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Sample records for accessible world wide

  1. World Wide Access: Accessible Web Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Univ., Seattle.

    This brief paper considers the application of "universal design" principles to Web page design in order to increase accessibility for people with disabilities. Suggestions are based on the World Wide Web Consortium's accessibility initiative, which has proposed guidelines for all Web authors and federal government standards. Seven guidelines for…

  2. Accessing NASA Technology with the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Bianco, David J.

    1995-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) began using the World Wide Web (WWW) in the summer of 1993, becoming the first NASA installation to provide a Center-wide home page. This coincided with a reorganization of LaRC to provide a more concentrated focus on technology transfer to both aerospace and non-aerospace industry. Use of WWW and NCSA Mosaic not only provides automated information dissemination, but also allows for the implementation, evolution and integration of many technology transfer and technology awareness applications. This paper describes several of these innovative applications, including the on-line presentation of the entire Technology OPportunities Showcase (TOPS), an industrial partnering showcase that exists on the Web long after the actual 3-day event ended. The NASA Technical Report Server (NTRS) provides uniform access to many logically similar, yet physically distributed NASA report servers. WWW is also the foundation of the Langley Software Server (LSS), an experimental software distribution system which will distribute LaRC-developed software. In addition to the more formal technology distribution projects, WWW has been successful in connecting people with technologies and people with other people.

  3. Making the World Wide Web Accessible to All Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, Sally A.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the accessibility of Web sites belonging to 80 colleges of communications and schools of journalism by examining the hypertext markup language (HTML) used to format the pages. Suggests ways to revise the markup of pages to make them more accessible to students with vision, hearing, and mobility problems. Lists resources of the latest…

  4. A World Wide Web accessible multi-species ECG database.

    PubMed

    Hammann, H P; Suedmeyer, W K; Hahn, A W

    1997-01-01

    We have developed a system for remotely accessible secure electronic storage of electrocardiographic (ECG) and other associated data. It allows entry of data from any authorized remote user and is specifically built to accommodate the ECGs of multiple species. The present system is implemented on a Sun Sparc Solaris 2.5 platform using Oracle 7.3.2, and the Oracle 7.3.2 Web server. It may be easily ported to any other UNIX or Windows NT platform. No client is needed other than an Internet Protocol connected computer using a web browser such as Netscape Navigator or Microsoft Internet Explorer.

  5. The Internet as a Reference Tool: Accessing Scientific and Technical Information via the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosier, Mona L.

    Los Alamos National Laboratory's Research Library has developed a World Wide Web (WWW) page to allow laboratory staff, as well as individuals from around the world, access to information via the Internet. While many Web pages offer information solely on the organization, the Los Alamos National Laboratory page provides links to reference materials…

  6. World Wide Webs: Crossing the Digital Divide through Promotion of Public Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coetzee, Liezl

    “As Bill Gates and Steve Case proclaim the global omnipresence of the Internet, the majority of non-Western nations and 97 per cent of the world's population remain unconnected to the net for lack of money, access, or knowledge. This exclusion of so vast a share of the global population from the Internet sharply contradicts the claims of those who posit the World Wide Web as a ‘universal' medium of egalitarian communication.” (Trend 2001:2)

  7. Computer and World Wide Web accessibility by visually disabled patients: problems and solutions.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Michael F; Cole, Roy G; Gupta, Suhit; Kaiser, Gail E; Starren, Justin B

    2005-01-01

    Rapid advances in information technology have dramatically transformed the world during the past several decades. Access to computers and the World Wide Web is increasingly required for education and employment, as well as for many activities of daily living. Although these changes have improved society in many respects, they present an obstacle for visually disabled patients who may have significant difficulty processing the visual cues presented by modern graphical user interfaces. This article reviews the specific barriers to computer and Web access faced by visually disabled patients, describes clinical evaluation methods, summarizes traditional low vision methods as well as newer assistive computer technologies for universal accessibility, and discusses emerging technologies and future directions in this area.

  8. In-house access to PACS images and related data through World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Mascarini, C; Ratib, O; Trayser, G; Ligier, Y; Appel, R D

    1996-06-01

    The development of a hospital wide PACS is in progress at the University Hospital of Geneva and several archive modules are operational since 1992. This PACS is intended for wide distribution of images to clinical wards. As the PACS project and the number of archived images grow rapidly in the hospital, it was necessary to provide an easy, more widely accessible and convenient access to the PACS database for the clinicians in the different wards and clinical units of the hospital. An innovative solution has been developed using tools such as Netscape navigator and NCSA World Wide Web server as an alternative to conventional database query and retrieval software. These tools present the advantages of providing a user interface which is the same, independent of the platform being used (e.g. Mac, Windows, UNIX), and an easy integration of different types of documents (e.g. text, images). A strict access control has been added to this interface. It allows user identification and access rights checking, as defined by the in-house hospital information system, before allowing the navigation through patient data records.

  9. In-house access to PACS images and related data through World Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascarini, Christian; Ratib, Osman M.; Trayser, Gerhard; Ligier, Yves; Appel, R. D.

    1996-05-01

    The development of a hospital wide PACS is in progress at the University Hospital of Geneva and several archive modules are operational since 1992. This PACS is intended for wide distribution of images to clinical wards. As the PACS project and the number of archived images grow rapidly in the hospital, it was necessary to provide an easy, more widely accessible and convenient access to the PACS database for the clinicians in the different wards and clinical units of the hospital. An innovative solution has been developed using tools such as Netscape navigator and NCSA World Wide Web server as an alternative to conventional database query and retrieval software. These tools present the advantages of providing an user interface which is the same independently of the platform being used (Mac, Windows, UNIX, ...), and an easy integration of different types of documents (text, images, ...). A strict access control has been added to this interface. It allows user identification and access rights checking, as defined by the in-house hospital information system, before allowing the navigation through patient data records.

  10. Online Access to Weather Satellite Imagery Through the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emery, W.; Baldwin, D.

    1998-01-01

    Both global area coverage (GAC) and high-resolution picture transmission (HRTP) data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) are made available to laternet users through an online data access system. Older GOES-7 data am also available. Created as a "testbed" data system for NASA's future Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), this testbed provides an opportunity to test both the technical requirements of an onune'd;ta system and the different ways in which the -general user, community would employ such a system. Initiated in December 1991, the basic data system experienced five major evolutionary changes In response to user requests and requirements. Features added with these changes were the addition of online browse, user subsetting, dynamic image Processing/navigation, a stand-alone data storage system, and movement,from an X-windows graphical user Interface (GUI) to a World Wide Web (WWW) interface. Over Its lifetime, the system has had as many as 2500 registered users. The system on the WWW has had over 2500 hits since October 1995. Many of these hits are by casual users that only take the GIF images directly from the interface screens and do not specifically order digital data. Still, there b a consistent stream of users ordering the navigated image data and related products (maps and so forth). We have recently added a real-time, seven- day, northwestern United States normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) composite that has generated considerable Interest. Index Terms-Data system, earth science, online access, satellite data.

  11. Technical Considerations in Remote LIMS Access via the World Wide Web

    PubMed Central

    Schlabach, David M.

    2005-01-01

    The increased dependency on the World Wide Web by both laboratories and their customers has led LIMS developers to take advantage of thin-client web applications that provide both remote data entry and manipulation, along with remote reporting functionality. Use of an LIMS through a web browser allows a person to interact with a distant application, providing both remote administration and real-time analytical result delivery from virtually anywhere in the world. While there are many benefits of web-based LIMS applications, some concern must be given to these new methods of system architecture before justifying them as a suitable replacement for their traditional client-server systems. Developers and consumers alike must consider the security aspects of introducing a wide area network capable system into a production environment, as well as the concerns of data integrity and usability. PMID:18924736

  12. Automating testbed documentation and database access using World Wide Web (WWW) tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Charles; Auernheimer, Brent; Lee, Young H.

    1994-01-01

    A method for providing uniform transparent access to disparate distributed information systems was demonstrated. A prototype testing interface was developed to access documentation and information using publicly available hypermedia tools. The prototype gives testers a uniform, platform-independent user interface to on-line documentation, user manuals, and mission-specific test and operations data. Mosaic was the common user interface, and HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) provided hypertext capability.

  13. World Wide Web platform-independent access to biomedical text/image databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, L. Rodney; Goh, Gin-Hua; Neve, Leif; Thoma, George R.

    1998-07-01

    The biomedical digital library of the future is expected to provide access to stores of biomedical database information containing text and images. Developing efficient methods for accessing such databases is a research effort at the Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications of the National Library of Medicine. In this paper we examine issues in providing access to databases across the Web and describe a tool we have developed: the Web-based Medical Information Retrieval System (WebMIRS). We address a number of critical issues, including preservation of data integrity, efficient database design, access to documentation, quality of query and results interfaces, capability to export results to other software, and exploitation of multimedia data. WebMIRS is implemented as a Java applet that allows database access to text and to associated image data, without requiring any user software beyond a standard Web browser. The applet implementation allows WebMIRS to run on any hardware platform (such as PCs, the Macintosh, or Unix machines) which supports a Java-enabled Web browser, such as Netscape or Internet Explorer. WebMIRS is being tested on text/x-ray image databases created from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) data collected by the National Center for Health Statistics.

  14. World Wide Web Homepage Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Michael L.

    This paper examines hypermedia design and draws conclusions about how educational research and theory applies to various aspects of World Wide Web (WWW) homepage design. "Hypermedia" is defined as any collection of information which may be textual, graphical, visual, or auditory in nature and which may be accessed via a nonlinear route.…

  15. The World Wide Web: Alice Meets Cyberspace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koos, Marybeth; Smith-Shank, Deborah L.

    1996-01-01

    Uses excerpts from "Alice In Wonderland" as introductions to a tour of the uses of the World Wide Web in art education. Discusses such issues as access, copyrights, costs, and benefits. Includes an index of terms, list of related Websites, and suggested teaching activities. (MJP)

  16. WorldWide Web: Hypertext from CERN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Gord

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of software tools for accessing information on the Internet focuses on the WorldWideWeb (WWW) system, which was developed at the European Particle Physics Laboratory (CERN) in Switzerland to build a worldwide network of hypertext links using available networking technology. Its potential for use with multimedia documents is also…

  17. Technical Services and the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheschy, Virginia M.

    The World Wide Web and browsers such as Netscape and Mosaic have simplified access to electronic resources. Today, technical services librarians can share in the wealth of information available on the Web. One of the premier Web sites for acquisitions librarians is AcqWeb, a cousin of the AcqNet listserv. In addition to interesting news items,…

  18. Thematic World Wide Web Visualization System

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-10

    WebTheme is a system designed to facilitate world wide web information access and retrieval through visualization. It consists of two principal pieces, a WebTheme Server which allows users to enter in a query and automatocally harvest and process information of interest, and a WebTheme browser, which allows users to work with both Galaxies and Themescape visualizations of their data within a JAVA capable world wide web browser. WebTheme is an Internet solution, meaning that access to the server and the resulting visualizations can all be performed through the use of a WWW browser. This allows users to access and interact with SPIRE (Spatial Paradigm for Information Retrieval and Exploration) based visualizations through a web browser regardless of what computer platforms they are running on. WebTheme is specifically designed to create databases by harvesting and processing WWW home pages available on the Internet.

  19. Improvements in Empirical Modelling of the World-Wide Ionosphere

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-31

    OF THE WORLD -’WIDE IONOSPHIERE.I Prof. Kurt Suchy Inst. f. Theor. Physik 11...ELEMENT NO. NO. NO ACCESSION NO 62101F 4643 08 11. TITLE (Andude Secu ty Clauiflcation) IMPROVEMENTS IN EMPIRICAL MODELLING OF THE WORLD -WIDE IONOSPHERE 1...THE FIGURES 53 - 57 𔃻 ’ " " i " I ’ Q !NMI- P ’ I IMPROVE MENTS IN EMPIRICAL MODELLING OF THE WORLD -WIDE IONOSPHERE 1. INTRODUCTION Numerical Models

  20. Learning To Use the World Wide Web. Academic Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Ernest

    This book emphasizes how to use Netscape Navigator to access the World Wide Web and associated resources and services in a step-by-step, organized manner. Chapters include -- Chapter 1: Introduction to the World Wide Web and the Internet; Chapter 2: Using a Web Browser; Chapter 3: The Basics of Electronic Mail and Using Netscape Email; Chapter 4:…

  1. Innovation in Science Education - World-Wide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baez, Albert V.

    The purpose of this book is to promote improvements in science education, world-wide, but particularly in developing countries. It is addressed to those in positions to make effective contributions to the improvement of science education. The world-wide role of science education, the goals of innovative activities, past experience in efforts to…

  2. U.S. Geological Survey World Wide Web Information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) invites you to explore an earth science virtual library of digital information, publications, and data. The USGS World Wide Web sites offer an array of information that reflects scientific research and monitoring programs conducted in the areas of natural hazards, environmental resources, and cartography. This list provides gateways to access a cross section of the digital information on the USGS World Wide Web sites.

  3. U.S. Geological Survey World Wide Web Information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) invites you to explore an earth science virtual library of digital information, publications, and data. The USGS Internet World Wide Web sites offer an array of information that reflects scientific research and monitoring programs conducted in the areas of natural hazards, environmental resources, and cartography. This list provides gateways to access a cross section of the digital information on the USGS World Wide Web sites.

  4. U.S. Geological Survey World Wide Web information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) invites you to explore an earth science virtual library of digital information, publications, and data. The USGS Internet World Wide Web sites offer an array of information that reflects scientific research and monitoring programs conducted in the areas of natural hazards, environmental resources, and cartography. This list provides gateways to access a cross section of the digital information on the USGS World Wide Web sites.

  5. U.S. Geological Survey World Wide Web Information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) invites you to explore an earth science virtual library of digital information, publications, and data. The USGS World Wide Web sites offer an array of information that reflects scientific research and monitoring programs conducted in the areas of natural hazards, environmental resources, and cartog-raphy. This list provides gateways to access a cross section of the digital information on the USGS World Wide Web sites.

  6. World wide web: opportunities, challenges, and threats.

    PubMed

    Edworthy, S M

    1999-01-01

    The Internet provides new opportunities to gather information on the population and may provide alternatives to the traditional methods of conducting clinical trials in systemic lupus erythematosus. The 'world wide web-www' has grown extensively in the past decade and it is estimated that there will be over 1 billion individuals on the net by the year 2005. Notifying, recruiting and assessing patients using Internet technology are already potential uses of this electronic medium. However, total reliance on the Internet could lead to biased sampling of patients with lupus. Women with low incomes or who are unemployed are less likely to have access to the Internet. Individuals with neurological deficits may have trouble using the Internet effectively. Data collected on the web may not have high reliability and much work needs to be completed to determine the psychometric properties of information derived from this source. One of the greatest threats to contend with is protecting the confidentiality of patient information when using electronic communication. Safeguards against inadvertent or unintended release of information must receive high priority in any attempt to use the Internet for clinical trials. Particular attention should be paid to email messages, which have the potential to be intercepted or sent to individuals without clearance to see patient information. Nevertheless, the costs to systems performance caused by security measures must also be considered and balanced against the need for access by those with appropriate authority. A number of websites already exist for the benefit of patients and providers. Clinicians and scientists interested in the field of lupus research will need to keep up to date on the rapidly proliferating information that is becoming available. This article lists sites which can be visited now.

  7. Web Accessibility of the Higher Education Institute Websites Based on the World Wide Web Consortium and Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alam, Najma H.

    2014-01-01

    The problem observed in this study is the low level of compliance of higher education website accessibility with Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. The literature supports the non-compliance of websites with the federal policy in general. Studies were performed to analyze the accessibility of fifty-four sample web pages using automated…

  8. Using the World Wide Web To Improve Medication Calculation Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stillman, Gloria A.; Alison, Justine; Croker, Felicity

    1999-01-01

    Describes the development of a computer-assisted learning package at James Cook University (Australia) that uses the World Wide Web to provide accessible practice in medication calculations for undergraduate nursing students and inservice education for nurses in isolated areas. Highlights include design features, constraints, cost effectiveness,…

  9. Baby Steps: Starting Out on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Carol; McElmeel, Sharron L.

    1997-01-01

    While the Internet is the physical medium used to transport data, the World Wide Web is the collection of protocols and standards used to access the information. This article provides a basic explanation of what the Web is and describes common browser commands. Discusses graphic Web browsers; universal resource locators (URLs); file, message,…

  10. World Wide Web Server Standards and Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Keith M.

    This document defines the specific standards and general guidelines which the U.S. Department of Education (ED) will use to make information available on the World Wide Web (WWW). The purpose of providing such guidance is to ensure high quality and consistent content, organization, and presentation of information on ED WWW servers, in order to…

  11. News Resources on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notess, Greg R.

    1996-01-01

    Describes up-to-date news sources that are presently available on the Internet and World Wide Web. Highlights include electronic newspapers; AP (Associated Press) sources and Reuters; sports news; stock market information; New York Times; multimedia capabilities, including CNN Interactive; and local and regional news. (LRW)

  12. Re-Framing the World Wide Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, August

    2011-01-01

    The research presented in this dissertation studies and describes how technical standards, protocols, and application programming interfaces (APIs) shape the aesthetic, functional, and affective nature of our most dominant mode of online communication, the World Wide Web (WWW). I examine the politically charged and contentious battle over browser…

  13. Reference Materials on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitao, Kenji

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents information about World Wide Web resources for English language teachers and students and for communication scholars and researchers. The first Web page, "Reference Materials for Students and Researchers," offers links to resources in English. Because there are many Web sites related to dictionaries, a second page,…

  14. A Grounded Theory Study of the Process of Accessing Information on the World Wide Web by People with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blodgett, Cynthia S.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to examine the process by which people with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI) access information on the web. Recent estimates include amateur sports and recreation injuries, non-hospital clinics and treatment facilities, private and public emergency department visits and admissions, providing…

  15. Integrating WorldWide Telescope with Wordpress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sands, Mark; Luebbert, J.; Fay, J.; Gay, P. L.

    2010-01-01

    In this project we unite three major components of astronomy and new media: World Wide Telescope, Wordpress, and user supplied audio. Through an easy to use Wordpress plug-in users can create WorldWide Telescope sky tours that allow: a) astronomers and educators to spread the facts and awareness of astronomy, potentially bringing new and interested individuals into the astronomy community; b) bloggers/podcasters to create dynamic, virtual tours of the universe that are nearly boundless; and, c) readers to benefit from the alluring WorldWide Telescope tours by gaining a new and dramatic outlook on our universe. This software has the potential to augment, and in some cases replace, traditional methods of astronomy centered online lectures. With this plugin, it is possible to combine Wordpress-based website content with audio, and a sky tour that can be paused at any object. This ability to pause a sky tour allows the user to further explore the wealth of data provided within WWT. This fully customizable solution includes all of the necessary features required to reproduce a lecture in a more creative and appealing format then some of the standard, typically non-interactive, movies and podcasts currently found online. Through the creation of effective WorldWide Telescope tours, astronomers and educators can better extend astronomy content to astronomy-interested, but not yet engaged, members of the new media community. These tours will provide a better understanding and appreciation for what our universe has to offer. Through this new media approach of integrating WorldWide Telescope with blogs and podcasts, users can now extend their interest in astronomy by exploring the universe themselves, moving beyond provided content to gain a better understanding all on their own.

  16. World's Biggest Astronomy Event on the World-Wide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-06-01

    `Astronomy On-Line' will connect students all over Europe Astronomy On-Line is a major, all-European project that will take place in conjunction with the 4th European Week for Scientific and Technological Culture later this year. It is based on intensive use of the World-Wide-Web (WWW) and represents the first large-scale attempt in the world to bring together pupils and their teachers all over one continent to explore challenging scientific questions, using modern communication tools, both for obtaining and for communicating information. The programme will be carried out in a collaboration between the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE) [1] and the European Southern Observatory, and together with the European Commission (EC). The active phase of Astronomy On-Line will start on October 1 and reach a climax on November 18 - 22, 1996 . What is `Astronomy On-Line'? In this project, a large number of students and their teachers at schools all over Europe, together with professional and amateur astronomers and others interested in astronomy, will become associated in a unique experience that makes intensive use of the vast possibilities of the World-Wide-Web (WWW). Although the exact number of participants will not be known until the beginning of October, it is expected to run into thousands, possibly many more. The unusual size and scope of Astronomy On-Line will contribute to make it an important all-European media event. The central idea is that the participants, through the WWW, will `meet' in a `marketplace' where a number of different `shops' will be available, each of which will tempt them with a number of exciting and educational `events', carefully prepared to cater for different age groups, from 12 years upwards. The events will cover a wide spectrum of activities, some of which will be timed to ensure the proper progression of this very complex project through its main phases. The benefits In fact, Astronomy On-Line will be the first

  17. World-wide fallout from nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This video explains what is known and what is not known by today's science about the long term consequences of world-wide fallout. In the interest of accuracy, this report is confined to the fallout on which a substantial amount of information is now available. Much has been written and said about this subject both officially and unofficially. The purpose of this film is to correct any factually unsupported statements which have been and continue to be issued from time to time.

  18. Collaborative Information Agents on the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, James R.; Mathe, Nathalie; Wolfe, Shawn; Koga, Dennis J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we present DIAMS, a system of distributed, collaborative information agents which help users access, collect, organize, and exchange information on the World Wide Web. Personal agents provide their owners dynamic displays of well organized information collections, as well as friendly information management utilities. Personal agents exchange information with one another. They also work with other types of information agents such as matchmakers and knowledge experts to facilitate collaboration and communication.

  19. Cyber agent on the World Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H. C.; Dagli, Cihan H.

    1996-03-01

    The World Wide Web has brought the information from a distributed environment into a global information universe. As users keep on surfing the Web and adding their bookmarks, it is increasingly difficult for them to find their desired information even though there are many search tools available. In this paper, a smart engineering system called Cyber Agent is proposed to help users search and organize the information. It contains two major subsystems, namely, WebTracer and WebOrganizer. They adapt their behavior dynamically according to the environment and the special preferences of each individual. WebTracer is the wavefront of the Cyber Agent while WebOrganizer is the brain of the Cyber Agent.

  20. World-wide aeronautical satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Peter; Smith, Keith

    1988-01-01

    INMARSAT decided to expand the spectrum covered by its new generation of satellites, INMARSAT-2, to include 1 MHz (subsequently increased to 3 MHz) of the spectrum designed for aeronautical use. It began a design study that led to the specifications for the system that is now being implemented. Subsequently, INMARSAT awarded contracts for the design of avionics and high gain antennas to a number of manufactures, while several of the signatories that provide ground equipment for communicating with the INMARSAT satellites are modifying their earth stations to work with the avionic equipment. As a resullt of these activities, a world-wide aeronautical satellite system supporting both voice and data will become operational in 1989.

  1. World-wide projections for hip fracture.

    PubMed

    Gullberg, B; Johnell, O; Kanis, J A

    1997-01-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate the present and future incidence of hip fracture world-wide. From a survey of available data on current incidence, population trends and the secular changes in hip fracture risk, the numbers of hip fractures expected in 2025 and 2050 were computed. The total number of hip fractures in men and women in 1990 was estimated to be 338,000 and 917,000 respectively, a total of 1.26 million. Assuming no change in the age- and sex-specific incidence, the number of hip fractures is estimated to approximately double to 2.6 million by the year 2025, and 4.5 million by the year 2050. The percentage increase will be greater in men (310%) than in women (240%). With modest assumptions concerning secular trends, the number of hip fractures could range between 7.3 and 21.3 million by 2050. The major demographic changes will occur in Asia. In 1990, 26% of all hip fractures occurred in Asia, whereas this figure could rise to 37% in 2025 and to 45% in 2050. We conclude that the socioeconomic impact of hip fractures will increase markedly throughout the world, particularly in Asia, and that there is an urgent need to develop preventive strategies, particularly in the developing countries.

  2. Wired World-Wide Web Interactive Remote Event Display

    SciTech Connect

    De Groot, Nicolo

    2003-05-07

    WIRED (World-Wide Web Interactive Remote Event Display) is a framework, written in the Java{trademark} language, for building High Energy Physics event displays. An event display based on the WIRED framework enables users of a HEP collaboration to visualize and analyze events remotely using ordinary WWW browsers, on any type of machine. In addition, event displays using WIRED may provide the general public with access to the research of high energy physics. The recent introduction of the object-oriented Java{trademark} language enables the transfer of machine independent code across the Internet, to be safely executed by a Java enhanced WWW browser. We have employed this technology to create a remote event display in WWW. The combined Java-WWW technology hence assures a world wide availability of such an event display, an always up-to-date program and a platform independent implementation, which is easy to use and to install.

  3. Browsing the World Wide Web from behind a firewall

    SciTech Connect

    Simons, R.W.

    1995-02-01

    The World Wide Web provides a unified method of access to various information services on the Internet via a variety of protocols. Mosaic and other browsers give users a graphical interface to the Web that is easier to use and more visually pleasing than any other common Internet information service today. The availability of information via the Web and the number of users accessing it have both grown rapidly in the last year. The interest and investment of commercial firms in this technology suggest that in the near future, access to the Web may become as necessary to doing business as a telephone. This is problematical for organizations that use firewalls to protect their internal networks from the Internet. Allowing all the protocols and types of information found in the Web to pass their firewall will certainly increase the risk of attack by hackers on the Internet. But not allowing access to the Web could be even more dangerous, as frustrated users of the internal network are either unable to do their jobs, or find creative new ways to get around the firewall. The solution to this dilemma adopted at Sandia National Laboratories is described. Discussion also covers risks of accessing the Web, design alternatives considered, and trade-offs used to find the proper balance between access and protection.

  4. Remote sensing education and Internet/World Wide Web technology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffith, J.A.; Egbert, S.L.

    2001-01-01

    Remote sensing education is increasingly in demand across academic and professional disciplines. Meanwhile, Internet technology and the World Wide Web (WWW) are being more frequently employed as teaching tools in remote sensing and other disciplines. The current wealth of information on the Internet and World Wide Web must be distilled, nonetheless, to be useful in remote sensing education. An extensive literature base is developing on the WWW as a tool in education and in teaching remote sensing. This literature reveals benefits and limitations of the WWW, and can guide its implementation. Among the most beneficial aspects of the Web are increased access to remote sensing expertise regardless of geographic location, increased access to current material, and access to extensive archives of satellite imagery and aerial photography. As with other teaching innovations, using the WWW/Internet may well mean more work, not less, for teachers, at least at the stage of early adoption. Also, information posted on Web sites is not always accurate. Development stages of this technology range from on-line posting of syllabi and lecture notes to on-line laboratory exercises and animated landscape flyovers and on-line image processing. The advantages of WWW/Internet technology may likely outweigh the costs of implementing it as a teaching tool.

  5. Developing Basic Space Science World-Wide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wamsteker, W.; Albrecht, Rudolf; Haubold, Hans J.

    2004-03-01

    When the first United Nations/European Space Agency Workshop for Basic Space Science was planned to be held in Bangalore, India (1991) on the invitation of ISRO, few of those involved could expect that a unique forum was going to be created for scientific dialogue between scientists from developing and industrialized nations. As the format of the first workshop was on purpose left free with time for presentations, working sessions, and plenary discussions, the workshop was left to find its own dynamics. After a decade of UN/ESA Workshops, this book brings together the historical activities, the plans which have been developed over the past decade in the different nations, and the results which have materialized during this time in different developing nations. It aims to achieve for development agencies to be assisted in ways to find more effective tools for the application of development aid. The last section of the book contains a guide for teachers to introduce astrophysics into university physics courses. This will be of use to teachers in many nations. Everything described in this book is the result of a truly collective effort from all involved in all UN/ESA workshops. The mutual support from the participants has helped significantly to implement some of the accomplishments described in the book. Rather than organizing this book in a subject driven way, it is essentially organized according to the common economic regions of the world, as defined by the United Nations (Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, Western Asia). This allows better recognition of the importance of a regional (and at times) global approach to basic space science for the developing nation's world wide. It highlights very specific scientific investigations which have been completed successfully in the various developing nations. The book supplements the published ten volumes of workshop proceedings containing scientific papers presented in the workshops

  6. Integrating Mathematics, Science, and Language Arts Instruction Using the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Kenneth; Hosticka, Alice; Kent, Judi; Browne, Ron

    1998-01-01

    Addresses issues of access to World Wide Web sites, mathematics and science content-resources available on the Web, and methods for integrating mathematics, science, and language arts instruction. (Author/ASK)

  7. Historical development of world wide guided missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1978-01-01

    This paper attempts to put in perspective the development of missiles from early history to present time. The influence of World War II in accelerating the development of guided missiles, particularly through German scientists, is discussed. The dispersion of German scientists to other countries and the coupling of their work with native talent to develop guided missiles is traced. Particular emphasis is placed on the evolution of the missile in the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. Since the Soviets possess what is probably the world's most complete array of dedicated missile system types, their known inventory is reviewed in some detail.

  8. World Wide Web resources on control of nosocomial infections.

    PubMed

    Siempos, Ilias I; Fragoulis, Konstantinos N; Falagas, Matthew E

    2007-01-01

    Nosocomial infections are a major worldwide cause of death and disability, infection control programs are effective in limiting these infections, especially those acquired in the intensive care unit. The development of the world wide web has provided health care professionals with immediate access to continuously updated information in the field of infection control. We sought to identify websites that contain information on nosocomial infection control by using popular internet search engines, such as Google, Yahoo and AltaVista, and by reviewing relevant publications identified in the PubMed and Current Contents databases. Only those sites that were English language, open access, and developed by a government, academic institution, or national or international scientific association were eligible for inclusion. From a vast number of internet sites initially identified, we selected 49 that provide information on infection control for inclusion in our list of practical and relevant internet resources. Several sites provide general information on infection control practices, whereas others focus on one or a few specific infection(s). We provide health care professionals with a timely and succinct list of open access internet resources that contain information regarding the prevention and control of nosocomial infections in order to help in the dissemination of relevant information and so contribute to the limitation of such hazards.

