jungmin; Park, Jin Young; Park, Eunsun; Ahn, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Articles from open access and local journals are important resources for research in Korea and the usage trends of these articles are important indicators for the assessment of the current research practice. We analyzed an institutional collection of published papers from 1998 to 2014 authored by researchers from Seoul National University, and their references from papers published between 1998 and 2011. The published papers were collected from Web of Science or Scopus and were analyzed according to the proportion of articles from open access journals. Their cited references from published papers in Web of Science were analyzed according to the proportion of local (South Korean) or open access journals. The proportion of open access papers was relatively stable until 2006 (2.5 ~ 5.2% in Web of Science and 2.7 ~ 4.2% in Scopus), but then increased to 15.9% (Web of Science) or 18.5% (Scopus) in 2014. We analyzed 2,750,485 cited references from 52,295 published papers. We found that the overall proportion of cited articles from local journals was 1.8% and that for open access journals was 3.0%. Citations of open access articles have increased since 2006 to 4.1% in 2011, although the increase in open access article citations was less than for open access publications. The proportion of citations from local journals was even lower. We think that the publishing / citing mismatch is a term to describe this difference, which is an issue at Seoul National University, where the number of published papers at open access or local journals is increasing but the number of citations is not. The cause of this discrepancy is multi-factorial but the governmental / institutional policies, social / cultural issues and authors' citing behaviors will explain the mismatch. However, additional measures are also necessary, such as the development of an institutional citation database and improved search capabilities with respect to local and open access documents.

  10. Usage Trends of Open Access and Local Journals: A Korean Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hosik; Yun, Jungmin; Park, Jin Young; Park, Eunsun; Ahn, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Articles from open access and local journals are important resources for research in Korea and the usage trends of these articles are important indicators for the assessment of the current research practice. We analyzed an institutional collection of published papers from 1998 to 2014 authored by researchers from Seoul National University, and their references from papers published between 1998 and 2011. The published papers were collected from Web of Science or Scopus and were analyzed according to the proportion of articles from open access journals. Their cited references from published papers in Web of Science were analyzed according to the proportion of local (South Korean) or open access journals. The proportion of open access papers was relatively stable until 2006 (2.5 ~ 5.2% in Web of Science and 2.7 ~ 4.2% in Scopus), but then increased to 15.9% (Web of Science) or 18.5% (Scopus) in 2014. We analyzed 2,750,485 cited references from 52,295 published papers. We found that the overall proportion of cited articles from local journals was 1.8% and that for open access journals was 3.0%. Citations of open access articles have increased since 2006 to 4.1% in 2011, although the increase in open access article citations was less than for open access publications. The proportion of citations from local journals was even lower. We think that the publishing / citing mismatch is a term to describe this difference, which is an issue at Seoul National University, where the number of published papers at open access or local journals is increasing but the number of citations is not. The cause of this discrepancy is multi-factorial but the governmental / institutional policies, social / cultural issues and authors' citing behaviors will explain the mismatch. However, additional measures are also necessary, such as the development of an institutional citation database and improved search capabilities with respect to local and open access documents. PMID:27195948

  11. Family support and ease of access link socio-economic status and sports club membership in adolescent girls: a mediation study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Much research has been conducted into the determinants of physical activity (PA) participation among adolescent girls. However, the more specific question of what are the determinants of particular forms of PA participation, such as the link between participation through a sports club, has not been investigated. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between participation in a sports club and socio-economic status (SES), access to facilities, and family and peer support, for female adolescents. Methods A survey of 732 female adolescent school students (521 metropolitan, 211 non-metropolitan; 489 Year 7, 243 Year 11) was conducted. The survey included demographic information (living arrangements, ethnicity indicators, and indicators of SES such as parental education and employment status and locality); access to facilities; and family and peer support (travel, encouragement, watching, praise, joint participation). For each characteristic, sports club participants and non-participants were compared using chi-square tests. Multiple mediation analyses were used to investigate the role of access, family and peer support in the link between SES and sport participation. Results There were significant associations (p<0.05) between sports club participation and: all demographic characteristics; all measures of family and peer support; and access to sport-related facilities. Highest levels of participation were associated with monolingual Australian-born families, with two parents, at least one of whom was well-educated, with both parents employed, and high levels of parental assistance, engagement and support. Participation in club sport among both younger and older adolescent girls was significantly positively associated with the SES of both their neighbourhoods and their households, particularly in metropolitan areas. These associations were most strongly mediated by family support and by access to facilities. Conclusions To

  12. Quality Assessment of Studies Published in Open Access and Subscription Journals: Results of a Systematic Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Pastorino, Roberta; Milovanovic, Sonja; Stojanovic, Jovana; Efremov, Ljupcho; Amore, Rosarita; Boccia, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Along with the proliferation of Open Access (OA) publishing, the interest for comparing the scientific quality of studies published in OA journals versus subscription journals has also increased. With our study we aimed to compare the methodological quality and the quality of reporting of primary epidemiological studies and systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in OA and non-OA journals. Methods In order to identify the studies to appraise, we listed all OA and non-OA journals which published in 2013 at least one primary epidemiologic study (case-control or cohort study design), and at least one systematic review or meta-analysis in the field of oncology. For the appraisal, we picked up the first studies published in 2013 with case-control or cohort study design from OA journals (Group A; n = 12), and in the same time period from non-OA journals (Group B; n = 26); the first systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in 2013 from OA journals (Group C; n = 15), and in the same time period from non-OA journals (Group D; n = 32). We evaluated the methodological quality of studies by assessing the compliance of case-control and cohort studies to Newcastle and Ottawa Scale (NOS) scale, and the compliance of systematic reviews and meta-analyses to Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) scale. The quality of reporting was assessed considering the adherence of case-control and cohort studies to STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) checklist, and the adherence of systematic reviews and meta-analyses to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) checklist. Results Among case-control and cohort studies published in OA and non-OA journals, we did not observe significant differences in the median value of NOS score (Group A: 7 (IQR 7–8) versus Group B: 8 (7–9); p = 0.5) and in the adherence to STROBE checklist (Group A, 75% versus Group B, 80%; p = 0.1). The

  13. Humanized Mouse Model to Study Bacterial Infections Targeting the Microvasculature

    PubMed Central

    Melican, Keira; Aubey, Flore; Duménil, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis causes a severe, frequently fatal sepsis when it enters the human blood stream. Infection leads to extensive damage of the blood vessels resulting in vascular leak, the development of purpuric rashes and eventual tissue necrosis. Studying the pathogenesis of this infection was previously limited by the human specificity of the bacteria, which makes in vivo models difficult. In this protocol, we describe a humanized model for this infection in which human skin, containing dermal microvessels, is grafted onto immunocompromised mice. These vessels anastomose with the mouse circulation while maintaining their human characteristics. Once introduced into this model, N. meningitidis adhere exclusively to the human vessels, resulting in extensive vascular damage, inflammation and in some cases the development of purpuric rash. This protocol describes the grafting, infection and evaluation steps of this model in the context of N. meningitidis infection. The technique may be applied to numerous human specific pathogens that infect the blood stream. PMID:24747976

  14. An Intervention Study Targeting Nutritional Intake in Worksite Cafeterias

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Michael R.; Tappe, Karyn A.; Butryn, Meghan L.; Annunziato, Rachel A.; Coletta, Maria C.; Ochner, Christopher N.; Rolls, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    Modifying the food environment is a promising strategy for promoting healthier eating behavior. This study aimed to evaluate nutritional and weight changes in a program that used worksite cafeterias to reduce employees’ calorie content of purchased foods and improve their macronutrient intake. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: 1) only environmental change (i.e., the introduction of 10 new low-energy-density (ED) foods and provision of labels for all foods sold at lunch, which listed ED, calories, and macronutrient content) or 2) the environmental change plus pricing incentives for purchasing low-ED foods and education about low-ED eating delivered in four, 1-hour group sessions. Participant lunch choices were monitored electronically at the point of purchase for 3 months before the intervention was instituted (i.e., the baseline period) and for 3 months afterward (i.e., intervention period). Participants were adults (n = 96, BMI = 29.7 ± 6.0 kg/m2) who regularly ate lunch at their workplace cafeteria. There was no difference between groups in total energy intake over the study period. Across groups, energy and percent of energy from fat decreased and percent of energy from carbohydrate increased from baseline to the intervention period (all p <. 01). Follow-up analyses, conducted by averaging Baseline Months 1 and 2 and comparing them to Intervention Month 3 as a conservative estimate of overall impact of the intervention, indicated that change in energy, carbohydrate, and fat intake remained significant (p < .001). Providing nutrition labels and reducing the ED of selected foods was associated with improved dietary intake. PMID:20434060

  15. Targeted Acoustic Data Processing for Ocean Ecological Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorovskaia, N.; Li, K.; Tiemann, C.; Ackleh, A. S.; Tang, T.; Ioup, G. E.; Ioup, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    The Gulf of Mexico is home to many species of deep diving marine mammals. In recent years several ecological studies have collected large volumes of Passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM) data to investigate the effects of anthropogenic activities on protected and endangered marine mammal species. To utilize these data to their fullest potential for abundance estimates and habitat preference studies, automated detection and classification algorithms are needed to extract species acoustic encounters from a continuous stream of data. The species which phonate in overlapping frequency bands represent a particular challenge. This paper analyzes the performance of a newly developed automated detector for the classification of beaked whale clicks in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Current used beaked whale classification algorithms rely heavily on experienced human operator involvement in manually associating potential events with a particular species of beaked whales. Our detection algorithm is two-stage: the detector is triggered when the species-representative phonation band energy exceeds the baseline detection threshold. Then multiple event attributes (temporal click duration, central frequency, frequency band, frequency sweep rate, Choi-Williams distribution shape indices) are measured. An attribute vector is then used to discriminate among different species of beaked whales present in the Gulf of Mexico and Risso's dolphins which were recognized to mask the detections of beaked whales in the case of widely used energy-band detectors. The detector is applied to the PAM data collected by the Littoral Acoustic Demonstration Center to estimate abundance trends of beaked whales in the vicinity of the 2010 oil spill before and after the disaster. This algorithm will allow automated processing with minimal operator involvement for new and archival PAM data. [The research is supported by a BP/GOMRI 2015-2017 consortium grant.

  16. A Comparative experimental study of media access protocols for wireless radio networks

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, C. L.; Drozda, M.; Marathe, M. V.

    2001-05-24

    We conduct a comparative experimental analysis of three well known media access protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA for wireless radio networks. Both fixed and ad-hoc networks are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of experiments was to study how (i) the size of the network, (ii) number of open connections, (iii) the spatial location of individual connections, (iv) speed with which individual nodes move and (v) protocols higher up in the protocol stack (e,g. routing layer) affect the performance of the media access sublayer protocols. The performance of the protocols was measured w.r.t. three important parameters: (1) number of received packets, (2) average latency of each packet, and (3) throughput. The following general qualitative conclusions were obtained; some of the conclusions reinforce the earlier claims by other researchers. (1) Although 802.11 performs better than the other two protocols with respect to fairness of transmission, packets dropped, and latency, its performance is found to (i) show a lot of variance with changing input parameters and (ii) the overall performance still leaves a lot of room for improvement. (2) CSMA does not perform too well under the fairness criteria, however, was the best in terms of the latency criteria. (3) MACA also shows fairness problems and has poor performance at high packet injection rates. (4) Protocols in the higher level of the protocol stack affect the MAC layer performance. The main general implications of our work is two folds: (1) No single protocol dominated the other protocols across various measures of efficiency. This motivates the design of a new class of parameterized protocols that adapt to changes in the network connectivity and loads. We refer to these class of protocols as parameterized dynamically adaptive efficient protocols and as a first step suggest key design requirements for such a class of protocols. (2

  17. [Analysis on accessibility of urban park green space: the case study of Shenyang Tiexi District].

    PubMed

    Lu, Ning; Li, Jun-Ying; Yan, Hong-Wei; Shi, Tuo; Li, Ying

    2014-10-01

    The accessibility of urban park green space is an important indicator to reflect how much the natural service supplied by parks could be enjoyed by citizens conveniently and fairly. This paper took Shenyang Tiexi District as an example to evaluate the accessibility of urban park green space based on QuickBird imagery and GIS software, with four modes of transportation, walking, non-motor vehicle, motor vehicle and public transport being considered. The research compared and analyzed the distribution of the accessible area and the accessible people of park green space. The result demonstrated that park green space in Shenyang Tiexi District was not enough and the distribution was not even. To be precise, the accessibility in southwest part and central part was relatively good, that in marginal sites was worse, and that in east part and north part was the worst. Furthermore, the accessibility based on different modes of transportation varied a lot. The accessibility of motor vehicle was the best, followed by non-motor vehicle and public transport, and walking was the worst. Most of the regions could be reached within 30 minutes by walking, 15 minutes by non-motor vehicle and public transport, and 10 minutes by motor vehicle. This paper had a realistic significance in terms of further, systematic research on the green space spatial pattern optimization.

  18. Effects of limited access dressing in chronic wounds: A biochemical and histological study

    PubMed Central

    Honnegowda, Thittamaranahalli Muguregowda; Kumar, Pramod; Padmanabha Udupa, E G; Sharan, Anurag; Singh, Rekha; Prasad, Hemanth K.; Rao, Pragna

    2015-01-01

    Background: Negative pressure wound therapy has emerged as an attractive treatment modality for the management and healing of chronic ulcers. Though numerous clinical studies are available, there is a lack of biochemical and histological studies evaluating the healing of chronic wounds. Materials and Methods: In the present study, a total 60 patients were divided into two groups: Limited access dressing (LAD) group (n = 30) and conventional dressing group (n = 30). Various biochemical parameters such as hydroxyproline, total protein and antioxidants such as reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and oxidative biomarker malondialdhyde (MDA) are measured in the granulation tissue. Histologically amount of inflammatory infiltrate, angiogenesis, and collagen deposition are studied to assess wound healing. Results: Patients treated with LAD have shown significant increase in the mean (±standard deviation) hydroxyproline (77.3 ± 30.1 vs. 32.3 ± 16.18; P = 0.026), total protein (13.89 ± 9.0 vs. 8.9 ± 4.59; P = 0.004), GSH (7.4 ± 1.91 vs. 5.1 ± 1.28; P = 0.039), GPx (122.3 ± 59.3 vs. 88.7 ± 34.11; P = 0.030), CAT (1.80 ± 1.14 vs. 0.9 ± 0.71; P = 0.002) and decrease in MDA (13.4 ± 5.5 vs. 8.6 ± 3.8; P = 0.004). Histological study showed comparatively fewer inflammatory cells, increased and well organised collagen bundles, and more angiogenesis in the LAD group when compared with that with conventional dressing after 10 days of treatment. Conclusion: In the present study, we have found beneficial effect of newer intermittent negative pressure therapy in combination with moist environment (LAD) on chronic wound healing by increasing collagen deposition and angiogenesis; and reducing oxidative stress and inflammatory infiltrate. PMID:25991881

  19. Semiparametric Estimation of the Impacts of Longitudinal Interventions on Adolescent Obesity using Targeted Maximum-Likelihood: Accessible Estimation with the ltmle Package

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Anna L.; Hubbard, Alan; Crespi, Catherine M.; Seto, Edmund Y.W.; Wang, May C.

    2015-01-01

    While child and adolescent obesity is a serious public health concern, few studies have utilized parameters based on the causal inference literature to examine the potential impacts of early intervention. The purpose of this analysis was to estimate the causal effects of early interventions to improve physical activity and diet during adolescence on body mass index (BMI), a measure of adiposity, using improved techniques. The most widespread statistical method in studies of child and adolescent obesity is multi-variable regression, with the parameter of interest being the coefficient on the variable of interest. This approach does not appropriately adjust for time-dependent confounding, and the modeling assumptions may not always be met. An alternative parameter to estimate is one motivated by the causal inference literature, which can be interpreted as the mean change in the outcome under interventions to set the exposure of interest. The underlying data-generating distribution, upon which the estimator is based, can be estimated via a parametric or semi-parametric approach. Using data from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study, a 10-year prospective cohort study of adolescent girls, we estimated the longitudinal impact of physical activity and diet interventions on 10-year BMI z-scores via a parameter motivated by the causal inference literature, using both parametric and semi-parametric estimation approaches. The parameters of interest were estimated with a recently released R package, ltmle, for estimating means based upon general longitudinal treatment regimes. We found that early, sustained intervention on total calories had a greater impact than a physical activity intervention or non-sustained interventions. Multivariable linear regression yielded inflated effect estimates compared to estimates based on targeted maximum-likelihood estimation and data-adaptive super learning. Our analysis demonstrates that sophisticated

  20. Preparation of radioactive rare earth targets for neutron capture study

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G. G.; Rogers, P. S. Z.; Palmer, P. D.; Dry, D. E.; Rundberg, R. S.; Fowler, Malcolm M.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2002-01-01

    The understanding of thc details of nucleosynthesis in stars remains a great challenge. Though the basic mechanisms governing the processes have been known since the pioneering work of Burbidge, Burbidge, Fowler and Hoyle (l), we are now evolving into a condition where we can ask more specific questions. Of particular interest are the dynamics of the s ('slow') process. In this process the general condition is one in which sequential neutron captures occur at time scales long compared with the beta decay half lives of the capturing nuclides. The nucleosynthesis period for C or Ne burning stellar shells is believed to be in the year to few year time frame (2). This means that radionuclides with similar half lives to this burning period serve as 'branch point' nuclides. That is, there will be a competition between a capture to the next heavier isotope and a beta decay to the element of nexl higher atomic number. By understanding the abundances of these competing reactions we can learn about the dynamics of the nucleosynthesis process in the stellar medium. Crucial to this understanding is that we have a knowledge of the underlying neutron reaction cross sections on these unstable nuclides in the relevant stellar energy regions (neutrons of 0.1-100 KeV). Tm (1.9 years) and ls'Sm (90 ycws) have decay properties that permit their handling in an open fume hood. These Iwo were therefore selected to be the first radionuclides for neutron capture study in what will be an ongoing effort.

  1. Immigrant mothers and access to prenatal care: evidence from a regional population study in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Chiavarini, Manuela; Lanari, Donatella; Minelli, Liliana; Pieroni, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We addressed the question of whether use of adequate prenatal care differs between foreign-born and Italian mothers and estimated the extent to which unobservable characteristics bias results. Setting This study is on primary care and especially on adequate access to prenatal healthcare services by immigrant mothers. Participants Approximately 37 000 mothers of both Italian and foreign nationality were studied. Data were obtained from the Standard Certificate of Live Birth between 2005 and 2010 in Umbria. Results Estimates from the bivariate probit model indicate that immigrant mothers are three times more likely to make fewer than four prenatal visits (OR=3.35) and 1.66 times more likely to make a late first visit (OR=1.66). The effect is found to be strongest for Asian women. Conclusions Standard probit models lead to underestimation of the probability of inadequate use of prenatal care services by immigrant women, whereas bivariate probit models, which allow us to consider immigrant status as an endogenous variable, estimated ORs to be three times larger than those obtained with univariate models. PMID:26861935

  2. A longitudinal study of independent scholar-published open access journals.

    PubMed

    Björk, Bo-Christer; Shen, Cenyu; Laakso, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Open Access (OA) is nowadays increasingly being used as a business model for the publishing of scholarly peer reviewed journals, both by specialized OA publishing companies and major, predominantly subscription-based publishers. However, in the early days of the web OA journals were mainly founded by independent academics, who were dissatisfied with the predominant print and subscription paradigm and wanted to test the opportunities offered by the new medium. There is still an on-going debate about how OA journals should be operated, and the volunteer model used by many such 'indie' journals has been proposed as a viable alternative to the model adopted by big professional publishers where publishing activities are funded by authors paying expensive article processing charges (APCs). Our longitudinal quantitative study of 250 'indie' OA journals founded prior to 2002, showed that 51% of these journals were still in operation in 2014 and that the median number of articles published per year had risen from 11 to 18 among the survivors. Of these surviving journals, only 8% had started collecting APCs. A more detailed qualitative case study of five such journals provided insights into how such journals have tried to ensure the continuity and longevity of operations. PMID:27190709

  3. A longitudinal study of independent scholar-published open access journals

    PubMed Central

    Björk, Bo-Christer; Laakso, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Open Access (OA) is nowadays increasingly being used as a business model for the publishing of scholarly peer reviewed journals, both by specialized OA publishing companies and major, predominantly subscription-based publishers. However, in the early days of the web OA journals were mainly founded by independent academics, who were dissatisfied with the predominant print and subscription paradigm and wanted to test the opportunities offered by the new medium. There is still an on-going debate about how OA journals should be operated, and the volunteer model used by many such ‘indie’ journals has been proposed as a viable alternative to the model adopted by big professional publishers where publishing activities are funded by authors paying expensive article processing charges (APCs). Our longitudinal quantitative study of 250 ‘indie’ OA journals founded prior to 2002, showed that 51% of these journals were still in operation in 2014 and that the median number of articles published per year had risen from 11 to 18 among the survivors. Of these surviving journals, only 8% had started collecting APCs. A more detailed qualitative case study of five such journals provided insights into how such journals have tried to ensure the continuity and longevity of operations. PMID:27190709

  4. Challenges Women with Disability Face in Accessing and Using Maternal Healthcare Services in Ghana: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Ganle, John Kuumuori; Otupiri, Easmon; Obeng, Bernard; Edusie, Anthony Kwaku; Ankomah, Augustine; Adanu, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background While a number of studies have examined the factors affecting accessibility to and utilisation of healthcare services by persons with disability in general, there is little evidence about disabled women's access to maternal health services in low-income countries and few studies consult disabled women themselves to understand their experience of care and the challenges they face in accessing skilled maternal health services. The objective of this paper is to explore the challenges women with disabilities encounter in accessing and using institutional maternal healthcare services in Ghana. Methods and Findings A qualitative study was conducted in 27 rural and urban communities in the Bosomtwe and Central Gonja districts of Ghana with a total of 72 purposively sampled women with different physical, visual, and hearing impairments who were either lactating or pregnant at the time of this research. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were used to gather data. Attride-Stirling’s thematic network framework was used to analyse the data. Findings suggest that although women with disability do want to receive institutional maternal healthcare, their disability often made it difficult for such women to travel to access skilled care, as well as gain access to unfriendly physical health infrastructure. Other related access challenges include: healthcare providers’ insensitivity and lack of knowledge about the maternity care needs of women with disability, negative attitudes of service providers, the perception from able-bodied persons that women with disability should be asexual, and health information that lacks specificity in terms of addressing the special maternity care needs of women with disability. Conclusions Maternal healthcare services that are designed to address the needs of able-bodied women might lack the flexibility and responsiveness to meet the special maternity care needs of women with disability. More disability-related cultural competence and

  5. Bedouin-Arab women's access to antenatal care at the interface of physical and structural barriers: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Nora; Belmaker, Ilana; Bilenko, Natalya; Davidovitch, Nadav

    2011-01-01

    Since 2000, the Israeli Public Health Services have established eight Maternal-and-Child-Health (MCH) stations in unrecognised Bedouin-Arab villages in South Israel in order to reduce barriers to healthcare. The goals of this pilot study were: (1) to explore the new MCH stations' impact on antenatal care (ANC) accessibility; and (2) to compare access to ANC between women from villages with MCH stations and women from villages without MCH stations. The study combined quantitative and qualitative methods including structured interviews with 174 MCH service users, review of 158 ANC records and 16 in-depth interviews with Bedouin-Arab women. The establishment of MCH stations in unrecognised villages has improved physical access to ANC and secondarily diminished other barriers related to financial and sociocultural dimensions of women's access to healthcare, thus enhancing women's options for independent healthcare-seeking; yet, limited opening hours, staff shortages and communication problems hamper ANC delivery at the new MCH stations. This pilot study indicates that the MCH stations' establishment in unrecognised villages was a successful intervention, which improved women's access to ANC. Even though current service delivery challenges need to be overcome to achieve the intervention's full potential, its replication should be considered in further villages.

  6. Citizens' Access to Their Digital Health Data in Eleven Countries - A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Nohr, Christian; Wong, Ming Chao; Turner, Paul; Almond, Helen; Parv, Liisa; Gilstad, Heidi; Koch, Sabine; Harðardóttir, Guðrún Auður; Hyppönen, Hannele; Marcilly, Romaric; Sheik, Aziz; Day, Karen; Kushniruk, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Governments around the world are actively promoting citizens electronic access to their health data as one of a number of ways to respond to the challenges of health care delivery in the 21st century. While numerous approaches have been utilized it is evident from cross-country comparisons that there are different conceptualizations of: both the expected and desired roles for citizens in the management of their own health; the benefits that will be delivered by citizen access and how these benefits should be measured and benchmarked over-time. This paper presents comparative analyses of the methods by which citizens are provided with access to their own health data across 11 countries. The paper aims to stimulate debate on electronic citizen access to health data and the challenges of measuring benefit as well as reflection on capacity of different citizens to engage with e-health. PMID:27577472

  7. Citizens' Access to Their Digital Health Data in Eleven Countries - A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Nohr, Christian; Wong, Ming Chao; Turner, Paul; Almond, Helen; Parv, Liisa; Gilstad, Heidi; Koch, Sabine; Harðardóttir, Guðrún Auður; Hyppönen, Hannele; Marcilly, Romaric; Sheik, Aziz; Day, Karen; Kushniruk, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Governments around the world are actively promoting citizens electronic access to their health data as one of a number of ways to respond to the challenges of health care delivery in the 21st century. While numerous approaches have been utilized it is evident from cross-country comparisons that there are different conceptualizations of: both the expected and desired roles for citizens in the management of their own health; the benefits that will be delivered by citizen access and how these benefits should be measured and benchmarked over-time. This paper presents comparative analyses of the methods by which citizens are provided with access to their own health data across 11 countries. The paper aims to stimulate debate on electronic citizen access to health data and the challenges of measuring benefit as well as reflection on capacity of different citizens to engage with e-health.

  8. The Cost of More Accessible Higher Education: What Is the Monetary Value of the Various Academic Degrees? A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidovitch, Nitza; Byalsky, Michael; Soen, Dan; Sinuani-Stern, Zilla

    2013-01-01

    One of the main reasons for acquiring a Bachelor's Degree is the perception of higher education as a means of improving graduates' financial status. In light of the increased accessibility of higher education, a growing number of students hope to use their studies as a financial springboard. In the current study we sought to examine this…

  9. Negotiating Power and Access to Second Language Resources: A Study on Short-Term Chinese MBA Students in America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Xingsong

    2011-01-01

    By looking into a group of 13 Chinese master's in business administration students' study abroad experience in the United States, this study contends that being situated in the second language (L2) communicative context does not guarantee international students complete access to language and cultural resources in the host society. Due to limited…

  10. Access to medicines in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC): a scoping study

    PubMed Central

    Emmerick, Isabel Cristina Martins; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Azeredo, Thiago Botelho; Bigdeli, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess scientific publication and map research gaps on access to medicines (ATM) in Latin American and the Caribbean low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC). Design Scoping review. Two independent reviewers assessed studies for inclusion and extracted data from each study. Information sources Search strategies were developed and the following databases were searched: MEDLINE, ISI, SCOPUS and Lilacs, from 2000 to 2010. Eligibility criteria Research articles and reviews published in English, Spanish and Portuguese were included. Studies including only high-income countries were excluded, as well as those carried out in very limited settings and discussion papers. Results The 77 articles retained were categorised through consensus among the research team according to the level of the health system addressed, ATM domain and research issues covered. Publications on ATM have increased over time during the study period (r 0.93, p=0.00; R2 0.85). The top five countries covered were Brazil (68.8%), Mexico (15.6%), Colombia (11.7%), Argentina (10.4%) and Peru (10.4%). ‘Health services delivery’ and ‘patients, household and communities’ were the health system levels most frequently covered. The ATM domains ‘leadership and governance’, ‘sustainable financing, affordability and price of medicines’, ‘medicines selection and use’ and ‘availability of medicines’ were the top four explored. There are research gaps in important areas such as ‘human resources for health’, ‘global policies and human rights’, ‘production of medicines’ and ‘traditional medicine’. Conclusions The upward trend on scientific publication reflects a growing research capacity in the region, which is concentrated on research teams in selected countries. The gaps on research capacity could be overcome through research collaboration among countries. It is important to strengthen these collaborations, assuring that interests and needs from the LMIC are

  11. [Intraosseous access for in-hospital emergencies. Intensive medical care case study].

