Science.gov

Sample records for accessible world wide

  1. World Wide Access: Accessible Web Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Univ., Seattle.

    This brief paper considers the application of "universal design" principles to Web page design in order to increase accessibility for people with disabilities. Suggestions are based on the World Wide Web Consortium's accessibility initiative, which has proposed guidelines for all Web authors and federal government standards. Seven guidelines for…

  2. World Wide Web Public Access: Notes on the Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Examines the pros and cons of providing access to the World Wide Web for library patrons as well as suggesting solutions to problems. Discusses the establishment of a library policy governing the use of the Web, as well as the importance of workshops and instructional materials on Web use in libraries. (Author/AEF)

  3. Accessing NASA Technology with the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Bianco, David J.

    1995-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) began using the World Wide Web (WWW) in the summer of 1993, becoming the first NASA installation to provide a Center-wide home page. This coincided with a reorganization of LaRC to provide a more concentrated focus on technology transfer to both aerospace and non-aerospace industry. Use of WWW and NCSA Mosaic not only provides automated information dissemination, but also allows for the implementation, evolution and integration of many technology transfer and technology awareness applications. This paper describes several of these innovative applications, including the on-line presentation of the entire Technology OPportunities Showcase (TOPS), an industrial partnering showcase that exists on the Web long after the actual 3-day event ended. The NASA Technical Report Server (NTRS) provides uniform access to many logically similar, yet physically distributed NASA report servers. WWW is also the foundation of the Langley Software Server (LSS), an experimental software distribution system which will distribute LaRC-developed software. In addition to the more formal technology distribution projects, WWW has been successful in connecting people with technologies and people with other people.

  4. The World Wide Web in the Classroom: Access without Adult Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Paul Douglas; Wagner, Thomas A.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a multipronged approach for restricting student access to adult material on the World Wide Web: blocking software that refuses to access certain sites, an honor pledge with consequences for breaking it, and a converter to display output from a student's computer on a teacher's monitor or VCR. (SK)

  5. The Internet as a Reference Tool: Accessing Scientific and Technical Information via the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosier, Mona L.

    Los Alamos National Laboratory's Research Library has developed a World Wide Web (WWW) page to allow laboratory staff, as well as individuals from around the world, access to information via the Internet. While many Web pages offer information solely on the organization, the Los Alamos National Laboratory page provides links to reference materials…

  6. World Wide Webs: Crossing the Digital Divide through Promotion of Public Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coetzee, Liezl

    “As Bill Gates and Steve Case proclaim the global omnipresence of the Internet, the majority of non-Western nations and 97 per cent of the world's population remain unconnected to the net for lack of money, access, or knowledge. This exclusion of so vast a share of the global population from the Internet sharply contradicts the claims of those who posit the World Wide Web as a ‘universal' medium of egalitarian communication.” (Trend 2001:2)

  7. Mosaic on Public-Access PCs: Letting the World-Wide Web into the Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Timothy W.

    1995-01-01

    Describes installation and configuration of Mosaic and a World Wide Web (WWW) site at Grainger Library. Challenges include choosing a WINSOCK; customizing Mosaic for public-access computers; reducing security risks; maximizing Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME); designing a home page; producing Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) documents.…

  8. Online Access to Weather Satellite Imagery Through the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emery, W.; Baldwin, D.

    1998-01-01

    Both global area coverage (GAC) and high-resolution picture transmission (HRTP) data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) are made available to laternet users through an online data access system. Older GOES-7 data am also available. Created as a "testbed" data system for NASA's future Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), this testbed provides an opportunity to test both the technical requirements of an onune'd;ta system and the different ways in which the -general user, community would employ such a system. Initiated in December 1991, the basic data system experienced five major evolutionary changes In response to user requests and requirements. Features added with these changes were the addition of online browse, user subsetting, dynamic image Processing/navigation, a stand-alone data storage system, and movement,from an X-windows graphical user Interface (GUI) to a World Wide Web (WWW) interface. Over Its lifetime, the system has had as many as 2500 registered users. The system on the WWW has had over 2500 hits since October 1995. Many of these hits are by casual users that only take the GIF images directly from the interface screens and do not specifically order digital data. Still, there b a consistent stream of users ordering the navigated image data and related products (maps and so forth). We have recently added a real-time, seven- day, northwestern United States normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) composite that has generated considerable Interest. Index Terms-Data system, earth science, online access, satellite data.

  9. Accessibility and reliability of cutaneous laser surgery information on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Bykowski, J L; Alora, M B; Dover, J S; Arndt, K A

    2000-05-01

    The World Wide Web has provided the public with easy and affordable access to a vast range of information. However, claims may be unsubstantiated and misleading. The purpose of this study was to use cutaneous laser surgery as a model to assess the availability and reliability of Web sites and to evaluate this resource for the quality of patient and provider education. Three commercial methods of searching the Internet were used, identifying nearly 500,000 possible sites. The first 100 sites listed by each search engine (a total of 300 sites) were compared. Of these, 126 were listed repeatedly within a given retrieval method, whereas only 3 sites were identified by all 3 search engines. After elimination of duplicates, 40 sites were evaluated for content and currency of information. The most common features included postoperative care suggestions, options for pain management or anesthesia, a description of the way in which lasers work, and the types of lasers used for different procedures. Potential contraindications to laser procedures were described on fewer than 30% of the sites reviewed. None of the sites contained substantiation of claims or referrals to peer-reviewed publications or research. Because of duplication and the prioritization systems of search engines, the ease of finding sites did not correlate with the quality of the site's content. Our findings show that advertisements for services exceed useful information.

  10. World Wide Web telemedicine system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Valentino, Daniel J.; So, George J.; Lufkin, Robert B.; Taira, Ricky K.

    1996-05-01

    We have designed a teleradiology and telemedicine architecture over the World-Wide Web using current HIS, RIS and PACS. Our implementation allows remote access to hypermedia medical record and automatic management of interactive communications between referring physician and consultants. Security and privacy issues are also discussed. Its successful use in a telemedicine trial to China involving hundreds of doctors has shown the potential trend of telemedicine over the World-Wide Web.

  11. Automating testbed documentation and database access using World Wide Web (WWW) tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Charles; Auernheimer, Brent; Lee, Young H.

    1994-01-01

    A method for providing uniform transparent access to disparate distributed information systems was demonstrated. A prototype testing interface was developed to access documentation and information using publicly available hypermedia tools. The prototype gives testers a uniform, platform-independent user interface to on-line documentation, user manuals, and mission-specific test and operations data. Mosaic was the common user interface, and HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) provided hypertext capability.

  12. World Wide Web platform-independent access to biomedical text/image databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, L. Rodney; Goh, Gin-Hua; Neve, Leif; Thoma, George R.

    1998-07-01

    The biomedical digital library of the future is expected to provide access to stores of biomedical database information containing text and images. Developing efficient methods for accessing such databases is a research effort at the Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications of the National Library of Medicine. In this paper we examine issues in providing access to databases across the Web and describe a tool we have developed: the Web-based Medical Information Retrieval System (WebMIRS). We address a number of critical issues, including preservation of data integrity, efficient database design, access to documentation, quality of query and results interfaces, capability to export results to other software, and exploitation of multimedia data. WebMIRS is implemented as a Java applet that allows database access to text and to associated image data, without requiring any user software beyond a standard Web browser. The applet implementation allows WebMIRS to run on any hardware platform (such as PCs, the Macintosh, or Unix machines) which supports a Java-enabled Web browser, such as Netscape or Internet Explorer. WebMIRS is being tested on text/x-ray image databases created from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) data collected by the National Center for Health Statistics.

  13. World Wide Web Homepage Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Michael L.

    This paper examines hypermedia design and draws conclusions about how educational research and theory applies to various aspects of World Wide Web (WWW) homepage design. "Hypermedia" is defined as any collection of information which may be textual, graphical, visual, or auditory in nature and which may be accessed via a nonlinear route. The paper…

  14. Crystallography Open Database (COD): an open-access collection of crystal structures and platform for world-wide collaboration.

    PubMed

    Gražulis, Saulius; Daškevič, Adriana; Merkys, Andrius; Chateigner, Daniel; Lutterotti, Luca; Quirós, Miguel; Serebryanaya, Nadezhda R; Moeck, Peter; Downs, Robert T; Le Bail, Armel

    2012-01-01

    Using an open-access distribution model, the Crystallography Open Database (COD, http://www.crystallography.net) collects all known 'small molecule / small to medium sized unit cell' crystal structures and makes them available freely on the Internet. As of today, the COD has aggregated ~150,000 structures, offering basic search capabilities and the possibility to download the whole database, or parts thereof using a variety of standard open communication protocols. A newly developed website provides capabilities for all registered users to deposit published and so far unpublished structures as personal communications or pre-publication depositions. Such a setup enables extension of the COD database by many users simultaneously. This increases the possibilities for growth of the COD database, and is the first step towards establishing a world wide Internet-based collaborative platform dedicated to the collection and curation of structural knowledge.

  15. The visible embryo project: embedded program objects for knowledge access, creation and management through the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Doyle, M D; Ang, C S; Martin, D C; Noe, A

    1996-01-01

    We have designed a prototype knowledge management online environment for the biomedical sciences which integrates access to online representations of the scientific literature, bibliographic databases, high-performance visualization technologies, large-scale scientific databases, and tools for authoring new-generation scientific publications. This system will provide widespread access to its resources by using the World Wide Web for its underlying architecture. This system expands upon our Weblet Interactive Remote Visualization (IRV) server technology to produce a set of dedicated Internet "visualization servers" which provide interactive control of real-time visualizations from the Visible Embryo Project database from within Web pages viewed with our WebRouser software package. This system will be used to develop a set of prototype applications for both online education of medical students in developmental anatomy and for an interactive patient education system for expectant parents. We recognize that knowledge represented by these national resource databases is not static, therefore it is essential to include tools for both the creation of new "compound documents" which incorporate embedded objects, as well as for managing the peer-review of scholarly publications, in order to ensure the integrity of new knowledge as it is added to these databases in the future. We have therefore begun to design integrated tools for our system which facilitate both the creation of and the validation of new generations of scientific knowledge. PMID:9007210

  16. Social equity and access to the World Wide Web and E-mail: implications for design and implementation of medical applications.

    PubMed Central

    Mandl, K. D.; Katz, S. B.; Kohane, I. S.

    1998-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The distribution and types of Internet connectivity will determine the equity of access by patient populations to emerging health technologies. We sought to measure the rates, types, and predictors of access in a patient population targeted for Web-based medical services. METHODS: Design. Cross sectional in-person interview. Setting. Emergency department of a large urban pediatric teaching hospital. Subjects. Primary caretakers of patients or patients at least 16 years old. Procedure and measures. Subjects were asked about access to e-mail and the Internet as well as about willingness to use and concerns about Web-based services. Views of equity and access and sociodemographic data were also elicited. RESULTS: 132 subjects were enrolled in the study. Of respondents, 67.2% use a computer and 36.4% can access the Internet or e-mail from home. Including Internet connections and/or e-mail accounts at work, school and public libraries, 50.7% of the sample has access. Forty percent of families have e-mail accounts. The rate at which families have connectivity is primarily correlated with income (r = 0.6, p < 0.01). At all income levels, rates of access to the World Wide Web are higher than to e-mail. White patients are much more likely to have e-mail (OR 5.0, 95% CI 2.4-10.8) and Web access (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.7-7.5). CONCLUSIONS: Connectivity is directly correlated with income and distributed unevenly across racial and ethnic groups. World Wide Web access is more prevalent than e-mail accounts, and both are often obtained outside the home. Design of health applications should account for these attributes of patient access. PMID:9929213

  17. The World Wide Web: Alice Meets Cyberspace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koos, Marybeth; Smith-Shank, Deborah L.

    1996-01-01

    Uses excerpts from "Alice In Wonderland" as introductions to a tour of the uses of the World Wide Web in art education. Discusses such issues as access, copyrights, costs, and benefits. Includes an index of terms, list of related Websites, and suggested teaching activities. (MJP)

  18. WorldWide Web: Hypertext from CERN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Gord

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of software tools for accessing information on the Internet focuses on the WorldWideWeb (WWW) system, which was developed at the European Particle Physics Laboratory (CERN) in Switzerland to build a worldwide network of hypertext links using available networking technology. Its potential for use with multimedia documents is also…

  19. Technical Services and the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheschy, Virginia M.

    The World Wide Web and browsers such as Netscape and Mosaic have simplified access to electronic resources. Today, technical services librarians can share in the wealth of information available on the Web. One of the premier Web sites for acquisitions librarians is AcqWeb, a cousin of the AcqNet listserv. In addition to interesting news items,…

  20. Biomedical Journals and the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoonbaert, Dirk

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the publication of biomedical journals on the Internet. Highlights include pros and cons of electronic publishing; the Global Health Network at the University of Pittsburgh; the availability of biomedical journals on the World Wide Web; current applications, including access to journal contents tables and electronic delivery of full-text…

  1. The World Wide Web Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owston, Ron

    2007-01-01

    Nearly a decade ago the author wrote in one of the first widely-cited academic articles, Educational Researcher, about the educational role of the web. He argued that educators must be able to demonstrate that the web (1) can increase access to learning, (2) must not result in higher costs for learning, and (3) can lead to improved learning. These…

  2. Thematic World Wide Web Visualization System

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-10

    WebTheme is a system designed to facilitate world wide web information access and retrieval through visualization. It consists of two principal pieces, a WebTheme Server which allows users to enter in a query and automatocally harvest and process information of interest, and a WebTheme browser, which allows users to work with both Galaxies and Themescape visualizations of their data within a JAVA capable world wide web browser. WebTheme is an Internet solution, meaning that access to the server and the resulting visualizations can all be performed through the use of a WWW browser. This allows users to access and interact with SPIRE (Spatial Paradigm for Information Retrieval and Exploration) based visualizations through a web browser regardless of what computer platforms they are running on. WebTheme is specifically designed to create databases by harvesting and processing WWW home pages available on the Internet.

  3. Thematic World Wide Web Visualization System

    1996-10-10

    WebTheme is a system designed to facilitate world wide web information access and retrieval through visualization. It consists of two principal pieces, a WebTheme Server which allows users to enter in a query and automatocally harvest and process information of interest, and a WebTheme browser, which allows users to work with both Galaxies and Themescape visualizations of their data within a JAVA capable world wide web browser. WebTheme is an Internet solution, meaning that accessmore » to the server and the resulting visualizations can all be performed through the use of a WWW browser. This allows users to access and interact with SPIRE (Spatial Paradigm for Information Retrieval and Exploration) based visualizations through a web browser regardless of what computer platforms they are running on. WebTheme is specifically designed to create databases by harvesting and processing WWW home pages available on the Internet.« less

  4. Learning To Use the World Wide Web. Academic Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Ernest

    This book emphasizes how to use Netscape Navigator to access the World Wide Web and associated resources and services in a step-by-step, organized manner. Chapters include -- Chapter 1: Introduction to the World Wide Web and the Internet; Chapter 2: Using a Web Browser; Chapter 3: The Basics of Electronic Mail and Using Netscape Email; Chapter 4:…

  5. Innovation in Science Education - World-Wide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baez, Albert V.

    The purpose of this book is to promote improvements in science education, world-wide, but particularly in developing countries. It is addressed to those in positions to make effective contributions to the improvement of science education. The world-wide role of science education, the goals of innovative activities, past experience in efforts to…

  6. U.S. Geological Survey World Wide Web information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) invites you to explore an earth science virtual library of digital information, publications, and data. The USGS Internet World Wide Web sites offer an array of information that reflects scientific research and monitoring programs conducted in the areas of natural hazards, environmental resources, and cartography. This list provides gateways to access a cross section of the digital information on the USGS World Wide Web sites.

  7. U.S. Geological Survey World Wide Web Information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) invites you to explore an earth science virtual library of digital information, publications, and data. The USGS World Wide Web sites offer an array of information that reflects scientific research and monitoring programs conducted in the areas of natural hazards, environmental resources, and cartog-raphy. This list provides gateways to access a cross section of the digital information on the USGS World Wide Web sites.

  8. U.S. Geological Survey World Wide Web Information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) invites you to explore an earth science virtual library of digital information, publications, and data. The USGS World Wide Web sites offer an array of information that reflects scientific research and monitoring programs conducted in the areas of natural hazards, environmental resources, and cartography. This list provides gateways to access a cross section of the digital information on the USGS World Wide Web sites.

  9. U.S. Geological Survey World Wide Web Information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) invites you to explore an earth science virtual library of digital information, publications, and data. The USGS Internet World Wide Web sites offer an array of information that reflects scientific research and monitoring programs conducted in the areas of natural hazards, environmental resources, and cartography. This list provides gateways to access a cross section of the digital information on the USGS World Wide Web sites.

  10. Geomorphology and the World Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shroder, John F.; Bishop, Michael P.; Olsenholler, Jeffrey; Craiger, J. Philip

    2002-10-01

    The Internet and the World Wide Web have brought many dimensions of new technology to education and research in geomorphology. As with other disciplines on the Web, Web-based geomorphology has become an eclectic mix of whatever material an individual deems worthy of presentation, and in many cases is without quality control. Nevertheless, new electronic media can facilitate education and research in geomorphology. For example, virtual field trips can be developed and accessed to reinforce concepts in class. Techniques for evaluating Internet references helps students to write traditional term papers, but professional presentations can also involve student papers that are published on the Web. Faculty can also address plagiarism issues by using search engines. Because of the lack of peer review of much of the content on the Web, care must be exercised in using it for reference searches. Today, however, refereed journals are going online and can be accessed through subscription or payment per article viewed. Library reference desks regularly use the Web for searches of refereed articles. Research on the Web ranges from communication between investigators, data acquisition, scientific visualization, or comprehensive searches of refereed sources, to interactive analyses of remote data sets. The Nanga Parbat and the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) Projects are two examples of geomorphologic research that are achieving full potential through use of the Web. Teaching and research in geomorphology are undergoing a beneficial, but sometimes problematic, transition with the new technology. The learning curve is steep for some users but the view from the top is bright. Geomorphology can only prosper from the benefits offered by computer technologies.

  11. World-Wide Web: The Information Universe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berners-Lee, Tim; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes the World-Wide Web (W3) project, which is designed to create a global information universe using techniques of hypertext, information retrieval, and wide area networking. Discussion covers the W3 data model, W3 architecture, the document naming scheme, protocols, document formats, comparison with other systems, experience with the W3…

  12. Baby Steps: Starting Out on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Carol; McElmeel, Sharron L.

    1997-01-01

    While the Internet is the physical medium used to transport data, the World Wide Web is the collection of protocols and standards used to access the information. This article provides a basic explanation of what the Web is and describes common browser commands. Discusses graphic Web browsers; universal resource locators (URLs); file, message,…

  13. Surfing the World Wide Web to Education Hot-Spots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrli, Odvard Egil

    1995-01-01

    Provides a brief explanation of Web browsers and their use, as well as technical information for those considering access to the WWW (World Wide Web). Curriculum resources and addresses to useful Web sites are included. Sidebars show sample searches using Yahoo and Lycos search engines, and a list of recommended Web resources. (JKP)

  14. A Grounded Theory Study of the Process of Accessing Information on the World Wide Web by People with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blodgett, Cynthia S.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to examine the process by which people with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI) access information on the web. Recent estimates include amateur sports and recreation injuries, non-hospital clinics and treatment facilities, private and public emergency department visits and admissions, providing…

  15. Reference Materials on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitao, Kenji

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents information about World Wide Web resources for English language teachers and students and for communication scholars and researchers. The first Web page, "Reference Materials for Students and Researchers," offers links to resources in English. Because there are many Web sites related to dictionaries, a second page, "Reference…

  16. Re-Framing the World Wide Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, August

    2011-01-01

    The research presented in this dissertation studies and describes how technical standards, protocols, and application programming interfaces (APIs) shape the aesthetic, functional, and affective nature of our most dominant mode of online communication, the World Wide Web (WWW). I examine the politically charged and contentious battle over browser…

  17. World Wide Web Robots: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chun, Tham Yoke

    1999-01-01

    Traces the development of World Wide Web Robots and provides an overview of their main functions and workings. The focus is on search robots. Illustrations are drawn from two major search engines: AltaVista and Excite. Concludes with an examination of problems associated with the use of Web Robots and their implications for electronic publishing.…

  18. Knowledge Sharing over the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, John; Stewart, Scott; Weeks, Richard

    This paper describes a system that facilitates and encourages the sharing of knowledge among groups of users within or across organizations. KSE (Knowledge Sharing Environment) is a system of information agents for organizing, summarizing, and sharing knowledge from a number of sources, including the World Wide Web, an organization's internal…

  19. Teacher Education and the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flake, Janice L.

    2001-01-01

    Examines changes in teacher education programs resulting from the World Wide Web, considers the role of education and paradigm shifts that have occurred, and describes an elementary education program at Florida State University. Highlights include changes in the teaching and learning process, assessment, learning environments, and skills and…

  20. Pedagogical Challenges for the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetherston, Tony

    2001-01-01

    Presents some of the perceived pedagogical challenges posed by use of the World Wide Web. Proposes that the debate surrounding use of the Web in university teaching should center on learning and not technical issues. Learning issues and challenges discussed in this article include learning approaches, using the technical features of the Web to…

  1. Publishing Mathematics on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majewski, Mirek

    1999-01-01

    Shows how mathematical concepts can be displayed on World Wide Web pages. Discusses HTML; embedding mathematical formulae into text as pictures; the use of word-processing tools; MathML, a version of HTML for math; IBM Techexplorer, a browser plug-in; and Java applets. (Author/LRW)

  2. Integrating WorldWide Telescope with Wordpress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sands, Mark; Luebbert, J.; Fay, J.; Gay, P. L.

    2010-01-01

    In this project we unite three major components of astronomy and new media: World Wide Telescope, Wordpress, and user supplied audio. Through an easy to use Wordpress plug-in users can create WorldWide Telescope sky tours that allow: a) astronomers and educators to spread the facts and awareness of astronomy, potentially bringing new and interested individuals into the astronomy community; b) bloggers/podcasters to create dynamic, virtual tours of the universe that are nearly boundless; and, c) readers to benefit from the alluring WorldWide Telescope tours by gaining a new and dramatic outlook on our universe. This software has the potential to augment, and in some cases replace, traditional methods of astronomy centered online lectures. With this plugin, it is possible to combine Wordpress-based website content with audio, and a sky tour that can be paused at any object. This ability to pause a sky tour allows the user to further explore the wealth of data provided within WWT. This fully customizable solution includes all of the necessary features required to reproduce a lecture in a more creative and appealing format then some of the standard, typically non-interactive, movies and podcasts currently found online. Through the creation of effective WorldWide Telescope tours, astronomers and educators can better extend astronomy content to astronomy-interested, but not yet engaged, members of the new media community. These tours will provide a better understanding and appreciation for what our universe has to offer. Through this new media approach of integrating WorldWide Telescope with blogs and podcasts, users can now extend their interest in astronomy by exploring the universe themselves, moving beyond provided content to gain a better understanding all on their own.

  3. World's Biggest Astronomy Event on the World-Wide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-06-01

    `Astronomy On-Line' will connect students all over Europe Astronomy On-Line is a major, all-European project that will take place in conjunction with the 4th European Week for Scientific and Technological Culture later this year. It is based on intensive use of the World-Wide-Web (WWW) and represents the first large-scale attempt in the world to bring together pupils and their teachers all over one continent to explore challenging scientific questions, using modern communication tools, both for obtaining and for communicating information. The programme will be carried out in a collaboration between the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE) [1] and the European Southern Observatory, and together with the European Commission (EC). The active phase of Astronomy On-Line will start on October 1 and reach a climax on November 18 - 22, 1996 . What is `Astronomy On-Line'? In this project, a large number of students and their teachers at schools all over Europe, together with professional and amateur astronomers and others interested in astronomy, will become associated in a unique experience that makes intensive use of the vast possibilities of the World-Wide-Web (WWW). Although the exact number of participants will not be known until the beginning of October, it is expected to run into thousands, possibly many more. The unusual size and scope of Astronomy On-Line will contribute to make it an important all-European media event. The central idea is that the participants, through the WWW, will `meet' in a `marketplace' where a number of different `shops' will be available, each of which will tempt them with a number of exciting and educational `events', carefully prepared to cater for different age groups, from 12 years upwards. The events will cover a wide spectrum of activities, some of which will be timed to ensure the proper progression of this very complex project through its main phases. The benefits In fact, Astronomy On-Line will be the first

  4. Extracting knowledge from the World Wide Web

    PubMed Central

    Henzinger, Monika; Lawrence, Steve

    2004-01-01

    The World Wide Web provides a unprecedented opportunity to automatically analyze a large sample of interests and activity in the world. We discuss methods for extracting knowledge from the web by randomly sampling and analyzing hosts and pages, and by analyzing the link structure of the web and how links accumulate over time. A variety of interesting and valuable information can be extracted, such as the distribution of web pages over domains, the distribution of interest in different areas, communities related to different topics, the nature of competition in different categories of sites, and the degree of communication between different communities or countries. PMID:14745041

  5. Redesigning courses for the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Carr, Katherine Camacho; Farley, Cynthia L

    2003-01-01

    The use of computer-based instructional technologies has become almost ubiquitous in education, including health professions education. In addition, clinical practice requires the use of digital information, networking, and continued learning. Faculty, students, and clinicians must be prepared to use computer-based technologies and telecommunications. Many faculty members in the health professions need assistance with the transfer of traditional (campus-based) courses or course material to the World Wide Web. This article presents the instructional design and pedagogical aspects of redesigning a traditional campus-based course for the World Wide Web. Specific steps and a template are identified. The development of a virtual community of learners is also discussed as a critical element of on-line teaching and learning. PMID:14660946

  6. World-wide fallout from nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This video explains what is known and what is not known by today's science about the long term consequences of world-wide fallout. In the interest of accuracy, this report is confined to the fallout on which a substantial amount of information is now available. Much has been written and said about this subject both officially and unofficially. The purpose of this film is to correct any factually unsupported statements which have been and continue to be issued from time to time.

  7. Computer vision on the World Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, A. David

    1995-10-01

    The World Wide Web Initiative has provided a means for providing hypertext and multimedia based information across the whole Internet. Many applications have been developed on such http servers. One important and novel development on the World Wide Web (WWW) has been the development of computer vision and image processing related courseware facilities and indeed image processing packages. This ranges from the provision of on-line lecture notes, exercises and their solutions to more interactive packages suited primarily for teaching and demonstration packages. Within the WWW there are many pointers that highlight more research based activities. This paper addresses the issues of the implementation of the computer vision and image processing packages, the advantages gained from using a hypertext based system, and also relates the practical experiences of using the packages in a class environment. The paper addresses issues of how best to provide information in such a hypertext based system and how interactive image processing packages can be developed. A suite of multimedia based tools have been developed to facilitate such systems and these are described in the paper. A brief survey of related sources of information on the World Wide Web also is presented.

  8. Collaborative Information Agents on the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, James R.; Mathe, Nathalie; Wolfe, Shawn; Koga, Dennis J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we present DIAMS, a system of distributed, collaborative information agents which help users access, collect, organize, and exchange information on the World Wide Web. Personal agents provide their owners dynamic displays of well organized information collections, as well as friendly information management utilities. Personal agents exchange information with one another. They also work with other types of information agents such as matchmakers and knowledge experts to facilitate collaboration and communication.

  9. Distributing flight dynamics products via the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Mark; Matusow, David

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Flight Dynamics Products Center (FDPC), which make available selected operations products via the World Wide Web, is reported on. The FDPC can be accessed from any host machine connected to the Internet. It is a multi-mission service which provides Internet users with unrestricted access to the following standard products: antenna contact predictions; ground tracks; orbit ephemerides; mean and osculating orbital elements; earth sensor sun and moon interference predictions; space flight tracking data network summaries; and Shuttle transport system predictions. Several scientific data bases are available through the service.

  10. World-wide fallout from nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This video explains what is known and what is not known by today`s science about the long term consequences of world-wide fallout. In the interest of accuracy, this report is confined to the fallout on which a substantial amount of information is now available. Much has been written and said about this subject both officially and unofficially. The purpose of this film is to correct any factually unsupported statements which have been and continue to be issued from time to time.

  11. The Great World Wide Star Count

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D.; Meymaris, K.; Henderson, S.; Johnson, R.

    2008-12-01

    The Great World Wide Star Count is an international citizen science event encouraging everyone, astronomers and non-astronomers alike, to measure their local light pollution and report their observations online. This event, one of the cornerstone projects for the upcoming International Year of Astronomy, is designed to raise awareness about light pollution as well as encourage learning in astronomy. The 2008 Star Count benefited from the current excitement in citizen science, with 15 nights of observing in October & November. Utilizing the international networking capabilities of Windows to the Universe, Star Count is able to engage people around the world. Data collection and online reporting is designed to be simple and user- friendly for citizen scientists of all ages. The collected data is available online in a variety of formats for use by students, teachers and scientists worldwide to assess how the quality of the night sky varies around the world. This session will share our results and demonstrate how students and scientists worldwide can explore and analyze the results of the 2007 and 2008 campaigns. We will discuss how the project team planned and executed the project in such a way that non-astronomers were able to make valid and useful contributions. We will also discuss lessons learned and best practices, as well as our plans for the future, including IYA 2009.

  12. World-wide aeronautical satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Peter; Smith, Keith

    1988-01-01

    INMARSAT decided to expand the spectrum covered by its new generation of satellites, INMARSAT-2, to include 1 MHz (subsequently increased to 3 MHz) of the spectrum designed for aeronautical use. It began a design study that led to the specifications for the system that is now being implemented. Subsequently, INMARSAT awarded contracts for the design of avionics and high gain antennas to a number of manufactures, while several of the signatories that provide ground equipment for communicating with the INMARSAT satellites are modifying their earth stations to work with the avionic equipment. As a resullt of these activities, a world-wide aeronautical satellite system supporting both voice and data will become operational in 1989.

  13. The Great World Wide Star Count

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D.; Meymaris, K.; Henderson, S.; Johnson, R. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Great World Wide Star Count is an international citizen science event encouraging everyone, astronomers and non-astronomers alike, to measure their local light pollution and report their observations online. This project is designed to raise awareness about light pollution as well as encourage learning in astronomy. Utilizing the international networking capabilities of Windows to the Universe, Star Count has engaged over 31,000 individuals from 64 countries and all 7 continents in its first 3 years. Data collection and online reporting is designed to be simple and user-friendly for citizen scientists of all ages. The collected data is available online in a variety of formats for use by students, teachers and scientists worldwide to assess how the quality of the night sky varies around the world. This session will share our results and demonstrate how students and scientists worldwide can explore and analyze the results from 2007—2010. We will discuss how the project team planned and executed the project in such a way that non-astronomers were able to make valid and useful contributions.

  14. The Great World Wide Star Count

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D.; Meymaris, K.; Henderson, S.; Johnson, R. M.

    2009-12-01

    The Great World Wide Star Count is an international citizen science event encouraging everyone, astronomers and non-astronomers alike, to measure their local light pollution and report their observations online. This IYA Cornerstone Project is designed to raise awareness about light pollution as well as encourage learning in astronomy. Utilizing the international networking capabilities of Windows to the Universe, Star Count has engaged over 18,000 individuals from 64 countries and all 7 continents. Data collection and online reporting is designed to be simple and user-friendly for citizen scientists of all ages. The collected data is available online in a variety of formats for use by students, teachers and scientists worldwide to assess how the quality of the night sky varies around the world. This session will share our results and demonstrate how students and scientists worldwide can explore and analyze the results of the 2007—2009. We will discuss how the project team planned and executed the project in such a way that non-astronomers were able to make valid and useful contributions.

  15. Wired World-Wide Web Interactive Remote Event Display

    SciTech Connect

    De Groot, Nicolo

    2003-05-07

    WIRED (World-Wide Web Interactive Remote Event Display) is a framework, written in the Java{trademark} language, for building High Energy Physics event displays. An event display based on the WIRED framework enables users of a HEP collaboration to visualize and analyze events remotely using ordinary WWW browsers, on any type of machine. In addition, event displays using WIRED may provide the general public with access to the research of high energy physics. The recent introduction of the object-oriented Java{trademark} language enables the transfer of machine independent code across the Internet, to be safely executed by a Java enhanced WWW browser. We have employed this technology to create a remote event display in WWW. The combined Java-WWW technology hence assures a world wide availability of such an event display, an always up-to-date program and a platform independent implementation, which is easy to use and to install.

  16. Browsing the World Wide Web from behind a firewall

    SciTech Connect

    Simons, R.W.

    1995-02-01

    The World Wide Web provides a unified method of access to various information services on the Internet via a variety of protocols. Mosaic and other browsers give users a graphical interface to the Web that is easier to use and more visually pleasing than any other common Internet information service today. The availability of information via the Web and the number of users accessing it have both grown rapidly in the last year. The interest and investment of commercial firms in this technology suggest that in the near future, access to the Web may become as necessary to doing business as a telephone. This is problematical for organizations that use firewalls to protect their internal networks from the Internet. Allowing all the protocols and types of information found in the Web to pass their firewall will certainly increase the risk of attack by hackers on the Internet. But not allowing access to the Web could be even more dangerous, as frustrated users of the internal network are either unable to do their jobs, or find creative new ways to get around the firewall. The solution to this dilemma adopted at Sandia National Laboratories is described. Discussion also covers risks of accessing the Web, design alternatives considered, and trade-offs used to find the proper balance between access and protection.

  17. Remote sensing education and Internet/World Wide Web technology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffith, J.A.; Egbert, S.L.

    2001-01-01

    Remote sensing education is increasingly in demand across academic and professional disciplines. Meanwhile, Internet technology and the World Wide Web (WWW) are being more frequently employed as teaching tools in remote sensing and other disciplines. The current wealth of information on the Internet and World Wide Web must be distilled, nonetheless, to be useful in remote sensing education. An extensive literature base is developing on the WWW as a tool in education and in teaching remote sensing. This literature reveals benefits and limitations of the WWW, and can guide its implementation. Among the most beneficial aspects of the Web are increased access to remote sensing expertise regardless of geographic location, increased access to current material, and access to extensive archives of satellite imagery and aerial photography. As with other teaching innovations, using the WWW/Internet may well mean more work, not less, for teachers, at least at the stage of early adoption. Also, information posted on Web sites is not always accurate. Development stages of this technology range from on-line posting of syllabi and lecture notes to on-line laboratory exercises and animated landscape flyovers and on-line image processing. The advantages of WWW/Internet technology may likely outweigh the costs of implementing it as a teaching tool.

  18. Monitoring and Evaluating Use of the World Wide Web in an Academic Library: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Alicia D.

    1998-01-01

    Examines use of the World Wide Web on public-access computers at the American University Library (Washington, D.C.) to identify the most frequently accessed Web sites, the frequency with which library-owned Web resources were accessed, and Web-usage patterns in the library in relation to the time of day and day of the week. (Author/AEF)

  19. World's Biggest Astronomy Event on the World-Wide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-06-01

    `Astronomy On-Line' will connect students all over Europe Astronomy On-Line is a major, all-European project that will take place in conjunction with the 4th European Week for Scientific and Technological Culture later this year. It is based on intensive use of the World-Wide-Web (WWW) and represents the first large-scale attempt in the world to bring together pupils and their teachers all over one continent to explore challenging scientific questions, using modern communication tools, both for obtaining and for communicating information. The programme will be carried out in a collaboration between the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE) [1] and the European Southern Observatory, and together with the European Commission (EC). The active phase of Astronomy On-Line will start on October 1 and reach a climax on November 18 - 22, 1996 . What is `Astronomy On-Line'? In this project, a large number of students and their teachers at schools all over Europe, together with professional and amateur astronomers and others interested in astronomy, will become associated in a unique experience that makes intensive use of the vast possibilities of the World-Wide-Web (WWW). Although the exact number of participants will not be known until the beginning of October, it is expected to run into thousands, possibly many more. The unusual size and scope of Astronomy On-Line will contribute to make it an important all-European media event. The central idea is that the participants, through the WWW, will `meet' in a `marketplace' where a number of different `shops' will be available, each of which will tempt them with a number of exciting and educational `events', carefully prepared to cater for different age groups, from 12 years upwards. The events will cover a wide spectrum of activities, some of which will be timed to ensure the proper progression of this very complex project through its main phases. The benefits In fact, Astronomy On-Line will be the first

  20. Integrating Mathematics, Science, and Language Arts Instruction Using the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Kenneth; Hosticka, Alice; Kent, Judi; Browne, Ron

    1998-01-01

    Addresses issues of access to World Wide Web sites, mathematics and science content-resources available on the Web, and methods for integrating mathematics, science, and language arts instruction. (Author/ASK)

  1. Star and Planet Formation through the WorldWide Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Alyssa

    2013-07-01

    The WorldWide Telescope is a Universe Information System that can display and access nearly all astronomical images and literature available online. In the five years since its initial release, the program has been downloaded more than 10 million times, but only a very tiny fraction of those downloads, so far, are by professional research astronomers. While WorldWide Telescope (WWT) is a fantastic tool for education and outreach (see wwtambassadors.org), it is also a tremendously valuable research tool, especially for putting results into their astronomical context. In this poster, we demonstrate how the WWT can be used to: 1) put surveys into context, on top of more than 40 different all-sky images, spanning the electromagnetic spectrum; 2) perform literature searches from the sky; 3) compare images and catalogs at different wavelenghts, on-the-fly in seconds; 4) show your own online data to the world, in an API that allows users to see it on the sky in their browsers; and 5) communicate to colleagues and learners about the sky using interactive Tours of your data and ideas. Examples of data distribution can be found at http://www.worldwidetelescope.org/COMPLETE/WWTCoverageTool.htm and a star-formation-related educational tour sample is at wwtambassadors.org/wwt/tours/dust-and-us.

  2. Historical development of world wide guided missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1978-01-01

    This paper attempts to put in perspective the development of missiles from early history to present time. The influence of World War II in accelerating the development of guided missiles, particularly through German scientists, is discussed. The dispersion of German scientists to other countries and the coupling of their work with native talent to develop guided missiles is traced. Particular emphasis is placed on the evolution of the missile in the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. Since the Soviets possess what is probably the world's most complete array of dedicated missile system types, their known inventory is reviewed in some detail.

  3. World Wide Web Astronomy 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppelman, M.; Gay, P. L.

    2008-11-01

    The Internet has changed astronomy. It's changed research, outreach and education and it's changed how people consume astronomy as enthusiasts. People have new ways to talk to each other and new ways to participate. Coined ``Web 2.0,'' technologies such as blogs, social networks, wikis, photo and video sharing sites, podcasts and micro-blogging have been adopted by the astronomy community and exciting things are happening as a result. The International Year of Astronomy's New Media Task Force has been working to harness the excitement of ``Web 2.0'' to make the International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009) highly visible on the Internet around the world.

  4. World-Wide Experience with SRF Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Hutton, Adam Carpenter

    2011-03-01

    The speaker will review and analyze the performance of existing SRF facilities in the world, addressing issues of usage and availability for different customers (HEP research, material sciences, ADS). Lessons learned should be summarized for proposed future facilities (ILC, Project X, Muon Collider). The first use of superconducting cavities for accelerating beams was at HEPL, Stanford University in the early sixties. Rather quickly, other laboratories followed suit, notably the University of Illinois at Champagne, Urbana and Cornell University. There were two main uses, which still persist today. The first is to provide accelerated particles as an injector or for fixed target experiments. The second is to maintain circulating beams, either for synchrotron light sources or for colliding beam experiments. Given the differing requirements, these two uses led to rather different implementations and, in particular, different average operating gradients. A second difference in the implementation is the speed of the particle being accelerated. Electrons are sufficiently relativistic at low beam energies (> {approx} 5 MeV) that cavities designed for relativistic beams can also function acceptably at low energy. This is not the case for protons or ion accelerators so, until recently, copper cavities were used to cover the first {approx} 100 MeV. Superconducting cavities are now also being proposed to cover this energy range as well using a series of superconducting cavities, each of which is matched to the particle velocity.

  5. Beyond Piñatas, Fortune Cookies, and Wooden Shoes: Using the World Wide Web to Help Children Explore the Whole Wide World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood, Donna; Shulsky, Debra; Willis, Jana

    2014-01-01

    The advent of technology and access to the internet through the World Wide Web have stretched the traditional ways of teaching social studies beyond classroom boundaries. This article explores how teachers can create authentic and contextualized cultural studies experiences for young children by integrating social studies and technology. To…

  6. Use of World Wide Web and NCSA Mcsaic at Langley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Michael

    1994-01-01

    A brief history of the use of the World Wide Web at Langley Research Center is presented along with architecture of the Langley Web. Benefits derived from the Web and some Langley projects that have employed the World Wide Web are discussed.

  7. A Semiotic Analysis of Icons on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Yan

    The World Wide Web allows users to interact with a graphic interface to search information in a hypermedia and multimedia environment. Graphics serve as reference points on the World Wide Web for searching and retrieving information. This study analyzed the culturally constructed syntax patterns, or codes, embedded in the icons of library…

  8. Teaching Tools: American Literature and the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claxton, Mae Miller; Cooper, C. Camille

    2000-01-01

    Discusses 13 resources available to teachers of American literature on the World Wide Web including general resources, Internet sites related to electronic literature, and websites whose focus is American literature and culture. Discusses using and troubleshooting the World Wide Web in the classroom. Offers tips on how to evaluate web sources and…

  9. Human exposure assessment resources on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Schwela, Dieter; Hakkinen, Pertti J

    2004-05-20

    Human exposure assessment is frequently noted as a weak link and bottleneck in the risk assessment process. Fortunately, the World Wide Web and Internet are providing access to numerous valuable sources of human exposure assessment-related information, along with opportunities for information exchange. Internet mailing lists are available as potential online help for exposure assessment questions, e.g. RISKANAL has several hundred members from numerous countries. Various Web sites provide opportunities for training, e.g. Web sites offering general human exposure assessment training include two from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and four from the US National Library of Medicine. Numerous other Web sites offer access to a wide range of exposure assessment information. For example, the (US) Alliance for Chemical Awareness Web site addresses direct and indirect human exposures, occupational exposures and ecological exposure assessments. The US EPA's Exposure Factors Program Web site provides a focal point for current information and data on exposure factors relevant to the United States. In addition, the International Society of Exposure Analysis Web site provides information about how this society seeks to foster and advance the science of exposure analysis. A major opportunity exists for risk assessors and others to broaden the level of exposure assessment information available via Web sites. Broadening the Web's exposure information could include human exposure factors-related information about country- or region-specific ranges in body weights, drinking water consumption, etc. along with residential factors-related information on air changeovers per hour in various types of residences. Further, country- or region-specific ranges on how various tasks are performed by various types of consumers could be collected and provided. Noteworthy are that efforts are underway in Europe to develop a multi-country collection of exposure factors and the European

  10. Contemporary Approaches to Critical Thinking and the World Wide Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buffington, Melanie L.

    2007-01-01

    Teaching critical thinking skills is often endorsed as a means to help students develop their abilities to navigate the complex world in which people live and, in addition, as a way to help students succeed in school. Over the past few years, this author explored the idea of teaching critical thinking using the World Wide Web (WWW). She began…

  11. Data warehousing, metadata, and the World Wide Web

    SciTech Connect

    Yow, T.G.; Smith, A.W.; Daugherty, P.F.

    1997-04-16

    The connection between data warehousing and the metadata. used to catalog and locate warehouse data is obvious, but what is the connection between data warehousing, metadata, and the World Wide Web (WWW)? Specifically, the WWW can be used to allow users to search metadata (data about the data) and retrieve data from a warehouse database. In addition, the Internet/Intranet can be used to manage the metadata in archive databases and to streamline the database administration functions of a large archive center. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) is a data archive and distribution center for the National Air and Space Administration`s (NASA`s) Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS); the ORNL DAAC provides access to tabular and imagery datasets used in ecological and environmental research. To support this effort, we have taken advantage of the rather unique and user-friendly features of the WWW to (1) allow users to search for and download the data we archive and (2) provide DAAC developers with effective metadata and data management tools. In particular, the ORNL DAAC has developed the Biogeochemical Information Ordering Management Environment (BIOME), a WWW search-and-order system, as well as a WWW-based database administrator`s (DBA`s) tool suite designed to assist the site`s DBA in the management of archive metadata and databases and several other DBA functions that are essential to site management. This paper is a case study of how the ORNL DAAC uses the WWW to both manage data and allow access to its data warehouse.

  12. Documentation of the AMIP models on the World Wide Web

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, T.J.

    1995-08-01

    The intercomparison of atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) experiments of a similar type has become an increasingly popular methodology for assessing the strengths and weaknesses of climate simulations. In such endeavors, attempts to attribute differences among the simulations to specific model properties require, as a minimum prerequisite, the accurate and comprehensive documentation of these features. Regrettably however, atmospheric model documentation typically is fragmentary and scattered across numerous publications. It is also often inaccurate, in the sense that the pace of model development and the proliferation of new model versions usually outstrip their recorded descriptions. More often than not, the detailed configuration of a model for a particular experiment also is undocumented. In addition, there may be much unevenness in the descriptions of different facets of models. This incompleteness usually is replicated in published results of an intercomparison experiment, in that participating models` features often are summarized only perfunctorily. Summary documentation of the numerics, dynamics, and physics of models participating in the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) is now available on the Internet`s World Wide Web. This paper describes the principal attributes of the electronic model documentation and provides instructions on how to access it.

  13. Use of a World Wide Web Site Evaluation Tool in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Paul C.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the importance of assessment of materials on the World Wide Web that may be freely accessible to both instructors and students. Evaluates web sites that cover the periodic table in terms of content and design. (Contains 16 references.) (Author/YDS)

  14. An Enhanced Z39.50 Gateway to the WorldWideWeb.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, David; Sloan, Stephen

    1994-01-01

    Describes how a university library uses the WorldWideWeb (WWW) to enable users to access resources mounted on a local Z39.50 server and to order prints from articles stored on a CD-ROM jukebox. The software used in the construction of the system, necessary modifications to the software, and software ordering information are covered. (KRN)

  15. Searching and Researching on the Internet and the World Wide Web. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackermann, Ernest; Hartman, Karen

    This book presents information specialists--researchers, librarians, and students who work with information--with an accessible approach to finding information on the World Wide Web and the Internet. Each of the chapters contains one or more step-by-step activities to demonstrate fundamental skills and concepts. The book has an accompanying Web…

  16. The promise of the World Wide Web and other telecommunication technologies within deaf education.

    PubMed

    Clymer, E W; McKee, B G

    1997-04-01

    The authors summarize a national survey that collected information on instructional technology resources available at schools serving deaf students in the United States. Results indicated that over 70% of these schools have access to the Internet and World Wide Web. The authors also explore innovative uses of the Internet and provide examples of specific applications for deaf students.

  17. WWW.Cell Biology Education: Using the World Wide Web to Develop a New Teaching Topic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blystone, Robert V.; MacAlpine, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    "Cell Biology Education" calls attention each quarter to several Web sites of educational interest to the biology community. The Internet provides access to an enormous array of potential teaching materials. In this article, the authors describe one approach for using the World Wide Web to develop a new college biology laboratory exercise. As a…

  18. No Longer Conveyor but Creator: Developing an Epistemology of the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trombley, Laura E. Skandera; Flanagan, William G.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the impact of the World Wide Web in terms of epistemology. Topics include technological innovations, including new dimensions of virtuality; the accessibility of information; tracking Web use via cookies; how the Web transforms the process of learning and knowing; linking information sources; and the Web as an information delivery…

  19. Evaluation and Criteria of the World Wide Web: Reference Web Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csir, Floyd J.

    This paper applies an evaluation method for World Wide Web sites that provide access to online reference materials at academic and public libraries. The evaluation of Web sites was performed with a questionnaire form focusing on Web site currency, accuracy and relevancy; Web site organization/structure; Web site presentation; URL maintenance; and…

  20. Visual Links in the World-Wide Web: The Uses and Limitations of Image Maps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochenour, John J.; And Others

    As information delivery systems on the Internet increasingly evolve into World Wide Web browsers, understanding key graphical elements of the browser interface is critical to the design of effective information display and access tools. Image maps are one such element, and this document describes a pilot study that collected, reviewed, and…

  1. Image Maps in the World-Wide Web: The Uses and Limitations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochenour, John J.; And Others

    A study of nine different image maps from World Wide Web home pages was conducted to evaluate their effectiveness in information display and access, relative to visual, navigational, and practical characteristics. Nine independent viewers completed 20-question surveys on the image maps, in which they evaluated the characteristics of the maps on a…

  2. Collecting behavioural data using the world wide web: considerations for researchers

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, S; Bowie, D; Hergenrather, K

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To identify and describe advantages, challenges, and ethical considerations of web based behavioural data collection. Methods: This discussion is based on the authors' experiences in survey development and study design, respondent recruitment, and internet research, and on the experiences of others as found in the literature. Results: The advantages of using the world wide web to collect behavioural data include rapid access to numerous potential respondents and previously hidden populations, respondent openness and full participation, opportunities for student research, and reduced research costs. Challenges identified include issues related to sampling and sample representativeness, competition for the attention of respondents, and potential limitations resulting from the much cited "digital divide", literacy, and disability. Ethical considerations include anonymity and privacy, providing and substantiating informed consent, and potential risks of malfeasance. Conclusions: Computer mediated communications, including electronic mail, the world wide web, and interactive programs will play an ever increasing part in the future of behavioural science research. Justifiable concerns regarding the use of the world wide web in research exist, but as access to, and use of, the internet becomes more widely and representatively distributed globally, the world wide web will become more applicable. In fact, the world wide web may be the only research tool able to reach some previously hidden population subgroups. Furthermore, many of the criticisms of online data collection are common to other survey research methodologies. PMID:12490652

  3. Wider Access to High-Tech World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swaine, Chris

    2001-01-01

    The Southcote IT [Information Technology] Experience is an initiative in Reading, England, designed to widen access to learning opportunities and technology for all age groups. Free modular training courses, informal learning, and intense local marketing have proven to be effective practices. (SK)

  4. The Virtual City: Putting Charleston on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beagle, Donald

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Charleston Multimedia Project, a World Wide Web guide to the history, architecture, and culture of Charleston, South Carolina, which includes a timeline and virtual tours. Incorporates materials issued by many agencies that were previously held in vertical files. The Charleston County Library's role and future plans are also…

  5. Market Research: The World Wide Web Meets the Online Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bing, Michelle

    1996-01-01

    The World Wide Web can provide direct market research data inexpensively or can target the appropriate professional online database and narrow the search. This article discusses the Web presence of research and investment firms, financial pages, trade associations, and electronic publications containing market research data. It lists Uniform…

  6. Perspectives for Electronic Books in the World Wide Web Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bry, Francois; Kraus, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the rapid growth of the World Wide Web and the lack of use of electronic books and suggests that specialized contents and device independence can make Web-based books compete with print. Topics include enhancing the hypertext model of XML; client-side adaptation, including browsers and navigation; and semantic modeling. (Author/LRW)

  7. WorldWideScience.org: the global science gateway.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Roberta Bronson

    2009-10-01

    WorldWideScience.org is a Web-based global gateway connecting users to both national and international scientific databases and portals. This column will provide background information on the resource as well as introduce basic searching practices for users.