  9. Cyberworld: Teaching World History on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zukas, Alex

    1999-01-01

    Describes the development and content of the online course "HIS 320: Capitalism, Culture, and Technology in Modern World History" offered by National University. Addresses issues such as students' motivation for taking the course, characteristics of the enrolled students, and problems with the course. (CMK)

  10. Transforming Personnel Accessions: Recruiting in the E-Business World

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-09

    TRANSFORMING PERSONNEL ACCESSIONS: RECRUITING IN THE E- BUSINESS WORLD BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL ARTHUR D. GLIKIN United States Army DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A...20020806 194 USAWC FELLOWSHIP RESEARCH PAPER Transforming Personnel Accessions: Recruiting in the e- Business World by Lieutenant Colonel Arthur D...AUTHOR: Lieutenant Colonel Arthur D. Glikin TITLE: Transforming Personnel Accessions: Recruiting in the e- Business World FORMAT: Fellowship Research

  11. Internet case management: finding information on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Nicoll, L H

    2001-01-01

    In conclusion, the World Wide Web offers an incredible variety of resources, many of which are available free of charge. To begin accessing these resources, one must first become comfortable with using browser software. Once this is done, master the basics of searching. Keep in mind that for a search to be efficient, you should have a clear understanding of why you are doing the search, the basis of a Purpose-Focus-Assessment analysis. With this information in hand, you can dive in, using methods that range from broad and general--such as brute force--to highly focused and specific literature searching. Remember that although the most effective searches are those that are tailored to the situation at hand, all searching on the Internet requires persistence, tenacity, and a good dose of creative thinking!

  12. World Wide Web Astronomy 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppelman, M.; Gay, P. L.

    2008-11-01

    The Internet has changed astronomy. It's changed research, outreach and education and it's changed how people consume astronomy as enthusiasts. People have new ways to talk to each other and new ways to participate. Coined ``Web 2.0,'' technologies such as blogs, social networks, wikis, photo and video sharing sites, podcasts and micro-blogging have been adopted by the astronomy community and exciting things are happening as a result. The International Year of Astronomy's New Media Task Force has been working to harness the excitement of ``Web 2.0'' to make the International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009) highly visible on the Internet around the world.

  13. Beyond Piñatas, Fortune Cookies, and Wooden Shoes: Using the World Wide Web to Help Children Explore the Whole Wide World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood, Donna; Shulsky, Debra; Willis, Jana

    2014-01-01

    The advent of technology and access to the internet through the World Wide Web have stretched the traditional ways of teaching social studies beyond classroom boundaries. This article explores how teachers can create authentic and contextualized cultural studies experiences for young children by integrating social studies and technology. To…

  14. Wildfire contribution to world-wide desertification.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neary, D.; Wittenberg, L.; Bautista, S.; Ffolliott, P.

    2009-04-01

    Wildfire is a natural phenomenon that began with the development of terrestrial vegetation in a lightning-filled atmosphere. Sediments from the Carboniferous Period (307-359 million years before the present) contain evidence of charcoal from post-fire ash slurry flows. As human populations developed in the Pleistocene and Holocene epochs, mankind transformed fire into one of its oldest tools. Human and natural ignited fires from lightning altered and steered the trajectories of ecosystem development in most parts of the world. Humans are now the primary source of forest and grass fire ignitions throughout the world. As human populations have increased and industrialized in the past two centuries, fire ignitions and burned areas have increased due to both sheer numbers of people and anthropogenic changes in the global climate. Recent scientific findings have bolstered the hypothesis that climate change is resulting in fire seasons starting earlier, lasting longer, burning greater areas, and being more severe Computer models point to the Western U.S., Mediterranean nations and Brazil as "hot spots" that will get extremes at their worst. The climatic change to drier and warmer conditions has the potential to aggravate wildfire conditions, resulting in burning over longer seasons, larger areas of vegetation conflagration, and higher fire severities. Wildfire is now driving desertification in some of the forest lands in the western United States. The areas of wildfire in the Southwest USA have increased dramatically in the past two decades from <10,000 ha yr-1 in the early 20th Century to over 230,000 ha yr-1 in the first decade of the 21st Century. Individual wildfires are now larger and produce higher severity burns than in the past. A combination of natural drought, climate change, excessive fuel loads, and increased ignition sources have produced the perfect conditions for fire-induced desertification. Portugal suffered the worst and second worst wildfire seasons in

  15. Use of World Wide Web and NCSA Mcsaic at Langley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Michael

    1994-01-01

    A brief history of the use of the World Wide Web at Langley Research Center is presented along with architecture of the Langley Web. Benefits derived from the Web and some Langley projects that have employed the World Wide Web are discussed.

  16. A Semiotic Analysis of Icons on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Yan

    The World Wide Web allows users to interact with a graphic interface to search information in a hypermedia and multimedia environment. Graphics serve as reference points on the World Wide Web for searching and retrieving information. This study analyzed the culturally constructed syntax patterns, or codes, embedded in the icons of library…

  17. World-Wide Experience with SRF Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Hutton, Adam Carpenter

    2011-03-01

    The speaker will review and analyze the performance of existing SRF facilities in the world, addressing issues of usage and availability for different customers (HEP research, material sciences, ADS). Lessons learned should be summarized for proposed future facilities (ILC, Project X, Muon Collider). The first use of superconducting cavities for accelerating beams was at HEPL, Stanford University in the early sixties. Rather quickly, other laboratories followed suit, notably the University of Illinois at Champagne, Urbana and Cornell University. There were two main uses, which still persist today. The first is to provide accelerated particles as an injector or for fixed target experiments. The second is to maintain circulating beams, either for synchrotron light sources or for colliding beam experiments. Given the differing requirements, these two uses led to rather different implementations and, in particular, different average operating gradients. A second difference in the implementation is the speed of the particle being accelerated. Electrons are sufficiently relativistic at low beam energies (> {approx} 5 MeV) that cavities designed for relativistic beams can also function acceptably at low energy. This is not the case for protons or ion accelerators so, until recently, copper cavities were used to cover the first {approx} 100 MeV. Superconducting cavities are now also being proposed to cover this energy range as well using a series of superconducting cavities, each of which is matched to the particle velocity.

  18. Human exposure assessment resources on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Schwela, Dieter; Hakkinen, Pertti J

    2004-05-20

    Human exposure assessment is frequently noted as a weak link and bottleneck in the risk assessment process. Fortunately, the World Wide Web and Internet are providing access to numerous valuable sources of human exposure assessment-related information, along with opportunities for information exchange. Internet mailing lists are available as potential online help for exposure assessment questions, e.g. RISKANAL has several hundred members from numerous countries. Various Web sites provide opportunities for training, e.g. Web sites offering general human exposure assessment training include two from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and four from the US National Library of Medicine. Numerous other Web sites offer access to a wide range of exposure assessment information. For example, the (US) Alliance for Chemical Awareness Web site addresses direct and indirect human exposures, occupational exposures and ecological exposure assessments. The US EPA's Exposure Factors Program Web site provides a focal point for current information and data on exposure factors relevant to the United States. In addition, the International Society of Exposure Analysis Web site provides information about how this society seeks to foster and advance the science of exposure analysis. A major opportunity exists for risk assessors and others to broaden the level of exposure assessment information available via Web sites. Broadening the Web's exposure information could include human exposure factors-related information about country- or region-specific ranges in body weights, drinking water consumption, etc. along with residential factors-related information on air changeovers per hour in various types of residences. Further, country- or region-specific ranges on how various tasks are performed by various types of consumers could be collected and provided. Noteworthy are that efforts are underway in Europe to develop a multi-country collection of exposure factors and the European

  19. Judicial History on the World Wide Web: An Annotated Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baich, Laura; Loving, Jessica

    1998-01-01

    Describes 21 World Wide Web sites devoted to various aspects of judicial history. Includes for each entry the site name, address (Uniform Resource Locator), and brief description of site contents. Focuses primarily on United States judicial history but also includes some resources for Anglo-Irish legal history and world legal history. (DSK)

  20. Data warehousing, metadata, and the World Wide Web

    SciTech Connect

    Yow, T.G.; Smith, A.W.; Daugherty, P.F.

    1997-04-16

    The connection between data warehousing and the metadata. used to catalog and locate warehouse data is obvious, but what is the connection between data warehousing, metadata, and the World Wide Web (WWW)? Specifically, the WWW can be used to allow users to search metadata (data about the data) and retrieve data from a warehouse database. In addition, the Internet/Intranet can be used to manage the metadata in archive databases and to streamline the database administration functions of a large archive center. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) is a data archive and distribution center for the National Air and Space Administration`s (NASA`s) Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS); the ORNL DAAC provides access to tabular and imagery datasets used in ecological and environmental research. To support this effort, we have taken advantage of the rather unique and user-friendly features of the WWW to (1) allow users to search for and download the data we archive and (2) provide DAAC developers with effective metadata and data management tools. In particular, the ORNL DAAC has developed the Biogeochemical Information Ordering Management Environment (BIOME), a WWW search-and-order system, as well as a WWW-based database administrator`s (DBA`s) tool suite designed to assist the site`s DBA in the management of archive metadata and databases and several other DBA functions that are essential to site management. This paper is a case study of how the ORNL DAAC uses the WWW to both manage data and allow access to its data warehouse.

  1. WorldWide Telescope in Research and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, A.; Fay, J.; Muench, A.; Pepe, A.; Udompraseret, P.; Wong, C.

    2012-09-01

    The WorldWide Telescope computer program, released to researchers and the public as a free resource in 2008 by Microsoft Research, has changed the way the ever-growing Universe of online astronomical data is viewed and understood. The WWT program can be thought of as a scriptable, interactive, richly visual browser of the multi-wavelength Sky as we see it from Earth, and of the Universe as we would travel within it. In its web API format, WWT is being used as a service to display professional research data. In its desktop format, WWT works in concert (thanks to SAMP and other IVOA standards) with more traditional research applications such as ds9, Aladin and TOPCAT. The WWT Ambassadors Program (founded in 2009) recruits and trains astrophysically-literate volunteers (including retirees) who use WWT as a teaching tool in online, classroom, and informal educational settings. Early quantitative studies of WWTA indicate that student experiences with WWT enhance science learning dramatically. Thanks to the wealth of data it can access, and the growing number of services to which it connects, WWT is now a key linking technology in the Seamless Astronomy environment we seek to offer researchers, teachers, and students alike.

  2. Documentation of the AMIP models on the World Wide Web

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, T.J.

    1995-08-01

    The intercomparison of atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) experiments of a similar type has become an increasingly popular methodology for assessing the strengths and weaknesses of climate simulations. In such endeavors, attempts to attribute differences among the simulations to specific model properties require, as a minimum prerequisite, the accurate and comprehensive documentation of these features. Regrettably however, atmospheric model documentation typically is fragmentary and scattered across numerous publications. It is also often inaccurate, in the sense that the pace of model development and the proliferation of new model versions usually outstrip their recorded descriptions. More often than not, the detailed configuration of a model for a particular experiment also is undocumented. In addition, there may be much unevenness in the descriptions of different facets of models. This incompleteness usually is replicated in published results of an intercomparison experiment, in that participating models` features often are summarized only perfunctorily. Summary documentation of the numerics, dynamics, and physics of models participating in the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) is now available on the Internet`s World Wide Web. This paper describes the principal attributes of the electronic model documentation and provides instructions on how to access it.

  3. Visual Links in the World-Wide Web: The Uses and Limitations of Image Maps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochenour, John J.; And Others

    As information delivery systems on the Internet increasingly evolve into World Wide Web browsers, understanding key graphical elements of the browser interface is critical to the design of effective information display and access tools. Image maps are one such element, and this document describes a pilot study that collected, reviewed, and…

  4. Using Instructional Design Principles To Amplify Learning on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Donn C.; Hoffman, Bob

    Many educators have explored the World Wide Web, and some are now publishing their own materials for student access. Throughout the brief history of the Web, the overriding educational principle has been to view this resource as a storehouse of information which provides unparalleled avenues of research. The potential for the Web, however, is…

  5. Evaluation and Criteria of the World Wide Web: Reference Web Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csir, Floyd J.

    This paper applies an evaluation method for World Wide Web sites that provide access to online reference materials at academic and public libraries. The evaluation of Web sites was performed with a questionnaire form focusing on Web site currency, accuracy and relevancy; Web site organization/structure; Web site presentation; URL maintenance; and…

  6. The Nature of the Beast: Or, The Aberdeen Bestiary on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beavan, Iain; Arnott, Michael; McLaren, Colin

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the digitization of the Aberdeen Bestiary and describes plans by Kings College (England) to increase accessibility via the World Wide Web to its humanities collections. Factors influencing the choice of this manuscript for the Web site, the decision to use PhotoCD for digitization, and the potential for further development are discussed.…

  7. Use of a World Wide Web Site Evaluation Tool in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Paul C.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the importance of assessment of materials on the World Wide Web that may be freely accessible to both instructors and students. Evaluates web sites that cover the periodic table in terms of content and design. (Contains 16 references.) (Author/YDS)

  8. Searching and Researching on the Internet and the World Wide Web. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackermann, Ernest; Hartman, Karen

    This book presents information specialists--researchers, librarians, and students who work with information--with an accessible approach to finding information on the World Wide Web and the Internet. Each of the chapters contains one or more step-by-step activities to demonstrate fundamental skills and concepts. The book has an accompanying Web…

  9. WWW.Cell Biology Education: Using the World Wide Web to Develop a New Teaching Topic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blystone, Robert V.; MacAlpine, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    "Cell Biology Education" calls attention each quarter to several Web sites of educational interest to the biology community. The Internet provides access to an enormous array of potential teaching materials. In this article, the authors describe one approach for using the World Wide Web to develop a new college biology laboratory exercise. As a…

  10. No Longer Conveyor but Creator: Developing an Epistemology of the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trombley, Laura E. Skandera; Flanagan, William G.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the impact of the World Wide Web in terms of epistemology. Topics include technological innovations, including new dimensions of virtuality; the accessibility of information; tracking Web use via cookies; how the Web transforms the process of learning and knowing; linking information sources; and the Web as an information delivery…

  11. Collecting behavioural data using the world wide web: considerations for researchers

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, S; Bowie, D; Hergenrather, K

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To identify and describe advantages, challenges, and ethical considerations of web based behavioural data collection. Methods: This discussion is based on the authors' experiences in survey development and study design, respondent recruitment, and internet research, and on the experiences of others as found in the literature. Results: The advantages of using the world wide web to collect behavioural data include rapid access to numerous potential respondents and previously hidden populations, respondent openness and full participation, opportunities for student research, and reduced research costs. Challenges identified include issues related to sampling and sample representativeness, competition for the attention of respondents, and potential limitations resulting from the much cited "digital divide", literacy, and disability. Ethical considerations include anonymity and privacy, providing and substantiating informed consent, and potential risks of malfeasance. Conclusions: Computer mediated communications, including electronic mail, the world wide web, and interactive programs will play an ever increasing part in the future of behavioural science research. Justifiable concerns regarding the use of the world wide web in research exist, but as access to, and use of, the internet becomes more widely and representatively distributed globally, the world wide web will become more applicable. In fact, the world wide web may be the only research tool able to reach some previously hidden population subgroups. Furthermore, many of the criticisms of online data collection are common to other survey research methodologies. PMID:12490652

  12. Resources for medical mycology on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Cortez, Karoll J; Groll, Andreas H; Walsh, Thomas J

    2005-02-01

    Searching the World Wide Web for information on medical mycology can be challenging. We provide the reader with an organized overview of the available resources on the Internet, including authoritative sites from academic institutions, professional societies, government agencies, and personal sites. This article reviews clinically relevant Internet resource directories, comprehensive sites of interest to clinicians, clinical trials in medical mycology, clinically relevant Web sites devoted to specific fungal pathogens and their infections, genomic resources in medical mycology, culture collections, images of fungi on the World Wide Web, medical mycology lecture and teaching materials, environmental health and safety information, and a listing of Web sites of medical mycology professional societies.

  13. WorldWideScience.org: the global science gateway.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Roberta Bronson

    2009-10-01

    WorldWideScience.org is a Web-based global gateway connecting users to both national and international scientific databases and portals. This column will provide background information on the resource as well as introduce basic searching practices for users.

  14. Market Research: The World Wide Web Meets the Online Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bing, Michelle

    1996-01-01

    The World Wide Web can provide direct market research data inexpensively or can target the appropriate professional online database and narrow the search. This article discusses the Web presence of research and investment firms, financial pages, trade associations, and electronic publications containing market research data. It lists Uniform…

  15. Helping Students Weave Their Way through the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Catherine B.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses six strategies to help both students and teachers learn to make wise use of information on the World Wide Web: teaching the value of key word skills; using online sources available in the media center; creating pathfinders; teaching students sound searching skills that include Boolean logic; directing students to the best search engines;…

  16. Robot-Generated Databases on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmel, Stacey

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of robots that retrieve World Wide Web documents and index data and then store it in a database. Nine robot-generated databases are described, including record content, services, search features, and sample search results; and sidebars discuss the controversy about Web robots and other resource discovery tools. (LRW)

  17. Perspectives for Electronic Books in the World Wide Web Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bry, Francois; Kraus, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the rapid growth of the World Wide Web and the lack of use of electronic books and suggests that specialized contents and device independence can make Web-based books compete with print. Topics include enhancing the hypertext model of XML; client-side adaptation, including browsers and navigation; and semantic modeling. (Author/LRW)

  18. Some Guidelines for Creating World Wide Web Home Page Files.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Brakel, Pieter A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Provides guidelines for home page design, and suggests that the physical appearance of a home page is similar to that of a good graphical user interface. In designing a complete home page file, the premise is that basic hypertext design principles could also be applied in the World Wide Web environment. (Author/JKP)

  19. Visual Design Principles Applied To World Wide Web Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luck, Donald D.; Hunter, J. Mark

    This paper describes basic types of World Wide Web pages and presents design criteria for page layout based on principles of visual literacy. Discussion focuses on pages that present information in the following styles: billboard; directory/index; textual; and graphics. Problems and solutions in Web page construction are explored according to…

  20. The Impact on Education of the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, D. J.; Taylor, R. J.

    This paper describes a project which created a set of World Wide Web (WWW) pages documenting the state of the art in educational multimedia design; a prototype WWW-based multimedia teaching tool--a podiatry test using HTML forms, 24-bit color images and MPEG video--was also designed, developed, and evaluated. The project was conducted between…

  1. Undergraduate Data Mining on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scime, Anthony

    Currently available World Wide Web search engines determine a site's qualification as a response to a search request by matching keywords in the request to keywords representing the site. The returned sites are given a score and ranked according to the match on keywords. Many of these retrieved sites can be irrelevant to the user's true…

  2. World Wide Web Pages--Tools for Teaching and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, Sarah; Kent, Jean

    Created to help educators incorporate World Wide Web pages into teaching and learning, this collection of Web pages presents resources, materials, and techniques for using the Web. The first page focuses on tools for teaching and learning via the Web, providing pointers to sites containing the following: (1) course materials for both distance and…

  3. The Virtual City: Putting Charleston on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beagle, Donald

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Charleston Multimedia Project, a World Wide Web guide to the history, architecture, and culture of Charleston, South Carolina, which includes a timeline and virtual tours. Incorporates materials issued by many agencies that were previously held in vertical files. The Charleston County Library's role and future plans are also…

  4. World Wide Web Homepages: An Examination of Content and Audience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Betty; And Others

    This paper shows how the content of a World Wide Web page is selected and how an examination of the intended audience influences content. Examples from the New Mexico Tech (NMT) Library homepage show what sources are selected and what level of detail is appropriate for the intended audience. Six fundamental functions of libraries and information…

  5. Chemical Structure Search on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inlenfeldt, Wolf-D.

    Chemists have been very active in utilizing the World Wide Web as an information distribution medium and much interesting scientific chemical information is already offered on it. Various classical text-based search engines have made locating information on the Web easier. However, keyword-based searches are often insufficient for chemists…

  6. Computerized Adaptive Testing through the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shermis, Mark D.; Mzumara, Howard; Brown, Mike; Lillig, Clo

    An important problem facing institutions of higher education is the number of students reporting that they are not adequately prepared for the difficulty of college-level courses. To meet this problem, a computerized adaptive testing package was developed that permitted remote placement testing of high school students via the World Wide Web. The…

  7. Introduction to the World Wide Web and Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngblood, Jim

    1994-01-01

    This tutorial provides an introduction to some of the terminology related to the use of the World Wide Web and Mosaic. It is assumed that the user has some prior computer experience. References are included to other sources of additional information.

  8. Transactional Distance in World Wide Web Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yau-Jane

    2001-01-01

    Describes a study conducted at four Taiwan universities that measured the impact of variables on learners' perceived transactional distance in a World Wide Web learning environment. Examines learners' skill level with the Internet, previous experience in taking distance education courses, extent of interaction, and types of learner support.…

  9. Webspinning: Language Learning on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, James; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Provides a lesson plan for adult, high-intermediate, or advanced students of English as a Second Language that uses World Wide Web resources to simulate buying a new car. Students work in groups and relate foreign language texts to their own lives. Lists equipment needed; objectives; materials; procedures; warm-up, core, and closing activities;…

  10. Time Series Data Visualization in World Wide Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, J.

    WorldWide Telescope provides a rich set of timer series visualization for both archival and real time data. WWT consists of both interactive desktop tools for interactive immersive visualization and HTML5 web based controls that can be utilized in customized web pages. WWT supports a range of display options including full dome, power walls, stereo and virtual reality headsets.

  11. World Wide Web Page Design: A Structured Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Gwen; Brown, M. Marlo

    1997-01-01

    Describes how to develop a World Wide Web site based on structured programming concepts. Highlights include flowcharting, first page design, evaluation, page titles, documenting source code, text, graphics, and browsers. Includes a template for HTML writers, tips for using graphics, a sample homepage, guidelines for authoring structured HTML, and…

  12. A synergistic DNA logic predicts genome-wide chromatin accessibility

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Tatsunori; Sherwood, Richard I.; Kang, Daniel D.; Rajagopal, Nisha; Barkal, Amira A.; Zeng, Haoyang; Emons, Bart J.M.; Srinivasan, Sharanya; Jaakkola, Tommi; Gifford, David K.

    2016-01-01

    Enhancers and promoters commonly occur in accessible chromatin characterized by depleted nucleosome contact; however, it is unclear how chromatin accessibility is governed. We show that log-additive cis-acting DNA sequence features can predict chromatin accessibility at high spatial resolution. We develop a new type of high-dimensional machine learning model, the Synergistic Chromatin Model (SCM), which when trained with DNase-seq data for a cell type is capable of predicting expected read counts of genome-wide chromatin accessibility at every base from DNA sequence alone, with the highest accuracy at hypersensitive sites shared across cell types. We confirm that a SCM accurately predicts chromatin accessibility for thousands of synthetic DNA sequences using a novel CRISPR-based method of highly efficient site-specific DNA library integration. SCMs are directly interpretable and reveal that a logic based on local, nonspecific synergistic effects, largely among pioneer TFs, is sufficient to predict a large fraction of cellular chromatin accessibility in a wide variety of cell types. PMID:27456004

  13. Genome accessibility is widely preserved and locally modulated during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Hsiung, Chris C-S; Morrissey, Christapher S; Udugama, Maheshi; Frank, Christopher L; Keller, Cheryl A; Baek, Songjoon; Giardine, Belinda; Crawford, Gregory E; Sung, Myong-Hee; Hardison, Ross C; Blobel, Gerd A

    2015-02-01

    Mitosis entails global alterations to chromosome structure and nuclear architecture, concomitant with transient silencing of transcription. How cells transmit transcriptional states through mitosis remains incompletely understood. While many nuclear factors dissociate from mitotic chromosomes, the observation that certain nuclear factors and chromatin features remain associated with individual loci during mitosis originated the hypothesis that such mitotically retained molecular signatures could provide transcriptional memory through mitosis. To understand the role of chromatin structure in mitotic memory, we performed the first genome-wide comparison of DNase I sensitivity of chromatin in mitosis and interphase, using a murine erythroblast model. Despite chromosome condensation during mitosis visible by microscopy, the landscape of chromatin accessibility at the macromolecular level is largely unaltered. However, mitotic chromatin accessibility is locally dynamic, with individual loci maintaining none, some, or all of their interphase accessibility. Mitotic reduction in accessibility occurs primarily within narrow, highly DNase hypersensitive sites that frequently coincide with transcription factor binding sites, whereas broader domains of moderate accessibility tend to be more stable. In mitosis, proximal promoters generally maintain their accessibility more strongly, whereas distal regulatory elements tend to lose accessibility. Large domains of DNA hypomethylation mark a subset of promoters that retain accessibility during mitosis and across many cell types in interphase. Erythroid transcription factor GATA1 exerts site-specific changes in interphase accessibility that are most pronounced at distal regulatory elements, but has little influence on mitotic accessibility. We conclude that features of open chromatin are remarkably stable through mitosis, but are modulated at the level of individual genes and regulatory elements.

  14. International organizations to enable world-wide mobile satellite services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anglin, Richard L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Numbers of systems exist or have been proposed to provide world-wide mobile satellite services (MSS). Developers of these systems have formulated institutional structures they consider most appropriate for profitable delivery of these services. MSS systems provide niche services and complement traditional telecommunications networks; they are not integrated into world-wide networks. To be successful, MSS system operators must be able to provide an integrated suite of services to support the increasing globalization, interconnectivity, and mobility of business. The critical issue to enabling 'universal roaming' is securing authority to provide MSS in all of the nations of the world. Such authority must be secured in the context of evolving trends in international telecommunications, and must specifically address issues of standardization, regulation and organization. Today, only one existing organization has such world-wide authority. The question is how proponents of new MSS systems and services can gain similar authority. Securing the appropriate authorizations requires that these new organizations reflect the objectives of the nations in which services are to be delivered.

  15. World-wide increase in tropospheric methane, 1978-1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, D. R.; Rowland, F. S.

    1986-01-01

    Techniques used to assess methane concentration in the troposphere are described, and data obtained during the period from 1978 to 1983 are presented in detail. Tropospheric methane concentrations in remote locations averaged a yearly world-wide increase of 0.018 + or - 0.002 parts per million by volume (ppmv). Average world-wide tropospheric concentration of methane in dry air was 1.625 ppmv at the end of 1983 measured against an NBS standard certified as 0.97 ppmv. Contributing to this steady increase in methane concentration are increases in the source strengths from cattle and rice fields, which in turn result from CO, CH4 and HO coupling. Among the physical and chemical effects is an increase in greenhouse warming of about 0.04 C per decade.

  16. The PEP-II/BaBar Project-Wide Database using World Wide Web and Oracle*Case

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, A.; Crane, G.; MacGregor, I.; Meyer, S.

    1995-12-01

    The PEP-II/BaBar Project Database is a tool for monitoring the technical and documentation aspects of the accelerator and detector construction. It holds the PEP-II/BaBar design specifications, fabrication and installation data in one integrated system. Key pieces of the database include the machine parameter list, components fabrication and calibration data, survey and alignment data, property control, CAD drawings, publications and documentation. This central Oracle database on a UNIX server is built using Oracle*Case tools. Users at the collaborating laboratories mainly access the data using World Wide Web (WWW). The Project Database is being extended to link to legacy databases required for the operations phase.

  17. Development of continuing nursing education offerings for the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Billings, D M; Rowles, C J

    2001-01-01

    Nurses are seeking continuing professional development that is easily accessible, convenient, and available at any time and any place. As nurses have increasing access to Internets and Intranets at home and their workplace, courses for continuing nursing education must be available to meet this need. This article discusses the planning, implementation, and evaluation of continuing nursing education (CNE) on the World Wide Web. The article explains how to develop a strategic plan, develop course offerings, select technology tools to support teaching and learning, and market and evaluate the courses.

  18. Distribution of medical research articles on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Kevin T

    2003-01-01

    Ninety-eight percent of 51 polled medical editors felt that published research articles should be available to the public on the World Wide Web at no charge, after a mean time from publication of 1.4 years for viewing and 1.9 years for printing. Public libraries or other government institutions could be allowed to assume the responsibility of housing and distributing the electronically stored archived material, analogous to their role with printed material, lifting the financial burden from the publishing companies.

  19. Mapping world-wide science at the paper level.

    SciTech Connect

    Klavans, Richard; Boyack, Kevin W.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes recent improvements in mapping a highly representative set of the world-wide scientific literature. The process described in this article extends existing work in this area in three major ways. First, we argue that a separate structural analysis of current literature vs. reference literature is required for R&D planning. Second, visualization software is used to improve coverage of the literature while maintaining structural integrity. Third, quantitative techniques for measuring the structural integrity of a map are introduced. Maps with high structural integrity, covering far more of the available literature, are presented.

  20. Crystallography Open Databases and Preservation: a World-wide Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chateigner, Daniel

    In 2003, an international team of crystallographers proposed the Crystallography Open Database (COD), a fully-free collection of crystal structure data, in the aim of ensuring their preservation. With nearly 250000 entries, this database represents a large open set of data for crystallographers, academics and industrials, located at five different places world-wide, and included in Thomson-Reuters’ ISI. As a large step towards data preservation, raw data can now be uploaded along with «digested» structure files, and COD can be questioned by most of the crystallography-linked industrial software. The COD initiative work deserves several other open developments.

  1. Creating a nursing home page on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Shellenbarger, T; Thomas, S

    1996-01-01

    The authors provide a brief overview of the internet and home pages on the World Wide Web. Definitions of Web terminology are provided to help the reader understand home page creation. The authors also describe the steps in electronic publishing and how to create a home page. Supplemental tables provide internet addresses for nursing and non-nursing sites for reviewal of other home pages. The article continues with information about design, formatting, adding text and images, and dissemination suggestions for home pages. Examples of home pages and instruction commands (tags) are provided. The future of Web publishing is discussed, and issues and concerns are raised regarding electronic publishing.

  2. Hubble's Universe and the WorldWide Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, Frank; Kakadelis, S.; Godfrey, C.