    PubMed

    Werner, M; Daniel, H-P; Hoitz, J

    2010-07-01

    Since the release of the 2005 resuscitation guidelines intraosseous infusion has been recognized as the favorite alternative vascular access in emergency patients. It is no longer restricted to paediatric emergencies but is also considered the vascular access of choice for adult patients with difficult venous access. Intraosseous access has been used in an increasing proportion of patients especially in an out-of-hospital emergency care setting while only limited experience exists for in-hospital usage of this technique. This article reports on a case of intraosseous access performed in a critically ill patient directly after admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) due to difficult peripheral venous access. Despite the extensive medical resources available in the ICU (i.e. central venous catheterization) less invasive means were used to render appropriate care. Based on this case different strategies of critical care and possible improvements will be discussed. Intraosseous infusion should be regarded as an infrequently needed but potentially life-saving procedure that is still too often considered as an option at later stages during in-hospital emergency care. PMID:20628712

  12. Mind the gap: An empirical study of post-trial access in HIV biomedical prevention trials.

    PubMed

    Haire, Bridget; Jordens, Christopher

    2015-08-01

    The principle of providing post-trial access for research participants to successful products of that research is widely accepted and has been enshrined in various declarations and guidelines. While recent ethical guidelines recognise that the responsibility to provide post-trial access extends to sponsors, regulators and government bodies as well as to researchers, it is the researchers who have the direct duty of care to participants. Researchers may thus need to act as advocates for trial participants, especially where government bodies, sponsors, and regulatory bodies have complex interests vested in decisions about whether or not new interventions are made available, how, and to whom. This paper provides an empirical account of post-trial access in the context of HIV prevention research. It describes both access to the successful products of research and the provision antiretroviral drugs for trial participants who acquire HIV. First, we provide evidence that, in the current system, there is considerable variation in the duration and timeliness of access. We then argue that by analysing the difficulties faced by researchers to this point, and their efforts to meet this obligation, much can be learned about how to secure post-trial access in HIV biomedical preventions trials. While researchers alone have a limited obligation, their advocacy on behalf of trial participants may be necessary to call the other parties to account. PMID:26193849

  13. RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF MICROORGANISMS ASSOCIATED WITH VASCULAR ACCESS INFECTIONS IN HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    D’Amato-Palumbo, S; Kaplan, AA; Feinn, RS; Lalla, RV

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess microorganisms associated with vascular access-associated infections (VAIs) in hemodialysis patients, with respect to possible origin from the mouth. Study Design A retrospective and comparative analysis of the microbes associated with VAI in hemodialysis patients treated during a 10-year period was performed using the Human Oral Microbiome Database (HOMD). Results Of 218 patient records identified, 65 patients collectively experienced 115 VAI episodes. The most common microorganisms involved were Staphylococcus aureus (49.6% of infections), Staphylococcus epidermidis (10.4%), Serratia marcescens (10.4%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.6%), and Enterococcus faecalis / fecum (8.7%). None of these was found in 1% or more of HOMD clone libraries, indicating that they very rarely colonize the teeth or plaque. Conclusions Most VAIs were associated with microorganisms more likely to originate from other body sites than from the oral cavity. The risk of a VAI being caused by microorganisms originating from the oral cavity is very small. PMID:23217535

  14. Impact on staff of improving access to the school breakfast program: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Haesly, Blair; Nanney, Marilyn S.; Coulter, Sara; Fong, Sherri; Pratt, Rebekah J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Project BREAK! was designed to test the efficacy of an intervention to increase student participation in the reimbursable School Breakfast Program (SBP). Two schools developed grab-n-go menus, added convenient serving locations, and allowed eating in the hallway. This follow-up study investigated faculty and staff perspectives of how the SBP changes influenced schools. METHODS Project BREAK! high schools were located near Minneapolis, Minnesota, enrolled over 1200 students each and were 70%–90% white. Interviews with school personnel (N=11) and focus groups with teachers (N=16) from the 2 intervention schools were conducted. The Diffusion of Innovation (DOI) framework guided the question development. RESULTS Analysis of the interviews identified the following DOI constructs as most prominently mentioned by school personnel and teachers: advantages for students and faculty/staff, minimal staff time required, communication of the changes, support of social relations between students and faculty/staff and trialability of the program. CONCLUSION There appears to be numerous advantages for both students and school personnel to improving SBP access. The relative advantages of Project BREAK! appear to outweigh the negatives associated with extra time and effort required by staff. Communication about the changes is an area that needs strengthening. PMID:24617910

  15. Assessing mouse alternatives to access to computer: a case study of a user with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Pousada, Thais; Pareira, Javier; Groba, Betania; Nieto, Laura; Pazos, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the process of assessment of three assistive devices to meet the needs of a woman with cerebral palsy (CP) in order to provide her with computer access and use. The user has quadriplegic CP, with anarthria, using a syllabic keyboard. Devices were evaluated through a three-step approach: (a) use of a questionnaire to preselect potential assistive technologies, (b) use of an eTAO tool to determine the effectiveness of each devised, and (c) a conducting semi-structured interview to obtain qualitative data. Touch screen, joystick, and trackball were the preselected devices. The best device that met the user's needs and priorities was joystick. The finding was corroborated by both the eTAO tool and the semi-structured interview. Computers are a basic form of social participation. It is important to consider the special needs and priorities of users and to try different devices when undertaking a device-selection process. Environmental and personal factors have to be considered, as well. This leads to a need to evaluate new tools in order to provide the appropriate support. The eTAO could be a suitable instrument for this purpose. Additional research is also needed to understand how to better match devices with different user populations and how to comprehensively evaluate emerging technologies relative to users with disabilities.

  16. Generating Targeted Gene Knockout Lines in Physcomitrella patens to Study Evolution of Stress-Responsive Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Maronova, Monika; Kalyna, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The moss Physcomitrella patens possesses highly efficient homologous recombination allowing targeted gene manipulations and displays many features of the early land plants including high tolerance to abiotic stresses. It is therefore an invaluable model organism for studies of gene functions and comparative studies of evolution of stress responses in plants. Here, we describe a method for generating targeted gene knockout lines in P. patens using a polyethylene glycol-mediated transformation of protoplasts including basic in vitro growth, propagation, and maintenance techniques.

  17. Accessibility Videos.

    PubMed

    Kurppa, Ari; Nordlund, Marika

    2016-01-01

    It can be difficult to understand accessibility, if you do not have the personal experience. The Accessibility Centre ESKE produced short videos which demonstrate the meaning of accessibility in different situations. Videos will raise accessibility awareness of architects, other planners and professionals in the construction field and maintenance. PMID:27534282

  18. Improved access to life insurance after genetic diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolaemia: cross-sectional postal questionnaire study.

    PubMed

    Huijgen, Roeland; Homsma, Sietske J M; Hutten, Barbara A; Kindt, Iris; Vissers, Maud N; Kastelein, John J P; van Rijckevorsel, Jan L A

    2012-07-01

    A decade ago, in the initial stage of genetic testing for familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) in The Netherlands, it was reported that such screening decreased access to affordable life insurance for mutation carriers. In 2003, in order to improve access to insurance for FH mutation carriers, insurers agreed to underwrite according to a set of guidelines. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed whether access to insurance has improved since the advent of these guidelines. We approached 2825 subjects that had participated in the genetic testing for FH between 1998 and 2003. We compared unconditional acceptance rates before and after FH diagnosis and before and after the guidelines were issued by means of logistic regression analysis. Our study outcome pertains to 414 FH patients who applied for life insurance. Unconditional acceptance of a policy before DNA diagnosis and before the issue of guidelines occurred in 182 out of 255 (71%) cases, versus 27 out of 35 (77%) cases after DNA diagnosis, but before the issue of guidelines. De facto, 107 out of 124 (86%) patients received unconditional acceptance after DNA diagnosis and after the issue of guidelines (P for trend=0.002). Access to life insurance improved for FH patients after molecular diagnosis and it improved even further after the guidelines were issued. Therefore, we argue that limited access to life insurance on the basis of 'DNA discrimination' is no longer a valid argument against genetic cascade testing for FH, at least not in our country.

  19. A systematic study of protein labeling by fluorogenic probes using cysteine targeting vinyl sulfone-cyclooctyne tags.

    PubMed

    Söveges, B; Imre, T; Szende, T; Póti, Á L; Cserép, G B; Hegedűs, T; Kele, P; Németh, K

    2016-07-01

    Fluorescent tagging of proteins via accessible cysteine residues is of paramount importance. In this study, model proteins of interest (mitogen-activated protein kinases) were labeled successfully in native state on their free thiols by direct fluorescence derivatization, or in a sequential manner where conjugation of the site specific linker and the fluorophore is carried out in two steps. To this end we designed and prepared two novel chemical reporters carrying vinyl sulfone as Cys targeting function and cyclooctyne motifs, suitable for subsequent conjugation with fluorogenic azides via copper free strain-promoted azide-alkyne click chemistry. Direct and sequential labeling reaction steps were analyzed by native PAGE, capillary zone electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry. The efficiency of tagging was correlated with solvent accessibility of the Cys residues. Our results indicated that conjugation of native proteins by vinyl sulfone linkers was fast and thiol-selective. Subsequent click reaction with fluorogenic dyes generates intensive fluorescence signals and fulfills all requirements of bioorthogonality. PMID:27244693

  20. Utilizing Task Shifting to Increase Access to Maternal and Infant Health Interventions: A Case Study of Midwives for Haiti.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Barbara O'Malley; Brunk, Nadene

    2016-01-01

    The shortage of health workers worldwide has been identified as a barrier to achieving targeted health goals. Task shifting has been recommended by the World Health Organization to increase access to trained and skilled birth attendants. One example of task shifting is the use of cadres of health care workers, such as nurses and auxiliary nurse-midwives, who can successfully deliver skilled care to women and infants in low-resource areas where women would otherwise lack access to critical health interventions during the childbearing years. Midwives for Haiti is an organization demonstrating the use of task shifting in its education program for auxiliary midwives. Graduates of the Midwives for Haiti education program are employed and working with women in hospitals, birth centers, and clinics across Haiti. This article reviews the Midwives for Haiti education program and presents successes and challenges in task shifting as a strategy to increase access to skilled maternal and newborn care and to meet international health goals to reduce maternal and infant mortality in a low-resource country. PMID:26824199

  1. Weekend Schoolyard Accessibility, Physical Activity, and Obesity: The Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls (TAAG) Study

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Molly M; Cohen, Deborah A; Evenson, Kelly R; Elder, John; Catellier, Diane; Ashwood, J. Scott; Overton, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To assess the accessibility and suitability of schools as recreational sites and to determine whether they are associated with young adolescent girls’ weekend metabolic equivalent-weighted moderate-to-vigorous (MW-MVPA) physical activity and body mass index (BMI). Methods We drew a half-mile (0.805 km) radius around the residences of participants in Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (n=1556) in Maryland, South Carolina, Minnesota, Louisiana, California, and Arizona. We visited all schools and parks within the defined distance and documented their amenities and accessibility on Saturdays in Spring 2003. Staff gathered data on each girls’ height and weight and used accelerometers to record weekend MW-MVPA. Results Schools represented 44% of potential neighborhood sites for physical activity. However, a third of schools were inaccessible on the Saturday we visited. Neighborhoods with locked schools were primarily non-white, older, more densely populated, and of lower socioeconomic status. Though there was no relationship between school accessibility on Saturdays and weekend MW-MVPA, the number of locked schools was associated with significantly higher BMI. Conclusions The lack of relationship between MW-MVPA and school accessibility may imply that young adolescent girls do not identify schools as recreational resources. However, due to the association between BMI and locked schools, efforts to stem the obesity epidemic should include making schools more accessible. PMID:17292958

  2. Analyzing green/open space accessibility by using GIS: case study of northern Cyprus cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kara, Can; Akçit, Nuhcan

    2015-06-01

    It is well known that green spaces are vital for increasing the quality of life within the urban environment. World Health Organization states that it should be 9 square meters per person at least. European Environment Agency defines that 5000 square meters of green space should be accessible within 300 meters distance from households. Green structure in Northern Cyprus is not sufficient and effective in this manner. In Northern Cyprus, they have neglected the urban planning process and they have started to lose significance and importance. The present work analyzes the accessibility of green spaces in Northern Cyprus cities. Kioneli, Famagusta, Kyrenia and the northern part of Nicosia are analyzed in this manner. To do that, green space structure is analyzed by using digital data. Additionally, accessibility of the green space is measured by using 300-meter buffers for each city. Euclidean distance is used from each building and accessibility maps are generated. Kyrenia and Famagusta have shortage in green space per capita. The amount of green space in these cities is less than 4 square meters. The factors affecting the accessibility and utilization of public spaces are discussed to present better solutions to urban planning.

  3. Thermal Studies of the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Target during Injection into the Fusion Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, R. R.; Havstad, M.; LeBlanc, M.; Chang, A.; Golosker, I.; Rosso, P.

    2014-09-09

    The tests of the external heat transfer coefficient suggests that the values used in the numerical analysis for the temperature distribution within the fusion fuel target following flight into the target chamber are probably valid. The tests of the heat transfer phenomena occurring within the target due the rapid heating of the LEH window for the hot gasses within the fusion chamber show that the heat does indeed convect via the internal helium environment of the target towards the capsule and that the pressure in the front compartment of the target adjacent to the LEH window increases such that t bypass venting of the internal helium into the second chamber adjacent to the capsule is needed to prevent rupture of the membranes. The bypass flow is cooled by the hohlraum during this venting. However, the experiments suggest that our internal heat flow calculations may be low by about a factor of 2. Further studies need to be conducted to investigate the differences between the experiment and the numerical analysis. Future studies could also possibly bring the test conditions closer to those expected in the fusion chamber to better validate the results. A sacrificial layer will probably be required on the LEH window of the target and this can be used to mitigate any unexpected target heating.

  4. In vitro study of deep capture of paramagnetic particle for targeting therapeutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Ning; Huang, Zheyong; Ma, Wenli; Ge, Junbo; Zheng, Wenling

    2009-09-01

    Magnetic targeting, a promising therapeutic strategy for localizing systemically delivered drug to target tissue, is limited by magnetic attenuation. To satisfy the need of deep magnetic targeting, a special apparatus in which the magnetic flux density can be focused at a distance from the pole was designed. To test the aggregation property of this apparatus, we observed the accumulation of 500-nm paramagnetic particles as flowing through a tube served as a model of blood vessels. The relationship of the accumulation of the paramagnetic particles, the magnetic flux density, the magnetic field gradient and the fluid velocity was studied by theoretical considerations.

  5. A Study on Automated Context-aware Access Control Model Using Ontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Bokman; Jang, Hyokyung; Choi, Euiin

    Applications in context-aware computing environment will be connected wireless network and various devices. According to, recklessness access of information resource can make trouble of system. So, access authority management is very important issue both information resource and adapt to system through founding security policy of needed system. But, existing security model is easy of approach to resource through simply user ID and password. This model has a problem that is not concerned about user's environment information. In this paper, propose model of automated context-aware access control using ontology that can more efficiently control about resource through inference and judgment of context information that collect user's information and user's environment context information in order to ontology modeling.

  6. On the possibility of the unification of drug targeting systems. Studies with liposome transport to the mixtures of target antigens.

    PubMed

    Trubetskoy, V S; Berdichevsky, V R; Efremov, E E; Torchilin, V P

    1987-03-15

    In order to make the drug targeting system more effective, simple and technological, we suggest creation of drug-bearing conjugates capable of simultaneous binding with different antigenic components of the target via specific antibodies. It is supposed that the targeted therapy should include sequential administration of the mixture of modified antibodies (or other specific vectors) against different components of affected tissue and, upon antibody accumulation in the desired region, administration of modified drugs or drug carrying systems which can recognize and bind with the target via accumulated antibodies due to the interaction between vector modifier and carrier modifier. Using as a model system monolayers consisting of the mixture of extracellular antigens and appropriated antibodies, it was shown that the treatment of the target with the mixture of biotinylated antibodies against all target components and subsequent binding with the target of biotinylated liposomes via avidin permits high liposome accumulation on the monolayer. The binding achieved is always higher than in the case of the utilization of single antibody-bearing liposomes. Besides, the system suggested is very simple and its components can be easily obtained on technological scale in standardized conditions.

  7. Home Schooling and the Request for Access to Public School Extracurricular Activities: A Legal and Policy Study of Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lett, David R.

    This paper reports on a study that examines legal and policy issues surrounding access to public-school extracurricular activities for home-school students. Chapter 1, "The Problem and Its Background," reviews such relevant issues as the history of choice in America and Illinois, legal foundations, regulatory disparities, research questions,…

  8. Reviews and Practice of College Students Regarding Access to Scientific Knowledge: A Case Study in Two Spanish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Jose Manuel Saez; Ruiz Ruiz, Jose Maria; Gonzalez, Maria-Luz Cacheiro

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the concepts, attitudes, and practices of 327 pedagogy students from two major Spanish universities related to the process of finding academic information utilizing open access. A training program has been developed through an innovation project (PIMCD) to address the problem of the lack of university training designed to…

  9. Neighbourhood Deprivation, Health Inequalities and Service Access by Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, S. A.; McConnachie, A.; Allan, L. M.; Melville, C.; Smiley, E.; Morrison, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs) experience health inequalities and are more likely to live in deprived areas. The aim of this study was to determine whether the extent of deprivation of the area a person lives in affects their access to services, hence contributing to health inequalities. Method: A cross-sectional study…

  10. Deconstructing the Student Experience on an Educational Studies Degree, with Reference to Student Choice, Access and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Angela Joy

    2011-01-01

    Educational studies as a discipline is now a feature in many British universities, but little research has been undertaken to explore what kinds of student choose the subject, how easily they access it or how they fare as undergraduate students. This article attempts to address this paucity of research by drawing on a selection of findings from a…

  11. Identifiability and Accessibility in Learning Definite Article Usages: A Quasi-Experimental Study with Japanese Learners of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinenoya, Kimiko; Lyster, Roy

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of instruction on the use of the definite article "the" by Japanese learners of English by implementing two instructional treatments that varied in the extent to which they emphasized identifiability and accessibility. One instructional treatment, referred to as the traditional (TR) treatment,…

  12. A study on new nursing information accessibility mechanism using the digital broadcasting network.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jina

    2006-01-01

    There have been efforts to add an interoperability function to TV systems. The digital technology has changed all our lifestyles. Now TV systems do indeed have interoperability functions. However, this means more than interoperable TV. It announces the birth of a digital broadcasting network (one-source and many-destination digital communication mechanism)--the new digital communication network as a broadcasting style. As a viewpoint of nursing informatics, this mechanism provides a new accessibility mechanism to structured and interoperable data. This paper introduces the technology and the basic scenarios on the data accessibility mechanism using the digital broadcasting network.

  13. A study on new nursing information accessibility mechanism using the digital broadcasting network.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jina

    2006-01-01

    There have been efforts to add an interoperability function to TV systems. The digital technology has changed all our lifestyles. Now TV systems do indeed have interoperability functions. However, this means more than interoperable TV. It announces the birth of a digital broadcasting network (one-source and many-destination digital communication mechanism)--the new digital communication network as a broadcasting style. As a viewpoint of nursing informatics, this mechanism provides a new accessibility mechanism to structured and interoperable data. This paper introduces the technology and the basic scenarios on the data accessibility mechanism using the digital broadcasting network. PMID:17102340

  14. Access to Transplantation and Transplant Outcome Measures (ATTOM): study protocol of a UK wide, in-depth, prospective cohort analysis

    PubMed Central

    Oniscu, Gabriel C; Ravanan, Rommel; Wu, Diana; Gibbons, Andrea; Li, Bernadette; Tomson, Charles; Forsythe, John L; Bradley, Clare; Cairns, John; Dudley, Christopher; Watson, Christopher J E; Bolton, Eleanor M; Draper, Heather; Robb, Matthew; Bradbury, Lisa; Pruthi, Rishi; Metcalfe, Wendy; Fogarty, Damian; Roderick, Paul; Bradley, J Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is significant intercentre variability in access to renal transplantation in the UK due to poorly understood factors. The overarching aims of this study are to improve equity of access to kidney and kidney–pancreas transplantation across the UK and to optimise organ allocation to maximise the benefit and cost-effectiveness of transplantation. Methods and analysis 6844 patients aged 18–75 years starting dialysis and/or receiving a transplant together with matched patients active on the transplant list from all 72 UK renal units were recruited between November 2011 and March 2013 and will be followed for at least 3 years. The outcomes of interest include patient survival, access to the transplant list, receipt of a transplant, patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) including quality of life, treatment satisfaction, well-being and health status on different forms of renal replacement therapy. Sociodemographic and clinical data were prospectively collected from case notes and from interviews with patients and local clinical teams. Qualitative process exploration with clinical staff will help identify unit-specific factors that influence access to renal transplantation. A health economic analysis will explore costs and outcomes associated with alternative approaches to organ allocation. The study will deliver: (1) an understanding of patient and unit-specific factors influencing access to renal transplantation in the UK, informing potential changes to practices and policies to optimise outcomes and reduce intercentre variability; (2) a patient-survival probability model to standardise access to the renal transplant list and (3) an understanding of PROMs and health economic impact of kidney and kidney–pancreas transplantation to inform the development of a more sophisticated and fairer organ allocation algorithm. Ethics and dissemination The protocol has been independently peer reviewed by National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) and

  15. The study of target damage assessment system based on image change detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ping; Yang, Fan; Feng, Xinxi

    2009-10-01

    Target Damage Assessment (TDA) system is an important component of the intelligent command and control system. The method of building TDA based on Image Change Detection can greatly improve the system efficiency and accuracy, thus get a fast and precise assessment results. This paper firstly analyzes the structure of TDA system. Then studies the key technology in this system. Finally, gives an evaluation criteria based on image change detection of the target damage assessment system.

  16. A scintillating fiber-optic active target (SFT) for studies of high energy photoproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Ruchti, R.; Baumbaugh, B.; Bishop, J.; Busenitz, J.; Cason, N.; Cunningham, J.; Gardner, R.; Kennedy, C.; Mannel, E.; Mountain, R.J.

    1988-02-01

    A high resolution, gateable, Scintillating Fiber Target (SFT) has been developed for Fermilab Experiment E687 to study charm and beauty particle production and decay in high energy photon interactions. The detector consists of a scintillating target of either GS1 Cerium glass fibers or polystyrene fibers of 29..mu..m cross section, a multi-stage image intensifier and an intensified CCD or SIT/VIDICON camera system used in conjunction with a custom-built video data acquisition system.

  17. Cross-sectional study of ethnic differences in the utility of area deprivation measures to target socioeconomically deprived individuals.

    PubMed

    Baker, Jessica; Mitchell, Richard; Pell, Jill

    2013-05-01

    Area deprivation measures provide a pragmatic tool for targeting public health interventions at socioeconomically deprived individuals. Ethnic minority groups in the UK experience higher levels of socioeconomic deprivation and certain associated diseases than the White population. The aim of this study was to explore ethnic differences in the utility of area deprivation measures as a tool for targeting socioeconomically deprived individuals. We carried out a cross-sectional study using the Health Survey for England 2004. 7208 participants aged 16-64 years from the four largest ethnic groups in England (White, Indian, Pakistani and Black Caribbean) were included. The main outcome measures were percentage agreement, sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of area deprivation, measured using Index of Multiple Deprivation 2004, in relation to individual socioeconomic position (measured by education, occupation, income, housing tenure and car access). We found that levels of both area and individual deprivation were higher in the Pakistani and Black Caribbean groups compared to the White group. Across all measures, agreement was lower in the Pakistani (50.9-63.4%) and Black Caribbean (61.0-70.1%) groups than the White (67.2-82.4%) group. However, sensitivity was higher in the Pakistani (0.56-0.64) and Black Caribbean (0.59-0.66) groups compared to the White group (0.24-0.38) and PPV was at least as high. The results for the Indian group were intermediate. We conclude that, in spite of lower agreement, area deprivation is better at identifying individual deprivation in ethnic minority groups. There was no evidence that area based targeting of public health interventions will disadvantage ethnic minority groups.

  18. Studies of Transverse-Momentum-Dependent Distributions with a Fixed-Target ExpeRiment Using the LHC Beams (AFTER@LHC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massacrier, L.; Anselmino, M.; Arnaldi, R.; Brodsky, S. J.; Chambert, V.; den Dunnen, W.; Didelez, J. P.; Genolini, B.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Fleuret, F.; Gao, Y.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hřivnáčová, I.; Lansberg, J. P.; Lorcé, C.; Mikkelsen, R.; Pisano, C.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Rosier, P.; Schienbein, I.; Schlegel, M.; Scomparin, E.; Trzeciak, B.; Uggerhøj, U. I.; Ulrich, R.; Yang, Z.

    2016-02-01

    We report on the studies of Transverse-Momentum-Dependent distributions (TMDs) at a future fixed-target experiment -AFTER@LHC- using the p+ or Pb ion LHC beams, which would be the most energetic fixed-target experiment ever performed. AFTER@LHC opens new domains of particle and nuclear physics by complementing collider-mode experiments, in particular those of RHIC and the EIC projects. Both with an extracted beam by a bent crystal or with an internal gas target, the luminosity achieved by AFTER@LHC surpasses that of RHIC by up to 3 orders of magnitude. With an unpolarised target, it allows for measurements of TMDs such as the Boer-Mulders quark distributions and the distribution of unpolarised and linearly polarised gluons in unpolarised protons. Using polarised targets, one can access the quark and gluon Sivers TMDs through single transverse-spin asymmetries in Drell-Yan and quarkonium production. In terms of kinematics, the fixed-target mode combined with a detector covering ηlab ∈ [1, 5] allows one to measure these asymmetries at large x↑ in the polarised nucleon.