  8. WorldWideScience.org: the global science gateway.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Roberta Bronson

    2009-10-01

    WorldWideScience.org is a Web-based global gateway connecting users to both national and international scientific databases and portals. This column will provide background information on the resource as well as introduce basic searching practices for users. PMID:20183035

  9. Time Series Data Visualization in World Wide Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, J.

    WorldWide Telescope provides a rich set of timer series visualization for both archival and real time data. WWT consists of both interactive desktop tools for interactive immersive visualization and HTML5 web based controls that can be utilized in customized web pages. WWT supports a range of display options including full dome, power walls, stereo and virtual reality headsets.

  10. Undergraduate Data Mining on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scime, Anthony

    Currently available World Wide Web search engines determine a site's qualification as a response to a search request by matching keywords in the request to keywords representing the site. The returned sites are given a score and ranked according to the match on keywords. Many of these retrieved sites can be irrelevant to the user's true…

  11. Assessing the Motivational Quality of World Wide Websites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Ruth V.

    As the number of World Wide Web sites continues to grow at an explosive rate, the need for design guidelines also increases. Although there are a number of resources that provide guidance on structure and content, few address the motivational aspects of Web sites. The Website Motivational Analysis Checklist (WebMAC) was developed to help diagnose…

  12. White Supremacists, Oppositional Culture and the World Wide Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Josh; Roscigno, Vincent J.

    2005-01-01

    Over the previous decade, white supremacist organizations have tapped into the ever emerging possibilities offered by the World Wide Web. Drawing from prior sociological work that has examined this medium and its uses by white supremacist organizations, this article advances the understanding of recruitment, identity and action by providing a…

  13. Can the World Wide Web Make Statistics Textbooks More Fun?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruxton, Graeme D.

    1996-01-01

    Addresses the drudgery of entering long datasets at the keyboard before being able to begin each chapter of a book. Suggests that the publishers of statistics books make the datasets available for people to download onto their computers over the World Wide Web. (AIM)

  14. Radar Images of the Earth and the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, B.; Freeman, A.

    1995-01-01

    A perspective of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a center of planetary exploration, and its involvement in studying the earth from space is given. Remote sensing, radar maps, land topography, snow cover properties, vegetation type, biomass content, moisture levels, and ocean data are items discussed related to earth orbiting satellite imaging radar. World Wide Web viewing of this content is discussed.

  15. The Art Site on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Margaret L.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the World Wide Web (WWW) as a multimedia delivery system, sources of variation in WWW art sites, pioneers on the electronic frontiers of art, and dimensions of electronic exhibition space. Discusses characteristics of early and of second-generation WWW art sites, how they compare, and evolution of the art site on the WWW. (SR)

  16. World Wide Web Homepages: An Examination of Content and Audience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Betty; And Others

    This paper shows how the content of a World Wide Web page is selected and how an examination of the intended audience influences content. Examples from the New Mexico Tech (NMT) Library homepage show what sources are selected and what level of detail is appropriate for the intended audience. Six fundamental functions of libraries and information…

  17. World Wide Web Pages--Tools for Teaching and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, Sarah; Kent, Jean

    Created to help educators incorporate World Wide Web pages into teaching and learning, this collection of Web pages presents resources, materials, and techniques for using the Web. The first page focuses on tools for teaching and learning via the Web, providing pointers to sites containing the following: (1) course materials for both distance and…

  18. Introduction to the World Wide Web and Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngblood, Jim

    1994-01-01

    This tutorial provides an introduction to some of the terminology related to the use of the World Wide Web and Mosaic. It is assumed that the user has some prior computer experience. References are included to other sources of additional information.

  19. Service Learning and Building Community with the World Wide Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longan, Michael W.

    2007-01-01

    The geography education literature touts the World Wide Web (Web) as a revolutionary educational tool, yet most accounts ignore its uses for public communication and creative expression. This article argues that students can be producers of content that is of service to local audiences. Drawing inspiration from the community networking movement,…

  20. Surfing the Net. Creativity on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Sandra

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses how the World Wide Web can empower students to think creatively, especially the gifted. It profiles 3 Web sites that discuss techniques, games, and strategies for enhancing creative thinking and 13 Web sites that contain information on inventors and inventions to stimulate gifted students. (Contains one reference.) (CR)

  1. Using the World Wide Web To Teach Francophone Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Deborah Berg; Van Ells, Paula Hartwig

    2002-01-01

    Examined use of the World Wide Web to teach Francophone culture. Suggests that bolstering reading comprehension in the foreign language and increased proficiency in navigating the Web are potential secondary benefits gained from the cultural Web-based activities proposed in the study.(Author/VWL)

  2. Interactivity, Information Processing, and Learning on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremayne, Mark; Dunwoody, Sharon

    2001-01-01

    Examines the role of interactivity in the presentation of science news on the World Wide Web. Proposes and tests a model of interactive information processing that suggests that characteristics of users and Web sites influence interactivity, which influences knowledge acquisition. Describes use of a think-aloud method to study participants' mental…

  3. The Relationship of the World Wide Web to Thinking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Amy C.; Bishop, Jeanne L.; Gens, Linda S.; Miller, Sharla L.; Rogers, Martha A.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses use of the World Wide Web in education and its possibilities for developing higher order critical thinking skills to successfully deal with the demands of the future information society. Suggests that teachers need to provide learning environments that are learner-centered, authentic, problem-based, and collaborative. (Contains 61…

  4. The World Wide Web and High-Energy Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Bebo

    High-energy physics and the World Wide Web (WWW) share a rich history. The Web, developed at CERN as a collaboration tool and quickly adopted by the Internet community, has become a communications phenomenon. This article reviews early WWW development and its basic technology. I also summarize some significant applications of Web technology, past and present, and discuss prospects for future use.

  5. World Wide Web Search Engines: Open Text, Harvest, 2ASK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machovec, George S., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the corporate origins, development, and unique features of three World Wide Web search tools. Open Text released LiveLink Search 64 in April 1996. Harvest indexes fewer sites than many competitors but offers powerful searching options. 2ASK is a service that provides links to over 100 Internet indexing tools and rates Web sites and…

  6. Facilitating Designer-Customer Communication in the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuikka, Tuomo; Salmela, Marko

    1998-01-01

    Presents WebShaman, an application built to demonstrate how a distributed virtual prototyping system with a client/server architecture, could support geographically distant designer/customer communication. Provides an overview of smart virtual prototyping; discusses implementation of synchronous collaboration via the World Wide Web; and assesses…

  7. Guiding Students in Using the World Wide Web for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubly, Kristin

    This paper addresses the need for educators and librarians to guide students in using the World Wide Web appropriately by teaching them to evaluate Internet resources using criteria designed to identify the authoritative sources. The pros and cons of information commonly found on the Web are discussed, as well as academic Internet subject or…

  8. World Wide Web Page Design: A Structured Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Gwen; Brown, M. Marlo

    1997-01-01

    Describes how to develop a World Wide Web site based on structured programming concepts. Highlights include flowcharting, first page design, evaluation, page titles, documenting source code, text, graphics, and browsers. Includes a template for HTML writers, tips for using graphics, a sample homepage, guidelines for authoring structured HTML, and…

  9. Helping Students Weave Their Way through the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Catherine B.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses six strategies to help both students and teachers learn to make wise use of information on the World Wide Web: teaching the value of key word skills; using online sources available in the media center; creating pathfinders; teaching students sound searching skills that include Boolean logic; directing students to the best search engines;…

  10. Genome accessibility is widely preserved and locally modulated during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Hsiung, Chris C-S; Morrissey, Christapher S; Udugama, Maheshi; Frank, Christopher L; Keller, Cheryl A; Baek, Songjoon; Giardine, Belinda; Crawford, Gregory E; Sung, Myong-Hee; Hardison, Ross C; Blobel, Gerd A

    2015-02-01

    Mitosis entails global alterations to chromosome structure and nuclear architecture, concomitant with transient silencing of transcription. How cells transmit transcriptional states through mitosis remains incompletely understood. While many nuclear factors dissociate from mitotic chromosomes, the observation that certain nuclear factors and chromatin features remain associated with individual loci during mitosis originated the hypothesis that such mitotically retained molecular signatures could provide transcriptional memory through mitosis. To understand the role of chromatin structure in mitotic memory, we performed the first genome-wide comparison of DNase I sensitivity of chromatin in mitosis and interphase, using a murine erythroblast model. Despite chromosome condensation during mitosis visible by microscopy, the landscape of chromatin accessibility at the macromolecular level is largely unaltered. However, mitotic chromatin accessibility is locally dynamic, with individual loci maintaining none, some, or all of their interphase accessibility. Mitotic reduction in accessibility occurs primarily within narrow, highly DNase hypersensitive sites that frequently coincide with transcription factor binding sites, whereas broader domains of moderate accessibility tend to be more stable. In mitosis, proximal promoters generally maintain their accessibility more strongly, whereas distal regulatory elements tend to lose accessibility. Large domains of DNA hypomethylation mark a subset of promoters that retain accessibility during mitosis and across many cell types in interphase. Erythroid transcription factor GATA1 exerts site-specific changes in interphase accessibility that are most pronounced at distal regulatory elements, but has little influence on mitotic accessibility. We conclude that features of open chromatin are remarkably stable through mitosis, but are modulated at the level of individual genes and regulatory elements.

  11. International organizations to enable world-wide mobile satellite services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anglin, Richard L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Numbers of systems exist or have been proposed to provide world-wide mobile satellite services (MSS). Developers of these systems have formulated institutional structures they consider most appropriate for profitable delivery of these services. MSS systems provide niche services and complement traditional telecommunications networks; they are not integrated into world-wide networks. To be successful, MSS system operators must be able to provide an integrated suite of services to support the increasing globalization, interconnectivity, and mobility of business. The critical issue to enabling 'universal roaming' is securing authority to provide MSS in all of the nations of the world. Such authority must be secured in the context of evolving trends in international telecommunications, and must specifically address issues of standardization, regulation and organization. Today, only one existing organization has such world-wide authority. The question is how proponents of new MSS systems and services can gain similar authority. Securing the appropriate authorizations requires that these new organizations reflect the objectives of the nations in which services are to be delivered.

  12. Access to the world's resources: women's health.

    PubMed Central

    Heiberg, A N

    1996-01-01

    Women's health at any point in their lives, from before birth through old age, reflects a multitude of factors, including environmental, cultural, and socioeconomic. However, even in parts of the world where women have achieved control over family planning and family resources and equal men in educational opportunities, the increase in their life expectancy, although greater than men's, is flattening out. Questions on the effect the changing lifestyles have on women's health are posed, and the paper closes with a discussion of women as objects of research. PMID:8938335

  13. World-wide increase in tropospheric methane, 1978-1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, D. R.; Rowland, F. S.

    1986-01-01

    Techniques used to assess methane concentration in the troposphere are described, and data obtained during the period from 1978 to 1983 are presented in detail. Tropospheric methane concentrations in remote locations averaged a yearly world-wide increase of 0.018 + or - 0.002 parts per million by volume (ppmv). Average world-wide tropospheric concentration of methane in dry air was 1.625 ppmv at the end of 1983 measured against an NBS standard certified as 0.97 ppmv. Contributing to this steady increase in methane concentration are increases in the source strengths from cattle and rice fields, which in turn result from CO, CH4 and HO coupling. Among the physical and chemical effects is an increase in greenhouse warming of about 0.04 C per decade.

  14. Obtaining good quality medical information from the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Thom, Deone H; Polosa, Riccardo

    2002-01-01

    Despite the complexity of the Internet, it is surprisingly easy to search the World Wide Web for medical information. With the right skills you can save yourself a lot of time and effort making the Internet a highly effective tool for supporting your work in health and medicine. Internet offers great opportunities for interactive learning and can help you to plan lectures and create teaching materials. Moreover, physicians can find many Web resources that can assist with articles and assignments and support academic research. Evidence-based indications about medical treatments are also available. However, Internet users need to be aware of the dangers of misleading and inaccurate medical information. In this article, we intend to illustrate to physicians the pros and cons of the World Wide Web, how to apply basic critical appraisal techniques to gather good quality medical information, and a number of useful medical Web sites. PMID:11975112

  15. Student-Created Content in WorldWide Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, M. J.

    2014-07-01

    Using WorldWide Telescope (WWT), the California Academy of Sciences used tour presentations created by Bay Area high school students. These students wrote, programmed, and presented their own fulldome shows utilizing WWT with the support of Academy staff. This allowed the students to create programs that were meaningful and interesting and to help determine the kinds of shows and content for future programs at the Academy. We present here our experiences and our goals for future programs.

  16. The PEP-II/BaBar Project-Wide Database using World Wide Web and Oracle*Case

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, A.; Crane, G.; MacGregor, I.; Meyer, S.

    1995-12-01

    The PEP-II/BaBar Project Database is a tool for monitoring the technical and documentation aspects of the accelerator and detector construction. It holds the PEP-II/BaBar design specifications, fabrication and installation data in one integrated system. Key pieces of the database include the machine parameter list, components fabrication and calibration data, survey and alignment data, property control, CAD drawings, publications and documentation. This central Oracle database on a UNIX server is built using Oracle*Case tools. Users at the collaborating laboratories mainly access the data using World Wide Web (WWW). The Project Database is being extended to link to legacy databases required for the operations phase.

  17. Developing basic space science world wide: progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haubold, Hans J.; Wamsteker, Willem

    2004-01-01

    The UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science is a long-term effort for the development of astronomy and regional and international cooperation in this field on a world wide basis, particularly in developing nations. The first four workshops in this series (India 1991, Costa Rica and Colombia 1992, Nigeria 1993, and Egypt 1994) addressed the status of astronomy in Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, and Western Asia, respectively. One major recommendation that emanated from the first four workshops was that small astronomical facilities should be established in developing nations for research and education programmes at the university level and that such facilities should be networked. Subsequently, material for teaching and observing programmes for small optical telescopes were developed or recommended and astronomical telescope facilities have been inaugurated at UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science in Sri Lanka (1995), Honduras (1997), and Jordan (1999). UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science in Germany (1996), France (2000), Mauritius (2001), and Argentina (2002) emphasized the particular importance of astrophysical data systems and the virtual observatory concept for the development of astronomy on a world wide basis. Since 1996, the workshops are contributing to the development of the World Space Observatory (WSO/UV) concept. Achievements of the series of workshops are briefly summarized in this report.

  18. Internet: Diameter of the World-Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Réka; Jeong, Hawoong; Barabási, Albert-László

    1999-09-01

    Despite its increasing role in communication, the World-Wide Web remains uncontrolled: any individual or institution can create a website with any number of documents and links. This unregulated growth leads to a huge and complex web, which becomes a large directed graph whose vertices are documents and whose edges are links (URLs) that point from one document to another. The topology of this graph determines the web's connectivity and consequently how effectively we can locate information on it. But its enormous size (estimated to be at least 8×108 documents) and the continual changing of documents and links make it impossible to catalogue all the vertices and edges.

  19. Distribution of medical research articles on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Kevin T

    2003-01-01

    Ninety-eight percent of 51 polled medical editors felt that published research articles should be available to the public on the World Wide Web at no charge, after a mean time from publication of 1.4 years for viewing and 1.9 years for printing. Public libraries or other government institutions could be allowed to assume the responsibility of housing and distributing the electronically stored archived material, analogous to their role with printed material, lifting the financial burden from the publishing companies.

  20. WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors, a Year 3 Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udomprasert, Patricia S.; Goodman, A. A.; Wong, C.

    2013-01-01

    The WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors (WWTA) Program has a track record of inspiring middle school students and getting them excited about science. The WorldWide Telescope (WWT) is a stunningly beautiful and freely available data visualization environment developed by Microsoft Research in collaboration with professional astronomers. Trained volunteer Ambassadors show teachers and students how to use WWT in their classrooms to explore and learn about our Universe. Our initial study has shown that WWT increases student understanding of astrophysical concepts and interest in astronomy and science. As an example of how excited students feel about learning astronomy with WWT, one middle school boy exclaimed, “This is way cooler than Call of Duty!” Our vision is to capitalize on the demonstrated inspirational and educational potential of WWT to increase the number of students who express interest in STEM fields. In this oral presentation, we provide a status update on the WWTA program, including ongoing results from our work with over 700 middle school students to date, and preliminary results from a new NSF-funded study comparing learning and interest gains for students studying Moon phases with WWT vs with the 2-dimensional simulator activity that accompanies their textbook. More information is available at wwtambassadors.org

  1. World-wide parliamentarians join forces to resolve population problems.

    PubMed

    1979-01-01

    Subjects selected for discussion at the International Conference on Population and Development held from August 28 to September 1, 1979 included world population trends and prospects; government laws and policies; the status of women in family law, literacy and health; employment policies, rural to urban migration and appropriate technology; economic growth with equity and a new economic order; environmental impact and world resources; community participation in motivation and service delivery programs; international coordination of donor policies; research priorities; and governmental responsibilities. The following were among the specific objectives and goals identified: 1) formulate population policies as an integral part of socioeconomic development plans; 2) examine the impact of domestic population trends on health, education, employment, agricultural and industrial development, housing and environmental conditions; 3) strengthen the integration of population programs in all development activities; 4) ensure the basic right of people to decide the number and spacing of their children and ensure that they have the information and means to do so; and 5) promote the role and status of women in the family and society and enhance their access to education, employment, health services and financial credit. A strong commitment was made for implementation of population policies as an integral part of socioeconomic development plans. PMID:12261707

  2. Starry Nights: The Great World Wide Star Count

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D. L.; Meymaris, K.; Russell, R.; Gallagher, S.

    2007-12-01

    Increased and robust understanding of our environment requires learning opportunities that take place outside of the conventional K-12 classroom and beyond the confines of the school day. There has been an increase in extracurricular activities that bring students into the "real world", sometimes spanning past the regular school year, and often times including other family and/or community members. Citizen science or public engagement activities are becoming available across many disciplines and are attracting the attention of people of all ages. The Great World Wide Star Count is an international citizen science event encouraging everyone to go outside, look skywards after dark, count the stars they see in certain constellations, and report what they see online. This inaugural Windows After Dark event is designed to raise awareness about light pollution and the night sky as well as promote learning in astronomy. The activities of Star Count benefit from the current excitement in citizen science, with 15 nights of observing in October. Utilizing the international networking capabilities of Windows to the Universe, Star Count is able to engage people around the world. Data collection and online reporting is designed to be simple and user-friendly for citizen- scientists of all ages. The collected data is available online in a variety of formats for use by students, teachers and scientists worldwide to assess how the quality of the night sky varies around the world. This session will share our results and demonstrate how students and scientists worldwide can explore and analyze the results of this exciting campaign. We will discuss how the project team planned and executed the project in such a way that non-astronomers were able to make valid and useful contributions. We will also discuss lessons learned and best practices based on this inaugural campaign.

  3. Alternatives to animal testing: information resources via the Internet and World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Hakkinen, P J Bert; Green, Dianne K

    2002-04-25

    Many countries, including the United States, Canada, European Union member states, and others, require that a comprehensive search for possible alternatives be completed before beginning some or all research involving animals. Completing comprehensive alternatives searches and keeping current with information associated with alternatives to animal testing is a challenge that will be made easier as people throughout the world gain access to the Internet and World Wide Web. Numerous Internet and World Wide Web resources are available to provide guidance and other information on in vitro and other alternatives to animal testing. A comprehensive Web site is Alternatives to Animal Testing on the Web (Altweb), which serves as an online clearinghouse for resources, information, and news about alternatives to animal testing. Examples of other important Web sites include the joint one for the (US) Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM) and the Norwegian Reference Centre for Laboratory Animal Science and Alternatives (The NORINA database). Internet mailing lists and online access to bulletin boards, discussion areas, newsletters, and journals are other ways to access and share information to stay current with alternatives to animal testing.

  4. Guide to the Internet. The world wide web.

    PubMed Central

    Pallen, M.

    1995-01-01

    The world wide web provides a uniform, user friendly interface to the Internet. Web pages can contain text and pictures and are interconnected by hypertext links. The addresses of web pages are recorded as uniform resource locators (URLs), transmitted by hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP), and written in hypertext markup language (HTML). Programs that allow you to use the web are available for most operating systems. Powerful on line search engines make it relatively easy to find information on the web. Browsing through the web--"net surfing"--is both easy and enjoyable. Contributing to the web is not difficult, and the web opens up new possibilities for electronic publishing and electronic journals. Images p1554-a Fig 5 PMID:8520402

  5. Radiology teaching file cases on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Scalzetti, E M

    1997-08-01

    The presentation of a radiographic teaching file on the World Wide Web can be enhanced by attending to principles of web design. Chief among these are appropriate control of page layout, minimization of the time required to download a page from the remote server, and provision for navigation within and among the web pages that constitute the site. Page layout is easily accomplished by the use of tables; column widths can be fixed to maintain an acceptable line length for text. Downloading time is minimized by rigorous editing and by optimal compression of image files; beyond this, techniques like preloading of images and specification of image width and height are also helpful. Navigation controls should be clear, consistent, and readily available. PMID:9268885

  6. World wide web implementation of the Langley technical report server

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Gottlich, Gretchen L.; Bianco, David J.

    1994-01-01

    On January 14, 1993, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) made approximately 130 formal, 'unclassified, unlimited' technical reports available via the anonymous FTP Langley Technical Report Server (LTRS). LaRC was the first organization to provide a significant number of aerospace technical reports for open electronic dissemination. LTRS has been successful in its first 18 months of operation, with over 11,000 reports distributed and has helped lay the foundation for electronic document distribution for NASA. The availability of World Wide Web (WWW) technology has revolutionized the Internet-based information community. This paper describes the transition of LTRS from a centralized FTP site to a distributed data model using the WWW, and suggests how the general model for LTRS can be applied to other similar systems.

  7. Curriculum development and courseware implementation using World Wide Web technology.

    PubMed

    Mantas, J; Diomidus, M

    1998-01-01

    The curriculum development of medical informatics related courses and their adoption into the faculty curriculum is one of the main tasks of the present day educators. To this end the Internet technology has supported this task. The Internet was born in December of 1969 and has grown phenomenally since. Its graphically interactive, user-friendly modality, the World Wide Web (WWW), is younger and growing even more explosively. By its nature, the WWW is a tool ideally and uniquely suited for the advancement education. This paper describes the design, development and the implementation of a Web Site for supporting the education of the students in the Faculty of Nursing at the University of Athens. The application will be used also in the European project Nightingale. PMID:10384567

  8. Judging nursing information on the world wide web.

    PubMed

    Cader, Raffik

    2013-02-01

    The World Wide Web is increasingly becoming an important source of information for healthcare professionals. However, finding reliable information from unauthoritative Web sites to inform healthcare can pose a challenge to nurses. A study, using grounded theory, was undertaken in two phases to understand how qualified nurses judge the quality of Web nursing information. Data were collected using semistructured interviews and focus groups. An explanatory framework that emerged from the data showed that the judgment process involved the application of forms of knowing and modes of cognition to a range of evaluative tasks and depended on the nurses' critical skills, the time available, and the level of Web information cues. This article mainly focuses on the six evaluative tasks relating to assessing user-friendliness, outlook and authority of Web pages, and relationship to nursing practice; appraising the nature of evidence; and applying cross-checking strategies. The implications of these findings to nurse practitioners and publishers of nursing information are significant.

  9. Affordable Digital Planetariums with WorldWide Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfield, P.; Connolly, A.; Fay, J.; Sayres, C.; Tofflemire, B.

    2011-09-01

    Digital planetariums can provide a broader range of educational experiences than the more classical planetariums that use star-balls. This is because of their ability to project images, content from current research, and the 3-D distribution of the stars and galaxies. While there are hundreds of planetariums in the country, the reason that few of these are fully digital is the cost. In collaboration with Microsoft Research (MSR), we have developed a way to digitize existing planetariums for approximately $40,000 using freely available software. We describe here how off the shelf equipment, together with a WorldWide Telescope client, can provide a rich and truly interactive experience. This will enable students and the public to pan though multi-wavelength full-sky scientific data sets, explore 3-D visualizations of our Solar System (including trajectories of millions of minor planets), near-by stars, and the SDSS galaxy catalog.

  10. WorldWide Telescope in High School Astronomy Competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin, Ana-Maria; Goodman, A. A.; Udomprasert, P. S.

    2014-01-01

    This project aims to improve astronomy education at the high school level, and to increase awareness in astronomy for pre-university students, on an international scale. In 2013, the WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors Program began a collaboration with the International Olympiad in Astronomy and Astrophysics (IOAA), which was held in the city of Volos, Greece in August 2013. Now at its VIIth edition, IOAA is the largest annual astronomy competition for high school students, and it consists of one team task and three individual ones - Theoretical, Data Analysis, and Observational. Each of the participating countries (35 in 2013, compared to 21 in 2007) is responsible for selecting up to five representative students for the International round. IOAA is meant to promote future collaborations between these students, and to encourage friendships inside a global scientific community. Ana-Maria Constantin, a current Harvard undergraduate student and a former medalist of IOAA, represented WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors in Greece by giving a talk on the advantages of using WWT as a tool for research and education. As a result, the President and the International Board of the Olympiad have expressed support for including WWT in the competition for future editions. WWTA is working with the Organizing Board for next year’s competition in Romania, to include WWT as a testing tool. This poster will summarize key points from the WWTA presentation in Greece, present ideas for WWT-based activities in future IOAA competitions, and outline plans for new collaborations from representatives of Sri Lanka, Poland, Bangladesh, and Colombia. Given the positive feedback we have received after the presentation in Greece, we are also considering future implementations of WWT in summer research camps for high school students, such as the Summer Science Program.

  11. Starry Nights: The Great World Wide Star Count

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Dennis; Meymaris, K.; Henderson, S.; Johnson, R.

    2008-05-01

    The Great World Wide Star Count is an international field campaign encouraging participants to go outside, look skyward after dark, count the stars they see in certain constellations, and report what they see online. This Windows to the Universe citizen science event is designed to raise awareness about light pollution and the night sky as well as promote learning in astronomy. Star Count benefits from the current excitement in citizen science. The 2007 pilot effort included 15 nights for observations in October & November. Utilizing the international networking capabilities of Windows to the Universe, Star Count is able to engage people from all countries. Data collection and online reporting is designed to be simple and user-friendly for citizen scientists of all ages. The collected data is available online in a variety of formats for use by students, teachers and scientists worldwide to assess how the quality of the night sky varies around the world. This session will share our results and demonstrate how students and scientists worldwide can explore and analyze the data from the of the 2007 campaign. We will discuss how the Star Count team planned and executed the project in such a way that non-astronomers were able to make valid and useful contributions. We will also discuss lessons learned and best practices based on this inaugural campaign, as well as our plans for the future, including IYA 2009.

  12. World Wide Web resources on zoonotic infections: a subjective overview.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Georgios; Fragoulis, Konstantinos N; Falagas, Matthew E

    2008-12-01

    Zoonoses are a diverse group of infections whose significance is underestimated and understudied. The prevalence of zoonoses is higher in the developing world, where health professionals are often deprived of the rapid and free availability of related scientific information; however, continuous evolution of the World Wide Web (WWW) may offer such an option. This review sought to evaluate the content of available WWW resources on zoonoses. Two authors independently identified relevant websites. The selected websites were considered of merit upon consensus of all the authors. Only websites with freely available content were included. Websites on individual zoonoses were excluded. Through the numerous sites encountered on the WWW on zoonoses, there are certain ones that offer adequate information for the public and others that can serve as useful initiators for the non-specialist. Most sites approach zoonoses one-dimensionally, either as a public health, medical or veterinarian problem. The few sites that offer updates on zoonoses unfortunately focus on regional news. Ample information for the public and non-specialists on zoonoses can be traced on the WWW. However, what is missing is a site that will continuously update health professionals who deal with zoonoses in all their medical, veterinary and public health aspects.

  13. Highball: A high speed, reserved-access, wide area network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, David L.; Boncelet, Charles G.; Elias, John G.; Schragger, Paul A.; Jackson, Alden W.

    1990-01-01

    A network architecture called Highball and a preliminary design for a prototype, wide-area data network designed to operate at speeds of 1 Gbps and beyond are described. It is intended for applications requiring high speed burst transmissions where some latency between requesting a transmission and granting the request can be anticipated and tolerated. Examples include real-time video and disk-disk transfers, national filestore access, remote sensing, and similar applications. The network nodes include an intelligent crossbar switch, but have no buffering capabilities; thus, data must be queued at the end nodes. There are no restrictions on the network topology, link speeds, or end-end protocols. The end system, nodes, and links can operate at any speed up to the limits imposed by the physical facilities. An overview of an initial design approach is presented and is intended as a benchmark upon which a detailed design can be developed. It describes the network architecture and proposed access protocols, as well as functional descriptions of the hardware and software components that could be used in a prototype implementation. It concludes with a discussion of additional issues to be resolved in continuing stages of this project.

  14. Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation - A world wide review

    SciTech Connect

    Witherspoon, P.A.

    1991-06-01

    The problem of isolating radioactive wastes from the biosphere presents specialists in the earth sciences with some of the most complicated problems they have ever encountered. This is especially true for high-level waste (HLW), which must be isolated in the underground and away from the biosphere for thousands of years. The most widely accepted method of doing this is to seal the radioactive materials in metal canisters that are enclosed by a protective sheath and placed underground in a repository that has been carefully constructed in an appropriate rock formation. Much new technology is being developed to solve the problems that have been raised, and there is a continuing need to publish the results of new developments for the benefit of all concerned. Table 1 presents a summary of the various formations under investigation according to the reports submitted for this world wide review. It can be seen that in those countries that are searching for repository sites, granitic and metamorphic rocks are the prevalent rock type under investigation. Six countries have developed underground research facilities that are currently in use. All of these investigations are in saturated systems below the water table, except the United States project, which is in the unsaturated zone of a fractured tuff.

  15. Creating a GIS data server on the World Wide Web: The GISST example

    SciTech Connect

    Pace, P.J.; Evers, T.K.

    1996-01-01

    In an effort to facilitate user access to Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data, the GIS and Computer Modeling Group from the Computational Physics and Engineering Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (TN), has developed a World Wide Web server named GISST. The server incorporates a highly interactive and dynamic forms-based interface to browse and download a variety of GIS data types. This paper describes the server`s design considerations, development, resulting implementation and future enhancements.

  16. Using the World-Wide Web to Facilitate Communications of Non-Destructive Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McBurney, Sean

    1995-01-01

    The high reliability required for Aeronautical components is a major reason for extensive Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation. Here at Langley Research Center (LaRC), there are highly trained and certified personal to conduct such testing to prevent hazards from occurring in the workplace and on the research projects for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The purpose of my studies was to develop a communication source to educate others of the services and equipment offered here. This was accomplished by creating documents that are accessible to all in the industry via the World Wide Web.

  17. Analysis of Great World Wide Star Count Data: 2007-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birriel, J. J.; Farrell, J. N.; Ward, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Great World Wide Star Count (GWWSC) website provides free public access to seven years of naked-eye limiting magnitudes (NELM) reported by citizen scientists from 2007 to 2013. We summarize the data and perform a simple statistical analysis. GWWSC data are compared with the Globe at Night (GaN) data over the same time period. The global average NELM values are generally comparable across the two data sets. Global NELM data seem to reflect shifts in urban versus suburban participation over time, while regional and local NELM data are more likely to reflect changes in night sky brightness.

  18. An Image Retrieval and Processing Expert System for the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Ricardo; Rondon, Angelica; Bruno, Maria I.; Vasquez, Ramon

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a system that is being developed in the Laboratory of Applied Remote Sensing and Image Processing at the University of P.R. at Mayaguez. It describes the components that constitute its architecture. The main elements are: a Data Warehouse, an Image Processing Engine, and an Expert System. Together, they provide a complete solution to researchers from different fields that make use of images in their investigations. Also, since it is available to the World Wide Web, it provides remote access and processing of images.

  19. Judging nursing information on the world wide web.

    PubMed

    Cader, Raffik

    2013-02-01

    The World Wide Web is increasingly becoming an important source of information for healthcare professionals. However, finding reliable information from unauthoritative Web sites to inform healthcare can pose a challenge to nurses. A study, using grounded theory, was undertaken in two phases to understand how qualified nurses judge the quality of Web nursing information. Data were collected using semistructured interviews and focus groups. An explanatory framework that emerged from the data showed that the judgment process involved the application of forms of knowing and modes of cognition to a range of evaluative tasks and depended on the nurses' critical skills, the time available, and the level of Web information cues. This article mainly focuses on the six evaluative tasks relating to assessing user-friendliness, outlook and authority of Web pages, and relationship to nursing practice; appraising the nature of evidence; and applying cross-checking strategies. The implications of these findings to nurse practitioners and publishers of nursing information are significant. PMID:23254366

  20. Searching for biomedical information on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, R P

    2000-01-01

    The rapid growth of biomedical information available via the Internet and its most popular retrieval system, the World Wide Web, has fostered active research and development directed toward locating resources that are appropriate for answering specific queries. The goal is to create tools that optimize information retrieval (as measured by two quantities, precision and recall) while minimizing the effort required by the user. Existing Web retrieval tools can be divided into the following groups: manually maintained topical lists; automatically generated word-based indices; software agents and multi-index searching aids; network cataloging methods; and miscellaneous hybrid and newer approaches. Improvements in current methods should arise from further research into: methods of describing objects on the Web; improved ways of searching for (and within) collections of documents as opposed to single documents; the ability to search for fielded documents; and ways to describe resources that span intra- and interdisciplinary as well as cross-cultural linguistic differences. For this last problem, the U.S. National Library of Medicine's Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) will be of great help. As online information retrieval improves, efforts are underway to improve the online information itself; quality control over content is being addressed as the peer-review systems of traditional printed journals migrate into the realm of electronic publication. PMID:11183455

  1. An electronic laboratory notebook based on the World Wide Web

    SciTech Connect

    Marstaller, J.E.; Zorn, M.D.

    1995-10-01

    The LBNL/UCSF Resource for Molecular Cytogenetics has been created to facilitate the application of molecular cytogenetics in clinical and biological studies. One of the primary tasks is the selection of probes optimized for use in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Our group provides data management support for all the activities in the Resource. In this paper we describe an electronic laboratory notebook based on the World Wide Web. The data are located in a central database. The user interface consists of a set of HTML forms that handle data input and retrieval from a database from two locations several miles apart. A WWW client allows users to formulate retrieval and edit operations that are sent to the database. Results are filtered through Perl scripts which generate HTML documents with Hypertext links that are sent back to the client. Besides tracking laboratory information through the various stages in the biology laboratory, the system also feeds into a public web server that makes the data available to the community.

  2. Visualizing Moon Phases with WorldWide Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udomprasert, Patricia; Goodman, Alyssa; Sunbury, Susan; Zhang, Zhihui Helen; Sadler, Philip; Dussault, Mary; Block, Sarah; Lotridge, Erin; Jackson, Jonathan; Constantin, Ana-Maria

    2014-07-01

    We report preliminary results from an NSF-funded project to build, test, and research the impact of a WorldWide Telescope Visualization Lab (WWT Vizlab), meant to offer learners a deeper physical understanding of the causes of the Moon's phases. The Moon Phases VizLab is designed to promote accurate visualization of the complex, three dimensional Earth-Sun-Moon relationships required to understand the Moon's phases, while also providing opportunities for middle school students to practice critical science skills, like using models, making predictions and observations, and linking them in evidence-based explanations. In the VizLab, students use both computer-based models and lamp + ball physical models. We present findings from the first two phases of the study—one in which we compared learning gains from the WWT VizLab with a traditional two dimensional Moon phases simulator, and another in which we experimented with different ways of blending physical and virtual models in the classroom.

  3. Building national electronic medical record systems via the World Wide Web.

    PubMed Central

    Kohane, I S; Greenspun, P; Fackler, J; Cimino, C; Szolovits, P

    1996-01-01

    Electronic medical record systems (EMRSs) currently do not lend themselves easily to cross-institutional clinical care and research. Unique system designs coupled with a lack of standards have led to this difficulty. The authors have designed a preliminary EMRS architecture (W3-EMRS) that exploits the multiplatform, multiprotocol, client-server technology of the World Wide Web. The architecture abstracts the clinical information model and the visual presentation away from the underlying EMRS. As a result, computation upon data elements of the EMRS and their presentation are no longer tied to the underlying EMRS structures. The architecture is intended to enable implementation of programs that provide uniform access to multiple, heterogeneous legacy EMRSs. The authors have implemented an initial prototype of W3-EMRS that accesses the database of the Boston Children's Hospital Clinician's Workstation. PMID:8723610

  4. Increasing public understanding of transgenic crops through the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Patrick F; Namuth, Deana M; Harrington, Judy; Ward, Sarah M; Lee, Donald J; Hain, Patricia

    2002-07-01

    Transgenic crops among the most controversial "science and society" issues of recent years. Because of the complex techniques involved in creating these crops and the polarized debate over their risks and beliefs, a critical need has arisen for accessible and balanced information on this technology. World Wide Web sites offer several advantages for disseminating information on a fast-changing technical topic, including their global accessibility; and their ability to update information frequently, incorporate multimedia formats, and link to networks of other sites. An alliance between two complementary web sites at Colorado State University and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln takes advantage of the web environment to help fill the need for public information on crop genetic engineering. This article describes the objectives and features of each site. Viewership data and other feedback have shown these web sites to be effective means of reaching public audiences on a complex scientific topic.

  5. What is WorldWide Telescope, and Why Should Researchers Care?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Alyssa A.

    2016-01-01

    As of 2015, about 20 million people have downloaded the computer program called "WorldWide Telescope," and even more have accessed it via the web, at http://worldwidetelescope.org. But, the vast majority of these millions are not professional astronomers. This talk will explain why WorldWide Telescope (WWT) is also a powerful tool for research astronomers. I will focus on how WWT can be, and is, being built-in to Journals, and into day-to-day research environments. By way of example, I will show how WWT already: allows users to display images, including those in Journals, in the context of multi-wavelength full-sky imagery; allows for the display of which parts of the Sky have been studied, when, how, and for what reason (see http://adsass.org); allows, via right-click, immediate access to ADS, SIMBAD, and other professional research tools. I will also highlight new work, currently in development, that is using WWT as a tool for observation planning, and as a display mode for advanced high-dimensional data visualization tools, like glue (see http://glueviz.org). WWT is now well-known in the education community (see http://wwtambassadors.org), so the explicit goal of this talk will be to make researchers more aware of its full power. I will explain how WWT transitioned, over 8 years, from a Microsoft Research project to its current open-source state (see https://github.com/WorldWideTelescope), and I will conclude with comments on the future of WWT, and its relationship to how research should be carried out in the future (see http://tinyurl.com/aas-potf).

  6. World-Wide Web Tools for Locating Planetary Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanefsky, Bob; Deiss, Ron (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The explosive growth of the World-Wide Web (WWW) in the past year has made it feasible to provide interactive graphical tools to assist scientists in locating planetary images. The highest available resolution images of any site of interest can be quickly found on a map or plot, and, if online, displayed immediately on nearly any computer equipped with a color screen, an Internet connection, and any of the free WWW browsers. The same tools may also be of interest to educators, students, and the general public. Image finding tools have been implemented covering most of the solar system: Earth, Mars, and the moons and planets imaged by Voyager. The Mars image-finder, which plots the footprints of all the high-resolution Viking Orbiter images and can be used to display any that are available online, also contains a complete scrollable atlas and hypertext gazetteer to help locating areas. The Earth image-finder is linked to thousands of Shuttle images stored at NASA/JSC, and displays them as red dots on a globe. The Voyager image-finder plots images as dots, by longitude and apparent target size, linked to online images. The locator (URL) for the top-level page is http: //ic-www.arc.nasa.gov/ic/projects/bayes-group/Atlas/. Through the efforts of the Planetary Data System and other organizations, hundreds of thousands of planetary images are now available on CD-ROM, and many of these have been made available on the WWW. However, locating images of a desired site is still problematic, in practice. For example, many scientists studying Mars use digital image maps, which are one third the resolution of Viking Orbiter survey images. When they douse Viking Orbiter images, they often work with photographically printed hardcopies, which lack the flexibility of digital images: magnification, contrast stretching, and other basic image-processing techniques offered by off-the-shelf software. From the perspective of someone working on an experimental image processing technique for

  7. World-Wide Effort Bringing ALMA Telescope Into Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-02-01

    In the thin, dry air of northern Chile's Atacama Desert, at an altitude of 16,500 feet, an amazing new telescope system is taking shape, on schedule to provide the world's astronomers with unprecedented views of the origins of stars, galaxies, and planets. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) will open an entirely new "window" on the Universe, allowing scientists to unravel longstanding and important astronomical mysteries. ALMA Artist's Concept Artist's Concept of Completed ALMA CREDIT: ALMA/ESO/NRAO/NAOJ Click on image for high-resolution file (182 KB) "Most of the photons in the Universe are in the wavelength range that ALMA will receive, and ALMA will give us our first high-resolution views at these wavelengths. This will be a tremendous advancement for astronomy and open one of our science's last frontiers," Anneila Sargent, a Caltech professor and ALMA Board member, told the American Association for the Advancement of Science at its meeting in Boston, Mass. The millimeter and submillimeter wavelength range lies between what is traditionally considered radio waves and infrared waves. ALMA, a system using up to 66 high-precision dish antennas working together, will provide astronomers with dramatically greater sensitivity, the ability to detect faint objects, and resolving power, the ability to see fine detail, than has ever before been available in this range. "This ambitious project is the product of an international collaboration that spans the globe," Sargent said. "ALMA truly will enable transformational science and providing this capability has required a massive, world-wide effort," she added. The ALMA project is a partnership between Europe, Japan and North America in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. ALMA is funded in Europe by ESO, in Japan by the National Institutes of Natural Sciences in cooperation with the Academia Sinica in Taiwan and in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation in cooperation with the

  8. Curvature of co-links uncovers hidden thematic layers in the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Eckmann, Jean-Pierre; Moses, Elisha

    2002-04-30

    Beyond the information stored in pages of the World Wide Web, novel types of "meta-information" are created when pages connect to each other. Such meta-information is a collective effect of independent agents writing and linking pages, hidden from the casual user. Accessing it and understanding the interrelation between connectivity and content in the World Wide Web is a challenging problem [Botafogo, R. A. & Shneiderman, B. (1991) in Proceedings of Hypertext (Assoc. Comput. Mach., New York), pp. 63-77 and Albert, R. & Barabási, A.-L. (2002) Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 47-97]. We demonstrate here how thematic relationships can be located precisely by looking only at the graph of hyperlinks, gleaning content and context from the Web without having to read what is in the pages. We begin by noting that reciprocal links (co-links) between pages signal a mutual recognition of authors and then focus on triangles containing such links, because triangles indicate a transitive relation. The importance of triangles is quantified by the clustering coefficient [Watts, D. J. & Strogatz, S. H. (1999) Nature (London) 393, 440-442], which we interpret as a curvature [Bridson, M. R. & Haefliger, A. (1999) Metric Spaces of Non-Positive Curvature (Springer, Berlin)]. This curvature defines a World Wide Web landscape whose connected regions of high curvature characterize a common topic. We show experimentally that reciprocity and curvature, when combined, accurately capture this meta-information for a wide variety of topics. As an example of future directions we analyze the neural network of Caenorhabditis elegans, using the same methods.

  9. World-Wide Effort Produces Dramatic "Movie" of Cosmic Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-05-01

    Astronomers using a world-wide collection of radio telescopes, including the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), have made a dramatic "movie" of a voracious, superdense neutron star repeatedly spitting out subatomic particles at nearly the speed of light into two narrow jets as it pulls material from a companion star. The movie shows these jets ejecting clouds of hot plasma that are then "zapped" by pulses of energy in the jets as they move away from the neutron star. Frame from Radio-Telescope 'Movie' of Scorpius X-1 "We have directly measured the speed of energy flow in a cosmic jet for the first time," said Ed Fomalont, an astronomer at the NRAO in Charlottesville, Virginia. Fomalont worked with Barry Geldzahler and Charles Bradshaw of George Mason University in Fairfax, Virginia. The astronomers used the VLBA, the NSF's Very Large Array (VLA) and the Green Bank 140-foot telescope, along with radio telescopes from the European VLBI Network, Australia, Japan and South Africa to record the double-star system's eruptions continuously for 56 hours. "This study is going to be extremely valuable in helping us understand a phenomenon that we see throughout the universe," Fomalont said. Cosmic jets of superfast particles are ejected from the cores of numerous galaxies. On a smaller scale, similar jets are ejected from binary-star systems closer to home, in our own Milky Way Galaxy. While the jets from galaxy cores are thought to be powered by supermassive black holes millions of times more massive than the Sun, the closer "microquasars" are powered by much smaller black holes or by neutron stars only a few times more massive than the sun. "Studying one of the closer, smaller examples will help us understand how they all work, including the bigger ones," Geldzahler said. "The jets coming from distant galaxies are harder to study because of their much greater distance and the slowness of their

  10. Book on the World Wide Web: Issues and Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machovec, George S.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses problems and benefits of the electronic book and challenges in the electronic environment in terms of aggregation, pricing, authentication and authorization, presentation, downloading and printing, intellectual property, continued availability, and reliability and accessibility. Gives examples of commercial book aggregators and…

  11. Progressive-Era Resources on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howenstein, Amanda

    1999-01-01

    Provides a list of Progressive-era websites with the address and a detailed description of each of the websites. Includes topics such as the womens suffrage movement, the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, the Prohibition, labor-management conflicts, the Hull House, the Chicago fire, Emma Goldman, Progressive-era entertainment, and the Worlds Fair.…

  12. World-Wide Standardized Seismograph Network: a data users guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Jon R.; Hutt, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report, which is based on an unpublished draft prepared in the 1970s, is to provide seismologists with the information they may need to use the WWSSN data set as it becomes available in a more easily accessible and convenient format on the Internet. The report includes a description of the WWSSN network, station facilities, operations and instrumentation, a derivation of the instrument transfer functions, tables of transfer functions, a description of calibration techniques, and a description of a method used to determine important instrument constants using recorded calibration data.

  13. Health and medication information resources on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Sara; Zerilli, Tina

    2013-04-01

    Health care practitioners have increasingly used the Internet to obtain health and medication information. The vast number of Internet Web sites providing such information and concerns with their reliability makes it essential for users to carefully select and evaluate Web sites prior to use. To this end, this article reviews the general principles to consider in this process. Moreover, as cost may limit access to subscription-based health and medication information resources with established reputability, freely accessible online resources that may serve as an invaluable addition to one's reference collection are highlighted. These include government- and organization-sponsored resources (eg, US Food and Drug Administration Web site and the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists' Drug Shortage Resource Center Web site, respectively) as well as commercial Web sites (eg, Medscape, Google Scholar). Familiarity with such online resources can assist health care professionals in their ability to efficiently navigate the Web and may potentially expedite the information gathering and decision-making process, thereby improving patient care.

  14. Combining Real World Experiences with WorldWide Telescope Visualization to Build a Better Parallax Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladd, E. F.; Gingrich, E. C.; Nottis, K. E. K.; Udomprasert, P.; Goodman, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    We present a lab activity designed to help students understand the concept of parallax in both astronomical and non-astronomical contexts. In an outdoor setting, students learn the methodology of distance determination via parallax. They identify a distant landmark to establish a reference of direction, and then measure the change in apparent direction for more nearby objects as they change position in a 2 meter radius “orbit” around the “Sun.” This hands-on activity involves large, visually-discernable angles so that students can internalize the concept of parallax from everyday experience. However, students often have difficulty transferring this experience to the astronomical realm, so we pair this hands-on activity with a more explicitly astronomically-based activity using the WorldWide Telescope visualization environment. Students apply the same methodology in this environment and learn how the apparent motion of stars is related to their distance from Earth. The combination of hands-on activity and computer-aided visualization is designed to produce a deeper understanding of parallax in the astronomical environment, and an improved understanding of the inherently three-dimensional distribution of objects in our universe. More formal assessment is underway.

  15. Teaching Contemporary Physics Topics using Real-Time Data Obtained via the World Wide Web

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W.; Grip, R.; McKay, M.; Pfaff, R. and Stotler, D.P.; Post-Zwicker, A.P.

    1998-12-01

    As a teaching tool, the World Wide Web (WWW) is unprecedented in its ability to transmit information and enhance communication between scientist and student. Just beginning to be developed are sites that actively engage the user in the learning process and provide hands-on methods of teaching contemporary topics. These topics are often not found in the classroom due to the complexity and expense of the laboratory equipment and the WWW is an ideal tool for overcoming this difficulty. This paper presents a model for using the Internet to teach high school students about plasma physics and fusion energy. Students are given access to real-time data, virtual experiments, and communication with professional scientists via email. Preliminary data indicate that student collaboration and student-led learning is encouraged when using the site in the classroom.

  16. Virtual consolidation of Boston's Beth Israel and New England Deaconess Hospitals via the World Wide Web.

    PubMed Central

    Halamka, J. D.; Safran, C.

    1997-01-01

    With the advent of Integrated Healthcare Delivery Systems, medical records are increasingly distributed across multiple institutions. Timely access to these medical records is a critical need for healthcare providers. The CareWeb project provides an architecture for World Wide Web-based retrieval of electronic medical records from heterogeneous data sources. Using Health Level 7 (HL7), web technologies and readily available software components, we consolidated the electronic records of Boston's Beth Israel and Deaconess Hospitals. We report on the creation of CareWeb (freya.bidmc.harvard.edu/careweb.htm) and propose it as a means to electronically link Integrated Health Care Delivery Systems and geographically distant information resources. PMID:9357646

  17. Remote monitoring using technologies from the Internet and World Wide Web

    SciTech Connect

    Puckett, J.M.; Burczyk, L.