    2008-05-01

    Hubble's Universe is an astronomy podcast that not only explains the science behind the magnificent Hubble images, but also places the specific and cutting-edge results within the larger context of understanding the broad themes of the universe. Going further, we have partnered with Microsoft's soon to be released WorldWide Telescope (WWT) software to enable browsing, exploring, and experiencing the cosmos in a way never before seen. We can now zoom from the backyard wide-angle view down to see every last pixel in the highest resolution images, while at the same time presenting the breakthrough science and amazing visuals of Hubble within the intuitive interface of viewing the sky. We will discuss the research and production aspects, as well as the oppotunities and limitations, of both the podcast and the WWT avenues for astronomy outreach.

  3. Brave New World or Blind Alley? American History on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Michael; Rosenzweig, Roy

    1997-01-01

    Offers a preliminary assessment of the possibilities and limitations, allures, and dangers, of the World Wide Web for those interested in presenting, teaching, and learning United States history. Reviews Internet search tools, online libraries and archives, and museums and commercial sites. Discusses how to create an online archive. (DSK)

  4. Stardial: an Autonomous Astronomical Camera on the World Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCullough, P.; Thakkar, U.

    1997-11-01

    We describe the use of an autonomous astronomical camera, called ``Stardial,'' for undergraduate instruction. Stardial delivers images of the night sky nearly in real-time to the world wide web (www.astro.uiuc.edu/~stardial/). The world wide web (WWW) interface is robust, inexpensive, and accommodates many students asynchronously with respect to the instructor(s). The guiding philosophy is to provide students with authentic astronomical data so that they may learn about science by doing it themselves. Students respond favorably to the opportunity to learn from their own experiences with authentic data, complete with its irregularities and its surprises. Stardial has been operational for one academic year (1996-97) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. In this paper we describe Stardial's instrumentation, some of the curriculum based upon Stardial's unique data, and the experiences of students who have used Stardial. We conclude with possible research topics using Stardial data and with a brief look to the future of remote laboratories. (SECTION: Astronomical Instrumentation) The name ``Stardial'' derives from the fact that like a sundial, Stardial is a stationary device placed outside 24 hours a day, and that both depend on and make evident the rotation of the Earth. A sundial operates with sunlight, while Stardial operates with starlight. There the similarity ends.

  5. WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors, a Year 3 Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udomprasert, Patricia S.; Goodman, A. A.; Wong, C.

    2013-01-01

    The WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors (WWTA) Program has a track record of inspiring middle school students and getting them excited about science. The WorldWide Telescope (WWT) is a stunningly beautiful and freely available data visualization environment developed by Microsoft Research in collaboration with professional astronomers. Trained volunteer Ambassadors show teachers and students how to use WWT in their classrooms to explore and learn about our Universe. Our initial study has shown that WWT increases student understanding of astrophysical concepts and interest in astronomy and science. As an example of how excited students feel about learning astronomy with WWT, one middle school boy exclaimed, “This is way cooler than Call of Duty!” Our vision is to capitalize on the demonstrated inspirational and educational potential of WWT to increase the number of students who express interest in STEM fields. In this oral presentation, we provide a status update on the WWTA program, including ongoing results from our work with over 700 middle school students to date, and preliminary results from a new NSF-funded study comparing learning and interest gains for students studying Moon phases with WWT vs with the 2-dimensional simulator activity that accompanies their textbook. More information is available at wwtambassadors.org

  6. Alternatives to animal testing: information resources via the Internet and World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Hakkinen, P J Bert; Green, Dianne K

    2002-04-25

    Many countries, including the United States, Canada, European Union member states, and others, require that a comprehensive search for possible alternatives be completed before beginning some or all research involving animals. Completing comprehensive alternatives searches and keeping current with information associated with alternatives to animal testing is a challenge that will be made easier as people throughout the world gain access to the Internet and World Wide Web. Numerous Internet and World Wide Web resources are available to provide guidance and other information on in vitro and other alternatives to animal testing. A comprehensive Web site is Alternatives to Animal Testing on the Web (Altweb), which serves as an online clearinghouse for resources, information, and news about alternatives to animal testing. Examples of other important Web sites include the joint one for the (US) Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM) and the Norwegian Reference Centre for Laboratory Animal Science and Alternatives (The NORINA database). Internet mailing lists and online access to bulletin boards, discussion areas, newsletters, and journals are other ways to access and share information to stay current with alternatives to animal testing.

  7. World wide web implementation of the Langley technical report server

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Gottlich, Gretchen L.; Bianco, David J.

    1994-01-01

    On January 14, 1993, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) made approximately 130 formal, 'unclassified, unlimited' technical reports available via the anonymous FTP Langley Technical Report Server (LTRS). LaRC was the first organization to provide a significant number of aerospace technical reports for open electronic dissemination. LTRS has been successful in its first 18 months of operation, with over 11,000 reports distributed and has helped lay the foundation for electronic document distribution for NASA. The availability of World Wide Web (WWW) technology has revolutionized the Internet-based information community. This paper describes the transition of LTRS from a centralized FTP site to a distributed data model using the WWW, and suggests how the general model for LTRS can be applied to other similar systems.

  8. Guide to the Internet. The world wide web.

    PubMed Central

    Pallen, M.

    1995-01-01

    The world wide web provides a uniform, user friendly interface to the Internet. Web pages can contain text and pictures and are interconnected by hypertext links. The addresses of web pages are recorded as uniform resource locators (URLs), transmitted by hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP), and written in hypertext markup language (HTML). Programs that allow you to use the web are available for most operating systems. Powerful on line search engines make it relatively easy to find information on the web. Browsing through the web--"net surfing"--is both easy and enjoyable. Contributing to the web is not difficult, and the web opens up new possibilities for electronic publishing and electronic journals. Images p1554-a Fig 5 PMID:8520402

  9. Exercise information resources on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, Gordon R

    2005-01-01

    Health professionals and members of the public are often interested in locating exercise information on the World Wide Web (the Web). There is a large amount of information available on the Web; however, the challenge for all people is to identify the high quality information that can be depended upon. Much of the quality exercise information on the Web is hidden within sites of reputable organizations concerned with exercise and health. This article examines several categories of commonly needed exercise related information. For each category, a few high quality sources of exercise information are listed. Combined, these Web sites provide an excellent and extensive body of knowledge for a person who is not experienced with exercise and wants to get started learning, or for a person with a moderate level of experience and knowledge who wants to learn more.

  10. WorldWide Telescope in High School Astronomy Competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin, Ana-Maria; Goodman, A. A.; Udomprasert, P. S.

    2014-01-01

    This project aims to improve astronomy education at the high school level, and to increase awareness in astronomy for pre-university students, on an international scale. In 2013, the WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors Program began a collaboration with the International Olympiad in Astronomy and Astrophysics (IOAA), which was held in the city of Volos, Greece in August 2013. Now at its VIIth edition, IOAA is the largest annual astronomy competition for high school students, and it consists of one team task and three individual ones - Theoretical, Data Analysis, and Observational. Each of the participating countries (35 in 2013, compared to 21 in 2007) is responsible for selecting up to five representative students for the International round. IOAA is meant to promote future collaborations between these students, and to encourage friendships inside a global scientific community. Ana-Maria Constantin, a current Harvard undergraduate student and a former medalist of IOAA, represented WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors in Greece by giving a talk on the advantages of using WWT as a tool for research and education. As a result, the President and the International Board of the Olympiad have expressed support for including WWT in the competition for future editions. WWTA is working with the Organizing Board for next year’s competition in Romania, to include WWT as a testing tool. This poster will summarize key points from the WWTA presentation in Greece, present ideas for WWT-based activities in future IOAA competitions, and outline plans for new collaborations from representatives of Sri Lanka, Poland, Bangladesh, and Colombia. Given the positive feedback we have received after the presentation in Greece, we are also considering future implementations of WWT in summer research camps for high school students, such as the Summer Science Program.

  11. The World-Wide Web: an interface between research and teaching in bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    Aiton, J F

    1994-10-01

    The rapid expansion occurring in World-Wide Web activity is beginning to make the concepts of 'global hypermedia' and 'universal document readership realistic objectives of the new revolution in information technology. One consequence of this increase in usage is that educators and students are becoming more aware of the diversity of the knowledge base which can be accessed via the Internet. Although computerised databases and information services have long played a key role in bioinformatics these same resources can also be used to provide core materials for teaching and learning. The large datasets and archives that have been compiled for biomedical research can be enhanced with the addition of a variety of multimedia elements (images, digital videos, animation etc.). The use of this digitally stored information in structured and self-directed learning environments is likely to increase as activity across World-Wide Web increases.

  12. Implementation of a hypertext-based curriculum for emergency medicine on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Savitt, D L; Steele, D W

    1997-12-01

    This project reports the publication of a variety of existing curricular resources for emergency medicine on the global Internet in a format that allows hypertext links between related material, timely updates, and end-user feedback. Curricular elements were converted to Hypertext Markup Language with extensive links between related content. The completed document contains instructions for curriculum development, specific curricula for subspecialty areas within a residency, reading lists for subspecialty curricula, banks of images, and board-type questions with answers. Users are provided with a mechanism to provide immediate feedback to section editors with suggestions for changes, including new references. Access to all or part of the document can be controlled via passwords, but is potentially available to anyone with an Internet connection and a World Wide Web browser. The document may by viewed on the World Wide Web at: http:@www.brown.edu@Administration@emergency_Medicine@ curr.html.

  13. Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation - A world wide review

    SciTech Connect

    Witherspoon, P.A.

    1991-06-01

    The problem of isolating radioactive wastes from the biosphere presents specialists in the earth sciences with some of the most complicated problems they have ever encountered. This is especially true for high-level waste (HLW), which must be isolated in the underground and away from the biosphere for thousands of years. The most widely accepted method of doing this is to seal the radioactive materials in metal canisters that are enclosed by a protective sheath and placed underground in a repository that has been carefully constructed in an appropriate rock formation. Much new technology is being developed to solve the problems that have been raised, and there is a continuing need to publish the results of new developments for the benefit of all concerned. Table 1 presents a summary of the various formations under investigation according to the reports submitted for this world wide review. It can be seen that in those countries that are searching for repository sites, granitic and metamorphic rocks are the prevalent rock type under investigation. Six countries have developed underground research facilities that are currently in use. All of these investigations are in saturated systems below the water table, except the United States project, which is in the unsaturated zone of a fractured tuff.

  14. Highball: A high speed, reserved-access, wide area network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, David L.; Boncelet, Charles G.; Elias, John G.; Schragger, Paul A.; Jackson, Alden W.

    1990-01-01

    A network architecture called Highball and a preliminary design for a prototype, wide-area data network designed to operate at speeds of 1 Gbps and beyond are described. It is intended for applications requiring high speed burst transmissions where some latency between requesting a transmission and granting the request can be anticipated and tolerated. Examples include real-time video and disk-disk transfers, national filestore access, remote sensing, and similar applications. The network nodes include an intelligent crossbar switch, but have no buffering capabilities; thus, data must be queued at the end nodes. There are no restrictions on the network topology, link speeds, or end-end protocols. The end system, nodes, and links can operate at any speed up to the limits imposed by the physical facilities. An overview of an initial design approach is presented and is intended as a benchmark upon which a detailed design can be developed. It describes the network architecture and proposed access protocols, as well as functional descriptions of the hardware and software components that could be used in a prototype implementation. It concludes with a discussion of additional issues to be resolved in continuing stages of this project.

  15. An Image Retrieval and Processing Expert System for the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Ricardo; Rondon, Angelica; Bruno, Maria I.; Vasquez, Ramon

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a system that is being developed in the Laboratory of Applied Remote Sensing and Image Processing at the University of P.R. at Mayaguez. It describes the components that constitute its architecture. The main elements are: a Data Warehouse, an Image Processing Engine, and an Expert System. Together, they provide a complete solution to researchers from different fields that make use of images in their investigations. Also, since it is available to the World Wide Web, it provides remote access and processing of images.

  16. Using the World-Wide Web to Facilitate Communications of Non-Destructive Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McBurney, Sean

    1995-01-01

    The high reliability required for Aeronautical components is a major reason for extensive Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation. Here at Langley Research Center (LaRC), there are highly trained and certified personal to conduct such testing to prevent hazards from occurring in the workplace and on the research projects for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The purpose of my studies was to develop a communication source to educate others of the services and equipment offered here. This was accomplished by creating documents that are accessible to all in the industry via the World Wide Web.

  17. Creating a GIS data server on the World Wide Web: The GISST example

    SciTech Connect

    Pace, P.J.; Evers, T.K.

    1996-01-01

    In an effort to facilitate user access to Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data, the GIS and Computer Modeling Group from the Computational Physics and Engineering Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (TN), has developed a World Wide Web server named GISST. The server incorporates a highly interactive and dynamic forms-based interface to browse and download a variety of GIS data types. This paper describes the server`s design considerations, development, resulting implementation and future enhancements.

  18. Weighted median image sharpeners for the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Marco; Paredes, José L; Arce, Gonzalo R

    2002-01-01

    A class of robust weighted median (WM) sharpening algorithms is developed in this paper. Unlike traditional linear sharpening methods, weighted median sharpeners are shown to be less sensitive to background random noise or to image artifacts introduced by JPEG and other compression algorithms. These concepts are extended to include data dependent weights under the framework of permutation weighted medians leading to tunable sharpeners that, in essence, are insensitive to noise and compression artifacts. Permutation WM sharpeners are subsequently generalized to smoother/sharpener structures that can sharpen edges and image details while simultaneously filter out background random noise. A statistical analysis of the various algorithms is presented, theoretically validating the characteristics of the proposed sharpening structures. A number of experiments are shown for the sharpening of JPEG compressed images and sharpening of images with background film-grain noise. These algorithms can prove useful in the enhancement of compressed or noisy images posted on the World Wide Web (WWW) as well as in other applications where the underlying images are unavoidably acquired with noise.

  19. WEBSLIDE: A "Virtual" Slide Projector Based on World Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barra, Maria; Ferrandino, Salvatore; Scarano, Vittorio

    1999-03-01

    We present here the design key concepts of WEBSLIDE, a software project whose objective is to provide a simple, cheap and efficient solution for showing slides during lessons in computer labs. In fact, WEBSLIDE allows the video monitors of several client machines (the "STUDENTS") to be synchronously updated by the actions of a particular client machine, called the "INSTRUCTOR." The system is based on the World Wide Web and the software components of WEBSLIDE mainly consists in a WWW server, browsers and small Cgi-Bill scripts. What makes WEBSLIDE particularly appealing for small educational institutions is that WEBSLIDE is built with "off the shelf" products: it does not involve using a specifically designed program but any Netscape browser, one of the most popular browsers available on the market, is sufficient. Another possible use is to use our system to implement "guided automatic tours" through several pages or Intranets internal news bulletins: the company Web server can broadcast to all employees relevant information on their browser.

  20. Frequency of occurrence of numbers in the World Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorogovtsev, S. N.; Mendes, J. F. F.; Oliveira, J. G.

    2006-02-01

    The distribution of numbers in human documents is determined by a variety of diverse natural and human factors, whose relative significance can be evaluated by studying the numbers’ frequency of occurrence. Although it has been studied since the 1880's, this subject remains poorly understood. Here, we obtain the detailed statistics of numbers in the World Wide Web, finding that their distribution is a heavy-tailed dependence which splits in a set of power-law ones. In particular, we find that the frequency of numbers associated to western calendar years shows an uneven behavior: 2004 represents a ‘singular critical’ point, appearing with a strikingly high frequency; as we move away from it, the decreasing frequency allows us to compare the amounts of existing information on the past and on the future. Moreover, while powers of ten occur extremely often, allowing us to obtain statistics up to the huge 10127, ‘non-round’ numbers occur in a much more limited range, the variations of their frequencies being dramatically different from standard statistical fluctuations. These findings provide a view of the array of numbers used by humans as a highly non-equilibrium and inhomogeneous system, and shed a new light on an issue that, once fully investigated, could lead to a better understanding of many sociological and psychological phenomena.

  1. An electronic laboratory notebook based on the World Wide Web

    SciTech Connect

    Marstaller, J.E.; Zorn, M.D.

    1995-10-01

    The LBNL/UCSF Resource for Molecular Cytogenetics has been created to facilitate the application of molecular cytogenetics in clinical and biological studies. One of the primary tasks is the selection of probes optimized for use in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Our group provides data management support for all the activities in the Resource. In this paper we describe an electronic laboratory notebook based on the World Wide Web. The data are located in a central database. The user interface consists of a set of HTML forms that handle data input and retrieval from a database from two locations several miles apart. A WWW client allows users to formulate retrieval and edit operations that are sent to the database. Results are filtered through Perl scripts which generate HTML documents with Hypertext links that are sent back to the client. Besides tracking laboratory information through the various stages in the biology laboratory, the system also feeds into a public web server that makes the data available to the community.

  2. Searching for biomedical information on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, R P

    2000-01-01

    The rapid growth of biomedical information available via the Internet and its most popular retrieval system, the World Wide Web, has fostered active research and development directed toward locating resources that are appropriate for answering specific queries. The goal is to create tools that optimize information retrieval (as measured by two quantities, precision and recall) while minimizing the effort required by the user. Existing Web retrieval tools can be divided into the following groups: manually maintained topical lists; automatically generated word-based indices; software agents and multi-index searching aids; network cataloging methods; and miscellaneous hybrid and newer approaches. Improvements in current methods should arise from further research into: methods of describing objects on the Web; improved ways of searching for (and within) collections of documents as opposed to single documents; the ability to search for fielded documents; and ways to describe resources that span intra- and interdisciplinary as well as cross-cultural linguistic differences. For this last problem, the U.S. National Library of Medicine's Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) will be of great help. As online information retrieval improves, efforts are underway to improve the online information itself; quality control over content is being addressed as the peer-review systems of traditional printed journals migrate into the realm of electronic publication.

  3. Visualizing Moon Phases with WorldWide Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udomprasert, Patricia; Goodman, Alyssa; Sunbury, Susan; Zhang, Zhihui Helen; Sadler, Philip; Dussault, Mary; Block, Sarah; Lotridge, Erin; Jackson, Jonathan; Constantin, Ana-Maria

    2014-07-01

    We report preliminary results from an NSF-funded project to build, test, and research the impact of a WorldWide Telescope Visualization Lab (WWT Vizlab), meant to offer learners a deeper physical understanding of the causes of the Moon's phases. The Moon Phases VizLab is designed to promote accurate visualization of the complex, three dimensional Earth-Sun-Moon relationships required to understand the Moon's phases, while also providing opportunities for middle school students to practice critical science skills, like using models, making predictions and observations, and linking them in evidence-based explanations. In the VizLab, students use both computer-based models and lamp + ball physical models. We present findings from the first two phases of the study—one in which we compared learning gains from the WWT VizLab with a traditional two dimensional Moon phases simulator, and another in which we experimented with different ways of blending physical and virtual models in the classroom.

  4. Grass-Roots Cataloging and Classification: Food for Thought from World Wide Web Subject-Oriented Hierarchical Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, David G.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the structure and principles of various hierarchical guides, or hotlists, which attempt to give subject access to World Wide Web resources on the Internet. The lists are compared to classification schemes and to Library of Congress subject headings, and browsing and search engines are compared. (Author/LRW)

  5. Building national electronic medical record systems via the World Wide Web.

    PubMed Central

    Kohane, I S; Greenspun, P; Fackler, J; Cimino, C; Szolovits, P

    1996-01-01

    Electronic medical record systems (EMRSs) currently do not lend themselves easily to cross-institutional clinical care and research. Unique system designs coupled with a lack of standards have led to this difficulty. The authors have designed a preliminary EMRS architecture (W3-EMRS) that exploits the multiplatform, multiprotocol, client-server technology of the World Wide Web. The architecture abstracts the clinical information model and the visual presentation away from the underlying EMRS. As a result, computation upon data elements of the EMRS and their presentation are no longer tied to the underlying EMRS structures. The architecture is intended to enable implementation of programs that provide uniform access to multiple, heterogeneous legacy EMRSs. The authors have implemented an initial prototype of W3-EMRS that accesses the database of the Boston Children's Hospital Clinician's Workstation. PMID:8723610

  6. Increasing public understanding of transgenic crops through the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Patrick F; Namuth, Deana M; Harrington, Judy; Ward, Sarah M; Lee, Donald J; Hain, Patricia

    2002-07-01

    Transgenic crops among the most controversial "science and society" issues of recent years. Because of the complex techniques involved in creating these crops and the polarized debate over their risks and beliefs, a critical need has arisen for accessible and balanced information on this technology. World Wide Web sites offer several advantages for disseminating information on a fast-changing technical topic, including their global accessibility; and their ability to update information frequently, incorporate multimedia formats, and link to networks of other sites. An alliance between two complementary web sites at Colorado State University and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln takes advantage of the web environment to help fill the need for public information on crop genetic engineering. This article describes the objectives and features of each site. Viewership data and other feedback have shown these web sites to be effective means of reaching public audiences on a complex scientific topic.

  7. Implementation of a World Wide Web server for the oil and gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Blaylock, R.E.; Martin, F.D.; Emery, R.

    1996-10-01

    The Gas and Oil Technology Exchange and Communication Highway (GO-TECH) provides an electronic information system for the petroleum community for exchanging ideas, data, and technology. The PC-based system fosters communication and discussion by linking the oil and gas producers with resource centers, government agencies, consulting firms, service companies, national laboratories, academic research groups, and universities throughout the world. The oil and gas producers can access the GO-TECH World Wide Web (WWW) home page through modem links, as well as through the Internet. Future GO-TECH applications will include the establishment of virtual corporations consisting of consortia of small companies, consultants, and service companies linked by electronic information systems. These virtual corporations will have the resources and expertise previously found only in major corporations.

  8. What is WorldWide Telescope, and Why Should Researchers Care?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Alyssa A.

    2016-01-01

    As of 2015, about 20 million people have downloaded the computer program called "WorldWide Telescope," and even more have accessed it via the web, at http://worldwidetelescope.org. But, the vast majority of these millions are not professional astronomers. This talk will explain why WorldWide Telescope (WWT) is also a powerful tool for research astronomers. I will focus on how WWT can be, and is, being built-in to Journals, and into day-to-day research environments. By way of example, I will show how WWT already: allows users to display images, including those in Journals, in the context of multi-wavelength full-sky imagery; allows for the display of which parts of the Sky have been studied, when, how, and for what reason (see http://adsass.org); allows, via right-click, immediate access to ADS, SIMBAD, and other professional research tools. I will also highlight new work, currently in development, that is using WWT as a tool for observation planning, and as a display mode for advanced high-dimensional data visualization tools, like glue (see http://glueviz.org). WWT is now well-known in the education community (see http://wwtambassadors.org), so the explicit goal of this talk will be to make researchers more aware of its full power. I will explain how WWT transitioned, over 8 years, from a Microsoft Research project to its current open-source state (see https://github.com/WorldWideTelescope), and I will conclude with comments on the future of WWT, and its relationship to how research should be carried out in the future (see http://tinyurl.com/aas-potf).

  9. World-Wide Web Tools for Locating Planetary Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanefsky, Bob; Deiss, Ron (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The explosive growth of the World-Wide Web (WWW) in the past year has made it feasible to provide interactive graphical tools to assist scientists in locating planetary images. The highest available resolution images of any site of interest can be quickly found on a map or plot, and, if online, displayed immediately on nearly any computer equipped with a color screen, an Internet connection, and any of the free WWW browsers. The same tools may also be of interest to educators, students, and the general public. Image finding tools have been implemented covering most of the solar system: Earth, Mars, and the moons and planets imaged by Voyager. The Mars image-finder, which plots the footprints of all the high-resolution Viking Orbiter images and can be used to display any that are available online, also contains a complete scrollable atlas and hypertext gazetteer to help locating areas. The Earth image-finder is linked to thousands of Shuttle images stored at NASA/JSC, and displays them as red dots on a globe. The Voyager image-finder plots images as dots, by longitude and apparent target size, linked to online images. The locator (URL) for the top-level page is http: //ic-www.arc.nasa.gov/ic/projects/bayes-group/Atlas/. Through the efforts of the Planetary Data System and other organizations, hundreds of thousands of planetary images are now available on CD-ROM, and many of these have been made available on the WWW. However, locating images of a desired site is still problematic, in practice. For example, many scientists studying Mars use digital image maps, which are one third the resolution of Viking Orbiter survey images. When they douse Viking Orbiter images, they often work with photographically printed hardcopies, which lack the flexibility of digital images: magnification, contrast stretching, and other basic image-processing techniques offered by off-the-shelf software. From the perspective of someone working on an experimental image processing technique for

  10. World-Wide Effort Bringing ALMA Telescope Into Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-02-01

    In the thin, dry air of northern Chile's Atacama Desert, at an altitude of 16,500 feet, an amazing new telescope system is taking shape, on schedule to provide the world's astronomers with unprecedented views of the origins of stars, galaxies, and planets. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) will open an entirely new "window" on the Universe, allowing scientists to unravel longstanding and important astronomical mysteries. ALMA Artist's Concept Artist's Concept of Completed ALMA CREDIT: ALMA/ESO/NRAO/NAOJ Click on image for high-resolution file (182 KB) "Most of the photons in the Universe are in the wavelength range that ALMA will receive, and ALMA will give us our first high-resolution views at these wavelengths. This will be a tremendous advancement for astronomy and open one of our science's last frontiers," Anneila Sargent, a Caltech professor and ALMA Board member, told the American Association for the Advancement of Science at its meeting in Boston, Mass. The millimeter and submillimeter wavelength range lies between what is traditionally considered radio waves and infrared waves. ALMA, a system using up to 66 high-precision dish antennas working together, will provide astronomers with dramatically greater sensitivity, the ability to detect faint objects, and resolving power, the ability to see fine detail, than has ever before been available in this range. "This ambitious project is the product of an international collaboration that spans the globe," Sargent said. "ALMA truly will enable transformational science and providing this capability has required a massive, world-wide effort," she added. The ALMA project is a partnership between Europe, Japan and North America in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. ALMA is funded in Europe by ESO, in Japan by the National Institutes of Natural Sciences in cooperation with the Academia Sinica in Taiwan and in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation in cooperation with the

  11. World-Wide Effort Produces Dramatic "Movie" of Cosmic Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-05-01

    Astronomers using a world-wide collection of radio telescopes, including the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), have made a dramatic "movie" of a voracious, superdense neutron star repeatedly spitting out subatomic particles at nearly the speed of light into two narrow jets as it pulls material from a companion star. The movie shows these jets ejecting clouds of hot plasma that are then "zapped" by pulses of energy in the jets as they move away from the neutron star. Frame from Radio-Telescope 'Movie' of Scorpius X-1 "We have directly measured the speed of energy flow in a cosmic jet for the first time," said Ed Fomalont, an astronomer at the NRAO in Charlottesville, Virginia. Fomalont worked with Barry Geldzahler and Charles Bradshaw of George Mason University in Fairfax, Virginia. The astronomers used the VLBA, the NSF's Very Large Array (VLA) and the Green Bank 140-foot telescope, along with radio telescopes from the European VLBI Network, Australia, Japan and South Africa to record the double-star system's eruptions continuously for 56 hours. "This study is going to be extremely valuable in helping us understand a phenomenon that we see throughout the universe," Fomalont said. Cosmic jets of superfast particles are ejected from the cores of numerous galaxies. On a smaller scale, similar jets are ejected from binary-star systems closer to home, in our own Milky Way Galaxy. While the jets from galaxy cores are thought to be powered by supermassive black holes millions of times more massive than the Sun, the closer "microquasars" are powered by much smaller black holes or by neutron stars only a few times more massive than the sun. "Studying one of the closer, smaller examples will help us understand how they all work, including the bigger ones," Geldzahler said. "The jets coming from distant galaxies are harder to study because of their much greater distance and the slowness of their

  12. Curvature of co-links uncovers hidden thematic layers in the World Wide Web

    PubMed Central

    Eckmann, Jean-Pierre; Moses, Elisha

    2002-01-01

    Beyond the information stored in pages of the World Wide Web, novel types of “meta-information” are created when pages connect to each other. Such meta-information is a collective effect of independent agents writing and linking pages, hidden from the casual user. Accessing it and understanding the interrelation between connectivity and content in the World Wide Web is a challenging problem [Botafogo, R. A. & Shneiderman, B. (1991) in Proceedings of Hypertext (Assoc. Comput. Mach., New York), pp. 63–77 and Albert, R. & Barabási, A.-L. (2002) Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 47–97]. We demonstrate here how thematic relationships can be located precisely by looking only at the graph of hyperlinks, gleaning content and context from the Web without having to read what is in the pages. We begin by noting that reciprocal links (co-links) between pages signal a mutual recognition of authors and then focus on triangles containing such links, because triangles indicate a transitive relation. The importance of triangles is quantified by the clustering coefficient [Watts, D. J. & Strogatz, S. H. (1999) Nature (London) 393, 440–442], which we interpret as a curvature [Bridson, M. R. & Haefliger, A. (1999) Metric Spaces of Non-Positive Curvature (Springer, Berlin)]. This curvature defines a World Wide Web landscape whose connected regions of high curvature characterize a common topic. We show experimentally that reciprocity and curvature, when combined, accurately capture this meta-information for a wide variety of topics. As an example of future directions we analyze the neural network of Caenorhabditis elegans, using the same methods. PMID:11972019

  13. Curvature of co-links uncovers hidden thematic layers in the World Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckmann, Jean-Pierre; Moses, Elisha

    2002-04-01

    Beyond the information stored in pages of the World Wide Web, novel types of "meta-information" are created when pages connect to each other. Such meta-information is a collective effect of independent agents writing and linking pages, hidden from the casual user. Accessing it and understanding the interrelation between connectivity and content in the World Wide Web is a challenging problem [Botafogo, R. A. & Shneiderman, B. (1991) in Proceedings of Hypertext (Assoc. Comput. Mach., New York), pp. 63-77 and Albert, R. & Barabási, A.-L. (2002) Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 47-97]. We demonstrate here how thematic relationships can be located precisely by looking only at the graph of hyperlinks, gleaning content and context from the Web without having to read what is in the pages. We begin by noting that reciprocal links (co-links) between pages signal a mutual recognition of authors and then focus on triangles containing such links, because triangles indicate a transitive relation. The importance of triangles is quantified by the clustering coefficient [Watts, D. J. & Strogatz, S. H. (1999) Nature (London) 393, 440-442], which we interpret as a curvature [Bridson, M. R. & Haefliger, A. (1999) Metric Spaces of Non-Positive Curvature (Springer, Berlin)]. This curvature defines a World Wide Web landscape whose connected regions of high curvature characterize a common topic. We show experimentally that reciprocity and curvature, when combined, accurately capture this meta-information for a wide variety of topics. As an example of future directions we analyze the neural network of Caenorhabditis elegans, using the same methods.