  19. Magnetic Drug Targeting: Preclinical in Vivo Studies, Mathematical Modeling, and Extrapolation to Humans.

    PubMed

    Al-Jamal, Khuloud T; Bai, Jie; Wang, Julie Tzu-Wen; Protti, Andrea; Southern, Paul; Bogart, Lara; Heidari, Hamed; Li, Xinjia; Cakebread, Andrew; Asker, Dan; Al-Jamal, Wafa T; Shah, Ajay; Bals, Sara; Sosabowski, Jane; Pankhurst, Quentin A

    2016-09-14

    A sound theoretical rationale for the design of a magnetic nanocarrier capable of magnetic capture in vivo after intravenous administration could help elucidate the parameters necessary for in vivo magnetic tumor targeting. In this work, we utilized our long-circulating polymeric magnetic nanocarriers, encapsulating increasing amounts of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) in a biocompatible oil carrier, to study the effects of SPION loading and of applied magnetic field strength on magnetic tumor targeting in CT26 tumor-bearing mice. Under controlled conditions, the in vivo magnetic targeting was quantified and found to be directly proportional to SPION loading and magnetic field strength. Highest SPION loading, however, resulted in a reduced blood circulation time and a plateauing of the magnetic targeting. Mathematical modeling was undertaken to compute the in vivo magnetic, viscoelastic, convective, and diffusive forces acting on the nanocapsules (NCs) in accordance with the Nacev-Shapiro construct, and this was then used to extrapolate to the expected behavior in humans. The model predicted that in the latter case, the NCs and magnetic forces applied here would have been sufficient to achieve successful targeting in humans. Lastly, an in vivo murine tumor growth delay study was performed using docetaxel (DTX)-encapsulated NCs. Magnetic targeting was found to offer enhanced therapeutic efficacy and improve mice survival compared to passive targeting at drug doses of ca. 5-8 mg of DTX/kg. This is, to our knowledge, the first study that truly bridges the gap between preclinical experiments and clinical translation in the field of magnetic drug targeting. PMID:27541372

  20. New advanced technologies to provide decentralised and secure access to medical records: case studies in oncology.

    PubMed

    Quantin, Catherine; Coatrieux, Gouenou; Allaert, François André; Fassa, Maniane; Bourquard, Karima; Boire, Jean-Yves; de Vlieger, Paul; Maigne, Lydia; Breton, Vincent

    2009-08-07

    The main problem for health professionals and patients in accessing information is that this information is very often distributed over many medical records and locations. This problem is particularly acute in cancerology because patients may be treated for many years and undergo a variety of examinations. Recent advances in technology make it feasible to gain access to medical records anywhere and anytime, allowing the physician or the patient to gather information from an "ephemeral electronic patient record". However, this easy access to data is accompanied by the requirement for improved security (confidentiality, traceability, integrity, ...) and this issue needs to be addressed. In this paper we propose and discuss a decentralised approach based on recent advances in information sharing and protection: Grid technologies and watermarking methodologies. The potential impact of these technologies for oncology is illustrated by the examples of two experimental cases: a cancer surveillance network and a radiotherapy treatment plan. It is expected that the proposed approach will constitute the basis of a future secure "google-like" access to medical records.

  1. Access, Quality, and Opportunity: A Case Study of Zambia Open Community Schools (ZOCS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwalimu, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Community schools and other approaches to Alternative Primary Education or APE have increased access to primary education for underserved populations in Africa, Asia, and Latin America as a major goal of the Education for All (EFA) movement. In Zambia, a country where an estimated 20 percent of the basic education enrollment now attends community…

  2. Making Online Learning Accessible to Disabled Students: An Institutional Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Martyn

    2006-01-01

    Based on the authors' reflections on experience working at the Open University, approaches to making online learning accessible to disabled students are considered. The considerations are applicable to all concerned with online learning and indeed anyone seeking to trade, disseminate information and mediate services online. In reflecting on the…

  3. Experimental studies of access graph based heuristics: Beating the LRU standard?

    SciTech Connect

    Fiat, A.; Rosen, Z.

    1997-06-01

    In this paper we devise new paging heuristics motivated by the access graph model of paging. Unlike the access graph model and the related Markov paging model our heuristics are truly on-line in that we do not assume any prior knowledge of the program just about to be executed. The Least Recently Used heuristic for paging is remarkably good, and is known experimentally to be superior to many of the suggested alternatives on real program traces. Experiments we`ve performed suggest that our heuristics beat LRU fairly consistently, over a wide range of cache sizes and programs. The number of page faults can be as low as {1/2} the number of page faults for LRU and is on average 7 to 9 percent less than the number of faults for LRU. (Depending on how this average is computed.) We have built a program tracer that gives the page access sequence for real program executions of 200 - 3,300 thousand page access requests, and our simulations are based on 25 of these program traces. Overall, we have performed several thousand such simulations. While we have no real evidence to suggest that the programs we`ve traced are typical in any sense, we have made use of an experimental {open_quotes}protocol{close_quotes} designed to avoid experimenter bias. We strongly emphasize that our results are only preliminary and that much further work needs to be done.

  4. A Comparative Study on Java Technologies for Focus and Cursor Handling in Accessible Dynamic Interactions.

    PubMed

    Jitngernmadan, Prajaks; Miesenberger, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    For an interactive application, supporting and guiding the user in fulfilling tasks is most important. The behavior of the application that will guide users through the procedures until they finish the task has to be designed intuitively and well guiding, especially if the users has only restricted or no access to the visual and spatial arrangement on the screen. Therefore, the focus/cursor management plays an important role for orientation and navigating through the interaction. In the frame of ongoing research on a software tool supporting blind people in more efficiently doing mathematical calculations, we researched how Java technologies support implementing an accessible Graphical User Interface (GUI) with an additional focus on usable accessibility in terms of guiding blind users through the process of solving mathematical calculations. We used Java Swing [1] and Eclipse SWT [2] APIs for creating a series of prototypes. We tested a) accessibility and usability of the prototypes for blind people when using screen reader software and refreshable Braille display and b) the implementation support to developers provided by both technologies. It turned out that Eclipse SWT API delivered best results under Windows operating system. PMID:26294483

  5. Institutional Repositories, Open Access, and Scholarly Communication: A Study of Conflicting Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Rowena; Chawner, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    The Open Access movement of the past decade, and institutional repositories developed by universities and academic libraries as a part of that movement, have openly challenged the traditional scholarly communication system. This article examines the growth of repositories around the world, and summarizes a growing body of evidence of the response…

  6. New Advanced Technologies to Provide Decentralised and Secure Access to Medical Records: Case Studies in Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Quantin, Catherine; Coatrieux, Gouenou; Allaert, François André; Fassa, Maniane; Bourquard, Karima; Boire, Jean-Yves; de Vlieger, Paul; Maigne, Lydia; Breton, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    The main problem for health professionals and patients in accessing information is that this information is very often distributed over many medical records and locations. This problem is particularly acute in cancerology because patients may be treated for many years and undergo a variety of examinations. Recent advances in technology make it feasible to gain access to medical records anywhere and anytime, allowing the physician or the patient to gather information from an “ephemeral electronic patient record”. However, this easy access to data is accompanied by the requirement for improved security (confidentiality, traceability, integrity, ...) and this issue needs to be addressed. In this paper we propose and discuss a decentralised approach based on recent advances in information sharing and protection: Grid technologies and watermarking methodologies. The potential impact of these technologies for oncology is illustrated by the examples of two experimental cases: a cancer surveillance network and a radiotherapy treatment plan. It is expected that the proposed approach will constitute the basis of a future secure “google-like” access to medical records. PMID:19718446

  7. Exploring the Design, Development and Use of Websites through Accessibility and Usability Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Alan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, data obtained from a university website accessibility and usability validation process are analyzed and used to demonstrate how the design process can affect the online experience for users with disabilities. Interviews, observations, and use data (e.g. where users clicked on a page or what path taken through a site) were collected.…

  8. Outsourcing a High Speed Internet Access Project: An Information Technology Class Case Study in Three Parts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platt, Richard G.; Carper, William B.; McCool, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In early 2004, the Hilton Hotels Corporation (HHC) required that all of its hotels (both owned and franchised) install high-speed Internet access (HSIA) in all of their rooms by June 2004. This case focuses on how one of its franchise properties located on the northern gulf coast of Florida (the Hilton Sandestin Beach Golf Resort &…

  9. Public Internet Access Points (PIAPs) and Their Social Impact: A Case Study from Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afacan, Gulgun; Er, Erkan; Arifoglu, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Building public Internet access points (PIAPs) is a significant contribution of governments towards achieving an information society. While many developing countries are investing great amounts to establish PIAPs today, people may not use PIAPs effectively. Yet, the successful implementation of PIAPs is the result of citizens' acceptance to use…

  10. Patterns of Student Enrolment and Attrition in Australian Open Access Online Education: A Preliminary Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenland, Steven J.; Moore, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Swinburne University of Technology has experienced tremendous growth in open access online learning and as such is typical of the many Australian institutions that have ventured into online tertiary education. While research in online education continues to expand, comparatively little investigates students' enrolment and attrition. This research…

  11. A Case Study on Accessibility of School in Tribal Areas and Its Implications on Educational Inclusiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajankar, Vishal D.

    2016-01-01

    Schools accessibility has been areas of concern for the development and proliferation of the education system in any developing nation. India is no exception to the same. Since the time India gained independence efforts have been made to provide inclusiveness in the dissemination of educational facilities across the nation. However, geographical…

  12. Access to College: A Reconsideration of the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daun-Barnett, Nathan J.

    2013-01-01

    Student's access to college is influenced both by their level of academic preparation to do college-level work and the cost of participating in postsecondary education--on this point researchers and policy makers seem to agree (Perna, 2006). The relative importance of each, however, is very much a subject of disagreement and that debate has…

  13. The Contributions of Economics to the Study of College Access and Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Bridget Terry

    2007-01-01

    Background/Context: The essay provides a comprehensive review of work by economists and others in related quantitative disciplines on the transition of students to college. A particular emphasis is given to the role of price and financial aid although issues related to college preparation, access, and persistence are also investigated. The final…

  14. "Medical Education Online": A Case Study of an Open Access Journal in Health Professional Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, David J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The development of the World Wide Web (WWW) has made it possible of small groups of colleagues or even single individuals to create peer-reviewed scholarly journals. This paper discusses the development of Medical Education Online (MEO) an open access peer-reviewed journal in health professional education. Description: MEO was first…

  15. Factors that Prevent Children from Gaining Access to Schooling: A Study of Delhi Slum Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsujita, Yuko

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the factors that prevent slum children aged 5-14 from gaining access to schooling in light of the worsening urban poverty and sizable increase in rural-to-urban migration. Bias against social disadvantage in terms of gender and caste is not clearly manifested in schooling, while migrated children are less likely to attend…

  16. Making Physical Activity Accessible to Older Adults with Memory Loss: A Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logsdon, Rebecca G.; McCurry, Susan M.; Pike, Kenneth C.; Teri, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: For individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), memory loss may prevent successful engagement in exercise, a key factor in preventing additional disability. The Resources and Activities for Life Long Independence (RALLI) program uses behavioral principles to make exercise more accessible for these individuals. Exercises are broken…

  17. The Federal 504 Handicapped Access Regulations: A Case Study in Government-Higher Education Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Cornelia W.

    Development and implementation of the Federal 504 Handicapped Access Regulations of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the relationship between the government and higher education institutions are considered. The legislative history and overview of the regulations, institutional responses to the regulations, problems experienced by institutions…

  18. 76 FR 76927 - Port Access Route Study: The Atlantic Coast From Maine to Florida

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... they be located? (6) What are the pros and cons to the Coast Guard designating coastwise fairways or...'' column. If you do not have access to the internet, you may view the docket online by visiting the Docket... records notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73...

  19. Web-Based Online Public Access Catalogues of IIT Libraries in India: An Evaluative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madhusudhan, Margam; Aggarwal, Shalini

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to examine the various features and components of web-based online public access catalogues (OPACs) of IIT libraries in India with the help of a specially designed evaluation checklist. Design/methodology/approach: The various features of the web-based OPACs in six IIT libraries (IIT Delhi, IIT Bombay, IIT…

  20. Assessment and Access: Hispanics in Higher Education. SUNY Series, United States Hispanic Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Gary D., Ed.; And Others

    This book contains 10 papers on solutions and barriers to improving the access of Hispanic American students to higher education. Following an introductory essay on: "Advances in Assessment and the Potential for Increasing the Number of Hispanics in Higher Education" (G. D. Keller), the papers are organized into four parts. Papers in part I…

  1. Primary care access and its relationship with emergency department utilisation: an observational, cross-sectional, ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Matthew J; Patel, Brijesh; Bowen, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent health service policies in the UK have focused on improving primary care access in order to reduce the use of costly emergency department services, even though the relationship between the two is based on weak or little evidence. Research is required to establish whether improving primary care access can influence emergency department attendance. Aim To ascertain whether a relationship exists between the degree of access to GP practices and avoidable emergency department attendances in an inner-London primary care trust (PCT). Design and setting Observational, cross-sectional ecological study in 68 general practices in Brent Primary Care Trust, north London, UK. Method GP practices were used as the unit of analysis and avoidable emergency department attendance as the dependent variable. Routinely collected data from GP practices, Hospital Episode Statistics, and census data for the period covering 2007–2009 were used across three broad domains: GP access characteristics, population characteristics, and health status aggregated to the level of the GP practice. Multiple linear regression was used to ascertain which variables account for the variation in emergency department attendance experienced by patients registered to each GP practice. Results None of the GP access variables accounted for the variation in emergency department attendance. The only variable that explained this variance was the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD). For every unit increase in IMD score of the GP practice, there would be an increase of 6.13 (95% CI = 4.56, 7.70) per 1000 patients per year in emergency department attendances. This accounted for 47.9% of the variance in emergency department attendances in Brent. Conclusion Avoidable emergency department attendance appears to be mostly driven by underlying deprivation rather than by the degree of access to primary care. PMID:22137415

  2. Automated motion correction based on target tracking for dynamic nuclear medicine studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xinhua; Tetrault, Tracy; Fahey, Fred; Treves, Ted

    2008-03-01

    Nuclear medicine dynamic studies of kidneys, bladder and stomach are important diagnostic tools. Accurate generation of time-activity curves from regions of interest (ROIs) requires that the patient remains motionless for the duration of the study. This is not always possible since some dynamic studies may last from several minutes to one hour. Several motion correction solutions have been explored. Motion correction using external point sources is inconvenient and not accurate especially when motion results from breathing, organ motion or feeding rather than from body motion alone. Centroid-based motion correction assumes that activity distribution is only inside the single organ (without background) and uniform, but this approach is impractical in most clinical studies. In this paper, we present a novel technique of motion correction that first tracks the organ of interest in a dynamic series then aligns the organ. The implementation algorithm for target tracking-based motion correction consists of image preprocessing, target detection, target positioning, motion estimation and prediction, tracking (new search region generation) and target alignment. The targeted organ is tracked from the first frame to the last one in the dynamic series to generate a moving trajectory of the organ. Motion correction is implemented by aligning the organ ROIs in the image series to the location of the organ in the first image. The proposed method of motion correction has been applied to several dynamic nuclear medicine studies including radionuclide cystography, dynamic renal scintigraphy, diuretic renography and gastric emptying scintigraphy.

  3. Particle production and energy deposition studies for the neutrino factory target station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, John J.; Densham, Chris; Edgecock, Rob; Prior, Gersende

    2013-02-01

    We present FLUKA and MARS simulation studies of the pion production and energy deposition in the Neutrino Factory baseline target station, which consists of a 4 MW proton beam interacting with a liquid mercury jet target within a 20 T solenoidal magnetic field. We show that a substantial increase in the shielding is needed to protect the superconducting coils from too much energy deposition. Investigations reveal that it is possible to reduce the magnetic field in the solenoid capture system without adversely affecting the pion production efficiency. We show estimates of the amount of concrete shielding that will be required to protect the environment from the high radiation doses generated by the target station facility. We also present yield and energy deposition results for alternative targets: gallium liquid jet, tungsten powder jet, and solid tungsten bars.

  4. The acceptability and impact of a randomised controlled trial of welfare rights advice accessed via primary health care: qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Moffatt, Suzanne; Mackintosh, Joan; White, Martin; Howel, Denise; Sandell, Adam

    2006-01-01

    . Conclusion Participation in the trial and the intervention was acceptable to participants. Welfare rights advice targeted at people aged 60 years or over and accessed via primary care had a positive impact on quality of life and resulted in increased social participation. The divergence of qualitative and quantitative findings suggests that both methods make important contributions to the evaluation of complex social interventions. PMID:16790054

  5. Measuring Land Uses Accessibility by Using Fuzzy Majority Gis-Based Multicriteria Decision Analysis Case Study: Malayer City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taravat, A.; Yari, A.; Rajaei, M.; Mousavian, R.

    2014-10-01

    Public spaces accessibility has become one of the important factors in urban planning. Therefore, considerable attention has been given to measure accessibility to public spaces on the UK, US and Canada, but there are few studies outside the anglophone world especially in developing countries such as Iran. In this study an attempt has been made to measure objective accessibility to public spaces (parks, school, library and administrative) using fuzzy majority GIS-based multicriteria decision analysis. This method is for defining the priority for distribution of urban facilities and utilities as the first step towards elimination of social justice. In order to test and demonstrate the presented model, the comprehensive plan of Malayer city has been considered for ranking in three objectives and properties in view of index per capital (Green space, sport facilities and major cultural centers like library and access index). The results can be used to inform the local planning process and the GIS approach can be expanded into other local authority domains. The results shows that the distribution of facilities in Malayer city has followed on the base of cost benefit law and the human aspect of resource allocation programming of facilities (from centre to suburbs of the city).

  6. Accessible Near-Earth Objects (NEOs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbee, Brent W.

    2015-01-01

    Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are asteroids and comets whose orbits are in close proximity to Earth's orbit; specifically, they have perihelia less than 1.3 astronomical units. NEOs particularly near Earth asteroids (NEAs) are identified as potential destinations for future human exploration missions. In this presentation I provide an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding the astrodynamical accessibility of NEAs according to NASA's Near Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS). I also investigate the extremes of NEA accessibility using case studies and illuminate the fact that a space-based survey for NEOs is essential to expanding the set of known accessible NEAs for future human exploration missions.

  7. What Rural Women Want the Public Health Community to Know About Access to Healthful Food: A Qualitative Study, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Kristine; Peacock, Nadine R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Living in a rural food desert has been linked to poor dietary habits. Understanding community perspectives about available resources and feasible solutions may inform strategies to improve food access in rural food deserts. The objective of our study was to identify resources and solutions to the food access problems of women in rural, southernmost Illinois. Methods Fourteen focus groups with women (n = 110 participants) in 4 age groups were conducted in a 7-county region as part of a community assessment focused on women’s health. We used content analysis with inductive and deductive approaches to explore food access barriers and facilitators. Results Similar to participants in previous studies, participants in our study reported insufficient local food sources, which they believe contributed to poor dietary habits, high food prices, and the need to travel for healthful food. Participants identified existing local activities and resources that help to increase access, such as home and community gardens, food pantries, and public transportation, as well as local solutions, such as improving nutrition education and public transportation options. Conclusion Multilevel and collaborative strategies and policies are needed to address food access barriers in rural communities. At the individual level, education may help residents navigate geographic and economic barriers. Community solutions include collaborative strategies to increase availability of healthful foods through traditional and nontraditional food sources. Policy change is needed to promote local agriculture and distribution of privately grown food. Understanding needs and strengths in rural communities will ensure responsive and effective strategies to improve the rural food environment. PMID:27126555

  8. Pilot study of a targeted dance class for physical rehabilitation in children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    López-Ortiz, Citlali; Egan, Tara; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This pilot study evaluates the effects of a targeted dance class utilizing classical ballet principles for rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy on balance and upper extremity control. Methods: Twelve children with cerebral palsy (ages 7–15 years) with Gross Motor Function Classification scores II–IV participated in this study and were assigned to either a control group or targeted dance class group. Targeted dance class group participated in 1-h classes three times per week in a 4-week period. The Pediatric Balance Scale and the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test were administered before, after, and 1 month after the targeted dance class. Results: Improvements in the Pediatric Balance Scale were present in the targeted dance class group in before versus after and before versus 1 month follow-up comparisons (p-value = 0.0088 and p-value = 0.019, respectively). The Pediatric Balance Scale changes were not significant in the control group. The Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test did not reach statistical differences in either group. Conclusion: Classical ballet as an art form involves physical training, musical accompaniment, social interactions, and emotional expression that could serve as adjunct to traditional physical therapy. This pilot study demonstrated improvements in balance control. A larger study with a more homogeneous sample is warranted. PMID:27721977

  9. The AEROPATH project targeting Pseudomonas aeruginosa: crystallographic studies for assessment of potential targets in early-stage drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Moynie, Lucille; Schnell, Robert; McMahon, Stephen A.; Sandalova, Tatyana; Boulkerou, Wassila Abdelli; Schmidberger, Jason W.; Alphey, Magnus; Cukier, Cyprian; Duthie, Fraser; Kopec, Jolanta; Liu, Huanting; Jacewicz, Agata; Hunter, William N.; Naismith, James H.; Schneider, Gunter

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial infections are increasingly difficult to treat owing to the spread of antibiotic resistance. A major concern is Gram-negative bacteria, for which the discovery of new antimicrobial drugs has been particularly scarce. In an effort to accelerate early steps in drug discovery, the EU-funded AEROPATH project aims to identify novel targets in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa by applying a multidisciplinary approach encompassing target validation, structural characterization, assay development and hit identification from small-molecule libraries. Here, the strategies used for target selection are described and progress in protein production and structure analysis is reported. Of the 102 selected targets, 84 could be produced in soluble form and the de novo structures of 39 proteins have been determined. The crystal structures of eight of these targets, ranging from hypothetical unknown proteins to metabolic enzymes from different functional classes (PA1645, PA1648, PA2169, PA3770, PA4098, PA4485, PA4992 and PA5259), are reported here. The structural information is expected to provide a firm basis for the improvement of hit compounds identified from fragment-based and high-throughput screening campaigns. PMID:23295481

  10. Noteworthy clinical case studies in cancer gene therapy: tumor-targeted Rexin-G advances as an efficacious anti-cancer agent.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Erlinda M; Hall, Frederick L

    2010-06-01

    The advent of pathotropic (disease-seeking) targeting technology has ushered cancer gene therapy across the threshold of history, marking the beginning of a new epoch of medical praxis. For the first time, clinical oncologists can reach beyond the finest of catheters, beyond the reach of the most gifted surgeons, to the very fabric of metastatic disease in an effort to halt the progression and turn the tide of otherwise intractable cancers. The enabling molecular biotechnologies embodied in the leading tumor-targeted agent, Rexin-G, and its timely development as a safe and effective anti-cancer drug - from oncogene discovery and target validation, to molecular engineering of the core nanotechnologies, to the first clinical proofs-of principle, confirmatory trials, expanded access programs, and accelerated regulatory approvals - have been extensively documented in the medical literature. Therefore, this paper represents a final chapter, highlighting a series of noteworthy cases studies in the emergent field of targeted genetic medicine: case studies which, in and of themselves, reveal vital and important aspects of the molecular-genetic bio-pharmacology, advanced clinical protocols, refinement of patient monitoring, expanding treatment options, and strategic medical approaches to patient care that exemplify and thereby extend the established principles of pathotropic targeting and cancer gene therapy to a new generation of clinical practitioners.

  11. A Comparative Study of Multiplexing Schemes for Next Generation Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imtiaz, Waqas A.; Khan, Yousaf; Shah, Pir Mehar Ali; Zeeshan, M.

    2014-09-01

    Passive optical network (PON) is a high bandwidth, economical solution which can provide the necessary bandwidth to end-users. Wavelength division multiplexed passive optical networks (WDM PONs) and time division multiplexed passive optical networks (TDM PONs) are considered as an evolutionary step for next-generation optical access (NGOA) networks. However they fail to provide highest transmission capacity, efficient bandwidth access, and robust dispersion tolerance. Thus future PONs are considered on simpler, efficient and potentially scalable, optical code division multiplexed (OCDM) PONs. This paper compares the performance of existing PONs with OCDM PON to determine a suitable scheme for NGOA networks. Two system parameter are used in this paper: fiber length, and bit rate. Performance analysis using Optisystem shows that; for a sufficient system performance parameters i.e. bit error rate (BER) ≤ 10-9, and maximum quality factor (Q) ≥ 6, OCDMA PON efficiently performs upto 50 km with 10 Gbit/s per ONU.

  12. A comparative modeling and molecular docking study on Mycobacterium tuberculosis targets involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Fakhar, Zeynab; Naiker, Suhashni; Alves, Claudio N; Govender, Thavendran; Maguire, Glenn E M; Lameira, Jeronimo; Lamichhane, Gyanu; Kruger, Hendrik G; Honarparvar, Bahareh

    2016-11-01

    An alarming rise of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains and the continuous high global morbidity of tuberculosis have reinvigorated the need to identify novel targets to combat the disease. The enzymes that catalyze the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan in M. tuberculosis are essential and noteworthy therapeutic targets. In this study, the biochemical function and homology modeling of MurI, MurG, MraY, DapE, DapA, Alr, and Ddl enzymes of the CDC1551 M. tuberculosis strain involved in the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan cell wall are reported. Generation of the 3D structures was achieved with Modeller 9.13. To assess the structural quality of the obtained homology modeled targets, the models were validated using PROCHECK, PDBsum, QMEAN, and ERRAT scores. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to calculate root mean square deviation (RMSD) and radius of gyration (Rg) of MurI and MurG target proteins and their corresponding templates. For further model validation, RMSD and Rg for selected targets/templates were investigated to compare the close proximity of their dynamic behavior in terms of protein stability and average distances. To identify the potential binding mode required for molecular docking, binding site information of all modeled targets was obtained using two prediction algorithms. A docking study was performed for MurI to determine the potential mode of interaction between the inhibitor and the active site residues. This study presents the first accounts of the 3D structural information for the selected M. tuberculosis targets involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis.

  13. Numerical parametric study of buried target ground-penetrating radar signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Bosch, Idesbald C.; Druyts, Pascal; Acheroy, Marc; Huynen, Isabelle

    2006-05-01

    The assessment of the performances of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) in humanitarian demining is an important problem. These performances are related to the relative strength of the target radar response with respect to that of the soil. Many parameters influence both responses. The physical and geometrical parameters that influence the target signature include the soil electromagnetic (EM) constitutive parameters, the target depth and orientation with respect to the soil surface, the antenna height and the target EM and geometrical properties. This work presents a numerical parametric study of the soil and target radar signatures. The advantages of the numerical approach are: it allows for a separate study of the influence of each parameters on the radar responses, it is fast, cheap, generic with regards to hardware, and finally it is not prone to experimental errors and hardware failures or misuse. Moreover it is always possible to link the numerical experiments with a particular hardware by characterizing this latter. However, a number of simplifications, such as modeling the soil as a planar multilayered medium, are introduced to keep the problem tractable. This study yields surprising results, such as for example the possibility of considering the target in homogeneous space for computing its signature, as soon as it is a few centimeters deep. The target considered in the numerical experiments is a dielectric cylinder representing an AP mine, with diameter 6 cm and height 5 cm, and ɛ rt=3. These values are chosen to approach as much as possible the physical properties of the M35BG AP mine, which is small and therefore difficult to detect.