    1997-11-01

    Recent developments in Internet technologies are changing and enhancing how one processes and exchanges information. These developments include software and hardware in support of multimedia applications on the World Wide Web. In this paper the authors describe these technologies as they have applied them to remote monitoring and show how they will allow the International Atomic Energy Agency to efficiently review and analyze remote monitoring data for verification of material movements. The authors have developed demonstration software that illustrates several safeguards data systems using the resources of the Internet and Web to access and review data. This Web demo allows the user to directly observe sensor data, to analyze simulated safeguards data, and to view simulated on-line inventory data. Future activities include addressing the technical and security issues associated with using the Web to interface with existing and planned monitoring systems at nuclear facilities. Some of these issues are authentication, encryption, transmission of large quantities of data, and data compression.

  18. CHORUS: a computer-based radiology handbook for international collaboration via the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Kahn, C E

    1995-07-01

    To facilitate collaboration among physicians, a computer-based radiology handbook was developed and published electronically via the World Wide Web on the Internet. This system, called CHORUS (Collaborative Hypertext of Radiology), allows physicians without computer expertise to read documents, contribute knowledge, and critically review the handbook's content by using a simple, graphical user interface from virtually any type of computer system. CHORUS contains 1,168 "note-card" documents that describe radiologic findings; differential diagnoses; technical information; and pertinent anatomy, pathology, and physiology. Documents are indexed by title and by organ system and are linked to related documents. Data entry forms allow physicians to comment on published documents, submit new documents, and review submitted documents. CHORUS uses public-domain technologies to present useful, easily accessible knowledge for education and clinical decision making, and it provides a medium for international medical collaboration via the Internet.

  19. Medical electronic link (MEL): providing telemedicine on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Moncur, J T; Rosen, J M; Zhu, S; Limonadi, F M

    1997-01-01

    Many tertiary care centers in the USA have attempted to implement interactive television (IATV) or dynamic telemedicine systems. The advantage these systems provide is real-time interaction. The biggest disadvantage is cost: expensive hardware, band-width and personnel. An alternative to IATV is Medical Electronic Link (MEL); a low cost, store-forward, internet-based physician consultation system. MEL allows physicians in remote locations to consult physicians at the Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center in Lebanon, New Hampshire by using the World Wide Web. The Benefits of MEL are low hardware and band-width costs, accessibility, a self-explanatory interface, convenience, and its use of the case record. This system has been implemented at a family practice clinic in Manchester, NH and at the Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal. PMID:10168928

  20. U.S. Government statistics on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Allison, Melody M

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Government produces and provides massive amounts of statistics. Government initiatives have made much of the statistical information emanating from its various federal agencies, departments, and offices digitally accessible on the Internet. Assisting users in locating specific statistics can be one of the most challenging duties librarians have. This article provides a guide to government sources that will help librarians locate health statistics for researchers, health professionals, health consumers, and others. Some selected sites may be an endpoint of the search, and others may offer a solid beginning to a complex answer. Links are also provided to gateway Web sites, where a search strategy utilizing some of the tips discovered while compiling this list can be used to help promote successful outcomes. As always, it is recommended to use evaluative criteria to assess information quality as well as integrity of the data. PMID:12627690

  1. Pills on the World Wide Web: reducing barriers through technology.

    PubMed

    Gawron, Lori M; Turok, David K

    2015-10-01

    Oral contraceptive pills are safe, effective, and available without a prescription in most countries. Despite support from the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists to provide oral contraceptives as an over-the-counter medication, US women are still required to have a prescription to obtain them. Use of online applications and the Internet has made most things easier to obtain in our society and this includes contraceptive methods. Several online ventures are now underway to enable US women to obtain oral contraceptives without visiting a medical provider's office. Women's health care professionals should encourage these novel approaches, as they will improve contraceptive access. As US women experiment with innovative health care models, providers will need to lead, follow, or be left behind.

  2. Researching on the World Wide Web: Spend More Time Learning, Not Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James-Catalano, Cynthia N.

    This book explains how to conduct effective research on the World Wide Web. The book is divided into two sections: "Research Tools" and "Search Strategies." The first section includes chapters defining the World Wide Web; Web addresses; indexes; online libraries; search engines; and newsgroups and listservs. The second section outlines…

  3. Using the World Wide Web with Adult ESL Learners. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silc, Kathleen Flannery

    This digest presents reasons for using World Wide Web activities in adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instruction. It addresses the issue of preparing learners to use the Web and suggests activities that focus on authentic learning experiences to enhance skills. Discussion is centered in skills developed through the World Wide Web,…

  4. 76 FR 46854 - Hewlett Packard Company, Imaging and Printing Group, World Wide Product Data Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... Employment and Training Administration Hewlett Packard Company, Imaging and Printing Group, World Wide..., 2010, applicable to workers of Hewlett Packard Company, Imaging and Printing Group, World Wide Products... 28, 2010 (75 FR 30067). At the request of the State agency, the Department reviewed the...

  5. GeoCENS: a geospatial cyberinfrastructure for the world-wide sensor web.

    PubMed

    Liang, Steve H L; Huang, Chih-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The world-wide sensor web has become a very useful technique for monitoring the physical world at spatial and temporal scales that were previously impossible. Yet we believe that the full potential of sensor web has thus far not been revealed. In order to harvest the world-wide sensor web's full potential, a geospatial cyberinfrastructure is needed to store, process, and deliver large amount of sensor data collected worldwide. In this paper, we first define the issue of the sensor web long tail followed by our view of the world-wide sensor web architecture. Then, we introduce the Geospatial Cyberinfrastructure for Environmental Sensing (GeoCENS) architecture and explain each of its components. Finally, with demonstration of three real-world powered-by-GeoCENS sensor web applications, we believe that the GeoCENS architecture can successfully address the sensor web long tail issue and consequently realize the world-wide sensor web vision.

  6. WorldWide Telescope and Google Sky: New Technologies to Engage Students and the Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landsberg, R. H.; Subbarao, M. U.; Dettloff, L.

    2010-08-01

    New, visually rich, astronomical software environments coupled with large web-accessible data sets hold the promise of new and exciting ways to teach, collaborate, and explore the universe. These freeware tools provide contextual views of astronomical objects, real time access to multi-wavelength sky surveys, and, most importantly, the ability to incorporate new data and to produce user created content. This interactive panel examined the capabilities of Google Sky and WorldWide Telescope, and explored case studies of how these tools have been used to create compelling and participatory educational experiences in both formal (i.e., K-12 and undergraduate non-science majors classrooms), and informal (e.g., museum) settings. The overall goal of this session was to stimulate a discussion about future uses of these technologies. Substantial time was allotted for participants to create conceptual designs of learning experiences for use at their home institutions, with feedback provided by the panel members. Activities included technical discussions (e.g., mechanisms for incorporating new data and dissemination tools), exercises in narrative preparation, and a brainstorming session to identify potential future uses of these technologies.

  7. A Galaxy Zoo - WorldWide Telescope Mashup: Expanding User Defined Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luebbert, Jarod; Sands, M.; Fay, J.; Smith, A.; Gay, P. L.; Galaxy Zoo Team

    2010-01-01

    We present a new way of exploring your favorite Galaxy Zoo galaxies within the context of the sky using Microsoft Research's WorldWide Telescope. Galaxy Zoo has a fantastic community that is eager to learn and contribute to science through morphological classifications of galaxies. WorldWide Telescope is an interactive observatory that allows users to explore the sky. WorldWide Telescope uses images from the world's best telescopes, including the galaxies of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. WorldWide Telescope provides a fantastic sense of size and distance that is hard to experience in Galaxy Zoo. Creating tours from favorite galaxies directly from Galaxy Zoo aims to solve this dilemma.The incorporation of Galaxy Zoo and WorldWide telescope provides a great resource for users to learn more about the galaxies they are classifying. Users can now explore the areas around certain galaxies and view information about that location from within WorldWide Telescope. Not only does this encourage self-motivated research but after tours are created they can be shared with anyone. We hope this will help spread citizen science to different audiences via email, Facebook, and Twitter.Without the WorldWide Telescope team at Microsoft Research this project would not have been possible. Please go start exploring at http://wwt.galaxyzoo.org. This project was funded through the Microsoft Research Academic Program.

  8. MSCD's Development of a Campus Wide Information System on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Mary

    This paper describes the development of a campus wide information system (CWIS) at Metropolitan State College of Denver (MSCD) in Colorado. The paper discusses the background of the college, its computing environment, interactive voice response system, and information technology plan. The CWIS was first implemented on gopher. Gopher was…

  9. Rotorcraft Aeromechanics Branch Home Page on the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Randall L.; Warmbrodt, William (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The tilt rotor aircraft holds great promise for improving air travel in the future. It's benefits include vertical take off and landing combined with airspeeds comparable to propeller driven aircraft. However, the noise from a tilt rotor during approach to a landing is potentially a significant barrier to widespread acceptance of these aircraft. This approach noise is primarily caused by Blade Vortex Interactions (BVI), which are created when the blade passes near or through the vortex trailed by preceding blades. The XV- 15 Aeroacoustic test will measure the noise from a tilt rotor during descent conditions and demonstrate several possible techniques to reduce the noise. The XV- 15 Aeroacoustic test at NASA Ames Research Center will measure acoustics and performance for a full-scale XV-15 rotor. A single XV-15 rotor will be mounted on the Ames Rotor Test Apparatus (RTA) in the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel. The test will be conducted in helicopter mode with forward flight speeds up to 100 knots and tip path plane angles up to +/- 15 degrees. These operating conditions correspond to a wide range of tilt rotor descent and transition to forward flight cases. Rotor performance measurements will be made with the RTA rotor balance, while acoustic measurements will be made using an acoustic traverse and four fixed microphones. The acoustic traverse will provide limited directionality measurements on the advancing side of the rotor, where BVI noise is expected to be the highest. Baseline acoustics and performance measurements for the three-bladed rotor will be obtained over the entire test envelope. Acoustic measurements will also be obtained for correlation with the XV-15 aircraft Inflight Rotor Aeroacoustic Program (IRAP) recently conducted by Ames. Several techniques will be studied in an attempt to reduce the highest measured BVI noise conditions. The first of these techniques will use sub-wings mounted on the blade tips. These subwings are expected to alter the size

  10. Histology on the World Wide Web: A Digest of Resources for Students and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, John R.

    1997-01-01

    Provides a list of 37 World Wide Web sites that are devoted to instruction in histology and include electronic manuals, syllabi, atlases, image galleries, and quizzes. Reviews the topics, content, and highlights of these Web sites. (DDR)

  11. Alaskan Auroral All-Sky Images on the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.

    1997-01-01

    In response to a 1995 NASA SPDS announcement of support for preservation and distribution of important data sets online, the Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska, proposed to provide World Wide Web access to the Poker Flat Auroral All-sky Camera images in real time. The Poker auroral all-sky camera is located in the Davis Science Operation Center at Poker Flat Rocket Range about 30 miles north-east of Fairbanks, Alaska, and is connected, through a microwave link, with the Geophysical Institute where we maintain the data base linked to the Web. To protect the low light-level all-sky TV camera from damage due to excessive light, we only operate during the winter season when the moon is down. The camera and data acquisition is now fully computer controlled. Digital images are transmitted each minute to the Web linked data base where the data are available in a number of different presentations: (1) Individual JPEG compressed images (1 minute resolution); (2) Time lapse MPEG movie of the stored images; and (3) A meridional plot of the entire night activity.

  12. Creation and utilization of a World Wide Web based space radiation effects code: SIREST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singleterry, R. C. Jr; Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Tripathi, R. K.; Thibeault, S. A.; Noor, A. K.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Badavi, F. F.; Chang, C. K.; Qualls, G. D.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Kim, M. H.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Norbury, J.; Blattning, S. R.; Miller, J.; Zeitlin, C.; Heilbronn, L. H.

    2001-01-01

    In order for humans and electronics to fully and safely operate in the space environment, codes like HZETRN (High Charge and Energy Transport) must be included in any designer's toolbox for design evaluation with respect to radiation damage. Currently, spacecraft designers do not have easy access to accurate radiation codes like HZETRN to evaluate their design for radiation effects on humans and electronics. Today, the World Wide Web is sophisticated enough to support the entire HZETRN code and all of the associated pre and post processing tools. This package is called SIREST (Space Ionizing Radiation Effects and Shielding Tools). There are many advantages to SIREST. The most important advantage is the instant update capability of the web. Another major advantage is the modularity that the web imposes on the code. Right now, the major disadvantage of SIREST will be its modularity inside the designer's system. This mostly comes from the fact that a consistent interface between the designer and the computer system to evaluate the design is incomplete. This, however, is to be solved in the Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE) program currently being funded by NASA.

  13. WebPresent: a World Wide Web-based telepresentation tool for physicians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampath-Kumar, Srihari; Banerjea, Anindo; Moshfeghi, Mehran

    1997-05-01

    In this paper, we present the design architecture and the implementation status of WebPresent - a world wide web based tele-presentation tool. This tool allows a physician to use a conference server workstation and make a presentation of patient cases to a geographically distributed audience. The audience consists of other physicians collaborating on patients' health care management and physicians participating in continuing medical education. These physicians are at several locations with networks of different bandwidth and capabilities connecting them. Audiences also receive the patient case information on different computers ranging form high-end display workstations to laptops with low-resolution displays. WebPresent is a scalable networked multimedia tool which supports the presentation of hypertext, images, audio, video, and a white-board to remote physicians with hospital Intranet access. WebPresent allows the audience to receive customized information. The data received can differ in resolution and bandwidth, depending on the availability of resources such as display resolution and network bandwidth.

  14. Creation and utilization of a World Wide Web based space radiation effects code: SIREST.

    PubMed

    Singleterry, R C; Wilson, J W; Shinn, J L; Tripathi, R K; Thibeault, S A; Noor, A K; Cucinotta, F A; Badavi, F F; Chang, C K; Qualls, G D; Clowdsley, M S; Kim, M H; Heinbockel, J H; Norbury, J; Blattning, S R; Miller, J; Zeitlin, C; Heilbronn, L H

    2001-01-01

    In order for humans and electronics to fully and safely operate in the space environment, codes like HZETRN (High Charge and Energy Transport) must be included in any designer's toolbox for design evaluation with respect to radiation damage. Currently, spacecraft designers do not have easy access to accurate radiation codes like HZETRN to evaluate their design for radiation effects on humans and electronics. Today, the World Wide Web is sophisticated enough to support the entire HZETRN code and all of the associated pre and post processing tools. This package is called SIREST (Space Ionizing Radiation Effects and Shielding Tools). There are many advantages to SIREST. The most important advantage is the instant update capability of the web. Another major advantage is the modularity that the web imposes on the code. Right now, the major disadvantage of SIREST will be its modularity inside the designer's system. This mostly comes from the fact that a consistent interface between the designer and the computer system to evaluate the design is incomplete. This, however, is to be solved in the Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE) program currently being funded by NASA. PMID:11770545

  15. Open Access, Open Source and Digital Libraries: A Current Trend in University Libraries around the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishnamurthy, M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the open access and open source movement in the digital library world. Design/methodology/approach: A review of key developments in the open access and open source movement is provided. Findings: Open source software and open access to research findings are of great use to scholars in developing…

  16. The World Wide Web and Technology Transfer at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Bianco, David J.

    1994-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) began using the World Wide Web (WWW) in the summer of 1993, becoming the first NASA installation to provide a Center-wide home page. This coincided with a reorganization of LaRC to provide a more concentrated focus on technology transfer to both aerospace and non-aerospace industry. Use of the WWW and NCSA Mosaic not only provides automated information dissemination, but also allows for the implementation, evolution and integration of many technology transfer applications. This paper describes several of these innovative applications, including the on-line presentation of the entire Technology Opportunities Showcase (TOPS), an industrial partnering showcase that exists on the Web long after the actual 3-day event ended. During its first year on the Web, LaRC also developed several WWW-based information repositories. The Langley Technical Report Server (LTRS), a technical paper delivery system with integrated searching and retrieval, has proved to be quite popular. The NASA Technical Report Server (NTRS), an outgrowth of LTRS, provides uniform access to many logically similar, yet physically distributed NASA report servers. WWW is also the foundation of the Langley Software Server (LSS), an experimental software distribution system which will distribute LaRC-developed software with the possible phase-out of NASA's COSMIC program. In addition to the more formal technology distribution projects, WWW has been successful in connecting people with technologies and people with other people. With the completion of the LaRC reorganization, the Technology Applications Group, charged with interfacing with non-aerospace companies, opened for business with a popular home page.

  17. A framework for the creation of user-oriented medical textbooks on the World-Wide-Web.

    PubMed

    Prevelakis, V; Vassilakopoulos, G

    2000-01-01

    The use of the World Wide Web as a medium for the dissemination of course textbooks has proved to be effective both pedagogically and in terms of cost. However, there are some limitations inherent in this approach. In this paper we discuss the issues involved in the production of network accessible textbooks and present a framework which attempts to address the limitations of existing schemes through the use of a view-filter mechanism. We describe our proposal from a conceptual viewpoint and then discuss its applicability through the presentation of a prototype system. Finally, conclusions are drawn and future plans discussed. PMID:10947653

  18. Fast 3D Net Expeditions: Tools for Effective Scientific Collaboration on the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Val; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Two new technologies, the FASTexpedition and Remote FAST, have been developed that provide remote, 3D (three dimensional), high resolution, dynamic, interactive viewing of scientific data. The FASTexpedition permits one to access scientific data from the World Wide Web, take guided expeditions through the data, and continue with self controlled expeditions through the data. Remote FAST permits collaborators at remote sites to simultaneously view an analysis of scientific data being controlled by one of the collaborators. Control can be transferred between sites. These technologies are now being used for remote collaboration in joint university, industry, and NASA projects. Also, NASA Ames Research Center has initiated a project to make scientific data and guided expeditions through the data available as FASTexpeditions on the World Wide Web for educational purposes. Previously, remote visualization of dynamic data was done using video format (transmitting pixel information) such as video conferencing or MPEG (Motion Picture Expert Group) movies on the Internet. The concept for this new technology is to send the raw data (e.g., grids, vectors, and scalars) along with viewing scripts over the Internet and have the pixels generated by a visualization tool running on the viewers local workstation. The visualization tool that is currently used is FAST (Flow Analysis Software Toolkit). The advantages of this new technology over using video format are: (1) The visual is much higher in resolution (1280x1024 pixels with 24 bits of color) than typical video format transmitted over the network. (2) The form of the visualization can be controlled interactively (because the viewer is interactively controlling the visualization tool running on his workstation). (3) A rich variety of guided expeditions through the data can be included easily. (4) A capability is provided for other sites to see a visual analysis of one site as the analysis is interactively performed. Control of

  19. Publishing biomedical journals on the World-Wide Web using an open architecture model.

    PubMed Central

    Shareck, E. P.; Greenes, R. A.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In many respects, biomedical publications are ideally suited for distribution via the World-Wide Web, but economic concerns have prevented the rapid adoption of an on-line publishing model. PURPOSE: We report on our experiences with assisting biomedical journals in developing an online presence, issues that were encountered, and methods used to address these issues. Our approach is based on an open architecture that fosters adaptation and interconnection of biomedical resources. METHODS: We have worked with the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), as well as five other publishers. A set of tools and protocols was employed to develop a scalable and customizable solution for publishing journals on-line. RESULTS: In March, 1996, the New England Journal of Medicine published its first World-Wide Web issue. Explorations with other publishers have helped to generalize the model. CONCLUSIONS: Economic and technical issues play a major role in developing World-Wide Web publishing solutions. PMID:8947685

  20. Between Worlds: Access to Second Language Acquisition. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, David E.; Freeman, Yvonne S.

    This book purports to expand the learning potential of students by considering how the world inside the school interacts with outside social contexts. As the schooling of English language learners becomes ever more complex and political, this book has been updated in a second edition to address new trends and issues related to the teaching of…

  1. RotaTeq: Progress toward developing world access.

    PubMed

    Goveia, Michelle G; Nelson, Christopher B; Ciarlet, Max

    2010-09-01

    Phase III studies of an oral, live, pentavalent, human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine (RotaTeq; Merck) in developed countries have demonstrated that it is well tolerated with regard to intussusception and other adverse events and is efficacious in preventing rotavirus gastroenteritis and associated healthcare encounters. However, it cannot be assumed that rotavirus vaccines will be equally efficacious in infants and young children in the developing world. Differences in host populations, associated health conditions, and the epidemiology of rotavirus disease could affect vaccine performance. Concern about the potential for differences in efficacy stems from studies of previous candidate rotavirus vaccines, including bovine and rhesus rotaviruses, which showed no or variable efficacy in developing regions. Given this history, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended that the efficacy of "new" rotavirus vaccines should be demonstrated in diverse geographic areas, including developing countries, before widespread implementation. Successful implementation of any rotavirus vaccine in the developing world requires additional clinical research and sharing of early introduction experiences. We discuss efforts to bring RotaTeq vaccine to the developing world. Critical steps to achieve this goal include the clinical evaluation of vaccine safety and efficacy in a multisite trial in Asia and Africa, evaluation of concomitant use with other pediatric vaccines routinely used, and vaccine assessment in special populations (premature, human immunodeficiency virus-infected, and malnourished infants). Completion of WHO prequalification of RotaTeq and affordability are also key requirements to routine vaccine introduction. The RotaTeq Partnership with the Nicaraguan Ministry of Health provides an example of the successful introduction of this vaccine into a developing world country.

  2. Efficacy of the World Wide Web in K-12 environmental education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    York, Kimberly Jane

    1998-11-01

    Despite support by teachers, students, and the American public in general, environmental education is not a priority in U.S. schools. Teachers face many barriers to integrating environmental education into K--12 curricula. The focus of this research is teachers' lack of access to environmental education resources. New educational reforms combined with emerging mass communication technologies such as the Internet and World Wide Web present new opportunities for the infusion of environmental content into the curriculum. New technologies can connect teachers and students to a wealth of resources previously unavailable to them. However, significant barriers to using technologies exist that must be overcome to make this promise a reality. Web-based environmental education is a new field and research is urgently needed. If teachers are to use the Web meaningfully in their classrooms, it is essential that their attitudes and perceptions about using this new technology be brought to light. Therefore, this exploratory research investigates teachers' attitudes toward using the Web to share environmental education resources. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to investigate this problem. Two surveys were conducted---self-administered mail survey and a Web-based online survey---to elicit teachers perceptions and comments about environmental education and the Web. Preliminary statistical procedures including frequencies, percentages and correlational measures were performed to interpret the data. In-depth interviews and participant-observation methods were used during an extended environmental education curriculum development project with two practicing teachers to gain insights into the process of creating curricula and placing it online. Findings from the both the mail survey and the Web-based survey suggest that teachers are interested in environmental education---97% of respondents for each survey agreed that environmental education should be taught in K

  3. ETDEWEB versus the World-Wide-Web: a specific database/web comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, D.

    2010-06-28

    A study was performed comparing user search results from the specialized scientific database on energy-related information, ETDEWEB, with search results from the internet search engines Google and Google Scholar. The primary objective of the study was to determine if ETDEWEB (the Energy Technology Data Exchange – World Energy Base) continues to bring the user search results that are not being found by Google and Google Scholar. As a multilateral information exchange initiative, ETDE’s member countries and partners contribute cost- and task-sharing resources to build the largest database of energy-related information in the world. As of early 2010, the ETDEWEB database has 4.3 million citations to world-wide energy literature. One of ETDEWEB’s strengths is its focused scientific content and direct access to full text for its grey literature (over 300,000 documents in PDF available for viewing from the ETDE site and over a million additional links to where the documents can be found at research organizations and major publishers globally). Google and Google Scholar are well-known for the wide breadth of the information they search, with Google bringing in news, factual and opinion-related information, and Google Scholar also emphasizing scientific content across many disciplines. The analysis compared the results of 15 energy-related queries performed on all three systems using identical words/phrases. A variety of subjects was chosen, although the topics were mostly in renewable energy areas due to broad international interest. Over 40,000 search result records from the three sources were evaluated. The study concluded that ETDEWEB is a significant resource to energy experts for discovering relevant energy information. For the 15 topics in this study, ETDEWEB was shown to bring the user unique results not shown by Google or Google Scholar 86.7% of the time. Much was learned from the study beyond just metric comparisons. Observations about the strengths of each

  4. The World Wide Web: a review of an emerging internet-based technology for the distribution of biomedical information.

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, H J; Lomax, E C; Polonkey, S E

    1996-01-01

    The Internet is rapidly evolving from a resource used primarily by the research community to a true global information network offering a wide range of databases and services. This evolution presents many opportunities for improved access to biomedical information, but Internet-based resources have often been difficult for the non-expert to develop and use. The World Wide Web (WWW) supports an inexpensive, easy-to-use, cross-platform, graphic interface to the Internet that may radically alter the way we retrieve and disseminate medical data. This paper summarizes the Internet and hypertext origins of the WWW, reviews WWW-specific technologies, and describes current and future applications of this technology in medicine and medical informatics. The paper also includes an appendix of useful biomedical WWW servers. PMID:8750386

  5. The World Wide Web: a review of an emerging internet-based technology for the distribution of biomedical information.

    PubMed

    Lowe, H J; Lomax, E C; Polonkey, S E

    1996-01-01

    The Internet is rapidly evolving from a resource used primarily by the research community to a true global information network offering a wide range of databases and services. This evolution presents many opportunities for improved access to biomedical information, but Internet-based resources have often been difficult for the non-expert to develop and use. The World Wide Web (WWW) supports an inexpensive, easy-to-use, cross-platform, graphic interface to the Internet that may radically alter the way we retrieve and disseminate medical data. This paper summarizes the Internet and hypertext origins of the WWW, reviews WWW-specific technologies, and describes current and future applications of this technology in medicine and medical informatics. The paper also includes an appendix of useful biomedical WWW servers.

  6. Genetic structural analysis for germplasm accessions in the USDA Rice World Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice is grouped into five genetic structures including indica, aus, aromatic, temperate japonica, and tropical japonica. A core collection having 1,785 accessions from 114 countries has been developed that is representative of the USDA rice world collection which includes over 18,000 accessions. The...

  7. Search Engines: A Primer on Finding Information on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddux, Cleborne

    1996-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of several World Wide Web search engines, including Yahoo, Infoseek, Alta Vista, Magellan, Lycos, Webcrawler, Excite, Deja News, and the LISZT Directory of discussion groups. Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) are included. Discussion assesses performance and describes rules and syntax for refining or limiting a search.…

  8. The Educator's Brief Guide to the Internet and the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provenzo, Eugene F., Jr.

    This book is an introduction to the Internet and World Wide Web for educators. The purpose is to provide a practical handbook for administrators and teachers, as well as to reflect on the potential of this new technology to redefine the traditional curriculum in elementary and high schools. Throughout this book appear boxed definitions and…

  9. Automated MeSH indexing of the World-Wide Web.

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, J.; Kouramajian, V.; Maram, S.; Devadhar, V.

    1995-01-01

    To facilitate networked discovery and information retrieval in the biomedical domain, we have designed a system for automatic assignment of Medical Subject Headings to documents retrieved from the World-Wide Web. Our prototype implementations show significant promise. We describe our methods and discuss the further development of a completely automated indexing tool called the "Web-MeSH Medibot." PMID:8563421

  10. Navigational Structure on the World Wide Web: Usability Concerns, User Preferences, and "Browsing Behavior."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Theodore; Monson, John A.; Xaver, Richard F.; Kilic, Gulsen; Conley, Aaron T.; Wamey, Beatrice

    There are several approaches a World Wide Web site designer considers in developing a menu structure. One consideration is the content of the menus (what choices are available to the user). Another consideration is the physical layout of the menu structure. The physical layout of a menu may be described as being one of at least three different…

  11. Teaching Intrapersonal Communication with the World-Wide Web: Cognitive Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shedletsky, Leonard J.; Aitken, Joan E.

    This paper offers a brief description of a course on intrapersonal communication with a home page approach using the World Wide Web. The paper notes that students use the home page for completing assignments, readings, posting responses, self-evaluation testing, research, and displaying some of their papers for the course. The paper contains…

  12. Finding and Evaluating Adult ESL Resources on the World Wide Web. ERIC Q & A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florez, MaryAnn Cunningham

    One of the challenges often mentioned by users of the World Wide Web is creating and implementing successful searches on topics of interest. This article provides background information about adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) resources available on the Web. It describes various search tools, explains how to create search strategies and how…

  13. Establishing a Presence on the World Wide Web: A Rhetorical Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Kevin

    1996-01-01

    Presents a framework--grounded in the classic rhetorical concept of "ethos"--for technical communicators to examine the unique characteristics of the World Wide Web and the audiences it serves. Suggests that technical and marketing communicators can use the idea of online "ethos" to evaluate existing Web sites and design new sites that convey the…

  14. Exploring Geology on the World-Wide Web--Volcanoes and Volcanism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schimmrich, Steven Henry; Gore, Pamela J. W.

    1996-01-01

    Focuses on sites on the World Wide Web that offer information about volcanoes. Web sites are classified into areas of Global Volcano Information, Volcanoes in Hawaii, Volcanoes in Alaska, Volcanoes in the Cascades, European and Icelandic Volcanoes, Extraterrestrial Volcanism, Volcanic Ash and Weather, and Volcano Resource Directories. Suggestions…

  15. Marketing and Selling CD-ROM Products on the World-Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Becki

    1995-01-01

    Describes three companies' approaches to marketing and selling CD-ROM products on the World Wide Web. Benefits include low overhead for Internet-based sales, allowance for creativity, and ability to let customers preview products online. Discusses advertising, information delivery, content, information services, and security. (AEF)

  16. XML: A Language To Manage the World Wide Web. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis-Tanous, Jennifer R.

    This digest provides an overview of XML (Extensible Markup Language), a markup language used to construct World Wide Web pages. Topics addressed include: (1) definition of a markup language, including comparison of XML with SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language) and HTML (HyperText Markup Language); (2) how XML works, including sample tags,…

  17. Delivering an Alternative Medicine Resource to the User's Desktop via World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jie; Wu, Gang; Marks, Ellen; Fan, Weiyu

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the design and implementation of a World Wide Web-based alternative medicine virtual resource. This homepage integrates regional, national, and international resources and delivers library services to the user's desktop. Goals, structure, and organizational schemes of the system are detailed, and design issues for building such a…

  18. Informetric Analyses on the World Wide Web: Methodological Approaches to "WEBOMETRICS."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almind, Tomas C.; Ingwersen, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Introduces the application of informetric methods to the World Wide Web (Webometrics). Presents a case study comparing the number of specific informetric analysis parameters of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway on the Web. Concludes that problems with data collection occur because current tools are inadequate and because collection methods, manual and…

  19. HotJava: Sun's Animated Interactive World Wide Web Browser for the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machovec, George S., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Examines HotJava and Java, World Wide Web technology for use on the Internet. HotJava, an interactive, animated Web browser, based on the object-oriented Java programming language, is different from HTML-based browsers such as Netscape. Its client/server design does not understand Internet protocols but can dynamically find what it needs to know.…

  20. Journals Online News: Dispersing Collection Management Information on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langley, Anne; And Others

    Journals Online News (JON) is a World Wide Web site created and maintained by the Collection Development Team at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) Libraries in order to speak with the UTK community about journals-related issues. Its primary function at present is to provide UTK faculty and other interested parties with the latest…

  1. How Students Evaluate Information and Sources when Searching the World Wide Web for Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walraven, Amber; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Boshuizen, Henny P. A.

    2009-01-01

    The World Wide Web (WWW) has become the biggest information source for students while solving information problems for school projects. Since anyone can post anything on the WWW, information is often unreliable or incomplete, and it is important to evaluate sources and information before using them. Earlier research has shown that students have…

  2. Simple Exhibits, Effective Learning: Presenting the United Farm Workers' Experience on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golodner, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Describes the design of an online exhibit about the history of the United Farm Workers union that was created on the World Wide Web by the Walter P. Reuther Library/Archives of Labor and Urban History. Discusses Web design, hypertext links, and ease of navigation. (Author/LRW)

  3. Teaching Physiology and the World Wide Web: Electrochemistry and Electrophysiology on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Terry M.; Fleming, John; Randall, James E.; Coleman, Thomas G.

    1997-01-01

    Presents two examples of laboratory exercises using the World Wide Web for first-year medical students. The first example introduces the physical laws that apply to osmotic, chemical, and electrical gradients and a simulation of the ability of the sodium-potassium pump to establish chemical gradients and maintain cell volume. The second module…

  4. Pedagogical Reengineering: A Pedagogical Approach to Course Enrichment and Redesign with the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collis, Betty

    1997-01-01

    Defines "pedagogical reengineering." Indicates how tele-learning can bring about enrichment or reengineering in the pedagogical profile of a course. Illustrates these ideas through experiences with four cycles of a particular course. Suggests a general approach for deciding where and how to integrate World Wide Web-based functionalities into…

  5. Interactive Display of High-Resolution Images on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clyde, Stephen W.; Hirschi, Gregory W.

    Viewing high-resolution images on the World Wide Web at a level of detail necessary for collaborative research is still a problem today, given the Internet's current bandwidth limitations and its ever increasing network traffic. ImageEyes is an interactive display tool being developed at Utah State University that addresses this problem by…

  6. Social Desirability Responding on World Wide Web and Paper-Administered Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Dawson R.; Flowers, Claudia P.

    Social desirability responding (SDR) on surveys administered on the World Wide Web and on paper was examined, with 178 graduate and undergraduate students as participants. To assess the extent to which participants would demonstrate SDR, this study used the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) (Paulhus, 1993). The BIDR consists of 40…

  7. Comparing Social Desirability Responding on World Wide Web and Paper-Administered Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Dawson R.; Flowers, Claudia P.

    2001-01-01

    Examines social desirability responding (SDR) on surveys administered on the World Wide Web and on paper to graduate and undergraduate students. Discusses response bias; describes use of the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding; and reports findings that reveal no differences in SDR between the Web-administered and paper-administered…

  8. Spiders and Worms and Crawlers, Oh My: Searching on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagan, Ann; Bender, Laura

    Searching on the world wide web can be confusing. A myriad of search engines exist, often with little or no documentation, and many of these search engines work differently from the standard search engines people are accustomed to using. Intended for librarians, this paper defines search engines, directories, spiders, and robots, and covers basics…

  9. The World Wide Web, the Reorganization of Knowledge, and Liberal Arts Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Jeremy J.; Hughes, Shelley K.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the shift in the organization and classification of knowledge as a result of the World Wide Web and considers implications for the liberal arts and education in the liberal arts. Highlights include the postmodern period and the obsolescence of knowledge hierarchies; and personal meaning schemes. (LRW)

  10. World Wide Web Indexes and Hierarchical Lists: Finding Tools for the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munson, Kurt I.

    1996-01-01

    In World Wide Web indexing: (1) the creation process is automated; (2) the indexes are merely descriptive, not analytical of document content; (3) results may be sorted differently depending on the search engine; and (4) indexes link directly to the resources. This article compares the indexing methods and querying options of the search engines…

  11. The World Wide Web for Academic Purposes: Old Study Skills for New?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaouti, Diane

    2002-01-01

    Argues for a need to explore critical information processing skills of the World Wide Web (WWW) as part of an English for academic purposes teaching and learning context. Recognizes the potential of the WWW to bring relevant and not so relevant authentic content to academic study in a way never before possible. (Author/VWL)

  12. Outreach to International Students and Scholars Using the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Wei

    1998-01-01

    Describes the creation of a World Wide Web site for the Science Library International Outreach Program at the University of California, Santa Cruz. Discusses design elements, content, and promotion of the site. Copies of the home page and the page containing the outreach program's statement of purpose are included. (AEF)

  13. Finding Rural Development Resources on the World Wide Web: Tips and Techniques for Efficient Searches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stierman, Jeanne Koekkoek

    This guide presents basic information on searching the World Wide Web and lists selected Web sites and links to resources that contain information on rural development. The guide describes and differentiates among search engines, Web directories, metacrawlers, and mutations. Searching tips include: using quotation marks around phrases; using plus…

  14. Uses and Gratifications of the World Wide Web: From Couch Potato to Web Potato.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Barbara K.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates uses and gratifications of the World Wide Web and its impact on traditional mass media, especially television. Identifies six Web use motivations: entertainment, social interaction, passing of time, escape, information, and Web site preference. Examines relationships between each use motivation and Web affinity, perceived realism, and…

  15. Virtual-Recitation: A World Wide Web Based Approach to Active Learning in Clinical Pharmacokinetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, Donald K.

    1998-01-01

    Describes implementation, evaluation of World Wide Web-based component in a Rutgers University (New Jersey) advanced clinical pharmacokinetics course. Scheduling accommodated nontraditional students; each week Web pages providing review and supplementary material and an online quiz were posted after class. Comparison with the previous year's…

  16. Analysis of Science Education Reform Resources on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, David D.; Libidinsky, Lisa J.

    2000-01-01

    A study analyzed 51 World Wide Web K-12 instructional resources using STS (Science, Technology, and Society) competencies developed from 1996 National Science Education standards. Only 12 percent of the sites have included 25 percent or more of the STS competencies, making the web's educational benefits questionable. (Contains 10 references.) (MLH)

  17. Teaching with the World Wide Web: Internet Resources for Educators in Illinois Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bruce O.; Hall, Robert F.

    1998-01-01

    This report focuses on teaching with the World Wide Web. An introduction describes the Illinois State Board of Education's (ISBE's) efforts in urging local schools to integrate information technology into all aspects of their curriculum and in emphasizing the need for technology-focused staff development for Illinois teachers. ISBE supports…

  18. The World Wide Web and Active Learning in the International Relations Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuzma, Lynn M.

    1998-01-01

    Addresses the use of the World Wide Web by international relations students and scholars. Considers an instructional web project for an international relations class outlining the project's contribution to active learning and the development of students' critical thinking and problem-solving skills. Provides advice for educators interested in…

  19. How Commercial Banks Use the World Wide Web: A Content Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leovic, Lydia K.

    New telecommunications vehicles expand the possible ways that business is conducted. The hypermedia portion of the Internet, the World Wide Web, is such a telecommunications device. The Web is presently one of the most flexible and dynamic methods for electronic information dissemination. The level of technological sophistication necessary to…

  20. Automated Retrieval from Multiple Disparate Information Sources: The World Wide Web and the NLM's Sourcerer Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, R. P. Channing

    1995-01-01

    Describes the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) experimental Sourcerer project which is developing software to accept a user query, automatically identifying appropriate information resources, and facilitating connection to those sources for information retrieval. Discusses the use of the World Wide Web and the Unified Medical Language System.…

  1. Acces en Conversationnel au Fichier World Transindex. [Online Access to the World Transindex File].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelissier, Denise; Mallet, Monorama

    A database providing bibliographic information and the source for translations of scientific and technical literature from Eastern Europe and Asia into western languages, World Transindex includes the information which was published until 1977 in the World Index of Scientific Translations, Transatom Bulletin, and Bulletin of Translations. It was…

  2. Workshops Without Walls: broadening access to science around the world.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Betül K; Boyd, Eric S; Dolci, Wendy W; Dodson, K Estelle; Boldt, Marco S; Pilcher, Carl B

    2011-08-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Astrobiology Institute (NAI) conducted two "Workshops Without Walls" during 2010 that enabled global scientific exchange--with no travel required. The second of these was on the topic "Molecular Paleontology and Resurrection: Rewinding the Tape of Life." Scientists from diverse disciplines and locations around the world were joined through an integrated suite of collaborative technologies to exchange information on the latest developments in this area of origin of life research. Through social media outlets and popular science blogs, participation in the workshop was broadened to include educators, science writers, and members of the general public. In total, over 560 people from 31 US states and 30 other nations were registered. Among the scientific disciplines represented were geochemistry, biochemistry, molecular biology and evolution, and microbial ecology. We present this workshop as a case study in how interdisciplinary collaborative research may be fostered, with substantial public engagement, without sustaining the deleterious environmental and economic impacts of travel.

  3. A review of images of nurses and smoking on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Sarna, Linda; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of the World Wide Web, historic images previously having limited distributions are now widely available. As tobacco use has evolved, so have images of nurses related to smoking. Using a systematic search, the purpose of this article is to describe types of images of nurses and smoking available on the World Wide Web. Approximately 10,000 images of nurses and smoking published over the past century were identified through search engines and digital archives. Seven major themes were identified: nurses smoking, cigarette advertisements, helping patients smoke, "naughty" nurse, teaching women to smoke, smoking in and outside of health care facilities, and antitobacco images. The use of nursing images to market cigarettes was known but the extent of the use of these images has not been reported previously. Digital archives can be used to explore the past, provide a perspective for understanding the present, and suggest directions for the future in confronting negative images of nursing.

  4. A review of images of nurses and smoking on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Sarna, Linda; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of the World Wide Web, historic images previously having limited distributions are now widely available. As tobacco use has evolved, so have images of nurses related to smoking. Using a systematic search, the purpose of this article is to describe types of images of nurses and smoking available on the World Wide Web. Approximately 10,000 images of nurses and smoking published over the past century were identified through search engines and digital archives. Seven major themes were identified: nurses smoking, cigarette advertisements, helping patients smoke, "naughty" nurse, teaching women to smoke, smoking in and outside of health care facilities, and antitobacco images. The use of nursing images to market cigarettes was known but the extent of the use of these images has not been reported previously. Digital archives can be used to explore the past, provide a perspective for understanding the present, and suggest directions for the future in confronting negative images of nursing. PMID:23036793

  5. Workshops without Walls: Broadening Access to Science around the World

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Betül K.; Boyd, Eric S.; Dolci, Wendy W.; Dodson, K. Estelle; Boldt, Marco S.; Pilcher, Carl B.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Astrobiology Institute (NAI) conducted two “Workshops Without Walls” during 2010 that enabled global scientific exchange—with no travel required. The second of these was on the topic “Molecular Paleontology and Resurrection: Rewinding the Tape of Life.” Scientists from diverse disciplines and locations around the world were joined through an integrated suite of collaborative technologies to exchange information on the latest developments in this area of origin of life research. Through social media outlets and popular science blogs, participation in the workshop was broadened to include educators, science writers, and members of the general public. In total, over 560 people from 31 US states and 30 other nations were registered. Among the scientific disciplines represented were geochemistry, biochemistry, molecular biology and evolution, and microbial ecology. We present this workshop as a case study in how interdisciplinary collaborative research may be fostered, with substantial public engagement, without sustaining the deleterious environmental and economic impacts of travel. PMID:21829326

  6. Moving up the information food chain: Deploying softbots on the World Wide Web

    SciTech Connect

    Etzioni, O.

    1996-12-31

    I view the World Wide Web as an information food chain. The maze of pages and hyperlinks that comprise the Web are at the very bottom of the chain. The WebCrawlers and Alta Vistas of the world are information herbivores; they graze on Web pages and regurgitate them as searchable indices. Today, most Web users feed near the bottom of the information food chain, but the time is ripe to move up. Since 1991, we have been building information carnivores, which intelligently hunt and feast on herbivores in Unix, on the Internet, and on the Web.

  7. Educational Applications on the World Wide Web: An Example Using Amphion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Jane

    1998-01-01

    There is a great deal of excitement about using the internet and the World Wide Web in education. There are such exciting possibilities and there is a wealth and variety of material up on the web. There are however many problems, problems of access and resources, problems of quality -- for every excellent resource there are many poor ones, and there are insufficiently explored problems of teacher training and motivation. For example, Wiesenmayer and Meadows report on a study of 347 West Virginia science teachers. These teachers were enrolled in a week-long summer workshop to introduce them to the internet and its educational potential. The teachers were asked to review science sites as to overall quality and then about their usefulness in their own classrooms. The teachers were enthusiastic about the web, and gave two-thirds of the sites high ratings, and essentially all the rest average ratings. But alarmingly, over 80% of these sites were viewed as having no direct applicability in the teacher's own classroom. This summer I was assigned to work on the Amphion project in the Automated Software Engineering Group under the leadership of Michael Lowry. I wished to find educational applications of the Amphion system, which in its current implementation can be used to create fortran programs and animations using the SPICE libraries created by the NAIF group at JPL. I wished to find an application which provided real added educational value, which was in line with educational curriculum standards and which would serve a documented need of the educational community. The application selected was teaching about the causes of the seasons -- at the approximately the fourth, fifth, sixth grade level. This topic was chosen because it is in line with national curriculum standards. The fourth, fifth, sixth grade level was selected to coincide with the grade level served by the Ames Aerospace Encounter, which services 10,000 children a year on field trips. The hope is that

  8. Structure and content of chronic kidney disease information on the World Wide Web: barriers to public understanding of a pandemic.

    PubMed

    Calderón, José Luis; Zadshir, Ashraf; Norris, Keith

    2004-10-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a pandemic and the need to inform those at risk has never been more important. The World Wide Web (WWW) is no w considered a key source of health information, but the quality and utility of this information has been challenged. In this article, we assess structural, content, and linguistic barriers to accessed CKD information and discuss the implications of limited Internet access to communicating health. Technical (number of hyperlinks), content (number of six core CKD and risk factor information domains included), and linguistic (readability and variation in readability) barriers were assessed for websites offered by 12 kidney disease associations. The Flesch Reading Ease Index method was used to estimate readability scores, and variation in the readability of information was assessed. Eleven websites met inclusion criteria. Six of 11 websites provided information in all 6 domains of CKD information. A mean of 4 hyperlinks (range 3-5) was clicked before CKD information was available and a mean of 6 hyperlinks (range 4-12) was clicked to access all available CKD information. Mean readability scores for all six domains of CKD information exceeded national average literacy skills and far exceeded the 5th grade level readability desired for informing vulnerable populations. Information about CKD and diabetes consistently had higher readability scores. The WWW currently has little utility for informing populations at greatest risk for CKD. Barriers to accessing CKD information on the WWW are socioeconomic, technical, and linguistic. Having lower socioeconomic status, less access to computers and the WWW, multiple website hyperlinks, incomplete information, difficult readability, and significant variation in readability of CKD information on the WWW are social, structural, and content barriers to communicating CKD information. This may contribute to the growing epidemics of diminished public understanding about CKD, and disparities in

  9. CliniWeb: managing clinical information on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed Central

    Hersh, W R; Brown, K E; Donohoe, L C; Campbell, E M; Horacek, A E

    1996-01-01

    The World Wide Web is a powerful new way to deliver on-line clinical information, but several problems limit its value to health care professionals: content is highly distributed and difficult to find, clinical information is not separated from non-clinical information, and the current Web technology is unable to support some advanced retrieval capabilities. A system called CliniWeb has been developed to address these problems. CliniWeb is an index to clinical information on the World Wide Web, providing a browsing and searching interface to clinical content at the level of the health care student or provider. Its database contains a list of clinical information resources on the Web that are indexed by terms from the Medical Subject Headings disease tree and retrieved with the assistance of SAPHIRE. Limitations of the processes used to build the database are discussed, together with directions for future research. PMID:8816350

  10. User Interface on the World Wide Web: How to Implement a Multi-Level Program Online

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cranford, Jonathan W.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this Langley Aerospace Research Summer Scholars (LARSS) research project was to write a user interface that utilizes current World Wide Web (WWW) technologies for an existing computer program written in C, entitled LaRCRisk. The project entailed researching data presentation and script execution on the WWW and than writing input/output procedures for the database management portion of LaRCRisk.

  11. Multi-dimensional effects of color on the world wide web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Jill

    2002-06-01

    Color is the most powerful building material of visual imagery on the World Wide Web. It must function successfully as it has done historically in traditional two-dimensional media, as well as address new challenges presented by this electronic medium. The psychological, physiological, technical and aesthetic effects of color have been redefined by the unique requirements of the electronic transmission of text and images on the Web. Color simultaneously addresses each of these dimensions in this electronic medium.

  12. Application of World Wide Web (W3) Technologies in Payload Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Charles; Windrem, May; Picinich, Lou

    1996-01-01

    World Wide Web (W3) technologies are considered in relation to their application to space missions. It is considered that such technologies, including the hypertext transfer protocol and the Java object-oriented language, offer a powerful and relatively inexpensive framework for distributed application software development. The suitability of these technologies for payload monitoring systems development is discussed, and the experience gained from the development of an insect habitat monitoring system based on W3 technologies is reported.

  13. World wide use of psychotropic drugs in child and adolescent psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Simeon, J G; Wiggins, D M; Williams, E

    1995-05-01

    1. Questionnaires were mailed to child psychiatrists world wide to obtain more precise information on views and approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of childhood psychiatric disorders. 2. Results indicated important problems related to the management of child psychiatry practice both overseas and in Canada. 3. The choice of medication was frequently restricted by lack of availability, and political or social attitudes. 4. A consensus on diagnosis and treatment guidelines in child and adolescent psychiatry remains an important issue.

  14. Embedded Web Technology: Applying World Wide Web Standards to Embedded Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponyik, Joseph G.; York, David W.

    2002-01-01

    Embedded Systems have traditionally been developed in a highly customized manner. The user interface hardware and software along with the interface to the embedded system are typically unique to the system for which they are built, resulting in extra cost to the system in terms of development time and maintenance effort. World Wide Web standards have been developed in the passed ten years with the goal of allowing servers and clients to intemperate seamlessly. The client and server systems can consist of differing hardware and software platforms but the World Wide Web standards allow them to interface without knowing about the details of system at the other end of the interface. Embedded Web Technology is the merging of Embedded Systems with the World Wide Web. Embedded Web Technology decreases the cost of developing and maintaining the user interface by allowing the user to interface to the embedded system through a web browser running on a standard personal computer. Embedded Web Technology can also be used to simplify an Embedded System's internal network.

  15. ePlant and the 3D data display initiative: integrative systems biology on the world wide web.

    PubMed

    Fucile, Geoffrey; Di Biase, David; Nahal, Hardeep; La, Garon; Khodabandeh, Shokoufeh; Chen, Yani; Easley, Kante; Christendat, Dinesh; Kelley, Lawrence; Provart, Nicholas J

    2011-01-10

    Visualization tools for biological data are often limited in their ability to interactively integrate data at multiple scales. These computational tools are also typically limited by two-dimensional displays and programmatic implementations that require separate configurations for each of the user's computing devices and recompilation for functional expansion. Towards overcoming these limitations we have developed "ePlant" (http://bar.utoronto.ca/eplant) - a suite of open-source world wide web-based tools for the visualization of large-scale data sets from the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. These tools display data spanning multiple biological scales on interactive three-dimensional models. Currently, ePlant consists of the following modules: a sequence conservation explorer that includes homology relationships and single nucleotide polymorphism data, a protein structure model explorer, a molecular interaction network explorer, a gene product subcellular localization explorer, and a gene expression pattern explorer. The ePlant's protein structure explorer module represents experimentally determined and theoretical structures covering >70% of the Arabidopsis proteome. The ePlant framework is accessed entirely through a web browser, and is therefore platform-independent. It can be applied to any model organism. To facilitate the development of three-dimensional displays of biological data on the world wide web we have established the "3D Data Display Initiative" (http://3ddi.org).