  14. Curvature of co-links uncovers hidden thematic layers in the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Eckmann, Jean-Pierre; Moses, Elisha

    2002-04-30

    Beyond the information stored in pages of the World Wide Web, novel types of "meta-information" are created when pages connect to each other. Such meta-information is a collective effect of independent agents writing and linking pages, hidden from the casual user. Accessing it and understanding the interrelation between connectivity and content in the World Wide Web is a challenging problem [Botafogo, R. A. & Shneiderman, B. (1991) in Proceedings of Hypertext (Assoc. Comput. Mach., New York), pp. 63-77 and Albert, R. & Barabási, A.-L. (2002) Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 47-97]. We demonstrate here how thematic relationships can be located precisely by looking only at the graph of hyperlinks, gleaning content and context from the Web without having to read what is in the pages. We begin by noting that reciprocal links (co-links) between pages signal a mutual recognition of authors and then focus on triangles containing such links, because triangles indicate a transitive relation. The importance of triangles is quantified by the clustering coefficient [Watts, D. J. & Strogatz, S. H. (1999) Nature (London) 393, 440-442], which we interpret as a curvature [Bridson, M. R. & Haefliger, A. (1999) Metric Spaces of Non-Positive Curvature (Springer, Berlin)]. This curvature defines a World Wide Web landscape whose connected regions of high curvature characterize a common topic. We show experimentally that reciprocity and curvature, when combined, accurately capture this meta-information for a wide variety of topics. As an example of future directions we analyze the neural network of Caenorhabditis elegans, using the same methods.

  15. Languages Left Behind: Keeping Taiwanese off the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, David K.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the unicode project, which is working toward a single computer encoding scheme for all the worlds' scripts. It focuses on the special challenge of encoding Chinese characters, and uses the example of Hokkien, a Chinese dialect spoken by most people in Taiwan, to explore the problem of unorthodox, unstable, or unofficial scripts.…

  16. Progressive-Era Resources on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howenstein, Amanda

    1999-01-01

    Provides a list of Progressive-era websites with the address and a detailed description of each of the websites. Includes topics such as the womens suffrage movement, the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, the Prohibition, labor-management conflicts, the Hull House, the Chicago fire, Emma Goldman, Progressive-era entertainment, and the Worlds Fair.…

  17. Facility wide benefits of radiology vascular access teams.

    PubMed

    Burns, Tim; Lamberth, Becky

    2010-01-01

    Many PICC lines are inserted in the radiology department and, at the rate they are inserted, can have serious financial implications for a facility. These costs combined with the increase in the number of line placements performed annually have imaging leadership evaluating alternatives for catheter placements in their departments. Several benefits to forming an in-house vascular access team include increased patient satisfaction, improved care, decreased length of stay, optimizing DRG reimbursement, and increased revenue. Considerations prior to initiating a vascular access team include: staff members involved, location of insertions, and up front funds available.

  18. World-Wide Standardized Seismograph Network: a data users guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Jon R.; Hutt, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report, which is based on an unpublished draft prepared in the 1970s, is to provide seismologists with the information they may need to use the WWSSN data set as it becomes available in a more easily accessible and convenient format on the Internet. The report includes a description of the WWSSN network, station facilities, operations and instrumentation, a derivation of the instrument transfer functions, tables of transfer functions, a description of calibration techniques, and a description of a method used to determine important instrument constants using recorded calibration data.

  19. Creating a Wide Area Network in the Developing World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannata, Arleen

    1991-01-01

    Describes issues an organization must consider when preparing for the creation and installation of an international wide area network (WAN) to help link developing countries. Hardware and software needs are considered; the use of commercial vendors is discussed; a needs assessment is described; and technical and cultural difficulties are…

  20. Teaching Contemporary Physics Topics using Real-Time Data Obtained via the World Wide Web

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W.; Grip, R.; McKay, M.; Pfaff, R. and Stotler, D.P.; Post-Zwicker, A.P.

    1998-12-01

    As a teaching tool, the World Wide Web (WWW) is unprecedented in its ability to transmit information and enhance communication between scientist and student. Just beginning to be developed are sites that actively engage the user in the learning process and provide hands-on methods of teaching contemporary topics. These topics are often not found in the classroom due to the complexity and expense of the laboratory equipment and the WWW is an ideal tool for overcoming this difficulty. This paper presents a model for using the Internet to teach high school students about plasma physics and fusion energy. Students are given access to real-time data, virtual experiments, and communication with professional scientists via email. Preliminary data indicate that student collaboration and student-led learning is encouraged when using the site in the classroom.

  1. Remote monitoring using technologies from the Internet and World Wide Web

    SciTech Connect

    Puckett, J.M.; Burczyk, L.

    1997-11-01

    Recent developments in Internet technologies are changing and enhancing how one processes and exchanges information. These developments include software and hardware in support of multimedia applications on the World Wide Web. In this paper the authors describe these technologies as they have applied them to remote monitoring and show how they will allow the International Atomic Energy Agency to efficiently review and analyze remote monitoring data for verification of material movements. The authors have developed demonstration software that illustrates several safeguards data systems using the resources of the Internet and Web to access and review data. This Web demo allows the user to directly observe sensor data, to analyze simulated safeguards data, and to view simulated on-line inventory data. Future activities include addressing the technical and security issues associated with using the Web to interface with existing and planned monitoring systems at nuclear facilities. Some of these issues are authentication, encryption, transmission of large quantities of data, and data compression.

  2. Health and medication information resources on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Sara; Zerilli, Tina

    2013-04-01

    Health care practitioners have increasingly used the Internet to obtain health and medication information. The vast number of Internet Web sites providing such information and concerns with their reliability makes it essential for users to carefully select and evaluate Web sites prior to use. To this end, this article reviews the general principles to consider in this process. Moreover, as cost may limit access to subscription-based health and medication information resources with established reputability, freely accessible online resources that may serve as an invaluable addition to one's reference collection are highlighted. These include government- and organization-sponsored resources (eg, US Food and Drug Administration Web site and the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists' Drug Shortage Resource Center Web site, respectively) as well as commercial Web sites (eg, Medscape, Google Scholar). Familiarity with such online resources can assist health care professionals in their ability to efficiently navigate the Web and may potentially expedite the information gathering and decision-making process, thereby improving patient care.

  3. Remote Eavesdropping at the JCMT via the World Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenness, Tim; Economou, Frossie; Tilanus, R. P. J.

    The James Clerk Maxwell telescope (JCMT), a submillimetre facility on Mauna Kea, has recently adopted flexible scheduling. This is expected to result in fewer astronomers travelling out to Hawaii, and more data being taken by local observatory staff. In order to allow astronomers to monitor their data from their home institutions, JCMT has adopted the WWW Observing Remotely Facility (WORF) already offered by the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT). WORF allows astronomers to eavesdrop on their data using the Netscape() small TM browser with minimal impact on observatory staff and computer systems. The UKIRT implementation has been extended to meet the differing expectations of the JCMT community, and has many additions including a telescope status screen, the ability to access the observation log and the use of a conferencing tool between the observer and the eavesdropper(s).

  4. Facility wide benefits of radiology vascular access teams, part 2.

    PubMed

    Burns, Tim; Lamberth, Becky

    2010-01-01

    A vascular access team (VAT) can provide a full scope of PICC services, including pre-placement evaluation, placement of the PICC, educational resources to bedside nursing staff, management and monitoring of the insertion sites, discontinuation of the line, and documentation for quality control purposes. Two hospitals that have developed VAT programs outline key factors in forming a successful team, which include identifying the resources and associated costs,developing policies and procedures, establishing quality assurance, and enabling employee satisfaction. Facilities will need to consider the cost associated with the implementation of the team; however, benefits the team provides to the facility far outweigh the financial commitment required.

  5. Researching on the World Wide Web: Spend More Time Learning, Not Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James-Catalano, Cynthia N.

    This book explains how to conduct effective research on the World Wide Web. The book is divided into two sections: "Research Tools" and "Search Strategies." The first section includes chapters defining the World Wide Web; Web addresses; indexes; online libraries; search engines; and newsgroups and listservs. The second section…

  6. Graduate Student Cognition during Information Retrieval Using the World Wide Web: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Brian

    The purpose of this study was to describe and interpret the cognition of a graduate student during information retrieval using the World Wide Web. The participant was a doctoral student in psychology with little experience using the Internet, and even less experience with the World Wide Web. The student performed an open search of her dissertation…

  7. Protyping machine vision software on the World Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karantalis, George; Batchelor, Bruce G.

    1998-10-01

    Interactive image processing is a proven technique for analyzing industrial vision applications and building prototype systems. Several of the previous implementations have used dedicated hardware to perform the image processing, with a top layer of software providing a convenient user interface. More recently, self-contained software packages have been devised and these run on a standard computer. The advent of the Java programming language has made it possible to write platform-independent software, operating over the Internet, or a company-wide Intranet. Thus, there arises the possibility of designing at least some shop-floor inspection/control systems, without the vision engineer ever entering the factories where they will be used. It successful, this project will have a major impact on the productivity of vision systems designers.

  8. GeoCENS: A Geospatial Cyberinfrastructure for the World-Wide Sensor Web

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Steve H.L.; Huang, Chih-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The world-wide sensor web has become a very useful technique for monitoring the physical world at spatial and temporal scales that were previously impossible. Yet we believe that the full potential of sensor web has thus far not been revealed. In order to harvest the world-wide sensor web's full potential, a geospatial cyberinfrastructure is needed to store, process, and deliver large amount of sensor data collected worldwide. In this paper, we first define the issue of the sensor web long tail followed by our view of the world-wide sensor web architecture. Then, we introduce the Geospatial Cyberinfrastructure for Environmental Sensing (GeoCENS) architecture and explain each of its components. Finally, with demonstration of three real-world powered-by-GeoCENS sensor web applications, we believe that the GeoCENS architecture can successfully address the sensor web long tail issue and consequently realize the world-wide sensor web vision. PMID:24152921

  9. WorldWide Telescope and Google Sky: New Technologies to Engage Students and the Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landsberg, R. H.; Subbarao, M. U.; Dettloff, L.

    2010-08-01

    New, visually rich, astronomical software environments coupled with large web-accessible data sets hold the promise of new and exciting ways to teach, collaborate, and explore the universe. These freeware tools provide contextual views of astronomical objects, real time access to multi-wavelength sky surveys, and, most importantly, the ability to incorporate new data and to produce user created content. This interactive panel examined the capabilities of Google Sky and WorldWide Telescope, and explored case studies of how these tools have been used to create compelling and participatory educational experiences in both formal (i.e., K-12 and undergraduate non-science majors classrooms), and informal (e.g., museum) settings. The overall goal of this session was to stimulate a discussion about future uses of these technologies. Substantial time was allotted for participants to create conceptual designs of learning experiences for use at their home institutions, with feedback provided by the panel members. Activities included technical discussions (e.g., mechanisms for incorporating new data and dissemination tools), exercises in narrative preparation, and a brainstorming session to identify potential future uses of these technologies.

  10. Internet as clinical information system: application development using the World Wide Web.

    PubMed Central

    Cimino, J J; Socratous, S A; Clayton, P D

    1995-01-01

    Clinical computing application development at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center has been limited by the lack of a flexible programming environment that supports multiple client user platforms. The World Wide Web offers a potential solution, with its multifunction servers, multiplatform clients, and use of standard protocols for displaying information. The authors are now using the Web, coupled with their own local clinical data server and vocabulary server, to carry out rapid prototype development of clinical information systems. They have developed one such prototype system that can be run on most popular computing platforms from anywhere on the Internet. The Web paradigm allows easy integration of clinical information with other local and Internet-based information sources. The Web also simplifies many aspects of application design; for example, it includes facilities for the use of encryption to meet the authors' security and confidentiality requirements. The prototype currently runs on only the Web server in the Department of Medical Informatics at Columbia University, but it could be run on other Web servers that access the authors' clinical data and vocabulary servers. It could also be adapted to access clinical information from other systems with similar server capabilities. This approach may be adaptable for use in developing institution-independent standards for data and application sharing. PMID:7496876

  11. A Galaxy Zoo - WorldWide Telescope Mashup: Expanding User Defined Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luebbert, Jarod; Sands, M.; Fay, J.; Smith, A.; Gay, P. L.; Galaxy Zoo Team

    2010-01-01

    We present a new way of exploring your favorite Galaxy Zoo galaxies within the context of the sky using Microsoft Research's WorldWide Telescope. Galaxy Zoo has a fantastic community that is eager to learn and contribute to science through morphological classifications of galaxies. WorldWide Telescope is an interactive observatory that allows users to explore the sky. WorldWide Telescope uses images from the world's best telescopes, including the galaxies of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. WorldWide Telescope provides a fantastic sense of size and distance that is hard to experience in Galaxy Zoo. Creating tours from favorite galaxies directly from Galaxy Zoo aims to solve this dilemma.The incorporation of Galaxy Zoo and WorldWide telescope provides a great resource for users to learn more about the galaxies they are classifying. Users can now explore the areas around certain galaxies and view information about that location from within WorldWide Telescope. Not only does this encourage self-motivated research but after tours are created they can be shared with anyone. We hope this will help spread citizen science to different audiences via email, Facebook, and Twitter.Without the WorldWide Telescope team at Microsoft Research this project would not have been possible. Please go start exploring at http://wwt.galaxyzoo.org. This project was funded through the Microsoft Research Academic Program.

  12. MSCD's Development of a Campus Wide Information System on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Mary

    This paper describes the development of a campus wide information system (CWIS) at Metropolitan State College of Denver (MSCD) in Colorado. The paper discusses the background of the college, its computing environment, interactive voice response system, and information technology plan. The CWIS was first implemented on gopher. Gopher was…

  13. Rotorcraft Aeromechanics Branch Home Page on the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Randall L.; Warmbrodt, William (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The tilt rotor aircraft holds great promise for improving air travel in the future. It's benefits include vertical take off and landing combined with airspeeds comparable to propeller driven aircraft. However, the noise from a tilt rotor during approach to a landing is potentially a significant barrier to widespread acceptance of these aircraft. This approach noise is primarily caused by Blade Vortex Interactions (BVI), which are created when the blade passes near or through the vortex trailed by preceding blades. The XV- 15 Aeroacoustic test will measure the noise from a tilt rotor during descent conditions and demonstrate several possible techniques to reduce the noise. The XV- 15 Aeroacoustic test at NASA Ames Research Center will measure acoustics and performance for a full-scale XV-15 rotor. A single XV-15 rotor will be mounted on the Ames Rotor Test Apparatus (RTA) in the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel. The test will be conducted in helicopter mode with forward flight speeds up to 100 knots and tip path plane angles up to +/- 15 degrees. These operating conditions correspond to a wide range of tilt rotor descent and transition to forward flight cases. Rotor performance measurements will be made with the RTA rotor balance, while acoustic measurements will be made using an acoustic traverse and four fixed microphones. The acoustic traverse will provide limited directionality measurements on the advancing side of the rotor, where BVI noise is expected to be the highest. Baseline acoustics and performance measurements for the three-bladed rotor will be obtained over the entire test envelope. Acoustic measurements will also be obtained for correlation with the XV-15 aircraft Inflight Rotor Aeroacoustic Program (IRAP) recently conducted by Ames. Several techniques will be studied in an attempt to reduce the highest measured BVI noise conditions. The first of these techniques will use sub-wings mounted on the blade tips. These subwings are expected to alter the size

  14. Histology on the World Wide Web: A Digest of Resources for Students and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, John R.

    1997-01-01

    Provides a list of 37 World Wide Web sites that are devoted to instruction in histology and include electronic manuals, syllabi, atlases, image galleries, and quizzes. Reviews the topics, content, and highlights of these Web sites. (DDR)

  15. An Assessment of the World Wide Merged Cloud Analysis using Interactive Graphics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    and Cumulus Nimbus (CB) are recorded but the type of cloud was not compared in the study. The WWMCA also classifies clouds into one of nine types...WORLD WIDE MERGED CLOUD ANALYSIS USING INTERACTIVE GRAPHICS by Stephen J. Horsman II June 2007 Thesis Advisor: Karl D. Pfeiffer...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE An Assessment of the World Wide Merged Cloud Analysis using Interactive

  16. Using Hypermedia Research To Advance the Study of Learning on the World Wide Web. Research Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eveland, William P.; Dunwoody, Sharon

    In this monograph we begin by situating the technological and historical origins of the World Wide Web in hypermedia systems that were conceptualized during the World War II era and first developed decades before the Web. We then review the cross-disciplinary theoretical and empirical literature on the uses and effects of educational hypermedia.…

  17. Alaskan Auroral All-Sky Images on the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.

    1997-01-01

    In response to a 1995 NASA SPDS announcement of support for preservation and distribution of important data sets online, the Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska, proposed to provide World Wide Web access to the Poker Flat Auroral All-sky Camera images in real time. The Poker auroral all-sky camera is located in the Davis Science Operation Center at Poker Flat Rocket Range about 30 miles north-east of Fairbanks, Alaska, and is connected, through a microwave link, with the Geophysical Institute where we maintain the data base linked to the Web. To protect the low light-level all-sky TV camera from damage due to excessive light, we only operate during the winter season when the moon is down. The camera and data acquisition is now fully computer controlled. Digital images are transmitted each minute to the Web linked data base where the data are available in a number of different presentations: (1) Individual JPEG compressed images (1 minute resolution); (2) Time lapse MPEG movie of the stored images; and (3) A meridional plot of the entire night activity.

  18. Design and development of an interactive medical teleconsultation system over the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Bai, J; Zhang, Y; Dai, B

    1998-06-01

    The objective of the medical teleconsultation system presented in this paper is to demonstrate the use of the World Wide Web (WWW) for telemedicine and interactive medical information exchange. The system, which is developed based on Java, could provide several basic Java tools to fulfill the requirements of medical applications, including a file manager, data tool, bulletin board, and digital audio tool. The digital audio tool uses point-to-point structure to enable two physicians to communicate directly through voice. The others use multipoint structure. The file manager manages the medical images stored in the WWW information server, which come from a hospital database. The data tool supports cooperative operations on the medical data between the participating physicians. The bulletin board enables the users to discuss special cases by writing text on the board, send their personal or group diagnostic reports on the cases, and reorganize the reports and store them in its report file for later use. The system provides a hardware-independent platform for physicians to interact with one another as well as to access medical information over the WWW.

  19. Virtual Reality Astronomy Education Using AAS WorldWide Telescope and Oculus Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigel, A. David; Moraitis, Christina D.

    2017-01-01

    The Boyd E. Christenberry Planetarium at Samford University (Birmingham, AL) offers family friendly, live, and interactive planetarium presentations that educate the public on topics from astronomy basics to current cutting edge astronomical discoveries. With limited funding, it is not possible to provide state of the art planetarium hardware for these community audiences. In a society in which many people, even young children, have access to high resolution smart phones and highly realistic video games, it is important to leverage cutting-edge technology to intrigue young and old minds alike. We use an Oculus Rift virtual reality headset running AAS WorldWide Telescope software to visualize 3D data in a fully immersive environment. We create interactive experiences and videos to highlight astronomical concepts and also to communicate the beauty of our universe. The ease of portability enables us to set up at Virtual Reality (VR) experience at various events, festivals, and even in classrooms to provide a community outreach that a fixed planetarium cannot. This VR experience adds the “wow” factor that encourages children and adults to engage in our various planetarium events to learn more about astronomy and continue to explore the final frontier of space. These VR experiences encourages our college students to participate in our astronomy education resulting in increased interest in STEM fields, particularly physics and math.

  20. Creation and utilization of a World Wide Web based space radiation effects code: SIREST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singleterry, R. C. Jr; Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Tripathi, R. K.; Thibeault, S. A.; Noor, A. K.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Badavi, F. F.; Chang, C. K.; Qualls, G. D.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Kim, M. H.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Norbury, J.; Blattning, S. R.; Miller, J.; Zeitlin, C.; Heilbronn, L. H.

    2001-01-01

    In order for humans and electronics to fully and safely operate in the space environment, codes like HZETRN (High Charge and Energy Transport) must be included in any designer's toolbox for design evaluation with respect to radiation damage. Currently, spacecraft designers do not have easy access to accurate radiation codes like HZETRN to evaluate their design for radiation effects on humans and electronics. Today, the World Wide Web is sophisticated enough to support the entire HZETRN code and all of the associated pre and post processing tools. This package is called SIREST (Space Ionizing Radiation Effects and Shielding Tools). There are many advantages to SIREST. The most important advantage is the instant update capability of the web. Another major advantage is the modularity that the web imposes on the code. Right now, the major disadvantage of SIREST will be its modularity inside the designer's system. This mostly comes from the fact that a consistent interface between the designer and the computer system to evaluate the design is incomplete. This, however, is to be solved in the Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE) program currently being funded by NASA.

  1. Open Access, Open Source and Digital Libraries: A Current Trend in University Libraries around the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishnamurthy, M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the open access and open source movement in the digital library world. Design/methodology/approach: A review of key developments in the open access and open source movement is provided. Findings: Open source software and open access to research findings are of great use to scholars in developing…

  2. The World Wide Web and Technology Transfer at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Bianco, David J.

    1994-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) began using the World Wide Web (WWW) in the summer of 1993, becoming the first NASA installation to provide a Center-wide home page. This coincided with a reorganization of LaRC to provide a more concentrated focus on technology transfer to both aerospace and non-aerospace industry. Use of the WWW and NCSA Mosaic not only provides automated information dissemination, but also allows for the implementation, evolution and integration of many technology transfer applications. This paper describes several of these innovative applications, including the on-line presentation of the entire Technology Opportunities Showcase (TOPS), an industrial partnering showcase that exists on the Web long after the actual 3-day event ended. During its first year on the Web, LaRC also developed several WWW-based information repositories. The Langley Technical Report Server (LTRS), a technical paper delivery system with integrated searching and retrieval, has proved to be quite popular. The NASA Technical Report Server (NTRS), an outgrowth of LTRS, provides uniform access to many logically similar, yet physically distributed NASA report servers. WWW is also the foundation of the Langley Software Server (LSS), an experimental software distribution system which will distribute LaRC-developed software with the possible phase-out of NASA's COSMIC program. In addition to the more formal technology distribution projects, WWW has been successful in connecting people with technologies and people with other people. With the completion of the LaRC reorganization, the Technology Applications Group, charged with interfacing with non-aerospace companies, opened for business with a popular home page.

  3. Fast 3D Net Expeditions: Tools for Effective Scientific Collaboration on the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Val; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Two new technologies, the FASTexpedition and Remote FAST, have been developed that provide remote, 3D (three dimensional), high resolution, dynamic, interactive viewing of scientific data. The FASTexpedition permits one to access scientific data from the World Wide Web, take guided expeditions through the data, and continue with self controlled expeditions through the data. Remote FAST permits collaborators at remote sites to simultaneously view an analysis of scientific data being controlled by one of the collaborators. Control can be transferred between sites. These technologies are now being used for remote collaboration in joint university, industry, and NASA projects. Also, NASA Ames Research Center has initiated a project to make scientific data and guided expeditions through the data available as FASTexpeditions on the World Wide Web for educational purposes. Previously, remote visualization of dynamic data was done using video format (transmitting pixel information) such as video conferencing or MPEG (Motion Picture Expert Group) movies on the Internet. The concept for this new technology is to send the raw data (e.g., grids, vectors, and scalars) along with viewing scripts over the Internet and have the pixels generated by a visualization tool running on the viewers local workstation. The visualization tool that is currently used is FAST (Flow Analysis Software Toolkit). The advantages of this new technology over using video format are: (1) The visual is much higher in resolution (1280x1024 pixels with 24 bits of color) than typical video format transmitted over the network. (2) The form of the visualization can be controlled interactively (because the viewer is interactively controlling the visualization tool running on his workstation). (3) A rich variety of guided expeditions through the data can be included easily. (4) A capability is provided for other sites to see a visual analysis of one site as the analysis is interactively performed. Control of

  4. RotaTeq: Progress toward developing world access.

    PubMed

    Goveia, Michelle G; Nelson, Christopher B; Ciarlet, Max

    2010-09-01

    Phase III studies of an oral, live, pentavalent, human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine (RotaTeq; Merck) in developed countries have demonstrated that it is well tolerated with regard to intussusception and other adverse events and is efficacious in preventing rotavirus gastroenteritis and associated healthcare encounters. However, it cannot be assumed that rotavirus vaccines will be equally efficacious in infants and young children in the developing world. Differences in host populations, associated health conditions, and the epidemiology of rotavirus disease could affect vaccine performance. Concern about the potential for differences in efficacy stems from studies of previous candidate rotavirus vaccines, including bovine and rhesus rotaviruses, which showed no or variable efficacy in developing regions. Given this history, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended that the efficacy of "new" rotavirus vaccines should be demonstrated in diverse geographic areas, including developing countries, before widespread implementation. Successful implementation of any rotavirus vaccine in the developing world requires additional clinical research and sharing of early introduction experiences. We discuss efforts to bring RotaTeq vaccine to the developing world. Critical steps to achieve this goal include the clinical evaluation of vaccine safety and efficacy in a multisite trial in Asia and Africa, evaluation of concomitant use with other pediatric vaccines routinely used, and vaccine assessment in special populations (premature, human immunodeficiency virus-infected, and malnourished infants). Completion of WHO prequalification of RotaTeq and affordability are also key requirements to routine vaccine introduction. The RotaTeq Partnership with the Nicaraguan Ministry of Health provides an example of the successful introduction of this vaccine into a developing world country.

  5. The World Wide Web: a review of an emerging internet-based technology for the distribution of biomedical information.

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, H J; Lomax, E C; Polonkey, S E

    1996-01-01

    The Internet is rapidly evolving from a resource used primarily by the research community to a true global information network offering a wide range of databases and services. This evolution presents many opportunities for improved access to biomedical information, but Internet-based resources have often been difficult for the non-expert to develop and use. The World Wide Web (WWW) supports an inexpensive, easy-to-use, cross-platform, graphic interface to the Internet that may radically alter the way we retrieve and disseminate medical data. This paper summarizes the Internet and hypertext origins of the WWW, reviews WWW-specific technologies, and describes current and future applications of this technology in medicine and medical informatics. The paper also includes an appendix of useful biomedical WWW servers. PMID:8750386

  6. ETDEWEB versus the World-Wide-Web: a specific database/web comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, D.

    2010-06-28

    A study was performed comparing user search results from the specialized scientific database on energy-related information, ETDEWEB, with search results from the internet search engines Google and Google Scholar. The primary objective of the study was to determine if ETDEWEB (the Energy Technology Data Exchange – World Energy Base) continues to bring the user search results that are not being found by Google and Google Scholar. As a multilateral information exchange initiative, ETDE’s member countries and partners contribute cost- and task-sharing resources to build the largest database of energy-related information in the world. As of early 2010, the ETDEWEB database has 4.3 million citations to world-wide energy literature. One of ETDEWEB’s strengths is its focused scientific content and direct access to full text for its grey literature (over 300,000 documents in PDF available for viewing from the ETDE site and over a million additional links to where the documents can be found at research organizations and major publishers globally). Google and Google Scholar are well-known for the wide breadth of the information they search, with Google bringing in news, factual and opinion-related information, and Google Scholar also emphasizing scientific content across many disciplines. The analysis compared the results of 15 energy-related queries performed on all three systems using identical words/phrases. A variety of subjects was chosen, although the topics were mostly in renewable energy areas due to broad international interest. Over 40,000 search result records from the three sources were evaluated. The study concluded that ETDEWEB is a significant resource to energy experts for discovering relevant energy information. For the 15 topics in this study, ETDEWEB was shown to bring the user unique results not shown by Google or Google Scholar 86.7% of the time. Much was learned from the study beyond just metric comparisons. Observations about the strengths of each

  7. Genetic structural analysis for germplasm accessions in the USDA Rice World Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice is grouped into five genetic structures including indica, aus, aromatic, temperate japonica, and tropical japonica. A core collection having 1,785 accessions from 114 countries has been developed that is representative of the USDA rice world collection which includes over 18,000 accessions. The...

  8. An Apprenticeship-Based Multimedia Courseware for Computer Graphics Studies Provided on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shabo, Amnon; Guzdial, Mark; Stasko, John

    1997-01-01

    Discusses cognitive apprenticeship, an educational practice that focuses on students actively engaged in activities with a variety of supports, or scaffolding. Presents a model of scaffolding that was implemented in courseware for learning computer graphics on the World Wide Web. An evaluation on the use of the courseware at Georgia Institute of…

  9. Using Search Engines on the World Wide Web and Where to Find Search Engine Help.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Thea

    1997-01-01

    Explains search engines that are used on the World Wide Web to find information on the Internet. Highlights include eight search engines with information on how to find the help screen; four "spiders" that conduct searches of several search engines; and four online sites for learning more about using search engines. (LRW)

  10. Spiders and Worms and Crawlers, Oh My: Searching on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagan, Ann; Bender, Laura

    Searching on the world wide web can be confusing. A myriad of search engines exist, often with little or no documentation, and many of these search engines work differently from the standard search engines people are accustomed to using. Intended for librarians, this paper defines search engines, directories, spiders, and robots, and covers basics…

  11. Safety Net: Student Exchange Learning and Supervision on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndiwane, Abraham

    2001-01-01

    Six U.S. nursing students studied community health in Finland and communicated with U.S. instructors via the World Wide Web. The immersion program effectively developed cultural competence; information technology played a significant role in fostering learning exchange. (SK)

  12. Pedagogical Reengineering: A Pedagogical Approach to Course Enrichment and Redesign with the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collis, Betty

    1997-01-01

    Defines "pedagogical reengineering." Indicates how tele-learning can bring about enrichment or reengineering in the pedagogical profile of a course. Illustrates these ideas through experiences with four cycles of a particular course. Suggests a general approach for deciding where and how to integrate World Wide Web-based functionalities into…

  13. Teaching Physiology and the World Wide Web: Electrochemistry and Electrophysiology on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Terry M.; Fleming, John; Randall, James E.; Coleman, Thomas G.