  14. Burglar Target Selection

    PubMed Central

    Townsley, Michael; Bernasco, Wim; Ruiter, Stijn; Johnson, Shane D.; White, Gentry; Baum, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study builds on research undertaken by Bernasco and Nieuwbeerta and explores the generalizability of a theoretically derived offender target selection model in three cross-national study regions. Methods: Taking a discrete spatial choice approach, we estimate the impact of both environment- and offender-level factors on residential burglary placement in the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and Australia. Combining cleared burglary data from all study regions in a single statistical model, we make statistical comparisons between environments. Results: In all three study regions, the likelihood an offender selects an area for burglary is positively influenced by proximity to their home, the proportion of easily accessible targets, and the total number of targets available. Furthermore, in two of the three study regions, juvenile offenders under the legal driving age are significantly more influenced by target proximity than adult offenders. Post hoc tests indicate the magnitudes of these impacts vary significantly between study regions. Conclusions: While burglary target selection strategies are consistent with opportunity-based explanations of offending, the impact of environmental context is significant. As such, the approach undertaken in combining observations from multiple study regions may aid criminology scholars in assessing the generalizability of observed findings across multiple environments. PMID:25866418

  15. Healthcare access and mammography screening in Michigan: a multilevel cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast cancer screening rates have increased over time in the United States. However actual screening rates appear to be lower among black women compared with white women. Purpose To assess determinants of breast cancer screening among women in Michigan USA, focusing on individual and neighborhood socio-economic status and healthcare access. Methods Data from 1163 women ages 50-74 years who participated in the 2008 Michigan Special Cancer Behavioral Risk Factor Survey were analyzed. County-level SES and healthcare access were obtained from the Area Resource File. Multilevel logistic regression models were fit using SAS Proc Glimmix to account for clustering of individual observations by county. Separate models were fit for each of the two outcomes of interest; mammography screening and clinical breast examination. For each outcome, two sequential models were fit; a model including individual level covariates and a model including county level covariates. Results After adjusting for misclassification bias, overall cancer screening rates were lower than reported by survey respondents; black women had lower mammography screening rates but higher clinical breast examination rates than white women. However, after adjusting for other individual level variables, race was not a significant predictor of screening. Having health insurance or a usual healthcare provider were the most important predictors of cancer screening. Discussion Access to healthcare is important to ensuring appropriate cancer screening among women in Michigan. PMID:22436125

  16. Study of spread spectrum multiple access systems for satellite communications with overlay on current services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ha, Tri T.; Pratt, Timothy

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of using spread spectrum techniques to provide a low-cost multiple access system for a very large number of low data terminals was investigated. Two applications of spread spectrum technology to very small aperture terminal (VSAT) satellite communication networks are presented. Two spread spectrum multiple access systems which use a form of noncoherent M-ary FSK (MFSK) as the primary modulation are described and the throughput analyzed. The analysis considers such factors as satellite power constraints and adjacent satellite interference. Also considered is the effect of on-board processing on the multiple access efficiency and the feasibility of overlaying low data rate spread spectrum signals on existing satellite traffic as a form of frequency reuse is investigated. The use of chirp is examined for spread spectrum communications. In a chirp communication system, each data bit is converted into one or more up or down sweeps of frequency, which spread the RF energy across a broad range of frequencies. Several different forms of chirp communication systems are considered, and a multiple-chirp coded system is proposed for overlay service. The mutual interference problem is examined in detail and a performance analysis undertaken for the case of a chirp data channel overlaid on a video channel.

  17. Study of spread spectrum multiple access systems for satellite communications with overlay on current services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Tri T.; Pratt, Timothy

    1989-05-01

    The feasibility of using spread spectrum techniques to provide a low-cost multiple access system for a very large number of low data terminals was investigated. Two applications of spread spectrum technology to very small aperture terminal (VSAT) satellite communication networks are presented. Two spread spectrum multiple access systems which use a form of noncoherent M-ary FSK (MFSK) as the primary modulation are described and the throughput analyzed. The analysis considers such factors as satellite power constraints and adjacent satellite interference. Also considered is the effect of on-board processing on the multiple access efficiency and the feasibility of overlaying low data rate spread spectrum signals on existing satellite traffic as a form of frequency reuse is investigated. The use of chirp is examined for spread spectrum communications. In a chirp communication system, each data bit is converted into one or more up or down sweeps of frequency, which spread the RF energy across a broad range of frequencies. Several different forms of chirp communication systems are considered, and a multiple-chirp coded system is proposed for overlay service. The mutual interference problem is examined in detail and a performance analysis undertaken for the case of a chirp data channel overlaid on a video channel.

  18. Generating Targeted Gene Knockout Lines in Physcomitrella patens to Study Evolution of Stress-Responsive Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Maronova, Monika; Kalyna, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The moss Physcomitrella patens possesses highly efficient homologous recombination allowing targeted gene manipulations and displays many features of the early land plants including high tolerance to abiotic stresses. It is therefore an invaluable model organism for studies of gene functions and comparative studies of evolution of stress responses in plants. Here, we describe a method for generating targeted gene knockout lines in P. patens using a polyethylene glycol-mediated transformation of protoplasts including basic in vitro growth, propagation, and maintenance techniques. PMID:26867627

  19. A metasynthesis of qualitative studies regarding opinions and perceptions about barriers and determinants of health services’ accessibility in economic migrants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Access to health services is an important health determinant. New research in health equity is required, especially amongst economic migrants from developing countries. Studies conducted on the use of health services by migrant populations highlight existing gaps in understanding which factors affect access to these services from a qualitative perspective. We aim to describe the views of the migrants regarding barriers and determinants of access to health services in the international literature (1997–2011). Methods A systematic review was conducted for Qualitative research papers (English/Spanish) published in 13 electronic databases. A selection of articles that accomplished the inclusion criteria and a quality evaluation of the studies were carried out. The findings of the selected studies were synthesised by means of metasynthesis using different analysis categories according to Andersen’s conceptual framework of access and use of health services and by incorporating other emergent categories. Results We located 3,025 titles, 36 studies achieved the inclusion criteria. After quality evaluation, 28 articles were definitively synthesised. 12 studies (46.2%) were carried out in the U.S and 11 studies (42.3%) dealt with primary care services. The participating population varied depending mainly on type of host country. Barriers were described, such as the lack of communication between health services providers and migrants, due to idiomatic difficulties and cultural differences. Other barriers were linked to the economic system, the health service characteristics and the legislation in each country. This situation has consequences for the lack of health control by migrants and their social vulnerability. Conclusions Economic migrants faced individual and structural barriers to the health services in host countries, especially those with undocumented situation and those experimented idiomatic difficulties. Strategies to improve the structures of

  20. Heavy density liquid metal spallation target studies for Indian ADS programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satyamurthy, P.; Gantayet, L. M.; Ray, A. K.

    2007-02-01

    Department of Atomic Energy, India has taken up the development of ADS in view of many attractive features like inherent safety, capability to transmute large quantities of nuclear waste, better utilization of thorium etc. A roadmap has been finalized for the development of ADS. One of the key components of the ADS is the spallation target. Considering the neutron yield, thermal-hydraulics and radiation damage issues, we are proposing to develop spallation target based on heavy density liquid metals like lead and lead{bismuth{eutectic (LBE). Both window and windowless target configurations are presently being studied. In view of the various advantages we are also studying liquid metal flow circulation based on gas lift mechanism. An R&D programme has been initiated to address various physics and technology issues of ADS target. Under this programme, mercury and LBE experimental facilities are presently being set up. Along with these facilities, computational tools related to spallation physics (FLUKA) and CFD are being developed, and the existing ones are utilized to design the entire target loop as well as sub-systems. In this presentation the details of these activities are presented.

  1. Active target studies of the αp-process at CRIB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahl, D.; Hashimoto, T.; Duy, N. N.; Kubono, S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Binh, D. N.; Chen, A. A.; Cherubini, S.; Hayakawa, S.; He, J. J.; Ishiyama, H.; Iwasa, N.; Khiem, L. H.; Kwon, Y. K.; Michimasa, S.; Nakao, T.; Ota, S.; Teranishi, T.; Tokieda, H.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Yamada, T.; Zhang, L. Y.

    2014-05-01

    The αp-process is a sequence of (α, p)(p, γ) reactions important to the nuclear trajectory to higher masses in type I X-ray bursts. Specifically, the αp-process is schematically pure helium-burning, and thus unlike pure hydrogen-burning processes, does not require slow β+ decays. Explosive helium burning is responsible for the observed short rise-times of X-ray bursts but ultimately gives way to the rp-process as the Coulomb barrier increases. Because the stellar reaction rates of these (α, p) reactions are poorly known over the relevant astrophysical energies, we performed systematic studies of the 18Ne(α,p), 22Mg(α,p) and 30S(α,p) reactions at the Center for Nuclear Study (CNS) low-energy radioactive ion beam separator, called CRIB. We produce the radioactive beams in-flight and scan the center-of-mass energy down into the Gamow Window using a thick target in inverse kinematics. The helium target gas also serves as part of the detector system, an active target, which was newly designed for these measurements. The active target, which uses gas electron multiplier (GEM) foils, allows for higher beam injection rates than previous multi-sampling and tracking proportional counters (MSTPC). We present a summary of our recent results from these active target experiments at CRIB.

  2. Active target studies of the αp-process at CRIB

    SciTech Connect

    Kahl, D.; Yamaguchi, H.; Michimasa, S.; Nakao, T.; Ota, S.; Tokieda, H.; Hashimoto, T.; Duy, N. N.; Khiem, L. H.; Kubono, S.; Binh, D. N.; Chen, A. A.; Cherubini, S.; Hayakawa, S.; He, J. J.; Zhang, L. Y.; Ishiyama, H.; Iwasa, N.; Yamada, T.; Kwon, Y. K.; and others

    2014-05-02

    The αp-process is a sequence of (α, p)(p, γ) reactions important to the nuclear trajectory to higher masses in type I X-ray bursts. Specifically, the αp-process is schematically pure helium-burning, and thus unlike pure hydrogen-burning processes, does not require slow β{sup +} decays. Explosive helium burning is responsible for the observed short rise-times of X-ray bursts but ultimately gives way to the rp-process as the Coulomb barrier increases. Because the stellar reaction rates of these (α, p) reactions are poorly known over the relevant astrophysical energies, we performed systematic studies of the {sup 18}Ne(α,p), {sup 22}Mg(α,p) and {sup 30}S(α,p) reactions at the Center for Nuclear Study (CNS) low-energy radioactive ion beam separator, called CRIB. We produce the radioactive beams in-flight and scan the center-of-mass energy down into the Gamow Window using a thick target in inverse kinematics. The helium target gas also serves as part of the detector system, an active target, which was newly designed for these measurements. The active target, which uses gas electron multiplier (GEM) foils, allows for higher beam injection rates than previous multi-sampling and tracking proportional counters (MSTPC). We present a summary of our recent results from these active target experiments at CRIB.

  3. Non-target language processing in Chinese-English bilinguals: a study of event-related potential.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Fan, Meng; Sun, Bing; Wang, Ruiming; Mo, Lei; Zhang, John Xuexin

    2012-06-01

    The event-related brain potential (ERP) technique was used to investigate the neural mechanism of non-target language processing in Chinese-English bilinguals. Participants were presented with a mixed list of Chinese and English words and required to make conceptual decisions for words in one language and ignore words in the other non-target language. Regardless of whether the nontarget word was in Chinese or English, the ERPs they elicited were modulated by word frequency, suggesting that their meaning had been accessed. The N400 peak was delayed in the English as the non-target language condition, probably because participants were less proficient in English. The results suggest that the non-target language can be processed during conceptual tasks with participants' proficiency in this language being a critical factor.

  4. Transmission grid access and pricing in Norway, Spain, and California: A comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Gronli, H.; Gomez San Ramon, T.; Marnay, C.

    1999-09-01

    The openness of the transmission grid and the incentives given by transmission pricing form the foundation for retail and wholesale competition in the electricity market. The deregulated markets of Norway, Spain, and California all have introduced retail access and wholesale competition, although with different approaches to pricing of transmission grid services. This paper will briefly describe the three different solutions, and discuss some of their implications. Of the three electricity systems, Norway was the first to open the grid to competition in electricity trade. The Norwegian Energy Law of 1990 introduced open competition to wholesale and retail trade starting January 1991. In Spain, the Electricity Law of 1997 came into force early in 1998. Wholesale and retail markets in California were opened for competition on April 1, 1998, following the passage of Assembly Bill 1890, in August 1996. Introducing competition in electricity markets also implies introducing Third Party Access to the transmission grid. All potential competitors have to be given access to the grid in order to compete, no matter who owns the actual wires. This principle raises several challenges, notably, how to price transmission services. Who is to pay for which transmission services? The Norwegian grid is divided into three levels depending on its function. The transmission grid includes all parts of the national grid having a transmission function, meaning that some lower voltage levels also are included. In Spain, the definition of the transmission grid is similar, including the 400 kV and 220 kV national grid as well as lower voltage installations that could affect transmission operation or generation dispatch. For historic reasons, wholesale electricity transactions in the US are regulated by the federal government through the FERC. However, operations of utility systems within one state fall primarily under state jurisdiction. Because the utility systems in California generally are

  5. Access to the Superficial Femoral Artery in the Presence of a 'Hostile Groin': A Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, Adrian J.; Lotzof, Kevin; Howard, Adam

    2007-06-15

    Purpose. Lower limb angioplasty is commonly performed via antegrade common femoral artery (CFA) puncture, followed by selective superficial femoral artery (SFA) catheterization. Arterial access can be complicated by a 'hostile groin' (scarring, obesity, or previous failed CFA puncture). We prospectively investigated color duplex ultrasound (CDU)-guided SFA access for radiological interventions. Methods. Antegrade CDU-guided CFA and SFA puncture were compared in 30 patients requiring intervention for severe leg ischemia who had hostile groins. Demographics, screen time, radiation dose, intervention, and complications were prospectively recorded. Results. Treatment in 30 patients involved 44 angioplasties (40 transluminal, 4 subintimal) and 2 diagnostic angiograms. Fifteen of these patients had CDU-guided CFA punctures; in 8 of these patients CDU-guided CFA puncture 'failed' (i.e., there was failure to pass a guidewire or catheter into the CFA or SFA), necessitating immediate direct CDU-guided SFA puncture. Overall, the mean screen time and radiation dosage, via direct CDU-guided SFA puncture in 30 patients, was 4.8 min and 464 Gy cm{sup 2} respectively. With CDU-guided CFA puncture, mean screen time (10 min), radiation dose (2023 Gy cm{sup 2}), and complications (13%) were greater when compared with the SFA puncture results overall and in the same patients at subsequent similar procedures (2.7 min, 379 Gy cm{sup 2} (p < 0.05), no complications in this subgroup). Five complications occurred: 2 each at CFA and SFA entry sites, and 1 angioplasty embolus. Conclusions. The CDU-guided SFA puncture technique was both more effective than CDU-guided CFA access in patients with scarred groins, obesity, or failed CFA punctures and safer, with reduced screen times, radiation doses, and complications.

  6. Cardiovascular events in Japan. Lessons from the J-ACCESS multicenter prognostic study using myocardial perfusion imaging.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Kenichi; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2012-01-01

    The multicenter Japanese-Assessment of Cardiac Events and Survival Study by Quantitative Gated SPECT (J-ACCESS), which involved 117 institutions and 4,629 patients, was the first attempt to quantify cardiac events and survival using stress-rest-gated single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion images (MPI) and QGS software in Japan. A 3-year follow-up study showed a relatively lower incidence of hard events than in the USA and some European countries, but a similar role of perfusion and left ventricular (LV) function. A low event risk with normal MPI and a higher incidence of major cardiac events in patients with large perfusion defects and LV dysfunction were defined. MPI was useful even among patients with proven coronary artery stenosis. The association between diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) was an important predictor of cardiac events and the risk was evaluated using new software and risk charts. Additional studies were extended to include asymptomatic diabetes (J-ACCESS 2) and CKD (J-ACCESS 3). Because risk estimation is linked to the national healthcare system and clinical practice, optimal risk stratification and guidance for therapeutic strategies are recommended.

  7. The Palliative Care Information Act and Access to Palliative Care in Terminally ill Patients: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Victoria, Kitty; Patel, Sarita

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that over 50% of end-of-life discussions take place for the first time in the hospital and that terminally ill patients often have unrealistic views regarding the possible scope of treatment. The Palliative Care information Act (PCIA) was passed in an attempt to address the lack of access for terminally ill patients to palliative care services. A multi-database systematic review was performed on published studies from 2010 to present, and there were none found measuring the effectiveness of the PCIA. Objectives: We aimed to study the effect of the PCIA on access to palliative care services. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of all terminally ill patients who died at Kingsbrook Jewish Medical Center from January 2010 to August 2013 in relation to passing of the PCIA. Results: Prelaw (prior to the law passing), 12.3% of the terminal patients received palliative care consults, 25% during the transition period (time between passing of law and when it came into effect) and 37.7% postlaw (after coming into effect) (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Legislation can have a significant effect on terminally ill patient's access to palliative care services and can change the culture of a hospital to be more pro-palliative for the appropriate populations. PMID:27803564

  8. Is Privacy at Risk when Commercial Websites Target Primary School Children? A Case Study in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sora; Yi, Soon-Hyung

    2010-01-01

    This study discusses privacy risk factors when commercial web sites target primary school children in Korea. Specifically, the authors examined types of personal information required for membership subscriptions and whether privacy policies at commercial sites for children abide by privacy guidelines. A total of 159 commercial sites targeting…

  9. Versatile gas gun target assembly for studying blast wave mitigation in materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartyczak, S.; Mock, W., Jr.

    2012-03-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has become a serious problem for military personnel returning from recent conflicts. This has increased interest in investigating blast mitigating materials for use in helmets. In this paper we describe a new versatile target assembly that is used with an existing gas gun for studying these materials.

  10. Hitting the TARGET? A Case Study of the Experiences of Teachers in Steel Mill Learning Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Amy D.; Jeris, Laurel; Smith, Robert

    Part of a larger study on the experience of teaching in the steel mill learning environment was an inquiry focused on professional development. Teachers and coordinators were all members of the Teachers Action Research Group for Educational Technology (TARGET), a group of adult educators interested in improving learning and teaching in career…

  11. The fixed target experiment for studies of baryonic matter at the Nuclotron (BM@N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapishin, Mikhail

    2016-08-01

    BM@N (Baryonic Matter at Nuclotron) is the first experiment to be realized at the accelerator complex of NICA-Nuclotron. The aim of the BM@N experiment is to study interactions of relativistic heavy-ion beams with fixed targets. The BM@N setup, results of Monte Carlo simulations and the BM@N experimental program are presented.

  12. Neoadjuvant Window Studies of Metformin and Biomarker Development for Drugs Targeting Cancer Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lord, Simon R; Patel, Neel; Liu, Dan; Fenwick, John; Gleeson, Fergus; Buffa, Francesca; Harris, Adrian L

    2015-05-01

    There has been growing interest in the potential of the altered metabolic state typical of cancer cells as a drug target. The antidiabetes drug, metformin, is now under intense investigation as a safe method to modify cancer metabolism. Several studies have used window of opportunity in breast cancer patients before neoadjuvant chemotherapy to correlate gene expression analysis, metabolomics, immunohistochemical markers, and metabolic serum markers with those likely to benefit. We review the role metabolite measurement, functional imaging and gene sequencing analysis play in elucidating the effects of metabolically targeted drugs in cancer treatment and determining patient selection. PMID:26063894

  13. A scintillating fiber-optic active target (SFT) for studies of high energy photoproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Ruchti, R.; Baumbaugh, B.; Bishop, J.; Busenitz, J.; Cason, N.; Cunningham, J.; Gardner, R.; Kennedy, C.; Mannel, E.; Mountain, R.J.

    1987-10-01

    A high resolution, gateable, Scintillating Fiber Target (SFT) has been developed for Fermilab Experiment E687 to study charm and beauty particle production and decay in high energy photon interactions. The detector consists of a scintillating target of either GS1 Cerium glass fibers or polystyrene fibers of 29..mu..m cross section, a multi-stage image intensifier and an intensified CCD or SIT/VIDICON camera system used in conjunction with a custom-built video data acquisition system. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Student Empowerment. The Influence of High Computer Access on Student Empowerment (An Exploratory Study of the Nashville ACOT Site). ACOT Report #1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Charles W.

    This study identifies classroom conditions that affect student empowerment and examines the relationship between student empowerment and high computer access (HCA). The study involved observation in two fourth grade classrooms--one week in an ACOT classroom (with high computer access), and one week in a non-ACOT classroom (without high computer…

  15. Recent results from the NN-interaction studies with polarized beams and targets at ANKE-COSY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dymov, Sergey

    2016-02-01

    Adding to the nucleon-nucleon scattering database is one of the major priorities of the ANKE collaboration. Such data are necessary ingredients, not only for the understanding of nuclear forces, but also for the description of meson production and other nuclear reactions at intermediate energies. By measuring the cross section, deuteron analysing powers, and spin-correlation parameters in the dp → {pp}sn reaction, where {pp}s represents the 1S0 state, information has been obtained on small-angle neutron-proton spin-flip charge-exchange amplitudes. The measurements of pp elastic scattering by the COSY-EDDA have had a major impact on the partial wave analysis of this reaction above 1 GeV. However, these experiments only extended over the central region of c.m. angles, 300 < θcm < 1500, that has left major ambiguities in the phase shift analysis by the SAID group. In contrast, the small angle region is accessible at ANKE-COSY, that allowed measurement of the differential cross section and the analysing power at 50 < θcm < 300 in the 0.8 — 2.8 GeV energy range. The data on the pn elastic scattering are much more scarce than those of pp, especially in the region above 1.15 GeV. The study of the dp → {pp}s n reaction provides the information about the pn elastic scattering at large angles. The small angle scattering was studied with the polarized proton COSY beam and an unpolarised deuterium gas target. The detection the spectator proton in the ANKE vertex silicon detector allowed to use the deuterium target as an effective neutron one. The analysing powers of the process were obtained at six beam energies from 0.8 to 2.4 GeV.

  16. A USANS/SANS study of the accessibility of pores in the Barnett Shale to methane and water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Sakurovs, Richard; Blach, Tomasz P.; He, Lilin; Melnichenko, Yuri B.; Mildner, David F.; Alcantar-Lopez, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Shale is an increasingly important source of natural gas in the United States. The gas is held in fine pores that need to be accessed by horizontal drilling and hydrofracturing techniques. Understanding the nature of the pores may provide clues to making gas extraction more efficient. We have investigated two Mississippian Barnett Shale samples, combining small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultrasmall-angle neutron scattering (USANS) to determine the pore size distribution of the shale over the size range 10 nm to 10 μm. By adding deuterated methane (CD4) and, separately, deuterated water (D2O) to the shale, we have identified the fraction of pores that are accessible to these compounds over this size range. The total pore size distribution is essentially identical for the two samples. At pore sizes >250 nm, >85% of the pores in both samples are accessible to both CD4 and D2O. However, differences in accessibility to CD4 are observed in the smaller pore sizes (~25 nm). In one sample, CD4 penetrated the smallest pores as effectively as it did the larger ones. In the other sample, less than 70% of the smallest pores (4, but they were still largely penetrable by water, suggesting that small-scale heterogeneities in methane accessibility occur in the shale samples even though the total porosity does not differ. An additional study investigating the dependence of scattered intensity with pressure of CD4 allows for an accurate estimation of the pressure at which the scattered intensity is at a minimum. This study provides information about the composition of the material immediately surrounding the pores. Most of the accessible (open) pores in the 25 nm size range can be associated with either mineral matter or high reflectance organic material. However, a complementary scanning electron microscopy investigation shows that most of the pores in these shale samples are contained in the organic components. The neutron scattering results indicate that the pores are

  17. Experimental study of radiation power flux on the target surface during high heat plasma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litunovsky, V. N.; Ovchinnikov, I. B.; Titov, V. A.

    2001-03-01

    Some new data of the experimental study of visible radiation from the plasma shielding layer (SL) on the target surface during high heat plasma-material interaction are given in the report. The experiments were performed on the VIKA facility. Long pulse ( τp=0.36 ms) high power ( Pirr˜100 GW m -2 plasma streams were used for irradiation of graphite and tungsten samples. The target inclination ( α=0° normal irradiation; 45°; 70°) and magnetic field ( B=0 to 3 T) were varied in experiments. It is shown that the values of ( Δλ≈400 to 700 nm) visible radiation power flux (VRPF) on the target surface can be characterised by the level of PR˜1 GW m -2 for normal irradiation in the presence of a magnetic field B=2 to 3 T. Inclination of targets leads to the reduction of this flux in conformity with the corresponding decrease of the irradiation power. The material of the target does not influence sufficiently on the level of the incident radiation power flux in the performed experiments.

  18. Accessing characters in spoken Chinese disyllables: An ERP study on the resolution of auditory ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuqian; Huang, Guoliang; Huang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Chinese differs from most Indo-European languages in its phonological, lexical, and syntactic structures. One of its unique properties is the abundance of homophones at the monosyllabic/morphemic level, with the consequence that monosyllabic homophones are all ambiguous in speech perception. Two-morpheme Chinese words can be composed of two high homophone-density morphemes (HH words), two low homophone-density morphemes (LL words), or one high and one low homophone-density morphemes (LH or HL words). The assumption of a simple inhibitory homophone effect is called into question in the case of disyllabic spoken word recognition, in which the recognition of one morpheme is affected by semantic information given by the other. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were used to trace on-line competitions among morphemic homophones in accessing Chinese disyllables. Results showing significant differences in ERP amplitude when comparing LL and LH words, but not when comparing LL and HL words, suggested that the first morpheme cannot be accessed without feedback from the second morpheme. Most importantly, analyses of N400 amplitude among different densities showed a converse homophone effect in which LL words, rather than LH or HL words, triggered larger N400. These findings provide strong evidence of a dynamic integration system at work during spoken Chinese disyllable recognition. PMID:26589544

  19. Multi-lingual search engine to access PubMed monolingual subsets: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Darmoni, Stéfan J; Soualmia, Lina F; Griffon, Nicolas; Grosjean, Julien; Kerdelhué, Gaétan; Kergourlay, Ivan; Dahamna, Badisse

    2013-01-01

    PubMed contains many articles in languages other than English but it is difficult to find them using the English version of the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Thesaurus. The aim of this work is to propose a tool allowing access to a PubMed subset in one language, and to evaluate its performance. Translations of MeSH were enriched and gathered in the information system. PubMed subsets in main European languages were also added in our database, using a dedicated parser. The CISMeF generic semantic search engine was evaluated on the response time for simple queries. MeSH descriptors are currently available in 11 languages in the information system. All the 654,000 PubMed citations in French were integrated into CISMeF database. None of the response times exceed the threshold defined for usability (2 seconds). It is now possible to freely access biomedical literature in French using a tool in French; health professionals and lay people with a low English language may find it useful. It will be expended to several European languages: German, Spanish, Norwegian and Portuguese.

  20. Archives, accessibility, and advocacy: a case study of strategies for creating and maintaining relevance

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Jennifer M; Hoffius, Susan D; Fox, E. Brooke

    2011-01-01

    Question/Objective: How can a special collection maintain or increase its profile in its parent institution, when that parent institution emphasizes scientific and clinical learning? Setting/Context: The Waring Historical Library, Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC), preserves and promotes the history of health sciences at MUSC and in South Carolina. As a state entity, MUSC has suffered significant budget cuts for the past several years. In this climate, the Waring had to find ways to maintain relevance in the MUSC community. Methods: The Waring partnered with the MUSC College of Nursing to explore new ways to build institutional allies. By combining traditional archival administration with innovative uses of digital collections aimed at institutional promotion and outreach, the Waring's digital library became an advocacy tool that led to the Waring's enhanced value to its parent institution. Outcomes: The Waring Library is a resource for MUSC development and alumni relations. Tangible outcomes include additional funding from grants, increased staff, no loss of institutional funding, increased access to collections, increased accessions, cultivation of institutional allies for long-term support of the Waring, and development of a template for future partnerships. PMID:21243056

  1. Pharmacophore Modeling and Molecular Docking Studies on Pinus roxburghii as a Target for Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Pawan; Lal Khokra, Sukhbir; Rana, A. C.