  16. A Java viewer to publish Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) radiologic images on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Setti, E; Musumeci, R

    2001-06-01

    The world wide web is an exciting service that allows one to publish electronic documents made of text and images on the internet. Client software called a web browser can access these documents, and display and print them. The most popular browsers are currently Microsoft Internet Explorer (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) and Netscape Communicator (Netscape Communications, Mountain View, CA). These browsers can display text in hypertext markup language (HTML) format and images in Joint Photographic Expert Group (JPEG) and Graphic Interchange Format (GIF). Currently, neither browser can display radiologic images in native Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) format. With the aim to publish radiologic images on the internet, we wrote a dedicated Java applet. Our software can display radiologic and histologic images in DICOM, JPEG, and GIF formats, and provides a a number of functions like windowing and magnification lens. The applet is compatible with some web browsers, even the older versions. The software is free and available from the author.

  17. Hidden Tree Structure is a Key to the Emergence of Scaling in the World Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Bo-Jin; Wang, Jian-Min; Chen, Gui-Sheng; Jiang, Jian; Shen, Xian-Jun

    2011-01-01

    Preferential attachment is the most popular explanation for the emergence of scaling behavior in the World Wide Web, but this explanation has been challenged by the global information hypothesis, the existence of linear preference and the emergence of new big internet companies in the real world. We notice that most websites have an obvious feature that their pages are organized as a tree (namely hidden tree) and hence propose a new model that introduces a hidden tree structure into the Erdös—Rényi model by adding a new rule: when one node connects to another, it should also connect to all nodes in the path between these two nodes in the hidden tree. The experimental results show that the degree distribution of the generated graphs would obey power law distributions and have variable high clustering coefficients and variable small average lengths of shortest paths. The proposed model provides an alternative explanation to the emergence of scaling in the World Wide Web without the above-mentioned difficulties, and also explains the “preferential attachment" phenomenon.

  18. AAS Publishing: What Can WorldWide Telescope Do for You?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    During the 227th American Astronomical Society meeting last week in Kissimmee, the AAS announced the exciting news that it will become the new institutional home of Microsofts WorldWide Telescope (WWT) astronomy software.WWT is a scriptable and interactive way of browsing the multi-wavelength sky as it is seen from Earth, and the universe as we would travel within it. WWT can be run either as a desktop app or from within an internet browser. And of interest to researchers especially its an incredibly useful way to visualize and contextualize astronomical data.What does WWTs transition to the AAS as its new host mean? WWT was open-sourced by Microsoft Research last year, and hosting by the AAS will permit broad community involvement in the form of contribution of both code and guidance in WWTs further development.All of this begs the question: why might YOU want to use WWT? That depends on whether your goal is to use it for research, education, or just for fun.WWT for ResearchIfyou thought WWT was just for education and outreach, think again! Here are just a few things you can do with WWT to advance your astronomical research1:1) Put surveys into context, on top of more than 40 different all-sky images, spanning the electromagnetic spectrum.2) Perform literature searches from the sky.3) Compare images and catalogs at different wavelengths, on-the-fly in seconds.4) Show your own online data to the world, in an API that allows users to see it on the sky in their browsers.5) Communicate to colleagues and learners about the sky using interactive tours of your data and ideas.An example of WWT used to perform astronomy research is the recently highlighted work on the bones of the Milky Way, in which the authors used WWT to overlay multiple data sets and visually identify and then search for infrared dark clouds along the predicted positions of Milky Way spiral arms.An example of WWT used to communicate research is given in this paper, wherein a link in the caption of a

  19. AAS Publishing: What Can WorldWide Telescope Do for You?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    During the 227th American Astronomical Society meeting last week in Kissimmee, the AAS announced the exciting news that it will become the new institutional home of Microsofts WorldWide Telescope (WWT) astronomy software.WWT is a scriptable and interactive way of browsing the multi-wavelength sky as it is seen from Earth, and the universe as we would travel within it. WWT can be run either as a desktop app or from within an internet browser. And of interest to researchers especially its an incredibly useful way to visualize and contextualize astronomical data.What does WWTs transition to the AAS as its new host mean? WWT was open-sourced by Microsoft Research last year, and hosting by the AAS will permit broad community involvement in the form of contribution of both code and guidance in WWTs further development.All of this begs the question: why might YOU want to use WWT? That depends on whether your goal is to use it for research, education, or just for fun.WWT for ResearchIfyou thought WWT was just for education and outreach, think again! Here are just a few things you can do with WWT to advance your astronomical research1:1) Put surveys into context, on top of more than 40 different all-sky images, spanning the electromagnetic spectrum.2) Perform literature searches from the sky.3) Compare images and catalogs at different wavelengths, on-the-fly in seconds.4) Show your own online data to the world, in an API that allows users to see it on the sky in their browsers.5) Communicate to colleagues and learners about the sky using interactive tours of your data and ideas.An example of WWT used to perform astronomy research is the recently highlighted work on the bones of the Milky Way, in which the authors used WWT to overlay multiple data sets and visually identify and then search for infrared dark clouds along the predicted positions of Milky Way spiral arms.An example of WWT used to communicate research is given in this paper, wherein a link in the caption of a

  20. The Land of Confusion? High School Students and Their Use of the World Wide Web for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzen, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Examines high school students' use of the World Wide Web to complete assignments. Findings showed the students used a good variety of resources, including libraries and the World Wide Web, to find information for assignments. However, students were weak at determining the quality of the information found on web sites. Students did poorly at…

  1. The International Energy Agency`s role in world-wide wind energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Rangi, R.; Ancona, D.

    1997-12-31

    Wind energy is now being deployed world-wide at a rapidly increasing rate and the International Energy Agency (IEA) has a changing role in its growth. IEA was founded in 1974 within the framework of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to collaborate on comprehensive international energy programs. IEA membership consists of eighteen parties from sixteen countries and the European Commission. Recently there has been increasing interest in IEA participation from both OECD and non-OECD countries. Non-OECD countries participating in various IEA Agreements include: China, India, Israel, Korea, and Russia. Because of its diverse international makeup, the IEA is viewed as a source of reliable technical and economic information. The World Bank has approached the Executive Committee for Wind Energy R & D, through the IEA Renewable Energy Working Party, to assist in the expansion of wind deployment. In addition, IEA is moving from R & D programs to include tracking of implementation incentives offered by its members.

  2. The World Wide Web: A Web Even a Fly Would Love

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, E.

    Ever since my introduction to the World Wide Web (WWW), it's been love at first byte. Searching on the WWW is similar to being able to go to a public library and allow yourself to be transported to any other book or library around the world by looking at a reference or index and clicking your heels together like Dorothy did in "The Wizard of Oz", only the clicking is done with a computer mouse. During this presentation, we will explore the WWW protocols which allow clients and servers to communicate on the Internet. We will demonstrate the ease with which users can navigate the virtual tidal wave of information available with a mere click of a button. In addition, the workshop will discuss the revolutionary aspects of this network information system and how it's impacting our libraries as a primary mechanism for rapid dissemination of knowledge.

  3. Secure wide area network access to CMS analysis data using the Lustre filesystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourilkov, D.; Avery, P.; Cheng, M.; Fu, Y.; Kim, B.; Palencia, J.; Budden, R.; Benninger, K.; Rodriquez, J. L.; Dilascio, J.; Dykstra, D.; Seenu, N.

    2012-12-01

    This paper reports the design and implementation of a secure, wide area network (WAN), distributed filesystem by the ExTENCI project (Extending Science Through Enhanced National CyberInfrastructure), based on the Lustre filesystem. The system is used for remote access to analysis data from the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and from the Lattice Quantum ChromoDynamics (LQCD) project. Security is provided by Kerberos authentication and authorization with additional fine grained control based on Lustre ACLs (Access Control List) and quotas. We investigate the impact of using various Kerberos security flavors on the I/O rates of CMS applications on client nodes reading and writing data to the Lustre filesystem, and on LQCD benchmarks. The clients can be real or virtual nodes. We are investigating additional options for user authentication based on user certificates.

  4. The semantic architecture of the World-Wide Molecular Matrix (WWMM)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The World-Wide Molecular Matrix (WWMM) is a ten year project to create a peer-to-peer (P2P) system for the publication and collection of chemical objects, including over 250, 000 molecules. It has now been instantiated in a number of repositories which include data encoded in Chemical Markup Language (CML) and linked by URIs and RDF. The technical specification and implementation is now complete. We discuss the types of architecture required to implement nodes in the WWMM and consider the social issues involved in adoption. PMID:21999475

  5. Spectral properties of the Google matrix of the World Wide Web and other directed networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgeot, Bertrand; Giraud, Olivier; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2010-05-01

    We study numerically the spectrum and eigenstate properties of the Google matrix of various examples of directed networks such as vocabulary networks of dictionaries and university World Wide Web networks. The spectra have gapless structure in the vicinity of the maximal eigenvalue for Google damping parameter α equal to unity. The vocabulary networks have relatively homogeneous spectral density, while university networks have pronounced spectral structures which change from one university to another, reflecting specific properties of the networks. We also determine specific properties of eigenstates of the Google matrix, including the PageRank. The fidelity of the PageRank is proposed as a characterization of its stability.

  6. Chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia resources on the world wide web: a descriptive journey.

    PubMed

    Gantz, N M; Coldsmith, E E

    2001-03-15

    A wealth of information on chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fibromyalgia is available on the World Wide Web for health care providers and patients. These illnesses have overlapping features, and their etiologies remain unknown. Multiple Web sites were reviewed, and selected sites providing useful information were identified. Sites were classified according to their content and target audience and were judged according to suggested standards of Internet publishing. Fifty-eight sites were classified into groups as follows: comprehensive and research Web sites for CFS and fibromyalgia, meetings, clinical trials, literature search services, bibliographies, journal, and CFS and fibromyalgia Web sites for the patient. PMID:11247716

  7. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 5, No. 2. Volume 5, No. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browen, Brent D.

    2000-01-01

    The Journal of Air Transportation World Wide's (JATWW) mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. Our goal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JATWW will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  8. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 2, No. 1. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The Journal of Air Transportation World Wide's (JATWW) mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. Our goal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JATWW will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a key focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  9. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 4, No. 2. Volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The Journal of Air Transportation World Wide's (JATWW) mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. The goal of the Journal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JATWW will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  10. The semantic architecture of the World-Wide Molecular Matrix (WWMM).

    PubMed

    Murray-Rust, Peter; Adams, Sam E; Downing, Jim; Townsend, Joe A; Zhang, Yong

    2011-10-14

    The World-Wide Molecular Matrix (WWMM) is a ten year project to create a peer-to-peer (P2P) system for the publication and collection of chemical objects, including over 250, 000 molecules. It has now been instantiated in a number of repositories which include data encoded in Chemical Markup Language (CML) and linked by URIs and RDF. The technical specification and implementation is now complete. We discuss the types of architecture required to implement nodes in the WWMM and consider the social issues involved in adoption.

  11. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 3, No. 1. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    The Journal of Air Transportation World Wide's (JATWW) mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. Our goal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JATWW will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  12. Facilitating physician referrals on the World Wide Web: representation and appropriate utilization of clinical expertise.

    PubMed

    McHolm, G; Obeid, J; Karson, T H; Sato, L; Schaffer, J L; Greenes, R A

    1996-01-01

    In highly integrated and increasingly complex health care systems, the identification and proper utilization of clinical staff expertise are key factors for efficiently delivering high quality patient care. To achieve these capabilities on an enterprise-wide scale, we have embarked on a multi-phased project to develop World Wide Web (WWW)-based physician referral capabilities for two large teaching hospitals. Currently, users may search for information concerning the education, training, board certifications, and self-designated clinical interests of staff members. Address, phone number, email address, and a photo are also presented. Our experience indicates that institutional changes are required to successfully deploy and maintain online physician referral services and that accurate and equitable representation of clinical expertise and the incorporation of referral guidelines require an incremental introduction of a carefully planned program that addresses the needs of clinicians, administrators, and health care policy-makers. PMID:8947760

  13. Evaluation of traditional classroom teaching methods versus course delivery via the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M; Carlton, K H; Ali, N S

    1999-09-01

    Higher education is moving with deliberate speed to an electronic classroom. Much has been published on faculty experiences with World Wide Web (WWW) course delivery. However, little research exists on the evaluation of these methods. The purpose of this study was to evaluate students' perceptions of two approaches to teaching: classroom and WWW modules. Classroom methods were rated significantly higher in relation to content, interaction, participation, faculty preparation, and communication. Technical skills were rated higher for WWW modules. Critical thinking and time allotted for assignments were not significantly different between classroom and WWW instruction. Open-ended comments were rich and supported both positive and negative aspects of classroom and WWW-based modules. Implications call for creativity in course development, course redesign and orientation, active communication with students, support for technical problems, faculty development, and university-wide planning through partnerships.

  14. Enabling mHealth while assuring compliance: reliable and secure information access in a mobile world.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Axel

    2012-01-01

    An increasingly mobile clinical workforce rapidly adopting consumer devices to access mobile, cloud-based applications, complemented by the wide range of mobile storage devices and other portable electronics, such as digital cameras, MP3 players, can make it difficult to efficiently assure compliance without impacting user productivity. This article reviewed a number of healthcare use cases and introduced comprehensive concepts and possible automated solutions to meet the requirements of a highly complex infrastructure of devices accessing confidential information.

  15. Grid Data Access on Widely Distributed Worker Nodes Using Scalla and SRM

    SciTech Connect

    Jakl, Pavel; Lauret, Jerome; Hanushevsky, Andrew; Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alex; Gu, Junmin; /LBL, Berkeley

    2011-11-10

    Facing the reality of storage economics, NP experiments such as RHIC/STAR have been engaged in a shift of the analysis model, and now heavily rely on using cheap disks attached to processing nodes, as such a model is extremely beneficial over expensive centralized storage. Additionally, exploiting storage aggregates with enhanced distributed computing capabilities such as dynamic space allocation (lifetime of spaces), file management on shared storages (lifetime of files, pinning file), storage policies or a uniform access to heterogeneous storage solutions is not an easy task. The Xrootd/Scalla system allows for storage aggregation. We will present an overview of the largest deployment of Scalla (Structured Cluster Architecture for Low Latency Access) in the world spanning over 1000 CPUs co-sharing the 350 TB Storage Elements and the experience on how to make such a model work in the RHIC/STAR standard analysis framework. We will explain the key features and approach on how to make access to mass storage (HPSS) possible in such a large deployment context. Furthermore, we will give an overview of a fully 'gridified' solution using the plug-and-play features of Scalla architecture, replacing standard storage access with grid middleware SRM (Storage Resource Manager) components designed for space management and will compare the solution with the standard Scalla approach in use in STAR for the past 2 years. Integration details, future plans and status of development will be explained in the area of best transfer strategy between multiple-choice data pools and best placement with respect of load balancing and interoperability with other SRM aware tools or implementations.

  16. Finding Web-Based Anxiety Interventions on the World Wide Web: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Olander, Ellinor K; Ayers, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Background One relatively new and increasingly popular approach of increasing access to treatment is Web-based intervention programs. The advantage of Web-based approaches is the accessibility, affordability, and anonymity of potentially evidence-based treatment. Despite much research evidence on the effectiveness of Web-based interventions for anxiety found in the literature, little is known about what is publically available for potential consumers on the Web. Objective Our aim was to explore what a consumer searching the Web for Web-based intervention options for anxiety-related issues might find. The objectives were to identify currently publically available Web-based intervention programs for anxiety and to synthesize and review these in terms of (1) website characteristics such as credibility and accessibility; (2) intervention program characteristics such as intervention focus, design, and presentation modes; (3) therapeutic elements employed; and (4) published evidence of efficacy. Methods Web keyword searches were carried out on three major search engines (Google, Bing, and Yahoo—UK platforms). For each search, the first 25 hyperlinks were screened for eligible programs. Included were programs that were designed for anxiety symptoms, currently publically accessible on the Web, had an online component, a structured treatment plan, and were available in English. Data were extracted for website characteristics, program characteristics, therapeutic characteristics, as well as empirical evidence. Programs were also evaluated using a 16-point rating tool. Results The search resulted in 34 programs that were eligible for review. A wide variety of programs for anxiety, including specific anxiety disorders, and anxiety in combination with stress, depression, or anger were identified and based predominantly on cognitive behavioral therapy techniques. The majority of websites were rated as credible, secure, and free of advertisement. The majority required users to

  17. Effects of Upstream Human Changes on Nutrient Fluxes to Major Deltas World-Wide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Cappellen, P.; Dürr, H. H.; Maavara, T.

    2015-12-01

    Major deltas world-wide are connected to large river systems, and while they make up <1% of the shoreline, they are at the receiving end of 25-42% of all discharge, suspended sediment load and nutrient load. Thus, in addition to the pressure from human impact in the deltas, changes far upstream are tightly linked to effects downstream. The Global-NEWS approach has explored scenarios along storylines that influence future nutrient fluxes, and if highlighted for individual delta, reveals large differences in future change, with most of the influence being attributed to factors such as land use change or increased damming. Notably the latter factor has received recent attention with regards to nutrient fluxes, and phosphorus (P) in particular (Maavara et al. in review): the largest increases in P retention by reservoirs, between 2000 and 2030, are expected to occur in the Yangtze, Mekong, Amazon and Ganges-Brahmaputra river basins. Here, we discuss how Global-NEWS and other approaches assess these future changes in nutrient fluxes, and how the expected new boom in dam construction can influence these fluxes to deltas world-wide.

  18. The World Wide Web as a Medium of Instruction: What Works and What Doesn't

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarthy, Marianne; Grabowski, Barbara; Hernandez, Angel; Koszalka, Tiffany; Duke, Lee

    1997-01-01

    A conference was held on March 18-20, 1997 to investigate the lessons learned by the Aeronautics Cooperative Agreement Projects with regard to the most effective strategies for developing instruction for the World Wide Web. The conference was a collaboration among the NASA Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology Centers (Ames, Dryden, Langley, and Lewis), NASA Headquarters, the University of Idaho and The Pennsylvania State University. The conference consisted of presentations by the Aeronautics Cooperative Agreement Teams, the University of Idaho, and working sessions in which the participants addressed teacher training and support, technology, evaluation and pedagogy. The conference was also undertaken as part of the Dryden Learning Technologies Project which is a collaboration between the Dryden Education Office and The Pennsylvania State University. The DFRC Learning Technology Project goals relevant to the conference are as follows: conducting an analysis of current teacher needs, classroom infrastructure and exemplary instructional World Wide Web sites, and developing models for Web-enhanced learning environments that optimize teaching practices and student learning.

  19. Criteria used by nurses to evaluate practice-related information on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Cader, Raffik; Campbell, Steve; Watson, Don

    2003-01-01

    Existing criteria used to evaluate information on the World Wide Web often are not related to nursing, especially in relation to clinical and evidence-based practice. Published criteria have been found orientated to the health-consumer, medicine, or general information. In this study, the process by which nurses evaluate practice-related information and the associated evaluative nursing criteria were investigated using a grounded theory approach. In the first stage of this ongoing investigation, semistructured interviews were used to collect data from UK postregistration nursing students. The findings from this initial study provided indications of the process and the criteria for evaluating information on the World Wide Web. Participating students identified intuition as part of the evaluative process. They identified some criteria similar to existing standards, but critically, with additional criteria that are nursing practice related. Because these new criteria are significant for evaluating nursing information, further refinement of these findings is being undertaken through the next stage of the research program.

  20. World-wide association of timberline forest advance with microsite type along a precipitation gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, A. C.; Yeakley, A.

    2009-12-01

    Timberline forest advance associated with global climate change is occurring worldwide and is often associated with microsites. Microsites, controlled by topography, substrates, and plant cover, are localized regions dictating temperature, moisture, and solar radiation. These abiotic factors are integral to seedling survival. From a compilation of world-wide information on seedling regeneration on microsites at timberline, including our on-going research in the Pacific Northwest, we classified available literature into four microsite categories, related microsite category to annual precipitation, and used analysis of variance to detect statistical differences in microsite type and associated precipitation. We found statistical differences (p = 0.022) indicating the usefulness of understanding microsite/precipitation associations in detecting world-wide trends in timberline expansion. For example, wetter timberlines with downed wood, had regeneration associated with nurse logs, whereas on windy, drier landscapes, regeneration was typically associated with either leeward sides of tree clumps or on microsites protected from frost by overstory canopy. In our study of timberline expansion in the Pacific Northwest, we expect that such knowledge of microsite types associated with forest expansion will reveal a better understanding of mechanisms and rates of timberline forest advance during global warming.

  1. Violent ethnic wars and world-wide people movement: implications for mental health nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Procter, N G

    1998-09-01

    In recent years, the world has been subjected to violent ethnic wars for autonomy and secession. Violent conflicts over national and international territorial boundaries are marked by a murderous mistrust, hatred and a perpetual life-and-death struggle in the present. For the mental health nurse, the world-wide persistent global circumstance of international catastrophe and increasing nationalism mediated through war is inextricably linked to practice as well as the significant health and lifestyle concerns of displaced people. Central to the discussion in this paper will be the mechanisms used by the mental health nurse to maintain empathy and clinical excellence during highly sensitive practice issues; in particular, the management of feelings of frustration, anger, guilt, loneliness and sleeplessness, and repeated mental images of suffering and human butchering, because these issues intersect with national and cultural identity. In rising to the challenges these issues present, mental health nursing must co-exist with critical world events and the globalisation of national identity in cultural diversity.

  2. Wide area network access to CMS data using the LustreTM filesystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, J. L.; Avery, P.; Brody, T.; Bourilkov, D.; Fu, Y.; Kim, B.; Prescott, C.; Wu, Y.

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we explore the use of the LustreTM cluster filesystem over the wide area network to access Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) data stored on physical devices located hundreds of kilometres away. We describe the experimental testbed and report on the I/O performance of applications writing and reading data on the distributed LustreTM filesystem established across the WAN. We compare the I/O performance of a CMS application to the performance obtained with IOzone, a standard benchmark tool. We then examine the I/O performance of the CMS application running multiple processes on a single server. And compare the Lustre results to results obtained on data stored on local filesystems. Our measurements reveal that the IOzone benchmark tool, accessing data sequentially, can saturate the Gbps network link that connects our Lustre client in Miami Florida to the Lustre storage located in Gainesville, Florida. We also find that the I/O rates of the CMS application is significantly less than what can be obtained with IOzone for sequential access to data.

  3. Using the World Wide WEB to promote science education in nuclear energy and RWM

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, M.

    1996-12-31

    A priority of government and business in the United States and other first tier industrial countries continues to be the improvement of science, mathematics and technology (SMT) instruction in pre university level education. The U.S. federal government has made SMT instruction an educational priority and set goals for improving it in the belief that science, math and technology education are tied to our economic well being and standard of living. The new national standards in mathematics education, science education and the proposed standards in technology education are all aimed at improving knowledge and skills in the essential areas that the federal government considers important for protecting our technological advantage in the world economy. This paper will discuss a pilot project for establishing graphical Web capability in a limited number of rural Nevada schools (six) with support from the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the state of Nevada. The general goals of the pilot project are as follows: (1) to give rural teachers and students access to up to date science information on the Web; (2) to determine whether Web access can improve science teaching and student attitudes toward science in rural Nevada schools; and (3) to identify science content on the Web that supports the National Science Standards and Benchmarks. A specific objective that this paper will address is stated as the following question: What potential do nuclear energy information office web sites offer for changing student attitudes about nuclear energy and creating greater nuclear literacy.

  4. A chemical status predictor. A methodology based on World-Wide sediment samples.

    PubMed

    Gredilla, A; Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo, S; de Diego, A; Arana, G; Stoichev, T; Amigo, J M; Wasserman, J C; Botello, A V; Sarkar, S K; Schäfer, J; Moreno, C; de la Guardia, M; Madariaga, J M

    2015-09-15

    As a consequence of the limited resources of underdeveloped countries and the limited interest of the developed ones, the assessment of the chemical quality of entire water bodies around the world is a utopia in the near future. The methodology described here may serve as a first approach for the fast identification of water bodies that do not meet the good chemical status demanded by the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). It also allows estimating the natural background (or reference values of concentration) of the areas under study using a simple criterion. The starting point is the calculation the World-Wide Natural Background Levels (WWNBLs) and World-Wide Threshold Values (WWTVs), two indexes that depend on the concentration of seven elements present in sediments. These elements, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, have been selected taking into account the recommendations of the UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) and USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency), that describe them as elements of concern with respect to environmental toxicity. The methodology has been exemplified in a case study that includes 134 sediment samples collected in 11 transitional water bodies from 7 different countries and 4 different continents. Six of the water bodies considered met the good chemical status demanded by the WFD. The rest of them exceeded the reference WWTVs, at least for one of the elements. The estuaries of the Nerbioi-Ibaizabal (Basque Country) and Cavado (Portugal), the sea inlet of Río San Pedro (Spain), the Sepetiba Bay (Brazil) and the Yucateco lagoon (Mexico) belong to that group.

  5. A chemical status predictor. A methodology based on World-Wide sediment samples.

    PubMed

    Gredilla, A; Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo, S; de Diego, A; Arana, G; Stoichev, T; Amigo, J M; Wasserman, J C; Botello, A V; Sarkar, S K; Schäfer, J; Moreno, C; de la Guardia, M; Madariaga, J M

    2015-09-15

    As a consequence of the limited resources of underdeveloped countries and the limited interest of the developed ones, the assessment of the chemical quality of entire water bodies around the world is a utopia in the near future. The methodology described here may serve as a first approach for the fast identification of water bodies that do not meet the good chemical status demanded by the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). It also allows estimating the natural background (or reference values of concentration) of the areas under study using a simple criterion. The starting point is the calculation the World-Wide Natural Background Levels (WWNBLs) and World-Wide Threshold Values (WWTVs), two indexes that depend on the concentration of seven elements present in sediments. These elements, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, have been selected taking into account the recommendations of the UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) and USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency), that describe them as elements of concern with respect to environmental toxicity. The methodology has been exemplified in a case study that includes 134 sediment samples collected in 11 transitional water bodies from 7 different countries and 4 different continents. Six of the water bodies considered met the good chemical status demanded by the WFD. The rest of them exceeded the reference WWTVs, at least for one of the elements. The estuaries of the Nerbioi-Ibaizabal (Basque Country) and Cavado (Portugal), the sea inlet of Río San Pedro (Spain), the Sepetiba Bay (Brazil) and the Yucateco lagoon (Mexico) belong to that group. PMID:26143082

  6. WorldWide Telescope: A Newly Open Source Astronomy Visualization System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, Jonathan; Roberts, Douglas A.

    2016-01-01

    After eight years of development by Microsoft Research, WorldWide Telescope (WWT) was made an open source project at the end of June 2015. WWT was motivated by the desire to put new surveys of objects, such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in the context of the night sky. The development of WWT under Microsoft started with the creation of a Windows desktop client that is widely used in various education, outreach and research projects. Using this, users can explore the data built into WWT as well as data that is loaded in. Beyond exploration, WWT can be used to create tours that present various datasets a narrative format.In the past two years, the team developed a collection of web controls, including an HTML5 web client, which contains much of the functionality of the Windows desktop client. The project under Microsoft has deep connections with several user communities such as education through the WWT Ambassadors program, http://wwtambassadors.org/ and with planetariums and museums such as the Adler Planetarium. WWT can also support research, including using WWT to visualize the Bones of the Milky Way and rich connections between WWT and the Astrophysical Data Systems (ADS, http://labs.adsabs.harvard.edu/adsabs/). One important new research connection is the use of WWT to create dynamic and potentially interactive supplements to journal articles, which have been created in 2015.Now WWT is an open source community lead project. The source code is available in GitHub (https://github.com/WorldWideTelescope). There is significant developer documentation on the website (http://worldwidetelescope.org/Developers/) and an extensive developer workshops (http://wwtworkshops.org/?tribe_events=wwt-developer-workshop) has taken place in the fall of 2015.Now that WWT is open source anyone who has the interest in the project can be a contributor. As important as helping out with coding, the project needs people interested in documentation, testing, training and other roles.

  7. Genome wide expression profiling of two accession of G. herbaceum L. in response to drought

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Genome-wide gene expression profiling and detailed physiological investigation were used for understanding the molecular mechanism and physiological response of Gossypium herbaceum, which governs the adaptability of plants in drought conditions. Recently, microarray-based gene expression analysis is commonly used to decipher genes and genetic networks controlling the traits of interest. However, the results of such an analysis are often plagued due to a limited number of genes (probe sets) on microarrays. On the other hand, pyrosequencing of a transcriptome has the potential to detect rare as well as a large number of transcripts in the samples quantitatively. We used Affymetrix microarray as well as Roche's GS-FLX transcriptome sequencing for a comparative analysis of cotton transcriptome in leaf tissues under drought conditions. Results Fourteen accessions of Gossypium herbaceum were subjected to mannitol stress for preliminary screening; two accessions, namely Vagad and RAHS-14, were selected as being the most tolerant and most sensitive to osmotic stress, respectively. Affymetrix cotton arrays containing 24,045 probe sets and Roche's GS-FLX transcriptome sequencing of leaf tissue were used to analyze the gene expression profiling of Vagad and RAHS-14 under drought conditions. The analysis of physiological measurements and gene expression profiling showed that Vagad has the inherent ability to sense drought at a much earlier stage and to respond to it in a much more efficient manner than does RAHS-14. Gene Ontology (GO) studies showed that the phenyl propanoid pathway, pigment biosynthesis, polyketide biosynthesis, and other secondary metabolite pathways were enriched in Vagad under control and drought conditions as compared with RAHS-14. Similarly, GO analysis of transcriptome sequencing showed that the GO terms responses to various abiotic stresses were significantly higher in Vagad. Among the classes of transcription factors (TFs) uniquely

  8. World Wide Web interface to digital imaging and communication in medicine-capable image servers.

    PubMed

    Browning, G C; Liang, Y; Buckwalter, K A; Kruger, R A; Aisen, A

    1996-11-01

    As a trial project, the Indiana University Department of Radiology has develop[ed a low-cost manner of distributing radiological images throughout a medical environment using the World Wide Web (WWW). The interface requires the user to have a WWW-browser client, such as Netscape, running on UNIX, PC, or Macintosh platforms. A forms-based interface allows the user to query several DICOM-capable machines at the machine, patient, study, series, and image levels. Once an image transfer is initiated, images are prewindowed from 16- to 8-bits, compressed using public domain Joint Photographic Expert Group (JPEG) compression routines, transferred to the WWW client program, and decompressed and displayed using a locally selected image viewing program. At the currently implemented level of compression (75% quality), the entire fetch-transform-JPEG-display process takes 2 to 5 seconds over Ethernet, depending on the platform used.

  9. Machine vision and the World Wide Web: design and training aids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelan, Paul F.; Batchelor, Bruce G.; Lewis, Melanie R. F.; Hack, Ralf

    1997-09-01

    The World Wide Web (WWW) offers the chance to generate a comprehensive collection of reference material, expert systems, programs, databases, image archives, image analysis and other tools for assisting practicing vision systems design engineers. The WWW is also an ideal medium for disseminating material for training students, educating would-be customers and new users of machine vision systems technology. The paper explores the potential for WWW-based material, and highlights some of the resources that are available today. A major purpose of this article, however, is to appeal for help in developing a comprehensive set of design and reference material that will allow highly reliable and accurate visual inspection, monitoring and control systems to be designed in future, with a minimum of effort.

  10. Research on the Internet: validation of a World-Wide Web mediated personality scale.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, T; Smith, J L

    1999-11-01

    Two studies were performed to assess the validity of a World-Wide Web (WWW) measure of self-monitoring. In Study 1, Usenet Newsgroups likely to be read by high and low self-monitors were identified and a comparison was made of the extent to which contributors engaged in a form of self-presentation (use of handles or screen names) likely to be influenced by self-monitoring tendencies. Handles were used significantly more frequently in the high self-monitoring Newsgroups, supporting the distinction made. In Study 2, participants recruited through these sets of Newsgroups completed the WWW-mediated test. Those from the high self-monitoring groups scored significantly higher. Self-reports of self-monitoring behavior also reflected scores on the scale. The results are interpreted as demonstrating the construct validity of the instrument used and the viability of criterion-group-oriented methods in Internet-mediated research. PMID:10633975

  11. Health information seeking and the World Wide Web: an uncertainty management perspective.

    PubMed

    Rains, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    Uncertainty management theory was applied in the present study to offer one theoretical explanation for how individuals use the World Wide Web to acquire health information and to help better understand the implications of the Web for information seeking. The diversity of information sources available on the Web and potential to exert some control over the depth and breadth of one's information-acquisition effort is argued to facilitate uncertainty management. A total of 538 respondents completed a questionnaire about their uncertainty related to cancer prevention and information-seeking behavior. Consistent with study predictions, use of the Web for information seeking interacted with respondents' desired level of uncertainty to predict their actual level of uncertainty about cancer prevention. The results offer evidence that respondents who used the Web to search for cancer information were better able than were respondents who did not seek information to achieve a level of uncertainty commensurate with the level of uncertainty they desired.

  12. Internet and World Wide Web-based tools for neuropathology practice and education.

    PubMed

    Fung, Kar-Ming; Tihan, Tarik

    2009-04-01

    The Internet and the World Wide Web (www) serve as a source of information and a communication network. Together they form a so-called web or network that allows for transmission and dissemination of information in unprecedented speed, volume and detail. This article presents an overview of the current status of neuropathology content on the www. As well as considering the Internet as a resource for neuropathology practice, education and research, we also address the issue of quality assurance when evaluating Internet and www content. Four major categories of websites (archival, broker, news and blog) are discussed and resources relevant to neuropathology of each type are highlighted. We believe that our report and similar attempts can provide an opportunity to discuss appropriate and effective use of the Internet by the neuropathology community.

  13. Real-Time Payload Control and Monitoring on the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Charles; Windrem, May; Givens, John J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    World Wide Web (W3) technologies such as the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and the Java object-oriented programming environment offer a powerful, yet relatively inexpensive, framework for distributed application software development. This paper describes the design of a real-time payload control and monitoring system that was developed with W3 technologies at NASA Ames Research Center. Based on Java Development Toolkit (JDK) 1.1, the system uses an event-driven "publish and subscribe" approach to inter-process communication and graphical user-interface construction. A C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) compatible inference engine provides the back-end intelligent data processing capability, while Oracle Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) provides the data management function. Preliminary evaluation shows acceptable performance for some classes of payloads, with Java's portability and multimedia support identified as the most significant benefit.

  14. A World Wide Web (WWW) server database engine for an organelle database, MitoDat.

    PubMed

    Lemkin, P F; Chipperfield, M; Merril, C; Zullo, S

    1996-03-01

    We describe a simple database search engine "dbEngine" which may be used to quickly create a searchable database on a World Wide Web (WWW) server. Data may be prepared from spreadsheet programs (such as Excel, etc.) or from tables exported from relationship database systems. This Common Gateway Interface (CGI-BIN) program is used with a WWW server such as available commercially, or from National Center for Supercomputer Algorithms (NCSA) or CERN. Its capabilities include: (i) searching records by combinations of terms connected with ANDs or ORs; (ii) returning search results as hypertext links to other WWW database servers; (iii) mapping lists of literature reference identifiers to the full references; (iv) creating bidirectional hypertext links between pictures and the database. DbEngine has been used to support the MitoDat database (Mendelian and non-Mendelian inheritance associated with the Mitochondrion) on the WWW.

  15. Software Project Management and Measurement on the World-Wide-Web (WWW)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John; Ramakrishnan, Sudhaka

    1996-01-01

    We briefly describe a system for forms-based, work-flow management that helps members of a software development team overcome geographical barriers to collaboration. Our system, called the Web Integrated Software Environment (WISE), is implemented as a World-Wide-Web service that allows for management and measurement of software development projects based on dynamic analysis of change activity in the workflow. WISE tracks issues in a software development process, provides informal communication between the users with different roles, supports to-do lists, and helps in software process improvement. WISE minimizes the time devoted to metrics collection and analysis by providing implicit delivery of messages between users based on the content of project documents. The use of a database in WISE is hidden from the users who view WISE as maintaining a personal 'to-do list' of tasks related to the many projects on which they may play different roles.

  16. Information consumerism on the World Wide Web: implications for dermatologists and patients.

    PubMed

    Travers, Robin L

    2002-09-01

    The World Wide Web (WWW) is continuing to grow exponentially both in terms of numbers of users and numbers of web pages. There is a trend toward the increasing use of the WWW for medical educational purposes, both among physicians and patients alike. The multimedia capabilities of this evolving medium are particularly relevant to visual medical specialties such as dermatology. The origins of information consumerism on the WWW are examined, and the public health issues surrounding dermatologic information and misinformation, and how consumers navigate through the WWW are reviewed. The economic realities of medical information as a "capital good," and the impact this has on dermatologic information sources on the WWW are also discussed.Finally, strategies for guiding consumers and ourselves toward credible medical information sources on the WWW are outlined.

  17. A development environment for knowledge-based medical applications on the World-Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Riva, A; Bellazzi, R; Lanzola, G; Stefanelli, M

    1998-11-01

    The World-Wide Web (WWW) is increasingly being used as a platform to develop distributed applications, particularly in contexts, such as medical ones, where high usability and availability are required. In this paper we propose a methodology for the development of knowledge-based medical applications on the web, based on the use of an explicit domain ontology to automatically generate parts of the system. We describe a development environment, centred on the LISPWEB Common Lisp HTTP server, that supports this methodology, and we show how it facilitates the creation of complex web-based applications, by overcoming the limitations that normally affect the adequacy of the web for this purpose. Finally, we present an outline of a system for the management of diabetic patients built using the LISPWEB environment. PMID:9821518

  18. Starry Nights: Five Years of The Great World Wide Star Count

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D.; Johnson, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Great World Wide Star Count is an international citizen science event encouraging everyone, astronomers and non-astronomers alike, to measure their local light pollution and report their observations online. This project is designed to raise awareness about light pollution as well as encourage learning in astronomy. Utilizing the international networking capabilities of Windows to the Universe, Star Count has engaged over 40,000 individuals from 64 countries and all 7 continents in its first five years. Data collection and online reporting is simple and user-friendly for citizen scientists of all ages. The collected data is available online in a variety of formats for use by students, teachers and scientists worldwide to assess how the quality of the night sky varies around the world. This session will share our results and demonstrate how students and scientists worldwide can explore and analyze the results from the first five years of the project. We will discuss how our team planned and executed the project in such a way that non-astronomers were able to make valid and useful contributions.

  19. Open access resources for genome-wide association mapping in rice.

    PubMed

    McCouch, Susan R; Wright, Mark H; Tung, Chih-Wei; Maron, Lyza G; McNally, Kenneth L; Fitzgerald, Melissa; Singh, Namrata; DeClerck, Genevieve; Agosto-Perez, Francisco; Korniliev, Pavel; Greenberg, Anthony J; Naredo, Ma Elizabeth B; Mercado, Sheila Mae Q; Harrington, Sandra E; Shi, Yuxin; Branchini, Darcy A; Kuser-Falcão, Paula R; Leung, Hei; Ebana, Kowaru; Yano, Masahiro; Eizenga, Georgia; McClung, Anna; Mezey, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Increasing food production is essential to meet the demands of a growing human population, with its rising income levels and nutritional expectations. To address the demand, plant breeders seek new sources of genetic variation to enhance the productivity, sustainability and resilience of crop varieties. Here we launch a high-resolution, open-access research platform to facilitate genome-wide association mapping in rice, a staple food crop. The platform provides an immortal collection of diverse germplasm, a high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism data set tailored for gene discovery, well-documented analytical strategies, and a suite of bioinformatics resources to facilitate biological interpretation. Using grain length, we demonstrate the power and resolution of our new high-density rice array, the accompanying genotypic data set, and an expanded diversity panel for detecting major and minor effect QTLs and subpopulation-specific alleles, with immediate implications for rice improvement. PMID:26842267

  20. Open access resources for genome-wide association mapping in rice

    PubMed Central

    McCouch, Susan R.; Wright, Mark H.; Tung, Chih-Wei; Maron, Lyza G.; McNally, Kenneth L.; Fitzgerald, Melissa; Singh, Namrata; DeClerck, Genevieve; Agosto-Perez, Francisco; Korniliev, Pavel; Greenberg, Anthony J.; Naredo, Ma. Elizabeth B.; Mercado, Sheila Mae Q.; Harrington, Sandra E.; Shi, Yuxin; Branchini, Darcy A.; Kuser-Falcão, Paula R.; Leung, Hei; Ebana, Kowaru; Yano, Masahiro; Eizenga, Georgia; McClung, Anna; Mezey, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Increasing food production is essential to meet the demands of a growing human population, with its rising income levels and nutritional expectations. To address the demand, plant breeders seek new sources of genetic variation to enhance the productivity, sustainability and resilience of crop varieties. Here we launch a high-resolution, open-access research platform to facilitate genome-wide association mapping in rice, a staple food crop. The platform provides an immortal collection of diverse germplasm, a high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism data set tailored for gene discovery, well-documented analytical strategies, and a suite of bioinformatics resources to facilitate biological interpretation. Using grain length, we demonstrate the power and resolution of our new high-density rice array, the accompanying genotypic data set, and an expanded diversity panel for detecting major and minor effect QTLs and subpopulation-specific alleles, with immediate implications for rice improvement. PMID:26842267

  1. Open access resources for genome-wide association mapping in rice.

    PubMed

    McCouch, Susan R; Wright, Mark H; Tung, Chih-Wei; Maron, Lyza G; McNally, Kenneth L; Fitzgerald, Melissa; Singh, Namrata; DeClerck, Genevieve; Agosto-Perez, Francisco; Korniliev, Pavel; Greenberg, Anthony J; Naredo, Ma Elizabeth B; Mercado, Sheila Mae Q; Harrington, Sandra E; Shi, Yuxin; Branchini, Darcy A; Kuser-Falcão, Paula R; Leung, Hei; Ebana, Kowaru; Yano, Masahiro; Eizenga, Georgia; McClung, Anna; Mezey, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Increasing food production is essential to meet the demands of a growing human population, with its rising income levels and nutritional expectations. To address the demand, plant breeders seek new sources of genetic variation to enhance the productivity, sustainability and resilience of crop varieties. Here we launch a high-resolution, open-access research platform to facilitate genome-wide association mapping in rice, a staple food crop. The platform provides an immortal collection of diverse germplasm, a high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism data set tailored for gene discovery, well-documented analytical strategies, and a suite of bioinformatics resources to facilitate biological interpretation. Using grain length, we demonstrate the power and resolution of our new high-density rice array, the accompanying genotypic data set, and an expanded diversity panel for detecting major and minor effect QTLs and subpopulation-specific alleles, with immediate implications for rice improvement.

  2. Seven Years of World-Wide Participation in International Observe the Moon Night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Jones, Andrea J.; Bleacher, Lora; Wenger, Matthew; Shaner, Andrew; Joseph, Emily C. S.; Day, Brian; Canipe, Marti; InOMN Coordinating Committee

    2016-10-01

    International Observe the Moon Night (InOMN) is an annual worldwide public event that encourages observation, appreciation, and understanding of our Moon and its connection to NASA planetary science and exploration. Everyone on Earth is invited to join the celebration by hosting or attending an InOMN event - and uniting on one day each year to look at and learn about the Moon together. This year marks the seventh year of InOMN, which will be held on October 8, 2016. Between 2010 and 2015, a total of 3,275 events were registered worldwide, 49% of which were held in the United States. In 2015, a total of 545 events were registered on the InOMN website from around the world. These events were scheduled to be held in 54 different countries, 43% of which were registered in the United States from 40 states and the District of Columbia. InOMN events are hosted by a variety of institutions including astronomy clubs, observatories, schools, and universities and hosted at a variety of public and private institutions all over the world including museums, planetaria, schools, universities, observatories, parks, and private businesses and private homes. Evaluation of InOMN is led by the Planetary Science Institute who assesses the success of InOMN through analysis of event registrations, facilitator surveys, and visitor survey. Current InOMN efforts demonstrate success in meeting the overall goals of the LRO E/PO goals including raising visitors' awareness of lunar science and exploration, providing audiences with information about lunar science and exploration along with access to LRO data and science results, and inspiring visitors to want to learn more about the Moon and providing connections to opportunities to do so. InOMN is sponsored by NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI), and the Lunar and Planetary Institute. Learn more at http://observethemoonnight.org/.

  3. Use of the World Wide Web in Lower-Division Chemistry Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Karen E.; Stevens, Richard E.

    1996-10-01

    Recent articles have identified the plethora of chemical information existing currently on the World-Wide Web (WWW) available via the Internet (1). This information medium is particularly valuable because it represents a very up-to-date source of information. Site managers can update information and it can be "instantaneously visited" by someone. As an example, several current topics of chemical significance were highlighted in a nonmajor chemistry class held in January 1996 at our college. December 31, 1995, represented the last day that leaded gasoline could be sold for use in automobiles. In early January, the FDA approved the synthetic fat olestra for use in snack foods. Both of these topics provoked great interest in students as they brought up issues of relevance and interest to their lives that were currently being discussed in the news. The WWW was utilized extensively as a source of information and current updates. Print media, such as texts and reference manuals, have a much longer "lag-time" before current information can be typeset, printed, and accessed by a researcher. Previous articles (1, 2) have focused on Internet use for upper-division classes, but we have found a useful way to bring the Internet into nonmajor and freshman level classes composed of 20-50 students. The student assignment was to find information on a chemical topic currently in the news by using the WWW and use that information to write a 2-3 page essay (3, 4). Using the Internet to find information presents one issue not previously encountered when using encyclopedias, reference books, or textbooks, but an issue raised in previous editorials in this Journal (5, 6). That difference is that virtually anyone can post information on the WWW. Thus, the WWW can have governmental organizations, environmental groups, large corporations, or just individuals posting their views. Hence, when searching a particular topic, students might find a very factual article, or they might find a very

  4. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) pairs associated with World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanbro, Matthew; Briggs, Michael

    2016-04-01

    We present Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flash (TGF) pairs detected with the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on the Fermi Space Telescope and associated sferics from the World Wide Lightning Network (WWLLN). Several improvements have been made to the GBM TGF detection algorithms since launch in 2008, which have increased the rate of TGFs to ~800 a year. The improved TGF detection algorithms have also uncovered more TGFs within 200 s of each other. There are ~600 unique TGFs with a wide range of time separations. One question is whether a pair originates from the same thunderstorm or from different storms in a storm system. Detecting multiple TGFs from a single storm and their separation in time provides a measure of the electric charging timescales involved in the production of TGFs within a storm. With only gamma-ray detections, this question is difficult to answer since GBM detects TGFs up to 800 km from the nadir of Fermi. If WWLLN sferics are found for both TGFs of a pair, the improved localization uncertainty (<25km) allows us to better answer this question. We present TGF pairs that match this criteria. These pairs are temporally separated by milliseconds to ~180 s.

  5. The Culture-Transmission Motive in Immigrants: A World-Wide Internet Survey

    PubMed Central

    Mchitarjan, Irina; Reisenzein, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    A world-wide internet survey was conducted to test central assumptions of a recent theory of cultural transmission in minorities proposed by the authors. 844 1st to 2nd generation immigrants from a wide variety of countries recruited on a microjob platform completed a questionnaire designed to test eight hypotheses derived from the theory. Support was obtained for all hypotheses. In particular, evidence was obtained for the continued presence, in the immigrants, of the culture-transmission motive postulated by the theory: the desire to maintain the culture of origin and transmit it to the next generation. Support was also obtained for the hypothesized anchoring of the culture-transmission motive in more basic motives fulfilled by cultural groups, the relative intra- and intergenerational stability of the culture-transmission motive, and its motivating effects for action tendencies and desires that support cultural transmission under the difficult conditions of migration. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the assumption that people have a culture-transmission motive belongs to the folk psychology of sociocultural groups, and that immigrants regard the fulfillment of this desire as a moral right. PMID:26529599

  6. The Culture-Transmission Motive in Immigrants: A World-Wide Internet Survey.

    PubMed

    Mchitarjan, Irina; Reisenzein, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    A world-wide internet survey was conducted to test central assumptions of a recent theory of cultural transmission in minorities proposed by the authors. 844 1st to 2nd generation immigrants from a wide variety of countries recruited on a microjob platform completed a questionnaire designed to test eight hypotheses derived from the theory. Support was obtained for all hypotheses. In particular, evidence was obtained for the continued presence, in the immigrants, of the culture-transmission motive postulated by the theory: the desire to maintain the culture of origin and transmit it to the next generation. Support was also obtained for the hypothesized anchoring of the culture-transmission motive in more basic motives fulfilled by cultural groups, the relative intra- and intergenerational stability of the culture-transmission motive, and its motivating effects for action tendencies and desires that support cultural transmission under the difficult conditions of migration. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the assumption that people have a culture-transmission motive belongs to the folk psychology of sociocultural groups, and that immigrants regard the fulfillment of this desire as a moral right.