    1997-01-01

    Presents two examples of laboratory exercises using the World Wide Web for first-year medical students. The first example introduces the physical laws that apply to osmotic, chemical, and electrical gradients and a simulation of the ability of the sodium-potassium pump to establish chemical gradients and maintain cell volume. The second module…

  14. Exploring Geology on the World-Wide Web--Volcanoes and Volcanism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schimmrich, Steven Henry; Gore, Pamela J. W.

    1996-01-01

    Focuses on sites on the World Wide Web that offer information about volcanoes. Web sites are classified into areas of Global Volcano Information, Volcanoes in Hawaii, Volcanoes in Alaska, Volcanoes in the Cascades, European and Icelandic Volcanoes, Extraterrestrial Volcanism, Volcanic Ash and Weather, and Volcano Resource Directories. Suggestions…

  15. Live Specimens More Effective than World Wide Web for Learning Plant Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taraban, Roman; McKenney, Cynthia; Peffley, Ellen; Applegarth, Ashley

    2004-01-01

    The World Wide Web and other computer-based media are new teaching resources for plant identification. The purpose of the experiments reported here was to test whether learning plant identification for woody and herbaceous plant material over the web was as effective, more effective, or preferred by undergraduate students when compared with…

  16. How Commercial Banks Use the World Wide Web: A Content Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leovic, Lydia K.

    New telecommunications vehicles expand the possible ways that business is conducted. The hypermedia portion of the Internet, the World Wide Web, is such a telecommunications device. The Web is presently one of the most flexible and dynamic methods for electronic information dissemination. The level of technological sophistication necessary to…

  17. Differences between Novice and Experienced Users in Searching Information on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazonder, Ard W.; Biemans, Harm J. A.; Wopereis, Iwan G. J. H.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a study conducted in the Netherlands that examined the effect of a user's World Wide Web experience on the search process, which consists of locating an appropriate Web site and retrieving relevant information from that site. Discusses implications for training and supporting student searchers and proposes future research. (Author/LRW)

  18. Comparing Social Desirability Responding on World Wide Web and Paper-Administered Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Dawson R.; Flowers, Claudia P.

    2001-01-01

    Examines social desirability responding (SDR) on surveys administered on the World Wide Web and on paper to graduate and undergraduate students. Discusses response bias; describes use of the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding; and reports findings that reveal no differences in SDR between the Web-administered and paper-administered…

  19. Social Desirability Responding on World Wide Web and Paper-Administered Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Dawson R.; Flowers, Claudia P.

    Social desirability responding (SDR) on surveys administered on the World Wide Web and on paper was examined, with 178 graduate and undergraduate students as participants. To assess the extent to which participants would demonstrate SDR, this study used the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) (Paulhus, 1993). The BIDR consists of 40…

  20. Gero-Informatics and the Internet: Loading Gerontology Information on the World Wide Web (WWW).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, R. Darin; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Provides background on the World Wide Web, reasons for its growth, its potential usefulness to gerontologists, and the results of an exhaustive search of over 300 sites. Relevant information was discovered in five general categories of gerontology-related information: academic institutions, government agencies, biomedical and health research…

  1. Design of a Project-Based Study Environment on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grooters, Fiona; de Vries, Sjoerd

    This paper presents the design of a project-based study environment on the World Wide Web based upon the e-study concept, i.e., studying by means of Internet technologies. The first section discusses the e-study concept, including Interactive Study Environments (ISE), Interactive Study Systems, and online Study Services. Design guidelines for a…

  2. Delivering an Alternative Medicine Resource to the User's Desktop via World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jie; Wu, Gang; Marks, Ellen; Fan, Weiyu

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the design and implementation of a World Wide Web-based alternative medicine virtual resource. This homepage integrates regional, national, and international resources and delivers library services to the user's desktop. Goals, structure, and organizational schemes of the system are detailed, and design issues for building such a…

  3. Research and Publication on the World Wide Web: A Fifth Grade Class' Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Nancy L.

    The World Wide Web (WWW) has become a major presence on the Internet, and teachers are just beginning to discover many valuable applications the Web can have in their classrooms. This study explored use of WWW as a research and publication tool in a fifth grade class project on the formation of the United States. Students were given instruction in…

  4. HotJava: Sun's Animated Interactive World Wide Web Browser for the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machovec, George S., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Examines HotJava and Java, World Wide Web technology for use on the Internet. HotJava, an interactive, animated Web browser, based on the object-oriented Java programming language, is different from HTML-based browsers such as Netscape. Its client/server design does not understand Internet protocols but can dynamically find what it needs to know.…

  5. Metamorphosis: Teaching and Studying Contemporary Canadian Literature on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beeler, Karin

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of use of the World Wide Web for literary studies focuses on a course on contemporary Canadian literature offered at the University of Northern British Columbia. Highlights include weekly lectures, discussion forum, assignments, evaluations, Web courses versus other distributed learning media such as videoconferencing, and future…

  6. Navigational Structure on the World Wide Web: Usability Concerns, User Preferences, and "Browsing Behavior."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Theodore; Monson, John A.; Xaver, Richard F.; Kilic, Gulsen; Conley, Aaron T.; Wamey, Beatrice

    There are several approaches a World Wide Web site designer considers in developing a menu structure. One consideration is the content of the menus (what choices are available to the user). Another consideration is the physical layout of the menu structure. The physical layout of a menu may be described as being one of at least three different…

  7. Gender Equity in Advertising on the World-Wide Web: Can it be Found?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Kevin M.; Knupfer, Nancy Nelson

    Recent attention to gender equity in computer environments, as well as in print-based and televised advertising for technological products, suggests that gender bias in the computer environment continues. This study examined gender messages within World Wide Web advertisements, specifically the type and number of visual images used in Web banner…

  8. Some useful hosting centers and databases for molecular biology on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Bryś, M

    1996-01-01

    This article describes the information contained within World Wide Web of potential uses for molecular biologists. The aim is to provide a basic description of the server provided services of bioinformatics, major program coordinator activities, and current contents of genome nucleic acid and protein databases.

  9. Marketing and Selling CD-ROM Products on the World-Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Becki

    1995-01-01

    Describes three companies' approaches to marketing and selling CD-ROM products on the World Wide Web. Benefits include low overhead for Internet-based sales, allowance for creativity, and ability to let customers preview products online. Discusses advertising, information delivery, content, information services, and security. (AEF)

  10. Interactive Display of High-Resolution Images on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clyde, Stephen W.; Hirschi, Gregory W.

    Viewing high-resolution images on the World Wide Web at a level of detail necessary for collaborative research is still a problem today, given the Internet's current bandwidth limitations and its ever increasing network traffic. ImageEyes is an interactive display tool being developed at Utah State University that addresses this problem by…

  11. "Dynamic Syllabi for Dummies": Posting Class Assignments on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornblith, Gary J.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that instructors need to recognize and adapt to students who are increasingly computer savvy. Relates the process of developing dynamic World Wide Web syllabi for undergraduate history courses. Provides an outline of suggestions and warnings for creating interesting and educational syllabi. Suggests that the best syllabi incorporate Web…

  12. Teaching with the World Wide Web: Internet Resources for Educators in Illinois Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bruce O.; Hall, Robert F.

    1998-01-01

    This report focuses on teaching with the World Wide Web. An introduction describes the Illinois State Board of Education's (ISBE's) efforts in urging local schools to integrate information technology into all aspects of their curriculum and in emphasizing the need for technology-focused staff development for Illinois teachers. ISBE supports…

  13. Dimensions of Transactional Distance in the World Wide Web Learning Environment: A Factor Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yau-Jane

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the effectiveness of distance education focuses on Moore's Theory of Transactional Distance and a study of learners' experiences with the World Wide Web in a university course in Taiwan. Highlights include learner-instructor interaction; learner-content interaction; learner-learner interaction; learner-interface interaction; results…

  14. The Library's Role in Academic Instructional Use of the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayne, Elaine; Vander Meer, Patricia

    1997-01-01

    Technological advances drive academic libraries to offer faculty instruction on using the World Wide Web as a teaching tool. This article describes the development of a library/computing center collaborative program, discusses the benefits of collaboration, offers advice on constructing instructional Web sites, and provides an annotated…

  15. 76 FR 46854 - Hewlett Packard Company, Imaging and Printing Group, World Wide Product Data Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... Product Data Management Operations, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower Professional, Now Known... Data Management Operations, Boise, Idaho and Fort Collins, Colorado. The workers developed, prototyped..., Imaging and Printing Group, World Wide Product Data Management Operations. The Department has...

  16. Outreach to International Students and Scholars Using the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Wei

    1998-01-01

    Describes the creation of a World Wide Web site for the Science Library International Outreach Program at the University of California, Santa Cruz. Discusses design elements, content, and promotion of the site. Copies of the home page and the page containing the outreach program's statement of purpose are included. (AEF)

  17. The World Wide Web and Emerging Internet Resource Discovery Standards for Scholarly Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weibel, Stuart L.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the influence of the World Wide Web on the dissemination of scholarly literature. Discusses display and indexing of structured text, problems with matching the needs of session-based document retrieval and the stateless architecture of the Web, and the relationship of existing bibliographic description standards to emerging standards for…

  18. Overview of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) (SIGs IA, USE).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Janet

    2000-01-01

    Provides an overview of a planned session to describe the work of the World Wide Web Consortium, including technical specifications for HTML (Hypertext Markup Language), XML (Extensible Markup Language), CSS (Cascading Style Sheets), and over 20 other Web standards that address graphics, multimedia, privacy, metadata, and other technologies. (LRW)

  19. XML: A Language To Manage the World Wide Web. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis-Tanous, Jennifer R.

    This digest provides an overview of XML (Extensible Markup Language), a markup language used to construct World Wide Web pages. Topics addressed include: (1) definition of a markup language, including comparison of XML with SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language) and HTML (HyperText Markup Language); (2) how XML works, including sample tags,…

  20. How Students Evaluate Information and Sources when Searching the World Wide Web for Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walraven, Amber; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Boshuizen, Henny P. A.

    2009-01-01

    The World Wide Web (WWW) has become the biggest information source for students while solving information problems for school projects. Since anyone can post anything on the WWW, information is often unreliable or incomplete, and it is important to evaluate sources and information before using them. Earlier research has shown that students have…

  1. Teaching Intrapersonal Communication with the World-Wide Web: Cognitive Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shedletsky, Leonard J.; Aitken, Joan E.

    This paper offers a brief description of a course on intrapersonal communication with a home page approach using the World Wide Web. The paper notes that students use the home page for completing assignments, readings, posting responses, self-evaluation testing, research, and displaying some of their papers for the course. The paper contains…

  2. A review of images of nurses and smoking on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Sarna, Linda; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of the World Wide Web, historic images previously having limited distributions are now widely available. As tobacco use has evolved, so have images of nurses related to smoking. Using a systematic search, the purpose of this article is to describe types of images of nurses and smoking available on the World Wide Web. Approximately 10,000 images of nurses and smoking published over the past century were identified through search engines and digital archives. Seven major themes were identified: nurses smoking, cigarette advertisements, helping patients smoke, "naughty" nurse, teaching women to smoke, smoking in and outside of health care facilities, and antitobacco images. The use of nursing images to market cigarettes was known but the extent of the use of these images has not been reported previously. Digital archives can be used to explore the past, provide a perspective for understanding the present, and suggest directions for the future in confronting negative images of nursing.

  3. Workshops Without Walls: broadening access to science around the world.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Betül K; Boyd, Eric S; Dolci, Wendy W; Dodson, K Estelle; Boldt, Marco S; Pilcher, Carl B

    2011-08-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Astrobiology Institute (NAI) conducted two "Workshops Without Walls" during 2010 that enabled global scientific exchange--with no travel required. The second of these was on the topic "Molecular Paleontology and Resurrection: Rewinding the Tape of Life." Scientists from diverse disciplines and locations around the world were joined through an integrated suite of collaborative technologies to exchange information on the latest developments in this area of origin of life research. Through social media outlets and popular science blogs, participation in the workshop was broadened to include educators, science writers, and members of the general public. In total, over 560 people from 31 US states and 30 other nations were registered. Among the scientific disciplines represented were geochemistry, biochemistry, molecular biology and evolution, and microbial ecology. We present this workshop as a case study in how interdisciplinary collaborative research may be fostered, with substantial public engagement, without sustaining the deleterious environmental and economic impacts of travel.

  4. Global panic reaction--a therapeutic approach to a world-wide economic crisis.

    PubMed

    Sperling, W; Biermann, T; Maler, J M

    2009-08-01

    Drastic losses on the stock markets within short periods have been the subject of numerous investigations in view of the fact that they are often irrational. In a recently published model we reported about the world-wide phenomenon of Global panic reaction (GPR) [Sperling W, Bleich S, Reulbach U. Black Monday on stock markets throughout the world - a new phenomenon of collective panic disorder? A psychiatric approach. Med Hypotheses 2008;71(6):972-4], which illustrate typical psychiatric symptoms of panic disorder. We now complete this model by a therapeutic approach for the patient. Therefore the identification of a therapeutic regime "step by step" was necessary.

  5. Moving up the information food chain: Deploying softbots on the World Wide Web

    SciTech Connect

    Etzioni, O.

    1996-12-31

    I view the World Wide Web as an information food chain. The maze of pages and hyperlinks that comprise the Web are at the very bottom of the chain. The WebCrawlers and Alta Vistas of the world are information herbivores; they graze on Web pages and regurgitate them as searchable indices. Today, most Web users feed near the bottom of the information food chain, but the time is ripe to move up. Since 1991, we have been building information carnivores, which intelligently hunt and feast on herbivores in Unix, on the Internet, and on the Web.

  6. Educational Applications on the World Wide Web: An Example Using Amphion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Jane

    1998-01-01

    There is a great deal of excitement about using the internet and the World Wide Web in education. There are such exciting possibilities and there is a wealth and variety of material up on the web. There are however many problems, problems of access and resources, problems of quality -- for every excellent resource there are many poor ones, and there are insufficiently explored problems of teacher training and motivation. For example, Wiesenmayer and Meadows report on a study of 347 West Virginia science teachers. These teachers were enrolled in a week-long summer workshop to introduce them to the internet and its educational potential. The teachers were asked to review science sites as to overall quality and then about their usefulness in their own classrooms. The teachers were enthusiastic about the web, and gave two-thirds of the sites high ratings, and essentially all the rest average ratings. But alarmingly, over 80% of these sites were viewed as having no direct applicability in the teacher's own classroom. This summer I was assigned to work on the Amphion project in the Automated Software Engineering Group under the leadership of Michael Lowry. I wished to find educational applications of the Amphion system, which in its current implementation can be used to create fortran programs and animations using the SPICE libraries created by the NAIF group at JPL. I wished to find an application which provided real added educational value, which was in line with educational curriculum standards and which would serve a documented need of the educational community. The application selected was teaching about the causes of the seasons -- at the approximately the fourth, fifth, sixth grade level. This topic was chosen because it is in line with national curriculum standards. The fourth, fifth, sixth grade level was selected to coincide with the grade level served by the Ames Aerospace Encounter, which services 10,000 children a year on field trips. The hope is that

  7. Structure and content of chronic kidney disease information on the World Wide Web: barriers to public understanding of a pandemic.

    PubMed

    Calderón, José Luis; Zadshir, Ashraf; Norris, Keith

    2004-10-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a pandemic and the need to inform those at risk has never been more important. The World Wide Web (WWW) is no w considered a key source of health information, but the quality and utility of this information has been challenged. In this article, we assess structural, content, and linguistic barriers to accessed CKD information and discuss the implications of limited Internet access to communicating health. Technical (number of hyperlinks), content (number of six core CKD and risk factor information domains included), and linguistic (readability and variation in readability) barriers were assessed for websites offered by 12 kidney disease associations. The Flesch Reading Ease Index method was used to estimate readability scores, and variation in the readability of information was assessed. Eleven websites met inclusion criteria. Six of 11 websites provided information in all 6 domains of CKD information. A mean of 4 hyperlinks (range 3-5) was clicked before CKD information was available and a mean of 6 hyperlinks (range 4-12) was clicked to access all available CKD information. Mean readability scores for all six domains of CKD information exceeded national average literacy skills and far exceeded the 5th grade level readability desired for informing vulnerable populations. Information about CKD and diabetes consistently had higher readability scores. The WWW currently has little utility for informing populations at greatest risk for CKD. Barriers to accessing CKD information on the WWW are socioeconomic, technical, and linguistic. Having lower socioeconomic status, less access to computers and the WWW, multiple website hyperlinks, incomplete information, difficult readability, and significant variation in readability of CKD information on the WWW are social, structural, and content barriers to communicating CKD information. This may contribute to the growing epidemics of diminished public understanding about CKD, and disparities in

  8. CliniWeb: managing clinical information on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed Central

    Hersh, W R; Brown, K E; Donohoe, L C; Campbell, E M; Horacek, A E

    1996-01-01

    The World Wide Web is a powerful new way to deliver on-line clinical information, but several problems limit its value to health care professionals: content is highly distributed and difficult to find, clinical information is not separated from non-clinical information, and the current Web technology is unable to support some advanced retrieval capabilities. A system called CliniWeb has been developed to address these problems. CliniWeb is an index to clinical information on the World Wide Web, providing a browsing and searching interface to clinical content at the level of the health care student or provider. Its database contains a list of clinical information resources on the Web that are indexed by terms from the Medical Subject Headings disease tree and retrieved with the assistance of SAPHIRE. Limitations of the processes used to build the database are discussed, together with directions for future research. PMID:8816350

  9. Directory of Astronomy Librarians and Libraries on the World Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grothkopf, Uta

    The ESO Library maintains a directory of astronomy librarians and libraries which is available on the World Wide Web. It was created in order to foster information exchange and collaboration among astronomy librarians. In the following, the main characteristics including the type of information provided and search features are explained. The maintainers invite colleagues to submit new names and addresses and, if necessary, to correct existing entries so that the information provided is complete and up-to-date.

  10. Application of World Wide Web (W3) Technologies in Payload Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Charles; Windrem, May; Picinich, Lou

    1996-01-01

    World Wide Web (W3) technologies are considered in relation to their application to space missions. It is considered that such technologies, including the hypertext transfer protocol and the Java object-oriented language, offer a powerful and relatively inexpensive framework for distributed application software development. The suitability of these technologies for payload monitoring systems development is discussed, and the experience gained from the development of an insect habitat monitoring system based on W3 technologies is reported.

  11. User Interface on the World Wide Web: How to Implement a Multi-Level Program Online

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cranford, Jonathan W.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this Langley Aerospace Research Summer Scholars (LARSS) research project was to write a user interface that utilizes current World Wide Web (WWW) technologies for an existing computer program written in C, entitled LaRCRisk. The project entailed researching data presentation and script execution on the WWW and than writing input/output procedures for the database management portion of LaRCRisk.

  12. [Comparison of commercialization of transgenic crops in China and world-wide].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xujing; Jia, Shirong

    2008-04-01

    Currently, transgenic crops create huge economic, social and ecological benefits with the development of its commercial production. For China, the speed of development and commercialization of transgenic crops is a strategic issue for the sustainable agriculture development and the international competitiveness of our agricultural products. In this paper, we compared and analyzed the status of commercialization of transgenic crops in China and world-wide.

  13. World wide use of psychotropic drugs in child and adolescent psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Simeon, J G; Wiggins, D M; Williams, E

    1995-05-01

    1. Questionnaires were mailed to child psychiatrists world wide to obtain more precise information on views and approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of childhood psychiatric disorders. 2. Results indicated important problems related to the management of child psychiatry practice both overseas and in Canada. 3. The choice of medication was frequently restricted by lack of availability, and political or social attitudes. 4. A consensus on diagnosis and treatment guidelines in child and adolescent psychiatry remains an important issue.

  14. Chemical markup, XML, and the World Wide Web. 5. Applications of chemical metadata in RSS aggregators.

    PubMed

    Murray-Rust, Peter; Rzepa, Henry S; Williamson, Mark J; Willighagen, Egon L

    2004-01-01

    Examples of the use of the RSS 1.0 (RDF Site Summary) specification together with CML (Chemical Markup Language) to create a metadata based alerting service termed CMLRSS for molecular content are presented. CMLRSS can be viewed either using generic software or with modular opensource chemical viewers and editors enhanced with CMLRSS modules. We discuss the more automated use of CMLRSS as a component of a World Wide Molecular Matrix of semantically rich chemical information.

  15. Multi-dimensional effects of color on the world wide web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Jill

    2002-06-01

    Color is the most powerful building material of visual imagery on the World Wide Web. It must function successfully as it has done historically in traditional two-dimensional media, as well as address new challenges presented by this electronic medium. The psychological, physiological, technical and aesthetic effects of color have been redefined by the unique requirements of the electronic transmission of text and images on the Web. Color simultaneously addresses each of these dimensions in this electronic medium.

  16. ePlant and the 3D Data Display Initiative: Integrative Systems Biology on the World Wide Web

    PubMed Central

    Fucile, Geoffrey; Di Biase, David; Nahal, Hardeep; La, Garon; Khodabandeh, Shokoufeh; Chen, Yani; Easley, Kante; Christendat, Dinesh; Kelley, Lawrence; Provart, Nicholas J.

    2011-01-01

    Visualization tools for biological data are often limited in their ability to interactively integrate data at multiple scales. These computational tools are also typically limited by two-dimensional displays and programmatic implementations that require separate configurations for each of the user's computing devices and recompilation for functional expansion. Towards overcoming these limitations we have developed “ePlant” (http://bar.utoronto.ca/eplant) – a suite of open-source world wide web-based tools for the visualization of large-scale data sets from the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. These tools display data spanning multiple biological scales on interactive three-dimensional models. Currently, ePlant consists of the following modules: a sequence conservation explorer that includes homology relationships and single nucleotide polymorphism data, a protein structure model explorer, a molecular interaction network explorer, a gene product subcellular localization explorer, and a gene expression pattern explorer. The ePlant's protein structure explorer module represents experimentally determined and theoretical structures covering >70% of the Arabidopsis proteome. The ePlant framework is accessed entirely through a web browser, and is therefore platform-independent. It can be applied to any model organism. To facilitate the development of three-dimensional displays of biological data on the world wide web we have established the “3D Data Display Initiative” (http://3ddi.org). PMID:21249219

  17. ePlant and the 3D data display initiative: integrative systems biology on the world wide web.

    PubMed

    Fucile, Geoffrey; Di Biase, David; Nahal, Hardeep; La, Garon; Khodabandeh, Shokoufeh; Chen, Yani; Easley, Kante; Christendat, Dinesh; Kelley, Lawrence; Provart, Nicholas J

    2011-01-10

    Visualization tools for biological data are often limited in their ability to interactively integrate data at multiple scales. These computational tools are also typically limited by two-dimensional displays and programmatic implementations that require separate configurations for each of the user's computing devices and recompilation for functional expansion. Towards overcoming these limitations we have developed "ePlant" (http://bar.utoronto.ca/eplant) - a suite of open-source world wide web-based tools for the visualization of large-scale data sets from the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. These tools display data spanning multiple biological scales on interactive three-dimensional models. Currently, ePlant consists of the following modules: a sequence conservation explorer that includes homology relationships and single nucleotide polymorphism data, a protein structure model explorer, a molecular interaction network explorer, a gene product subcellular localization explorer, and a gene expression pattern explorer. The ePlant's protein structure explorer module represents experimentally determined and theoretical structures covering >70% of the Arabidopsis proteome. The ePlant framework is accessed entirely through a web browser, and is therefore platform-independent. It can be applied to any model organism. To facilitate the development of three-dimensional displays of biological data on the world wide web we have established the "3D Data Display Initiative" (http://3ddi.org).

  18. Embedded Web Technology: Applying World Wide Web Standards to Embedded Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponyik, Joseph G.; York, David W.

    2002-01-01

    Embedded Systems have traditionally been developed in a highly customized manner. The user interface hardware and software along with the interface to the embedded system are typically unique to the system for which they are built, resulting in extra cost to the system in terms of development time and maintenance effort. World Wide Web standards have been developed in the passed ten years with the goal of allowing servers and clients to intemperate seamlessly. The client and server systems can consist of differing hardware and software platforms but the World Wide Web standards allow them to interface without knowing about the details of system at the other end of the interface. Embedded Web Technology is the merging of Embedded Systems with the World Wide Web. Embedded Web Technology decreases the cost of developing and maintaining the user interface by allowing the user to interface to the embedded system through a web browser running on a standard personal computer. Embedded Web Technology can also be used to simplify an Embedded System's internal network.

  19. A Java viewer to publish Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) radiologic images on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Setti, E; Musumeci, R

    2001-06-01

    The world wide web is an exciting service that allows one to publish electronic documents made of text and images on the internet. Client software called a web browser can access these documents, and display and print them. The most popular browsers are currently Microsoft Internet Explorer (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) and Netscape Communicator (Netscape Communications, Mountain View, CA). These browsers can display text in hypertext markup language (HTML) format and images in Joint Photographic Expert Group (JPEG) and Graphic Interchange Format (GIF). Currently, neither browser can display radiologic images in native Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) format. With the aim to publish radiologic images on the internet, we wrote a dedicated Java applet. Our software can display radiologic and histologic images in DICOM, JPEG, and GIF formats, and provides a a number of functions like windowing and magnification lens. The applet is compatible with some web browsers, even the older versions. The software is free and available from the author.

  20. Structure and presentation of a World Wide Web database of CSF virus isolates held at the EU reference laboratory.

    PubMed

    Greiser-Wilke, I; Zimmermann, B; Fritzemeier, J; Floegel, G; Moennig, V

    2000-04-13

    A computerized database was generated with the epidemiological data of more than 600 CSF virus strains and isolates kept in the EU Reference Laboratory for Classical Swine Fever in Hanover. In addition, as sequence data from defined regions of the genome are increasingly being used for genetic typing of new isolates and are thus being published, it was decided to integrate them into the database. In order to make the epidemiological and the sequence data available to other laboratories through the World Wide Web, a searchable web interface was programmed, which can be accessed using an Internet browser like Netscape or Internet Explorer. The possibility to exchange data via the web has the potential to increase our knowledge concerning genetic and epidemiological links between outbreaks worldwide.

  1. Hidden Tree Structure is a Key to the Emergence of Scaling in the World Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Bo-Jin; Wang, Jian-Min; Chen, Gui-Sheng; Jiang, Jian; Shen, Xian-Jun

    2011-01-01

    Preferential attachment is the most popular explanation for the emergence of scaling behavior in the World Wide Web, but this explanation has been challenged by the global information hypothesis, the existence of linear preference and the emergence of new big internet companies in the real world. We notice that most websites have an obvious feature that their pages are organized as a tree (namely hidden tree) and hence propose a new model that introduces a hidden tree structure into the Erdös—Rényi model by adding a new rule: when one node connects to another, it should also connect to all nodes in the path between these two nodes in the hidden tree. The experimental results show that the degree distribution of the generated graphs would obey power law distributions and have variable high clustering coefficients and variable small average lengths of shortest paths. The proposed model provides an alternative explanation to the emergence of scaling in the World Wide Web without the above-mentioned difficulties, and also explains the “preferential attachment" phenomenon.

  2. A guide to population-related home pages on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Malsawma, Z

    1996-10-01

    The number of home pages on the World Wide Web is increasing, and the information they contain is constantly being updated. The Australian National University's Demography and Population Studies World-Wide Web Virtual Library (http://coombs.anu.edu.au/ResFacilities DemographyPage.html) has links to 155 pertinent sites. Some of the outstanding home pages containing population information pertaining to the US or generated by US agencies include that of 1) the US Census Bureau, 2) the US state census data centers, 3) the National Center for Health Statistics, 4) the National Institute on Aging, 5) American Demographics, Inc., 6) the UN Population Information Network, 7) the Demographic and Health Surveys, 8) the Population Reference Bureau, 9) the Population Index, 10) the US Census Bureau's International Programs Center, and 11) POPLINE. International development information can be found by visiting the web sites of 1) the International Institute for Sustainable Development, 2) USAID, 3) the UN Development Programme, and 4) the World Bank. Population Associations which have web sites include 1) the Population Association of America, 2) the Association of Population Libraries and Information Centers-International, and 3) the Association of Population Centers. Collections of population web sites can be found at Internet Resources for Demographers and Population and Reproductive Health. Finally, a directory of population organizations is also available.