    2014-01-01

    The present study attempts to establish a relationship between ethnopharmacological claims and bioactive constituents present in Pinus roxburghii against all possible targets for diabetes through molecular docking and to develop a pharmacophore model for the active target. The process of molecular docking involves study of different bonding modes of one ligand with active cavities of target receptors protein tyrosine phosphatase 1-beta (PTP-1β), dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV), aldose reductase (AR), and insulin receptor (IR) with help of docking software Molegro virtual docker (MVD). From the results of docking score values on different receptors for antidiabetic activity, it is observed that constituents, namely, secoisoresinol, pinoresinol, and cedeodarin, showed the best docking results on almost all the receptors, while the most significant results were observed on AR. Then, LigandScout was applied to develop a pharmacophore model for active target. LigandScout revealed that 2 hydrogen bond donors pointing towards Tyr 48 and His 110 are a major requirement of the pharmacophore generated. In our molecular docking studies, the active constituent, secoisoresinol, has also shown hydrogen bonding with His 110 residue which is a part of the pharmacophore. The docking results have given better insights into the development of better aldose reductase inhibitor so as to treat diabetes related secondary complications. PMID:25114678

  2. Pharmacophore Modeling and Molecular Docking Studies on Pinus roxburghii as a Target for Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Pawan; Lal Khokra, Sukhbir; Rana, A C; Kaushik, Dhirender

    2014-01-01

    The present study attempts to establish a relationship between ethnopharmacological claims and bioactive constituents present in Pinus roxburghii against all possible targets for diabetes through molecular docking and to develop a pharmacophore model for the active target. The process of molecular docking involves study of different bonding modes of one ligand with active cavities of target receptors protein tyrosine phosphatase 1-beta (PTP-1β), dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV), aldose reductase (AR), and insulin receptor (IR) with help of docking software Molegro virtual docker (MVD). From the results of docking score values on different receptors for antidiabetic activity, it is observed that constituents, namely, secoisoresinol, pinoresinol, and cedeodarin, showed the best docking results on almost all the receptors, while the most significant results were observed on AR. Then, LigandScout was applied to develop a pharmacophore model for active target. LigandScout revealed that 2 hydrogen bond donors pointing towards Tyr 48 and His 110 are a major requirement of the pharmacophore generated. In our molecular docking studies, the active constituent, secoisoresinol, has also shown hydrogen bonding with His 110 residue which is a part of the pharmacophore. The docking results have given better insights into the development of better aldose reductase inhibitor so as to treat diabetes related secondary complications. PMID:25114678

  3. SPRAY FOAM IN ACCESSIBLE SPACES:BEST PRACTICES AND CASE STUDIES FOR RETROFIT IN MIXED-HUMID CLIMATE

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, Jeffrey E; Gant, Kathy

    2013-12-01

    Heating and cooling the house is one of the homeowners major expenses. Reducing these costs, saving energy, and creating a healthier, more comfortable indoor environment are good reasons to consider improving the building thermal envelope. Improvements usually consider increasing the amount of insulation, reducing the infiltration of outside air, and controlling moisture in existing buildings. This report describes the use of spray foam materials to insulate, seal, and control moisture. This discussion is limited to treating areas that are accessible. What is accessible, however, can vary depending on the type of renovation. If the building has been gutted or exterior surfaces removed, there are more options. This report will look at areas to consider for spray foam application and discuss the types of spray foams available and their uses. A number of case studies are presented to show the effectiveness of this retrofit in existing houses based on performance data.

  4. Pre-Experimental Familiarization Increases Hippocampal Activity for Both Targets and Lures in Recognition Memory: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Zubicaray, Greig I.; McMahon, Katie L.; Hayward, Lydia; Dunn, John C.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, items pre-exposed in a familiarization series were included in a list discrimination task to manipulate memory strength. At test, participants were required to discriminate strong targets and strong lures from weak targets and new lures. This resulted in a concordant pattern of increased "old" responses to strong targets and…

  5. Targeting the interleukin-11 receptor α in metastatic prostate cancer: A first-in-man study

    PubMed Central

    Pasqualini, Renata; Millikan, Randall E; Christianson, Dawn R; Cardó-Vila, Marina; Driessen, Wouter H P; Giordano, Ricardo J; Hajitou, Amin; Hoang, Anh G; Wen, Sijin; Barnhart, Kirstin F; Baze, Wallace B; Marcott, Valerie D; Hawke, David H; Do, Kim-Anh; Navone, Nora M; Efstathiou, Eleni; Troncoso, Patricia; Lobb, Roy R; Logothetis, Christopher J; Arap, Wadih

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Receptors in tumor blood vessels are attractive targets for ligand-directed drug discovery and development. The authors have worked systematically to map human endothelial receptors (“vascular zip codes”) within tumors through direct peptide library selection in cancer patients. Previously, they selected a ligand-binding motif to the interleukin-11 receptor alpha (IL-11Rα) in the human vasculature. METHODS The authors generated a ligand-directed, peptidomimetic drug (bone metastasis-targeting peptidomimetic-11 [BMTP-11]) for IL-11Rα–based human tumor vascular targeting. Preclinical studies (efficacy/toxicity) included evaluating BMTP-11 in prostate cancer xenograft models, drug localization, targeted apoptotic effects, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analyses, and dose-range determination, including formal (good laboratory practice) toxicity across rodent and nonhuman primate species. The initial BMTP-11 clinical development also is reported based on a single-institution, open-label, first-in-class, first-in-man trial (National Clinical Trials number NCT00872157) in patients with metastatic, castrate-resistant prostate cancer. RESULTS BMTP-11 was preclinically promising and, thus, was chosen for clinical development in patients. Limited numbers of patients who had castrate-resistant prostate cancer with osteoblastic bone metastases were enrolled into a phase 0 trial with biology-driven endpoints. The authors demonstrated biopsy-verified localization of BMTP-11 to tumors in the bone marrow and drug-induced apoptosis in all patients. Moreover, the maximum tolerated dose was identified on a weekly schedule (20-30 mg/m2). Finally, a renal dose-limiting toxicity was determined, namely, dose-dependent, reversible nephrotoxicity with proteinuria and casts involving increased serum creatinine. CONCLUSIONS These biologic endpoints establish BMTP-11 as a targeted drug candidate in metastatic, castrate-resistant prostate cancer. Within a larger discovery

  6. Computational Hydrocode Study of Target Damage due to Fragment-Blast Impact

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch-Aguilar, T; Najjar, F; Szymanski, E

    2011-03-24

    ), Pressure-Impulse (PI) and Time of Duration (TD). Other peculiarities include the radial decrease in pressure from the source, any fireball size measurement, and subsequent increase in temperature from the passing of the shockwave through the surrounding medium. In light of all of these metrics, the loading any object receives from a blast event becomes intricately connected to the distance between itself and the source. Because of this, a clear distinction is made between close-in effects and those from a source far away from the object of interest. Explosively generated fragments on the other hand are characterized by means of their localized damage potential. Metrics such as whether the fragment penetrates or perforates a given object is quantified as well as other variables including fragment's residual velocity, % kinetic energy decrease, residual fragment mass and other exit criteria. A fragment launched under such violent conditions could easily be traveling at speeds in excess of 2500 ft/s. Given these speeds it is conceivable to imagine how any given fragment could deliver a concentrated load to a target and penetrates through walls, vehicles or even the protection systems of nearby personnel. This study will focus on the individual fragment-target impact event with the hopes of expanding it to eventually include statistical procedures. Since this is a modeling excursion into the combined frag-blast target damage effects the numerical methods used to frame this problem become important in-so-far as the simulations are done in a consistent manner. For this study a Finite-Element based Hydrocode solution called ALE3D (ALE=Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) was utilized. ALE3D is developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Livermore, CA), and as this paper will show, successfully implemented a converged ALE formulation including as many of the different aspects needed to query the synergistic damage on a given target. Further information on the modeling setup is

  7. EU Accession and Civil Aviation Regimes: Malta and Cyprus as a Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papatheodorou, Andreas; Busuttil, Louis

    2003-01-01

    Aviation deregulation is usually a challenging and demanding task and accession to the European Union requires that all candidate states should harmonize their legislation in the context of the European Common Aviation Area. Malta and Cyprus, the small Mediterranean island-states to join the EU in 2004, will have to abandon any protectionist policies in favour of their flag-carriers and let them survive in a liberal framework. The paper discusses the implications of this regime change for civil aviation in Malta and Cyprus and in addition to the airline industry, it examines the impacts on the complementary tourism sector. Unless carrying capacity limits are understood, the islands may become victims of successful airline liberalisation. The paper concludes by stressing the need for sustainable development and active policy making. Keywords: carrying capacity, Cyprus, air transport deregulation, Malta, tourism

  8. Dialysis Access Graft Thrombolysis: Randomized Study of Pulse-Spray Versus Continuous Urokinase Infusion

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, Scott C.; Arora, Lokesh C.; Razavi, Mahmood K.; Sayre, James; McNamara, Thomas O.; Yoon, Chun

    1998-03-15

    Purpose: To compare pulse-spray to continuous-infusion thrombolysis with high-dose urokinase in thrombosed dialysis access grafts. Methods: A prospective randomized controlled trial was performed. From August 1992 to September 1993, 30 thrombosed polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts in 24 patients were included, 15 grafts in each group. The success of thrombolysis, mean time to thrombolysis, mean urokinase dose, and 60-day patency rate were evaluated. Results: In the pulse-spray group, the mean time to thrombolysis was 72 min with a mean urokinase dose of 560,000 U. The 60-day patency rate was 71%. In the continuous-infusion group, the mean infusion time to thrombolysis was 55 min with a mean dose of 479,000 U. The 60-day patency rate was 73%. Conclusion: No statistically significant difference was found between the two techniques in the mean time to thrombolysis, the mean urokinase dose used, or the 60-day patency rate.

  9. Study on target structure for direct-indirect hybrid implosion mode in heavy ion inertial fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka, Yoshifumi; Kawata, Shigeo; Kodera, Tomohiro; Ogoyski, Alexander I.; Kikuchi, Takashi

    2009-07-01

    The key issues in heavy ion beam (HIB) inertial confinement fusion (ICF) include particle accelerator, physics of intense beam, beam final transport, target-plasma hydrodynamics, etc. In this paper, we focus on fuel implosion. In order to realize an effective implosion, beam illumination non-uniformity on a fuel target must be suppressed less than a few percent. In this study a direct-indirect hybrid implosion mode is discussed in heavy ion beam inertial confinement fusion (HIF) in order to release sufficient fusion energy in a robust manner. In the direct-indirect hybrid mode target, a low-density foam layer is inserted, and the radiation energy is confined in the foam layer. In the foam layer, the radiation transport is expected to smoothen the HIB illumination non-uniformity in the lateral direction. In this paper, we study the influences of the foam thickness and the inner radiation-shield Al density on implosion uniformity. Two-dimensional fluid simulations demonstrate that the hybrid target contributes to the HIB non-uniformity smoothing and releases a sufficient fusion energy output in HIF.

  10. Study on the effect of target on plasma parameters of magnetron sputtering discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Saikia, P.; Kakati, B.; Saikia, B. K.

    2013-10-15

    In this study, the effect of magnetron target on different plasma parameters of Argon/Hydrogen (Ar - H{sub 2}) direct current (DC) magnetron discharge is examined. Here, Copper (Cu) and Chromium (Cr) are used as magnetron targets. The value of plasma parameters such as electron temperature (kT{sub e}), electron density (N{sub e}), ion density (N{sub i}), degree of ionization of Ar, and degree of dissociation of H{sub 2} for both the target are studied as a function of input power and hydrogen content in the discharge. The plasma parameters are determined by using Langmuir probe and Optical emission spectroscopy. On the basis of the different reactions in the gas phase, the variation of plasma parameters and sputtering rate are explained. The obtained results show that electron and ion density decline with gradual addition of Hydrogen in the discharge and increase with rising input power. It brings significant changes on the degree of ionization of Ar and dissociation of H{sub 2}. The enhanced value of electron density (N{sub e}), ion density (N{sub i}), degree of Ionization of Ar, and degree of dissociation of H{sub 2} for Cr compared to Cu target is explained on the basis of it's higher Ion Induced Secondary Electron Emission Coefficient (ISEE) value.

  11. Systematic study of probable projectile-target combinations for the synthesis of the superheavy nucleus 302120

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhosh, K. P.; Safoora, V.

    2016-08-01

    Probable projectile-target combinations for the synthesis of the superheavy element 302120 have been studied taking the Coulomb and proximity potential as the interaction barrier. The probabilities of the compound nucleus formation PCN for the projectile-target combinations found in the cold reaction valley of 302120 are estimated. At energies near and above the Coulomb barrier, we have calculated the capture, fusion, and evaporation residue cross sections for the reactions of all probable projectile-target combinations so as to predict the most promising projectile-target combinations for the synthesis of the superheavy element 302120 in heavy-ion fusion reactions. The calculated fusion and evaporation cross sections for the more asymmetric ("hotter") projectile-target combination is found to be higher than the less asymmetric ("colder") combination. It can be seen from the nature of the quasifission barrier height, mass asymmetry, the probability of compound nucleus formation, survival probability, and excitation energy, the systems 44Ar+258No , 46Ar+256No , 48Ca+254Fm , 50Ca+252Fm , 54Ti+248Cf , and 58Cr+244Cm in deep region I of the cold reaction valley and the systems 62Fe+240Pu , 64Fe+238Pu , 68Ni+234U , 70Ni+232U , 72Ni+230U , and 74Zn+228Th in the other cold valleys are identified as the better projectile-target combinations for the synthesis of 302120. Our predictions on the synthesis of 302120 superheavy nuclei using the combinations 54Cr+248Cm , 58Fe+244Pu , 64Ni+238U , and 50Ti+249Cf are compared with available experimental data and other theoretical predictions.

  12. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Building access control (BAC)--a catchall phrase to describe the systems that control access to facilities across campus--has traditionally been handled with remarkably low-tech solutions: (1) manual locks; (2) electronic locks; and (3) ID cards with magnetic strips. Recent improvements have included smart cards and keyless solutions that make use…

  13. Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  14. Perceptions of emergency care in Kenyan communities lacking access to formalised emergency medical systems: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Broccoli, Morgan C; Calvello, Emilie J B; Skog, Alexander P; Wachira, Benjamin; Wallis, Lee A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We undertook this study in Kenya to understand the community's emergency care needs and barriers they face when trying to access care, and to seek community members’ thoughts regarding high impact solutions to expand access to essential emergency services. Design We used a qualitative research methodology to conduct 59 focus groups with 528 total Kenyan community member participants. Data were coded, aggregated and analysed using the content analysis approach. Setting Participants were uniformly selected from all eight of the historical Kenyan provinces (Central, Coast, Eastern, Nairobi, North Eastern, Nyanza, Rift Valley and Western), with equal rural and urban community representation. Results Socioeconomic and cultural factors play a major role both in seeking and reaching emergency care. Community members in Kenya experience a wide range of medical emergencies, and seem to understand their time-critical nature. They rely on one another for assistance in the face of substantial barriers to care—a lack of: system structure, resources, transportation, trained healthcare providers and initial care at the scene. Conclusions Access to emergency care in Kenya can be improved by encouraging recognition and initial treatment of emergent illness in the community, strengthening the pre-hospital care system, improving emergency care delivery at health facilities and creating new policies at a national level. These community-generated solutions likely have a wider applicability in the region. PMID:26586324

  15. A Case Study of Performance Degradation Attributable to Run-Time Bounds Checks on C++ Vector Access

    PubMed Central

    Flater, David; Guthrie, William F

    2013-01-01

    Programmers routinely omit run-time safety checks from applications because they assume that these safety checks would degrade performance. The simplest example is the use of arrays or array-like data structures that do not enforce the constraint that indices must be within bounds. This report documents an attempt to measure the performance penalty incurred by two different implementations of bounds-checking in C and C++ using a simple benchmark and a desktop PC with a modern superscalar CPU. The benchmark consisted of a loop that wrote to array elements in sequential order. With this configuration, relative to the best performance observed for any access method in C or C++, mean degradation of only (0.881 ± 0.009) % was measured for a standard bounds-checking access method in C++. This case study showed the need for further work to develop and refine measurement methods and to perform more comparisons of this type. Comparisons across different use cases, configurations, programming languages, and environments are needed to determine under what circumstances (if any) the performance advantage of unchecked access is actually sufficient to outweigh the negative consequences for security and software quality. PMID:26401432

  16. Remote direct memory access

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.

    2012-12-11

    Methods, parallel computers, and computer program products are disclosed for remote direct memory access. Embodiments include transmitting, from an origin DMA engine on an origin compute node to a plurality target DMA engines on target compute nodes, a request to send message, the request to send message specifying a data to be transferred from the origin DMA engine to data storage on each target compute node; receiving, by each target DMA engine on each target compute node, the request to send message; preparing, by each target DMA engine, to store data according to the data storage reference and the data length, including assigning a base storage address for the data storage reference; sending, by one or more of the target DMA engines, an acknowledgment message acknowledging that all the target DMA engines are prepared to receive a data transmission from the origin DMA engine; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, the acknowledgement message from the one or more of the target DMA engines; and transferring, by the origin DMA engine, data to data storage on each of the target compute nodes according to the data storage reference using a single direct put operation.

  17. Access to Care for Multiple Sclerosis in Times of Economic Crisis in Greece – the HOPE II Study

    PubMed Central

    Souliotis, Kyriakos; Alexopoulou, Elena; Papageorgiou, Manto; Politi, Anastasia; Litsa, Panagiota; Contiades, Xenophon

    2016-01-01

    Background: While there is currently no cure for multiple sclerosis (MS), treatment with biologic disease-modifying drugs (bDMDs) can reduce the impact of the condition on the lives of patients. In Greece, the regulatory change in the distribution system of bDMDs, limited their administration through the designated pharmacies of the National Organization for Healthcare Services Provision (EOPYY) or the National Health System (ESY) hospitals, thus potentially impacting access to MS treatment. In this context, the aim of this paper was to assess the barriers to bDMDs, by recording MS patients’ experiences. Methods: A survey research was conducted between January and February 2014 in Athens and 5 other major Greek cities with the methods of personal and telephone interview. A structured questionnaire was used to elicit socio-economic and medical information, information related to obstacles in accessing bDMDs and medical treatment, from MS patients that visited EOPYY pharmacies during the study period. Results: During the last year 69% of 179 participants reported that the distribution system of bDMDs has improved. Thirteen percent of participants encountered problems in accessing their medication, and 16.9% of participants in accessing their physician, with the obstacles being more pronounced for non-Athens residents. Frequent obstacles to bDMDs were the distance from EOPYY pharmacies and difficulties in obtaining a diagnosis from an EOPYY/ESY physician, while obstacles to medical care were delays in appointment booking and travel difficulties. Conclusion: Even though the major weaknesses of the distribution system of bDMDs have improved, further amelioration of the system could be achieved through the home delivery of medicines to patients living in remote areas, and through the development of a national MS registry. PMID:26927393

  18. Comparative Effectiveness of Targeted Prostate Biopsy Using MRI-US Fusion Software and Visual Targeting: a Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daniel J.; Recabal, Pedro; Sjoberg, Daniel D.; Thong, Alan; Lee, Justin K.; Eastham, James A.; Scardino, Peter T.; Vargas, Hebert Alberto; Coleman, Jonathan; Ehdaie, Behfar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare diagnostic outcomes between 2 different techniques for targeting regions-of-interest on prostate multiparametric Magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI); MRI-ultrasound fusion (MR-F) and visually targeted (VT) biopsy. Materials and Methods Patients presenting for prostate biopsy with regions-of-interest on mpMRI underwent MRI-targeted biopsy. For each region-of-interest two VT cores were obtained, followed by 2 cores using an MR-F device. Our primary endpoint was the difference in the detection of high-grade (Gleason ≥7) and any-grade cancer between VT and MR-F, investigated using McNemar’s method. Secondary endpoints were the difference in detection rate by biopsy location using a logistic regression model, and difference in median cancer length using Wilcoxon sign-rank test. Results We identified 396 regions-of-interest in 286 men. The difference in high-grade cancer detection between MR-F biopsy and VT biopsy was −1.4% (95% CI −6.4% to 3.6%; p=0.6); for any-grade cancer the difference was 3.5% (95% CI −1.9% to 8.9%; p=0.2). Median cancer length detected by MR-F and VT were 5.5mm vs. 5.8mm, respectively (p=0.8). MR-F biopsy detected 15% more cancers in the transition zone (p=0.046), and VT biopsy detected 11% more high-grade cancer at the prostate base (p=0.005). Only 52% of all high-grade cancers were detected by both techniques. Conclusions We found no evidence of a significant difference in the detection of high-grade or any-grade cancer between VT and MR-F biopsy. However, the performance of each technique varied in specific biopsy locations, and the outcomes of both techniques were complementary. Combining VT biopsy and MR-F biopsy may optimize prostate cancer detection. PMID:27038768

  19. Understanding differences in access to water fountains and sugar-sweetened beverages in children׳s environments: a pilot study in high and low deprivation neighbourhoods.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Amber L; de Latour, Phillip; Kemp, Gabrielle; Findlay, Nohoana; Halim, Angela; Atkinson, Nicola; Chong, Mark; Cameron, Rose; Brown, Courtney; Kim, Grace; Campbell, Paul; Hills, Toby; Jayawant, Aditya; Chae, Matthew; Bhagavan, Chiranth; French, Claire; Jenkin, Gabrielle; Smith, Moira; Signal, Louise

    2014-11-01

    Access to water fountains and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) in children׳s environments may impact on child obesity and may vary with neighbourhood deprivation. Our pilot analyses of access to water fountains and SSBs in Wellington, New Zealand revealed that water fountain access was high in school environments and low in recreational environments. There were also differences in water fountain and SSB access points by neighbourhood deprivation. The methods piloted in this study could be translated in a larger study, more capable of detecting significant differences in access and allowing for more sophisticated analyses. Such future studies may provide important evidence for the improvement of children׳s health and well-being.

  20. Exploring the Relationship between Access Technology and Standardized Test Scores for Youths with Visual Impairments: Secondary Analysis of the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, Amy L.; Emerson, Robert Wall; Curtis, Amy B.; Fogarty, Kieran

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a secondary analysis of the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 that explored the predictive association between training in access technology and performance on the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Academic Achievement: III. The results indicated that the use of access technology had a limited predictive…

  1. WWC Review of the Report "Looking beyond Enrollment: The Causal Effect of Need-Based Grants on College Access, Persistence, and Graduation." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 study, "Looking Beyond Enrollment: The Causal Effect of Need-Based Grants on College Access, Persistence, and Graduation," examined whether eligibility for the Florida Student Access Grant (FSAG), a need-based grant for low-income students in Florida, affects college enrollment, credit accumulation, persistence over time in…

  2. A metamodeling approach for studying ignition target robustness in a highly dimensional parameter space

    SciTech Connect

    Giorla, Jean; Masson, Annie; Poggi, Francoise; Quach, Robert; Seytor, Patricia; Garnier, Josselin

    2009-03-15

    Inertial confinement fusion targets must be carefully designed to ignite their central hot spots and burn. Changes in the optimal implosion could reduce the fusion energy or even prevent ignition. Since there are unavoidable uncertainties due to technological defects and not perfect reproducibility from shot to shot, the fusion energy will remain uncertain. The degree with which a target can tolerate larger specifications than specified, and the probability with which a particular yield is exceeded, are possible measures of the robustness of that design. This robustness must be assessed in a very high-dimensional parameter space whose variables include every characteristics of the given target and of the associated laser pulse shape, using high-fidelity simulations. Therefore, these studies would remain computationally very intensive. In this paper we propose an approach which consist first of constructing an accurate metamodel of the yield on the whole parameter space with a reasonable data set of simulations. Then the robustness is very quickly assessed for any set of specifications with this surrogate. The yield is approximated by a neural network, and an iterative method adds new points in the data set by means of D-optimal experimental designs. The robustness study of the baseline Laser Megajoule target against one-dimensional defects illustrates this approach. A set of 2000 simulations is sufficient to metamodel the fusion energy on a large 22-dimensional parameter space around the nominal point. Furthermore, a metamodel of the robustness margin against all specifications has been obtained, providing guidance for target fabrication research and development.

  3. Targeting brain cells with glutathione-modulated nanoliposomes: in vitro and in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Heba F; Ahmed, Sayed M; Hassaballah, Ashraf E; Omar, Mahmoud M

    2015-01-01

    Background The blood–brain barrier prevents many drug moieties from reaching the central nervous system. Therefore, glutathione-modulated nanoliposomes have been engineered to enhance the targeting of flucytosine to the brain. Methods Glutathione-modulated nanoliposomes were prepared by thin-film hydration technique and evaluated in the primary brain cells of rats. Lecithin, cholesterol, and span 65 were mixed at 1:1:1 molar ratio. The molar percentage of PEGylated glutathione varied from 0 mol% to 0.75 mol%. The cellular binding and the uptake of the targeted liposomes were both monitored by epifluorescent microscope and flow cytometry techniques. A biodistribution and a pharmacokinetic study of flucytosine and flucytosine-loaded glutathione–modulated liposomes was carried out to evaluate the in vivo brain-targeting efficiency. Results The size of glutathione-modulated nanoliposomes was <100 nm and the zeta potential was more than −65 mV. The cumulative release reached 70% for certain formulations. The cellular uptake increased as molar percent of glutathione increased to reach the maximum at 0.75 mol%. The uptake of the targeted liposomes by brain cells of the rats was three times greater than that of the nontargeted liposomes. An in vivo study showed that the relative efficiency was 2.632±0.089 and the concentration efficiency was 1.590±0.049, and also, the drug-targeting index was 3.670±0.824. Conclusion Overall, these results revealed that glutathione-PEGylated nanoliposomes enhance the effective delivery of flucytosine to brain and could become a promising new therapeutic option for the treatment of the brain infections. PMID:26229435

  4. Molecular Approaches to Studying Microbial Communities: Targeting the 16S Ribosomal RNA Gene.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Kazumasa; Ogawa, Midori; Taniguchi, Hatsumi; Saito, Mitsumasa

    2016-09-01

    Culture-independent methods to detect microorganisms have been developed in parallel with traditional culture-based methods ever since the classification of bacteria based on 16S rRNA gene sequences was advocated in the 1970s. The development and the prevalence of culture-independent molecular technologies have provided revolutionary progress in microbial studies. The development of these technologies contributes significantly to the research of microorganisms that cannot be detected by traditional methods such as culture-dependent methods.Many molecular methods targeting the 16S rRNA gene, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), quantitative PCR, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), clone library analysis, and next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS) technologies, have been applied to various microbial studies. Notably, the advent of NGS technologies enabled a large-scale research of the bacterial community. Many recent studies using the NGS technologies have revealed that a larger number of bacteria and taxa than previously thought inhabit various parts of the human body and various places on the earth. The principles and characteristics of each molecular method are different, and each method possesses individual advantages; for example target specificity, comprehensiveness, rapidness, and cost efficiency. Therefore it is important that the methods used in studies are suitable for the objective and materials. Herein, we highlights molecular approaches targeting the 16S rRNA gene in bacterial community analysis, and focuses on the advantages and limitations of each technology. PMID:27627970

  5. Theoretical studies of defect formation and target heating by intense pulsed ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, J. J.; Schenkel, T.; Persaud, A.; Seidl, P. A.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D. P.; Davidson, R. C.; Gilson, E. P.; Kaganovich, I.