  7. Venomics of New World pit vipers: Genus-wide comparisons of venom proteomes across Agkistrodon

    PubMed Central

    Lomonte, Bruno; Tsai, Wan-Chih; Ureña-Diaz, Juan Manuel; Sanz, Libia; Mora-Obando, Diana; Sánchez, Elda E.; Fry, Bryan G.; Gutiérrez, José María; Gibbs, H. Lisle; Sovic, Michael G.; Calvete, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    We report a genus-wide comparison of venom proteome variation across New World pit vipers in the genus Agkistrodon. Despite the wide variety of habitats occupied by this genus and that all its taxa feed on diverse species of vertebrates and invertebrate prey, the venom proteomes of copperheads, cottonmouths, and cantils are remarkably similar, both in the type and relative abundance of their different toxin families. The venoms from all the eleven species and subspecies sampled showed relatively similar proteolytic and PLA2 activities. In contrast, quantitative differences were observed in hemorrhagic and myotoxic activities in mice. The highest myotoxic activity was observed with the venoms of A. b. bilineatus, followed by A. p. piscivorus, whereas the venoms of A. c. contortrix and A. p. leucostoma induced the lowest myotoxic activity. The venoms of Agkistrodon bilineatus subspecies showed the highest hemorrhagic activity and A. c. contortrix the lowest. Compositional and toxicological analyses agree with clinical observations of envenomations by Agkistrodon in the USA and Central America. A comparative analysis of Agkistrodon shows that venom divergence tracks phylogeny of this genus to a greater extent than in Sistrurus rattlesnakes, suggesting that the distinct natural histories of Agkistrodon and Sistrurus clades may have played a key role in molding the patterns of evolution of their venom protein genes. Biological significance A deep understanding of the structural and functional profiles of venoms and of the principles governing the evolution of venomous systems is a goal of venomics. Isolated proteomics analyses have been conducted on venoms from many species of vipers and pit vipers. However, making sense of these large inventories of data requires the integration of this information across multiple species to identify evolutionary and ecological trends. Our genus-wide venomics study provides a comprehensive overview of the toxic arsenal across

  8. An interactive gamma-ray burst educational text for the world wide-web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horack, John M.; Rizvi, Sherene; Friend, Labraunna

    1996-08-01

    In order to strengthen education and scientific literacy among the general public, it is important to communicate the results NASA has obtained, as well as the excitement of doing world-class science. The NASA Strategic Plan specifically mandates that new opportunities and pathways be found to disseminate scientific information for consumption by the general public. We therefore announce the release of A Major League Puzzle, an interactive educational text for the WWW. A Major League Puzzle is a seven-chapter introduction to the gamma-ray burst phenomenon presented to the user through the paradigms of baseball. This resource is intended for the general public who are interested in but have not received specific training in the sciences, and is targeted to reach students at the high-school level. Using a Web-browser program such as Netscape or Mosaic, A Major League Puzzle can be accessed at ``http://wwwssl.msfc.nasa.gov/ssl/pad/astro/batse/foreword.htm.'' This work is one product of the Summer High School Apprenticeship Research Program (SHARP) conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center in the Summer of 1995.

  9. Use of World Wide Web server and browser software to support a first-year medical physiology course.

    PubMed

    Davis, M J; Wythe, J; Rozum, J S; Gore, R W

    1997-06-01

    We describe the use of a World Wide Web (Web) server to support a team-taught physiology course for first-year medical students. Our objectives were to reduce the number of formal lecture hours and enhance student enthusiasm by using more multimedia materials and creating opportunities for interactive learning. On-line course materials, consisting of administrative documents, lecture notes, animations, digital movies, practice tests, and grade reports, were placed on a departmental computer with an Internet connection. Students used Web browsers to access on-line materials from a variety of computing platforms on campus, at home, and at remote sites. To assess use of the materials and their effectiveness, we analyzed 1) log files from the server, and 2) the results of a written course evaluation completed by all students. Lecture notes and practice tests were the most-used documents. The students' evaluations indicated that computer use in class made the lecture material more interesting, while the on-line documents helped reinforce lecture materials and the textbook. We conclude that the effectiveness of on-line materials depends on several different factors, including 1) the number of instructors that provide materials; 2) the quantity of other materials handed out; 3) the degree to which computer use is demonstrated in class and integrated into lectures; and 4) the ease with which students can access the materials. Finally, we propose that additional implementation of Internet-based resources beyond what we have described would further enhance a physiology course for first-year medical students.

  10. 28 CFR 16.41 - Requests for access to records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the Government Printing Office's World Wide Web site (which can be found at http://www.access.gpo.gov... accessed electronically at the Government Printing Office's World Wide Web site (which can be found at...

  11. Identifying the causes of water crises: A configurational frequency analysis of 22 basins world wide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, V.; Gorelick, S.; Lambin, E.; Rozelle, S.; Thompson, B.

    2010-12-01

    Freshwater "scarcity" has been identified as being a major problem world-wide, but it is surprisingly hard to assess if water is truly scarce at a global or even regional scale. Most empirical water research remains location specific. Characterizing water problems, transferring lessons across regions, to develop a synthesized global view of water issues remains a challenge. In this study we attempt a systematic understanding of water problems across regions. We compared case studies of basins across different regions of the world using configurational frequency analysis. Because water crises are multi-symptom and multi-causal, a major challenge was to categorize water problems so as to make comparisons across cases meaningful. In this study, we focused strictly on water unsustainability, viz. the inability to sustain current levels of the anthropogenic (drinking water, food, power, livelihood) and natural (aquatic species, wetlands) into the future. For each case, the causes of three outcome variables, groundwater declines, surface water declines and aquatic ecosystem declines, were classified and coded. We conducted a meta-analysis in which clusters of peer-reviewed papers by interdisciplinary teams were considered to ensure that the results were not biased towards factors privileged by any one discipline. Based on our final sample of 22 case study river basins, some clear patterns emerged. The meta-analysis suggests that water resources managers have long overemphasized the factors governing supply of water resources and while insufficient attention has been paid to the factors driving demand. Overall, uncontrolled increase in demand was twice as frequent as declines in availability due to climate change or decreased recharge. Moreover, groundwater and surface water declines showed distinct causal pathways. Uncontrolled increases in demand due to lack of credible enforcement were a key factor driving groundwater declines; while increased upstream abstractions

  12. Visualizing Moon Phases in the Classroom with WorldWide Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udomprasert, Patricia S.; Goodman, A. A.; Sunbury, S.; Zhang, Z.; Sadler, P. M.; Dussault, M. E.; Lotridge, E.; Jackson, J.; Constantin, A.

    2014-01-01

    We report results from an NSF-funded project to build, test, and research the impact of a WorldWide Telescope Visualization Lab (WWT Vizlab), meant to offer learners a deeper physical understanding of the causes of the Moon’s phases and eclipses. The Moon Phases VizLab is designed to promote accurate visualization of the complex, 3-dimensional Earth-Sun-Moon relationships required to understand the Moon’s phases, while also providing opportunities for middle school students to practice critical science skills, like using models, making predictions and observations, and linking them in evidence-based explanations. In the Moon Phases VizLab, students use both computer-based models and lamp + ball physical models. The VizLab emphasizes the use of different scales in models, why some models are to scale and some are not, and how choices we make in a model can sometimes inadvertently lead to misconceptions. For example, textbook images almost always depict the Earth and Moon as being vastly too close together, and this contributes to the common misconception that the Moon’s phases are caused by the Earth’s shadow. We tested the Moon Phases VizLab in two separate phases. In Phase 1 (fall 2012), we compared learning gains from the WorldWide Telescope (WWT) VizLab with a traditional 2-dimensional Moon phases simulator. Students in this study who used WWT had overall higher learning gains than students who used the traditional 2D simulator, and demonstrated greater enthusiasm for using the virtual model than students who used the 2D simulator. In Phase 2 (spring 2013), all students in the study used WWT for the virtual model, but we experimented with different sequencing of physical and virtual models in the classroom. We found that students who began the unit with higher prior knowledge of Moon phases (based on the pre-unit assessment) had overall higher learning gains when they used the virtual model first, followed by the physical model, while students who had

  13. World-Wide and Regional Examination of Substrates Facilitating Timberline Expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, A. C.; Yeakley, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    Upward advance of timberlines, associated with climate warming, is occurring in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) as well as many other mountainous regions of the world. Examination of seedling establishment and survival of sensitive seedlings, rather than examination of older resilient trees, may give a clearer understanding of current climatic factors affecting potential expansion of timberline. Our investigation of seedling establishment along timberline edges in the PNW indicates that trees often germinate on small landforms known as microsites. Microsites include small convexities or concavities on the soil surface having a scale of centimeters to meters, but also include associations with slope, aspect, rocks or plants, or substrates dominated by mineral soil or wood. Growing on favorable microsites helps seedlings cope with some of the stresses that exist at high elevation sites including wind, cold temperatures, high radiation, drought, animal predation, and infestation by fungal pathogens found in snow and soil. Microsites, by providing warmer substrates, adequate moisture, and shelter, allow plants to function more affectively in mountain environments. Our summary of microsite type and associated timberline advance in a world-wide context indicates that factors such as snow accumulation, summer rainfall, and availability of microsites, will control timberline advance. In windswept timberline locations, rocks and plants provide shelter from wind and reduce the likelihood of night frost. In arid climates, concave microsites aid in snow deposition providing needed moisture to seedlings during periods of drought. In contrast, convex microsites and wood substrates, typical sites of regeneration in the PNW where precipitation typically exceeds 150 cm per year, facilitate early snow melt, thereby increasing growing season. Large trees at the edge of timberline fall into alpine meadows, decay, and provide sites for seedling establishment. These sites commonly called

  14. [Server World-Wide Web on the Internet for the provision of clinical cases and digital radiologic images for training and continuing education in radiology].

    PubMed

    Sparacia, G; Tartamella, M; Finazzo, M; Bartolotta, T; Brancatelli, G; Banco, A; Lo Casto, A; La Tona, G; Bentivegna, E

    1997-06-01

    The Internet, as a global computer network, provides opportunities to make available multimedia educational materials, such as teaching files and image databases, that can be accessed using "World-Wide Web" client browser to provide continuing medical education. Since August, 1995, at the Institute of Radiology-University of Palermo, we developed a World-Wide Web server on the Internet to provide a collection of interactive radiology educational resources such as teaching files and image database for continuing medical education in radiology. Our server is based on a UNIX workstation connected to the Internet via our campus Ethernet network and reachable at the uniform resource locator (URL) address: http:/(/)mbox.unipa.it/approximately radpa/ radpa.html. Digital CT and MR images for teaching files and image database are downloaded through an Ethernet local area network from a GE Advantage Windows workstation. US images will be acquired on-line through a video digitizing board. Radiographs will be digitized by means of a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) scanner. To set up teaching files, image database and all other documents, we use the standard "HyperText Markup Language" (HTML) to edit the documents, and the Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) or Joint Photographic Expert Group (JPEG) format to store the images. Nine teaching files are presently available on the server, together with 49 images in the database, a list of international radiological servers, a section devoted to the museum of radiology hosted by our Institute, the electronic version of the Journal Eido Electa. In the first 12 months of public access through the Internet, 12,280 users accessed the server worldwide: 45% of them to retrieve teaching files; 35% to retrieve images from the database; the remaining 20% to retrieve other documents. Placing teaching files and image database on a World-Wide Web server makes these cases more available to residents and radiologists to provide continuing medical

  15. Eye movements reveal rapid concurrent access to factual and counterfactual interpretations of the world.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Heather J

    2012-01-01

    Imagining a counterfactual world using conditionals (e.g., If Joanne had remembered her umbrella . . .) is common in everyday language. However, such utterances are likely to involve fairly complex reasoning processes to represent both the explicit hypothetical conjecture and its implied factual meaning. Online research into these mechanisms has so far been limited. The present paper describes two eye movement studies that investigated the time-course with which comprehenders can set up and access factual inferences based on a realistic counterfactual context. Adult participants were eye-tracked while they read short narratives, in which a context sentence set up a counterfactual world (If . . . then . . .), and a subsequent critical sentence described an event that was either consistent or inconsistent with the implied factual world. A factual consistent condition (Because . . . then . . .) was included as a baseline of normal contextual integration. Results showed that within a counterfactual scenario, readers quickly inferred the implied factual meaning of the discourse. However, initial processing of the critical word led to clear, but distinct, anomaly detection responses for both contextually inconsistent and consistent conditions. These results provide evidence that readers can rapidly make a factual inference from a preceding counterfactual context, despite maintaining access to both counterfactual and factual interpretations of events. PMID:22313036

  16. World-Wide Structure of the Equatorial (Appleton) Anomaly: IRI-2001 v

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumin, S. Iss-B. Data Y.

    (where superscripts + and - refer to the anomaly crest and trough, respectively, and subscripts N and S designate the north and south) and to present the world-wide struc- ture of the anomaly by isolines of P in the longitude-time coordinates. By using such approach in our previous work [Yu.V. Dumin, Adv. Space Res., 2002, in press], it was established that patterns of the equatorial anomaly derived from various kinds of satellite measurements (for example, top-side sounding by ISS-b and in situ prob- ing by Ariel-3), in general, coincide with each other very well. The main aim of the present report is using the same procedure to compare the global structure of the equa- torial anomaly given by the recent IRI-2001 model with the above-mentioned data by ISS-b satellite. As is known, a long-standing problem of f0 F 2 representation by IRI is a longitudinal distortion, introduced by the interpolation procedures. So, comparing the patterns given by IRI-2001 with the ones drawn by use of the "primary" data can serve as a tool for testing the International Reference Ionosphere at the equatorial lati- tudes and identifying the domains of parameters (time and longitude) where the model representation should be improved.

  17. An On Line Atmospheric Dispersion Model (OLADMO) for the World Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clegg, Adam J.

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of earlier and current methods of modelling atmospheric dispersion, and proposes and evaluates a screening model for operation over the World Wide Web. The On Line Atmospheric Dispersion Model (OLADMO) is a quasi boundary layer parameterised Gaussian plume model with additional algorithms to account for plume rise, building wake effects and deposition processes. The Monin-Obukhov length boundary layer parameter is utilised to define six stability classes in order to determine atmospheric turbulence and stability, whilst new equations, derived from an intercomparison study of old and next generation dispersion models, are used to calculate the horizontal and vertical dispersion coefficients σ y and σ z . Using data from two field experiments in Copenhagen, Denmark and Lillestrøm, Norway, the model results from OLADMO are found to compare favourably with the results from several old and next generation dispersion models. As a consequence of the unique nature of the meteorological and location factors of the Lillestrøm experiment, all models struggled to represent the concentrations observed during the field study adequately. However, OLADMO was the best performing model in this case, with a mean normalised crosswind integrated concentration 13% closer to the mean observed concentration than its nearest competitor. Because the evaluation of the model was conducted with a limited dataset, several limitations and improvements to both the model and experimental procedure are suggested.

  18. THE INTERNET AND THE WORLD WIDE WEB: APPLICATIONS FOR FAMILY PHYSICIANS IN SAUDI ARABIA

    PubMed Central

    Sebiany, Abdulaziz M.

    2001-01-01

    The introduction of the World Wide Web has revolutionized the applications of the computer and the Internet in the medical field. The Web provides an easy and cost-effective way of retrieving medical information and a more flexible way of communicating with patients and colleagues. Family practice is a specialty in which care is given to persons as individuals and members of families regardless of their age, gender or specific problems. To provide quality family practice, a family physician should be a good communicator, a critical thinker, a resource and information manager, a life-long learner, a care giver and a community advocate. Providing such high quality care requires that family practice be an information-sensitive specialty. However, the expansion of the new electronic resources on the Internet and the Web poses a real challenge to the family physician. Family physician in Saudi Arabia need to have basic skills and knowledge for easily retrieving and finding reliable Internet information for his professional development and the care of his patients. This article addresses the Web applications for family physicians in Saudi Arabia, giving examples of the most important Websites. PMID:23008644

  19. Health surveys in the workplace: comparison of postal, email and World Wide Web methods.

    PubMed

    Jones, R; Pitt, N

    1999-11-01

    Health surveys in the workplace are an important part of epidemiology, needs assessment and health promotion. Since the workplace is changing rapidly with the use of computer networks, we examined the feasibility, validity and cost of health surveys using e-mail and the World Wide Web (WWW). Five hundred systematically sampled university staff in a convenience sample of 10 English universities were surveyed using either e-mail alone, e-mail plus a WWW form or postal questionnaire. Response rates, speed of response, validity and costs were examined. The postal survey obtained the best response rate: 72% as compared with 34% for e-mail alone and 19% for the WWW, but it was also the most expensive at 92p per reply, with 35p for e-mail, and 41p for the WWW. Most of the electronic responses were made within five days. In 1997, the increased response rate justified the higher cost of postal questionnaires. e-mail and WWW surveys are easy, quick and inexpensive to administer, and despite low response rates may be useful for pilot studies. The rapid changes in the spread and use of information technology means we have to keep reassessing the methods we use for health surveys in the workplace.

  20. TOGA COARE Satellite data summaries available on the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, S. S.; Houze, R. A., Jr.; Mapes, B. E.; Brodzick, S. R.; Yutler, S. E.

    1995-01-01

    Satellite data summary images and analysis plots from the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE), which were initially prepared in the field at the Honiara Operations Center, are now available on the Internet via World Wide Web browsers such as Mosaic. These satellite data summaries consist of products derived from the Japanese Geosynchronous Meteorological Satellite IR data: a time-size series of the distribution of contiguous cold cloudiness areas, weekly percent high cloudiness (PHC) maps, and a five-month time-longitudinal diagram illustrating the zonal motion of large areas of cold cloudiness. The weekly PHC maps are overlaid with weekly mean 850-hPa wind calculated from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) global analysis field and can be viewed as an animation loop. These satellite summaries provide an overview of spatial and temporal variabilities of the cloud population and a large-scale context for studies concerning specific processes of various components of TOGA COARE.

  1. Measurement issues related to data collection on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Ora L; Moloney, Margaret F; Dietrich, Alexa S; Myerburg, Stuart; Cotsonis, George A; Johnson, Robert V

    2003-01-01

    As the World Wide Web has become more prominent as a mode of communication, it has opened up new possibilities for research data collection. This article identifies measurement issues that occur with Internet data collection that are relevant to qualitative and quantitative research approaches as they occurred in a triangulated Internet study of perimenopausal women with migraine headaches. Issues associated with quantitative data collection over the Internet include (a) selecting and designing Internet data collection protocols that adequately address study aims while also taking advantage of the Internet, (b) ensuring the reliability and validity of Internet data collected, (c) adapting quantitative paper-and-pencil data collection protocols for the Internet, (d) making Internet data collection practical for respondents and researchers, and (e) ensuring the quality of quantitative data collected. Qualitative data collection over the Internet needs to remain true to the philosophical stance of the qualitative approach selected. Researcher expertise in qualitative data collection must be combined with expertise in computer technology and information services if data are to be of ultimate quality The advantages and limitations of collecting qualitative data in real time or at a later time are explored, as well as approaches to enhance qualitative data collection over the Internet. It was concluded that like any research approach or method, Internet data collection requires considerable creativity, expertise, and planning to take advantage of the technology for the collection of reliable and valid research data.

  2. A Computing Environment to Support Repeatable Scientific Big Data Experimentation of World-Wide Scientific Literature

    SciTech Connect

    Schlicher, Bob G; Kulesz, James J; Abercrombie, Robert K; Kruse, Kara L

    2015-01-01

    A principal tenant of the scientific method is that experiments must be repeatable and relies on ceteris paribus (i.e., all other things being equal). As a scientific community, involved in data sciences, we must investigate ways to establish an environment where experiments can be repeated. We can no longer allude to where the data comes from, we must add rigor to the data collection and management process from which our analysis is conducted. This paper describes a computing environment to support repeatable scientific big data experimentation of world-wide scientific literature, and recommends a system that is housed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in order to provide value to investigators from government agencies, academic institutions, and industry entities. The described computing environment also adheres to the recently instituted digital data management plan mandated by multiple US government agencies, which involves all stages of the digital data life cycle including capture, analysis, sharing, and preservation. It particularly focuses on the sharing and preservation of digital research data. The details of this computing environment are explained within the context of cloud services by the three layer classification of Software as a Service , Platform as a Service , and Infrastructure as a Service .

  3. [Advanced radiation therapy project for cancer treatment--from Hokkaido to the world, the world access to Hokkaido].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Shinichi; Tsuchiya, Kazuhiko; Takao, Seishin; Shirato, Hiroki

    2014-05-01

    Cancer is the most major cause of death in Japan recently. In this symposium, we explained advanced treatment technology for cancer treatment, now used and that will be used in near future at the Hokkaido University Hospital. Intensity Moderated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) and Proton Beam Therapy (PBT) are considered to be the most promising and advanced technologies for cancer treatment. Various kinds of radiation treatment equipment and methods have been developed and constructed at the Hokkaido University. One of the most worlds wide famous one is the real time tumor tracking radiotherapy system. The FIRST (Funding for World-Leading Innovative R&D on Science and Technology) Program has been supporting us to produce cutting-edge technology. We hope that this symposium would help the audience to understand the latest technology for cancer treatment especially in the field of radiation therapy and also we wish the audience would recognize the importance of the research aspect that have been performed at Hokkaido University and its Hospital.

  4. World-wide interactive access to scientific databases via satellite and terrestrial data network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanderson, T. R.; Albrecht, M. A.; Ciarlo, A.; Brett, M.; Blank, K.; Hughes, P. M. T.; Wallum, G.; Hills, H. K.; Green, J. L.; Mcguire, R. E.; Kamei, T.; Kiplinger, A.; Waite, J. H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the possibilities for scientific networking and data transfer, a first temporary satellite network link was installed between Czecholovakia and the European space operations center in Darmstadt, during the meeting of the inter-agency consultative group for space science in Prague. Several experiments to show interactive nature of the facility and the capability of the system were carried out, and it was proven that, despite the temporary nature of the installation, the planned demonstrations could be conducted in real time. Demonstrations included electronic mail message, orbit prediction and solar X-ray data. The results of the experiment provided insight into possibilities of data exchange.

  5. Creating widely accessible spatial interfaces: mobile VR for managing persistent pain.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, David; Korsakov, Fedor; Jolton, Joseph; Keefe, Francis J; Haley, Alex; Keefe, Daniel F

    2013-01-01

    Using widely accessible VR technologies, researchers have implemented a series of multimodal spatial interfaces and virtual environments. The results demonstrate the degree to which we can now use low-cost (for example, mobile-phone based) VR environments to create rich virtual experiences involving motion sensing, physiological inputs, stereoscopic imagery, sound, and haptic feedback. Adapting spatial interfaces to these new platforms can open up exciting application areas for VR. In this case, the application area was in-home VR therapy for patients suffering from persistent pain (for example, arthritis and cancer pain). For such therapy to be successful, a rich spatial interface and rich visual aesthetic are particularly important. So, an interdisciplinary team with expertise in technology, design, meditation, and the psychology of pain collaborated to iteratively develop and evaluate several prototype systems. The video at http://youtu.be/mMPE7itReds demonstrates how the sine wave fitting responds to walking motions, for a walking-in-place application. PMID:24807994

  6. The Social Validation of Institutional Indicators to Promote System-Wide Web Accessibility in Postsecondary Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mariger, Heather Ann

    2011-01-01

    The Internet is an integral part of higher education today. Students, faculty, and staff must have access to the institutional web for essential activities. For persons with disabilities, the web is a double-edged sword. While an accessibly designed website can mitigate or remove barriers, an inaccessible one can make access impossible. If…

  7. Test and Calibration of the Digital World-Wide Standardized Seismograph

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Jon; Hutt, Charles R.

    1982-01-01

    BACKGROUND During the past decade there has been steady progress in the modernization of the global seismograph network operated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The World-Wide Standardized Seismograph Network (WWSSN) has been augmented by new stations with advanced instrumentation, including the Seismic Research Observatories (SRO) and the modified High-Gain Long-Period (ASRO) stations. One goal in the modernization effort has been to improve signal resolution in the long-period band. A second goal has been to generate a global digital data base to support contemporary computer-based analysis and research. In 1976, a Panel on Seismograph Networks was established by the Committee on Seismology of the National Academy of Sciences to review progress in network seismology and recommend actions that would lead to an improved global data base for seismology. One recommendation in the Panel report (Engdahl, 1977) called for upgrading selected WWSSN stations by the installation of digital recorders. This was viewed as an economical way of expanding the digital network, which had proven itself to be a very promising new tool for earthquake and explosion research. Funds for the development and assembly of 15 digital recorders were provided to the USGS by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and an ad hoc panel of scientists was convened by the Committee on Seismology to advise the USGS on the selection of stations to be upgraded and on data recording requirements. A total of 19 digital World-Wide Standardized Seismograph (DWWSS) systems will be operational when all are installed. The additional systems were made available through purchase by the USGS and other organizations; for example, the University of Bergen purchased and installed a DWWSS-type recorder and agreed to furnish the USGS with the data. A list of operational and planned DWWSS network stations is given in Table 1.1. As one might expect, the digital recorder turned out to be somewhat more

  8. Online data collection with special populations over the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Marcell, M M; Falls, A L

    2001-10-01

    The quick ascendance of the World Wide Web as the dominant vehicle for internet communication has recently made experimentation in a multimedia environment feasible on the Internet. Although web sites containing online psychology demonstrations and experiments for non-handicapped individuals have appeared in recent years (especially in the areas of cognitive and social psychology), there appear to have been few attempts to conduct online experimentation with special populations. We recently completed two online pilot studies of families with Down syndrome or Williams syndrome members: a) A survey that asks (via Likert rating scales, adjective checklists, multiple-choice style questions, and text-entry boxes) about family background, computer use, and temperament of the special needs family member; and b) An experiment (completed by an individual with special needs) that includes auditory and visual digit span tasks and a memory-for-orientation task in which responses are entered via mouse clicks. Recruiting began with e-mail announcements to representative Down syndrome and Williams syndrome discussion groups, listserves, and bulletin boards, and submission of the project's URL (http://www.cofc.edu/~marcellm/testaw.htm) and key indexing terms to selected search engines. This paper reviews technical aspects of developing the online programmes as well as the strengths and weaknesses of online vs. traditional laboratory-based research in relation to issues such as experimental control, delivery of instructions, experimenter bias, participant recruitment, sample heterogeneity, generalization, attrition, privacy, financial costs, data integrity, and ethics. We conclude by offering our thoughts on two ways of implementing online experimentation with special populations: a) Using a remote parent 'helper' as a proxy to work with the target individual; and b) Collaborating with professional colleagues in Web-based projects conducted in traditional laboratory settings. PMID

  9. Towards a Global Service Registry for the World-Wide LHC Computing Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Laurence; Alandes Pradillo, Maria; Di Girolamo, Alessandro

    2014-06-01

    The World-Wide LHC Computing Grid encompasses a set of heterogeneous information systems; from central portals such as the Open Science Grid's Information Management System and the Grid Operations Centre Database, to the WLCG information system, where the information sources are the Grid services themselves. Providing a consistent view of the information, which involves synchronising all these informations systems, is a challenging activity that has lead the LHC virtual organisations to create their own configuration databases. This experience, whereby each virtual organisation's configuration database interfaces with multiple information systems, has resulted in the duplication of effort, especially relating to the use of manual checks for the handling of inconsistencies. The Global Service Registry aims to address this issue by providing a centralised service that aggregates information from multiple information systems. It shows both information on registered resources (i.e. what should be there) and available resources (i.e. what is there). The main purpose is to simplify the synchronisation of the virtual organisation's own configuration databases, which are used for job submission and data management, through the provision of a single interface for obtaining all the information. By centralising the information, automated consistency and validation checks can be performed to improve the overall quality of information provided. Although internally the GLUE 2.0 information model is used for the purpose of integration, the Global Service Registry in not dependent on any particular information model for ingestion or dissemination. The intention is to allow the virtual organisation's configuration databases to be decoupled from the underlying information systems in a transparent way and hence simplify any possible future migration due to the evolution of those systems. This paper presents the Global Service Registry architecture, its advantages compared to the

  10. Global Cooling: Increasing World-Wide Urban Albedos to Offset CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, Hashem; Menon, Surabi; Rosenfeld, Arthur

    2008-01-14

    Modification of urban albedos reduces summertime urban temperatures, resulting in a better urban air quality and building air-conditioning savings. Furthermore, increasing urban albedos has the added benefit of reflecting some of the incoming global solar radiation and countering to some extent the effects of global warming. In many urban areas, pavements and roofs constitute over 60% of urban surfaces (roof 20-25%, pavements about 40%). Using reflective materials, both roof and the pavement albedos can be increased by about 0.25 and 0.10, respectively, resulting in a net albedo increase for urban areas of about 0.1. Many studies have demonstrated building cooling-energy savings in excess of 20% upon raising roof reflectivity from an existing 10-20% to about 60% (a U.S. potential savings in excess of $1 billion (B) per year in net annual energy bills). On a global basis, our preliminary estimate is that increasing the world-wide albedos of urban roofs and paved surfaces will induce a negative radiative forcing on the earth equivalent to removing {approx} 22-40 Gt of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. Since, 55% of the emitted CO{sub 2} remains in the atmosphere, removal of 22-40 Gt of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere is equivalent to reducing global CO{sub 2} emissions by 40-73 Gt. At {approx} $25/tonne of CO{sub 2}, a 40-73 Gt CO{sub 2} emission reduction from changing the albedo of roofs and paved surfaces is worth about $1,000B to 1800B. These estimated savings are dependent on assumptions used in this study, but nevertheless demonstrate considerable benefits that may be obtained from cooler roofs and pavements.

  11. Online data collection with special populations over the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Marcell, M M; Falls, A L

    2001-10-01

    The quick ascendance of the World Wide Web as the dominant vehicle for internet communication has recently made experimentation in a multimedia environment feasible on the Internet. Although web sites containing online psychology demonstrations and experiments for non-handicapped individuals have appeared in recent years (especially in the areas of cognitive and social psychology), there appear to have been few attempts to conduct online experimentation with special populations. We recently completed two online pilot studies of families with Down syndrome or Williams syndrome members: a) A survey that asks (via Likert rating scales, adjective checklists, multiple-choice style questions, and text-entry boxes) about family background, computer use, and temperament of the special needs family member; and b) An experiment (completed by an individual with special needs) that includes auditory and visual digit span tasks and a memory-for-orientation task in which responses are entered via mouse clicks. Recruiting began with e-mail announcements to representative Down syndrome and Williams syndrome discussion groups, listserves, and bulletin boards, and submission of the project's URL (http://www.cofc.edu/~marcellm/testaw.htm) and key indexing terms to selected search engines. This paper reviews technical aspects of developing the online programmes as well as the strengths and weaknesses of online vs. traditional laboratory-based research in relation to issues such as experimental control, delivery of instructions, experimenter bias, participant recruitment, sample heterogeneity, generalization, attrition, privacy, financial costs, data integrity, and ethics. We conclude by offering our thoughts on two ways of implementing online experimentation with special populations: a) Using a remote parent 'helper' as a proxy to work with the target individual; and b) Collaborating with professional colleagues in Web-based projects conducted in traditional laboratory settings.

  12. Adapting EcoCyc for use on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Paley, S M; Karp, P D

    1996-06-12

    The World Wide Web (WWW) offers the potential to deliver specialized information to an audience of unprecedented size. Along with this exciting new opportunity comes a challenge for software developers: instead of rewriting our software applications to operate over the WWW, how can we maximize software reuse by retrofitting existing applications? We have developed a Web server tool, written in Common Lisp, that allows existing graphical user interface applications written using the Common Lisp Interface Manager (CLIM) to hook easily into the WWW. This tool-CWEST (CLIM-WEb Server Tool, pronounced "quest")-was developed to operate with EcoCyc, an electronic encyclopedia of the genes and metabolism of the bacterium E. coli. EcoCyc consists of a database of objects relevant to E. coli biochemistry and a user interface, implemented in CLIM, that runs on the X-window system and generates graphical displays appropriate to biological objects. Each query to the EcoCyc WWW server is treated as a command to the EcoCyc program, which dynamically generates an appropriate CLIM drawing. CWEST translates that drawing, which can be a mixture of text and graphics, into the HyperText Markup Language (HTML) and/or the Graphics Interchange Format (GIF), which are returned to the client. Sensitive regions embedded in the CLIM drawing are converted to hyperlinks with Universal Resource Locators (URLs) that generate further EcoCyc queries. This tight coupling of CLIM output with Web output makes CLIM a powerful high-level programming tool for Web applications. The flexibility of Common Lisp and CLIM made implementation of the server tool surprisingly easy, requiring few changes to the existing EcoCyc program. The results can be seen at URL http: @www.ai.sri.com/ecocyc/browser.html. We have made CWEST available to the CLIM community at large, with the hope that it will spur other software developers to make their CLIM applications available over the WWW. PMID:8654966

  13. Architecture for biomedical multimedia information delivery on the World Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, L. Rodney; Goh, Gin-Hua; Neve, Leif; Thoma, George R.

    1997-10-01

    Research engineers at the National Library of Medicine are building a prototype system for the delivery of multimedia biomedical information on the World Wide Web. This paper discuses the architecture and design considerations for the system, which will be used initially to make images and text from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) publicly available. We categorized our analysis as follows: (1) fundamental software tools: we analyzed trade-offs among use of conventional HTML/CGI, X Window Broadway, and Java; (2) image delivery: we examined the use of unconventional TCP transmission methods; (3) database manager and database design: we discuss the capabilities and planned use of the Informix object-relational database manager and the planned schema for the HNANES database; (4) storage requirements for our Sun server; (5) user interface considerations; (6) the compatibility of the system with other standard research and analysis tools; (7) image display: we discuss considerations for consistent image display for end users. Finally, we discuss the scalability of the system in terms of incorporating larger or more databases of similar data, and the extendibility of the system for supporting content-based retrieval of biomedical images. The system prototype is called the Web-based Medical Information Retrieval System. An early version was built as a Java applet and tested on Unix, PC, and Macintosh platforms. This prototype used the MiniSQL database manager to do text queries on a small database of records of participants in the second NHANES survey. The full records and associated x-ray images were retrievable and displayable on a standard Web browser. A second version has now been built, also a Java applet, using the MySQL database manager.

  14. The Digital School Library: A World-Wide Development and a Fascinating Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loertscher, David

    2003-01-01

    Explores the academic environment of a total information system for school libraries based on the idea of a digital intranet. Discusses safety; customization; the core library collection; curriculum-specific collections; access to short-term resources; Internet access; personalized features; search engines; equity issues; and staffing. (LRW)

  15. Adapting Web Browsers for Accessibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Paul; Birkmire, Mike

    This paper examines ways to make World Wide Web browsers accessible for individuals with disabilities, and through them, gain access to the information on the Web. It discusses which browsers can be made more accessible and evaluates different types of input. Mouse access, keyboard access, and voice input are reviewed. Processing aids, such as…

  16. Access to infertility care in the developing world: the family promotion gap.

    PubMed

    Asemota, Obehi A; Klatsky, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Infertility in resource-poor settings is an overlooked global health problem. Although scarce health care resources must be deployed thoughtfully, prioritization of resources may be different for recipient and donor countries, the latter of whom focus on maternal health care, prevention, and family planning. For women and couples with involuntary childlessness, the negative psychosocial, sociocultural, and economic consequences in low-income countries are severe, possibly more so than in most Western societies. Despite the local importance of infertility, few resources are committed to help advance infertility care in regions like sub-Saharan Africa. The worldwide prevalence of infertility is remarkably similar across low-, middle-, and high-income countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) recognizes infertility as a global health problem and established universal access to reproductive health care as one of the United Nation's Millennium Developmental Goals for 2015. Currently, access to infertility care is varied and is usually only attainable by the very wealthy in low-income countries. We provide an overview on the current state of access to infertility care in low-income countries such as in sub-Saharan Africa and a rationale for providing comprehensive reproductive care and possible solutions for providing cost-effective infertility services in these settings.

  17. Obtaining Streamflow Statistics for Massachusetts Streams on the World Wide Web

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ries, Kernell G.; Steeves, Peter A.; Freeman, Aleda; Singh, Raj

    2000-01-01

    A World Wide Web application has been developed to make it easy to obtain streamflow statistics for user-selected locations on Massachusetts streams. The Web application, named STREAMSTATS (available at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/streamstats/massachusetts.html ), can provide peak-flow frequency, low-flow frequency, and flow-duration statistics for most streams in Massachusetts. These statistics describe the magnitude (how much), frequency (how often), and duration (how long) of flow in a stream. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has published streamflow statistics, such as the 100-year peak flow, the 7-day, 10-year low flow, and flow-duration statistics, for its data-collection stations in numerous reports. Federal, State, and local agencies need these statistics to plan and manage use of water resources and to regulate activities in and around streams. Engineering and environmental consulting firms, utilities, industry, and others use the statistics to design and operate water-supply systems, hydropower facilities, industrial facilities, wastewater treatment facilities, and roads, bridges, and other structures. Until now, streamflow statistics for data-collection stations have often been difficult to obtain because they are scattered among many reports, some of which are not readily available to the public. In addition, streamflow statistics are often needed for locations where no data are available. STREAMSTATS helps solve these problems. STREAMSTATS was developed jointly by the USGS and MassGIS, the State Geographic Information Systems (GIS) agency, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Departments of Environmental Management and Environmental Protection. The application consists of three major components: (1) a user interface that displays maps and allows users to select stream locations for which they want streamflow statistics (fig. 1), (2) a data base of previously published streamflow statistics and descriptive information for 725 USGS data

  18. Autonomous Satellite Command and Control through the World Wide Web: Phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantwell, Brian; Twiggs, Robert

    1998-01-01

    NASA's New Millenium Program (NMP) has identified a variety of revolutionary technologies that will support orders of magnitude improvements in the capabilities of spacecraft missions. This program's Autonomy team has focused on science and engineering automation technologies. In doing so, it has established a clear development roadmap specifying the experiments and demonstrations required to mature these technologies. The primary developmental thrusts of this roadmap are in the areas of remote agents, PI/operator interface, planning/scheduling fault management, and smart execution architectures. Phases 1 and 2 of the ASSET Project (previously known as the WebSat project) have focused on establishing World Wide Web-based commanding and telemetry services as an advanced means of interfacing a spacecraft system with the PI and operators. Current automated capabilities include Web-based command submission, limited contact scheduling, command list generation and transfer to the ground station, spacecraft support for demonstrations experiments, data transfer from the ground station back to the ASSET system, data archiving, and Web-based telemetry distribution. Phase 2 was finished in December 1996. During January-December 1997 work was commenced on Phase 3 of the ASSET Project. Phase 3 is the subject of this report. This phase permitted SSDL and its project partners to expand the ASSET system in a variety of ways. These added capabilities included the advancement of ground station capabilities, the adaptation of spacecraft on-board software, and the expansion of capabilities of the ASSET management algorithms. Specific goals of Phase 3 were: (1) Extend Web-based goal-level commanding for both the payload PI and the spacecraft engineer; (2) Support prioritized handling of multiple PIs as well as associated payload experimenters; (3) Expand the number and types of experiments supported by the ASSET system and its associated spacecraft; (4) Implement more advanced resource

  19. Enhanced photosynthetic efficiency in trees world-wide by rising atmospheric CO2 levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlers, Ina; Wieloch, Thomas; Groenendijk, Peter; Vlam, Mart; van der Sleen, Peter; Zuidema, Pieter A.; Robertson, Iain; Schleucher, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    signals is a fundamental advantage of isotopomer ratios (Augusti et al., Chem. Geol 2008). These results demonstrate that increasing [CO2] has reduced the ratio of photorespiration to photosynthesis on a global scale. Photorespiration is a side reaction that decreases the C gain of plants; the suppression of photorespiration in all analyzed trees indicates that increasing atmospheric [CO2] is enhancing the photosynthetic efficiency of trees world-wide. The consensus response of the trees agrees with the response of annual plants in greenhouse experiments, with three important conclusions. First, the generality of the isotopomer shift confirms that the CO2 response reflects the ratio of photosynthesis to photorespiration, and that it creates a robust signal in tree rings. Second, the agreement between greenhouse-grown plants and trees indicates that there has not been an acclimation response of the trees during the past centuries. Third, the results show that the regulation of tree gas exchange has during past centuries been governed by the same rules as observed in manipulative experiments, in contradiction to recent reports (Keenan et al., Nature 2013).

  20. Publishing on the WWW. Part 5 - A brief history of the Internet and the World Wide Web

    PubMed Central

    Grech, V

    2001-01-01

    This article focuses on the history of the Internet and the World Wide Web, the media that in recent years have created the concept of objects existing ‘on-line’ in a virtual computer environment. These objects naturally include on-line journals such as Images in Paediatric Cardiology. PMID:22368602

  1. An Investigation of the Use of the World Wide Web for On-line Inquiry in a Science Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, David J.; And Others

    Research on student use of digital resources identifies the challenges associated with utilizing the World Wide Web (WWW) while involved in on-line inquiry activities in the science classroom. On-line materials alone do not suffice in providing the guidance students require to effectively ask questions, plan searches, and analyze the results of…

  2. An Exploratory Survey of Digital Libraries on the World Wide Web: Art and Literature of the Early Italian Renaissance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKibben, Suzanne J.

    This study assessed the ongoing development of digital libraries (DLs) on the World Wide Web. DLs of art and literature were surveyed for selected works from the early Italian Renaissance in order to gain insight into the current trends prevalent throughout the larger population of DLs. The following artists and authors were selected for study:…

  3. Breaking the Island Chains: A Case Study Exploring the Intricate Powers of Language Shared on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winner, Tammy; Shields, Theodore

    2002-01-01

    Details the act of writing and publishing a literacy autobiography on the World Wide Web for an English course at a college located on a small island in the Bahamas. Notes that this activity gave geographically isolated writers an opportunity to consider the intricate powers of language and their space in the larger social and cultural influences…

  4. Panning for Gold: Utility of the World Wide Web for Metadata and Authority Control in Special Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellero, Nadine P.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the use of the World Wide Web as a name authority resource and tool for special collections' analytic-level cataloging, based on experiences at The Claude Moore Health Sciences Library. Highlights include primary documents and metadata; authority control and the Web as authority source information; and future possibilities. (Author/LRW)

  5. Enhancing Student Performance in First-Semester General Chemistry Using Active Feedback through the World Wide Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Kent A.; Blake, Bob

    2007-01-01

    The World Wide Web recently launched a new interactive feedback system for the instructors, so that can better understanding about their students and their problems. The feedback, in combination with tailored lectures is expected to enhance student performance in the first semester of general chemistry.

  6. Pre-Service Teachers Critically Evaluate Scientific Information on the World-Wide Web: What Makes Information Believable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iding, Marie; Klemm, E. Barbara

    2005-01-01

    The present study addresses the need for teachers to critically evaluate the credibility, validity, and cognitive load associated with scientific information on Web sites, in order to effectively teach students to evaluate scientific information on the World Wide Web. A line of prior research investigating high school and university students'…

  7. Students' Perceptions of the Effectiveness of the World Wide Web as a Research and Teaching Tool in Science Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Wan; Gunstone, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the use of the World Wide Web (WWW) as a research and teaching tool in promoting self-directed learning groups of 15-year-old students. Discusses the perceptions of students of the effectiveness of the WWW in assisting them with the construction of knowledge on photosynthesis and respiration. (Contains 33 references.) (Author/YDS)

  8. An Ontology of Quality Initiatives and a Model for Decentralized, Collaborative Quality Management on the (Semantic) World Wide Web

    PubMed Central

    2001-01-01

    This editorial provides a model of how quality initiatives concerned with health information on the World Wide Web may in the future interact with each other. This vision fits into the evolving "Semantic Web" architecture - ie, the prospective that the World Wide Web may evolve from a mess of unstructured, human-readable information sources into a global knowledge base with an additional layer providing richer and more meaningful relationships between resources. One first prerequisite for forming such a "Semantic Web" or "web of trust" among the players active in quality management of health information is that these initiatives make statements about themselves and about each other in a machine-processable language. I present a concrete model on how this collaboration could look, and provide some recommendations on what the role of the World Health Organization (WHO) and other policy makers in this framework could be. PMID:11772549

  9. An ontology of quality initiatives and a model for decentralized, collaborative quality management on the (semantic) World-Wide-Web.

    PubMed

    Eysenbach, G

    2001-01-01

    This editorial provides a model of how quality initiatives concerned with health information on the World Wide Web may in the future interact with each other. This vision fits into the evolving "Semantic Web" architecture - ie, the prospective that the World Wide Web may evolve from a mess of unstructured, human-readable information sources into a global knowledge base with an additional layer providing richer and more meaningful relationships between resources. One first prerequisite for forming such a "Semantic Web" or "web of trust" among the players active in quality management of health information is that these initiatives make statements about themselves and about each other in a machine-processable language. I present a concrete model on how this collaboration could look, and provide some recommendations on what the role of the World Health Organization (WHO) and other policy makers in this framework could be.

  10. Accessing world knowledge: evidence from N400 and reaction time priming.

    PubMed

    Chwilla, Dorothee J; Kolk, Herman H J

    2005-12-01

    How fast are we in accessing world knowledge? In two experiments, we tested for priming for word triplets that described a conceptual script (e.g., DIRECTOR-BRIBE-DISMISSAL) but were not associatively related and did not share a category relationship. Event-related brain potentials were used to track the time course at which script information becomes available. In Experiment 1, in which participants made lexical decisions, we found a facilitation for script-related relative to unrelated triplets, as indicated by (i) a decrease in both reaction time and errors, and (ii) an N400-like priming effect. In Experiment 2, we further explored the locus of script priming by increasing the contribution of meaning integration processes. The participants' task was to indicate whether the three words presented a plausible scenario. Again, an N400 script priming effect was obtained. Directing attention to script relations was effective in enhancing the N400 effect. The time course of the N400 effect was similar to that of the standard N400 effect to semantic relations. The present results show that script priming can be obtained in the visual modality, and that script information is immediately accessed and integrated with context. This supports the view that script information forms a central aspect of word meaning. The RT and N400 script priming effects reported in this article are problematic for most current semantic priming models, like spreading activation models, expectancy models, and task-specific semantic matching/integration models. They support a view in which there is no clear cutoff point between semantic knowledge and world knowledge. PMID:16202570

  11. Toward Robust Climate Baselining: Objective Assessment of Climate Change Using Widely Distributed Miniaturized Sensors for Accurate World-Wide Geophysical Measurements

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Teller, E.; Leith, C.; Canavan, G.; Marion, J.; Wood, L.

    2001-11-13

    A gap-free, world-wide, ocean-, atmosphere-, and land surface-spanning geophysical data-set of three decades time-duration containing the full set of geophysical parameters characterizing global weather is the scientific perquisite for defining the climate; the generally-accepted definition in the meteorological community is that climate is the 30-year running-average of weather. Until such a tridecadal climate baseline exists, climate change discussions inevitably will have a semi-speculative, vs. a purely scientific, character, as the baseline against which changes are referenced will at least somewhat uncertain.

  12. Can Teachers Trust the World Wide Web for Classroom Lesson Plans?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasko, Francis J.; Peterson, Winnie J.

    2007-01-01

    Standards challenge educators on a regular basis to integrate technology into their content and methods courses. Students today access the Internet which in many cases, if students see it on the Internet they believe it. In this article, the authors present an experience wherein teacher candidates were randomly assigned a twenty-minute lesson to…

  13. Formative Evaluation of Bugscope: A Sustainable World Wide Laboratory for K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thakkar, U.; Carragher, B.; Carroll, L.; Conway, C.; Grosser, B.; Kisseberth, N.; Potter, C. S.; Robinson, S.; Sinn-Hanlon, J.; Stone, D.; Weber, D.

    Bugscope is an emerging educational technology project that allows students and teachers across grades K-12 to study insects and other arthropods through remote access and control of an environmental scanning electron microscope from their classroom computers. Teachers and students in 33 schools from 18 states and the U.S. Virgin Islands were…

  14. Developing Interactive Educational Engineering Software for the World Wide Web with Java.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, John A.; Afjeh, Abdollah A.

    1998-01-01

    Illustrates the design and implementation of a Java applet for use in educational propulsion engineering curricula. The Java Gas Turbine Simulator applet provides an interactive graphical environment which allows the rapid, efficient construction and analysis of arbitrary gas turbine systems. The simulator can be easily accessed from the World…

  15. Online catalog of world-wide test sites for the post-launch characterization and calibration of optical sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Christopherson, J.B.; Stensaas, G.L.; Teillet, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    In an era when the number of Earth-observing satellites is rapidly growing and measurements from these sensors are used to answer increasingly urgent global issues, it is imperative that scientists and decision-makers can rely on the accuracy of Earth-observing data products. The characterization and calibration of these sensors are vital to achieve an integrated Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) for coordinated and sustained observations of Earth. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as a supporting member of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) and GEOSS, is working with partners around the world to establish an online catalog of prime candidate test sites for the post-launch characterization and calibration of space-based optical imaging sensors. The online catalog provides easy public Web site access to this vital information for the global community. This paper describes the catalog, the test sites, and the methodologies to use the test sites. It also provides information regarding access to the online catalog and plans for further development of the catalog in cooperation with calibration specialists from agencies and organizations around the world. Through greater access to and understanding of these vital test sites and their use, the validity and utility of information gained from Earth remote sensing will continue to improve. Copyright IAF/IAA. All rights reserved.

  16. Towards the world-wide ban of indoor cigarette smoking in public places.

    PubMed

    Rivero, Luis R; Persson, James L; Romine, David C; Taylor, John T; Toole, Theron C; Trollman, Christopher J; Au, William W

    2006-01-01

    In 1984, Dr. C. Everett Koop, then Surgeon General of the US, presented an important speech on the hazards of smoking. In his speech, he stated "The ultimate goal should be a smoke-free society by the year 2000." In addition, the World Health Organization (WHO) has initiated a process to ban smoking globally; on 21 May 2003, at the 56th World Health Assembly, WHO's 192 Member States unanimously adopted the world's first public health treaty, the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Although good progress has been made, reaching the ultimate goal is far from certainty. Therefore, it is time to re-visit this crucial public health activity and re-energize the effort to reach this goal. Since numerous reports have been written on the ban of smoking based on benefits to the smokers, the emphasis of our report is on benefits to non-smokers from their exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). We provide a concise review of the impact of ETS on health and economy. In addition, we examined the different interest groups on supporting and opposing the ban, the role of the government, private citizens and medical professionals on this activity, and certain constraints on implementing the global ban. We also provide some recommendations on how to promote the ban globally. Since cigarette smoking is an unnecessary habit that has devastating consequences around the world, banning of cigarette smoking should be a global mission. A global ban on indoor smoking in public places is an important first step in an international effort to prevent morbidity and mortality caused by tobacco smoking and ETS.

  17. DOE`s nation-wide system for access control can solve problems for the federal government

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, S.; Tomes, D.; Davis, G.; Johnson, D.; Strait, S.

    1996-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) ongoing efforts to improve its physical and personnel security systems while reducing its costs, provide a model for federal government visitor processing. Through the careful use of standardized badges, computer databases, and networks of automated access control systems, the DOE is increasing the security associated with travel throughout the DOE complex, and at the same time, eliminating paperwork, special badging, and visitor delays. The DOE is also improving badge accountability, personnel identification assurance, and access authorization timeliness and accuracy. Like the federal government, the DOE has dozens of geographically dispersed locations run by many different contractors operating a wide range of security systems. The DOE has overcome these obstacles by providing data format standards, a complex-wide virtual network for security, the adoption of a standard high security system, and an open-systems-compatible link for any automated access control system. If the location`s level of security requires it, positive visitor identification is accomplished by personal identification number (PIN) and/or by biometrics. At sites with automated access control systems, this positive identification is integrated into the portals.