  3. AAS Publishing: What Can WorldWide Telescope Do for You?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    During the 227th American Astronomical Society meeting last week in Kissimmee, the AAS announced the exciting news that it will become the new institutional home of Microsofts WorldWide Telescope (WWT) astronomy software.WWT is a scriptable and interactive way of browsing the multi-wavelength sky as it is seen from Earth, and the universe as we would travel within it. WWT can be run either as a desktop app or from within an internet browser. And of interest to researchers especially its an incredibly useful way to visualize and contextualize astronomical data.What does WWTs transition to the AAS as its new host mean? WWT was open-sourced by Microsoft Research last year, and hosting by the AAS will permit broad community involvement in the form of contribution of both code and guidance in WWTs further development.All of this begs the question: why might YOU want to use WWT? That depends on whether your goal is to use it for research, education, or just for fun.WWT for ResearchIfyou thought WWT was just for education and outreach, think again! Here are just a few things you can do with WWT to advance your astronomical research1:1) Put surveys into context, on top of more than 40 different all-sky images, spanning the electromagnetic spectrum.2) Perform literature searches from the sky.3) Compare images and catalogs at different wavelengths, on-the-fly in seconds.4) Show your own online data to the world, in an API that allows users to see it on the sky in their browsers.5) Communicate to colleagues and learners about the sky using interactive tours of your data and ideas.An example of WWT used to perform astronomy research is the recently highlighted work on the bones of the Milky Way, in which the authors used WWT to overlay multiple data sets and visually identify and then search for infrared dark clouds along the predicted positions of Milky Way spiral arms.An example of WWT used to communicate research is given in this paper, wherein a link in the caption of a

  4. Genome-Wide Analysis of Chromatin Accessibility in Arabidopsis Infected with Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed

    Bordiya, Yogendra; Kang, Hong-Gu

    2017-01-01

    Changes in chromatin accessibility are an important aspect of the molecular changes that occur in eukaryotic cells responding to stress, and they appear to play a critical role in stress-induced transcriptional activation/reprogramming and epigenetic changes. In plants, pathogen infection has been shown to induce rapid and drastic transcriptional reprogramming; growing evidence suggests that chromatin remodeling plays an essential role in this phenomenon. The recent development of genomic tools to assess chromatin accessibility presents a significant opportunity to investigate the relationship between chromatin dynamicity and gene expression. In this protocol, we have adopted a popular chromatin accessibility assay, DNase-seq, to measure chromatin accessibility in Arabidopsis infected with the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst). DNase-seq provides information on chromatin accessibility through the sequencing of DNA fragments generated by DNase I digestion of open chromatin, followed by mapping these sequences on a reference genome. Of the two popular DNase-seq approaches, we based our method on the Stamatoyannopoulos protocol, which involves two DNase cleavages rather than a single cleavage, followed by size fractionation. Please note that this two-cleavage approach is widely accepted and has been used extensively by ENCODE (Encyclopedia of DNA Elements) project, a public research consortium investigating cis- and trans-elements in the transcriptional regulation in animal cells. To enhance the quality of the chromatin accessibility assay, we modified this protocol by including two centrifugation steps for nuclear enrichment and size fractionation and an extra washing step for removal of chloroplasts and Pst. The outcomes obtained by this approach are also discussed.

  5. The International Energy Agency`s role in world-wide wind energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Rangi, R.; Ancona, D.

    1997-12-31

    Wind energy is now being deployed world-wide at a rapidly increasing rate and the International Energy Agency (IEA) has a changing role in its growth. IEA was founded in 1974 within the framework of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to collaborate on comprehensive international energy programs. IEA membership consists of eighteen parties from sixteen countries and the European Commission. Recently there has been increasing interest in IEA participation from both OECD and non-OECD countries. Non-OECD countries participating in various IEA Agreements include: China, India, Israel, Korea, and Russia. Because of its diverse international makeup, the IEA is viewed as a source of reliable technical and economic information. The World Bank has approached the Executive Committee for Wind Energy R & D, through the IEA Renewable Energy Working Party, to assist in the expansion of wind deployment. In addition, IEA is moving from R & D programs to include tracking of implementation incentives offered by its members.

  6. Policy Considerations for Enhancing Student Access and Persistence in a World in Which Tuition Keeps Rising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2007-01-01

    The United States no longer leads the world in college completion rates. Inequality in college access rates by income have barely narrowed over the last 25 to 30 years and inequality in college completion rates have narrowed even less. The groups in the population that are growing the most rapidly are those that have historically been…

  7. The semantic architecture of the World-Wide Molecular Matrix (WWMM).

    PubMed

    Murray-Rust, Peter; Adams, Sam E; Downing, Jim; Townsend, Joe A; Zhang, Yong

    2011-10-14

    The World-Wide Molecular Matrix (WWMM) is a ten year project to create a peer-to-peer (P2P) system for the publication and collection of chemical objects, including over 250, 000 molecules. It has now been instantiated in a number of repositories which include data encoded in Chemical Markup Language (CML) and linked by URIs and RDF. The technical specification and implementation is now complete. We discuss the types of architecture required to implement nodes in the WWMM and consider the social issues involved in adoption.

  8. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 2, No. 1. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The Journal of Air Transportation World Wide's (JATWW) mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. Our goal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JATWW will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a key focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  9. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 4, No. 2. Volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The Journal of Air Transportation World Wide's (JATWW) mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. The goal of the Journal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JATWW will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  10. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 5, No. 2. Volume 5, No. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browen, Brent D.

    2000-01-01

    The Journal of Air Transportation World Wide's (JATWW) mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. Our goal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JATWW will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  11. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 3, No. 1. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    The Journal of Air Transportation World Wide's (JATWW) mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. Our goal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JATWW will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  12. The semantic architecture of the World-Wide Molecular Matrix (WWMM)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The World-Wide Molecular Matrix (WWMM) is a ten year project to create a peer-to-peer (P2P) system for the publication and collection of chemical objects, including over 250, 000 molecules. It has now been instantiated in a number of repositories which include data encoded in Chemical Markup Language (CML) and linked by URIs and RDF. The technical specification and implementation is now complete. We discuss the types of architecture required to implement nodes in the WWMM and consider the social issues involved in adoption. PMID:21999475

  13. Secure wide area network access to CMS analysis data using the Lustre filesystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourilkov, D.; Avery, P.; Cheng, M.; Fu, Y.; Kim, B.; Palencia, J.; Budden, R.; Benninger, K.; Rodriquez, J. L.; Dilascio, J.; Dykstra, D.; Seenu, N.

    2012-12-01

    This paper reports the design and implementation of a secure, wide area network (WAN), distributed filesystem by the ExTENCI project (Extending Science Through Enhanced National CyberInfrastructure), based on the Lustre filesystem. The system is used for remote access to analysis data from the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and from the Lattice Quantum ChromoDynamics (LQCD) project. Security is provided by Kerberos authentication and authorization with additional fine grained control based on Lustre ACLs (Access Control List) and quotas. We investigate the impact of using various Kerberos security flavors on the I/O rates of CMS applications on client nodes reading and writing data to the Lustre filesystem, and on LQCD benchmarks. The clients can be real or virtual nodes. We are investigating additional options for user authentication based on user certificates.

  14. Finding Web-Based Anxiety Interventions on the World Wide Web: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Olander, Ellinor K; Ayers, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Background One relatively new and increasingly popular approach of increasing access to treatment is Web-based intervention programs. The advantage of Web-based approaches is the accessibility, affordability, and anonymity of potentially evidence-based treatment. Despite much research evidence on the effectiveness of Web-based interventions for anxiety found in the literature, little is known about what is publically available for potential consumers on the Web. Objective Our aim was to explore what a consumer searching the Web for Web-based intervention options for anxiety-related issues might find. The objectives were to identify currently publically available Web-based intervention programs for anxiety and to synthesize and review these in terms of (1) website characteristics such as credibility and accessibility; (2) intervention program characteristics such as intervention focus, design, and presentation modes; (3) therapeutic elements employed; and (4) published evidence of efficacy. Methods Web keyword searches were carried out on three major search engines (Google, Bing, and Yahoo—UK platforms). For each search, the first 25 hyperlinks were screened for eligible programs. Included were programs that were designed for anxiety symptoms, currently publically accessible on the Web, had an online component, a structured treatment plan, and were available in English. Data were extracted for website characteristics, program characteristics, therapeutic characteristics, as well as empirical evidence. Programs were also evaluated using a 16-point rating tool. Results The search resulted in 34 programs that were eligible for review. A wide variety of programs for anxiety, including specific anxiety disorders, and anxiety in combination with stress, depression, or anger were identified and based predominantly on cognitive behavioral therapy techniques. The majority of websites were rated as credible, secure, and free of advertisement. The majority required users to

  15. Grid data access on widely distributed worker nodes using scalla and SRM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakl, P.; Lauret, J.; Hanushevsky, A.; Shoshani, A.; Sim, A.; Gu, J.

    2008-07-01

    Facing the reality of storage economics, NP experiments such as RHIC/STAR have been engaged in a shift of the analysis model, and now heavily rely on using cheap disks attached to processing nodes, as such a model is extremely beneficial over expensive centralized storage. Additionally, exploiting storage aggregates with enhanced distributed computing capabilities such as dynamic space allocation (lifetime of spaces), file management on shared storages (lifetime of files, pinning file), storage policies or a uniform access to heterogeneous storage solutions is not an easy task. The Xrootd/Scalla system allows for storage aggregation. We will present an overview of the largest deployment of Scalla (Structured Cluster Architecture for Low Latency Access) in the world spanning over 1000 CPUs co-sharing the 350 TB Storage Elements and the experience on how to make such a model work in the RHIC/STAR standard analysis framework. We will explain the key features and approach on how to make access to mass storage (HPSS) possible in such a large deployment context. Furthermore, we will give an overview of a fully 'gridified' solution using the plug-and-play features of Scalla architecture, replacing standard storage access with grid middleware SRM (Storage Resource Manager) components designed for space management and will compare the solution with the standard Scalla approach in use in STAR for the past 2 years. Integration details, future plans and status of development will be explained in the area of best transfer strategy between multiple-choice data pools and best placement with respect of load balancing and interoperability with other SRM aware tools or implementations.

  16. Grid Data Access on Widely Distributed Worker Nodes Using Scalla and SRM

    SciTech Connect

    Jakl, Pavel; Lauret, Jerome; Hanushevsky, Andrew; Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alex; Gu, Junmin; /LBL, Berkeley

    2011-11-10

    Facing the reality of storage economics, NP experiments such as RHIC/STAR have been engaged in a shift of the analysis model, and now heavily rely on using cheap disks attached to processing nodes, as such a model is extremely beneficial over expensive centralized storage. Additionally, exploiting storage aggregates with enhanced distributed computing capabilities such as dynamic space allocation (lifetime of spaces), file management on shared storages (lifetime of files, pinning file), storage policies or a uniform access to heterogeneous storage solutions is not an easy task. The Xrootd/Scalla system allows for storage aggregation. We will present an overview of the largest deployment of Scalla (Structured Cluster Architecture for Low Latency Access) in the world spanning over 1000 CPUs co-sharing the 350 TB Storage Elements and the experience on how to make such a model work in the RHIC/STAR standard analysis framework. We will explain the key features and approach on how to make access to mass storage (HPSS) possible in such a large deployment context. Furthermore, we will give an overview of a fully 'gridified' solution using the plug-and-play features of Scalla architecture, replacing standard storage access with grid middleware SRM (Storage Resource Manager) components designed for space management and will compare the solution with the standard Scalla approach in use in STAR for the past 2 years. Integration details, future plans and status of development will be explained in the area of best transfer strategy between multiple-choice data pools and best placement with respect of load balancing and interoperability with other SRM aware tools or implementations.

  17. Criteria used by nurses to evaluate practice-related information on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Cader, Raffik; Campbell, Steve; Watson, Don

    2003-01-01

    Existing criteria used to evaluate information on the World Wide Web often are not related to nursing, especially in relation to clinical and evidence-based practice. Published criteria have been found orientated to the health-consumer, medicine, or general information. In this study, the process by which nurses evaluate practice-related information and the associated evaluative nursing criteria were investigated using a grounded theory approach. In the first stage of this ongoing investigation, semistructured interviews were used to collect data from UK postregistration nursing students. The findings from this initial study provided indications of the process and the criteria for evaluating information on the World Wide Web. Participating students identified intuition as part of the evaluative process. They identified some criteria similar to existing standards, but critically, with additional criteria that are nursing practice related. Because these new criteria are significant for evaluating nursing information, further refinement of these findings is being undertaken through the next stage of the research program.

  18. World-wide association of timberline forest advance with microsite type along a precipitation gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, A. C.; Yeakley, A.

    2009-12-01

    Timberline forest advance associated with global climate change is occurring worldwide and is often associated with microsites. Microsites, controlled by topography, substrates, and plant cover, are localized regions dictating temperature, moisture, and solar radiation. These abiotic factors are integral to seedling survival. From a compilation of world-wide information on seedling regeneration on microsites at timberline, including our on-going research in the Pacific Northwest, we classified available literature into four microsite categories, related microsite category to annual precipitation, and used analysis of variance to detect statistical differences in microsite type and associated precipitation. We found statistical differences (p = 0.022) indicating the usefulness of understanding microsite/precipitation associations in detecting world-wide trends in timberline expansion. For example, wetter timberlines with downed wood, had regeneration associated with nurse logs, whereas on windy, drier landscapes, regeneration was typically associated with either leeward sides of tree clumps or on microsites protected from frost by overstory canopy. In our study of timberline expansion in the Pacific Northwest, we expect that such knowledge of microsite types associated with forest expansion will reveal a better understanding of mechanisms and rates of timberline forest advance during global warming.

  19. The World Wide Web as a Medium of Instruction: What Works and What Doesn't

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarthy, Marianne; Grabowski, Barbara; Hernandez, Angel; Koszalka, Tiffany; Duke, Lee

    1997-01-01

    A conference was held on March 18-20, 1997 to investigate the lessons learned by the Aeronautics Cooperative Agreement Projects with regard to the most effective strategies for developing instruction for the World Wide Web. The conference was a collaboration among the NASA Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology Centers (Ames, Dryden, Langley, and Lewis), NASA Headquarters, the University of Idaho and The Pennsylvania State University. The conference consisted of presentations by the Aeronautics Cooperative Agreement Teams, the University of Idaho, and working sessions in which the participants addressed teacher training and support, technology, evaluation and pedagogy. The conference was also undertaken as part of the Dryden Learning Technologies Project which is a collaboration between the Dryden Education Office and The Pennsylvania State University. The DFRC Learning Technology Project goals relevant to the conference are as follows: conducting an analysis of current teacher needs, classroom infrastructure and exemplary instructional World Wide Web sites, and developing models for Web-enhanced learning environments that optimize teaching practices and student learning.

  20. Data generation and data visualization using different platform computers in the World Wide Web environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Philip C.

    1997-04-01

    At the IST and SPIE 96 conference, the author reported a successful cooperative visualization case study that involved using an internet web-browser for data dissemination and data visualization applications between the US and Japanese offices. This cooperative visualization effort using computers and the web-browser has been evaluated, and it has pointed the way to the current research involving the use of the World Wide Web environment for real-time simulation and interactive visualization. Since the spring of 1996, the author has been using Fujitsu's new multi-processor supercomputer VPP300 for fast numerical model simulations and data generations. Meanwhile, the web technology has been advancing very quickly, and it now provides many tools and methods for the scientific visualization. In the summer of 1996, the author began to work on a prototype for a real-time supercomputing interactive visualization system based on the available World Wide Web browser tools and a Fujitsu visualization software known as VisLink. The intranet version of this system was completed in December of 1997. Design issues and a case study of the prototype will be discussed in this paper.

  1. Violent ethnic wars and world-wide people movement: implications for mental health nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Procter, N G

    1998-09-01

    In recent years, the world has been subjected to violent ethnic wars for autonomy and secession. Violent conflicts over national and international territorial boundaries are marked by a murderous mistrust, hatred and a perpetual life-and-death struggle in the present. For the mental health nurse, the world-wide persistent global circumstance of international catastrophe and increasing nationalism mediated through war is inextricably linked to practice as well as the significant health and lifestyle concerns of displaced people. Central to the discussion in this paper will be the mechanisms used by the mental health nurse to maintain empathy and clinical excellence during highly sensitive practice issues; in particular, the management of feelings of frustration, anger, guilt, loneliness and sleeplessness, and repeated mental images of suffering and human butchering, because these issues intersect with national and cultural identity. In rising to the challenges these issues present, mental health nursing must co-exist with critical world events and the globalisation of national identity in cultural diversity.

  2. A chemical status predictor. A methodology based on World-Wide sediment samples.

    PubMed

    Gredilla, A; Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo, S; de Diego, A; Arana, G; Stoichev, T; Amigo, J M; Wasserman, J C; Botello, A V; Sarkar, S K; Schäfer, J; Moreno, C; de la Guardia, M; Madariaga, J M

    2015-09-15

    As a consequence of the limited resources of underdeveloped countries and the limited interest of the developed ones, the assessment of the chemical quality of entire water bodies around the world is a utopia in the near future. The methodology described here may serve as a first approach for the fast identification of water bodies that do not meet the good chemical status demanded by the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). It also allows estimating the natural background (or reference values of concentration) of the areas under study using a simple criterion. The starting point is the calculation the World-Wide Natural Background Levels (WWNBLs) and World-Wide Threshold Values (WWTVs), two indexes that depend on the concentration of seven elements present in sediments. These elements, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, have been selected taking into account the recommendations of the UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) and USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency), that describe them as elements of concern with respect to environmental toxicity. The methodology has been exemplified in a case study that includes 134 sediment samples collected in 11 transitional water bodies from 7 different countries and 4 different continents. Six of the water bodies considered met the good chemical status demanded by the WFD. The rest of them exceeded the reference WWTVs, at least for one of the elements. The estuaries of the Nerbioi-Ibaizabal (Basque Country) and Cavado (Portugal), the sea inlet of Río San Pedro (Spain), the Sepetiba Bay (Brazil) and the Yucateco lagoon (Mexico) belong to that group.

  3. WorldWide Telescope: A Newly Open Source Astronomy Visualization System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, Jonathan; Roberts, Douglas A.

    2016-01-01

    After eight years of development by Microsoft Research, WorldWide Telescope (WWT) was made an open source project at the end of June 2015. WWT was motivated by the desire to put new surveys of objects, such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in the context of the night sky. The development of WWT under Microsoft started with the creation of a Windows desktop client that is widely used in various education, outreach and research projects. Using this, users can explore the data built into WWT as well as data that is loaded in. Beyond exploration, WWT can be used to create tours that present various datasets a narrative format.In the past two years, the team developed a collection of web controls, including an HTML5 web client, which contains much of the functionality of the Windows desktop client. The project under Microsoft has deep connections with several user communities such as education through the WWT Ambassadors program, http://wwtambassadors.org/ and with planetariums and museums such as the Adler Planetarium. WWT can also support research, including using WWT to visualize the Bones of the Milky Way and rich connections between WWT and the Astrophysical Data Systems (ADS, http://labs.adsabs.harvard.edu/adsabs/). One important new research connection is the use of WWT to create dynamic and potentially interactive supplements to journal articles, which have been created in 2015.Now WWT is an open source community lead project. The source code is available in GitHub (https://github.com/WorldWideTelescope). There is significant developer documentation on the website (http://worldwidetelescope.org/Developers/) and an extensive developer workshops (http://wwtworkshops.org/?tribe_events=wwt-developer-workshop) has taken place in the fall of 2015.Now that WWT is open source anyone who has the interest in the project can be a contributor. As important as helping out with coding, the project needs people interested in documentation, testing, training and other roles.

  4. Access, availability, and infrastructure deficiency: The current management of thyroid disease in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Fualal, Jane; Ehrenkranz, Joel

    2016-08-26

    Thyroid disease, a neglected tropical disease and the most common noncommunicable disease in the developing world, is overlooked, under-diagnosed, and inadequately managed. The spectrum of thyroid disorders in the developing world is qualitatively different from that found in industrialized countries. This qualitative difference has resulted in limited access to clinical, laboratory, and imaging resources that are necessary for the care of patients with thyroid disease. The management of thyroid disease in the developing world is comparable to the care provided for disorders of the thyroid in North America fifty years ago.This article reviews public health and clinical aspects of developing world medical and surgical thyroid disease. Topics covered include iodine deficiency disorders, congenital hypothyroidism, goiter, thyroid cancer, and hyper- and hypothyroidism. The review concludes with a description of programs based on smartphone technology to improve the availability, affordability, and quality of thyroid disease care.

  5. Internet and World Wide Web-based tools for neuropathology practice and education.

    PubMed

    Fung, Kar-Ming; Tihan, Tarik

    2009-04-01

    The Internet and the World Wide Web (www) serve as a source of information and a communication network. Together they form a so-called web or network that allows for transmission and dissemination of information in unprecedented speed, volume and detail. This article presents an overview of the current status of neuropathology content on the www. As well as considering the Internet as a resource for neuropathology practice, education and research, we also address the issue of quality assurance when evaluating Internet and www content. Four major categories of websites (archival, broker, news and blog) are discussed and resources relevant to neuropathology of each type are highlighted. We believe that our report and similar attempts can provide an opportunity to discuss appropriate and effective use of the Internet by the neuropathology community.

  6. Software Project Management and Measurement on the World-Wide-Web (WWW)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John; Ramakrishnan, Sudhaka

    1996-01-01

    We briefly describe a system for forms-based, work-flow management that helps members of a software development team overcome geographical barriers to collaboration. Our system, called the Web Integrated Software Environment (WISE), is implemented as a World-Wide-Web service that allows for management and measurement of software development projects based on dynamic analysis of change activity in the workflow. WISE tracks issues in a software development process, provides informal communication between the users with different roles, supports to-do lists, and helps in software process improvement. WISE minimizes the time devoted to metrics collection and analysis by providing implicit delivery of messages between users based on the content of project documents. The use of a database in WISE is hidden from the users who view WISE as maintaining a personal 'to-do list' of tasks related to the many projects on which they may play different roles.

  7. The University of Michigan Student Health Physics Society's Radiation and Health Physics World Wide Web Site.

    PubMed

    Dreyer, Jonathan G; West, W Geoffrey; Wagner, Eric; Kearfott, Kimberlee J

    2005-05-01

    The University of Michigan Student Health Physics Society's (UMSHPS) Radiation and Health Physics World Wide Web Site is an informative database of radiation and health physics related topics. With over 1,000 visitors each day, the UMSHPS web site provides professionals and the general public with a valuable resource for information and research. Users of this site can either search for information by topic or submit questions directly to the qualified members the national Health Physics Society. During the past year, progress has been made in replacing the site's older, less versatile framework with new search engines and refined submittal forms, as well as a "Frequently Asked Questions" section. Within the database, references will include brief summaries of the site's available information and target audience. Although these changes have been beneficial for the site, the UMSHPS continuously seeks professional opinions and ideas to further the services that this online resource can provide to the profession and to the general public.

  8. A real time patient monitoring system on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, K.; Kohane, I.; Bradshaw, K. L.; Fackler, J.

    1996-01-01

    World Wide Web (Web) technology has become increasingly popular and successful, because it uses standard communication protocols and Hyper Text Markup Language(HTML), and is supported on multiple platforms. Innovations such as server push, secure socket layer and Java make it possible to use the Web as the basis for creating monitoring systems of dynamic processes. This paper presents a project, whose goal is to develop a Web based Intelligent on-line Monitoring system for Intensive Care Units (IMI). IMI has been tested and evaluated in an intensive care unit since October 1995, and the results are promising. After presenting the motivations of using Web technology, we present the system structure and the functionality of IMI as well as the testing and evaluation results. Security issues are also addressed. PMID:8947761

  9. Information consumerism on the World Wide Web: implications for dermatologists and patients.

    PubMed

    Travers, Robin L

    2002-09-01

    The World Wide Web (WWW) is continuing to grow exponentially both in terms of numbers of users and numbers of web pages. There is a trend toward the increasing use of the WWW for medical educational purposes, both among physicians and patients alike. The multimedia capabilities of this evolving medium are particularly relevant to visual medical specialties such as dermatology. The origins of information consumerism on the WWW are examined, and the public health issues surrounding dermatologic information and misinformation, and how consumers navigate through the WWW are reviewed. The economic realities of medical information as a "capital good," and the impact this has on dermatologic information sources on the WWW are also discussed.Finally, strategies for guiding consumers and ourselves toward credible medical information sources on the WWW are outlined.

  10. Real-Time Payload Control and Monitoring on the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Charles; Windrem, May; Givens, John J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    World Wide Web (W3) technologies such as the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and the Java object-oriented programming environment offer a powerful, yet relatively inexpensive, framework for distributed application software development. This paper describes the design of a real-time payload control and monitoring system that was developed with W3 technologies at NASA Ames Research Center. Based on Java Development Toolkit (JDK) 1.1, the system uses an event-driven "publish and subscribe" approach to inter-process communication and graphical user-interface construction. A C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) compatible inference engine provides the back-end intelligent data processing capability, while Oracle Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) provides the data management function. Preliminary evaluation shows acceptable performance for some classes of payloads, with Java's portability and multimedia support identified as the most significant benefit.

  11. World Wide Web interface to digital imaging and communication in medicine-capable image servers.

    PubMed

    Browning, G C; Liang, Y; Buckwalter, K A; Kruger, R A; Aisen, A

    1996-11-01

    As a trial project, the Indiana University Department of Radiology has develop[ed a low-cost manner of distributing radiological images throughout a medical environment using the World Wide Web (WWW). The interface requires the user to have a WWW-browser client, such as Netscape, running on UNIX, PC, or Macintosh platforms. A forms-based interface allows the user to query several DICOM-capable machines at the machine, patient, study, series, and image levels. Once an image transfer is initiated, images are prewindowed from 16- to 8-bits, compressed using public domain Joint Photographic Expert Group (JPEG) compression routines, transferred to the WWW client program, and decompressed and displayed using a locally selected image viewing program. At the currently implemented level of compression (75% quality), the entire fetch-transform-JPEG-display process takes 2 to 5 seconds over Ethernet, depending on the platform used.

  12. Creating a virtual materials and resources index for health education using the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Weiler, R M

    1996-08-01

    The Internet represents the principal system for distributing information worldwide, offering health educators a powerful communications medium. This article describes an assignment that teaches students how to use the World Wide Web (WWW). The first part provides an overview of the Internet, its principal services. browser software, and Netscape Navigator. The second part describes the assignment, complete with instructional objectives, computer facilities used to implement the strategy, and a summary of classroom and laboratory activities. The third part describes procedures for teaching students how to use the WWW. Students learn how to explore the WWW and to develop a customized virtual directory of health materials and resources using Netscape Navigator Bookmark tools. Recommendations on how the approach can be modified are offered.

  13. A perception experiment with time-critical graphics animation on the World-Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Hecht, H; Oesker, M; Kaiser, A; Civelek, H; Stecker, T

    1999-08-01

    The World-Wide Web offers a potentially interesting tool to collect data from a large and heterogeneous audience. While questionnaires have become rather common on the Internet, its potential reaches far beyond text processing. In principle, it is possible not only to perform interactive, dynamic experiments on the Web, but also to include graphical animation and time-critical responses, such as reaction times. We implemented a visual motion extrapolation task on the Web using the programming language Java, which can be interpreted by standard Web browsers such as Netscape or Internet Explorer. The data collected with this method turned out to be reliable and differed little from data obtained in a controlled laboratory setting, with the exception of conditions with fixation instruction. Thus, the Web can, generally speaking, be used for data collection of large sample sizes. The strengths and weaknesses of dynamic visual simulation experiments on the Internet are discussed.

  14. Development and validation of a World-Wide-Web-based neurocognitive assessment battery: WebNeuro.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Steven M; Berten, Sarah; Olson, Patricia; Paul, Robert; Willams, Leanne M; Cooper, Nicholas; Gordon, Evian

    2007-11-01

    Assessment of neurocognitive functioning is a critical task in many clinical, educational, service, and industrial settings. We report on descriptive and validation data of a new, World-Wide-Web-based, comprehensive battery of neurocognitive functioning, WebNeuro, that can be used in both applied and research contexts. Fifty healthy control participants completed both WebNeuro, and an established non-Internet-based computerized cognitive assessment battery, IntegNeuro, that uses a touchscreen platform. Results indicated comparability across the two batteries, in terms of critical single test scores, factor analysis derived indices,overall performance scores, and sex differences. These results support the validity of WebNeuro as a neurocognitive assessment measure. Advantages of its use in applied and research settings are discussed.

  15. Hierarchical structure of mitochondrial DNA gene flow among humpback whales Megaptera novaeangliae, world-wide.

    PubMed

    Baker, C S; Slade, R W; Bannister, J L; Abernethy, R B; Weinrich, M T; Lien, J; Urban, J; Corkeron, P; Calmabokidis, J; Vasquez, O

    1994-08-01

    The genetic structure of humpback whale populations and subpopulation divisions is described by restriction fragment length analysis of the mitochondrial (mt) DNA from samples of 230 whales collected by biopsy darting in 11 seasonal habitats representing six subpopulations, or 'stocks', world-wide. The hierarchical structure of mtDNA haplotype diversity among population subdivisions is described using the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) procedure, the analysis of gene identity, and the genealogical relationship of haplotypes as constructed by parsimony analysis and distance clustering. These analyses revealed: (i) significant partitioning of world-wide genetic variation among oceanic populations, among subpopulations or 'stocks' within oceanic populations and among seasonal habitats within stocks; (ii) fixed categorical segregation of haplotypes on the south-eastern Alaska and central California feeding grounds of the North Pacific; (iii) support for the division of the North Pacific population into a central stock which feeds in Alaska and winters in Hawaii, and an eastern or 'American' stock which feeds along the coast of California and winters near Mexico; (iv) evidence of genetic heterogeneity within the Gulf of Maine feeding grounds and among the sampled feeding and breeding grounds of the western North Atlantic; and (v) support for the historical division between the Group IV (Western Australia) and Group V (eastern Australia, New Zealand and Tonga) stocks in the Southern Oceans. Overall, our results demonstrate a striking degree of genetic structure both within and between oceanic populations of humpback whales, despite the nearly unlimited migratory potential of this species. We suggest that the humpback whale is a suitable demographic and genetic model for the management of less tractable species of baleen whales and for the general study of gene flow among long-lived, mobile vertebrates in the marine ecosystem.

  16. Influenza H1N1 and the world wide economic crisis--a model of coherence?

    PubMed

    Sperling, W; Biermann, T

    2009-11-01

    A recent published model described the phenomenon of a global panic reaction (GPR) on the stock markets based on two remarkable stock market crashes in the months of January and March [Sperling W, Bleich S, Reulbach U, Black Monday on stock markets throughout the world - a new phenomenon of collective panic disorder? A psychiatric approach. Med Hypotheses; 2008]. This model was completed by a therapeutic approach following typical elements of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) [Sperling W, Biermann T, Maler JM, Global panic reaction - a therapeutic approach to a world-wide economic crisis. Med Hypotheses; 2009]. The phenomenon of a global panic reaction due to economic crises seems to have even larger implications on human health as well. It is well known that acute and chronic distress is competent to suppress the immune system by various mechanisms that are discussed in detail. This global panic reaction - that has also been observed in former times - might therefore be responsible for the new variation of recent influenza pandemic coming from Mexico.