    2015-11-01

    We present results of three studies related to experiments on NDCX-II, the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment, a short-pulse (~ 1ns), high-current (~ 70A) linear accelerator for 1.2 MeV ions at LBNL. These include: (a) Coupled transverse and longitudinal envelope calculations of the final non-neutral ion beam transport, followed by neutralized drift and final focus, for a number of focus and drift lengths and with a series of ion species (Z =1-19). Predicted target fluences were obtained and target temperatures in the 1 eV range estimated. (b) HYDRA simulations of the target response for Li and He ions and for Al and Au targets at various ion fluences (up to 1012 ions/pulse/mm2) and pulse durations, benchmarking temperature estimates from the envelope calculations. (c) Crystal-Trim simulations of ion channeling through single-crystal lattices, with comparisons to ion transmission data as a function of orientation angle of the crystal foil and for different ion intensities and ion species. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE under contracts DE-AC52-07NA27344 (LLNL), DE-AC02-05CH11231 (LBNL) and DE-AC02-76CH0307 (PPPL) and was supported by the US DOE Office of Science, Fusion Energy Sciences. LLNL-ABS-67521.

  6. Targeting Endothelial Adhesion Molecule Transcription for Treatment of Inflammatory Disease: A Proof-of-Concept Study

    PubMed Central

    Ashander, Liam M.; Appukuttan, Binoy; Ma, Yuefang; Gardner-Stephen, Dione; Smith, Justine R.

    2016-01-01

    Targeting the endothelial adhesion molecules that control leukocyte trafficking into a tissue has been explored as a biological therapy for inflammatory diseases. However, these molecules also participate in leukocyte migration for immune surveillance, and inhibiting the physiological level of an adhesion molecule might promote infection or malignancy. We explored the concept of targeting endothelial adhesion molecule transcription during inflammation in a human system. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) mediates leukocyte migration across the retinal endothelium in noninfectious posterior uveitis. We observed an increase in the transcription factor, nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1 (NF-κB1), in parallel with ICAM-1, in human retinal endothelial cells treated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and identified putative binding sites for NF-κB1 within the ICAM-1 regulatory region. We targeted induced NF-κB1 expression in endothelial cells with small interfering (si)RNA. Knockdown of NF-κB1 significantly decreased cell surface expression of ICAM-1 protein induced by TNF-α but did not reduce constitutive ICAM-1 expression. Consistently, NF-κB1 knockdown significantly reduced leukocyte binding to cell monolayers in the presence of TNF-α but did not impact baseline binding. Findings of this proof-of-concept study indicate that induced transcription of endothelial adhesion molecules might be targeted therapeutically for inflammatory disease in humans. PMID:27293321

  7. [Achievement of therapeutic target in subjects on statin treatment in clinical practice. Results of the STAR (Statins Target Assessment in Real practice) study].

    PubMed

    Degli Esposti, Luca; Sangiorgi, Diego; Arca, Marcello; Vigna, Giovanni B; Budal, Stefano; Degli Esposti, Ezio

    2011-12-01

    The primary aim of the STAR Study (Statins Target Assessment in Real practice) was to determine the LDL-cholesterol reduction and to analyse patient's and therapeutic factors associated to LDL-cholesterol target attainment in newly treated subjects with statins in an unselected population in clinical practice setting. Administrative databases (including pharmaceutical prescriptions and hospital admissions) and laboratory test databases (including LDL-cholesterol values) of five local health units, distributed in Emilia Romagna, Toscana and Umbria, were linked. A retrospective cohort study was conducted and all subjects aged > or =18 years with a first prescription for statins (newly treated subjects) between January 1st, 2007 and June 30th, 2008 were included. All statin prescriptions over a 12 months follow-up period were considered and used to calculate adherence to treatment. Baseline and follow-up LDL-cholesterol, respectively, were defined according to the nearest determination to the first prescription for statins and to the end of the follow-up period. A total of 3.232 subjects was included, 1.516 males (47%) and 1.716 females (53%), with an average age equal to 65.9 +/- 11.3 years. Among included subjects, 22.,6% had a gap to LDL-cholesterol target <10%, 30.0% between 10 and 29%, 20.7% between 30 and 49%, and 26.7% . or =50%. Among those with a gap to target > or =50%, 30-49%, and 10-29%, respectively, LDL-cholesterol target was attained by 7.1%, 41.8%, and 62.% of subjects. LDL-cholesterol target attainment was associated to gap to target, adherence with treatment, and type of statin. PMID:22567731

  8. A review of potable water accessibility and sustainability issues in developing countries - case study of Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nayebare, Shedrack R; Wilson, Lloyd R; Carpenter, David O; Dziewulski, David M; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2014-01-01

    Providing sources of sustainable and quality potable water in Uganda is a significant public health issue. This project aimed at identifying and prioritizing possible actions on how sustainable high quality potable water in Uganda's water supply systems could be achieved. In that respect, a review of both the current water supply systems and government programs on drinking water in Uganda was completed. Aspects of quantity, quality, treatment methods, infrastructure, storage and distribution of water for different water systems were evaluated and compared with the existing water supply systems in the U.S., Latin America and the Caribbean, for purposes of generating feasible recommendations and opportunities for improvement. Uganda utilizes surface water, groundwater, and rainwater sources for consumption. Surface water covers 15.4% of the land area and serves both urban and rural populations. Lake Victoria contributes about 85% of the total fresh surface water. Potable water quality is negatively affected by the following factors: disposal of sewage and industrial effluents, agricultural pesticides and fertilizers, and surface run-offs during heavy rains. The total renewable groundwater resources in Uganda are estimated to be 29 million m3/year with about 20,000 boreholes, 3000 shallow-wells and 200,000 springs, serving more than 80% of the rural and slum communities. Mean annual rainfall in Uganda ranges from 500 mm to 2500 mm. Groundwater and rainwater quality is mainly affected by poor sanitation and unhygienic practices. There are significant regional variations in the accessibility of potable water, with the Northeastern region having the least amount of potable water from all sources. Uganda still lags behind in potable water resource development. Priorities should be placed mainly on measures available for improvement of groundwater and rainwater resource utilization, protection of watersheds, health education, improved water treatment methods and

  9. Access to HAART in HIV-infected immigrants: a retrospective multicenter Italian study.

    PubMed

    Saracino, A; El-Hamad, I; Prato, R; Cibelli, D C; Tartaglia, A; Palumbo, E; Pezzoli, M C; Angarano, G; Scotto, G

    2005-09-01

    Since 1996, AIDS has declined in the Italian population, but cases in foreign patients, including both recent immigrants and long-term residents, have increased from 3.9% in 1995-1996 to 15.4% in 2001-2002. This increase can only be partly explained by a higher migratory flow and might reflect a delayed access to health facilities and to antiretroviral therapy in migrants. We performed a survey for the year 2003 of HIV-infected immigrants to Italy from countries outside the European Union to verify which factors might influence a lack of access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Italian centers of infectious diseases were requested to send sociodemographic and clinical data of HIV-infected immigrant patients. A total of 553 HIV-infected immigrants (49.9% women) were evaluated, representing 6.5% of all HIV-infected patients from these centers. The mean duration of residency in Italy was 6.6 +/- 5.0 years. The country of origin was Africa (64.5%), North and South America (24.2%), Eastern Europe (7.0%), and Asia (3.8%). A total of 407 of 553 patients (73.6%) were taking antiretroviral drugs at the time of screening. Females presented a younger age (p = 0.001), a lower frequency of Centers for Disease Control (CDC) stage B/C (p = 0.008) and a more frequent heterosexual exposure to HIV (p < 0.001), while no differences were observed for time of first positive serology (p = 0.7). CD4 cell count (p = 0.9) and log plasma HIV-RNA (p = 0.1). Characteristics of HAART patients were compared to those of nontreated patients, despite a CD4 cell count less than 350 cells/mm(3). No significant difference was found for gender, country of origin, risk factor, and years of Italian residence, while legal immigrants (p = 0.018) and registered in the National Health Service (p = 0.014) were significantly more likely to receive HAART compared to illegal immigrants.

  10. Hydrodynamics Studies of Direct-Drive Cone-in-Shell, Fast-Ignitor Targets on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Stoeckl, C.; Boehly, T.R.; Delettrez, J.A.; Hatchett, S.P.; Frenje, J.A.; Glebov, V.Yu.; Li, C.K.; Miller, J.E.; Petrasso, R.D.; Seguin, F.H.; Smalyuk, V.A.; Stephens, R.B.; Theobald, W.; Yaakobi, B.; Sangster, T.C.

    2007-12-12

    Experiments have been performed on the OMEGA Laser Facility to study the hydrodynamics of directly driven cone-in-shell, fast-ignitor targets. A 35 degree or 70 degree opening-angle gold cone was inserted into spherical plastic shells of ~24-um thickness and ~870-um diameter, which were imploded with up to 21 kJ of 351-nm laser light. A backlighter was used on some experiments to compare the fuel assembly of targets with or without a high-pressure fill gas. The shock breakthrough to the inside of the cone, where the ultrafast laser propagates in integrated fast-ignitor experiments, was studied using a streaked optical pyrometer. No plasma was seen inside the cone before the assembled core reached peak compression.

  11. NOTE: Effects of cellular repair and proliferation on targeted radionuclide therapy: a modelling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atthey, M.; Nahum, A. E.; Flower, M. A.; McCready, V. R.

    2000-04-01

    A previous targeted radionuclide therapy modelling study has been extended to include the radiobiological effects of cellular repair and proliferation. Dose distributions have been converted into biologically effective dose (BED) distributions using a previously published formulation. With suitable estimated parameters, corrected tumour control probability (TCP) values were derived. The dependence of BED on the physical half-life of the radionuclide was also modelled. Results indicate that the TCP is greater when a shorter physical half-life is employed.

  12. How modification of accessible lysines to phenylalanine modulates the structural and functional properties of horseradish peroxidase: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Navapour, Leila; Mogharrab, Navid; Amininasab, Mehriar

    2014-01-01

    Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP) is one of the most studied peroxidases and a great number of chemical modifications and genetic manipulations have been carried out on its surface accessible residues to improve its stability and catalytic efficiency necessary for biotechnological applications. Most of the stabilized derivatives of HRP reported to date have involved chemical or genetic modifications of three surface-exposed lysines (K174, K232 and K241). In this computational study, we altered these lysines to phenylalanine residues to model those chemical modifications or genetic manipulations in which these positively charged lysines are converted to aromatic hydrophobic residues. Simulation results implied that upon these substitutions, the protein structure becomes less flexible. Stability gains are likely to be achieved due to the increased number of stable hydrogen bonds, improved heme-protein interactions and more integrated proximal Ca2+ binding pocket. We also found a new persistent hydrogen bond between the protein moiety (F174) and the heme prosthetic group as well as two stitching hydrogen bonds between the connecting loops GH and F'F″ in mutated HRP. However, detailed analysis of functionally related structural properties and dynamical features suggests reduced reactivity of the enzyme toward its substrates. Molecular dynamics simulations showed that substitutions narrow the bottle neck entry of peroxide substrate access channel and reduce the surface accessibility of the distal histidine (H42) and heme prosthetic group to the peroxide and aromatic substrates, respectively. Results also demonstrated that the area and volume of the aromatic-substrate binding pocket are significantly decreased upon modifications. Moreover, the hydrophobic patch functioning as a binding site or trap for reducing aromatic substrates is shrunk in mutated enzyme. Together, the results of this simulation study could provide possible structural clues to explain those experimental

  13. Whillans Ice Stream Subglacial Access Research Drilling (WISSARD): Integrative Study of Marine Ice Sheet Stability and Subglacial Life Habitats (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulaczyk, S. M.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Behar, A. E.; Christner, B. C.; Fisher, A. T.; Fricker, H. A.; Holland, D. M.; Jacobel, R. W.; Mikucki, J.; Mitchell, A. C.; Powell, R. D.; Priscu, J. C.; Scherer, R. P.; Severinghaus, J. P.

    2009-12-01

    The WISSARD project is a large, NSF-funded, interdisciplinary initiative focused on scientific drilling, exploration, and investigation of Antarctic subglacial aquatic environments. The project consists of three interrelated components: (1) LISSARD - Lake and Ice Stream Subglacial Access Research Drilling, (2) RAGES - Robotic Access to Grounding-zones for Exploration and Science, and (3) GBASE - GeomicroBiology of Antarctic Subglacial Environments). A number of previous studies in West Antarctica highlighted the importance of understanding ice sheet interactions with water, either at the basal boundary where ice streams come in contact with active subglacial hydrologic and geological systems or at the marine margin where the ice sheet is exposed to forcing from the global ocean and sedimentation. Recent biological investigations of Antarctic subglacial environments show that they provide a significant habitat for life and source of bacterial carbon in a setting that was previously thought to be inhospitable. Subglacial microbial ecosystems also enhance biogeochemical weathering, mobilizing elements from long term geological storage. The overarching scientific objective of WISSARD is to examine the subglacial hydrological system of West Antarctica in glaciological, geological, microbiological, geochemical, and oceanographic contexts. Direct sampling will yield seminal information on these systems and test the overarching hypothesis that active hydrological systems connect various subglacial environments and exert major control on ice sheet dynamics, subglacial sediment transfer, geochemistry, metabolic and phylogenetic diversity, and biogeochemical transformations and geological records of ice sheet history. Technological advances during WISSARD will provide the US-science community with a capability to access and study sub-ice sheet environments. Developing this technological infrastructure will benefit the broader science community and it will be available for

  14. Revising the high-density lipoprotein targeting strategies - insights from human and preclinical studies.

    PubMed

    Nesan, Dinushan; Ng, Dominic S

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) hypothesis has been challenged. Several completed randomized clinical trials continue to fall short in demonstrating HDL, or at least HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, as being a consistent target in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. However, population studies and findings in lipid modifying trials continue to strongly support HDL-C as a superb risk predictor. It is increasingly evident that the complexity of HDL metabolism confounds the use of HDL-C concentration as a unified target. However, important insights continue to emerge from the post hoc analyses of recently completed (i) fibrate-based FIELD and ACCORD trials, including the unexpected beneficial effect of fibrates in microvascular diseases, (ii) the niacin-based AIM-HIGH and HPS2-THRIVE studies, (iii) recombinant HDL-based as well as (iv) the completed CETP inhibitor-based trials. These together with on-going mechanistic studies on novel pathways, which include the unique roles of microRNAs, post-translational remodeling of HDL and novel pathways related to HDL modulators will provide valuable insights to guide how best to refocus and redesign the conceptual framework for selecting HDL-based targets. PMID:25115413

  15. Metal/dendrimer nanocomposites for enhanced optical breakdown: acoustic characterization and initial targeted cell uptake study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tse, Christine; Lesniak, Wojciech; Balogh, Lajos P.; Ye, Jing Yong; O'Donnell, Matthew

    2007-02-01

    Metal/dendrimer nanocomposites (DNCs) uniquely combine the properties of metallic clusters and the biofriendly polymer host in a nanosized hybrid particle. DNCs can biochemically target tissues and locally reduce femtosecond optical breakdown thresholds, making highly precise and selective photodisruption possible. In this study, we have used high-frequency acoustic monitoring of bubble production dynamics to investigate how DNC properties, solution concentration, and optical parameters affect threshold reduction, actual waiting time, and mechanical characteristics of breakdown. Breakdown is defined here as bubble production with an onset of less than 20 seconds after laser exposure. DNC properties varied include metal content (silver, gold) and terminal group (amino-NH II, glycidol-OH, and carboxyl- COOH) which determine pH values. Results indicate that DNC metal content markedly influences solution threshold reduction, while DNC terminal group (and thus net surface charge) and solution concentration influence the details of breakdown at these reduced threshold fluences. {Ag(0)} DNCs reduce breakdown threshold fluence 1-2 orders of magnitude more than {Au(0)} DNCs. Furthermore, concentrated DNC solutions and DNCs carrying a net negative charge (carboxyl terminal groups) increase bubble production up to four times and shorten waiting time for breakdown from seconds to milliseconds. Increasing laser fluence for a given DNC solution concentration also shortens breakdown waiting time. Lastly, utilizing the fluorescence properties of silver nanocomposites, we use confocal microscopy to examine KB cell uptake of folate targeted silver DNCs. Cells incubated with folate targeted silver DNCs exhibit a measurable increase of intracellular fluorescence compared to control cells (no DNC incubation). However, while we observe a threshold reduction in KB cells incubated with 500nM folate-targeted DNC solution, there is no threshold reduction in cells incubated with 50nM folate-targeted

  16. Access to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Felecia; De Oliver, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    This case study researches the degree to which the location and services offered by a multicampus university, geographically situated consistent with the commercial principles of a large mass-market enterprise, facilitate access for educationally underserved groups. First, the necessity of democratizing educational access to an underprivileged…

  17. Ejecta From Impacts: Experimental Studies of Target Effects and Application to Planetary Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermalyn, B.; Schultz, P. H.; Meech, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    Hypervelocity impact events mobilize and redistribute regolith across planetary surfaces. The ejecta velocities reflect the initial conditions and flow-field inside the transient crater, and control the ballistic path and eventual emplacement of material. Studies of ejection velocities during main-stage excavation flow describe the speed and direction of ejected material as a function of time after impact or launch position. While these past studies have established a canonical ejecta model for main-stage ejection of sand targets from vertical impacts, only recent studies have been able to begin quantitatively probing the intricacies of the ejection process outside this main-stage, vertical regime. The effects of impact angle, more physically realistic target and impactor properties and heterogeneities, and the interplay between strength and gravity on ejection processes are highly relevant for interpretation ejecta deposits, especially due to the flood of recent high resolution data of the terrestrial bodies, natural impacts such as that on A2/Linear, and the Deep Impact and LCROSS missions. Here, we present a study of the effects of target properties on the ejecta velocity distribution. A suite of hypervelocity (~5.5km/s) impact experiments into a variety of target materials was performed at the NASA Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR). These materials included sands of varying sizes and shapes (and thus material properties), air-fall pumice dust (as a regolith analog), and consolidated resin-coated sand blocks of known strength. The implementation of novel Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) techniques permits non-intrusive measurement of the ejecta velocity distribution within the ejecta curtain by following the path of individual ejecta particles. The PTV system developed at the AVGR uses a series of high-speed cameras (ranging from 11,000 to 500,000 frames per second) to allow measurement of particle velocity over a large dynamic range for both vertical and

  18. The Quik Fix study: a randomised controlled trial of brief interventions for young people with alcohol-related injuries and illnesses accessing emergency department and crisis support care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol is a major preventable cause of injury, disability and death in young people. Large numbers of young people with alcohol-related injuries and medical conditions present to hospital emergency departments (EDs). Access to brief, efficacious, accessible and cost effective treatment is an international health priority within this age group. While there is growing evidence for the efficacy of brief motivational interviewing (MI) for reducing alcohol use in young people, there is significant scope to increase its impact, and determine if it is the most efficacious and cost effective type of brief intervention available. The efficacy of personality-targeted interventions (PIs) for alcohol misuse delivered individually to young people is yet to be determined or compared to MI, despite growing evidence for school-based PIs. This study protocol describes a randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of telephone-delivered MI, PI and an Assessment Feedback/Information (AF/I) only control for reducing alcohol use and related harm in young people. Methods/design Participants will be 390 young people aged 16 to 25 years presenting to a crisis support service or ED with alcohol-related injuries and illnesses (including severe alcohol intoxication). This single blinded superiority trial randomized young people to (i) 2 sessions of MI; (ii) 2 sessions of a new PI or (iii) a 1 session AF/I only control. Participants are reassessed at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months on the primary outcomes of alcohol use and related problems and secondary outcomes of mental health symptoms, functioning, severity of problematic alcohol use, alcohol injuries, alcohol-related knowledge, coping self-efficacy to resist using alcohol, and cost effectiveness. Discussion This study will identify the most efficacious and cost-effective telephone-delivered brief intervention for reducing alcohol misuse and related problems in young people presenting to crisis support

  19. Gaining Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Discusses issues schools and universities have encountered in complying with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and making their facilities more accessible to the disabled. The ADA's vagueness and the architect's need for understanding the regulations is highlighted. (GR)

  20. Equal Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Patta, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Presents an interview with Stephen McCarthy, co-partner and president of Equal Access ADA Consulting Architects of San Diego, California, about designing schools to naturally integrate compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). (EV)

  1. Capital access.

    PubMed

    Towne, Jennifer

    2004-06-01

    To maintain their viability, hospitals are being compelled to invest in big capital projects such as information technology and renovation and construction. This gatefold examines the trends in credit and capital, and how they affect hospitals' access to money.

  2. An exploration of on-line access by non-traditional students in higher education: a case study.

    PubMed

    Dearnley, Chris; Dunn, Ginny; Watson, Sue

    2006-07-01

    The nature of Higher Education (HE) has seen many changes throughout the last decade. The agenda for widening participation in HE has led to an increase in the number of students with a broader range of educational backgrounds. At the same time there has been a surge in the development of digitalisation and the convergence of computing and telecommunications technologies available for use in education. This paper discusses the outcomes of a case study, conducted in a School of Health Studies within a northern English University, which identified the extent to which 'non-traditional' students access on-line learning facilities, such as virtual learning environments and library networks, and what factors enhanced or formed barriers to access. 'Non-traditional' students, for the purpose of this study, were defined as mature students who were returning to higher education after a considerable break. The outcomes indicated that skill deficit is a major obstacle for many 'non-traditional' students. The paper explores this issue in depth and suggests potential ways forward for the delivery of technology supported learning for 'non-traditional' students in Higher Education. PMID:16406621

  3. The importance of a multi-dimensional approach for studying the links between food access and consumption.

    PubMed

    Rose, Donald; Bodor, J Nicholas; Hutchinson, Paul L; Swalm, Chris M

    2010-06-01

    Research on neighborhood food access has focused on documenting disparities in the food environment and on assessing the links between the environment and consumption. Relatively few studies have combined in-store food availability measures with geographic mapping of stores. We review research that has used these multi-dimensional measures of access to explore the links between the neighborhood food environment and consumption or weight status. Early research in California found correlations between red meat, reduced-fat milk, and whole-grain bread consumption and shelf space availability of these products in area stores. Subsequent research in New York confirmed the low-fat milk findings. Recent research in Baltimore has used more sophisticated diet assessment tools and store-based instruments, along with controls for individual characteristics, to show that low availability of healthy food in area stores is associated with low-quality diets of area residents. Our research in southeastern Louisiana has shown that shelf space availability of energy-dense snack foods is positively associated with BMI after controlling for individual socioeconomic characteristics. Most of this research is based on cross-sectional studies. To assess the direction of causality, future research testing the effects of interventions is needed. We suggest that multi-dimensional measures of the neighborhood food environment are important to understanding these links between access and consumption. They provide a more nuanced assessment of the food environment. Moreover, given the typical duration of research project cycles, changes to in-store environments may be more feasible than changes to the overall mix of retail outlets in communities. PMID:20410084

  4. HIV/AIDS and access to water: A case study of home-based care in Ngamiland, Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngwenya, B. N.; Kgathi, D. L.

    This case study investigates access to potable water in HIV/AIDS related home-based care households in five rural communities in Ngamiland, Botswana. Primary data collected from five villages consisted of two parts. The first survey collected household data on demographic and rural livelihood features and impacts of HIV/AIDS. A total of 129 households were selected using a two-stage stratified random sampling method. In the second survey, a total of 39 family primary and community care givers of continuously ill, bed-ridden or non-bed-ridden HIV/AIDS patients were interviewed. A detailed questionnaire, with closed and open-ended questions, was used to collect household data. In addition to using the questionnaire, data were also collected through participant observation, informal interviews and secondary sources. The study revealed that there are several sources of water for communities in Ngamiland such as off-plot, outdoor (communal) and on-plot outdoor and/or indoor (private) water connections, as well as other sources such as bowsed water, well-points, boreholes and open perennial/ephemeral water from river channels and pans. There was a serious problem of unreliable water supply caused by, among other things, the breakdown of diesel-powered water pumps, high frequency of HIV/AIDS related absenteeism, and the failure of timely delivery of diesel fuel. Some villages experienced chronic supply disruptions while others experienced seasonal or occasional water shortages. Strategies for coping with unreliability of water supply included economizing on water, reserve storage, buying water, and collection from river/dug wells or other alternative sources such as rain harvesting tanks in government institutions. The unreliability of water supply resulted in an increase in the use of water of poor quality and other practices of poor hygiene as well as a high opportunity cost of water collection. In such instances, bathing of patients was cut from twice daily to once or

  5. ACHIEVING LIPID TARGETS IN ADULTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES--THE SANDS STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Marie; Silverman, Angela; Fleg, Jerome L.; Lee, Elisa T.; Mete, Mihriye; Weir, Matthew; Wilson, Charlton; Yeh, Fawn; Howard, Barbara V.; Howard, Wm. James

    2010-01-01

    Background Although lipid management in diabetes is standard practice, goals often are neither met nor maintained. Strategies for achieving lower targets have not been explored. The Stop Atherosclerosis in Native Diabetics Study (SANDS) randomized patients with diabetes to standard versus aggressive lipid and blood pressure goals for 36 months. Objective To report strategies used to achieve and maintain lipid goals and to report adverse events (AEs). Methods Adults with type 2 diabetes and no history of cardiovascular disease (N=499) were randomized to standard (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C]≤100 mg/dL, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [non-HDL-C]≤130 mg/dL) or aggressive (LDL-C≤70 mg/dL, non-HDL-C≤100 mg/dL) targets. An algorithm started with statin monotherapy, adding intestinally acting agents as required to reach LDL-C targets. Triglyceride [TG]-lowering agents were next used to reach non-HDL-C goals. Lipid management was performed by mid-level practitioners, with physician consultation, using point-of-care lipid determinations. Results On average, both groups achieved the LDL-C and non-HDL-C goals within 12 months and maintained them throughout the study. At 36 months, mean (SD) LDL-C and non-HDL-C were 72 (24) and 102 (29) mg/dL in the aggressive group (AGG) and 104 (20) and 138 (26) mg/dL, respectively, in the standard group (STD); systolic blood pressure targets were 115 and 130 mmHg, respectively. 68% of participants reached target LDL-C for >50% of the visits and 46% for >75% of visits. At 36 months, the AGG averaged 1.5 lipid lowering medications and the STD 1.2. Statins were used in 91% and 68% of the AGG and STD; ezetimibe by 31% and 10%; fibrates by 8% and 18%. No serious adverse events (SAEs) were observed; AEs occurred in 18% of the AGG and 14% of the STD. Conclusion Standard and aggressive lipid targets can be safely maintained in diabetic patients. Standardized algorithms, point-of-care lipid testing, and non

  6. Effects of Targeted Subsidies Policy on Health Behavior in Iranian Households: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    DOSHMANGIR, Leila; DOSHMANGIR, Parinaz; ABOLHASSANI, Nazanin; MOSHIRI, Esmaeil; JAFARI, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to explore the effects of national targeted subsidies policy on health behavior of Iranian households. Methods: In this qualitative study, data were collected between January 2012 and December 2013 through face-to-face interviews (23 experts in national and provincial levels of health system and 18 household heads) and through a comprehensive and purposive document analysis. The data was analyzed using a thematic analysis method (inductive-deductive) and assisted by Atlas-ti software. Results: Rising health care costs, removing some food subsidies and the increase in price of most goods and services due to the implementation of economic policy of targeted subsidies have led to significant changes in the demand for health services, changes in the consumption trends of goods and services affecting health as well as changes in the health habits of households. Conclusion: Targeted subsidies and the cash subsidy policy have some negative effects on population health behavior especially among poor people. Hence, maintaining or increasing the cash subsidy is not an efficient allocation of resources toward health care system. So, it is necessary to identify appropriate strategies and policies and apply interventions in order to moderate negative effects and enhance positive effects resulted from implementing this economic reform on population health behavior. PMID:26056676

  7. Navigating Access and Maintaining Established Practice: Social Studies Teachers' Technology Integration at Three Florida Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    This mixed methods multiple case study explored middle school social studies teachers' instructional use of digital technology at three suburban middle schools This mixed methods, multiple-case study explored middle school social studies teachers' instructional use of digital technology at three suburban middle schools in a large Florida school…

  8. Effects study on the thermal stresses in a LEU metal foil annular target.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Srisharan G; Solbrekken, Gary L

    2015-09-01

    The effects of fission gas pressure, uranium swelling and thermal contact conductance on the thermal-mechanical behavior of an annular target containing a low-enriched uranium foil (LEU) encapsulated in a nickel foil have been presented in this paper. The draw-plug assembly method is simulated to obtain the residual stresses, which are applied to the irradiation model as initial inputs, and the integrated assembly-irradiation process is simulated as an axisymmetric problem using the commercial finite element code Abaqus FEA. Parametric studies were performed on the LEU heat generation rate and the results indicate satisfactory irradiation performance of the annular target. The temperature and stress margins have been provided along with a discussion of the results. PMID:26036440

  9. Numerical study of penetration in ceramic targets with a multiple-plane model

    SciTech Connect

    Espinosa, H. D.; Yuan, G.; Dwivedi, S.; Zavattieri, P. D.