  18. Possible world-wide middle miocene iridium anomaly and its relationship to periodicity of impacts and extinctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asaro, F.; Alvarez, W.; Michel, H. V.; Alvarez, L. W.; Anders, Mark H.; Montanari, A.; Kennett, James P.

    1988-01-01

    In a study of one million years of Middle Miocene sediment deposition in ODP Hole 689B in the Weddell Sea near Antarctica, a single iridium (Ir) anomaly of 44 (+ or - 10) x 10 to the 12th gram Ir per gram rock (ppt) was observed in core 6H, section 3, 50 to 60 cm, after background contributions associated with manganese precipitates and clay are subtracted. The ODP Hole 689B is 10,000 km away from another site, DSDP Hole 588B in the Tasman Sea north of New Zealand, where a single Ir anomaly of 144 + or - 7 ppt over a background of 11 ppt was found in an earlier study of 3 million years of deposition. From chemical measurements the latter deposition was thought to be impact-related. Ir measurements were made, following neutron activation, with the Iridium Coincidence Spectrometer. The age vs depth calibration curves given in the DSDP and ODP preliminary reports indicate the ages of the Iranomalies are identical, 11.7 million years, but the absolute and relative uncertainties in the curves are not known. Based on the newest age data the age estimate is 10 million years. As the Ir was deposited at the two sites at about the same time and they are one quarter of the way around the world from each other it seems likely that the deposition was world-wide. The impact of a large asteroid or comet could produce the wide distribution, and this data is supportive of the impact relationship deduced for Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) 588B from the chemical evidence. If the surface densities of Ir at the two sites are representative of the world-wide average, the diameter of a Cl type asteroid containing the necessary Ir would be 3 + or - 1 km, which is large enough to cause world-wide darkness and hence extinctions although the latter point is disputed.

  19. Tools for clinical toxicology on the World Wide Web: review and scenario.

    PubMed

    Wexler, Philip; Phillips, Scott

    2002-01-01

    Clinical toxicologists are entrusted with the health and safety of humans and animals exposed to toxic substances. To do their jobs well they need a solid knowledge of toxicological principles, an ability to handle emergent situations, a "bedside" manner that results in a good rapport with patients, and the ability to access current and accurate information in order to properly care for the afflicted. An information armamentarium that is increasingly digital and Web-based is becoming a necessity. This article reviews Web resources that can assist the toxicologist. A case scenario is presented to provide a practical perspective to the information tools outlined. PMID:12507059

  20. Fitting dynamical x-ray diffraction data over the World Wide Web.

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanov, S.; Forrest, R.; Biosciences Division; Univ. of Houston

    2008-01-01

    The first implementation of fitting X-ray Bragg diffraction profiles from strained multilayer crystals at a remote web-based X-ray software server is presented. The algorithms and the software solutions involved in the process are described. The suggested technology can be applied to a wide range of scientific research and has the potential to promote remote collaborations across scientific communities.

  1. The Wide and Wild World of Words: Interview with Averil Coxhead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mah, Adeline Shi Hui; Yeo, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Averil Coxhead is widely known for developing the Academic Word List, a list of 570 word families associated with great frequency in academic texts. This list has been particularly useful to teachers of English as a Second Language as well as independent learners in tertiary education. She has also developed a Science-based word list (Coxhead and…

  2. Automated generation of a World Wide Web-based data entry and check program for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Kiuchi, T; Kaihara, S

    1997-02-01

    The World Wide Web-based form is a promising method for the construction of an on-line data collection system for clinical and epidemiological research. It is, however, laborious to prepare a common gateway interface (CGI) program for each project, which the World Wide Web server needs to handle the submitted data. In medicine, it is even more laborious because the CGI program must check deficits, type, ranges, and logical errors (bad combination of data) of entered data for quality assurance as well as data length and meta-characters of the entered data to enhance the security of the server. We have extended the specification of the hypertext markup language (HTML) form to accommodate information necessary for such data checking and we have developed software named AUTOFORM for this purpose. The software automatically analyzes the extended HTML form and generates the corresponding ordinary HTML form, 'Makefile', and C source of CGI programs. The resultant CGI program checks the entered data through the HTML form, records them in a computer, and returns them to the end-user. AUTOFORM drastically reduces the burden of development of the World Wide Web-based data entry system and allows the CGI programs to be more securely and reliably prepared than had they been written from scratch.

  3. Singapore National Medical Image Resource Centre (SN.MIRC): a world wide web resource for radiology education.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guo-Liang; Lim, C C Tchoyoson

    2006-08-01

    Radiology education is heavily dependent on visual images, and case-based teaching files comprising medical images can be an important tool for teaching diagnostic radiology. Currently, hardcopy film is being rapidly replaced by digital radiological images in teaching hospitals, and an electronic teaching file (ETF) library would be desirable. Furthermore, a repository of ETFs deployed on the World Wide Web has the potential for e-learning applications to benefit a larger community of learners. In this paper, we describe a Singapore National Medical Image Resource Centre (SN.MIRC) that can serve as a World Wide Web resource for teaching diagnostic radiology. On SN.MIRC, ETFs can be created using a variety of mechanisms including file upload and online form-filling, and users can search for cases using the Medical Image Resource Center (MIRC) query schema developed by the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA). The system can be improved with future enhancements, including multimedia interactive teaching files and distance learning for continuing professional development. However, significant challenges exist when exploring the potential of using the World Wide Web for radiology education.

  4. Singapore National Medical Image Resource Centre (SN.MIRC): a world wide web resource for radiology education.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guo-Liang; Lim, C C Tchoyoson

    2006-08-01

    Radiology education is heavily dependent on visual images, and case-based teaching files comprising medical images can be an important tool for teaching diagnostic radiology. Currently, hardcopy film is being rapidly replaced by digital radiological images in teaching hospitals, and an electronic teaching file (ETF) library would be desirable. Furthermore, a repository of ETFs deployed on the World Wide Web has the potential for e-learning applications to benefit a larger community of learners. In this paper, we describe a Singapore National Medical Image Resource Centre (SN.MIRC) that can serve as a World Wide Web resource for teaching diagnostic radiology. On SN.MIRC, ETFs can be created using a variety of mechanisms including file upload and online form-filling, and users can search for cases using the Medical Image Resource Center (MIRC) query schema developed by the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA). The system can be improved with future enhancements, including multimedia interactive teaching files and distance learning for continuing professional development. However, significant challenges exist when exploring the potential of using the World Wide Web for radiology education. PMID:17006584

  5. Using the World Wide Web for GIDEP Problem Data Processing at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPherson, John W.; Haraway, Sandra W.; Whirley, J. Don

    1999-01-01

    Since April 1997, Marshall Space Flight Center has been using electronic transfer and the web to support our processing of the Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP) and NASA ALERT information. Specific aspects include: (1) Extraction of ASCII text information from GIDEP for loading into Word documents for e-mail to ALERT actionees; (2) Downloading of GIDEP form image formats in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) for internal storage display on the MSFC ALERT web page; (3) Linkage of stored GRDEP problem forms with summary information for access from the MSFC ALERT Distribution Summary Chart or from an html table of released MSFC ALERTs (4) Archival of historic ALERTs for reference by GIDEP ID, MSFC ID, or MSFC release date; (5) On-line tracking of ALERT response status using a Microsoft Access database and the web (6) On-line response to ALERTs from MSFC actionees through interactive web forms. The technique, benefits, effort, coordination, and lessons learned for each aspect are covered herein.

  6. An overview of biomedical literature search on the World Wide Web in the third millennium.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prince; Goel, Roshni; Jain, Chandni; Kumar, Ashish; Parashar, Abhishek; Gond, Ajay Ratan

    2012-06-01

    Complete access to the existing pool of biomedical literature and the ability to "hit" upon the exact information of the relevant specialty are becoming essential elements of academic and clinical expertise. With the rapid expansion of the literature database, it is almost impossible to keep up to date with every innovation. Using the Internet, however, most people can freely access this literature at any time, from almost anywhere. This paper highlights the use of the Internet in obtaining valuable biomedical research information, which is mostly available from journals, databases, textbooks and e-journals in the form of web pages, text materials, images, and so on. The authors present an overview of web-based resources for biomedical researchers, providing information about Internet search engines (e.g., Google), web-based bibliographic databases (e.g., PubMed, IndMed) and how to use them, and other online biomedical resources that can assist clinicians in reaching well-informed clinical decisions. PMID:22692275

  7. An overview of biomedical literature search on the World Wide Web in the third millennium.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prince; Goel, Roshni; Jain, Chandni; Kumar, Ashish; Parashar, Abhishek; Gond, Ajay Ratan

    2012-06-01

    Complete access to the existing pool of biomedical literature and the ability to "hit" upon the exact information of the relevant specialty are becoming essential elements of academic and clinical expertise. With the rapid expansion of the literature database, it is almost impossible to keep up to date with every innovation. Using the Internet, however, most people can freely access this literature at any time, from almost anywhere. This paper highlights the use of the Internet in obtaining valuable biomedical research information, which is mostly available from journals, databases, textbooks and e-journals in the form of web pages, text materials, images, and so on. The authors present an overview of web-based resources for biomedical researchers, providing information about Internet search engines (e.g., Google), web-based bibliographic databases (e.g., PubMed, IndMed) and how to use them, and other online biomedical resources that can assist clinicians in reaching well-informed clinical decisions.

  8. The "Athena Framework": Solving the World-wide Climate and Energy Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Long, J S

    2005-10-10

    The energy systems we have enjoyed for the last 100 years has resulted in the advanced standard of living in the developed world and a major emerging problem with climate change. Now we face a simultaneous realization that our reliance on fossil fuels is a source of conflict and economic disruption as well as causing potentially catastrophic global climate change. It is time to give serious thought to how to collectively solve this problem. Collective action is critical since individual effort by one or only a few nations cannot adequately address the issue.

  9. 6 CFR 5.21 - Requests for access to records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... accessed electronically at the Government Printing Office's World Wide Web site (which can be found at http://www.access.gpo.gov/su_docs). Some records are maintained under a government-wide systems of records... Printing Office's World Wide Web site (which can be found at http://www.access.gpo.gov/su_docs)....

  10. 6 CFR 5.21 - Requests for access to records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... accessed electronically at the Government Printing Office's World Wide Web site (which can be found at http://www.access.gpo.gov/su_docs). Some records are maintained under a government-wide systems of records... Printing Office's World Wide Web site (which can be found at http://www.access.gpo.gov/su_docs)....

  11. Using the World Wide Web in health-related intervention research. A review of controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Sallie E; Lewis, Frances M

    2004-01-01

    A review of published controlled trials was conducted to evaluate components, utility, and efficacy of Web-based healthcare interventions. Nine studies met the established review criteria. Knowledge gains were the most commonly reported significant changes; rarely were there measures or significant changes on behavioral outcomes. Studies varied in format of personal contact with participants, in the structure or sequence of intervention content, and in design features. Dosage was inconsistently measured and process evaluation was relatively absent. Despite limitations, several studies reported significant effects. Based on best evidence-to-date, elements of technologically mediated interventions important to future research are summarized. Taken together, research suggests that Web-based interventions may be an efficacious delivery system, especially for those with chronic conditions amenable to self-management and to those with various limitations to accessing healthcare.

  12. The World Stress Map - A Freely Accessible Tool For Geohazard Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Birgit; Heidbach, Oliver; Tingay, Mark

    2006-03-23

    The World Stress Map (WSM) database contains over 16,000 indicators on contemporary crustal tectonic stress and provides an essential parameter for geohazard assessment. This paper focuses on the importance of database accessibility for geohazard assessment and presents the basic concepts and availability of the WSM. The WSM can be applied to several key aspects of geohazard assessment, in particular the mapping of stress patterns and places of stress concentration for improved delineation of zones of seismic hazard. Furthermore, contemporary tectonic stresses can be used in combination with numerical modeling to identify faults or sections of fault systems with high failure potential and can help to predict the likely type of fault reactivation. This approach is especially valuable for assessing the likelihood of strong and rare seismic events for which probabilistic hazard assessment will fail and physically based methodologies are required. Herein, we use the Caspian-Caucasian region as an example to apply WSM data for geohazard assessment. The Caspian-Caucasian area is characterized by the occurrence of a number of stress related geohazards on different spatial scales, in particular crustal earthquakes, seismically triggered landslides and mud volcanism.

  13. Pseudo-random Spray Release to Measure World-wide Transfer Functions of Cloud Albedo Control.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salter, Stephen

    2010-05-01

    Institute for Energy Systems, School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh. S.Salter@ed.ac.uk Previous climate models of Latham's proposal to reverse global warming by using sub-micron sea spray to increase cloud albedo have used a variety of spray patterns. Kettles forced CCN concentration to be 375/cm3 everywhere. Rasch et al used the 20% and 70% most susceptible regions. Bala and Caldeira used an even spread. Jones et al. concentrated spray in the 3.3% oceans with the highest susceptibility All used the same rate through the year. We want to choose a scheme for a climate-modelling experiment designed to identify simultaneously the effects of cloud albedo control at various seasons of the year from spray at all regions of the world on climates of all other regions the world. In particular we want to know seasons and spray places which might have an undesirable effect on precipitation. The spray systems in various regions of a numerical climate model will be modulated on an off with different but known pseudo-random sequences and a selection of seasons. The mean value of the resulting weather records of the parameters of interest, mainly temperature and water run-off, at each region will be subtracted from each value of the record so as to give just the alternating component with an average value of zero. This will be correlated with each of the chosen pseudo-random sequences to give the magnitude and polarity of the effect of a treatment at each input area and selected seasons of the year with the resulting effects on all regions. By doing a time-shifted correlation we can account for phase-shift and time delay. The signal-to-noise ratio should improve with the square root of the analysis time and so we may be able to measure the transfer function with quite a small stimulus. The results of a Mathcad simulation of the process with statistical distributions approximating to natural variations temperature and precipitation show that a single run of a climate

  14. Standards-based Materials for World-Wide Distribution in the IHY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherrer, D. K.

    2008-12-01

    The National Science Education standards and related science literacy efforts are a vital tool for improving STEM education and for guiding development of both formal and informal science education products. The space physics community is in a position to develop excellent curricula and materials that are most effective when they are designed to meet these standards. This presentation will highlight materials and projects from the Stanford Solar Center and how clear links were made between the space physics concepts being taught and the basic science education standards they support. We will primarily focus on our Space Weather Monitor project, in which we distribute, through the International Heliophysical Year, scientific instruments and educational materials for use in high schools around the world. Although the US standards do not technically apply, we have found them valuable when designing materials for broad distribution.

  15. The Global Inventor Gap: Distribution and Equality of World-Wide Inventive Effort, 1990–2010

    PubMed Central

    Toivanen, Hannes; Suominen, Arho

    2015-01-01

    Applying distance-to-frontier analysis, we have used 2.9 million patents and population data to assess whether the relative capacity of world countries and major regions to create new knowledge and technology has become globally more equal or less equal between 1990 and 2010. We show with the Gini coefficient that the global distribution of inventors has become more equal between major countries and regions. However, this trend has been largely due to the improved performance of only two major countries, China and India. The worst performing regions, totalling a population of almost 2 billion, are actually falling behind. Our results suggest that substantial parts of the global population have fallen further behind countries at the global frontier in their ability to create new knowledge and inventions, and that the catch-up among the least developed and middle-income countries is highly uneven, prompting questions about the nature and future of the global knowledge economy. PMID:25849202

  16. The global inventor gap: distribution and equality of world-wide inventive effort, 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Toivanen, Hannes; Suominen, Arho

    2015-01-01

    Applying distance-to-frontier analysis, we have used 2.9 million patents and population data to assess whether the relative capacity of world countries and major regions to create new knowledge and technology has become globally more equal or less equal between 1990 and 2010. We show with the Gini coefficient that the global distribution of inventors has become more equal between major countries and regions. However, this trend has been largely due to the improved performance of only two major countries, China and India. The worst performing regions, totalling a population of almost 2 billion, are actually falling behind. Our results suggest that substantial parts of the global population have fallen further behind countries at the global frontier in their ability to create new knowledge and inventions, and that the catch-up among the least developed and middle-income countries is highly uneven, prompting questions about the nature and future of the global knowledge economy.

  17. A world wide public health problem: the principal re-emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    De Luca D'Alessandro, E; Giraldi, G

    2011-01-01

    The extraordinary progress in the knowledge of infectious disease, the discovery of antibiotics and effective vaccines are among the great achievement of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. These achievement have led to a dramatic reduction in the levels of mortality from these diseases. According to the World Health Organization, the term "re-emerging infectious diseases" refers to infectious diseases, which although well known, have not been of recent public health importance. However, climate change, migration, changes in health services, antibiotic resistance, population increase, international travel, the increase in the number of immune-depressed patients ,etc have lead to the re-emergence of these diseases. The climate changes are exposing sectors of the population to inadequate fresh air, water, food and resources for survival which, in consequence, provoke increases in both internal and international migration. In this particular period in which we find ourselves, characterized by globalization, the international community has become aware that the re-emergence of these diseases poses an important risk for public health underlines the necessity to adopt appropriate strategies for their prevention and control. The re-emerging diseases of the twenty-first century are a serious problem for public health and even though there has been enormous progress in medical science and in the battle against infectious diseases, they are still a long way from being really brought under control. A well organized monitoring system would enable the epidemiological characteristics of the infectious diseases to be analyzed and the success or otherwise of preventive interventions to be precisely evaluated. For this reason, the World Health Organization and the European Union have discussed the formation of a collaborative network for the monitoring and control of re-emerging diseases and has initiated special programmes. The battle between humanity and infectious disease

  18. Photosystem II Function and Dynamics in Three Widely Used Arabidopsis thaliana Accessions

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Lan; Fristedt, Rikard; Vener, Alexander V.; Schoefs, Benoît; Spetea, Cornelia

    2012-01-01

    Columbia-0 (Col-0), Wassilewskija-4 (Ws-4), and Landsberg erecta-0 (Ler-0) are used as background lines for many public Arabidopsis mutant collections, and for investigation in laboratory conditions of plant processes, including photosynthesis and response to high-intensity light (HL). The photosystem II (PSII) complex is sensitive to HL and requires repair to sustain its function. PSII repair is a multistep process controlled by numerous factors, including protein phosphorylation and thylakoid membrane stacking. Here we have characterized the function and dynamics of PSII complex under growth-light and HL conditions. Ws-4 displayed 30% more thylakoid lipids per chlorophyll and 40% less chlorophyll per carotenoid than Col-0 and Ler-0. There were no large differences in thylakoid stacking, photoprotection and relative levels of photosynthetic complexes among the three accessions. An increased efficiency of PSII closure was found in Ws-4 following illumination with saturation flashes or continuous light. Phosphorylation of the PSII D1/D2 proteins was reduced by 50% in Ws-4 as compared to Col-0 and Ler-0. An increase in abundance of the responsible STN8 kinase in response to HL treatment was found in all three accessions, but Ws-4 displayed 50% lower levels than Col-0 and Ler-0. Despite this, the HL treatment caused in Ws-4 the lagest extent of PSII inactivation, disassembly, D1 protein degradation, and the largest decrease in the size of stacked thylakoids. The dilution of chlorophyll-protein complexes with additional lipids and carotenoids in Ws-4 may represent a mechanism to facilitate lateral protein traffic in the membrane, thus compensating for the lack of a full complement of STN8 kinase. Nevertheless, additional PSII damage occurs in Ws-4, which exceeds the D1 protein synthesis capacity, thus leading to enhanced photoinhibition. Our findings are valuable for selection of appropriate background line for PSII characterization in Arabidopsis mutants, and also

  19. The living legacy of the Harvard Pigeon Lab: quantitative analysis in the wide world.

    PubMed Central

    Logue, A W

    2002-01-01

    From the Harvard Pigeon Lab of the 1960s arose a behavior-analytic approach that was quantitative and rigorous, rooted in Herrnstein's matching law. Researchers modified the matching law to describe choice behavior in a variety of different settings and examined its relations with other quantitative models. Beginning in the early 1970s, researchers began using the Harvard Pigeon Lab's quantitative framework to study in the laboratory specific aspects of the world outside the laboratory. Much of this work concerned investigations of self-control-choice of a larger, more delayed reinforcer over a smaller, less delayed reinforcer. Experiments using a quantitative framework derived from the matching law have also been conducted outside the laboratory; however, these have been far less frequent. Current and future researchers will benefit the field by devising new, creative ways to investigate the matching law and related quantitative models outside the laboratory. Such research can help to demonstrate the validity of these models as basic principles of behavior, can enhance public opinion of and rewards for such research, and can stimulate further development of the Harvard Pigeon Lab's quantitative approach by using that approach with new variables. PMID:12083687

  20. The living legacy of the Harvard Pigeon Lab: quantitative analysis in the wide world.

    PubMed

    Logue, A W

    2002-05-01

    From the Harvard Pigeon Lab of the 1960s arose a behavior-analytic approach that was quantitative and rigorous, rooted in Herrnstein's matching law. Researchers modified the matching law to describe choice behavior in a variety of different settings and examined its relations with other quantitative models. Beginning in the early 1970s, researchers began using the Harvard Pigeon Lab's quantitative framework to study in the laboratory specific aspects of the world outside the laboratory. Much of this work concerned investigations of self-control-choice of a larger, more delayed reinforcer over a smaller, less delayed reinforcer. Experiments using a quantitative framework derived from the matching law have also been conducted outside the laboratory; however, these have been far less frequent. Current and future researchers will benefit the field by devising new, creative ways to investigate the matching law and related quantitative models outside the laboratory. Such research can help to demonstrate the validity of these models as basic principles of behavior, can enhance public opinion of and rewards for such research, and can stimulate further development of the Harvard Pigeon Lab's quantitative approach by using that approach with new variables.

  1. Evaluation of the Liu model for predicting rainfall interception in forests world-wide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Shu-Guang

    2001-01-01

    Simple but effective models are needed for the prediction of rainfall interception under a full range of environmental and management conditions. The Liu model was validated using data published in the literature and was compared with two leading models in the literature: the Rutter and the Gash models. The Liu model was tested against the Rutter model on a single-storm basis with interception measurements observed from an old-growth Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forest in Oregon, USA. Simulated results by the Liu model were close to the measurements and comparable to those predicted by the Rutter model. The Liu model was further tested against the Gash model on a multistorm basis. The Gash and Liu models successfully predicted long-term interception losses from a broad range of 20 forests around the world. Results also indicated that both the Gash and the Liu models could be used to predict rainfall interception using daily rainfall data, although it was assumed in both models that there is only one storm per rain day. The sensitivity of the Liu model to stand storage capacity, canopy gap fraction and evaporation rate from wet canopy surface during rainfall was investigated. Results indicate that the Liu model has the simplest form, least data requirements and comparable accuracy for predicting rainfall interception as compared with the Rutter and the Gash models.

  2. World-wide deployment of Robo-AO visible-light robotic laser adaptive optics systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed; Law, Nicholas Michael; Lu, Jessica R.; Tonry, John; Tully, R. Brent; Wright, Shelley; Kulkarni, Shrinivas; Severson, Scott; Choi, Philip; Ramaprakash, A.; Chun, Mark; Connelley, Mike; Tokunaga, Alan; Hall, Donald

    2015-08-01

    In the next few years, several modest-sized telescopes around the world will be upgraded with autonomous laser adaptive optics systems based on the Robo-AO prototype deployed at the Palomar Observatory 1.5-m telescope. The prototype commenced scientific operations in June 2012 and more than 19,000 observations have since been performed at the ~0.12" visible-light diffraction limit. We are planning to move the prototype system to the 2.1-m telescope at Kitt Peak for a 3-year deployment which will serve a consortium of users including Caltech, the University of Hawai`i, IUCAA, NCU and institutions in China. Additionally, 2 months per year will be made available to the US astronomical community.New Robo-AO systems are in various stages of development: a clone by IUCAA for the 2-m IGO telescope in India; a natural guide star variant, KAPAO, by Pomona College at the 1-m Table Mountain telescope in California; and second generation Robo-AO systems are planned for the 3-m IRTF and 2.2-m University of Hawai'i telescopes on Maunakea, Hawai`i. The latter will exploit Maunakea's excellent observing conditions to provide higher Strehl ratios, sharper imaging, ~0.07", and correction to lambda = 400 nm. An additional infrared integral-field spectrograph will be fed by the UH 2.2-m Robo-AO system to quickly classify transients, such as supernovae and asteroids, discovered by the ATLAS system in Hawai`i.

  3. Autonomous Satellite Command and Control Through the World Wide Web. Phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantwell, Brian; Twiggs, Robert

    1998-01-01

    The Automated Space System Experimental Testbed (ASSET) system is a simple yet comprehensive real-world operations network being developed. Phase 3 of the ASSET Project was January-December 1997 and is the subject of this report. This phase permitted SSDL and its project partners to expand the ASSET system in a variety of ways. These added capabilities included the advancement of ground station capabilities, the adaptation of spacecraft on-board software, and the expansion of capabilities of the ASSET management algorithms. Specific goals of Phase 3 were: (1) Extend Web-based goal-level commanding for both the payload PI and the spacecraft engineer. (2) Support prioritized handling of multiple (PIs) Principle Investigators as well as associated payload experimenters. (3) Expand the number and types of experiments supported by the ASSET system and its associated spacecraft. (4) Implement more advanced resource management, modeling and fault management capabilities that integrate the space and ground segments of the space system hardware. (5) Implement a beacon monitoring test. (6) Implement an experimental blackboard controller for space system management. (7) Further define typical ground station developments required for Internet-based remote control and for full system automation of the PI-to-spacecraft link. Each of those goals are examined. Significant sections of this report were also published as a conference paper. Several publications produced in support of this grant are included as attachments. Titles include: 1) Experimental Initiatives in Space System Operations; 2) The ASSET Client Interface: Balancing High Level Specification with Low Level Control; 3) Specifying Spacecraft Operations At The Product/Service Level; 4) The Design of a Highly Configurable, Reusable Operating System for Testbed Satellites; 5) Automated Health Operations For The Sapphire Spacecraft; 6) Engineering Data Summaries for Space Missions; and 7) Experiments In Automated Health

  4. Dissemination of information about the technologies of the Vision Research Lab through the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorais, Christopher M.

    2004-01-01

    The Vision Research Lab at NASA John Glenn Research Center is headed by Dr. Rafat Ansari. Dr. Ansari and other researchers have developed technologies that primarily use laser and fiber optics to non-invasively detect different ailments and diseases of the eye. One of my goals as a LERCIP intern and ACCESS scholar for the 2004 summer is to inform other NASA employees, researchers and the general public about these technologies through the development of a website. The website incorporates the theme that the eye is a window to the body. Thus by investigating the processes of the eye, we can better understand and diagnosis different ailments and diseases. These ailments occur in not only earth bound humans, but astronauts as well as a result of exposure to elevated levels of radiation and microgravity conditions. Thus the technologies being developed at the Vision Research Lab are invaluable to humans on Earth in addition to those astronauts in space. One of my first goals was to research the technologies being developed at the lab. The first several days were spent immersing myself in the various articles, journals and reports about the theories behind Dynamic Light Scattering, Laser Doppler Flowmetry, Autofluoresence, Raman Spectroscopy, Polarimetry and Oximetry. Interviews with the other researchers proved invaluable to help understand these theories as well gain hands on experience with the devices being developed using these technologies. The rest of the Vision Research Team and I sat down and discussed how the overall website should be presented. Combining this information with the knowledge of the theories and applications of the hardware being developed, I worked out different ideas to present this information. I quickly learned Paint Shop Pro 8 and FrontPage 2002, as well as using online tutorials and other resources to help design an effective website. The Vision Research Lab website incorporates the anatomy and physiology of the eye, different diseases

  5. Confluence of genes, environment, development, and behavior in a post Genome-Wide Association Study world.

    PubMed

    Vrieze, Scott I; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2012-11-01

    This article serves to outline a research paradigm to investigate main effects and interactions of genes, environment, and development on behavior and psychiatric illness. We provide a historical context for candidate gene studies and genome-wide association studies, including benefits, limitations, and expected payoffs. Using substance use and abuse as our driving example, we then turn to the importance of etiological psychological theory in guiding genetic, environmental, and developmental research, as well as the utility of refined phenotypic measures, such as endophenotypes, in the pursuit of etiological understanding and focused tests of genetic and environmental associations. Phenotypic measurement has received considerable attention in the history of psychology and is informed by psychometrics, whereas the environment remains relatively poorly measured and is often confounded with genetic effects (i.e., gene-environment correlation). Genetically informed designs, which are no longer limited to twin and adoption studies thanks to ever-cheaper genotyping, are required to understand environmental influences. Finally, we outline the vast amount of individual difference in structural genomic variation, most of which remains to be leveraged in genetic association tests. Although the genetic data can be massive and burdensome (tens of millions of variants per person), we argue that improved understanding of genomic structure and function will provide investigators with new tools to test specific a priori hypotheses derived from etiological psychological theory, much like current candidate gene research but with less confusion and more payoff than candidate gene research has to date. PMID:23062291

  6. Nutrient Intake Values for Folate during Pregnancy and Lactation Vary Widely around the World

    PubMed Central

    Stamm, Rosemary A.; Houghton, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    Folate is a B-vitamin with particular importance during reproduction due to its role in the synthesis and maintenance of DNA. Folate is well known for its role in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) during the periconceptional period. There is also an increased need for folate throughout pregnancy to support optimal growth and development of the fetus and blood volume expansion and tissue growth of the mother. During lactation, women are at risk of folate deficiency due to increased demands to accommodate milk folate levels. Nutrient Intake Values (NIVs) for folate have been calculated to take into account additional needs during pregnancy and lactation. However, these values vary widely between countries. For example, the folate requirement that is set to meet the needs of almost all healthy women during pregnancy varies from 300 µg/day in the United Kingdom to 750 µg/day in Mexico. Currently, there is no accepted standardized terminology or framework for establishing NIVs. This article reviews country-specific NIVs for folate during pregnancy and lactation and the basis for setting these reference values. PMID:24084052

  7. Genome-wide profiling of nucleosome sensitivity and chromatin accessibility in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Chereji, Răzvan V; Kan, Tsung-Wai; Grudniewska, Magda K; Romashchenko, Alexander V; Berezikov, Eugene; Zhimulev, Igor F; Guryev, Victor; Morozov, Alexandre V; Moshkin, Yuri M

    2016-02-18

    Nucleosomal DNA is thought to be generally inaccessible to DNA-binding factors, such as micrococcal nuclease (MNase). Here, we digest Drosophila chromatin with high and low concentrations of MNase to reveal two distinct nucleosome types: MNase-sensitive and MNase-resistant. MNase-resistant nucleosomes assemble on sequences depleted of A/T and enriched in G/C-containing dinucleotides, whereas MNase-sensitive nucleosomes form on A/T-rich sequences found at transcription start and termination sites, enhancers and DNase I hypersensitive sites. Estimates of nucleosome formation energies indicate that MNase-sensitive nucleosomes tend to be less stable than MNase-resistant ones. Strikingly, a decrease in cell growth temperature of about 10°C makes MNase-sensitive nucleosomes less accessible, suggesting that observed variations in MNase sensitivity are related to either thermal fluctuations of chromatin fibers or the activity of enzymatic machinery. In the vicinity of active genes and DNase I hypersensitive sites nucleosomes are organized into periodic arrays, likely due to 'phasing' off potential barriers formed by DNA-bound factors or by nucleosomes anchored to their positions through external interactions. The latter idea is substantiated by our biophysical model of nucleosome positioning and energetics, which predicts that nucleosomes immediately downstream of transcription start sites are anchored and recapitulates nucleosome phasing at active genes significantly better than sequence-dependent models.

  8. Evolution of grid-wide access to database resident information in ATLAS using Frontier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberis, D.; Bujor, F.; de Stefano, J.; Dewhurst, A. L.; Dykstra, D.; Front, D.; Gallas, E.; Gamboa, C. F.; Luehring, F.; Walker, R.

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS experiment deployed Frontier technology worldwide during the initial year of LHC collision data taking to enable user analysis jobs running on the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid to access database resident data. Since that time, the deployment model has evolved to optimize resources, improve performance, and streamline maintenance of Frontier and related infrastructure. In this presentation we focus on the specific changes in the deployment and improvements undertaken, such as the optimization of cache and launchpad location, the use of RPMs for more uniform deployment of underlying Frontier related components, improvements in monitoring, optimization of fail-over, and an increasing use of a centrally managed database containing site specific information (for configuration of services and monitoring). In addition, analysis of Frontier logs has allowed us a deeper understanding of problematic queries and understanding of use cases. Use of the system has grown beyond user analysis and subsystem specific tasks such as calibration and alignment, extending into production processing areas, such as initial reconstruction and trigger reprocessing. With a more robust and tuned system, we are better equipped to satisfy the still growing number of diverse clients and the demands of increasingly sophisticated processing and analysis.

  9. UN/ESA workshops on basic space science: an initiative in the world-wide development of astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haubold, Hans J.

    1998-12-01

    In 1990, the United Nations in cooperation with the European Space Agency initiated the organization of a series of annual Workshops on Basic Space Science for the benefit of astronomers and space scientists in Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, Western Asia, and Europe. This article summarizes accomplishments of seven of these Workshops and their follow-up projects with a view to enhance the world-wide development of astronomy and space science. The Workshops are being considered unique and a model for such an endeavour.

  10. Alcoa World Alumina: Plant-Wide Assessment at Arkansas Operations Reveals More than$900,000 in Potential Annual Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-07-01

    The plant-wide energy-efficiency assessment performed in 2001 at the Alcoa World Alumina Arkansas Operations in Bauxite, Arkansas, identified seven opportunities to save energy and reduce costs. By implementing five of these improvements, the facility can save 15,100 million British thermal units per year in natural gas and 8.76 million kilowatt-hours per year in electricity. This translates into approximate annual savings of$925,300 in direct energy costs and non-fuel operating and maintenance costs. The required capital investment is estimated at$271,200. The average payback period for all five projects would be approximately 8 months.

  11. Medical knowledge packages and their integration into health-care information systems and the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter; Rappelsberger, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Software-based medical knowledge packages (MKPs) are packages of highly structured medical knowledge that can be integrated into various health-care information systems or the World Wide Web. They have been established to provide different forms of clinical decision support such as textual interpretation of combinations of laboratory rest results, generating diagnostic hypotheses as well as confirmed and excluded diagnoses to support differential diagnosis in internal medicine, or for early identification and automatic monitoring of hospital-acquired infections. Technically, an MKP may consist of a number of inter-connected Arden Medical Logic Modules. Several MKPs have been integrated thus far into hospital, laboratory, and departmental information systems. This has resulted in useful and widely accepted software-based clinical decision support for the benefit of the patient, the physician, and the organization funding the health care system.

  12. Design and implementation of World Wide Web-based tools for image management in computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Henri, C J; Rubin, R K; Cox, R D; Bret, P M

    1997-08-01

    This article describes our experience in developing and using several web-based tools to facilitate access to and management of images from inside and outside of our department. Having recently eliminated film in ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a simple method was required to access imaging from computers already existing throughout the hospital. The success of the World Wide Web (WWW), the familiarity of endusers with web browsers, and the relative ease of developing user interfaces virtually dictated that such an approach be pursued in our case. The resulting web-based tools allow validated users to search our Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM)-compliant archive servers for specific exams; to download image data from a remote site; to request the retrieval of data from long-term storage; to view images, and to perform certain DICOM routing operations. The existing infrastructure of the internet has allowed us to develop a low-cost system capable of being used for teleradiology. Since low-level, machine-specific interface programming was avoided, these tools were developed rapidly and are easily adapted. The familiarity of browser-based interfaces has facilitated user acceptance, and the benefit of platform independence minimizes software portability concerns.

  13. A large-scale study of the world wide web: network correlation functions with scale-invariant boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludueña, Guillermo A.; Meixner, Harald; Kaczor, Gregor; Gros, Claudius

    2013-08-01

    We performed a large-scale crawl of the world wide web, covering 6.9 million domains and 57 million subdomains, including all high-traffic sites of the internet. We present a study of the correlations found between quantities measuring the structural relevance of each node in the network (the in- and out-degree, the local clustering coefficient, the first-neighbor in-degree and the Alexa rank). We find that some of these properties show strong correlation effects and that the dependencies occurring out of these correlations follow power laws not only for the averages, but also for the boundaries of the respective density distributions. In addition, these scale-free limits do not follow the same exponents as the corresponding averages. In our study we retain the directionality of the hyperlinks and develop a statistical estimate for the clustering coefficient of directed graphs. We include in our study the correlations between the in-degree and the Alexa traffic rank, a popular index for the traffic volume, finding non-trivial power-law correlations. We find that sites with more/less than about 103 links from different domains have remarkably different statistical properties, for all correlation functions studied, indicating towards an underlying hierarchical structure of the world wide web.

  14. Comparison of student outcomes and preferences in a traditional vs. World Wide Web-based baccalaureate nursing research course.

    PubMed

    Leasure, A R; Davis, L; Thievon, S L

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to compare student outcomes in an undergraduate research course taught using both World Wide Web-based distance learning technology and traditional pedagogy. Reasons given for enrolling in the traditional classroom section included the perception of increased opportunity for interaction, decreased opportunity to procrastinate, immediate feedback, and more meaningful learning activities. Reasons for selecting the Web group section included cost, convenience, and flexibility. Overall, there was no significant difference in examination scores between the two groups on the three multiple-choice examinations or for the course grades (t = -.96, P = .343). Students who reported that they were self-directed and had the ability to maintain their own pace and avoid procrastination were most suited to Web-based courses. The Web-based classes can help provide opportunities for methods of communication that are not traditionally nurtured in traditional classroom settings. Secondary benefits of the World Wide Web-based course were to increase student confidence with the computer, and introduce them to skills and opportunities they would not have had in the classroom. Additionally, over time and with practice, student's writing skills improved. PMID:10782758

  15. Comparison of student outcomes and preferences in a traditional vs. World Wide Web-based baccalaureate nursing research course.

    PubMed

    Leasure, A R; Davis, L; Thievon, S L

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to compare student outcomes in an undergraduate research course taught using both World Wide Web-based distance learning technology and traditional pedagogy. Reasons given for enrolling in the traditional classroom section included the perception of increased opportunity for interaction, decreased opportunity to procrastinate, immediate feedback, and more meaningful learning activities. Reasons for selecting the Web group section included cost, convenience, and flexibility. Overall, there was no significant difference in examination scores between the two groups on the three multiple-choice examinations or for the course grades (t = -.96, P = .343). Students who reported that they were self-directed and had the ability to maintain their own pace and avoid procrastination were most suited to Web-based courses. The Web-based classes can help provide opportunities for methods of communication that are not traditionally nurtured in traditional classroom settings. Secondary benefits of the World Wide Web-based course were to increase student confidence with the computer, and introduce them to skills and opportunities they would not have had in the classroom. Additionally, over time and with practice, student's writing skills improved.

  16. The shrinking world of girls at puberty: Violence and gender-divergent access to the public sphere among adolescents in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Hallman, Kelly K.; Kenworthy, Nora J.; Diers, Judith; Swan, Nick; Devnarain, Bashi

    2015-01-01

    Participatory mapping was undertaken with single-sex groups of grade 5 and grade 8–9 children in KwaZulu-Natal. Relative to grade 5 students, wide gender divergence in access to the public sphere was found at grade 8–9. With puberty, girls' worlds shrink, while boys' expand. At grade 5, female-defined community areas were equal or larger in size than those of males. Community area mapped by urban grade 8–9 girls, however, was only one-third that of male classmates and two-fifths that of grade 5 girls. Conversely, community area mapped by grade 8–9 boys was twice that of grade 5 boys. Similar differences emerged in the rural site. No female group rated a single community space as more than ‘somewhat safe’. Although curtailed spatial access is intended to protect girls, grade 8–9 girls reported most places in their small navigable areas as very unsafe. Expanded geographies of grade 8–9 boys contained a mix of safe and unsafe places. Reducing girls' access to the public sphere does not increase their perceived safety, but may instead limit their access to opportunities for human development. The findings emphasise the need for better violence prevention programming for very young adolescents. PMID:25303092

  17. New Technology and Digital Worlds: Analyzing Evidence of Equity in Access, Use, and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warschauer, Mark; Matuchniak, Tina

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors take a broad perspective on how to analyze issues of technology and equity for youth in the United States. They begin with "access" as a starting point, but consider not only whether diverse groups of youth have digital media available to them but also how that access is supported or constrained by technological and…

  18. Small World: Access to Higher Education between Methodological Nationalism and International Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goastellec, Gaele

    2010-01-01

    What do the shared norms emerging in the regulation of access reveal about the higher education internationalisation process? The history of access norms brings to light two characteristics of this process: the spreading of sociotechnic tools and the emergence of moral entrepreneurs. Based on case studies carried out in France, the US, South…

  19. Open-Access Textbooks and Financial Sustainability: A Case Study on Flat World Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, John, III; Wiley, David

    2011-01-01

    Many college students and their families are concerned about the high costs of textbooks. A company called Flat World Knowledge both gives away and sells open-source textbooks in a way it believes to be financially sustainable. This article reports on the financial sustainability of the Flat World Knowledge open-source textbook model after one…

  20. World Wide Wonder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jennifer G.

    2000-01-01

    High schools across the country are expanding their vocational course offerings through the Internet, closing the gap between small-town limitations and big-city opportunities. Even hands-on training is being offered online. (Author/JOW)

  1. Variations of the vertical cutoff rigidities for the world wide neutron monitor network during 1950-2020.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lev, Dorman

    2016-07-01

    Vertical cutoff rigidities for the world wide neutron monitor network are obtained with one year resolution during the period of 1950-2020 by the method of trajectory calculations. The models of Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field and International Geomagnetic Reference Field have been used. Besides, cutoff rigidities for the whole period were obtained using model by Tsyganenko Ts89 with involving yearly mean values of Kp index. In each case an estimation of penumbra contribution was made in approximation of flat and low spectra (index in variations spectrum 0 and -1) of cosmic ray variations. The results testify total decrease of cut off rigidities practically in the all locations, which is apparently connected to the common decrease of magnetic field in a considered period.

  2. The low availability of metadata elements for evaluating the quality of medical information on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Shon, J; Musen, M A

    1999-01-01

    A great barrier to the use of Internet resources for patient education is the concern over the quality of information available. We conducted a study to determine what information was available in Web pages, both within text and metadata source code, that could be used in the assessment of information quality. Analysis of pages retrieved from 97 unique sites using a simple keyword search for "breast cancer treatment" on a generic and a health-specific search engine revealed that basic publishing elements were present in low frequency: authorship (20%), attribution/references (32%), disclosure (41%), and currency (35%). Only one page retrieved contained all four elements. Automated extraction of metadata elements from the source code of 822 pages retrieved from five popular generic search engines revealed even less information. We discuss the design of a metadata-based system for the evaluation of quality of medical content on the World Wide Web that addresses current limitations in ensuring quality.

  3. The efficacy of using search engines in procuring information about orthopaedic foot and ankle problems from the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Nogler, M; Wimmer, C; Mayr, E; Ofner, D

    1999-05-01

    This study has attempted to demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining information specific to foot and ankle orthopaedics from the World Wide Web (WWW). Six search engines (Lycos, AltaVista, Infoseek, Excite, Webcrawler, and HotBot) were used in scanning the Web for the following key words: "cavus foot," "diabetic foot," "hallux valgus,"and "pes equinovarus." Matches were classified by language, provider, type, and relevance to medical professionals or to patients. Sixty percent (407 sites) of the visited websites contained information intended for use by physicians and other medical professionals; 30% (206 sites) were related to patient information; 10% of the sites were not easily classifiable. Forty-one percent (169 sites) of the websites were commercially oriented homepages that included advertisements.

  4. Mapping the footsteps of the green anole: A template for publishing ecological data on the World Wide Web

    SciTech Connect

    Carnes, E.T.; Truett, D.F.; Truett, L.F.

    1996-10-01

    In the handful of years since the World Wide Web (WWW or Web) came into being, Web sites have developed at an astonishing rate. With the influx of Web pages comes a disparity of site types, including personal homepages, commercial sales sites, and educational data. The variety of sites and the deluge of information contained on the Web exemplify the individual nature of the WWW. Whereas some people argue that it is this eclecticism which gives the Web its charm, we propose that sites which are repositories of technical data would benefit from standardization. This paper proffers a methodology for publishing ecological research on the Web. The template we describe uses capabilities of HTML (the HyperText Markup Language) to enhance the value of the traditional scientific paper.

  5. The efficacy of using search engines in procuring information about orthopaedic foot and ankle problems from the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Nogler, M; Wimmer, C; Mayr, E; Ofner, D

    1999-05-01

    This study has attempted to demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining information specific to foot and ankle orthopaedics from the World Wide Web (WWW). Six search engines (Lycos, AltaVista, Infoseek, Excite, Webcrawler, and HotBot) were used in scanning the Web for the following key words: "cavus foot," "diabetic foot," "hallux valgus,"and "pes equinovarus." Matches were classified by language, provider, type, and relevance to medical professionals or to patients. Sixty percent (407 sites) of the visited websites contained information intended for use by physicians and other medical professionals; 30% (206 sites) were related to patient information; 10% of the sites were not easily classifiable. Forty-one percent (169 sites) of the websites were commercially oriented homepages that included advertisements. PMID:10353772

  6. A model of clinical query management that supports integration of biomedical information over the World Wide Web.

    PubMed Central

    Detmer, W. M.; Shortliffe, E. H.

    1995-01-01

    A model of clinical query management is described that supports the integration of various types of biomedical information and the delivery of that information through a common interface. The model extends the architecture of the World Wide Web to include a Common Gateway Interface (CGI) mediator, which takes in user queries, performs syntactic and semantic processing to transform the input to a canonical form, selects the appropriate information sources to answer the query, translates the canonical query statement into a query of each information resource, queries the chosen information sources in parallel, and controls the analysis and display of results. We describe WebMedline, a CGI mediator that implements portions of this model, and discuss the benefits and limitations of this approach. PMID:8563422

  7. Internet Technology in Magnetic Resonance: A Common Gateway Interface Program for the World-Wide Web NMR Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buszko, Marian L.; Buszko, Dominik; Wang, Daniel C.

    1998-04-01

    A custom-written Common Gateway Interface (CGI) program for remote control of an NMR spectrometer using a World Wide Web browser has been described. The program, running on a UNIX workstation, uses multiple processes to handle concurrent tasks of interacting with the user and with the spectrometer. The program's parent process communicates with the browser and sends out commands to the spectrometer; the child process is mainly responsible for data acquisition. Communication between the processes is via the shared memory mechanism. The WWW pages that have been developed for the system make use of the frames feature of web browsers. The CGI program provides an intuitive user interface to the NMR spectrometer, making, in effect, a complex system an easy-to-use Web appliance.

  8. A model of clinical query management that supports integration of biomedical information over the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Detmer, W M; Shortliffe, E H

    1995-01-01

    A model of clinical query management is described that supports the integration of various types of biomedical information and the delivery of that information through a common interface. The model extends the architecture of the World Wide Web to include a Common Gateway Interface (CGI) mediator, which takes in user queries, performs syntactic and semantic processing to transform the input to a canonical form, selects the appropriate information sources to answer the query, translates the canonical query statement into a query of each information resource, queries the chosen information sources in parallel, and controls the analysis and display of results. We describe WebMedline, a CGI mediator that implements portions of this model, and discuss the benefits and limitations of this approach.

  9. Identification and Characterization of Highly Divergent Simian Foamy Viruses in a Wide Range of New World Primates from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Muniz, Cláudia P.; Troncoso, Lian L.; Moreira, Miguel A.; Soares, Esmeralda A.; Pissinatti, Alcides; Bonvicino, Cibele R.; Seuánez, Héctor N.; Sharma, Bechan; Jia, Hongwei; Shankar, Anupama; Switzer, William M.; Santos, André F.; Soares, Marcelo A.

    2013-01-01

    Foamy viruses naturally infect a wide range of mammals, including Old World (OWP) and New World primates (NWP), which are collectively called simian foamy viruses (SFV). While NWP species in Central and South America are highly diverse, only SFV from captive marmoset, spider monkey, and squirrel monkey have been genetically characterized and the molecular epidemiology of SFV infection in NWPs remains unknown. We tested a large collection of genomic DNA (n  = 332) comprising 14 genera of NWP species for the presence of SFV polymerase (pol) sequences using generic PCR primers. Further molecular characterization of positive samples was carried out by LTR-gag and larger pol sequence analysis. We identified novel SFVs infecting nine NWP genera. Prevalence rates varied between 14–30% in different species for which at least 10 specimens were tested. High SFV genetic diversity among NWP up to 50% in LTR-gag and 40% in pol was revealed by intragenus and intrafamilial comparisons. Two different SFV strains infecting two captive yellow-breasted capuchins did not group in species-specific lineages but rather clustered with SFVs from marmoset and spider monkeys, indicating independent cross-species transmission events. We describe the first SFV epidemiology study of NWP, and the first evidence of SFV infection in wild NWPs. We also document a wide distribution of distinct SFVs in 14 NWP genera, including two novel co-speciating SFVs in capuchins and howler monkeys, suggestive of an ancient evolutionary history in NWPs for at least 28 million years. A high SFV genetic diversity was seen among NWP, yet these viruses seem able to jump between NWP species and even genera. Our results raise concerns for the risk of zoonotic transmission of NWP SFV to humans as these primates are regularly hunted for food or kept as pets in forest regions of South America. PMID:23844033

  10. A pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) study that suggests a major world-wide clone of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Pang, Jen-Chieh; Chiu, Tsai-Hsin; Helmuth, Reiner; Schroeter, Andreas; Guerra, Beatriz; Tsen, Hau-Yang

    2007-05-30

    Since human infections by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) have been increasing world-wide over the past years and epidemiological studies have implicated the consumption of meat, poultry, eggs and egg products, elucidation of the predominant subtypes for this Salmonella spp. is important. In this study, 107 poultry and food isolates of Salmonella Enteritidis obtained from Germany were analyzed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and the subtypes were compared with those of the 124 human isolates obtained in Taiwan. Results showed that for these 107 poultry and food isolates, when XbaI, SpeI and NotI were used for chromosomal DNA digestion followed by PFGE analysis, a total of 19, 20 and 19 PFGE patterns, respectively, were identified. Of them, 51 (47.7%), 52 (48.6%) and 42 (39.3%) strains belong to a single pattern of X3, S3 and N3, respectively, and 34 strains belong to a pattern combination of X3S3N3, which was the major subtype. When PFGE patterns of these 107 German isolates were compared with those of the 124 human isolates obtained in Taiwan, pattern combination of X3S3N3 was found as the most common pattern shared by isolates from both areas. PT4 is a major phage type for German and Taiwan isolates. Although most of the X3S3N3 strains are of this phage type, some strains of other PFGE patterns are also of this phage type. Since strains used in this study were unrelated, i.e., they were isolated from different origins in areas geographically far apart from each other, the PFGE study suggests a major world-wide clone of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis.