  17. Seven Years of World-Wide Participation in International Observe the Moon Night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Jones, Andrea J.; Bleacher, Lora; Wenger, Matthew; Shaner, Andrew; Joseph, Emily C. S.; Day, Brian; Canipe, Marti; InOMN Coordinating Committee

    2016-10-01

    International Observe the Moon Night (InOMN) is an annual worldwide public event that encourages observation, appreciation, and understanding of our Moon and its connection to NASA planetary science and exploration. Everyone on Earth is invited to join the celebration by hosting or attending an InOMN event - and uniting on one day each year to look at and learn about the Moon together. This year marks the seventh year of InOMN, which will be held on October 8, 2016. Between 2010 and 2015, a total of 3,275 events were registered worldwide, 49% of which were held in the United States. In 2015, a total of 545 events were registered on the InOMN website from around the world. These events were scheduled to be held in 54 different countries, 43% of which were registered in the United States from 40 states and the District of Columbia. InOMN events are hosted by a variety of institutions including astronomy clubs, observatories, schools, and universities and hosted at a variety of public and private institutions all over the world including museums, planetaria, schools, universities, observatories, parks, and private businesses and private homes. Evaluation of InOMN is led by the Planetary Science Institute who assesses the success of InOMN through analysis of event registrations, facilitator surveys, and visitor survey. Current InOMN efforts demonstrate success in meeting the overall goals of the LRO E/PO goals including raising visitors' awareness of lunar science and exploration, providing audiences with information about lunar science and exploration along with access to LRO data and science results, and inspiring visitors to want to learn more about the Moon and providing connections to opportunities to do so. InOMN is sponsored by NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI), and the Lunar and Planetary Institute. Learn more at http://observethemoonnight.org/.

  18. Use of the World Wide Web in Lower-Division Chemistry Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Karen E.; Stevens, Richard E.

    1996-10-01

    Recent articles have identified the plethora of chemical information existing currently on the World-Wide Web (WWW) available via the Internet (1). This information medium is particularly valuable because it represents a very up-to-date source of information. Site managers can update information and it can be "instantaneously visited" by someone. As an example, several current topics of chemical significance were highlighted in a nonmajor chemistry class held in January 1996 at our college. December 31, 1995, represented the last day that leaded gasoline could be sold for use in automobiles. In early January, the FDA approved the synthetic fat olestra for use in snack foods. Both of these topics provoked great interest in students as they brought up issues of relevance and interest to their lives that were currently being discussed in the news. The WWW was utilized extensively as a source of information and current updates. Print media, such as texts and reference manuals, have a much longer "lag-time" before current information can be typeset, printed, and accessed by a researcher. Previous articles (1, 2) have focused on Internet use for upper-division classes, but we have found a useful way to bring the Internet into nonmajor and freshman level classes composed of 20-50 students. The student assignment was to find information on a chemical topic currently in the news by using the WWW and use that information to write a 2-3 page essay (3, 4). Using the Internet to find information presents one issue not previously encountered when using encyclopedias, reference books, or textbooks, but an issue raised in previous editorials in this Journal (5, 6). That difference is that virtually anyone can post information on the WWW. Thus, the WWW can have governmental organizations, environmental groups, large corporations, or just individuals posting their views. Hence, when searching a particular topic, students might find a very factual article, or they might find a very

  19. Open access resources for genome-wide association mapping in rice

    PubMed Central

    McCouch, Susan R.; Wright, Mark H.; Tung, Chih-Wei; Maron, Lyza G.; McNally, Kenneth L.; Fitzgerald, Melissa; Singh, Namrata; DeClerck, Genevieve; Agosto-Perez, Francisco; Korniliev, Pavel; Greenberg, Anthony J.; Naredo, Ma. Elizabeth B.; Mercado, Sheila Mae Q.; Harrington, Sandra E.; Shi, Yuxin; Branchini, Darcy A.; Kuser-Falcão, Paula R.; Leung, Hei; Ebana, Kowaru; Yano, Masahiro; Eizenga, Georgia; McClung, Anna; Mezey, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Increasing food production is essential to meet the demands of a growing human population, with its rising income levels and nutritional expectations. To address the demand, plant breeders seek new sources of genetic variation to enhance the productivity, sustainability and resilience of crop varieties. Here we launch a high-resolution, open-access research platform to facilitate genome-wide association mapping in rice, a staple food crop. The platform provides an immortal collection of diverse germplasm, a high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism data set tailored for gene discovery, well-documented analytical strategies, and a suite of bioinformatics resources to facilitate biological interpretation. Using grain length, we demonstrate the power and resolution of our new high-density rice array, the accompanying genotypic data set, and an expanded diversity panel for detecting major and minor effect QTLs and subpopulation-specific alleles, with immediate implications for rice improvement. PMID:26842267

  20. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) pairs associated with World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanbro, Matthew; Briggs, Michael

    2016-04-01

    We present Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flash (TGF) pairs detected with the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on the Fermi Space Telescope and associated sferics from the World Wide Lightning Network (WWLLN). Several improvements have been made to the GBM TGF detection algorithms since launch in 2008, which have increased the rate of TGFs to ~800 a year. The improved TGF detection algorithms have also uncovered more TGFs within 200 s of each other. There are ~600 unique TGFs with a wide range of time separations. One question is whether a pair originates from the same thunderstorm or from different storms in a storm system. Detecting multiple TGFs from a single storm and their separation in time provides a measure of the electric charging timescales involved in the production of TGFs within a storm. With only gamma-ray detections, this question is difficult to answer since GBM detects TGFs up to 800 km from the nadir of Fermi. If WWLLN sferics are found for both TGFs of a pair, the improved localization uncertainty (<25km) allows us to better answer this question. We present TGF pairs that match this criteria. These pairs are temporally separated by milliseconds to ~180 s.

  1. The Culture-Transmission Motive in Immigrants: A World-Wide Internet Survey.

    PubMed

    Mchitarjan, Irina; Reisenzein, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    A world-wide internet survey was conducted to test central assumptions of a recent theory of cultural transmission in minorities proposed by the authors. 844 1st to 2nd generation immigrants from a wide variety of countries recruited on a microjob platform completed a questionnaire designed to test eight hypotheses derived from the theory. Support was obtained for all hypotheses. In particular, evidence was obtained for the continued presence, in the immigrants, of the culture-transmission motive postulated by the theory: the desire to maintain the culture of origin and transmit it to the next generation. Support was also obtained for the hypothesized anchoring of the culture-transmission motive in more basic motives fulfilled by cultural groups, the relative intra- and intergenerational stability of the culture-transmission motive, and its motivating effects for action tendencies and desires that support cultural transmission under the difficult conditions of migration. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the assumption that people have a culture-transmission motive belongs to the folk psychology of sociocultural groups, and that immigrants regard the fulfillment of this desire as a moral right.

  2. The Culture-Transmission Motive in Immigrants: A World-Wide Internet Survey

    PubMed Central

    Mchitarjan, Irina; Reisenzein, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    A world-wide internet survey was conducted to test central assumptions of a recent theory of cultural transmission in minorities proposed by the authors. 844 1st to 2nd generation immigrants from a wide variety of countries recruited on a microjob platform completed a questionnaire designed to test eight hypotheses derived from the theory. Support was obtained for all hypotheses. In particular, evidence was obtained for the continued presence, in the immigrants, of the culture-transmission motive postulated by the theory: the desire to maintain the culture of origin and transmit it to the next generation. Support was also obtained for the hypothesized anchoring of the culture-transmission motive in more basic motives fulfilled by cultural groups, the relative intra- and intergenerational stability of the culture-transmission motive, and its motivating effects for action tendencies and desires that support cultural transmission under the difficult conditions of migration. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the assumption that people have a culture-transmission motive belongs to the folk psychology of sociocultural groups, and that immigrants regard the fulfillment of this desire as a moral right. PMID:26529599

  3. Venomics of New World pit vipers: Genus-wide comparisons of venom proteomes across Agkistrodon

    PubMed Central

    Lomonte, Bruno; Tsai, Wan-Chih; Ureña-Diaz, Juan Manuel; Sanz, Libia; Mora-Obando, Diana; Sánchez, Elda E.; Fry, Bryan G.; Gutiérrez, José María; Gibbs, H. Lisle; Sovic, Michael G.; Calvete, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    We report a genus-wide comparison of venom proteome variation across New World pit vipers in the genus Agkistrodon. Despite the wide variety of habitats occupied by this genus and that all its taxa feed on diverse species of vertebrates and invertebrate prey, the venom proteomes of copperheads, cottonmouths, and cantils are remarkably similar, both in the type and relative abundance of their different toxin families. The venoms from all the eleven species and subspecies sampled showed relatively similar proteolytic and PLA2 activities. In contrast, quantitative differences were observed in hemorrhagic and myotoxic activities in mice. The highest myotoxic activity was observed with the venoms of A. b. bilineatus, followed by A. p. piscivorus, whereas the venoms of A. c. contortrix and A. p. leucostoma induced the lowest myotoxic activity. The venoms of Agkistrodon bilineatus subspecies showed the highest hemorrhagic activity and A. c. contortrix the lowest. Compositional and toxicological analyses agree with clinical observations of envenomations by Agkistrodon in the USA and Central America. A comparative analysis of Agkistrodon shows that venom divergence tracks phylogeny of this genus to a greater extent than in Sistrurus rattlesnakes, suggesting that the distinct natural histories of Agkistrodon and Sistrurus clades may have played a key role in molding the patterns of evolution of their venom protein genes. Biological significance A deep understanding of the structural and functional profiles of venoms and of the principles governing the evolution of venomous systems is a goal of venomics. Isolated proteomics analyses have been conducted on venoms from many species of vipers and pit vipers. However, making sense of these large inventories of data requires the integration of this information across multiple species to identify evolutionary and ecological trends. Our genus-wide venomics study provides a comprehensive overview of the toxic arsenal across

  4. An interactive gamma-ray burst educational text for the world wide-web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horack, John M.; Rizvi, Sherene; Friend, Labraunna

    1996-08-01

    In order to strengthen education and scientific literacy among the general public, it is important to communicate the results NASA has obtained, as well as the excitement of doing world-class science. The NASA Strategic Plan specifically mandates that new opportunities and pathways be found to disseminate scientific information for consumption by the general public. We therefore announce the release of A Major League Puzzle, an interactive educational text for the WWW. A Major League Puzzle is a seven-chapter introduction to the gamma-ray burst phenomenon presented to the user through the paradigms of baseball. This resource is intended for the general public who are interested in but have not received specific training in the sciences, and is targeted to reach students at the high-school level. Using a Web-browser program such as Netscape or Mosaic, A Major League Puzzle can be accessed at ``http://wwwssl.msfc.nasa.gov/ssl/pad/astro/batse/foreword.htm.'' This work is one product of the Summer High School Apprenticeship Research Program (SHARP) conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center in the Summer of 1995.

  5. Identifying the causes of water crises: A configurational frequency analysis of 22 basins world wide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, V.; Gorelick, S.; Lambin, E.; Rozelle, S.; Thompson, B.

    2010-12-01

    Freshwater "scarcity" has been identified as being a major problem world-wide, but it is surprisingly hard to assess if water is truly scarce at a global or even regional scale. Most empirical water research remains location specific. Characterizing water problems, transferring lessons across regions, to develop a synthesized global view of water issues remains a challenge. In this study we attempt a systematic understanding of water problems across regions. We compared case studies of basins across different regions of the world using configurational frequency analysis. Because water crises are multi-symptom and multi-causal, a major challenge was to categorize water problems so as to make comparisons across cases meaningful. In this study, we focused strictly on water unsustainability, viz. the inability to sustain current levels of the anthropogenic (drinking water, food, power, livelihood) and natural (aquatic species, wetlands) into the future. For each case, the causes of three outcome variables, groundwater declines, surface water declines and aquatic ecosystem declines, were classified and coded. We conducted a meta-analysis in which clusters of peer-reviewed papers by interdisciplinary teams were considered to ensure that the results were not biased towards factors privileged by any one discipline. Based on our final sample of 22 case study river basins, some clear patterns emerged. The meta-analysis suggests that water resources managers have long overemphasized the factors governing supply of water resources and while insufficient attention has been paid to the factors driving demand. Overall, uncontrolled increase in demand was twice as frequent as declines in availability due to climate change or decreased recharge. Moreover, groundwater and surface water declines showed distinct causal pathways. Uncontrolled increases in demand due to lack of credible enforcement were a key factor driving groundwater declines; while increased upstream abstractions

  6. Visualizing Moon Phases in the Classroom with WorldWide Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udomprasert, Patricia S.; Goodman, A. A.; Sunbury, S.; Zhang, Z.; Sadler, P. M.; Dussault, M. E.; Lotridge, E.; Jackson, J.; Constantin, A.

    2014-01-01

    We report results from an NSF-funded project to build, test, and research the impact of a WorldWide Telescope Visualization Lab (WWT Vizlab), meant to offer learners a deeper physical understanding of the causes of the Moon’s phases and eclipses. The Moon Phases VizLab is designed to promote accurate visualization of the complex, 3-dimensional Earth-Sun-Moon relationships required to understand the Moon’s phases, while also providing opportunities for middle school students to practice critical science skills, like using models, making predictions and observations, and linking them in evidence-based explanations. In the Moon Phases VizLab, students use both computer-based models and lamp + ball physical models. The VizLab emphasizes the use of different scales in models, why some models are to scale and some are not, and how choices we make in a model can sometimes inadvertently lead to misconceptions. For example, textbook images almost always depict the Earth and Moon as being vastly too close together, and this contributes to the common misconception that the Moon’s phases are caused by the Earth’s shadow. We tested the Moon Phases VizLab in two separate phases. In Phase 1 (fall 2012), we compared learning gains from the WorldWide Telescope (WWT) VizLab with a traditional 2-dimensional Moon phases simulator. Students in this study who used WWT had overall higher learning gains than students who used the traditional 2D simulator, and demonstrated greater enthusiasm for using the virtual model than students who used the 2D simulator. In Phase 2 (spring 2013), all students in the study used WWT for the virtual model, but we experimented with different sequencing of physical and virtual models in the classroom. We found that students who began the unit with higher prior knowledge of Moon phases (based on the pre-unit assessment) had overall higher learning gains when they used the virtual model first, followed by the physical model, while students who had

  7. World-Wide and Regional Examination of Substrates Facilitating Timberline Expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, A. C.; Yeakley, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    Upward advance of timberlines, associated with climate warming, is occurring in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) as well as many other mountainous regions of the world. Examination of seedling establishment and survival of sensitive seedlings, rather than examination of older resilient trees, may give a clearer understanding of current climatic factors affecting potential expansion of timberline. Our investigation of seedling establishment along timberline edges in the PNW indicates that trees often germinate on small landforms known as microsites. Microsites include small convexities or concavities on the soil surface having a scale of centimeters to meters, but also include associations with slope, aspect, rocks or plants, or substrates dominated by mineral soil or wood. Growing on favorable microsites helps seedlings cope with some of the stresses that exist at high elevation sites including wind, cold temperatures, high radiation, drought, animal predation, and infestation by fungal pathogens found in snow and soil. Microsites, by providing warmer substrates, adequate moisture, and shelter, allow plants to function more affectively in mountain environments. Our summary of microsite type and associated timberline advance in a world-wide context indicates that factors such as snow accumulation, summer rainfall, and availability of microsites, will control timberline advance. In windswept timberline locations, rocks and plants provide shelter from wind and reduce the likelihood of night frost. In arid climates, concave microsites aid in snow deposition providing needed moisture to seedlings during periods of drought. In contrast, convex microsites and wood substrates, typical sites of regeneration in the PNW where precipitation typically exceeds 150 cm per year, facilitate early snow melt, thereby increasing growing season. Large trees at the edge of timberline fall into alpine meadows, decay, and provide sites for seedling establishment. These sites commonly called

  8. Testing Quantum Models of Conjunction Fallacy on the World Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aerts, Diederik; Arguëlles, Jonito Aerts; Beltran, Lester; Beltran, Lyneth; de Bianchi, Massimiliano Sassoli; Sozzo, Sandro; Veloz, Tomas

    2017-01-01

    The `conjunction fallacy' has been extensively debated by scholars in cognitive science and, in recent times, the discussion has been enriched by the proposal of modeling the fallacy using the quantum formalism. Two major quantum approaches have been put forward: the first assumes that respondents use a two-step sequential reasoning and that the fallacy results from the presence of `question order effects'; the second assumes that respondents evaluate the cognitive situation as a whole and that the fallacy results from the `emergence of new meanings', as an `effect of overextension' in the conceptual conjunction. Thus, the question arises as to determine whether and to what extent conjunction fallacies would result from `order effects' or, instead, from `emergence effects'. To help clarify this situation, we propose to use the World Wide Web as an `information space' that can be interrogated both in a sequential and non-sequential way, to test these two quantum approaches. We find that `emergence effects', and not `order effects', should be considered the main cognitive mechanism producing the observed conjunction fallacies.

  9. Measurement issues related to data collection on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Ora L; Moloney, Margaret F; Dietrich, Alexa S; Myerburg, Stuart; Cotsonis, George A; Johnson, Robert V

    2003-01-01

    As the World Wide Web has become more prominent as a mode of communication, it has opened up new possibilities for research data collection. This article identifies measurement issues that occur with Internet data collection that are relevant to qualitative and quantitative research approaches as they occurred in a triangulated Internet study of perimenopausal women with migraine headaches. Issues associated with quantitative data collection over the Internet include (a) selecting and designing Internet data collection protocols that adequately address study aims while also taking advantage of the Internet, (b) ensuring the reliability and validity of Internet data collected, (c) adapting quantitative paper-and-pencil data collection protocols for the Internet, (d) making Internet data collection practical for respondents and researchers, and (e) ensuring the quality of quantitative data collected. Qualitative data collection over the Internet needs to remain true to the philosophical stance of the qualitative approach selected. Researcher expertise in qualitative data collection must be combined with expertise in computer technology and information services if data are to be of ultimate quality The advantages and limitations of collecting qualitative data in real time or at a later time are explored, as well as approaches to enhance qualitative data collection over the Internet. It was concluded that like any research approach or method, Internet data collection requires considerable creativity, expertise, and planning to take advantage of the technology for the collection of reliable and valid research data.

  10. Teaching literature searching in the context of the World Wide Web.

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, K. A.; Lehmann, H. P.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the required curriculum for medical students, we devised a literature-searching practicum that has been used for two years. In both years, we stressed going beyond the skills needed for using a particular searching program, towards a more conceptual approach to information searching. In the first year, the practicum was taught in a traditional lecture/hands-on format. In the second year, the lecture was replaced by a World Wide Web-based tutorial (http:@www.welch.jhu.edu/Education/tutorials/pra cticum.html). To our knowledge, this is the first Web-based resource intended to teach students about appropriate use of search technology. Comparison of student evaluations showed no difference in attitude toward the two versions of the practicum, and observation of student performance suggested similar levels of proficiency. We conclude that placing these educational materials on the Web (1) makes us practice what we preach; (2) is as effective as traditional teaching methods; and (3) gives students a resource for reinforcement learning. PMID:8563420

  11. Content-based image retrieval in the World Wide Web: a web agent for fetching portraits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muenkelt, Olaf; Kaufmann, Oliver; Eckstein, Wolfgang

    1997-01-01

    This article propose a way to automatically retrieve images from the world-wide-web using a semantic description for images and an agent concept for the retrieval of images. The system represents image in a textual way, e.g. look for a portrait of the a specific person, or fetch an image showing a countryside in Southern California. This textual descriptions are fed in search machines, e.g. yahoo, alta- vista. The resulting html documents are seeked for links. The next step subsequently processes each link by fetching the document other the net, converting it to an ascii representation, and performing a full text search by using the image description. This leads to starting points of images which are retrieved via a web-agent. The image descriptions are decomposed in a set of parts containing image operations which are further processed, e.g. a set for representing the background of a portrait tries to find a homogeneous region in the image because this is likely to find in a portrait. Additional operations are performed on the foreground, i.e. the image region which contains e.g. the face of a person. The system is realized using two C++ libraries: one for building up web-agents, LIWA++, and one for processing images, HORUS.

  12. World-wide genetic differentiation of Eubalaena: questioning the number of right whale species.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, H C; Brownell, R L; Brown, M W; Schaeff, C; Portway, V; White, B N; Malik, S; Pastene, L A; Patenaude, N J; Baker, C S; Goto, M; Best, P B; Clapham, P J; Hamilton, P; Moore, M; Payne, R; Rowntree, V; Tynan, C T; Bannister, J L; DeSalle, R

    2000-11-01

    Few studies have examined systematic relationships of right whales (Eubalaena spp.) since the original species descriptions, even though they are one of the most endangered large whales. Little morphological evidence exists to support the current species designations for Eubalaena glacialis in the northern hemisphere and E. australis in the southern hemisphere. Differences in migratory behaviour or antitropical distribution between right whales in each hemisphere are considered a barrier to gene flow and maintain the current species distinctions and geographical populations. However, these distinctions between populations have remained controversial and no study has included an analysis of all right whales from the three major ocean basins. To address issues of genetic differentiation and relationships among right whales, we have compiled a database of mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from right whales representing populations in all three ocean basins that consist of: western North Atlantic E. glacialis, multiple geographically distributed populations of E. australis and the first molecular analysis of historical and recent samples of E. glacialis from the western and eastern North Pacific Ocean. Diagnostic characters, as well as phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses, support the possibility that three distinct maternal lineages exist in right whales, with North Pacific E. glacialis being more closely related to E. australis than to North Atlantic E. glacialis. Our genetic results provide unequivocal character support for the two usually recognized species and a third distinct genetic lineage in the North Pacific under the Phylogenetic Species Concept, as well as levels of genetic diversity among right whales world-wide.

  13. A Computing Environment to Support Repeatable Scientific Big Data Experimentation of World-Wide Scientific Literature

    SciTech Connect

    Schlicher, Bob G; Kulesz, James J; Abercrombie, Robert K; Kruse, Kara L

    2015-01-01

    A principal tenant of the scientific method is that experiments must be repeatable and relies on ceteris paribus (i.e., all other things being equal). As a scientific community, involved in data sciences, we must investigate ways to establish an environment where experiments can be repeated. We can no longer allude to where the data comes from, we must add rigor to the data collection and management process from which our analysis is conducted. This paper describes a computing environment to support repeatable scientific big data experimentation of world-wide scientific literature, and recommends a system that is housed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in order to provide value to investigators from government agencies, academic institutions, and industry entities. The described computing environment also adheres to the recently instituted digital data management plan mandated by multiple US government agencies, which involves all stages of the digital data life cycle including capture, analysis, sharing, and preservation. It particularly focuses on the sharing and preservation of digital research data. The details of this computing environment are explained within the context of cloud services by the three layer classification of Software as a Service , Platform as a Service , and Infrastructure as a Service .

  14. [Advanced radiation therapy project for cancer treatment--from Hokkaido to the world, the world access to Hokkaido].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Shinichi; Tsuchiya, Kazuhiko; Takao, Seishin; Shirato, Hiroki

    2014-05-01

    Cancer is the most major cause of death in Japan recently. In this symposium, we explained advanced treatment technology for cancer treatment, now used and that will be used in near future at the Hokkaido University Hospital. Intensity Moderated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) and Proton Beam Therapy (PBT) are considered to be the most promising and advanced technologies for cancer treatment. Various kinds of radiation treatment equipment and methods have been developed and constructed at the Hokkaido University. One of the most worlds wide famous one is the real time tumor tracking radiotherapy system. The FIRST (Funding for World-Leading Innovative R&D on Science and Technology) Program has been supporting us to produce cutting-edge technology. We hope that this symposium would help the audience to understand the latest technology for cancer treatment especially in the field of radiation therapy and also we wish the audience would recognize the importance of the research aspect that have been performed at Hokkaido University and its Hospital.

  15. Real-World Data: Policy Issues Regarding their Access and Use.

    PubMed

    Basu, Anirban; Axelsen, Kirsten; Grabowski, David C; Meltzer, David O; Polsky, Daniel; Ridley, David B; Wiederkehr, Daniel; Philipson, Tomas J

    2016-12-01

    As real-world data (RWD) in health care begin to cross over to the Big Data realms, a panel of health economists was gathered to establish how well the current US policy environment further the goals of RWD and, if not, what can be done to improve matters. This report summarizes these discussions spanning the current US landscape of RWD availability and usefulness, private versus public development of RWD assets, the current inherent bias in terms of access to RWD, and guiding principles in providing quality assessments of new RWD studies. Three main conclusions emerge: (1) a business case is often required to incentivize investments in RWD assets. However, access restrictions for public data assets have failed to generate a proper market for these data and hence may have led to an underinvestment of public RWDs; (2) Very weak empirical evidence exist on for-profit entities misusing public RWD data entities to further their own agendas, which is the basis for supporting access restrictions of public RWD data; and (3) perhaps developing standardized metrics that could flag misuse of RWDs in an efficient way could help quell some of the fear of sharing public RWD assets with for-profit entities. It is hoped that these discussions and conclusions would pave the way for more rigorous and timely debates on the greater availability and accessibility of RWD assets.

  16. World-wide interactive access to scientific databases via satellite and terrestrial data network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanderson, T. R.; Albrecht, M. A.; Ciarlo, A.; Brett, M.; Blank, K.; Hughes, P. M. T.; Wallum, G.; Hills, H. K.; Green, J. L.; Mcguire, R. E.; Kamei, T.; Kiplinger, A.; Waite, J. H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the possibilities for scientific networking and data transfer, a first temporary satellite network link was installed between Czecholovakia and the European space operations center in Darmstadt, during the meeting of the inter-agency consultative group for space science in Prague. Several experiments to show interactive nature of the facility and the capability of the system were carried out, and it was proven that, despite the temporary nature of the installation, the planned demonstrations could be conducted in real time. Demonstrations included electronic mail message, orbit prediction and solar X-ray data. The results of the experiment provided insight into possibilities of data exchange.

  17. The Social Validation of Institutional Indicators to Promote System-Wide Web Accessibility in Postsecondary Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mariger, Heather Ann

    2011-01-01

    The Internet is an integral part of higher education today. Students, faculty, and staff must have access to the institutional web for essential activities. For persons with disabilities, the web is a double-edged sword. While an accessibly designed website can mitigate or remove barriers, an inaccessible one can make access impossible. If…

  18. Test and Calibration of the Digital World-Wide Standardized Seismograph

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Jon; Hutt, Charles R.

    1982-01-01

    BACKGROUND During the past decade there has been steady progress in the modernization of the global seismograph network operated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The World-Wide Standardized Seismograph Network (WWSSN) has been augmented by new stations with advanced instrumentation, including the Seismic Research Observatories (SRO) and the modified High-Gain Long-Period (ASRO) stations. One goal in the modernization effort has been to improve signal resolution in the long-period band. A second goal has been to generate a global digital data base to support contemporary computer-based analysis and research. In 1976, a Panel on Seismograph Networks was established by the Committee on Seismology of the National Academy of Sciences to review progress in network seismology and recommend actions that would lead to an improved global data base for seismology. One recommendation in the Panel report (Engdahl, 1977) called for upgrading selected WWSSN stations by the installation of digital recorders. This was viewed as an economical way of expanding the digital network, which had proven itself to be a very promising new tool for earthquake and explosion research. Funds for the development and assembly of 15 digital recorders were provided to the USGS by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and an ad hoc panel of scientists was convened by the Committee on Seismology to advise the USGS on the selection of stations to be upgraded and on data recording requirements. A total of 19 digital World-Wide Standardized Seismograph (DWWSS) systems will be operational when all are installed. The additional systems were made available through purchase by the USGS and other organizations; for example, the University of Bergen purchased and installed a DWWSS-type recorder and agreed to furnish the USGS with the data. A list of operational and planned DWWSS network stations is given in Table 1.1. As one might expect, the digital recorder turned out to be somewhat more

  19. Online data collection with special populations over the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Marcell, M M; Falls, A L

    2001-10-01

    The quick ascendance of the World Wide Web as the dominant vehicle for internet communication has recently made experimentation in a multimedia environment feasible on the Internet. Although web sites containing online psychology demonstrations and experiments for non-handicapped individuals have appeared in recent years (especially in the areas of cognitive and social psychology), there appear to have been few attempts to conduct online experimentation with special populations. We recently completed two online pilot studies of families with Down syndrome or Williams syndrome members: a) A survey that asks (via Likert rating scales, adjective checklists, multiple-choice style questions, and text-entry boxes) about family background, computer use, and temperament of the special needs family member; and b) An experiment (completed by an individual with special needs) that includes auditory and visual digit span tasks and a memory-for-orientation task in which responses are entered via mouse clicks. Recruiting began with e-mail announcements to representative Down syndrome and Williams syndrome discussion groups, listserves, and bulletin boards, and submission of the project's URL (http://www.cofc.edu/~marcellm/testaw.htm) and key indexing terms to selected search engines. This paper reviews technical aspects of developing the online programmes as well as the strengths and weaknesses of online vs. traditional laboratory-based research in relation to issues such as experimental control, delivery of instructions, experimenter bias, participant recruitment, sample heterogeneity, generalization, attrition, privacy, financial costs, data integrity, and ethics. We conclude by offering our thoughts on two ways of implementing online experimentation with special populations: a) Using a remote parent 'helper' as a proxy to work with the target individual; and b) Collaborating with professional colleagues in Web-based projects conducted in traditional laboratory settings.

  20. Architecture for biomedical multimedia information delivery on the World Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, L. Rodney; Goh, Gin-Hua; Neve, Leif; Thoma, George R.