    1998-07-10

    The penetration mechanics in different material/structure systems has been investigated by numerical simulations with the finite element code EPIC95. A multi-plane microcracking model was implemented to simulate ceramic fragmentation and comminution. Two kinds of confined structures, depth-of-penetration (DOP) and interface-defeat (ID) configurations, were examined in the simulations. The results revealed that the penetration process is found to be less dependent on the ceramic material than usually assumed by most investigators. By contrast, the penetration process is highly dependent on the multi-layered configuration and the target structural design (geometry, and boundary conditions). From a simulation standpoint, we found that the selection of the erosion parameter plays an important role in predicting the deformation history and interaction of the penetrator with the target. These findings show that meaningful light weight armor design can only be accomplished through a combined experimental/numerical study in which relevant ballistic materials and structures are simultaneously investigated.

  10. Study of Plasma Liner Driven Magnetized Target Fusion Via Advanced Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Samulyak, Roman V.; Parks, Paul

    2013-08-31

    The feasibility of the plasma liner driven Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) via terascale numerical simulations will be assessed. In the MTF concept, a plasma liner, formed by merging of a number (60 or more) of radial, highly supersonic plasma jets, implodes on the target in the form of two compact plasma toroids, and compresses it to conditions of the fusion ignition. By avoiding major difficulties associated with both the traditional laser driven inertial confinement fusion and solid liner driven MTF, the plasma liner driven MTF potentially provides a low-cost and fast R&D path towards the demonstration of practical fusion energy. High fidelity numerical simulations of full nonlinear models associated with the plasma liner MTF using state-of-art numerical algorithms and terascale computing are necessary in order to resolve uncertainties and provide guidance for future experiments. At Stony Brook University, we have developed unique computational capabilities that ideally suite the MTF problem. The FronTier code, developed in collaboration with BNL and LANL under DOE funding including SciDAC for the simulation of 3D multi-material hydro and MHD flows, has beenbenchmarked and used for fundamental and engineering problems in energy science applications. We have performed 3D simulations of converging supersonic plasma jets, their merger and the formation of the plasma liner, and a study of the corresponding oblique shock problem. We have studied the implosion of the plasma liner on the magnetized plasma target by resolving Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in 2D and 3D and other relevant physics and estimate thermodynamic conditions of the target at the moment of maximum compression and the hydrodynamic efficiency of the method.

  11. Improving Data Availability for Better Access Performance: A Study on Caching Scientific Data on Distributed Workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Xiaosong; Zhang, Zhe; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S

    2009-01-01

    Client-side data caching serves as an excellent mechanism to store and analyze the rapidly growing amount of scientific data. In our previous work, we built a distributed local cache on unreliable desktop storage contributions. This offers several desirable properties, such as performance impedance matching, improved space utilization, and high parallel I/O bandwidth. Such a low-cost, best-effort cache, however, is faced with the vagaries of storage node availability: these donated machines may be significantly less reliable than dedicated systems and cannot be controlled centrally. In this paper, we address %the tradeoffs between techniques that favor %availability or performance when it comes to cache management. the performance impact of data availability in the distributed scientific data cache setting. We then present a novel approach to storage cache management, {\\em remote partial data recovery (RPDR)}. We compare our approach to two standard techniques, namely replication and erasure coding, both extended to the target caching environment. Our evaluation uses a trace-driven simulation parameterized with benchmarking results from our distributed cache prototype. The results with multiple real-world traces indicate that RPDR significantly outperforms both replication and erasure coding in many cases and overall the combination of RPDR and erasure coding yields the best performance.

  12. Microchannel arrays with improved accessibility and use for cell studies and emulsification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Yuji; Kikuchi, Hiroko E.; Kuboki, Yoshinori; Nakajima, Mitsutoshi

    2000-03-01

    Arrays of microgrooves (groove width; 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, and 14 micrometer, groove interval; width x3, x10, and x20, one size and interval per chip) each connecting a center well and a side edge of a silicon substrate were created by photolithography and anisotropic wet etching. A penetrating hole was made by sand blast at the substrate center for the access to the center well. By tightly covering the substrate surface with a glass plate, the microgroove arrays were converted to microchannel arrays having one ends open at the side edges of the substrate. These microchannel arrays were used for cell trapping for microinjection and also used for emulsification. Poplar (Populus alba) protoplasts were used for the test of cell trapping. Cells showed a very large variation in size and irregularity in shape, and, furthermore, the protoplast preparation contained a number of cell membrane fragments and chloroplasts. Despite the cell size and shape variations and obstruction by the admixtures, many cells could be trapped by aspiration at the channel ends because of their openness to the outside free space and also their large multiplicity in parallel. The free space outside the side of the substrate allowed a free manipulation of a glass micropipette under microscopic observation using transmitted illumination. The microscopic observation direction nearly perpendicular to the movement directions of the micropipette further allowed the movement of the pipette tip nearly always in focus. These led to an easy pointing and puncturing. In addition, the cell trapping points in a line made successive approach to adjacent cells easier. Soybean oil containing 1.5 wt% polyoxyethylene(20)sorbitan monoolete as a surfactant was forced to flow into physiological saline filling the outside of the substrate through the microchannels. Regularly sized oil particles were created by this process with a variation coefficient (S.D./mean) 16% of their diameter. This variation, which is

  13. Access to the NHS by telephone and Internet during an influenza pandemic: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Rutter, Paul; Mytton, Oliver; Ellis, Benjamin; Donaldson, Liam

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine use of a novel telephone and Internet service—the National Pandemic Flu Service (NPFS)—by the population of England during the 2009–2010 influenza pandemic. Setting National telephone and Internet-based service. Participants Service available to population of England (n=51.8 million). Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary: service use rate, by week. Numbers and age-specific and sex-specific rates of population who: accessed service; were authorised to collect antiviral medication; collected antiviral medication; were advised to seek further face-to-face assessment. Secondary: daily mean contacts by hour; proportion using service by telephone/Internet. Results The NPFS was activated on 23 July 2009, operated for 204 days and assessed 2.7 million patients (5200 consultations/100 000 population). This was six times the number of people who consulted their general practitioner with influenza-like illness during the same period (823 consultations/100 000 population, rate ratio (RR)=6.30, 95% CI 6.28 to 6.32). Women used the service more than men (52.6 vs 43.4 assessments/1000 population, RR1 21, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.22). Among adults, use of the service declined with age (16–29 years: 74.4 vs 65 years+: 9.9 assessments/1000 population (RR 7.46 95% CI 7.41 to 7.52). Almost three-quarters of those assessed met the criteria to receive antiviral medication (1 807 866/2 488 510; 72.6%). Most of the people subsequently collected this medication, although more than one-third did not (n=646 709; 35.8%). Just over one-third of those assessed were advised to seek further face-to-face assessment with a practitioner (951 332/2 488 504; 38.2%). Conclusions This innovative healthcare service operated at large scale and achieved its aim of relieving considerable pressure from mainstream health services, while providing appropriate initial assessment and management for patients. This offers proof-of-concept for such a service

  14. Infrared thermal imaging as a physiological access pathway: a study of the baseline characteristics of facial skin temperatures.

    PubMed

    Nhan, B R; Chau, T

    2009-04-01

    In this study we examine the baseline characteristics of facial skin temperature, as measured by dynamic infrared thermal imaging, to gauge its potential as a physiological access pathway for non-verbal individuals with severe motor impairments. Frontal facial recordings were obtained from 12 asymptomatic adults in a resting state with a high-end infrared thermal imaging system. From the infrared thermal recordings, mean skin temperature time series were generated for regions of interest encompassing the nasal, periorbital and supraorbital areas. A 90% bandwidth for all regions of interest was found to be in the 1 Hz range. Over 70% of the time series were identified as nonstationary (p<0.05), with the nonstationary mean as the greatest contributing source. Correlation coefficients between regions were significant (p<0.05) and ranged from values of 0.30 (between periorbital and supraorbital regions) to 0.75 (between contralateral supraorbital regions). Using information measures, we concluded that the greatest degree of information existed in the nasal and periorbital regions. Mutual information existed across all regions but was especially prominent between the nasal and periorbital regions. Results from this study provide insight into appropriate analysis methods and potential discriminating features for the application of facial skin temperature as a physiological access pathway. PMID:19332894

  15. Adherence to the obesity-related lifestyle intervention targets in the IDEFICS study

    PubMed Central

    Kovács, E; Siani, A; Konstabel, K; Hadjigeorgiou, C; de Bourdeaudhuij, I; Eiben, G; Lissner, L; Gwozdz, W; Reisch, L; Pala, V; Moreno, L A; Pigeot, I; Pohlabeln, H; Ahrens, W; Molnár, D

    2014-01-01

    Background/objectives: To address behaviours associated with childhood obesity, certain target values are recommended that should be met to improve children's health. In the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health Effects in Children and infantS) study such lifestyle recommendations were conveyed as six key messages. Here, we investigate the adherence of European children to these messages. Methods: The IDEFICS intervention was based on the intervention mapping approach with the following six targets: increase water consumption (to replace sugar-containing beverages), increase fruit/vegetable consumption, reduce daily screen time, increase daily physical activity, improve the quality of family life and ensure adequate sleep duration. Internationally recommended target values were applied to determine the prevalence of children meeting these targets. Results: In a cohort of 18 745 children participating in the IDEFICS baseline survey or newly recruited during follow-up, data on the above lifestyle behaviours were collected for a varying number of 8302 to 17 212 children. Information on all six behaviours was available for 5140 children. Although 52.5% of the cohort was classified in the highest category of water consumption, only 8.8% met the target of an intake of fruits/vegetables five times a day. The prevalence of children adhering to the recommendation regarding total screen time—below 1 h for pre-school children and 2 h for school children—was 51.1%. The recommended amount of at least 60 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day was fulfilled by 15.2%. Family life of the child measured by various indicators was considered as satisfactory in 22.8%. Nocturnal sleep duration of 11 (10) hours or more in pre-school (school) children was achieved by 37.9%. In general, children in northern countries and younger children showed better adherence to the recommendations. Only 1.1% of the children adhered

  16. Parental influences on adolescent video game play: a study of accessibility, rules, limit setting, monitoring, and cybersafety.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lisa J; Gradisar, Michael; King, Daniel L

    2015-05-01

    Adolescents' video gaming is increasing at a rapid rate. Yet, little is known about what factors contribute toward more hours of gaming per week, as well as what factors may limit or protect adolescents from excessive gaming. The aim of the present study was to examine associations between adolescents' accessibility to video gaming devices, the locations played (i.e., bedroom, shared rooms), parental regulation of technology use, and the amount of hours spent video gaming during the week (weekdays vs. weekends). Adolescents (N=422; age 16.3±2.0 years, 41% male) completed an online questionnaire battery, including demographics, video gaming behaviors (e.g., hours played weekdays/weekends, time of day played, devices owned, locations played, etc.), and a questionnaire measuring aspects of parents' regulation of game playing (e.g., rules, limit setting, co-gaming). Accessibility to the adolescents' own devices, but not shared devices or device portability, was predictive of hours gaming on weekdays and weekends. Location (i.e., bedroom) was associated with increased gaming across the week. Parents discussing cybersafety was predictive of lower hours of gaming (weekdays and weekends). However, limit setting, monitoring, and co-gaming showed no significant effects. Adolescents' access to their own gaming equipped devices, as well as gaming in their bedrooms, were linked to increased hours of gaming. The findings suggest that in order to curb the increase in hours gaming, parents are advised to delay the ownership of adolescents' devices, encourage use in shared rooms, and discuss aspects of cybersafety with their teenage children.

  17. Target of rapamycin (TOR)-based therapy for cardiomyopathy: evidence from zebrafish and human studies.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, Sudhir; Xu, Xiaolei

    2012-02-01

    Rapamycin is a U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for the prevention of immunorejection following organ transplantation. Pharmacological studies suggest a potential new application of rapamycin in attenuating cardiomyopathy, but the potential for this application is not yet supported by genetic studies of genes in target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling in rodents. Recently, supporting genetic evidence was presented in zebrafish using two adult cardiomyopathy models. By characterizing a heterozygous zebrafish target of rapamycin (ztor) mutant, the therapeutic effect of long-term TOR signaling inhibition was demonstrated. Dose- and stage-dependent functions of TOR signaling provide an explanation for the seemingly contradictory results obtained in genetic studies of TOR components in rodents. The results from the zebrafish studies, together with the supporting preliminary clinical studies, suggested that TOR signaling inhibition should be further pursued as a novel therapeutic strategy for cardiomyopathy. Future directions for developing TOR-based therapy include assessing the long-term benefits of rapamycin as a candidate drug for heart failure patients, defining the dynamic activity of TOR, exploring the impacts of TOR signaling manipulation in different models of cardiomyopathies, and elucidating the downstream signaling branches that confer the therapeutic effects of TOR signaling inhibition.

  18. "You know your own fistula, it becomes a part of you"--Patient perspectives on vascular access: A semistructured interview study.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Matthew J; Hanson, Camilla S; Casey, Jordan R; Craig, Jonathan C; Harris, David; Tong, Allison

    2016-01-01

    The success of hemodialysis depends on functional vascular access but such an invasive, semipermanent intervention can be confronting for patients. Vascular access complications are potentially life threatening and reduce treatment satisfaction and quality of life. This study aims to describe patient perspectives on vascular access. Face-to-face, semistructured interviews were conducted with 26 adult patients receiving hemodialysis with any form of vascular access at two dialysis units in Australia. The transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. We identified five major themes describing patient perspectives on vascular access: developing mental fortitude for access (accepting necessity for survival, self-advocacy, experiential confidence and competency, dependency on others, gaining vascular knowledge), device intrusiveness on the body (restricting normal function, finding compensatory solutions, bodily invasion, confronting appearance), inhibiting pain (aversion to surgery, persisting needle anxieties), exposure to dire health consequences (resigning to inevitable failure, anticipating serious complications, technological skepticism, wary of medical incompetence), and imposing burdens (generating additional expenses, encumbering family members). Patients with a vascular access rely on a precarious lifeline, which is confronting, intrusive, and burdensome. Some develop mental resilience to cope with the pain and invasiveness of vascular access. The results suggest that more attention to address needle anxieties, self-advocacy, lifestyle disruption, fear of complications, and concern for caregiver burden may improve treatment satisfaction and outcomes for patients on hemodialysis. PMID:26201992

  19. Is the intraosseous access route fast and efficacious compared to conventional central venous catheterization in adult patients under resuscitation in the emergency department? A prospective observational pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Leidel, Bernd A; Kirchhoff, Chlodwig; Bogner, Viktoria; Stegmaier, Julia; Mutschler, Wolf; Kanz, Karl-Georg; Braunstein, Volker

    2009-01-01

    Background For patients' safety reasons, current American Heart Association and European Resuscitation Council guidelines recommend intraosseous (IO) vascular access as an alternative in cases of emergency, if prompt venous catheterization is impossible. The purpose of this study was to compare the IO access as a bridging procedure versus central venous catheterization (CVC) for in-hospital adult emergency patients under resuscitation with impossible peripheral intravenous (IV) access. We hypothesised, that CVC is faster and more efficacious compared to IO access. Methods A prospective observational study comparing success rates and procedure times of IO access (EZ-IO, Vidacare Corporation) versus CVC in adult (≥18 years of age) patients under trauma and medical resuscitation admitted to our emergency department with impossible peripheral IV catheterization was conducted. Procedure time was defined from preparation and insertion of vascular access type until first drug or infusion solution administration. Success rate on first attempt and procedure time for each access route was evaluated and statistically tested. Results Ten consecutive adult patients under resuscitation, each receiving IO access and CVC, were analyzed. IO access was performed with 10 tibial or humeral insertions, CVC in 10 internal jugular or subclavian veins. The success rate on first attempt was 90% for IO insertion versus 60% for CVC. Mean procedure time was significantly lower for IO cannulation (2.3 min ± 0.8) compared to CVC (9.9 min ± 3.7) (p < 0.001). As for complications, failure of IO access was observed in one patient, while two or more attempts of CVC were necessary in four patients. No other relevant complications, like infection, bleeding or pneumothorax were observed. Conclusion Preliminary data demonstrate that IO access is a reliable bridging method to gain vascular access for in-hospital adult emergency patients under trauma or medical resuscitation with impossible

  20. A Quantitative Study on the Photothermal Effect of Immuno Gold Nanocages Targeted to Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Au, Leslie; Zheng, Desheng; Zhou, Fei; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Xingde; Xia, Younan

    2009-01-01

    Gold nanocages with an average edge length of 65 ± 7 nm and a strong absorption peak at 800 nm were conjugated with monoclonal antibodies (anti-HER2) to target breast cancer cells (SK-BR-3) through the epidermal growth factor receptor (in this case, HER2), which is overexpressed on the surfaces of the cells. Both the number of immuno Au nanocages immobilized per cell and the photothermal therapeutic effect were quantified using flow cytometry. The targeted cells were irradiated with a pulsed near-infrared laser, and by varying the power density, the duration of laser exposure, and the time of response after irradiation, we were able to optimize the treatment conditions to achieve effective destruction of the cancer cells. We found that cells targeted with the immuno Au nanocages responded immediately to laser irradiation and that the cellular damage was irreversible at power densities greater than 1.6 W/cm2. The percentage of dead cells increased with increasing exposure time up to 5 min and then became steady. By quantifying the photothermal effect of immuno Au nanocages, critical information with regards to both the optimal dosage of nanocages and parameters of the laser irradiation has been garnered and will be applied to future in vivo studies. PMID:19206368

  1. Study of the New Pulse NMR System for the Jefferson Lab Helium-3 Polarized Target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    At Jefferson Lab, a polarized Helium-3 target is used to study the neutron. The Helium-3 target is undergoing an upgrade to improve its polarization. Measuring it involved a new technique known as pulse Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). The focus of this project was to find noise in the Pulse NMR signal and to compute the calibration constant to make the polarization easier to deduce. Pulse NMR calibration tests were performed by doing AFP NMR measurements followed by Pulse NMR measurements while varying certain conditions. These included the convection heater, the operation of the oven, and the operation of the laser. Data analysis was done by fitting the pulse NMR signal from the oscilloscope and utilizing the Fourier Transform. Noise was analyzed in the fitting and the Fourier Transform. The calibration constants were affected by the convection heater. The values deviated between the pumping and target chambers of the cell when there was no convection but the values were closer when convection was induced. As far as the noise, it was found to be significant. These results will enable the calculation of the polarization with pulse NMR. In addition, the signal analysis provided insight into the influence of background noise on the pulse NMR measurement. This research was done though the SULI program of the Department of Energy.

  2. Nuclear Structure Studies in the 132Sn Region: Safe Coulex with Carbon Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Allmond, James M; Stuchbery, Andrew E; Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo {nmn}; Padilla-Rodal, Elizabeth; Radford, David C; Batchelder, J. C.; Bingham, C. R.; Howard, Meredith E; Liang, J Felix; Manning, Brett M; Pain, Steven D; Stone, N. J.; Varner, Jr, Robert L; Yu, Chang-Hong

    2015-01-01

    The collective and single-particle structure of nuclei in the 132Sn region was recently studied by Coulomb excitation and heavy-ion induced transfer reactions using carbon, beryllium, and titanium targets. In particular, Coulomb excitation was used determine a complete set of electromagnetic moments for the first 2+ states and one-neutron transfer was used to probe the purity and evolution of single-neutron states. These recent experiments were conducted at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at ORNL using a CsI-HPGe detector array (BareBall- CLARION) to detect scattered particles and emitted gamma rays from the in-beam reactions. A Bragg-curve detector was used to measure the energy loss of the various beams through the targets and to measure the radioactive beam compositions. A sample of the Coulomb excitation results is presented here with an emphasis placed on 116Sn. In particular, the safe Coulex criterion for carbon targets will be analyzed and discussed.

  3. Targeted harassment, subcultural identity and the embrace of difference: a case study.

    PubMed

    Hodkinson, Paul; Garland, Jon

    2016-09-01

    This paper examines the significance of experiences and understandings of targeted harassment to the identities of youth subcultural participants, through case study research on goths. It does so against a context of considerable recent public discussion about the victimization of alternative subcultures and a surprising scarcity of academic research on the subject. The analysis presented indicates that, although individual direct experiences are diverse, the spectre of harassment can form an ever-present accompaniment to subcultural life, even for those who have never been seriously targeted. As such, it forms part of what it is to be a subcultural participant and comprises significant common ground with other members. Drawing upon classic and more recent understandings of how subcultural groups respond to broader forms of outside hostility, we show how the shared experience of feeling targeted for harassment tied in with a broader subcultural discourse of being stigmatized by a perceived 'normal' society. The role of harassment as part of this, we argue, contributed to the strength with which subcultural identities were felt and to a positive embrace of otherness. PMID:27611584

  4. Accessing word meaning in two languages: an event-related brain potential study of beginning bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Ruben P; Holcomb, Phillip J; Grainger, Jonathan

    2003-11-01

    Twenty-eight native-English speakers enrolled in beginning and intermediate university Spanish courses participated in a mixed language semantic categorization task in which critical words were presented in English (L1) and Spanish (L2) and repetitions of these words (within- and between-languages) were presented on subsequent trials (i.e., immediate repetition). Event-related potentials were recorded to all items allowing for comparisons of the N400 component to repetitions within- and between-languages as well as to words presented for the first time. Three important findings were observed in this sample of participants during relatively early stages of acquiring a second language. First, in the typical N400 window (300-500ms), between-language repetition (translation) produced a smaller reduction in N400 amplitude than did within-language repetition. Second, the time-course of between-language repetition effects tended to be more extended in time and differed as a function of language with L2-L1 repetitions producing larger priming effects early (during the typical N400 window) and L1-L2 repetitions producing larger priming effects later (during windows after the typical N400). Third, a greater negativity in the ERP waveforms was observed when the word on the directly preceding trial was from the other language. Within the time frame of the N400, this language switch effect arose only when the target word was Spanish and the preceding word English (i.e., L1-L2). The results are discussed within the framework of current models of bilingual lexical processing.

  5. Accessing Research Participants in Schools: A Case Study of a UK Adolescent Sexual Health Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, Adrienne C.; Coleman, Lester M.

    2006-01-01

    While methods and results of school-based studies have been reported widely in the literature, little published information exists on the practical aspects of recruiting schools and students into a study. This paper reflects on the experiences of a UK-based sexual health survey among 3007 students aged 15-18 years. The survey explored beliefs,…

  6. Where We Are: Disability and Accessibility--Moving beyond Disability 2.0 in Composition Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Tara; Dolmage, Jay; Price, Margaret; Lewiecki-Wilson, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    The authors' perception, as specialists at the intersection of disability studies and composition studies, is that disability has arrived--in the sense that it is now on most peoples' radar. Most have come to think of it as "Disability 2.0": the state where acceptance of disabled students and teachers as belonging in our…

  7. Exploring Perspectives of Communications Students toward Media Access and Use: A Q Method Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Angel Noel

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to help news industry professionals and educators tailor their services to a young audience that has grown up among a plethora of media options. To better reach and educate today's up-and-coming media professionals, those in the industry need a better understanding of modern media students' perspectives of news. This study used Q…

  8. A Study of ICT Infrastructure and Access to Educational Information in the Outskirts of Malang

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmunsyah, Hakkun

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the readiness of disadvantaged areas in support of Electronic School Books (BSE), which could be downloaded free of charge by making use of Information Communication Technology (ICT). The present study was descriptive research which was approached quantitatively, and expected to expand the model of development of…

  9. Scholarly Learning as Vocation: A Study of Community and Broad Access Liberal Arts College Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terosky, Aimee LaPointe; Gonzales, Leslie D.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we extended Neumann's scholarly learning theory (2009)?and Hansen's theory on vocation (1994, 1995) to explore the scholarly learning of faculty members employed at institutional types not typically recognized for faculty work beyond teaching. Through interviews with 22 participants, we studied the content of and reasons for…

  10. Toward a Society Where Everyone Is Always Studying: Access at an Elite Chilean Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadlier, Stephen T.; Arancibia, María Cristina

    2015-01-01

    After the 1973 coup, Chile swung from a centralized state to a dictatorial decentralized one where education turned from a public to a private good. Since the 1990 restoration of democracy, market-based trends have endured, involving the fomentation of a knowledge society, one where everyone is always studying. The present study, drawn from an…

  11. Improving Access to Elementary School Social Studies Instruction: Strategies to Support Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciullo, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Social studies instruction in upper elementary school (Grades 3-5) is important for building foundational content knowledge to equip students for the secondary school curriculum. Due to numerous school initiatives and demands on the time of teachers, social studies instruction can play second fiddle to reading and mathematics instruction, which…

  12. Becoming Critical Public Historians: Students Study Diversity and Access in Post "Brown v. Board" Los Angeles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Ernest; Rogers, John

    2006-01-01

    Anniversaries of major historical events, such as the 50th anniversary of the landmark Supreme Court decision, "Brown v. Board of Education," provide social studies teachers with the opportunity to connect their classroom study to broader public conversations about the event and its significance. This article reports on one such effort--an…

  13. Finding the loopholes: a cross-sectional qualitative study of systemic barriers to treatment access for women drug court participants

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Diane S.; Silverstein, Jennifer; Thomas, Katherine; Bedel, Precious; Cerulli, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Background Therapeutic diversion courts seek to address justice-involved participants’ underlying problems leading to their legal system involvement, including substance use disorder, psychiatric illness, and intimate partner violence. The courts have not addressed systemic hurdles, which can contribute to a cycle of substance use disorder and recidivism, which in turn hinder health and wellness. The study purpose is to explore the systemic issues faced by women participants in drug treatment court from multiple perspectives to understand how these issues may relate to health and wellness in their lives. Methods Qualitative thematic framework analysis of five separate focus groups consisting of female drug treatment court participants, community providers, and court staff (n = 25). Themes were mapped across the socio-ecological framework and contextualized according to social determinants of health. Results Numerous systemic factors impacted women’s access to treatment. Laws and legal policies (governance) excluded those who could potentially have benefitted from therapeutic court and did not allow consideration of parenting issues. Macroeconomic policies limit housing options for those with convictions. Social policies limited transportation, education, and employment options. Public policies limited healthcare and social protection and ability to access available resources. Culture and societal values, including stigma, limited treatment options. Conclusions By understanding the social determinant of health for women in drug treatment court and stakeholder’s perceptions, the legal system can implement public policy to better address the health needs of women drug court participants. PMID:26478853

  14. [Study on Reduction of Radiation Exposure by Using Carbon Dioxide Angiography Catheter in Vascular Access Intervention Therapy(VAIVT)].