  11. Toward a Next Generation of Widely Accessible Spatial Interfaces: Mobile VR Environments for Patients with Persistent Pain

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, David; Korsakov, Fedor; Jolton, Joseph; Keefe, Francis J.; Haley, Alex; Keefe, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    We present a series of multi-modal spatial interfaces and virtual environments that can be implemented with widely accessible virtual reality (VR) technologies. The results demonstrate and evaluate the new degree to which rich virtual experiences involving motion sensing, physiological inputs, stereoscopic imagery, sound, and haptic feedback can now be created using low-cost (e.g., mobile phone based) VR environments. Adapting spatial interfaces to these new platforms can open up exciting new application areas for VR. This is demonstrated through a series of prototype systems aimed at delivering in-home VR therapies to patients suffering from persistent pain conditions (e.g. arthritis pain, cancer pain). A rich spatial interface and visual aesthetic is particularly important for the success of these applications; thus an interdisciplinary team with expertise in technology, design, meditation, and the psychology of pain worked together to iteratively develop and evaluate the current prototypes. PMID:24807994

  12. Dynamic Interactive Educational Diabetes Simulations Using the World Wide Web: An Experience of More Than 15 Years with AIDA Online

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Eldon D.; DeWolf, Dennis K.; Novotny, Christopher A.; Reed, Karen; Gotwals, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    Background. AIDA is a widely available downloadable educational simulator of glucose-insulin interaction in diabetes. Methods. A web-based version of AIDA was developed that utilises a server-based architecture with HTML FORM commands to submit numerical data from a web-browser client to a remote web server. AIDA online, located on a remote server, passes the received data through Perl scripts which interactively produce 24 hr insulin and glucose simulations. Results. AIDA online allows users to modify the insulin regimen and diet of 40 different prestored “virtual diabetic patients” on the internet or create new “patients” with user-generated regimens. Multiple simulations can be run, with graphical results viewed via a standard web-browser window. To date, over 637,500 diabetes simulations have been run at AIDA online, from all over the world. Conclusions. AIDA online's functionality is similar to the downloadable AIDA program, but the mode of implementation and usage is different. An advantage to utilising a server-based application is the flexibility that can be offered. New modules can be added quickly to the online simulator. This has facilitated the development of refinements to AIDA online, which have instantaneously become available around the world, with no further local downloads or installations being required. PMID:24511312

  13. Dynamic Interactive Educational Diabetes Simulations Using the World Wide Web: An Experience of More Than 15 Years with AIDA Online.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Eldon D; Dewolf, Dennis K; Novotny, Christopher A; Reed, Karen; Gotwals, Robert R

    2014-01-01

    Background. AIDA is a widely available downloadable educational simulator of glucose-insulin interaction in diabetes. Methods. A web-based version of AIDA was developed that utilises a server-based architecture with HTML FORM commands to submit numerical data from a web-browser client to a remote web server. AIDA online, located on a remote server, passes the received data through Perl scripts which interactively produce 24 hr insulin and glucose simulations. Results. AIDA online allows users to modify the insulin regimen and diet of 40 different prestored "virtual diabetic patients" on the internet or create new "patients" with user-generated regimens. Multiple simulations can be run, with graphical results viewed via a standard web-browser window. To date, over 637,500 diabetes simulations have been run at AIDA online, from all over the world. Conclusions. AIDA online's functionality is similar to the downloadable AIDA program, but the mode of implementation and usage is different. An advantage to utilising a server-based application is the flexibility that can be offered. New modules can be added quickly to the online simulator. This has facilitated the development of refinements to AIDA online, which have instantaneously become available around the world, with no further local downloads or installations being required.

  14. Trade policy, health, and corporate influence: British American tobacco and China's accession to the World Trade Organization.

    PubMed

    Holden, Chris; Lee, Kelley; Gilmore, Anna; Fooks, Gary; Wander, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco market liberalization can have a profound impact on health. This article analyzes internal documents of British American Tobacco (BAT), released as a result of litigation in the United States, in order to examine the company's attempts to influence negotiations over China's accession to the World Trade Organization. The documents demonstrate that BAT attempted to influence these negotiations through a range of mechanisms, including personal access of BAT employees and lobbyists to policymakers; employment of former civil servants from key U.K. government departments; use of organized business groups such as the Multinational Chairmen's Group and the European Round Table; and participation and leadership in forums organized by Chatham House. These processes contributed to significant concessions on the liberalization of the tobacco market in China, although the failure to break the Chinese state monopoly over the manufacture and distribution of cigarettes has ensured that foreign tobacco companies' share of the Chinese market has remained small. World Trade Organization accession has nevertheless led to a profound restructuring of the Chinese tobacco industry in anticipation of foreign competition, which may result in more market-based and internationally oriented Chinese tobacco firms. PMID:20799669

  15. Trade policy, health, and corporate influence: British American tobacco and China's accession to the World Trade Organization.

    PubMed

    Holden, Chris; Lee, Kelley; Gilmore, Anna; Fooks, Gary; Wander, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco market liberalization can have a profound impact on health. This article analyzes internal documents of British American Tobacco (BAT), released as a result of litigation in the United States, in order to examine the company's attempts to influence negotiations over China's accession to the World Trade Organization. The documents demonstrate that BAT attempted to influence these negotiations through a range of mechanisms, including personal access of BAT employees and lobbyists to policymakers; employment of former civil servants from key U.K. government departments; use of organized business groups such as the Multinational Chairmen's Group and the European Round Table; and participation and leadership in forums organized by Chatham House. These processes contributed to significant concessions on the liberalization of the tobacco market in China, although the failure to break the Chinese state monopoly over the manufacture and distribution of cigarettes has ensured that foreign tobacco companies' share of the Chinese market has remained small. World Trade Organization accession has nevertheless led to a profound restructuring of the Chinese tobacco industry in anticipation of foreign competition, which may result in more market-based and internationally oriented Chinese tobacco firms.

  16. The Big Census Data Revolution: IPUMS-International. Trans-Border Access to Decades of Census Samples for Three-Fourths of the World and more

    PubMed Central

    McCaa, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade a revolution has occurred in the dissemination and analysis of census microdata. This paper discusses the IPUMS-International initiative to liberate census data for researchers world-wide without cost. As of June 2013, academic researchers and policy makers may access, 234 anonymized samples representing 74 countries and totaling over one-half billion person records. The database expands with the addition of 20–30 samples each year. Data are downloadable as extracts from the project website: www.ipums.org/international. To facilitate good use, both metadata and microdata are integrated. The analysis of 450 citations in the project bibliography reveals patterns in publications by country and topic. PMID:25506369

  17. Online Public Access Catalog: The Google Maps of the Library World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Kieren

    2011-01-01

    What do Google Maps and a library's Online Public Access Catalog (OPAC) have in common? Google Maps provides users with all the information they need for a trip in one place; users can get directions and find out what attractions, hotels, and restaurants are close by. Librarians must find the ultimate OPAC that will provide, in one place, all the…

  18. Mobilizing Curriculum Studies in a (Virtual) World: Open Access, Edupunks, and the Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Julie Ann; Ng-A-Fook, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Despite societal imperatives for equity--whether espoused by nation states or transnational agencies like UNESCO--current models of higher education are unequivocally failing to provide universal access. This paper seeks to explore the (cyber)spaces (un)occupied by higher education, specifically in the area of curriculum studies, arguing that the…

  19. Mind the gaps - the epidemiology of poor-quality anti-malarials in the malarious world - analysis of the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network database

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Poor quality medicines threaten the lives of millions of patients and are alarmingly common in many parts of the world. Nevertheless, the global extent of the problem remains unknown. Accurate estimates of the epidemiology of poor quality medicines are sparse and are influenced by sampling methodology and diverse chemical analysis techniques. In order to understand the existing data, the Antimalarial Quality Scientific Group at WWARN built a comprehensive, open-access, global database and linked Antimalarial Quality Surveyor, an online visualization tool. Analysis of the database is described here, the limitations of the studies and data reported, and their public health implications discussed. Methods The database collates customized summaries of 251 published anti-malarial quality reports in English, French and Spanish by time and location since 1946. It also includes information on assays to determine quality, sampling and medicine regulation. Results No publicly available reports for 60.6% (63) of the 104 malaria-endemic countries were found. Out of 9,348 anti-malarials sampled, 30.1% (2,813) failed chemical/packaging quality tests with 39.3% classified as falsified, 2.3% as substandard and 58.3% as poor quality without evidence available to categorize them as either substandard or falsified. Only 32.3% of the reports explicitly described their definitions of medicine quality and just 9.1% (855) of the samples collected in 4.6% (six) surveys were conducted using random sampling techniques. Packaging analysis was only described in 21.5% of publications and up to twenty wrong active ingredients were found in falsified anti-malarials. Conclusions There are severe neglected problems with anti-malarial quality but there are important caveats to accurately estimate the prevalence and distribution of poor quality anti-malarials. The lack of reports in many malaria-endemic areas, inadequate sampling techniques and inadequate chemical analytical methods and

  20. Number Worlds: Visual and Experimental Access to Elementary Number Theory Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Nathalie; Zazkis, Rina; Liljedahl, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Recent research demonstrates that many issues related to the structure of natural numbers and the relationship among numbers are not well grasped by students. In this article, we describe a computer-based learning environment called "Number Worlds" that was designed to support the exploration of elementary number theory concepts by making the…

  1. Affordances of students' using the World Wide Web as a publishing medium in project-based learning environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, Nathan Daniel

    This dissertation investigates the emerging affordance of the World Wide Web as a place for high school students to become authors and publishers of information. Two empirical studies lay groundwork for student publishing by examining learning issues related to audience adaptation in writing, motivation and engagement with hypermedia, design, problem-solving, and critical evaluation. Two models of student publishing on the World Wide Web were investigated over the course of two 11spth grade project-based science curriculums. In the first curricular model, students worked in pairs to design informative hypermedia projects about infectious diseases that were published on the Web. Four case studies were written, drawing on both product- and process-related data sources. Four theoretically important findings are illustrated through these cases: (1) multimedia, especially graphics, seemed to catalyze some students' design processes by affecting the sequence of their design process and by providing a connection between the science content and their personal interest areas, (2) hypermedia design can demand high levels of analysis and synthesis of science content, (3) students can learn to think about science content representation through engagement with challenging design tasks, and (4) students' consideration of an outside audience can be facilitated by teacher-given design principles. The second Web-publishing model examines how students critically evaluate scientific resources on the Web, and how students can contribute to the Web's organization and usability by publishing critical reviews. Students critically evaluated Web resources using a four-part scheme: summarization of content, content, evaluation of credibility, evaluation of organizational structure, and evaluation of appearance. Content analyses comparing students' reviews and reviewed Web documents showed that students were proficient at summarizing content of Web documents, identifying their publishing

  2. Genome-Wide Association Study for Traits Related to Plant and Grain Morphology, and Root Architecture in Temperate Rice Accessions

    PubMed Central

    Cozzi, Paolo; Casella, Laura; Riccardi, Paolo; Vattari, Alessandra; Orasen, Gabriele; Perrini, Rosaria; Tacconi, Gianni; Tondelli, Alessandro; Biselli, Chiara; Cattivelli, Luigi; Spindel, Jennifer; McCouch, Susan; Abbruscato, Pamela; Valé, Giampiero; Piffanelli, Pietro; Greco, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    Background In this study we carried out a genome-wide association analysis for plant and grain morphology and root architecture in a unique panel of temperate rice accessions adapted to European pedo-climatic conditions. This is the first study to assess the association of selected phenotypic traits to specific genomic regions in the narrow genetic pool of temperate japonica. A set of 391 rice accessions were GBS-genotyped yielding—after data editing—57000 polymorphic and informative SNPS, among which 54% were in genic regions. Results In total, 42 significant genotype-phenotype associations were detected: 21 for plant morphology traits, 11 for grain quality traits, 10 for root architecture traits. The FDR of detected associations ranged from 3 · 10−7 to 0.92 (median: 0.25). In most cases, the significant detected associations co-localised with QTLs and candidate genes controlling the phenotypic variation of single or multiple traits. The most significant associations were those for flag leaf width on chromosome 4 (FDR = 3 · 10−7) and for plant height on chromosome 6 (FDR = 0.011). Conclusions We demonstrate the effectiveness and resolution of the developed platform for high-throughput phenotyping, genotyping and GWAS in detecting major QTLs for relevant traits in rice. We identified strong associations that may be used for selection in temperate irrigated rice breeding: e.g. associations for flag leaf width, plant height, root volume and length, grain length, grain width and their ratio. Our findings pave the way to successfully exploit the narrow genetic pool of European temperate rice and to pinpoint the most relevant genetic components contributing to the adaptability and high yield of this germplasm. The generated data could be of direct use in genomic-assisted breeding strategies. PMID:27228161

  3. Toward Robust Climate Baselining: Objective Assessment of Climate Change Using Widely Distributed Miniaturized Sensors for Accurate World-Wide Geophysical Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Teller, E; Leith, C; Canavan, G; Marion, J; Wood, L

    2001-11-13

    A gap-free, world-wide, ocean-, atmosphere-, and land surface-spanning geophysical data-set of three decades time-duration containing the full set of geophysical parameters characterizing global weather is the scientific perquisite for defining the climate; the generally-accepted definition in the meteorological community is that climate is the 30-year running-average of weather. Until such a tridecadal climate base line exists, climate change discussions inevitably will have a semi-speculative, vs. a purely scientific, character, as the baseline against which changes are referenced will be at least somewhat uncertain. The contemporary technology base provides ways-and-means for commencing the development of such a meteorological measurement-intensive climate baseline, moreover with a program budget far less than the {approx}$2.5 B/year which the US. currently spends on ''global change'' studies. In particular, the recent advent of satellite-based global telephony enables real-time control of, and data-return from, instrument packages of very modest scale, and Silicon Revolution-based sensor, data-processing and -storage advances permit 'intelligent' data-gathering payloads to be created with 10 gram-scale mass budgets. A geophysical measurement system implemented in such modern technology is a populous constellation 03 long-lived, highly-miniaturized robotic weather stations deployed throughout the weather-generating portions of the Earths atmosphere, throughout its oceans and across its land surfaces. Leveraging the technological advances of the OS, the filly-developed atmospheric weather station of this system has a projected weight of the order of 1 ounce, and contains a satellite telephone, a GPS receiver, a full set of atmospheric sensing instruments and a control computer - and has an operational life of the order of 1 year and a mass-production cost of the order of $20. Such stations are effectively ''intra-atmospheric satellites'' but likely have serial

  4. Access to essential paediatric eye surgery in the developing world: a case of congenital cataracts left untreated.

    PubMed

    Vinluan, Marilyn L; Olveda, Remigio M; Olveda, David U; Chy, Delia; Ross, Allen G

    2015-01-01

    Childhood cataracts are a major cause of treatable blindness. Early recognition, surgical intervention and appropriate follow-up after surgery can result in good visual outcomes. However, several factors may impact on the availability of such services, including lack of an available, affordable and accessible comprehensive eye care centre, financial limitations affecting coverage by the national healthcare provider, and household socioeconomic status. We report a case of congenital cataracts in a 12-year-old male adolescent from Northern Samar, the Philippines, who was left blind since birth. This case highlights the disparities in essential health services in the developing world and the challenges patients face in getting the care they need.

  5. Achieving sustainability, quality and access: lessons from the world's largest revolving drug fund in Khartoum.

    PubMed

    Witter, S

    2007-01-01

    Ensuring a reliable and affordable supply of essential drugs to health facilities is one of the main challenges facing developing countries. This paper describes the revolving drug fund in Khartoum, which was set up in 1989 to improve access to high quality drugs across the State. An evaluation in 2004 showed that the fund has successfully managed a number of threats to its financial sustainability and has expanded its network of facilities, its range of products and its financial assets. It now supplies essential drugs to 3 million out of the 5 million population of Khartoum each year, at prices between 40% and 100% less than alternative sources. However, results illustrated the tension between achieving an efficient cost-recovery system and access for the poorest.

  6. Examining Our Instrumented World for Greater Understanding; N.E.S.O. Provides Access to NASA Remote Sensing Data That Describes Our World and How It Is Changing.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    NASA Earth and Space Observations (NESO) is an interactive map and measurements tool that fosters active sharing and discussion among dispersed learners and educators in both formal and informal settings. NESO provides access to timely and relevant remote sensing data which will enable novice or non-technical users to pursue a scientific inquiry process to reach conclusions about our changing world as scientists might do. Participants in this session will gain a working knowledge of how to ask questions of NASA data using the functionality and interactivity of our tool across three platforms; a webpage, an iPad app, and NOAA's Science on a Sphere(SOS). We will access data to create animations and time series over entire missions and allow the user to generate specific statistics and graphs.The name NESO is derived from the web tool NEO which provided the original functionality, and Earth Science data sets. The tool has been enhanced and expanded to include Space Science data sets such as planetary, lunar, and all-sky maps, and we are continuing to expand the data catalog. Our future work includes a support web page for educators and other users with samples of analysis and lesson plans. The next phase of tool development will include layering capability, floating point data handling, and an additional server mode to drive other display technologies such as high resolution flat panel systems.

  7. The Biosphere 2 Global Change Testbed world wide web server: closed system research and education using the Internet

    PubMed

    Tosteson, J L; Marino, B D

    1996-01-01

    At this time, a fully materially closed system of large scale and complexity has not yet been built. However, Biosphere 2--a unique "living" Earth laboratory--is an example of a large (3.15 acres) and biologically complex (several thousand terrestrial plant species) system that can be operated with minimal exchange of ambient substances (annual exchange of materials is estimated to be approximately 10%). Biosphere 2 provides a multidisciplinary platform for scientific studies related to both Earth system processes and microcosms of the Earth that may be transported into space. The scale and versatility of the facility make Biosphere 2 a unique place to support integrated research and educational activities. The Biosphere 2 Global Change Testbed world wide web server has been developed to facilitate such activities by disseminating information about the facility, as well as current research and education efforts. Currently, these efforts focus of studies on carbon and other elemental cycles, coral reef ecology and physiology, stable isotopic research, studies in biodiversity, and ecophysiological studies of plant responses to elevated CO2. The Biosphere 2 Global Change Testbed web server is briefly described, and goals for use of the server to promote research and education endeavors are outlined.

  8. Driving nanocars and nanomachines at interfaces: From concept of nanoarchitectonics to actual use in world wide race and hand operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, Yasuhiro; Minami, Kosuke; Nakanishi, Waka; Yonamine, Yusuke; Joachim, Christian; Ariga, Katsuhiko

    2016-11-01

    Nanomachine and molecular machines are state-of-the-art objects in current physics and chemistry. The operation and manufacturing of nanosize machines are top-level technologies that we have desired to accomplish for a long time. There have been extensive attempts to design and synthesize nanomachines. In this paper, we review the these attempts using the concept of nanoarchitectonics toward the design, synthesis, and testing of molecular machinery, especially at interfacial media. In the first half of this review, various historical attempts to design and prepare nanomachines are introduced as well as their operation mechanisms from their basic principles. Furthermore, in order to emphasize the importance and possibilities of this research field, we also give examples of two new challenging topics in the second half of this review: (i) a world wide nanocar race and (ii) new modes of nanomachine operation on water. The nanocar race event involves actual use of nanomachines and will take place in the near future, and nanomachine operation of a dynamic fluidic interface will enable future advances in nanomachine science and technology.

  9. Global detection of explosive volcanic eruptions with the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) and application to aviation safety (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewert, J. W.; Holzworth, R. H.; Diefenbach, A. K.

    2010-12-01

    The hazards of volcanic ash to modern aviation are now widely known, and there is a concerted global effort on the part of volcano observatories, meteorological services, and civil aviation authorities to keep aircraft out of harm’s way. A major issue with providing rapid notification of dangerous eruptions is that only about 50% of the world's volcanoes that currently threaten air operations have any sort of ground-based, real-time monitoring; thus, timely detection of explosive eruptions is more difficult owing to reliance on satellite remote sensing. We have been evaluating the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN, see http://wwlln.net) as a tool to detect volcanogenic lightning associated with explosive eruptions worldwide to aid rapid eruption reporting for aviation. The WWLLN has a data latency of one minute and thus can detect and report volcanogenic lightning in near-real time. We compared explosive volcanic activity worldwide (data from the Smithsonian’s Global Volcanism Program, volcano observatory reports, Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) reports, and ancillary data sources) with the entire catalog of WWLLN data for 2008 and 2009 to determine the eruption-detection capabilities of the system. Duration and number of WWLLN lightning detections is positively correlated with eruption magnitude. In 2008 the WWLLN detected lightning from all eruptions VEI 4 or larger (Chaiten, Chile; Kasatochi and Okmok, Alaska, USA), as well as four out of six of the ~VEI 3 and two ~VEI 2 eruptions. In 2009 the WWLLN detected the single VEI 4 eruption (Sarychev Peak, Kurile Islands, Russia), four out six of the ~VEI 3 and a single VEI 2 eruption. At volcanoes where eruption-onset times are well determined by seismic or remote sensing means, lightning flashes started within 4 to 58 minutes of eruption onset. Lightning was detected from eruptions that produced ash clouds with heights that ranged from approximately 1-15 km above the vent, with most >9 km. Detected

  10. Accessing numeric data via flags and tags: A final report on a real world experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kottenstette, J. P.; Freeman, J. E.; Staskin, E. R.; Hargrave, C. W.

    1978-01-01

    An experiment is reported which: extended the concepts of data flagging and tagging to the aerospace scientific and technical literature; generated experience with the assignment of data summaries and data terms by documentation specialists; and obtained real world assessments of data summaries and data terms in information products and services. Inclusion of data summaries and data terms improved users' understanding of referenced documents from a subject perspective as well as from a data perspective; furthermore, a radical shift in document ordering behavior occurred during the experiment toward proportionately more requests for data-summarized items.

  11. First world wide annual time-series of silica production and dissolution rates in a coastal ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beucher, C.; Treguer, P.; Corvaisier, R.

    2003-04-01

    This study was conducted, from April 2001 to April 2002, in the surface waters of SOMLIT-Brest station located at the outlet of the bay of Brest, a well-mixed anthropogenically nitrate-enriched macrotidal ecosystem, typical of western Europe. This study presents: (1) the first world wide annual time-series of the weekly variability of the rates of production (P) and dissolution (D) of biosilica (BSiO2) measured using 30Si stable isotope technique and validated by mass balance, and (2) the first evidence of the end of the year-round dominance of diatoms in this ecosystem. From spring to mid-summer the successive phytoplankton blooms were dominated by diatoms. The silicic acid concentration, although severely depleted relative to winter, was not completely exhausted (mean: 1.62 µM); the BSiO2 concentration, production and dissolution rates were high, averaging 1.26 µmol L-1, 0.96 µmol L-1 d-1, and 0.40 µmol L-1 d-1, respectively. From mid-summer to mid-fall the non-siliceous phytoplankters predominated, silicic acid being poorly used (mean : 4.67 µM); the BSiO2 concentration, production and dissolution rates were low averaging 0.69 µmol L-1, 0.10 µmol L-1 d-1, and 0.04 µmol L-1 d-1, respectively. The shift from diatoms to dinoflagellates dominance was under bottom-up control (phosphate and dissolved inorganic nitrogen being at limiting concentrations contrary to silicic acid).

  12. The Common Gateway Interface (CGI) for Enhancing Access to Database Servers via the World Wide Web (WWW).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machovec, George S., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Explains the Common Gateway Interface (CGI) protocol as a set of rules for passing information from a Web server to an external program such as a database search engine. Topics include advantages over traditional client/server solutions, limitations, sample library applications, and sources of information from the Internet. (LRW)

  13. Preserving Access to Small Observatories throughout the World: The Role of University Consortia and Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswalt, T. D.

    The diminishing availability of small (1m-2m) telescopes at national facilities throughout the world requires that new models for operating such facilities must be developed if they are to be preserved for the next generation of astronomers. Their users, typically students and faculty at small universities, must achieve an equitable voice in decisions affecting those facilities which support their education and research. In exchange, they must assume a larger role in the facilities' operation, management and funding. Drawing upon the experiences of several existing organizations in the U.S., such as the Southeastern Association for Research in Astronomy (SARA), we discuss the feasibility of implementing similar survival plans for small observatories in developing countries. In particular we discuss the merits of: (1) forming small consortia to pool the necessary resources to acquire and operate facilities; (2) creating informal international networks of consortia and/or individual institutions; (3) establishing modest travel support programs for international students and isolated faculty to facilitate their participation in existing internship programs and projects outside their home countries; and (4) creating avenues by which disadvantaged astronomers can make their needs and capabilities known to prospective international collaborators and policy-making bodies.

  14. Access to essential paediatric eye surgery in the developing world: a case of congenital cataracts left untreated.

    PubMed

    Vinluan, Marilyn L; Olveda, Remigio M; Olveda, David U; Chy, Delia; Ross, Allen G

    2015-01-01

    Childhood cataracts are a major cause of treatable blindness. Early recognition, surgical intervention and appropriate follow-up after surgery can result in good visual outcomes. However, several factors may impact on the availability of such services, including lack of an available, affordable and accessible comprehensive eye care centre, financial limitations affecting coverage by the national healthcare provider, and household socioeconomic status. We report a case of congenital cataracts in a 12-year-old male adolescent from Northern Samar, the Philippines, who was left blind since birth. This case highlights the disparities in essential health services in the developing world and the challenges patients face in getting the care they need. PMID:25903202

  15. Successful Wide Hybridization and Introgression Breeding in a Diverse Set of Common Peppers (Capsicum annuum) Using Different Cultivated Ají (C. baccatum) Accessions as Donor Parents.

    PubMed

    Manzur, Juan Pablo; Fita, Ana; Prohens, Jaime; Rodríguez-Burruezo, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    Capsicum baccatum, commonly known as ají, has been reported as a source of variation for many different traits to improve common pepper (C. annuum), one of the most important vegetables in the world. However, strong interspecific hybridization barriers exist between them. A comparative study of two wide hybridization approaches for introgressing C. baccatum genes into C. annuum was performed: i) genetic bridge (GB) using C. chinense and C. frutescens as bridge species; and, ii) direct cross between C. annuum and C. baccatum combined with in vitro embryo rescue (ER). A diverse and representative collection of 18 accessions from four cultivated species of Capsicum was used, including C. annuum (12), C. baccatum (3), C. chinense (2), and C. frutescens (1). More than 5000 crosses were made and over 1000 embryos were rescued in the present study. C. chinense performed as a good bridge species between C. annuum and C. baccatum, with the best results being obtained with the cross combination [C. baccatum (♀) × C. chinense (♂)] (♀) × C. annuum (♂), while C. frutescens gave poor results as bridge species due to strong prezygotic and postzygotic barriers. Virus-like-syndrome or dwarfism was observed in F1 hybrids when both C. chinense and C. frutescens were used as female parents. Regarding the ER strategy, the best response was found in C. annuum (♀) × C. baccatum (♂) crosses. First backcrosses to C. annuum (BC1s) were obtained according to the crossing scheme [C. annuum (♀) × C. baccatum (♂)] (♀) × C. annuum (♂) using ER. Advantages and disadvantages of each strategy are discussed in relation to their application to breeding programmes. These results provide breeders with useful practical information for the regular utilization of the C. baccatum gene pool in C. annuum breeding.

  16. Successful Wide Hybridization and Introgression Breeding in a Diverse Set of Common Peppers (Capsicum annuum) Using Different Cultivated Ají (C. baccatum) Accessions as Donor Parents

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Capsicum baccatum, commonly known as ají, has been reported as a source of variation for many different traits to improve common pepper (C. annuum), one of the most important vegetables in the world. However, strong interspecific hybridization barriers exist between them. A comparative study of two wide hybridization approaches for introgressing C. baccatum genes into C. annuum was performed: i) genetic bridge (GB) using C. chinense and C. frutescens as bridge species; and, ii) direct cross between C. annuum and C. baccatum combined with in vitro embryo rescue (ER). A diverse and representative collection of 18 accessions from four cultivated species of Capsicum was used, including C. annuum (12), C. baccatum (3), C. chinense (2), and C. frutescens (1). More than 5000 crosses were made and over 1000 embryos were rescued in the present study. C. chinense performed as a good bridge species between C. annuum and C. baccatum, with the best results being obtained with the cross combination [C. baccatum (♀) × C. chinense (♂)] (♀) × C. annuum (♂), while C. frutescens gave poor results as bridge species due to strong prezygotic and postzygotic barriers. Virus-like-syndrome or dwarfism was observed in F1 hybrids when both C. chinense and C. frutescens were used as female parents. Regarding the ER strategy, the best response was found in C. annuum (♀) × C. baccatum (♂) crosses. First backcrosses to C. annuum (BC1s) were obtained according to the crossing scheme [C. annuum (♀) × C. baccatum (♂)] (♀) × C. annuum (♂) using ER. Advantages and disadvantages of each strategy are discussed in relation to their application to breeding programmes. These results provide breeders with useful practical information for the regular utilization of the C. baccatum gene pool in C. annuum breeding. PMID:26642059

  17. May a Public University Restrict Faculty Expression on Its Internet World Wide Web Sites? Academic Freedom and University Facility Use Restrictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allred, Lisa R.

    1997-01-01

    Public university restriction of faculty expression on the institution's World Wide Web server is discussed based on recent Supreme Court decisions. It is proposed that in some circumstances, content-based restriction of faculty expression is permissible and will not violate the First Amendment academic freedom rights of faculty. (MSE)

  18. How To Succeed in Promoting Your Web Site: The Impact of Search Engine Registration on Retrieval of a World Wide Web Site.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunender, Heather; Ervin, Jane

    1998-01-01

    Character strings were planted in a World Wide Web site (Project Whistlestop) to test indexing and retrieval rates of five Web search tools (Lycos, infoseek, AltaVista, Yahoo, Excite). It was found that search tools indexed few of the planted character strings, none indexed the META descriptor tag, and only Excite indexed into the 3rd-4th site…

  19. 28 CFR 16.41 - Requests for access to records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Part 0 of this title and in the description of the Department and its components in the “United States... the Government Printing Office's World Wide Web site (which can be found at http://www.access.gpo.gov... accessed electronically at the Government Printing Office's World Wide Web site (which can be found at...

  20. Improving Web Accessibility in a University Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olive, Geoffrey C.

    2010-01-01

    Improving Web accessibility for disabled users visiting a university's Web site is explored following the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) guidelines and Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act rules for Web page designers to ensure accessibility. The literature supports the view that accessibility is sorely lacking, not only in the USA, but also…

  1. ICSW2AN : An Inter-vehicle Communication System Using Mobile Access Point over Wireless Wide Area Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Tae-Young

    This paper presents a prototype of inter-vehicle communication system using mobile access point that internetworks wired or wireless LAN and wireless WAN anywhere. Implemented mobile access point can be equipped with various wireless WAN interfaces such as WCDMA and HSDPA. Mobile access point in the IP mechanism has to process connection setup procedure to one wireless WAN. To show the applicability of the mobile access point to inter-vehicle communication, a simplified V2I2V-based car communication system called ICSW2AN is implemented to evaluate major performance metrics by road test. In addition, results of road test for traffic information service are investigated in view of RTT, latency and server processing time. The experimental result indicates that V2I2V-based car communication system sufficiently can provide time-tolerant traffic information to moving vehicles while more than two mobile devices in restricted spaces such as car, train and ship access wireless Internet simultaneously.

  2. Open-Access Electronic Textbooks: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ovadia, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Given the challenging economic climate in the United States, many academics are looking to open-access electronic textbooks as a way to provide students with traditional textbook content at a more financially advantageous price. Open access refers to "the free and widely available information throughout the World Wide Web. Once an article's author…

  3. Access to Transplantation and Transplant Outcome Measures (ATTOM): study protocol of a UK wide, in-depth, prospective cohort analysis

    PubMed Central

    Oniscu, Gabriel C; Ravanan, Rommel; Wu, Diana; Gibbons, Andrea; Li, Bernadette; Tomson, Charles; Forsythe, John L; Bradley, Clare; Cairns, John; Dudley, Christopher; Watson, Christopher J E; Bolton, Eleanor M; Draper, Heather; Robb, Matthew; Bradbury, Lisa; Pruthi, Rishi; Metcalfe, Wendy; Fogarty, Damian; Roderick, Paul; Bradley, J Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is significant intercentre variability in access to renal transplantation in the UK due to poorly understood factors. The overarching aims of this study are to improve equity of access to kidney and kidney–pancreas transplantation across the UK and to optimise organ allocation to maximise the benefit and cost-effectiveness of transplantation. Methods and analysis 6844 patients aged 18–75 years starting dialysis and/or receiving a transplant together with matched patients active on the transplant list from all 72 UK renal units were recruited between November 2011 and March 2013 and will be followed for at least 3 years. The outcomes of interest include patient survival, access to the transplant list, receipt of a transplant, patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) including quality of life, treatment satisfaction, well-being and health status on different forms of renal replacement therapy. Sociodemographic and clinical data were prospectively collected from case notes and from interviews with patients and local clinical teams. Qualitative process exploration with clinical staff will help identify unit-specific factors that influence access to renal transplantation. A health economic analysis will explore costs and outcomes associated with alternative approaches to organ allocation. The study will deliver: (1) an understanding of patient and unit-specific factors influencing access to renal transplantation in the UK, informing potential changes to practices and policies to optimise outcomes and reduce intercentre variability; (2) a patient-survival probability model to standardise access to the renal transplant list and (3) an understanding of PROMs and health economic impact of kidney and kidney–pancreas transplantation to inform the development of a more sophisticated and fairer organ allocation algorithm. Ethics and dissemination The protocol has been independently peer reviewed by National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) and

  4. A World-Wide Overview of Migratory Movements. The Education of Migrant Workers -- Where Do We Stand?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Francis

    1974-01-01

    A survey of world migration patterns prefaces a declaration of educational problems and ways of solving them as viewed by the International Labour Organization (ILO). The problems are conceptualized on the socio-cultural and occupational levels and involve both the worker and his family. (JH)

  5. THE TEACHING PROFESSION AND THE WORLD-WIDE LITERACY PROGRAMME, A HANDBOOK FOR LEADERS OF WCOTP AFFILIATED ORGANIZATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Confederation of Organizations of the Teaching Profession, Morges (Switzerland).

    A LITERACY HANDBOOK PREPARED BY THE WORLD CONFEDERATION OF ORGANIZATIONS OF THE TEACHING PROFESSION INDICATES THE WAYS IN WHICH TEACHERS' ASSOCIATIONS, TRADITIONALLY CHILD-CENTERED, CAN EFFECTIVELY ENGAGE IN ADULT EDUCATION. A 1966 CASE STUDY ON THE PHILIPPINE PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION, AND WCOTP SURVEYS CONDUCTED DURING 1965 IN KENYA…

  6. Models for User Access Patterns on the Web: Semantic Content versus Access History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Arun; Owen, Charles B.; Vailaya, Aditya

    This paper focuses on clustering a World Wide Web site (i.e., the 1998 World Cup Soccer site) into groups of documents that are predictive of future user accesses. Two approaches were developed and tested. The first approach uses semantic information inherent in the documents to facilitate the clustering process. User access history is then used…

  7. The Whole World at Our Door and in Their Hands: Library Media Specialists, Internet Access, and PDAs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Daniel D.

    2003-01-01

    Considers the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) report on Internet access and the rapidly growing importance of Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) in education. Highlights include school access to the Internet; classroom access; types of connections; home access; special hardware and software for students with disabilities; and…

  8. The world-wide neutron monitor network as a toll to detect solar neutrons: a revisited approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishev, Alexander; Usoskin, Ilya; Artamonov, Anton; Kovaltsov, Gennady A.

    When energetic protons are accelerated in solar flares, they may locally produce secondary neutrons, which can then escape and reach the Earth. Features of these neutrons carry direct information on the conditions at the flare site. The main tool to measure solar neutrons on ground was the world neutron monitor (NM) network, later complemented by a network of dedicated solar neutron telescopes. Although measurements of solar neutrons has long history, detailed computation of the specific yield function of the NM to solar neutrons was somewhat uncertain. Here we revise the computation of the NM yield function for solar neutrons, based on new Monte-Carlo simulation of the neutron-induced atmospheric cascade, and reassess the sensitivity of the world NM network to solar neutron events.

  9. Unweaving the Web: an exploratory study of low-literate adults' navigation skills on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Zarcadoolas, Christina; Blanco, Mercedes; Boyer, John F; Pleasant, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    For traditionally underserved populations, the Web can potentially unlock resources that could fundamentally improve health and wellbeing. However, there are many barriers to using Web-based content. While physical access issues are well documented, there is little understanding of how nonmainstream populations use or will use the Web. Based on an ethnographic study of a group of low-literate adults, we have identified specific navigational and content issues that present barriers to this population. We discuss preliminary assumptions that can be used to inform the development of Web tools for this target audience, and directions for future applied research. PMID:12356289

  10. Widening Access through Openness in Higher Education in the Developing World: A Bourdieusian Field Analysis of Experiences from the National Open University of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olakulehin, Felix Kayode; Singh, Gurmit

    2013-01-01

    Bourdieu has argued that higher education is a field that reproduces social inequality, thus complicating how openness widens access to higher education in the developing world. Drawing on the experiences of the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN), this paper critically analyses and evaluates the rationale, approach, difficulties,…

  11. International Student Access to U.S. Higher Education since World War II: How NAFSA (Association of International Educators) Has Influenced Federal Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyokawa, Norifumi

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation is a study of the policy process behind the legislation and regulation governing international student access to U.S. higher education since the immediate aftermath of World War II. The particular research focus of this dissertation is on NAFSA: Association of International Educators (originally established as the National…

  12. Utilizing DNA analysis to combat the world wide plague of present day slavery – trafficking in persons

    PubMed Central

    Palmbach, Timothy; Blom, Jeffrey; Hoynes, Emily; Primorac, Dragan; Gaboury, Mario

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine if modern forensic DNA typing methods can be properly employed throughout the world with a final goal of increasing arrests, prosecutions, and convictions of perpetrators of modern day trafficking in persons while concurrently reducing the burden of victim testimony in legal proceedings. Without interruption of investigations, collection of samples containing DNA was conducted in a variety of settings. Evidentiary samples were analyzed on the ANDE Rapid DNA system. Many of the collected swabs yielded informative short tandem repeat profiles with Rapid DNA technology. PMID:24577820

  13. Utilizing DNA analysis to combat the world wide plague of present day slavery--trafficking in persons.

    PubMed

    Palmbach, Timothy M; Blom, Jeffrey; Hoynes, Emily; Primorac, Dragan; Gaboury, Mario

    2014-02-01

    A study was conducted to determine if modern forensic DNA typing methods can be properly employed throughout the world with a final goal of increasing arrests, prosecutions, and convictions of perpetrators of modern day trafficking in persons while concurrently reducing the burden of victim testimony in legal proceedings. Without interruption of investigations, collection of samples containing DNA was conducted in a variety of settings. Evidentiary samples were analyzed on the ANDE Rapid DNA system. Many of the collected swabs yielded informative short tandem repeat profiles with Rapid DNA technology.

  14. Utilizing DNA analysis to combat the world wide plague of present day slavery--trafficking in persons.

    PubMed

    Palmbach, Timothy M; Blom, Jeffrey; Hoynes, Emily; Primorac, Dragan; Gaboury, Mario

    2014-02-01

    A study was conducted to determine if modern forensic DNA typing methods can be properly employed throughout the world with a final goal of increasing arrests, prosecutions, and convictions of perpetrators of modern day trafficking in persons while concurrently reducing the burden of victim testimony in legal proceedings. Without interruption of investigations, collection of samples containing DNA was conducted in a variety of settings. Evidentiary samples were analyzed on the ANDE Rapid DNA system. Many of the collected swabs yielded informative short tandem repeat profiles with Rapid DNA technology. PMID:24577820

  15. Investigating health information needs of community radio stations and applying the World Wide Web to disseminate audio products.

    PubMed

    Snyders, Janus; van Wyk, Elmarie; van Zyl, Hendra

    2010-01-01

    The Web and Media Technologies Platform (WMTP) of the South African Medical Research Council (MRC) conducted a pilot project amongst community radio stations in South Africa. Based on previous research done in Africa WMTP investigated the following research question: How reliable is the content of health information broadcast by community radio stations? The main objectives of the project were to determine the 1) intervals of health slots on community radio stations, 2) sources used by community radio stations for health slots, 3) type of audio products needed for health slots, and 4) to develop a user friendly Web site in response to the stations' needs for easy access to audio material on health information.

  16. Genome-wide identification of novel genetic markers from RNA sequencing assembly of diverse Aegilops tauschii accessions.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Ryo; Yoshida, Kentaro; Motoi, Yuka; Sato, Kazuhiro; Takumi, Shigeo

    2016-08-01

    The wild species in the Triticeae tribe are tremendous resources for crop breeding due to their abundant natural variation. However, their huge and highly repetitive genomes have hindered the establishment of physical maps and the completeness of their genome sequences. To develop molecular markers for the efficient utilization of their valuable traits while avoiding their genome complexity, we assembled RNA sequences of ten representative accessions of Aegilops tauschii, the progenitor of the wheat D genome, and estimated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertions/deletions (indels). The deduced unigenes were anchored to the chromosomes of Ae. tauschii and barley. The SNPs and indels in the anchored unigenes, covering entire chromosomes, were sufficient for linkage map construction, even in combinations between the genetically closest accessions. Interestingly, the resolution of SNP and indel distribution on barley chromosomes was slightly higher than on Ae. tauschii chromosomes. Since barley chromosomes are regarded as virtual chromosomes of Triticeae species, our strategy allows capture of genetic markers arranged on the chromosomes in order based on the conserved synteny. The resolution of these genetic markers will be comparable to that of the Ae. tauschii whose draft genome sequence is available. Our procedure should be applicable to marker development for Triticeae species, which have no draft sequences available.

  17. Building upon Historical Competencies: Next-generation Clean-up Technologies for World-Wide Application - 13368

    SciTech Connect

    Guevara, K.C.; Fellinger, A.P.; Aylward, R.S.; Griffin, J.C.; Hyatt, J.E.; Bush, S.R.

    2013-07-01

    The Department of Energy's Savannah River Site has a 60-year history of successfully operating nuclear facilities and cleaning up the nuclear legacy of the Cold War era through the processing of radioactive and otherwise hazardous wastes, remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater, management of nuclear materials, and deactivation and decommissioning of excess facilities. SRS recently unveiled its Enterprise.SRS (E.SRS) strategic vision to identify and facilitate application of the historical competencies of the site to current and future national and global challenges. E.SRS initiatives such as the initiative to Develop and Demonstrate Next generation Clean-up Technologies seek timely and mutually beneficial engagements with entities around the country and the world. One such ongoing engagement is with government and industry in Japan in the recovery from the devastation of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. (authors)

  18. W3MAMCAT: a world wide web based tool for mammillary and catenary compartmental modeling and expert system distinguishability.

    PubMed

    Russell, Solomon; Distefano, Joseph J

    2006-07-01

    W(3)MAMCAT is a new web-based and interactive system for building and quantifying the parameters or parameter ranges of n-compartment mammillary and catenary model structures, with input and output in the first compartment, from unstructured multiexponential (sum-of-n-exponentials) models. It handles unidentifiable as well as identifiable models and, as such, provides finite parameter interval solutions for unidentifiable models, whereas direct parameter search programs typically do not. It also tutorially develops the theory of model distinguishability for same order mammillary versus catenary models, as did its desktop application predecessor MAMCAT+. This includes expert system analysis for distinguishing mammillary from catenary structures, given input and output in similarly numbered compartments. W(3)MAMCAT provides for universal deployment via the internet and enhanced application error checking. It uses supported Microsoft technologies to form an extensible application framework for maintaining a stable and easily updatable application. Most important, anybody, anywhere, is welcome to access it using Internet Explorer 6.0 over the internet for their teaching or research needs. It is available on the Biocybernetics Laboratory website at UCLA: www.biocyb.cs.ucla.edu.

  19. Range-wide latitudinal and elevational temperature gradients for the world's terrestrial birds: implications under global climate change.

    PubMed

    La Sorte, Frank A; Butchart, Stuart H M; Jetz, Walter; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    Species' geographical distributions are tracking latitudinal and elevational surface temperature gradients under global climate change. To evaluate the opportunities to track these gradients across space, we provide a first baseline assessment of the steepness of these gradients for the world's terrestrial birds. Within the breeding ranges of 9,014 bird species, we characterized the spatial gradients in temperature along latitude and elevation for all and a subset of bird species, respectively. We summarized these temperature gradients globally for threatened and non-threatened species and determined how their steepness varied based on species' geography (range size, shape, and orientation) and projected changes in temperature under climate change. Elevational temperature gradients were steepest for species in Africa, western North and South America, and central Asia and shallowest in Australasia, insular IndoMalaya, and the Neotropical lowlands. Latitudinal temperature gradients were steepest for extratropical species, especially in the Northern Hemisphere. Threatened species had shallower elevational gradients whereas latitudinal gradients differed little between threatened and non-threatened species. The strength of elevational gradients was positively correlated with projected changes in temperature. For latitudinal gradients, this relationship only held for extratropical species. The strength of latitudinal gradients was better predicted by species' geography, but primarily for extratropical species. Our findings suggest threatened species are associated with shallower elevational temperature gradients, whereas steep latitudinal gradients are most prevalent outside the tropics where fewer bird species occur year-round. Future modeling and mitigation efforts would benefit from the development of finer grain distributional data to ascertain how these gradients are structured within species' ranges, how and why these gradients vary among species, and the capacity

  20. Applying a toolkit for dissemination and analysis of near real-time data through the World Wide Web: integration of the Antelope Real Time System, ROADNet, and PHP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, R. L.; Lindquist, K. G.; Hansen, T. S.; Vernon, F. L.; Eakins, J.; Foley, S.; Orcutt, J.

    2005-12-01

    The ROADNet project has enabled the acquisition and storage of diverse data streams through seamless integration of the Antelope Real Time System (ARTS) with (for example) ecological, seismological and geodetic instrumentation. The robust system architecture allows researchers to simply network data loggers with relational databases; however, the ability to disseminate these data to policy makers, scientists and the general public has (until recently) been provided on an 'as needed' basis. The recent development of a Datascope interface to the popular open source scripting language PHP has provided an avenue for presenting near real time data (such as integers, images and movies) from within the ARTS framework easily on the World Wide Web. The interface also indirectly provided the means to transform data types into various formats using the extensive function libraries that accompany a PHP installation (such as image creation and manipulation, data encryption for sensitive information, and XML creation for structured document interchange through the World Wide Web). Using a combination of Datascope and PHP library functions, an extensible tool-kit is being developed to allow data managers to easily present their products on the World Wide Web. The tool-kit has been modeled after the pre-existing ARTS architecture to simplify the installation, development and ease-of-use for both the seasoned researcher and the casual user. The methodology and results of building the applications that comprise the tool-kit are the focus of this presentation, including procedural vs. object oriented design, incorporation of the tool-kit into the existing contributed software libraries, and case-studies of researchers who are employing the tools to present their data. http://anf.ucsd.edu

  1. Does tree harvesting in riparian areas increase stream sedimentation and turbidity - world-wide experience relative to Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neary, D.; Smethurst, P.; Petrone, K.

    2009-04-01

    A typical improved-pasture property in the high-rainfall zone of Australia contains 0.5-2.0 km of waterways per 100 ha. Nationwide, some 25-30 million ha of improved pasture contains about 100,000 km of streams, of which about 75% are currently un-buffered and contributing to soil and water degradation. Farmers and natural resource managers are considering ways to enhance environmental outcomes at farm and catchment scales using stream-side buffers of trees and other perennial vegetation. Benefits of buffers include improved water quality, biodiversity, carbon sequestration and aesthetics. Lack of sound information and funding for establishing and managing buffer zones is hindering wide-scale adoption of this practice. Stream-side areas of farms are generally highly productive (wet and nutrient-rich) and contain a high biodiversity, but they are also high-risk zones for soil and water values and stock safety. Development of options based on a balance between environmental and economic outcomes would potentially promote wider adoption. Australian codes of forest practice currently discourage or prevent harvesting of trees in streamside buffers. These codes were developed exclusively for large-scale native forests and industrial-scale plantations, and were applicable to farm forestry as now required. In countries including USA and Germany trees in stream-side buffers are harvested using Best Management Practices. Trees may grow at a faster rate in riparian zones and provide a commercial return, but the impacts of tree establishment and harvesting on water yield and quality must be evaluated. However, there have been few designed experiments investigating this problem. Australia has recently initiated studies to explore the use of high-value timber species and associated vegetation in riparian zones to improve water quality, particularly suspended sediment. Preliminary information from the Yan Yan Gurt Catchment in Victoria indicate that forested riparian strips can

  2. Developing genome-wide microsatellite markers of bamboo and their applications on molecular marker assisted taxonomy for accessions in the genus Phyllostachys

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hansheng; Yang, Li; Peng, Zhenhua; Sun, Huayu; Yue, Xianghua; Lou, Yongfeng; Dong, Lili; Wang, Lili; Gao, Zhimin

    2015-01-01

    Morphology-based taxonomy via exiguously reproductive organ has severely limitation on bamboo taxonomy, mainly owing to infrequent and unpredictable flowering events of bamboo. Here, we present the first genome-wide analysis and application of microsatellites based on the genome of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) to assist bamboo taxonomy. Of identified 127,593 microsatellite repeat-motifs, the primers of 1,451 microsatellites were designed and 1,098 markers were physically mapped on the genome of moso bamboo. A total of 917 markers were successfully validated in 9 accessions with ~39.8% polymorphic potential. Retrieved from validated microsatellite markers, 23 markers were selected for polymorphic analysis among 78 accessions and 64 alleles were detected with an average of 2.78 alleles per primers. The cluster result indicated the majority of the accessions were consistent with their current taxonomic classification, confirming the suitability and effectiveness of the developed microsatellite markers. The variations of microsatellite marker in different species were confirmed by sequencing and in silico comparative genome mapping were investigated. Lastly, a bamboo microsatellites database (http://www.bamboogdb.org/ssr) was implemented to browse and search large information of bamboo microsatellites. Consequently, our results of microsatellite marker development are valuable for assisting bamboo taxonomy and investigating genomic studies in bamboo and related grass species. PMID:25620112

  3. Developing genome-wide microsatellite markers of bamboo and their applications on molecular marker assisted taxonomy for accessions in the genus Phyllostachys.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hansheng; Yang, Li; Peng, Zhenhua; Sun, Huayu; Yue, Xianghua; Lou, Yongfeng; Dong, Lili; Wang, Lili; Gao, Zhimin

    2015-01-26

    Morphology-based taxonomy via exiguously reproductive organ has severely limitation on bamboo taxonomy, mainly owing to infrequent and unpredictable flowering events of bamboo. Here, we present the first genome-wide analysis and application of microsatellites based on the genome of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) to assist bamboo taxonomy. Of identified 127,593 microsatellite repeat-motifs, the primers of 1,451 microsatellites were designed and 1,098 markers were physically mapped on the genome of moso bamboo. A total of 917 markers were successfully validated in 9 accessions with ~39.8% polymorphic potential. Retrieved from validated microsatellite markers, 23 markers were selected for polymorphic analysis among 78 accessions and 64 alleles were detected with an average of 2.78 alleles per primers. The cluster result indicated the majority of the accessions were consistent with their current taxonomic classification, confirming the suitability and effectiveness of the developed microsatellite markers. The variations of microsatellite marker in different species were confirmed by sequencing and in silico comparative genome mapping were investigated. Lastly, a bamboo microsatellites database (http://www.bamboogdb.org/ssr) was implemented to browse and search large information of bamboo microsatellites. Consequently, our results of microsatellite marker development are valuable for assisting bamboo taxonomy and investigating genomic studies in bamboo and related grass species.