    PubMed

    Tsukada, Yasunori; Kakuchi, Yasushi

    2015-09-01

    In vascular access intervention therapy (VAIVT), carbon dioxide is used as negative contrast medium for patients with iodine allergy or for those who have vascular access but not started with dialysis yet and have not endangered their remaining kidney function. To capture the movement of jet-injected carbon dioxide during the carbon dioxide angiography, we performed imaging at a rate of 15 frames per second. This method has a higher level of radiation exposure than angiography using an iodine contrast medium. Therefore we developed a catheter with 20 helical side holes in the tip (carbon dioxide angiography catheter), which allows large numbers of tiny bubbles to be generated simultaneously. In our study, we evaluate whether the use of this catheter can reduce the number of frames taken per second thus reducing the radiation exposure. A comparative experiment with existing angiography catheters with no side holes suggested that the use of this carbon dioxide angiography catheter to be useful for reducing the radiation exposure to patients and operators. Moreover, angiography using this catheter is highly useful from viewpoint of improving the stenotic vesselvisibility and reducing the side effects of using carbon dioxide, and we expect that the carbon dioxide angiography method is effective for patients and operators.

  15. Neuropsychological Outcomes in Extremely Preterm Preschoolers Exposed to Tiered Low Oxygen Targets: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Baron, Ida Sue; Weiss, Brandi A; Baker, Robin; Ahronovich, Margot D; Litman, Fern R; Baveja, Rajiv

    2016-03-01

    An observational study of neuropsychological outcomes at preschool age of tiered lowered oxygen (O2) saturation targets in extremely preterm neonates. We studied 111 three-year-olds born <28 weeks' gestational age. Fifty-nine participants born in 2009-2010 during a time-limited quality improvement initiative each received three-tiered stratification of oxygen rates (83-93% until age 32 weeks, 85-95% until age 35 weeks, and 95% after age 35 weeks), the TieredO2 group. Comparisons were made with 52 participants born in 2007-2008 when pre-initiative saturation targets were non-tiered at 89-100%, the Non-tieredO2 group. Neuropsychological domains included general intellectual, executive, attention, language, visuoperceptual, visual-motor, and fine and gross motor functioning. Descriptive and inferential analyses were conducted. Group comparisons were not statistically significant. Descriptively, the TieredO2 group had better general intellectual, executive function, visual-motor, and motor performance and the Non-tieredO2 group had better language performance. Cohen's d and confidence intervals around d were in similar direction and magnitude across measures. A large effect size was found for recall of digits-forward in participants born at 23 and 24 weeks' gestation, d=0.99 and 1.46, respectively. Better TieredO2 outcomes in all domains except language suggests that the tiered oxygen saturation target method is not harmful and merits further investigation through further studies. Benefit in auditory attention appeared greatest in those born at 23 and 24 weeks. Participants in the tiered oxygen saturation group also had fewer ventilation days and a lower incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, perhaps explanatory for these neuropsychological outcomes at age 3. PMID:26646724

  16. A comprehensive immunoinformatics and target site study revealed the corner-stone toward Chikungunya virus treatment.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Md Anayet; Khan, Md Arif; Datta, Amit; Mazumder, Md Habibul Hasan; Hossain, Mohammad Uzzal

    2015-05-01

    Recent concerning facts of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV); a Togaviridae family alphavirus has proved this as a worldwide emerging threat which causes Chikungunya fever and devitalizing arthritis. Despite severe outbreaks and lack of antiviral drug, a mere progress has been made regarding to an epitope-based vaccine designed for CHIKV. In this study, we aimed to design an epitope-based vaccine that can trigger a significant immune response as well as to prognosticate inhibitor that can bind with potential drug target sites by using various immunoinformatics and docking simulation tools. Initially, whole proteome of CHIKV was retrieved from database and perused to identify the most immunogenic protein. Structural properties of the selected protein were analyzed. The capacity to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immunity by T cell and B cell were checked for the selected protein. The peptide region spanning 9 amino acids from 397 to 405 and the sequence YYYELYPTM were found as the most potential B cell and T cell epitopes respectively. This peptide could interact with as many as 19 HLAs and showed high population coverage ranging from 69.50% to 84.94%. By using in silico docking techniques the epitope was further assessed for binding against HLA molecules to verify the binding cleft interaction. In addition with this, the allergenicity of the epitopes was also evaluated. In the post therapeutic strategy, three dimensional structure was predicted along with validation and verification that resulted in molecular docking study to identify the potential drug binding sites and suitable therapeutic inhibitor against targeted protein. Finally, pharmacophore study was also performed in quest of seeing potent drug activity. However, this computational epitope-based peptide vaccine designing and target site prediction against CHIKV opens up a new horizon which may be the prospective way in Chikungunya virus research; the results require validation by in vitro and in vivo

  17. The German Thorotrast Cohort Study: a review and how to get access to the data.

    PubMed

    Grosche, B; Birschwilks, M; Wesch, H; Kaul, A; van Kaick, G

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that exposures like those from (226)Ra, (224)Ra and Thorotrast(®) injections increase the risk of neoplasia in bone marrow and liver. The thorium-based radioactive contrast agent Thorotrast(®) was introduced in 1929 and applied worldwide until the 1950s, especially in angiography and arteriography. Due to the extremely long half-life of several hundred years and the life-long retention of the thorium dioxide particles in the human body, patients suffer lifetime internal exposure. The health effects from the incorporated thorium were investigated in a few cohort studies with a German study being the largest among them. This retrospective cohort study was set up in 1968 with a follow-up until 2004. The study comprises 2326 Thorotrast patients and 1890 patients of a matched control group. For those being alive at the start of the study in 1968 follow-up was done by clinical examinations on a biannual basis. For the others, causes of death were collected in various ways. Additionally, clinical, radiological and biophysical studies of patients were conducted and large efforts were made to best estimate the radiation doses associated with incorporation of the Thorotrast. The aim of this paper is to describe the cohort, important results and some open questions. The data from the German Thorotrast Study are available to other interested researchers. Information can be found at http://storedb.org . PMID:27154786

  18. The German Thorotrast Cohort Study: a review and how to get access to the data.

    PubMed

    Grosche, B; Birschwilks, M; Wesch, H; Kaul, A; van Kaick, G

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that exposures like those from (226)Ra, (224)Ra and Thorotrast(®) injections increase the risk of neoplasia in bone marrow and liver. The thorium-based radioactive contrast agent Thorotrast(®) was introduced in 1929 and applied worldwide until the 1950s, especially in angiography and arteriography. Due to the extremely long half-life of several hundred years and the life-long retention of the thorium dioxide particles in the human body, patients suffer lifetime internal exposure. The health effects from the incorporated thorium were investigated in a few cohort studies with a German study being the largest among them. This retrospective cohort study was set up in 1968 with a follow-up until 2004. The study comprises 2326 Thorotrast patients and 1890 patients of a matched control group. For those being alive at the start of the study in 1968 follow-up was done by clinical examinations on a biannual basis. For the others, causes of death were collected in various ways. Additionally, clinical, radiological and biophysical studies of patients were conducted and large efforts were made to best estimate the radiation doses associated with incorporation of the Thorotrast. The aim of this paper is to describe the cohort, important results and some open questions. The data from the German Thorotrast Study are available to other interested researchers. Information can be found at http://storedb.org .

  19. Endovascular Revascularization of Chronically Thrombosed Arteriovenous Fistulas and Grafts for Hemodialysis: A Retrospective Study in 15 Patients With 18 Access Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Weng Meijui; Chen, Matt Chiung-Yu; Chi Wenche; Liu Yichun; Liang, Huei-Lung; Pan, Huay-Ben

    2011-04-15

    The current study retrospectively evaluated whether endovascular revascularization of chronically thrombosed and long-discarded vascular access sites for hemodialysis was feasible. Technical and clinical success rates, postintervention primary and secondary patency rates, and complications were reported. During a 1-year period, we reviewed a total of 924 interventions performed for dysfunction and/or failed hemodialysis vascular access sites and permanent catheters in 881 patients. In patients whose vascular access-site problems were considered untreatable or were considered treatable with a high risk of failure and access-site abandonment, we attempted to revascularize (resurrect) the chronically occluded and long-discarded (mummy) vascular access sites. We attempted to resurrect a total of 18 mummy access sites (mean age 46.6 {+-} 38.7 months; range 5-144) in 15 patients (8 women and 7 men; mean age 66.2 {+-} 11.5 years; age range 50-85) and had an overall technical success rate of 77.8%. Resurrection failure occurred in 3 fistulas and in 1 straight graft. The clinical success rate was 100% at 2 months after resurrection. In the 14 resurrected vascular access sites, 6 balloon-assisted maturation procedures were required in 5 fistulas; after access-site maturation, a total of 22 interventions were performed to maintain access-site patency. The mean go-through time for successful resurrection procedures was 146.6 {+-} 34.3 min (range 74-193). Postmaturation primary patency rates were 71.4 {+-} 12.1% at 30 days, 57.1 {+-} 13.2% at 60 days, 28.6 {+-} 13.4% at 90 days, and 19 {+-} 11.8% at 180 days. Postmaturation secondary patency rates were 100% at 30, 60, and 90 days and 81.8 {+-} 11.6% at 180 days. There were 2 major complications consisting of massive venous ruptures in 2 mummy access sites during balloon dilation; in both cases, prolonged balloon inflation failed to achieve hemostasis, but percutaneous N-butyl cyanoacrylate glue seal-off was performed

  20. Hemodialysis access - self care

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency - hemodialysis access; Chronic kidney failure - hemodialysis access; Chronic renal failure - hemodialysis access; dialysis - hemodialysis access

  1. Studies in Multifunctional Drug Development: Preparation and Evaluation of 11beta-Substituted Estradiol-Drug Conjugates, Cell Membrane Targeting Imaging Agents, and Target Multifunctional Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dao, KinhLuan Lenny D.

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death after cardiovascular disease in the United State. Despite extensive research in development of antitumor drugs, most of these therapeutic entities often possess nonspecific toxicity, thus they can only be used to treat tumors in higher doses or more frequently. Because of the cytotoxicity and severe side effects, the drug therapeutic window normally is limited. Beside the toxicity issue, antitumor drug are also not selectively taken up by tumor cells, thus the necessitating concentrations that would eradicate the tumor can often not be used. In addition, tumor cells tend to develop resistance against the anticancer drugs after prolonged treatment. Therefore, alleviating the systemic cytotoxicity and side effects, improving in tumor selectivity, high potency, and therapeutic efficacy are still major obstacles in the area of anticancer drug development. A more promising approach for developing a selective agent for cancer is to conjugate a potent therapeutic drug, or an imaging agent with a targeting group, such as antibody or a high binding-specificity small molecule, that selectively recognize the overexpressed antigens or proteins on tumor cells. My research combines several approaches to describe this strategy via using different targeting molecules to different diseases, as well as different potent cytotoxic drugs for different therapies. Three studies related to the preparation and biological evaluation of new therapeutic agents, such as estradiol-drug hybrids, cell membrane targeted molecular imaging agents, and multifunctional NPs will be discussed. The preliminary results of these studies indicated that our new reagents achieved their initial objectives and can be further improved for optimized synthesis and in vivo experiments. The first study describes the method in which we employed a modular assembly approach to synthesize a novel 11beta-substituted steroidal anti-estrogen. The key intermediate was synthesized

  2. Spectral studies of nanosecond laser interaction with magnesium sulfate target in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salik, Muhammad; Hanif, Muhammad; Wang, Jiasheng; Zhang, Xi-Qing; Zhang

    2014-02-01

    The optical emission characterization of the plasma-assisted pulsed laser ablation of the magnesium sulfate target is discussed in this study. The emission spectrum produced by the magnesium sulfate plasma in the wavelength range 200-700 nm has been carefully investigated for different experimental conditions. The spectra analysis was performed by assuming the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) approximation and calculating the plasma temperature with the Boltzmann plot method using neutral Mg spectral lines. The plasma temperature was obtained for different positions along the expansion axis, which allowed obtaining the electron population distribution as a function of the distance from the target. The plasma temperature along the expansion axis allowed evaluating the evolution of the excited states population when the plume expands. Moreover, the Stark broadening method has been employed for electron number density measurements. In this study, the Stark width of the Mg (I) spectral line at 285.21 nm was used. Besides, we have studied the variation of electron temperature (Te ) and electron number density (Ne ) as a function of laser irradiance.

  3. Study of image matching algorithm and sub-pixel fitting algorithm in target tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ming-dong; Jia, Jianjun; Qiang, Jia; Wang, Jian-yu

    2015-03-01

    Image correlation matching is a tracking method that searched a region most approximate to the target template based on the correlation measure between two images. Because there is no need to segment the image, and the computation of this method is little. Image correlation matching is a basic method of target tracking. This paper mainly studies the image matching algorithm of gray scale image, which precision is at sub-pixel level. The matching algorithm used in this paper is SAD (Sum of Absolute Difference) method. This method excels in real-time systems because of its low computation complexity. The SAD method is introduced firstly and the most frequently used sub-pixel fitting algorithms are introduced at the meantime. These fitting algorithms can't be used in real-time systems because they are too complex. However, target tracking often requires high real-time performance, we put forward a fitting algorithm named paraboloidal fitting algorithm based on the consideration above, this algorithm is simple and realized easily in real-time system. The result of this algorithm is compared with that of surface fitting algorithm through image matching simulation. By comparison, the precision difference between these two algorithms is little, it's less than 0.01pixel. In order to research the influence of target rotation on precision of image matching, the experiment of camera rotation was carried on. The detector used in the camera is a CMOS detector. It is fixed to an arc pendulum table, take pictures when the camera rotated different angles. Choose a subarea in the original picture as the template, and search the best matching spot using image matching algorithm mentioned above. The result shows that the matching error is bigger when the target rotation angle is larger. It's an approximate linear relation. Finally, the influence of noise on matching precision was researched. Gaussian noise and pepper and salt noise were added in the image respectively, and the image

  4. Comparison of perceived and modelled geographical access to accident and emergency departments: a cross-sectional analysis from the Caerphilly Health and Social Needs Study

    PubMed Central

    Fone, David L; Christie, Stephen; Lester, Nathan

    2006-01-01

    Background Assessment of the spatial accessibility of hospital accident and emergency departments as perceived by local residents has not previously been investigated. Perceived accessibility may affect where, when, and whether potential patients attend for treatment. Using data on 11,853 respondents to a population survey in Caerphilly county borough, Wales, UK, we present an analysis comparing the accessibility of accident and emergency departments as reported by local residents and drive-time to the nearest accident and emergency department modelled using a geographical information system (GIS). Results Median drive-times were significantly shorter in the lowest perceived access category and longer in the best perceived access category (p < 0.001). The perceived access and GIS modelled drive-time variables were positively correlated (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, r = 0.38, p < 0.01). The strongest correlation was found for respondents living in areas in which nearly all households had a car or van (r = 0.47, p < 0.01). Correlations were stronger among respondents reporting good access to public transport and among those reporting a recent accident and emergency attendance for injury treatment compared to other respondents. Correlation coefficients did not vary substantially by levels of household income. Drive-time, road distance and straight-line distance were highly inter-correlated and substituting road distance or straight-line distance as the GIS modelled spatial accessibility measure only marginally decreased the magnitude of the correlations between perceived and GIS modelled access. Conclusion This study provides evidence that the accessibility of hospital-based health care services as perceived by local residents is related to measures of spatial accessibility modelled using GIS. For studies that aim to model geographical separation in a way that correlates well with the perception of local residents, there may be minimal advantage in using

  5. Preclinical studies identify novel targeted pharmacological strategies for treatment of human malignant pleural mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Favoni, Roberto E; Daga, Antonio; Malatesta, Paolo; Florio, Tullio

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of human malignant pleural mesothelioma (hMPM) is still increasing worldwide. hMPM prognosis is poor even if the median survival time has been slightly improved after the introduction of the up-to-date chemotherapy. Nevertheless, large phase II/III trials support the combination of platinum derivatives and pemetrexed or raltitrexed, as preferred first-line schedule. Better understanding of the molecular machinery of hMPM will lead to the design and synthesis of novel compounds targeted against pathways identified as crucial for hMPM cell proliferation and spreading. Among them, several receptors tyrosine kinase show altered activity in subsets of hMPM. This observation suggests that these kinases might represent novel therapeutic targets in this chemotherapy-resistant disease. Over these foundations, several promising studies are ongoing at preclinical level and novel molecules are currently under evaluation as well. Yet, established tumour cell lines, used for decades to investigate the efficacy of anticancer agents, although still the main source of drug efficacy studies, after long-term cultures tend to biologically diverge from the original tumour, limiting the predictive potential of in vivo efficacy. Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a subpopulation of malignant cells capable of self-renewal and multilineage differentiation, are believed to play an essential role in cancer initiation, growth, metastasization and relapse, being responsible of chemo- and radiotherapy refractoriness. According to the current carcinogenesis theory, CSCs represent the tumour-initiating cell (TIC) fraction, the only clonogenic subpopulation able to originate a tumour mass. Consequently, the recently described isolation of TICs from hMPM, the proposed main pharmacological target for novel antitumoural drugs, may contribute to better dissect the biology and multidrug resistance pathways controlling hMPM growth. PMID:22289125

  6. Epitope-based peptide vaccine design and target site depiction against Ebola viruses: an immunoinformatics study.

    PubMed

    Khan, M A; Hossain, M U; Rakib-Uz-Zaman, S M; Morshed, M N

    2015-07-01

    Ebola viruses (EBOVs) have been identified as an emerging threat in recent year as it causes severe haemorrhagic fever in human. Epitope-based vaccine design for EBOVs remains a top priority because a mere progress has been made in this regard. Another reason is the lack of antiviral drug and licensed vaccine although there is a severe outbreak in Central Africa. In this study, we aimed to design an epitope-based vaccine that can trigger a significant immune response as well as to prognosticate inhibitor that can bind with potential drug target sites using various immunoinformatics and docking simulation tools. The capacity to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immunity by T cell and B cell was checked for the selected protein. The peptide region spanning 9 amino acids from 42 to 50 and the sequence TLASIGTAF were found as the most potential B and T cell epitopes, respectively. This peptide could interact with 12 HLAs and showed high population coverage up to 80.99%. Using molecular docking, the epitope was further appraised for binding against HLA molecules to verify the binding cleft interaction. In addition with this, the allergenicity of the epitopes was also evaluated. In the post-therapeutic strategy, docking study of predicted 3D structure identified suitable therapeutic inhibitor against targeted protein. However, this computational epitope-based peptide vaccine designing and target site prediction against EBOVs open up a new horizon which may be the prospective way in Ebola viruses research; the results require validation by in vitro and in vivo experiments.

  7. The Mission Accessibility of Near-Earth Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbee, Brent W.; Abell, P. A.; Adamo, D. R.; Mazanek, D. D.; Johnson, L. N.; Yeomans, D. K.; Chodas, P. W.; Chamberlin, A. B.; Benner, L. A. M.; Taylor, P.; Friedensen, V. P.

    2015-01-01

    The population of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) that may be accessible for human space flight missions is defined by the Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS). The NHATS is an automated system designed to monitor the accessibility of, and particular mission opportunities offered by, the NEA population. This is analogous to systems that automatically monitor the impact risk posed to Earth by the NEA population. The NHATS system identifies NEAs that are potentially accessible for future round-trip human space flight missions and provides rapid notification to asteroid observers so that crucial follow-up observations can be obtained following discovery of accessible NEAs. The NHATS was developed in 2010 and was automated by early 2012. NHATS data are provided via an interactive web-site, and daily NHATS notification emails are transmitted to a mailing list; both resources are available to the public.

  8. Trans-4 Portal as a New Portal for Accessing the Lunate in Wrist Arthroscopy: a Cadaveric Study

    PubMed Central

    Shahryar-Kamrani, Reza; Saremi, Hossein; Oryadi-Zanjani, Leila; Nabian, Mohammad Hossein; Amoozadeh, Azita; Moradi, Amir Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background Evolving wrist arthroscopy requires creating new portals, and creating portals reciprocally leads to increased indications for arthroscopic wrist procedures. To facilitate access to the lunate bone and fossa for new arthroscopic procedures, a new portal was used. This is a cadaveric study of this portal. Objectives In this cadaveric study, we evaluated a portal in wrist arthroscopy for procedures involving the lunate bone and lunate fossa. Materials and Methods Seventeen wrists from 10 fresh cadavers were included in this study. After diagnostic arthroscopy, a portal (Trans-4) was made through the fourth extensor compartment, exactly along the lunate’s long axis under direct visualization from the 3-4 portal. Strand retractors were used to protect the extensor tendons and posterior capsule. Lunate bone core decompression and osteoscopy were done through the portal. At the end of the procedure, the position of the decompression hole in the lunate and any possible injury to the extensor tendons, distal radius cartilage, lunate cartilage, and perilunate ligaments were investigated. Results Lunate bone decompression was performed successfully in all cases using the trans-4 portal. In 15 wrists, the lunate hole was located in the middle third. In the other two wrists, it was located slightly radial in one case and slightly on the ulnar side in the other case. There was no cortical penetration during decompression, and no extensor tendon, superficial nerve branches, or peri-lunate ligament injuries were observed. Conclusions The trans-4 portal could be a safe working portal in wrist arthroscopy that enables access to the lunate bone and lunate fossa.

  9. Access, Astronomy and Science Fiction. A Case Study in Curriculum Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Danny; Brake, Mark; Griffiths, Martin; Thornton, Rosi

    2004-01-01

    It is argued that a positive response to lifelong learning policies involves the use of imaginative curriculum design in order to attract learners from disadvantaged backgrounds who are otherwise alienated from higher education. In this article a case study is presented based on the popularity of science fiction within popular culture, beginning…

  10. 76 FR 27288 - Port Access Route Study: The Atlantic Coast From Maine to Florida

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... alternative energy sites on the Atlantic Coastal Continental Shelf, the leasing of Outer Continental Shelf... siting, construction and operation of proposed alternative energy facilities may have on existing near... construction and operation of offshore renewable energy facilities. The recommendations of the study may...

  11. Women's Access to Higher Education in Afghanistan: A Qualitative Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashriqi, Khalida

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative, phenomenological study was conducted to explore the lived experiences of 12 Afghan women enrolled in higher education institutions in Afghanistan. The objective was to develop an understanding of the participants' perceptions of the factors that led to their enrollment in higher education and the factors that inhibit Afghan…

  12. Open Internet Access in a Structured School Environment: "Controlling Chat Lines During Study Hall."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siders, Bill

    At the New Mexico Military Institute (NMMI), both a four-year high school and a two-year junior college, students spend weekday evenings at their desks in mandatory study hall. The goal of NMMI for its campus network is to have a network tap on the desk of each cadet (as well as faculty and administrative staff). The Internet, now already…

  13. Accessing best practice resources using mobile technology in an undergraduate nursing program: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Mann, Elizabeth G; Medves, Jennifer; Vandenkerkhof, Elizabeth G

    2015-03-01

    Mobile technology presents new opportunities for nursing education and ultimately the provision of nursing care. The aim of this study was to explore the utility of mobile technology in undergraduate nursing education. In this evaluation study, undergraduate nursing students were provided with iPod Touch devices containing best practice guidelines. Computer self-efficacy was assessed, and the Theory of Planned Behavior was used to identify potential predictors of the use of mobile technology. Questionnaires were completed at baseline (n = 33) and postimplementation (n = 23). Feedback on feasibility issues was recorded throughout the study period. Students generally found the devices useful, and few technical problems were identified; however, lack of skill in using the devices and lack of support from staff in the clinical setting were commonly identified issues. Self-efficacy scores were high throughout the study. Attitudes, perceptions of the desirability of use, perceived personal control over use, and intentions of using the device were lower postimplementation than at baseline. Attitude toward the technology predicted intention to use the device after graduation. Mobile technology may promote evidence-informed practice; however, supporting students' acquisition of related skills may optimize use. Successful integration of mobile technology into practice requires attention to factors that affect student attitudes. PMID:25636042

  14. Universal Design and Study Abroad: (Re-)Designing Programs for Effectiveness and Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soneson, Heidi M.; Cordano, Roberta J.

    2009-01-01

    Universal Design provides a framework to effectively increase the number of students studying abroad by creating and expanding supportive environments designed to meet a wide range of student needs. While the concept of Universal Design originated with the needs of students with disabilities, its value and application extend to a much wider…

  15. Collaborating to increase access to clinical and educational resources for surgery: a case study.

    PubMed

    Tomasko, Jonathan M; Adams, Nancy E; Garritano, Frank G; Santos, Mary C; Dillon, Peter W

    2014-01-01

    A case study is described in which collaborations between a Department of Surgery, a Department of Information Technology, and an academic health sciences library resulted in the development of an electronic surgical library available at the bedside, the deployment of tablet devices for surgery residents, and implementation of a tablet-friendly user interface for the institution's electronic medical record.

  16. Access, Status, and Representation: Some Reflections from Two Ethnographic Studies of Elite Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaztambide-Fernandez, Ruben A.; Howard, Adam

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we use our experiences to demonstrate the limits of the "studying up" metaphor to capture the complexity of the dynamics involved in doing research on groups that occupy positions of power within social hierarchies. The article focuses on different facets of the research process, alternating between our individual narratives and a…

  17. Network Access to Visual Information: A Study of Costs and Uses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besser, Howard

    This paper summarizes a subset of the findings of a study of digital image distribution that focused on the Museum Educational Site Licensing (MESL) project--the first large-scale multi-institutional project to explore digital delivery of art images and accompanying text/metadata from disparate sources. This Mellon Foundation-sponsored study…

  18. Arabic and English during Study Abroad in Cairo, Egypt: Issues of Access and Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trentman, Emma

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a snapshot of the experiences of 18 students studying abroad in Cairo, Egypt. Using a modified version of the language contact profile (Freed, Segalowitz, & Dewey, 2004), I investigate their language use and find that students use English more than they use Arabic and that there is considerable individual variation in…

  19. Image Retrieval: Theoretical Analysis and Empirical User Studies on Accessing Information in Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornager, Susanne

    1997-01-01

    Discusses indexing and retrieval for effective searches of digitized images. Reports on an empirical study about criteria for analysis and indexing digitized images, and the different types of user queries done in newspaper image archives in Denmark. Concludes that it is necessary that the indexing represent both a factual and an expressional…

  20. Higher Education: Gaps in Access and Persistence Study. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2012-046

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Terris; Kena, Grace; Rathbun, Amy; KewalRamani, Angelina; Zhang, Jijun; Kristapovich, Paul; Manning, Eileen

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies, including those of the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), have documented persistent gaps between the educational attainment of White males and that of Black, Hispanic, American Indian/Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander males. Further, there is evidence of growing gaps by sex within these…