  4. Assessing the quality of infertility resources on the World Wide Web: tools to guide clients through the maze of fact and fiction.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Kyoko; Bernstein, Judith; Fidler, Anne T

    2002-01-01

    The Internet has become a major source of health information for women, but information placed on the World Wide Web does not routinely undergo a peer review process before dissemination. In this study, we present an analysis of 197 infertility-related Web sites for quality and accountability, using JAMA's minimal core standards for responsible print. Only 2% of the web sites analyzed met all four recommended standards, and 50.8% failed to report any of the four. Commercial web sites were more likely to fail to meet minimum standards (71.2%) than those with educational (46.8%) or supportive (29.8%) elements. Web sites with educational and informational components were most common (70.6%), followed by commercial sites (52.8%) and sites that offered a forum for infertility support and activism (28.9%). Internet resources available to infertile patients are at best variable. The current state of infertility-related materials on the World Wide Web offers unprecedented opportunities to improve services to a growing number of e-health users. Because of variations in quality of site content, women's health clinicians must assume responsibility for a new role as information monitor. This study provides assessment tools clinicians can apply and share with clients.

  5. A Quest for Website Accessibility in Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Kelly A.; DeWaters, Jamie

    2008-01-01

    Researchers increasingly suggest that accessibility remains a prominent issue across the World Wide Web (www). This study raises awareness about issues of access in higher education. This qualitative research design utilized a listserv that invited university based webmasters to use freeware to evaluate the overall accessibility of their…

  6. Efforts and success world-wide in the field of clinical pharmacology. A personal review on the occasion of Folke Sjöqvist's 80th birthday.

    PubMed

    Orme, Michael

    2013-05-01

    In this personal review I describe my early expectations and experiences when I first came to work with Prof. Folke Sjöqvist as a training fellow in the early 1970s. At that time Prof. Sjöqvist and his unit had already earned an international reputation, and in the following decades this success has been magnified many times. Although a description of the research performed by Prof. Sjöqvist during his long career is not the main objective of this article, it is clear that the research carried out in his unit has been instrumental in the development of his international reputation. Over an 18-year period from 1994 onwards, some 272 papers bearing the name of Folke Sjöqvist have been cited over 13,000 times, with an average of over 50 citations per paper. In terms of training clinical pharmacologists from around the world, at the last count 112 individuals from 37 different countries have received a substantial part of their training in his unit. As another measure of his world-wide success, 33 individuals from 18 different countries who received a substantial part of their training in his unit between 1968 and 1996 have gone on to become professors of clinical pharmacology. Prof. Sjöqvist has been requested to consult on various aspects of clinical pharmacology in 15 different countries, from Russia to Spain and from Egypt to Latvia. Here I describe the long-term involvement that Prof. Sjöqvist has had with IUPHAR (now the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology) and with institutions such as the World Health Organisation (WHO). In particular, I recount his role in the long-term saga involved in updating the original WHO manifesto on clinical pharmacology published in 1970 up to the eventual success of the new manifesto published by WHO in 2012. Finally, I briefly describe the international honours that have been bestowed on Prof. Sjöqvist, including various prizes, designated lectureships and honorary Doctorates (5). Taken together, these

  7. World-Wide Intelligent Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Elmar; Brusilovsky, Peter; Weber, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    New WWW technologies allow for integrating distance education power of WWW with interactivity and intelligence. Integrating on-line presentation of learning materials with the interactivity of problem solving environments and the intelligence of intelligent tutoring systems results in a new quality of learning materials that we call I3-textbooks.…

  8. A Wide World of Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Der Werf, Martin

    2007-01-01

    As the number of American students studying overseas increases, it will be difficult for colleges to establish or find enough adequate programs with challenging curricula. Students desire ever more remote locations, and colleges are being pushed to support the extremely adventurous. With more students studying abroad, and amid heightened fears…

  9. Patient information on breast reconstruction in the era of the world wide web. A snapshot analysis of information available on youtube.com.

    PubMed

    Tan, M L H; Kok, K; Ganesh, V; Thomas, S S

    2014-02-01

    Breast cancer patient's expectation and choice of reconstruction is increasing and patients often satisfy their information needs outside clinic time by searching the world wide web. The aim of our study was to analyse the quality of content and extent of information regarding breast reconstruction available on YouTube videos and whether this is an appropriate additional source of information for patients. A snapshot qualitative and quantitative analysis of the first 100 videos was performed after the term 'breast reconstruction' was input into the search window of the video sharing website www.youtube.com on the 1st of September 2011. Qualitative categorical analysis included patient, oncological and reconstruction factors. It was concluded that although videos uploaded onto YouTube do not provide comprehensive information, it is a useful resource that can be utilised in patient education provided comprehensive and validated videos are made available.

  10. Molecular evidence for the predation of Critically Endangered endemic Aphanius transgrediens from the stomach contents of world wide invasive Gambusia affinis.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Emre

    2016-01-01

    Predation and competition among native and invasive species are difficult to study in aquatic environments. Identification of preys from semi-digested body parts sampled from stomach contents of the predator is very challenging. Recent studies were mainly based on use of DNA extracted from stomach content to identify the prey species. This study presents the molecular evidence that reveals the predation of critically endangered Aphanius transgrediens by world-wide invasive Gambusia affinis for a better understanding of the link between the invasion and the extinction of native species in freshwater ecosystems. DNA samples were extracted from semi-digested stomach contents of the invader and short fragments of mitochondrial NADH1 gene were amplified using species-specific primers designed in this study to make identification at species level. Existence of both the prey and the predator species were also confirmed using environmental DNA extracted from water samples.

  11. A Wide Dynamics and Fast Scan Interrogating Method for a Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor Network Implemented Using Code Division Multiple Access

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngbok; Jeon, Sie-Wook; Kwon, Won-Bae; Park, Chang-Soo

    2012-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor network employing the code division multiple access (CDMA) technique to identify information from individual sensors. To detect information without considering time delays between sensors, a sliding correlation method is applied, in which two different signals with the same pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) pattern, but slightly different frequencies, are applied to the source and detector sides. Moreover, for time domain detection, a wavelength-to-time conversion technique using a wavelength dispersive medium is introduced. The experimental results show that the proposed sensor network has a wide strain dynamic range of 2,400 με and a low crosstalk of 950:1. PMID:22778619

  12. A wide dynamics and fast scan interrogating method for a fiber Bragg grating sensor network implemented using code division multiple access.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngbok; Jeon, Sie-Wook; Kwon, Won-Bae; Park, Chang-Soo

    2012-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor network employing the code division multiple access (CDMA) technique to identify information from individual sensors. To detect information without considering time delays between sensors, a sliding correlation method is applied, in which two different signals with the same pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) pattern, but slightly different frequencies, are applied to the source and detector sides. Moreover, for time domain detection, a wavelength-to-time conversion technique using a wavelength dispersive medium is introduced. The experimental results show that the proposed sensor network has a wide strain dynamic range of 2,400 με and a low crosstalk of 950:1.

  13. World-wide satellite night-light data as a proxy of society-hydrology interaction and vulnerability to flood risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceola, S.; Laio, F.; Montanari, A.

    2013-12-01

    The study and the analysis of the interactions and feedbacks between hydrology and society constitute the main issue of socio-hydrology. Recent flood events, which occurred across the globe, highlighted once again that mitigation strategies are needed to reduce flood risk. In particular, quick procedures for the identification of vulnerable human settlements and flood prone areas are a necessary tool to identify priorities for flood risk management. To this aim, a 19-year long period of world-wide night light data, as a proxy of human population, and the global river network have been examined. The spatio-temporal evolution of artificial luminosity depending on the distance from the river network has been assessed in order to quantitatively identify the likelihood for a populated pixel to be reached by water. The analysis focuses both on a global and on a local scale. Hotspots, such as highly illuminated areas and developing regions, have been also examined. The analysis shows an increment of yearly-averaged artificial luminosity from 1992 to 2010 (i.e. the time period of satellite data availability), whereas light intensity tends to decrease with increasing distance from the river network. The results thus reveal an increased vulnerability of human settlements to flooding events. A nearly 70-year long period of peace and the economic development after the Second World War could reasonably explain the observed enhancement of human population proximity to water bodies.

  14. Reliability of health information for the public on the World Wide Web: systematic survey of advice on managing fever in children at home.

    PubMed Central

    Impicciatore, P.; Pandolfini, C.; Casella, N.; Bonati, M.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the reliability of healthcare information on the world wide web and therefore how it may help lay people cope with common health problems. METHODS: Systematic search by means of two search engines, Yahoo and Excite, of parent oriented web pages relating to home management of feverish children. Reliability of information on the web sites was checked by comparison with published guidelines. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Minimum temperature of child that should be considered as fever, optimal sites for measuring temperature, pharmacological and physical treatment of fever, conditions that may warrant a doctor's visit. RESULTS: 41 web pages were retrieved and considered. 28 web pages gave a temperature above which a child is feverish; 26 pages indicated the optimal site for taking temperature, most recommending rectal measurement; 31 of the 34 pages that mentioned drug treatment recommended paracetamol as an antipyretic; 38 pages recommended non-drug measures, most commonly tepid sponging, dressing lightly, and increasing fluid intake; and 36 pages gave some indication of when a doctor should be called. Only four web pages adhered closely to the main recommendations in the guidelines. The largest deviations were in sponging procedures and how to take a child's temperature, whereas there was a general agreement in the use of paracetamol. CONCLUSIONS: Only a few web sites provided complete and accurate information for this common and widely discussed condition. This suggests an urgent need to check public oriented healthcare information on the internet for accuracy, completeness, and consistency. PMID:9224132

  15. Web Accessibility and Guidelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Simon; Yesilada, Yeliz

    Access to, and movement around, complex online environments, of which the World Wide Web (Web) is the most popular example, has long been considered an important and major issue in the Web design and usability field. The commonly used slang phrase ‘surfing the Web’ implies rapid and free access, pointing to its importance among designers and users alike. It has also been long established that this potentially complex and difficult access is further complicated, and becomes neither rapid nor free, if the user is disabled. There are millions of people who have disabilities that affect their use of the Web. Web accessibility aims to help these people to perceive, understand, navigate, and interact with, as well as contribute to, the Web, and thereby the society in general. This accessibility is, in part, facilitated by the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) currently moving from version one to two. These guidelines are intended to encourage designers to make sure their sites conform to specifications, and in that conformance enable the assistive technologies of disabled users to better interact with the page content. In this way, it was hoped that accessibility could be supported. While this is in part true, guidelines do not solve all problems and the new WCAG version two guidelines are surrounded by controversy and intrigue. This chapter aims to establish the published literature related to Web accessibility and Web accessibility guidelines, and discuss limitations of the current guidelines and future directions.

  16. The Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology's Grand Rounds Around the World-An Online Educational Program Freely Accessible to All.

    PubMed

    Lam, Dennis; Leung, Christopher; He, Mingguang; Tham, Clement; Liu, Yizhi; Pang, Calvin; Martin, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Grand rounds are excellent learning platforms for physicians and other health care professionals to keep up with important evolving areas in the management and treatment models of various diseases. However, there are hardly any freely accessible grand rounds in ophthalmology to meet the need for ophthalmic education in the Asia-Pacific region and beyond. The Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology would like to meet the need by sponsoring a new initiative "Grand Rounds Around the World" so that ophthalmologists and eye care professionals in the Asia-Pacific region and beyond can benefit from the program, leading to improved patient care and the elimination of learning barriers.

  17. Who shall live when not all can live? Intellectual property in accessing and benefit-sharing influenza viruses through the World Health Organisation.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Charles

    2011-03-01

    This article addresses the development of the World Health Organisation's (WHO) arrangements for accessing viruses and the development of vaccines to respond to potential pandemics (and other lesser outbreaks). It examines the ongoing "conflict" between the United Nations' Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the World Trade Organisation's Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) in the context of the debates about the paramountcy of intellectual property, and the potential for other (equity and development) imperatives to over-ride respect for intellectual property and TRIPS. The article concludes that the same intellectual property fault lines are evident in the WHO forum as those apparent at the CBD and the WTO fora, and an ongoing failure to properly address questions of equity and development. This poses a challenge for the Australian Government in guaranteeing a satisfactory pandemic influenza preparation and response.

  18. Wide-Field Plate Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsvetkov, M. K.; Stavrev, K. Y.; Tsvetkova, K. P.; Semkov, E. H.; Mutatov, A. S.

    The Wide-Field Plate Database (WFPDB) and the possibilities for its application as a research tool in observational astronomy are presented. Currently the WFPDB comprises the descriptive data for 400 000 archival wide field photographic plates obtained with 77 instruments, from a total of 1 850 000 photographs stored in 269 astronomical archives all over the world since the end of last century. The WFPDB is already accessible for the astronomical community, now only in batch mode through user requests sent by e-mail. We are working on on-line interactive access to the data via INTERNET from Sofia and parallel from the Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg. (Initial information can be found on World Wide Web homepage URL http://www.wfpa.acad.bg.) The WFPDB may be useful in studies of a variety of astronomical objects and phenomena, andespecially for long-term investigations of variable objects and for multi-wavelength research. We have analysed the data in the WFPDB in order to derive the overall characteristics of the totality of wide-field observations, such as the sky coverage, the distributions by observation time and date, by spectral band, and by object type. We have also examined the totality of wide-field observations from point of view of their quality, availability and digitisation. The usefulness of the WFPDB is demonstrated by the results of identification and investigation of the photometrical behaviour of optical analogues of gamma-ray bursts.

  19. Selfie and the city: a world-wide, large, and ecologically valid database reveals a two-pronged side bias in naïve self-portraits.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Nicola; Bertamini, Marco; Protti, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Self-portraits are more likely to show the artist's right than left cheek. This phenomenon may have a psychobiological basis: Self-portraitists often copy their subject from mirrors and, if they prefer to present their left cheek (more expressive due to right-lateralization of emotions) to the mirror, this would result in a right-cheek bias in the painting. We tested this hypothesis using SelfieCity (3200 selfies posted on Instagram from December 4 through 12, 2013 from New York, Sao Paulo, Berlin, Moskow, and Bangkok), which includes two selfie-taking styles: a "standard" (photograph of selfie-taker) and a "mirror" (photograph of mirror reflection of selfie-taker) style. We show that the first style reveals a left cheek bias, whereas the second reveals a right cheek bias. Thus side biases observed in a world-wide, large, and ecologically valid database of naïve self-portraits provide strong support for a role of psychobiological factors in the artistic composition of self-portraits.

  20. Perceptions of traditional information sources and use of the world wide web to seek health information: findings from the health information national trends survey.

    PubMed

    Rains, Stephen A

    2007-01-01

    As medical information becomes increasingly available and individuals take a more active role in managing their personal health, it is essential for scholars to better understand the general public's information-seeking behavior. The study reported here explores the use of the World Wide Web to seek health information in a contemporary information-media environment. Drawing from uses and gratifications theory and the comprehensive model of health information seeking, perceptions of traditional information sources (e.g., mass media, one's health care provider, etc.) are posited to predict use of the Web to seek health information and perceptions of information acquired from searches. Data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS; N = 3982) were analyzed to test study hypotheses. Trust in information-oriented media, entertainment-oriented media, and one's health care provider all predicted Web use behavior and perceptions. The implications of the findings for research on information seeking and the role of the Web in patient empowerment are discussed. PMID:17934943

  1. Searching for information on the World Wide Web with a search engine: a pilot study on cognitive flexibility in younger and older users.

    PubMed

    Dommes, Aurelie; Chevalier, Aline; Rossetti, Marilyne

    2010-04-01

    This pilot study investigated the age-related differences in searching for information on the World Wide Web with a search engine. 11 older adults (6 men, 5 women; M age=59 yr., SD=2.76, range=55-65 yr.) and 12 younger adults (2 men, 10 women; M=23.7 yr., SD=1.07, range=22-25 yr.) had to conduct six searches differing in complexity, and for which a search method was or was not induced. The results showed that the younger and older participants provided with an induced search method were less flexible than the others and produced fewer new keywords. Moreover, older participants took longer than the younger adults, especially in the complex searches. The younger participants were flexible in the first request and spontaneously produced new keywords (spontaneous flexibility), whereas the older participants only produced new keywords when confronted by impasses (reactive flexibility). Aging may influence web searches, especially the nature of keywords used.

  2. Perceptions of traditional information sources and use of the world wide web to seek health information: findings from the health information national trends survey.

    PubMed

    Rains, Stephen A

    2007-01-01

    As medical information becomes increasingly available and individuals take a more active role in managing their personal health, it is essential for scholars to better understand the general public's information-seeking behavior. The study reported here explores the use of the World Wide Web to seek health information in a contemporary information-media environment. Drawing from uses and gratifications theory and the comprehensive model of health information seeking, perceptions of traditional information sources (e.g., mass media, one's health care provider, etc.) are posited to predict use of the Web to seek health information and perceptions of information acquired from searches. Data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS; N = 3982) were analyzed to test study hypotheses. Trust in information-oriented media, entertainment-oriented media, and one's health care provider all predicted Web use behavior and perceptions. The implications of the findings for research on information seeking and the role of the Web in patient empowerment are discussed.

  3. Selfie and the City: A World-Wide, Large, and Ecologically Valid Database Reveals a Two-Pronged Side Bias in Naïve Self-Portraits

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Nicola; Bertamini, Marco; Protti, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Self-portraits are more likely to show the artist’s right than left cheek. This phenomenon may have a psychobiological basis: Self-portraitists often copy their subject from mirrors and, if they prefer to present their left cheek (more expressive due to right-lateralization of emotions) to the mirror, this would result in a right-cheek bias in the painting. We tested this hypothesis using SelfieCity (3200 selfies posted on Instagram from December 4 through 12, 2013 from New York, Sao Paulo, Berlin, Moskow, and Bangkok), which includes two selfie-taking styles: a “standard” (photograph of selfie-taker) and a “mirror” (photograph of mirror reflection of selfie-taker) style. We show that the first style reveals a left cheek bias, whereas the second reveals a right cheek bias. Thus side biases observed in a world-wide, large, and ecologically valid database of naïve self-portraits provide strong support for a role of psychobiological factors in the artistic composition of self-portraits. PMID:25915767

  4. Intelligent computer aided training systems in the real world: Making the technology accessible to the educational mainstream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovarik, Madeline

    1993-01-01

    Intelligent computer aided training systems hold great promise for the application of this technology to mainstream education and training. Yet, this technology, which holds such a vast potential impact for the future of education and training, has had little impact beyond the enclaves of government research labs. This is largely due to the inaccessibility of the technology to those individuals in whose hands it can have the greatest impact, teachers and educators. Simply throwing technology at an educator and expecting them to use it as an effective tool is not the answer. This paper provides a background into the use of technology as a training tool. MindLink, developed by HyperTech Systems, provides trainers with a powerful rule-based tool that can be integrated directly into a Windows application. By embedding expert systems technology it becomes more accessible and easier to master.

  5. Computer Access: Selected Legal Issues Affecting Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sermersheim, Michael D.

    This pamphlet analyzes some of the legal issues colleges and universities face in regard to faculty and student access to computers and the World Wide Web, evaluates current legal developments, and offers guidelines for developing policies for computer access. It examines sample acceptable-use standards, procedures for suspending or terminating a…

  6. 76 FR 2686 - Video Programming and Emergency Access Advisory Committee; Announcement of Establishment and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... Blindness--Louis Herrera AT&T--Leonardo Velazquez Audio Description Associates--Joel Snyder Bright House... Accessible Media--Larry Goldberg World Wide Web Consortium--Judy Brewer To request materials in...

  7. Differential survival benefit of universal HAART access in Brazil: A Nation-wide Comparison of Injecting Drug Users versus Men who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Malta, Monica; Bastos, Francisco I.; da Silva, Cosme MFP; Pereira, Gerson Fernando Mendes; Lucena, Francisca FA; Fonseca, Maria GP; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Brazil accounts for ∼70% of injection drug users (IDU) receiving HAART in low/middle income countries. We evaluated the impact of HAART availability/access on AIDS-related mortality among IDU versus men who have sex with men (MSM). Design Nationwide analysis on Brazilian IDU and MSM diagnosed with AIDS in 2000-2006. Methods Four national information systems were linked and Cox regression was used to assess impact of HAART availability/access on differential AIDS-related mortality. Results Among 28,426 patients, 6,777 died during 87,792 person-years of follow-up. Compared to MSM, IDU were significantly less likely to be receiving HAART, to have ever had determinations for CD4 or viral load. After controlling for confounders, IDU had a significantly higher risk of death (AHR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.84-2.05). Among the subset that had at least one CD4 and viral load determination, higher risk of death among IDU persisted (HR: 1.82; 95% CI: 1.58-2.11). Non-white ethnicity significantly increased this risk, while prompt HAART uptake after AIDS diagnosis reduced the risk of death. After controlling for spatially-correlated survival data, AIDS-related mortality remained higher in IDU than in MSM. Conclusions Despite free/universal HAART access, differential AIDS-related mortality exists in Brazil. Efforts are needed to identify and eliminate these health disparities. PMID:19675464

  8. The Factor VIII Mutation Database on the World Wide Web: the haemophilia A mutation, search, test and resource site. HAMSTeRS update (version 3.0).

    PubMed Central

    Kemball-Cook, G; Tuddenham, E G

    1997-01-01

    The HAMSTeRS WWW site was set up in 1996 in order to facilitate easy access to, and aid understanding of, the causes of haemophilia A at the molecular level; previously, the first and second text editions of the database have been published in Nucleic Acids Research. This report describes the facilities originally available at the site and the recent additions which we have made to increase its usefulness to clinicians, the molecular genetics community and structural biologists interested in factor VIII. The database (version 3.0) has been completely updated with easy submission of point mutations, deletions and insertions via e-mail of custom-designed forms. The searching of point mutations in the database has been made simpler and more robust, with a concomitantly expanded real-time bioinformatic analysis of the database. A methods section devoted to mutation detection has been added, highlighting issues such as choice of technique and PCR primer sequences. Finally, a FVIII structure section gives access to 3D VRML (Virtual Reality Modelling Language) files for any user-definable residue in a FVIII A domain homology model based on the crystal structure of human caeruloplasmin, together with secondary structural data and a sound+video animation of the model. It is intended that the general availability of this model will assist both in interpretation of causative mutations and selection of candidate residues forin vitromutagenesis. The HAMSTeRS URL is http://europium.mrc.rpms.ac.uk. PMID:9016520

  9. The Factor VIII Mutation Database on the World Wide Web: the haemophilia A mutation, search, test and resource site. HAMSTeRS update (version 3.0).

    PubMed

    Kemball-Cook, G; Tuddenham, E G

    1997-01-01

    The HAMSTeRS WWW site was set up in 1996 in order to facilitate easy access to, and aid understanding of, the causes of haemophilia A at the molecular level; previously, the first and second text editions of the database have been published in Nucleic Acids Research. This report describes the facilities originally available at the site and the recent additions which we have made to increase its usefulness to clinicians, the molecular genetics community and structural biologists interested in factor VIII. The database (version 3.0) has been completely updated with easy submission of point mutations, deletions and insertions via e-mail of custom-designed forms. The searching of point mutations in the database has been made simpler and more robust, with a concomitantly expanded real-time bioinformatic analysis of the database. A methods section devoted to mutation detection has been added, highlighting issues such as choice of technique and PCR primer sequences. Finally, a FVIII structure section gives access to 3D VRML (Virtual Reality Modelling Language) files for any user-definable residue in a FVIII A domain homology model based on the crystal structure of human caeruloplasmin, together with secondary structural data and a sound+video animation of the model. It is intended that the general availability of this model will assist both in interpretation of causative mutations and selection of candidate residues forin vitromutagenesis. The HAMSTeRS URL is http://europium.mrc.rpms.ac.uk.

  10. Assessing the Long-Term Hydrologic Impact of Land Use Change Using a GIS-NPS Model and the World Wide Web

    SciTech Connect

    Bhaduri, B.; Engel, B.; Harbor, J.; Jones, D.; Lim, K.J.

    1999-09-22

    Assessment of the long-term hydrologic impacts of land use change is important for optimizing management practices to control runoff and non-point source (NPS) pollution associated with watershed development. Land use change, dominated by an increase in urban/impervious areas, can have a significant impact on water resources. Non-point source (NPS) pollution is the leading cause of degraded water quality in the US and urban areas are an important source of NPS pollution. Despite widespread concern over the environmental impacts of land use changes such as urban sprawl, most planners, government agencies and consultants lack access to simple impact-assessment tools that can be used with readily available data. Before investing in sophisticated analyses and customized data collection, it is desirable to be able to run initial screening analyses using data that are already available. In response to this need, we developed a long-term hydrologic impact assessment technique (L-THIA) using the popular Curve Number (CN) method that makes use of basic land use, soils and long-term rainfall data. Initially developed as a spreadsheet application, the technique allows a user to compare the hydrologic impacts of past, present and any future land use change. Consequently, a NPS pollution module was incorporated to develop the L-THWNPS model. Long-term daily rainfall records are used in combination with soils and land use information to calculate average annual runoff and NPS pollution at a watershed scale. Because of the geospatial nature of land use and soils data, and the increasingly widespread use of GE by planners, government agencies and consultants, the model is linked to a Geographic Information System (GIS) that allows convenient generation and management of model input and output data, and provides advanced visualization of the model results. Manipulation of the land use layer, or provision of multiple land use layers (for different scenarios), allows for rapid and

  11. Absence of socioeconomic inequalities in access to good-quality breast cancer treatment within a population-wide screening programme in Turin (Italy).

    PubMed

    Zengarini, Nicolás; Ponti, Antonio; Tomatis, Mariano; Casella, Denise; Giordano, Livia; Mano, Maria P; Segnan, Nereo; Whitehead, Margaret; Costa, Giuseppe; Spadea, Teresa

    2016-11-01

    Several studies suggest that population-based breast cancer screening programmes might help reduce social inequalities in breast cancer survival both by increasing early diagnosis and by improving access to effective treatments. To start disentangling the two effects, we evaluated social inequalities in quality of treatment of screen-detected breast cancer in the city of Turin (Italy). Combining data from the Audit System on Quality of Breast Cancer Treatment and the Turin Longitudinal Study, we analysed 2700 cases in the screening target age class 50-69 diagnosed in the period 1995-2008. We selected 10 indicators of the pathway of care, relative to timeliness and appropriateness of diagnosis and treatment, and three indicators of socioeconomic position: education, occupational status and housing characteristics. For each indicator of care, relative risks of failure were estimated by robust Poisson regression models, controlling for calendar period of diagnosis, size of tumour and activity volume of the surgery units. The principal predictor of failure of the good care indicators was the calendar period of diagnosis, with a general improvement with time in the quality of diagnosis and treatment, followed by size of the tumour and volume of activity. Socioeconomic indicators show only a marginal independent effect on timeliness indicators. The observed associations of quality indicators with socioeconomic characteristics are lower than expected, suggesting a possible role of the screening programme in reducing disparities in the access to good-quality treatments thanks to its capability to enter screen-detected women into a protected pathway of care.

  12. Absence of socioeconomic inequalities in access to good-quality breast cancer treatment within a population-wide screening programme in Turin (Italy).

    PubMed

    Zengarini, Nicolás; Ponti, Antonio; Tomatis, Mariano; Casella, Denise; Giordano, Livia; Mano, Maria P; Segnan, Nereo; Whitehead, Margaret; Costa, Giuseppe; Spadea, Teresa

    2016-11-01

    Several studies suggest that population-based breast cancer screening programmes might help reduce social inequalities in breast cancer survival both by increasing early diagnosis and by improving access to effective treatments. To start disentangling the two effects, we evaluated social inequalities in quality of treatment of screen-detected breast cancer in the city of Turin (Italy). Combining data from the Audit System on Quality of Breast Cancer Treatment and the Turin Longitudinal Study, we analysed 2700 cases in the screening target age class 50-69 diagnosed in the period 1995-2008. We selected 10 indicators of the pathway of care, relative to timeliness and appropriateness of diagnosis and treatment, and three indicators of socioeconomic position: education, occupational status and housing characteristics. For each indicator of care, relative risks of failure were estimated by robust Poisson regression models, controlling for calendar period of diagnosis, size of tumour and activity volume of the surgery units. The principal predictor of failure of the good care indicators was the calendar period of diagnosis, with a general improvement with time in the quality of diagnosis and treatment, followed by size of the tumour and volume of activity. Socioeconomic indicators show only a marginal independent effect on timeliness indicators. The observed associations of quality indicators with socioeconomic characteristics are lower than expected, suggesting a possible role of the screening programme in reducing disparities in the access to good-quality treatments thanks to its capability to enter screen-detected women into a protected pathway of care. PMID:26999379

  13. Advanced Use of Wolrd-Wide Web in the Online System of Delphi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DöNszelmann, M.; Carvalho, D.; Mundim, L. M.; Du, S.; Rodden, K.; TennebØ, F.

    The World-Wide Web technology is used by the DELPHI experiment at CERN to provide easy access to information of the `On-line System'. WWW technology on both client and server side is used in five different projects. The World-Wide Web has its advantages concerning the network technology, the practical user interface and its scalability. It however also demands a stateless protocol and format negotiation.

  14. The World Health Report 2008 – Primary Healthcare: How Wide Is the Gap between Its Agenda and Implementation in 12 High-Income Health Systems?

    PubMed Central

    Gauld, Robin; Blank, Robert; Burgers, Jako; Cohen, Alan B.; Dobrow, Mark; Ikegami, Naoki; Kwon, Soonman; Luxford, Karen; Millett, Christopher; Wendt, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization's 2008 report asserted that the focus on primary healthcare (PHC) within health systems should increase, with four sets of reforms required. The WHO's PHC advocacy is well founded, yet its report is a policy document that fails to address adoption and implementation questions within WHO member countries. This paper examines the prospects for the WHO PHC agenda in 12 high-income health systems from Asia, Australasia, Europe and North America, comparing performances against the WHO agenda. Methods: A health policy specialist on each of the 12 systems sketched policy activities in each of the four areas of concern to the WHO: (a) whether there is universal coverage, (b) service delivery reforms to build a PHC-oriented system, (c) reforms integrating public health initiatives into PHC settings and (d) leadership promoting dialogue among stakeholders. Findings: All 12 systems demonstrate considerable gaps between the actual status of PHC and the WHO vision when assessed in terms of the four WHO reform dimensions, although many initiatives to enhance PHC have been implemented. Institutional arrangements pose significant barriers to PHC reform as envisioned by the WHO. Conclusions: PHC reform requires more attention from policy makers. Meanwhile, the WHO PHC report is perhaps too idealistic and fails to address the fundamentals for successful policy adoption and implementation within member countries. PMID:23372580

  15. Accessibility of Schools and Colleges of Education Home Pages for Individuals with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Marty

    Colleges of Education (COEs) use the World Wide Web to disseminate and gather information. Online barriers limit the accessibility of the Web for individuals with disabilities. This study evaluated the accessibility of COE home pages. Two hundred and fifty Web sites were randomly selected for evaluation. A software program was used to quantify the…

  16. Adaptive Technology for the Internet: Making Electronic Resources Accessible to All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mates, Barbara T.

    This book seeks to guide information providers in establishing accessible World Wide Web sites and acquiring the hardware and software needed by people with disabilities, focusing on access to the Internet using large print, voice, and Braille. The book also covers how to acquire the funds for adaptive technology, what type of equipment to choose,…

  17. Wide Wide World of Statistics: International Statistics on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foudy, Geraldine

    2000-01-01

    Explains how to find statistics on the Internet, especially international statistics. Discusses advantages over print sources, including convenience, currency of information, cost effectiveness, and value-added formatting; sources of international statistics; United Nations agencies; search engines and power searching; and evaluating sources. (LRW)

  18. The presence of major world-wide clones for phage type 4 and 8 Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and the evaluation of their virulence levels by invasiveness assays in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Pang, Jen-Chieh; Lin, Jer-Sheng; Tsai, Cheng-Chih; Tsen, Hau-Yang

    2006-10-01

    Seventy-seven animal isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) obtained from the United States were analyzed by phage typing and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Thirty-nine strains were found with phage types (PT) 4, 8, and 13a. When the chromosomal DNA of these 39 isolated strains with PT4, 8, and 13a were digested with XbaI, SpeI and NotI, followed by PFGE analysis, 28 strains were found with a pattern combination of X4S4N4, which was the major subtype. When PFGE patterns of the US isolates with PT 4 and 8 were compared with those of the Taiwanese and German isolates, pattern X3S3N3 was confirmed to be the world-wide subtype shared by PT 4 isolates, as previously reported, while pattern X4S4N4 was newly found to be the most common subtype shared by PT 8 strains. The presence of such major world-wide clones, however, does not necessarily mean that these clones are highly virulent, at least not according to the results of invasiveness assays using cultured human intestinal epithelium cell line Int-407 and living BALB/mice.

  19. A Case Study in Balancing Protection, Interpretation, and Public Access in the Treasure Hunting Capital of the World: The Management of the HMS Fowey Shipwreck in Biscayne National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marano, Joshua

    2015-08-01

    The management of the HMS Fowey shipwreck site in Biscayne National Park is a unique case study in the development of an interpretation and outreach program for the sensitive and now inaccessible site. Decades of restricted access and recent stabilization activities completed at the site have effectively closed archaeological access to it for the foreseeable future. The National Park Service did not come lightly to the decision to physically remove access the site. However, after several decades of monitoring significant loss, due to both erosion and looting, few options remained. This article utilizes the management of HMS Fowey as a case study in the development and modification of an interpretation and outreach program that can be applied to resources in similar peril and specifically to those located within the Florida Keys. Following a discussion of the archaeological history of the wreck site and the difficulties of regulating public access to HMS Fowey, this article addresses some of the difficulties associated with interpreting a closed and inaccessible archaeological site while detailing the Park's attempts to balance the protection, interpretation, and public access to sensitive archaeological sites in what could be described as the treasure hunting capital of the world.

  20. Access to Scientific Publications: The Scientist's Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Voronin, Yegor; Myrzahmetov, Askar; Bernstein, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Background Scientific publishing is undergoing significant changes due to the growth of online publications, increases in the number of open access journals, and policies of funders and universities requiring authors to ensure that their publications become publicly accessible. Most studies of the impact of these changes have focused on the growth of articles available through open access or the number of open-access journals. Here, we investigated access to publications at a number of institutes and universities around the world, focusing on publications in HIV vaccine research – an area of biomedical research with special importance to the developing world. Methods and Findings We selected research papers in HIV vaccine research field, creating: 1) a first set of 50 most recently published papers with keywords “HIV vaccine” and 2) a second set of 200 articles randomly selected from those cited in the first set. Access to the majority (80%) of the recently published articles required subscription, while cited literature was much more accessible (67% freely available online). Subscriptions at a number of institutions around the world were assessed for providing access to subscription-only articles from the two sets. The access levels varied widely, ranging among institutions from 20% to 90%. Through the WHO-supported HINARI program, institutes in low-income countries had access comparable to that of institutes in the North. Finally, we examined the response rates for reprint requests sent to corresponding authors, a method commonly used before internet access became widespread. Contacting corresponding authors with requests for electronic copies of articles by email resulted in a 55-60% success rate, although in some cases it took up to 1.5 months to get a response. Conclusions While research articles are increasingly available on the internet in open access format, institutional subscriptions continue to play an important role. However, subscriptions do not

  1. Libraries for Lifelong Literacy: Unrestricted Access to Information as a Basis for Lifelong Learning and Empowerment. IFLA/FAIFE Theme Report. World Report Series Volume IV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidelin, Susanne, Ed.; Hamilton, Stuart, Ed.; Sturges, Paul, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The IFLA/FAIFE (International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions/Committee on Free Access to Information and Freedom of Expression) Theme Report 2004 presents visions of how libraries can promote literacy and lifelong learning. The literacy process has to be recognised as inclusive of all ranges of communication, and it occurs at…

  2. Course Development on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kathleen P.

    1998-01-01

    Guidelines for developing Web-based course materials include considerations of available resources, how technology aids in meeting curricular goals and objectives, Web-site design and construction, and Web-course evaluation. (SK)

  3. World-wide distribution automation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Devaney, T.M.

    1994-12-31

    A worldwide power distribution automation system is outlined. Distribution automation is defined and the status of utility automation is discussed. Other topics discussed include a distribution management system, substation feeder, and customer functions, potential benefits, automation costs, planning and engineering considerations, automation trends, databases, system operation, computer modeling of system, and distribution management systems.

  4. 40 CFR 1602.2 - Requests for access to records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Government Printing Office's World Wide Web site (which can be found at http://www.access.gpo.gov/su_docs... requested records, you may also, at your option, include your social security number. (e) Verification of..., date and place of birth, and, at your option, the social security number of the individual; (2)...

  5. 40 CFR 1602.2 - Requests for access to records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Government Printing Office's World Wide Web site (which can be found at http://www.access.gpo.gov/su_docs... requested records, you may also, at your option, include your social security number. (e) Verification of..., date and place of birth, and, at your option, the social security number of the individual; (2)...

  6. Browser-Based Accessibility Evaluation Tools for Beginners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHale, Nina

    2011-01-01

    There are hundreds of Web accessibility software options out in the world that serve many different functions. Not surprisingly, many of them are designed for users with a wide range of abilities, with the intent of making the use of computers and the Internet easier for both work and entertainment. There are, however, numerous products available…

  7. Physical World Hyperlinking: Can Computer-Based Instruction in a K-6 Educational Setting Be Easily Accessed through Tangible Tagged Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parton, Becky Sue; Hancock, Robert; Mihir, Mihir

    2010-01-01

    This paper examined multiple types of physical world hyperlinking hardware configurations for the purpose of determining an optimal reader/tag combination for K-6 student use. Both traditional barcode tags and two types of RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tags were placed on tangible items. Students ranging from kindergarten to sixth grade…

  8. Our World Their World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brisco, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Build, create, make, blog, develop, organize, structure, perform. These are just a few verbs that illustrate the visual world. These words create images that allow students to respond to their environment. Visual culture studies recognize the predominance of visual forms of media, communication, and information in the postmodern world. This…

  9. World Music Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beegle, Amy C.

    2012-01-01

    Access to world music resources such as videos and sound recordings have increased with the advent of YouTube and the efforts of music educators working closely with ethnomusicologists to provide more detailed visual and audio information about various musical practices. This column discusses some world music resources available for music…

  10. Broadband passive optical network media access control protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quayle, Alan

    1996-11-01

    Most telecommunication operators are currently deciding on how to respond to customers' needs stimulated by the synergy between compression coding of multimedia and the emergence of broadband digital networks. This paper describes a range of broadband access architectures under consideration in the full services access network initiative. All architectures have a common requirement for a broadband ATM PON. A common broadband PON applicable to many operators increases the world-wide market for the product. With greater production volumes manufacturers' costs reduce because of the experience curve effect making broadband access systems economic.

  11. Increasing access to renal transplantation in India through our single-center kidney paired donation program: a model for the developing world to prevent commercial transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kute, Vivek B; Shah, Priyadarshini S; Vanikar, Aruna V; Gumber, Manoj R; Patel, Himanshu V; Engineer, Divyesh P; Shah, Pankaj R; Modi, Pranjal R; Shah, Veena R; Rizvi, Syed Jamal; Trivedi, Hargovind L

    2014-10-01

    Because access to transplantation with HLA-desensitization protocols and ABO incompatible transplantation is very limited due to high costs and increased risk of infections from more intense immunosuppression, kidney paired donation (KPD) promises hope to a growing number of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patient in India. We present a government and institutional ethical review board approved study of 56 ESRD patients [25 two-way and 2 three-way pairs] who consented to participate in KPD transplantation at our center in 2013, performed to avoid blood group incompatibility (n = 52) or positive cross-match (n = 4). All patients had anatomic, functional, and immunologically comparable donors. The waiting time in KPD was short as compared to deceased donor transplantation. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy was performed in 54 donors. Donor relationships were spousal (n = 40), parental (n = 13), others (n = 3), with median HLA match of 1. Graft survival was 97.5%. Three patients died with functioning graft. 16% had biopsy-proven acute rejection. Mean serum creatinine was 1.2 mg/dl at 0.73 ± 0.32 months follow-up. KPD is a viable, legal, and rapidly growing modality for facilitating LDRT for patients who are incompatible with their healthy, willing living donor. To our knowledge, this is the largest single-center report from India.

  12. Antiretrovirals for developing world.

    PubMed

    Adler, M W

    1998-01-24

    The most recent UNAIDS figures indicate that approximately 30 million people are infected with HIV worldwide, 5.8 million of whom were newly infected during 1997. At the 10th International Conference on AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Africa, the President and Secretary of Health of France called upon developed countries to establish a Therapeutic Assistance Fund to make antiretrovirals available to people with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. While the annual per capita health budget in most African countries is less than US$10, triple antiretroviral therapy against AIDS in the developed world costs $12,000-14,000 per patient per year. Calculations based upon a lower per patient cost of $7000, and treating all 1.4 million African AIDS cases, would cost US$10 billion per year for drugs alone, more than 30 times the amount currently spent annually by international donors for AIDS programs in the entire developing world. Basic infrastructural requirements would have to be met were antiretrovirals made widely available, ranging from HIV screening and counseling to the provision of clean water with which to consume the required 20-30 tablets per day. High program costs will challenge long-term sustainability. Universal access to care and treatment for HIV infection and AIDS is not a reality in the developed world, let alone feasible in developing countries. Given the competing health care priorities in developing countries, the high costs of antiretroviral agents, poor infrastructure, and inability to sustain such a program, the French initiative is ill-advised and foolish public health practice.

  13. Access to essential paediatric surgery in the developing world: a case of imperforate anus with rectovaginal and rectocutaneous fistulas left untreated.

    PubMed

    Vinluan, Marilyn L; Olveda, Remigio M; Ortanez, Clive K; Abellera, Modesto; Olveda, David U; Chy, Delia C; Ross, Allen G

    2015-01-01

    Anorectal malformations consist of a wide spectrum of conditions which can affect both sexes and involve the distal anus and rectum as well as the urinary and genital tracts. Patients have the best chance of a good functional outcome if the condition is diagnosed early and efficient anatomic repair is promptly instituted. This report describes a rare case of imperforate anus associated with both rectovaginal and rectocutaneous fistulas in a 6-year-old Filipino girl. The case highlights shortcomings in the healthcare delivery system combined with socio-economic factors that contributed to the delay in both diagnosis and the institution of adequate treatment. Care and preventive measures that can be implemented in low-resource settings to reduce the impact of birth defects are also discussed.

  14. Clinical experience with ipilimumab 3 mg/kg: real-world efficacy and safety data from an expanded access programme cohort

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ipilimumab improves survival in patients with advanced melanoma. The activity and safety of ipilimumab outside of a clinical trial was assessed in an expanded access programme (EAP). Methods Ipilimumab was available upon physician request for patients aged 16 or over with pretreated stage III (unresectable)/IV melanoma, for whom no other therapeutic option was available. Patients received ipilimumab 3 mg/kg every 3 weeks for four doses. Patients with stable disease or an objective response to ipilimumab were eligible for retreatment upon disease progression. Tumour assessments were conducted at baseline and week 12. Patients were monitored for adverse events (AEs) within 3 to 4 days of each scheduled visit. Results Of 855 patients participating in the EAP in Italy, 833 were evaluable for response. Of these, 13% had an objective immune response, and the immune-related disease control rate was 34%. Median progression-free survival and overall survival were 3.7 and 7.2 months, respectively. Efficacy was independent of BRAF and NRAS mutational status. Overall, 33% of patients reported an immune-related AE (irAE). The frequency of irAEs was not associated with response to ipilimumab. Conclusions Outside of a clinical trial setting, ipilimumab is a feasible treatment option in patients with pretreated metastatic melanoma, regardless of BRAF and NRAS mutational status. Data from this large cohort of patients support clinical trial evidence that ipilimumab can induce durable disease control and long-term survival in patients who have failed to respond to prior treatment. PMID:24885479

  15. Genome-wide DNA methylation study suggests epigenetic accessibility and transcriptional poising of interferon-regulated genes in naïve CD4+ T cells from lupus patients.

    PubMed

    Coit, Patrick; Jeffries, Matlock; Altorok, Nezam; Dozmorov, Mikhail G; Koelsch, Kristi A; Wren, Jonathan D; Merrill, Joan T; McCune, W Joseph; Sawalha, Amr H

    2013-06-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease characterized by multi-system involvement and autoantibody production. Abnormal T cell DNA methylation and type-I interferon play an important role in the pathogenesis of lupus. We performed a genome-wide DNA methylation study in two independent sets of lupus patients and matched healthy controls to characterize the DNA methylome in naïve CD4+ T cells in lupus. DNA methylation was quantified for over 485,000 methylation sites across the genome, and differentially methylated sites between lupus patients and controls were identified and then independently replicated. Gene expression analysis was also performed from the same cells to investigate the relationship between the DNA methylation changes observed and mRNA expression levels. We identified and replicated 86 differentially methylated CG sites between patients and controls in 47 genes, with the majority being hypomethylated. We observed significant hypomethylation in interferon-regulated genes in naïve CD4+ T cells from lupus patients, including IFIT1, IFIT3, MX1, STAT1, IFI44L, USP18, TRIM22 and BST2, suggesting epigenetic transcriptional accessibility in these genetic loci. Indeed, the majority of the hypomethylated genes (21 out of 35 hypomethylated genes) are regulated by type I interferon. The hypomethylation in interferon-regulated genes was not related to lupus disease activity. Gene expression analysis showed overexpression of these genes in total but not naïve CD4+ T cells from lupus patients. Our data suggest epigenetic "poising" of interferon-regulated genes in lupus naïve CD4+ T cells, argue for a novel pathogenic implication for abnormal T cell DNA methylation in lupus, and suggest a mechanism for type-I interferon hyper-responsiveness in lupus T cells.

  16. Access to modern contraception.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Michael J; Stanback, John; Shelton, James

    2006-06-01

    Access to modern contraception has become a recognized human right, improving the health and well-being of women, families and societies worldwide. However, contraceptive access remains uneven. Irregular contraceptive supply, limited numbers of service delivery points and specific geographic, economic, informational, psychosocial and administrative barriers (including medical barriers) undermine access in many settings. Widening the range of providers enabled to offer contraception can improve contraceptive access, particularly where resources are most scarce. International efforts to remove medical barriers include the World Health Organization's Medical Eligibility Criteria. Based on the best available evidence, these criteria provide guidance for weighing the risks and benefits of contraceptive choice among women with specific clinical conditions. Clinical job aids can also improve access. More research is needed to further elucidate the pathways for expanding contraceptive access. Further progress in removing medical barriers will depend on systems for improving provider education and promoting evidence-based contraceptive service delivery. PMID:16443395

  17. Making Web-Based Tables Accessible for Users of Screen Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amtmann, Dagmar; Johnson, Kurt; Cook, Debbie

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes results from a study of problems blind people using screen readers and Web browsers experienced when reading tables on the World Wide Web. Explains accessibility factors including complexity of layout, use of HTML programming, features of screen-reading software, and user variables; and makes recommendations for Web-based tables,…

  18. Evaluating the Accessibility of Web-Based Instruction for Students with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinn, D. Michelle

    This paper presents the methods and results of a year-long evaluation study, conducted for the purpose of determining disability accessibility barriers and potential solutions for those barriers found in four World Wide Web-based learning environments. The primary questions used to frame the evaluation study were: (1) Are there any features of the…

  19. On2broker: Semantic-Based Access to Information Sources at the WWW.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fensel, Dieter; Angele, Jurgen; Decker, Stefan; Erdmann, Michael; Schnurr, Hans-Peter; Staab, Steffen; Studer, Rudi; Witt, Andreas

    On2broker provides brokering services to improve access to heterogeneous, distributed, and semistructured information sources as they are presented in the World Wide Web. It relies on the use of ontologies to make explicit the semantics of Web pages. This paper discusses the general architecture and main components (i.e., query engine, information…

  20. "Medical Education Online": A Case Study of an Open Access Journal in Health Professional Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, David J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The development of the World Wide Web (WWW) has made it possible of small groups of colleagues or even single individuals to create peer-reviewed scholarly journals. This paper discusses the development of Medical Education Online (MEO) an open access peer-reviewed journal in health professional education. Description: MEO was first…