    1997-10-01

    Research engineers at the National Library of Medicine are building a prototype system for the delivery of multimedia biomedical information on the World Wide Web. This paper discuses the architecture and design considerations for the system, which will be used initially to make images and text from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) publicly available. We categorized our analysis as follows: (1) fundamental software tools: we analyzed trade-offs among use of conventional HTML/CGI, X Window Broadway, and Java; (2) image delivery: we examined the use of unconventional TCP transmission methods; (3) database manager and database design: we discuss the capabilities and planned use of the Informix object-relational database manager and the planned schema for the HNANES database; (4) storage requirements for our Sun server; (5) user interface considerations; (6) the compatibility of the system with other standard research and analysis tools; (7) image display: we discuss considerations for consistent image display for end users. Finally, we discuss the scalability of the system in terms of incorporating larger or more databases of similar data, and the extendibility of the system for supporting content-based retrieval of biomedical images. The system prototype is called the Web-based Medical Information Retrieval System. An early version was built as a Java applet and tested on Unix, PC, and Macintosh platforms. This prototype used the MiniSQL database manager to do text queries on a small database of records of participants in the second NHANES survey. The full records and associated x-ray images were retrievable and displayable on a standard Web browser. A second version has now been built, also a Java applet, using the MySQL database manager.

  1. Global Cooling: Increasing World-Wide Urban Albedos to Offset CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, Hashem; Menon, Surabi; Rosenfeld, Arthur

    2008-01-14

    Modification of urban albedos reduces summertime urban temperatures, resulting in a better urban air quality and building air-conditioning savings. Furthermore, increasing urban albedos has the added benefit of reflecting some of the incoming global solar radiation and countering to some extent the effects of global warming. In many urban areas, pavements and roofs constitute over 60% of urban surfaces (roof 20-25%, pavements about 40%). Using reflective materials, both roof and the pavement albedos can be increased by about 0.25 and 0.10, respectively, resulting in a net albedo increase for urban areas of about 0.1. Many studies have demonstrated building cooling-energy savings in excess of 20% upon raising roof reflectivity from an existing 10-20% to about 60% (a U.S. potential savings in excess of $1 billion (B) per year in net annual energy bills). On a global basis, our preliminary estimate is that increasing the world-wide albedos of urban roofs and paved surfaces will induce a negative radiative forcing on the earth equivalent to removing {approx} 22-40 Gt of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. Since, 55% of the emitted CO{sub 2} remains in the atmosphere, removal of 22-40 Gt of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere is equivalent to reducing global CO{sub 2} emissions by 40-73 Gt. At {approx} $25/tonne of CO{sub 2}, a 40-73 Gt CO{sub 2} emission reduction from changing the albedo of roofs and paved surfaces is worth about $1,000B to 1800B. These estimated savings are dependent on assumptions used in this study, but nevertheless demonstrate considerable benefits that may be obtained from cooler roofs and pavements.

  2. Breaking down information barriers: a guide to international research of medical resources on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Risin, J A

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to facilitate international research of medical resources on the World Wide Web. International research consists of overcoming a unique set of obstacles and challenges that are not involved when undertaking research tasks using only U.S.-based information. Utilizing the World Wide Web can help us to overcome most of the restraints we would have to face when we perform research outside of our local geography. Currently, there are a number of Internet Web sites that may assist us in breaking down the barriers to undertaking international research.

  3. The Digital School Library: A World-Wide Development and a Fascinating Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loertscher, David

    2003-01-01

    Explores the academic environment of a total information system for school libraries based on the idea of a digital intranet. Discusses safety; customization; the core library collection; curriculum-specific collections; access to short-term resources; Internet access; personalized features; search engines; equity issues; and staffing. (LRW)

  4. Building a world-wide open source community around a software framework: progress, dos, and don'ts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibsen, Jorge; Antognini, Jonathan; Avarias, Jorge; Caproni, Alessandro; Fuessling, Matthias; Gimenez, Guillermo; Verma, Khushbu; Mora, Matias; Schwarz, Joseph; Staig, Tomás.

    2016-08-01

    As we all know too well, building up a collaborative community around a software infrastructure is not easy. Besides recruiting enthusiasts to work as part of it, mostly for free, to succeed you also need to overcome a number of technical, sociological, and, to our surprise, some political hurdles. The ALMA Common Software (ACS) was developed at ESO and partner institutions over the course of more than 10 years. While it was mainly intended for the ALMA Observatory, it was early on thought as a generic distributed control framework. ACS has been periodically released to the public through an LGPL license, which encouraged around a dozen non-ALMA institutions to make use of ACS for both industrial and educational applications. In recent years, the Cherenkov Telescope Array and the LLAMA Observatory have also decided to adopt the framework for their own control systems. The aim of the "ACS Community" is to support independent initiatives in making use of the ACS framework and to further contribute to its development. The Community provides access to a growing network of volunteers eager to develop ACS in areas that are not necessarily in ALMA's interests, and/or were not within the original system scope. Current examples are: support for additional OS platforms, extension of supported hardware interfaces, a public code repository and a build farm. The ACS Community makes use of existing collaborations with Chilean and Brazilian universities, reaching out to promising engineers in the making. At the same time, projects actively using ACS have committed valuable resources to assist the Community's work. Well established training programs like the ACS Workshops are also being continued through the Community's work. This paper aims to give a detailed account of the ongoing (second) journey towards establishing a world-wide open source collaboration around ACS. The ACS Community is growing into a horizontal partnership across a decentralized and diversified group of

  5. Access to infertility care in the developing world: the family promotion gap.

    PubMed

    Asemota, Obehi A; Klatsky, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Infertility in resource-poor settings is an overlooked global health problem. Although scarce health care resources must be deployed thoughtfully, prioritization of resources may be different for recipient and donor countries, the latter of whom focus on maternal health care, prevention, and family planning. For women and couples with involuntary childlessness, the negative psychosocial, sociocultural, and economic consequences in low-income countries are severe, possibly more so than in most Western societies. Despite the local importance of infertility, few resources are committed to help advance infertility care in regions like sub-Saharan Africa. The worldwide prevalence of infertility is remarkably similar across low-, middle-, and high-income countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) recognizes infertility as a global health problem and established universal access to reproductive health care as one of the United Nation's Millennium Developmental Goals for 2015. Currently, access to infertility care is varied and is usually only attainable by the very wealthy in low-income countries. We provide an overview on the current state of access to infertility care in low-income countries such as in sub-Saharan Africa and a rationale for providing comprehensive reproductive care and possible solutions for providing cost-effective infertility services in these settings.

  6. Obtaining Streamflow Statistics for Massachusetts Streams on the World Wide Web

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ries, Kernell G.; Steeves, Peter A.; Freeman, Aleda; Singh, Raj

    2000-01-01

    A World Wide Web application has been developed to make it easy to obtain streamflow statistics for user-selected locations on Massachusetts streams. The Web application, named STREAMSTATS (available at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/streamstats/massachusetts.html ), can provide peak-flow frequency, low-flow frequency, and flow-duration statistics for most streams in Massachusetts. These statistics describe the magnitude (how much), frequency (how often), and duration (how long) of flow in a stream. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has published streamflow statistics, such as the 100-year peak flow, the 7-day, 10-year low flow, and flow-duration statistics, for its data-collection stations in numerous reports. Federal, State, and local agencies need these statistics to plan and manage use of water resources and to regulate activities in and around streams. Engineering and environmental consulting firms, utilities, industry, and others use the statistics to design and operate water-supply systems, hydropower facilities, industrial facilities, wastewater treatment facilities, and roads, bridges, and other structures. Until now, streamflow statistics for data-collection stations have often been difficult to obtain because they are scattered among many reports, some of which are not readily available to the public. In addition, streamflow statistics are often needed for locations where no data are available. STREAMSTATS helps solve these problems. STREAMSTATS was developed jointly by the USGS and MassGIS, the State Geographic Information Systems (GIS) agency, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Departments of Environmental Management and Environmental Protection. The application consists of three major components: (1) a user interface that displays maps and allows users to select stream locations for which they want streamflow statistics (fig. 1), (2) a data base of previously published streamflow statistics and descriptive information for 725 USGS data

  7. Autonomous Satellite Command and Control through the World Wide Web: Phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantwell, Brian; Twiggs, Robert

    1998-01-01

    NASA's New Millenium Program (NMP) has identified a variety of revolutionary technologies that will support orders of magnitude improvements in the capabilities of spacecraft missions. This program's Autonomy team has focused on science and engineering automation technologies. In doing so, it has established a clear development roadmap specifying the experiments and demonstrations required to mature these technologies. The primary developmental thrusts of this roadmap are in the areas of remote agents, PI/operator interface, planning/scheduling fault management, and smart execution architectures. Phases 1 and 2 of the ASSET Project (previously known as the WebSat project) have focused on establishing World Wide Web-based commanding and telemetry services as an advanced means of interfacing a spacecraft system with the PI and operators. Current automated capabilities include Web-based command submission, limited contact scheduling, command list generation and transfer to the ground station, spacecraft support for demonstrations experiments, data transfer from the ground station back to the ASSET system, data archiving, and Web-based telemetry distribution. Phase 2 was finished in December 1996. During January-December 1997 work was commenced on Phase 3 of the ASSET Project. Phase 3 is the subject of this report. This phase permitted SSDL and its project partners to expand the ASSET system in a variety of ways. These added capabilities included the advancement of ground station capabilities, the adaptation of spacecraft on-board software, and the expansion of capabilities of the ASSET management algorithms. Specific goals of Phase 3 were: (1) Extend Web-based goal-level commanding for both the payload PI and the spacecraft engineer; (2) Support prioritized handling of multiple PIs as well as associated payload experimenters; (3) Expand the number and types of experiments supported by the ASSET system and its associated spacecraft; (4) Implement more advanced resource

  8. Enhanced photosynthetic efficiency in trees world-wide by rising atmospheric CO2 levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlers, Ina; Wieloch, Thomas; Groenendijk, Peter; Vlam, Mart; van der Sleen, Peter; Zuidema, Pieter A.; Robertson, Iain; Schleucher, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    signals is a fundamental advantage of isotopomer ratios (Augusti et al., Chem. Geol 2008). These results demonstrate that increasing [CO2] has reduced the ratio of photorespiration to photosynthesis on a global scale. Photorespiration is a side reaction that decreases the C gain of plants; the suppression of photorespiration in all analyzed trees indicates that increasing atmospheric [CO2] is enhancing the photosynthetic efficiency of trees world-wide. The consensus response of the trees agrees with the response of annual plants in greenhouse experiments, with three important conclusions. First, the generality of the isotopomer shift confirms that the CO2 response reflects the ratio of photosynthesis to photorespiration, and that it creates a robust signal in tree rings. Second, the agreement between greenhouse-grown plants and trees indicates that there has not been an acclimation response of the trees during the past centuries. Third, the results show that the regulation of tree gas exchange has during past centuries been governed by the same rules as observed in manipulative experiments, in contradiction to recent reports (Keenan et al., Nature 2013).

  9. Enhancing Student Performance in First-Semester General Chemistry Using Active Feedback through the World Wide Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Kent A.; Blake, Bob

    2007-01-01

    The World Wide Web recently launched a new interactive feedback system for the instructors, so that can better understanding about their students and their problems. The feedback, in combination with tailored lectures is expected to enhance student performance in the first semester of general chemistry.

  10. Searching the World Wide Web: How To Find the Material You Want on the Multimedia Pages of the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Highlights some popular search engines and presents guidelines on making queries, narrowing a search, using quotation marks and how and when to used advanced searches. Discusses special search tools for World Wide Web and CD-ROM products and homework assistance software. Lists the network locations of five popular search engines. (AEF)

  11. Effects of Learning Style and Training Method on Computer Attitude and Performance in World Wide Web Page Design Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Huey-Wen; Wang, Yu-Fang

    1999-01-01

    Compares the effects of two training methods on computer attitude and performance in a World Wide Web page design program in a field experiment with high school students in Taiwan. Discusses individual differences, Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory and Learning Style Inventory, Computer Attitude Scale, and results of statistical analyses.…

  12. Searching Smart on the World Wide Web. Tools and Techniques for Getting Quality Results. Internet Workshop Series No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Cheryl

    An adaptation of a live workshop, this guide offers pertinent information and practical techniques for users to become proficient searchers and conscious evaluators of World Wide Web resources. The book does not provide comprehensive coverage of the Internet, rather it gives the exact amount and level of information needed to perform a successful…

  13. Students' Perceptions of the Effectiveness of the World Wide Web as a Research and Teaching Tool in Science Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Wan; Gunstone, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the use of the World Wide Web (WWW) as a research and teaching tool in promoting self-directed learning groups of 15-year-old students. Discusses the perceptions of students of the effectiveness of the WWW in assisting them with the construction of knowledge on photosynthesis and respiration. (Contains 33 references.) (Author/YDS)

  14. An Exploratory Survey of Digital Libraries on the World Wide Web: Art and Literature of the Early Italian Renaissance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKibben, Suzanne J.

    This study assessed the ongoing development of digital libraries (DLs) on the World Wide Web. DLs of art and literature were surveyed for selected works from the early Italian Renaissance in order to gain insight into the current trends prevalent throughout the larger population of DLs. The following artists and authors were selected for study:…

  15. Managing World Wide Web Information in a Frames Environment: A Guide to Constructing Web Pages Using Frames.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilstrap, Donald L.

    1998-01-01

    Explains how to build World Wide Web home pages using frames-based HTML so that librarians can manage Web-based information and improve their home pages. Provides descriptions and 15 examples for writing frames-HTML code, including advanced concepts and additional techniques for home-page design. (Author/LRW)

  16. Toward Robust Climate Baselining: Objective Assessment of Climate Change Using Widely Distributed Miniaturized Sensors for Accurate World-Wide Geophysical Measurements

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Teller, E.; Leith, C.; Canavan, G.; Marion, J.; Wood, L.

    2001-11-13

    A gap-free, world-wide, ocean-, atmosphere-, and land surface-spanning geophysical data-set of three decades time-duration containing the full set of geophysical parameters characterizing global weather is the scientific perquisite for defining the climate; the generally-accepted definition in the meteorological community is that climate is the 30-year running-average of weather. Until such a tridecadal climate baseline exists, climate change discussions inevitably will have a semi-speculative, vs. a purely scientific, character, as the baseline against which changes are referenced will at least somewhat uncertain.

  17. Developing Interactive Educational Engineering Software for the World Wide Web with Java.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, John A.; Afjeh, Abdollah A.

    1998-01-01

    Illustrates the design and implementation of a Java applet for use in educational propulsion engineering curricula. The Java Gas Turbine Simulator applet provides an interactive graphical environment which allows the rapid, efficient construction and analysis of arbitrary gas turbine systems. The simulator can be easily accessed from the World…

  18. Installing Starlink FORUM -- A Conferencing Facility on the World Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fish, Adrian

    Starlink FORUM is a conferencing facility accessed via Web Browsers including Mosiac and Netscape. Starlink FORUM has a look and feel similar to the VAXnotes product from DEC (now called DECnotes). Starlink FORUM is run from an HTTP server as a CGI script and is written in Perl.

  19. Can Teachers Trust the World Wide Web for Classroom Lesson Plans?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasko, Francis J.; Peterson, Winnie J.

    2007-01-01

    Standards challenge educators on a regular basis to integrate technology into their content and methods courses. Students today access the Internet which in many cases, if students see it on the Internet they believe it. In this article, the authors present an experience wherein teacher candidates were randomly assigned a twenty-minute lesson to…

  20. Online catalog of world-wide test sites for the post-launch characterization and calibration of optical sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Christopherson, J.B.; Stensaas, G.L.; Teillet, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    In an era when the number of Earth-observing satellites is rapidly growing and measurements from these sensors are used to answer increasingly urgent global issues, it is imperative that scientists and decision-makers can rely on the accuracy of Earth-observing data products. The characterization and calibration of these sensors are vital to achieve an integrated Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) for coordinated and sustained observations of Earth. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as a supporting member of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) and GEOSS, is working with partners around the world to establish an online catalog of prime candidate test sites for the post-launch characterization and calibration of space-based optical imaging sensors. The online catalog provides easy public Web site access to this vital information for the global community. This paper describes the catalog, the test sites, and the methodologies to use the test sites. It also provides information regarding access to the online catalog and plans for further development of the catalog in cooperation with calibration specialists from agencies and organizations around the world. Through greater access to and understanding of these vital test sites and their use, the validity and utility of information gained from Earth remote sensing will continue to improve. Copyright IAF/IAA. All rights reserved.

  1. Towards a summary documentation of the AMIP models for the World-Wide Web

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, T.J.

    1994-11-01

    The Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AIMP) is an international effort to simulate the global climate of the period 1979--1988 by specifying certain common boundary conditions and radiative forcings. Work is in progress to translate the AIMP summary documentation into Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) for use with the public-domain Mosaic software. We are exploiting the hypertext attributes of this software to permit rapid access to those facets of the AIMP documentation that are of most interest to the individual scientist.

  2. Possible world-wide middle miocene iridium anomaly and its relationship to periodicity of impacts and extinctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asaro, F.; Alvarez, W.; Michel, H. V.; Alvarez, L. W.; Anders, Mark H.; Montanari, A.; Kennett, James P.

    1988-01-01

    In a study of one million years of Middle Miocene sediment deposition in ODP Hole 689B in the Weddell Sea near Antarctica, a single iridium (Ir) anomaly of 44 (+ or - 10) x 10 to the 12th gram Ir per gram rock (ppt) was observed in core 6H, section 3, 50 to 60 cm, after background contributions associated with manganese precipitates and clay are subtracted. The ODP Hole 689B is 10,000 km away from another site, DSDP Hole 588B in the Tasman Sea north of New Zealand, where a single Ir anomaly of 144 + or - 7 ppt over a background of 11 ppt was found in an earlier study of 3 million years of deposition. From chemical measurements the latter deposition was thought to be impact-related. Ir measurements were made, following neutron activation, with the Iridium Coincidence Spectrometer. The age vs depth calibration curves given in the DSDP and ODP preliminary reports indicate the ages of the Iranomalies are identical, 11.7 million years, but the absolute and relative uncertainties in the curves are not known. Based on the newest age data the age estimate is 10 million years. As the Ir was deposited at the two sites at about the same time and they are one quarter of the way around the world from each other it seems likely that the deposition was world-wide. The impact of a large asteroid or comet could produce the wide distribution, and this data is supportive of the impact relationship deduced for Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) 588B from the chemical evidence. If the surface densities of Ir at the two sites are representative of the world-wide average, the diameter of a Cl type asteroid containing the necessary Ir would be 3 + or - 1 km, which is large enough to cause world-wide darkness and hence extinctions although the latter point is disputed.

  3. Singapore National Medical Image Resource Centre (SN.MIRC): a world wide web resource for radiology education.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guo-Liang; Lim, C C Tchoyoson

    2006-08-01

    Radiology education is heavily dependent on visual images, and case-based teaching files comprising medical images can be an important tool for teaching diagnostic radiology. Currently, hardcopy film is being rapidly replaced by digital radiological images in teaching hospitals, and an electronic teaching file (ETF) library would be desirable. Furthermore, a repository of ETFs deployed on the World Wide Web has the potential for e-learning applications to benefit a larger community of learners. In this paper, we describe a Singapore National Medical Image Resource Centre (SN.MIRC) that can serve as a World Wide Web resource for teaching diagnostic radiology. On SN.MIRC, ETFs can be created using a variety of mechanisms including file upload and online form-filling, and users can search for cases using the Medical Image Resource Center (MIRC) query schema developed by the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA). The system can be improved with future enhancements, including multimedia interactive teaching files and distance learning for continuing professional development. However, significant challenges exist when exploring the potential of using the World Wide Web for radiology education.

  4. Detection and Monitoring of Improvised Explosive Device Education Networks through the World Wide Web

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    search engines are not up to this task, as they have been optimized to catalog information quickly and efficiently for user ease of access while promoting retail commerce at the same time. This thesis presents a performance analysis of a new search engine algorithm designed to help find IED education networks using the Nutch open-source search engine architecture. It reveals which web pages are more important via references from other web pages regardless of domain. In addition, this thesis discusses potential evaluation and monitoring techniques to be used in conjunction

  5. DOE`s nation-wide system for access control can solve problems for the federal government

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, S.; Tomes, D.; Davis, G.; Johnson, D.; Strait, S.

    1996-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) ongoing efforts to improve its physical and personnel security systems while reducing its costs, provide a model for federal government visitor processing. Through the careful use of standardized badges, computer databases, and networks of automated access control systems, the DOE is increasing the security associated with travel throughout the DOE complex, and at the same time, eliminating paperwork, special badging, and visitor delays. The DOE is also improving badge accountability, personnel identification assurance, and access authorization timeliness and accuracy. Like the federal government, the DOE has dozens of geographically dispersed locations run by many different contractors operating a wide range of security systems. The DOE has overcome these obstacles by providing data format standards, a complex-wide virtual network for security, the adoption of a standard high security system, and an open-systems-compatible link for any automated access control system. If the location`s level of security requires it, positive visitor identification is accomplished by personal identification number (PIN) and/or by biometrics. At sites with automated access control systems, this positive identification is integrated into the portals.

  6. Fitting dynamical x-ray diffraction data over the World Wide Web.

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanov, S.; Forrest, R.; Biosciences Division; Univ. of Houston

    2008-01-01

    The first implementation of fitting X-ray Bragg diffraction profiles from strained multilayer crystals at a remote web-based X-ray software server is presented. The algorithms and the software solutions involved in the process are described. The suggested technology can be applied to a wide range of scientific research and has the potential to promote remote collaborations across scientific communities.

  7. Chemical Markup, XML, and the World Wide Web. 7. CMLSpect, an XML vocabulary for spectral data.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Stefan; Helmus, Tobias; Lancashire, Robert J; Murray-Rust, Peter; Rzepa, Henry S; Steinbeck, Christoph; Willighagen, Egon L

    2007-01-01

    CMLSpect is an extension of Chemical Markup Language (CML) for managing spectral and other analytical data. It is designed to be flexible enough to contain a wide variety of spectral data. The paper describes the CMLElements used and gives practical examples for common types of spectra. In addition it demonstrates how different views of the data can be expressed and what problems still exist.

  8. The Wide and Wild World of Words: Interview with Averil Coxhead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mah, Adeline Shi Hui; Yeo, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Averil Coxhead is widely known for developing the Academic Word List, a list of 570 word families associated with great frequency in academic texts. This list has been particularly useful to teachers of English as a Second Language as well as independent learners in tertiary education. She has also developed a Science-based word list (Coxhead and…

  9. An overview of biomedical literature search on the World Wide Web in the third millennium.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prince; Goel, Roshni; Jain, Chandni; Kumar, Ashish; Parashar, Abhishek; Gond, Ajay Ratan

    2012-06-01

    Complete access to the existing pool of biomedical literature and the ability to "hit" upon the exact information of the relevant specialty are becoming essential elements of academic and clinical expertise. With the rapid expansion of the literature database, it is almost impossible to keep up to date with every innovation. Using the Internet, however, most people can freely access this literature at any time, from almost anywhere. This paper highlights the use of the Internet in obtaining valuable biomedical research information, which is mostly available from journals, databases, textbooks and e-journals in the form of web pages, text materials, images, and so on. The authors present an overview of web-based resources for biomedical researchers, providing information about Internet search engines (e.g., Google), web-based bibliographic databases (e.g., PubMed, IndMed) and how to use them, and other online biomedical resources that can assist clinicians in reaching well-informed clinical decisions.

  10. Using the World Wide Web for GIDEP Problem Data Processing at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPherson, John W.; Haraway, Sandra W.; Whirley, J. Don

    1999-01-01

    Since April 1997, Marshall Space Flight Center has been using electronic transfer and the web to support our processing of the Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP) and NASA ALERT information. Specific aspects include: (1) Extraction of ASCII text information from GIDEP for loading into Word documents for e-mail to ALERT actionees; (2) Downloading of GIDEP form image formats in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) for internal storage display on the MSFC ALERT web page; (3) Linkage of stored GRDEP problem forms with summary information for access from the MSFC ALERT Distribution Summary Chart or from an html table of released MSFC ALERTs (4) Archival of historic ALERTs for reference by GIDEP ID, MSFC ID, or MSFC release date; (5) On-line tracking of ALERT response status using a Microsoft Access database and the web (6) On-line response to ALERTs from MSFC actionees through interactive web forms. The technique, benefits, effort, coordination, and lessons learned for each aspect are covered herein.

  11. The "Athena Framework": Solving the World-wide Climate and Energy Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Long, J S

    2005-10-10

    The energy systems we have enjoyed for the last 100 years has resulted in the advanced standard of living in the developed world and a major emerging problem with climate change. Now we face a simultaneous realization that our reliance on fossil fuels is a source of conflict and economic disruption as well as causing potentially catastrophic global climate change. It is time to give serious thought to how to collectively solve this problem. Collective action is critical since individual effort by one or only a few nations cannot adequately address the issue.

  12. Using the World Wide Web in health-related intervention research. A review of controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Sallie E; Lewis, Frances M

    2004-01-01

    A review of published controlled trials was conducted to evaluate components, utility, and efficacy of Web-based healthcare interventions. Nine studies met the established review criteria. Knowledge gains were the most commonly reported significant changes; rarely were there measures or significant changes on behavioral outcomes. Studies varied in format of personal contact with participants, in the structure or sequence of intervention content, and in design features. Dosage was inconsistently measured and process evaluation was relatively absent. Despite limitations, several studies reported significant effects. Based on best evidence-to-date, elements of technologically mediated interventions important to future research are summarized. Taken together, research suggests that Web-based interventions may be an efficacious delivery system, especially for those with chronic conditions amenable to self-management and to those with various limitations to accessing healthcare.

  13. Pseudo-random Spray Release to Measure World-wide Transfer Functions of Cloud Albedo Control.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salter, Stephen

    2010-05-01

    Institute for Energy Systems, School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh. S.Salter@ed.ac.uk Previous climate models of Latham's proposal to reverse global warming by using sub-micron sea spray to increase cloud albedo have used a variety of spray patterns. Kettles forced CCN concentration to be 375/cm3 everywhere. Rasch et al used the 20% and 70% most susceptible regions. Bala and Caldeira used an even spread. Jones et al. concentrated spray in the 3.3% oceans with the highest susceptibility All used the same rate through the year. We want to choose a scheme for a climate-modelling experiment designed to identify simultaneously the effects of cloud albedo control at various seasons of the year from spray at all regions of the world on climates of all other regions the world. In particular we want to know seasons and spray places which might have an undesirable effect on precipitation. The spray systems in various regions of a numerical climate model will be modulated on an off with different but known pseudo-random sequences and a selection of seasons. The mean value of the resulting weather records of the parameters of interest, mainly temperature and water run-off, at each region will be subtracted from each value of the record so as to give just the alternating component with an average value of zero. This will be correlated with each of the chosen pseudo-random sequences to give the magnitude and polarity of the effect of a treatment at each input area and selected seasons of the year with the resulting effects on all regions. By doing a time-shifted correlation we can account for phase-shift and time delay. The signal-to-noise ratio should improve with the square root of the analysis time and so we may be able to measure the transfer function with quite a small stimulus. The results of a Mathcad simulation of the process with statistical distributions approximating to natural variations temperature and precipitation show that a single run of a climate

  14. The Global Inventor Gap: Distribution and Equality of World-Wide Inventive Effort, 1990–2010

    PubMed Central

    Toivanen, Hannes; Suominen, Arho

    2015-01-01

    Applying distance-to-frontier analysis, we have used 2.9 million patents and population data to assess whether the relative capacity of world countries and major regions to create new knowledge and technology has become globally more equal or less equal between 1990 and 2010. We show with the Gini coefficient that the global distribution of inventors has become more equal between major countries and regions. However, this trend has been largely due to the improved performance of only two major countries, China and India. The worst performing regions, totalling a population of almost 2 billion, are actually falling behind. Our results suggest that substantial parts of the global population have fallen further behind countries at the global frontier in their ability to create new knowledge and inventions, and that the catch-up among the least developed and middle-income countries is highly uneven, prompting questions about the nature and future of the global knowledge economy. PMID:25849202

  15. A world wide public health problem: the principal re-emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    De Luca D'Alessandro, E; Giraldi, G

    2011-01-01

    The extraordinary progress in the knowledge of infectious disease, the discovery of antibiotics and effective vaccines are among the great achievement of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. These achievement have led to a dramatic reduction in the levels of mortality from these diseases. According to the World Health Organization, the term "re-emerging infectious diseases" refers to infectious diseases, which although well known, have not been of recent public health importance. However, climate change, migration, changes in health services, antibiotic resistance, population increase, international travel, the increase in the number of immune-depressed patients ,etc have lead to the re-emergence of these diseases. The climate changes are exposing sectors of the population to inadequate fresh air, water, food and resources for survival which, in consequence, provoke increases in both internal and international migration. In this particular period in which we find ourselves, characterized by globalization, the international community has become aware that the re-emergence of these diseases poses an important risk for public health underlines the necessity to adopt appropriate strategies for their prevention and control. The re-emerging diseases of the twenty-first century are a serious problem for public health and even though there has been enormous progress in medical science and in the battle against infectious diseases, they are still a long way from being really brought under control. A well organized monitoring system would enable the epidemiological characteristics of the infectious diseases to be analyzed and the success or otherwise of preventive interventions to be precisely evaluated. For this reason, the World Health Organization and the European Union have discussed the formation of a collaborative network for the monitoring and control of re-emerging diseases and has initiated special programmes. The battle between humanity and infectious disease

  16. Reducing the burden of smoking world-wide: effectiveness of interventions and their coverage.

    PubMed

    Jha, Prabhat; Chaloupka, Frank J; Corrao, Marlo; Jacob, Binu

    2006-11-01

    Cigarette smoking and other tobacco use imposes a huge and growing public health burden globally. Currently, approximately 5 million people are killed annually by tobacco use; by 2030, estimates based on current trends indicate that this number will increase to 10 million, with 70% of deaths occurring in low- and middle-income countries. Numerous studies from high-income countries, and a growing number from low- and middle-income countries, provide strong evidence that tobacco tax increases, dissemination of information about health risks from smoking, restrictions on smoking in public places and in work-places, comprehensive bans on advertising and promotion and increased access to cessation therapies are all effective in reducing tobacco use and its consequences. Despite this evidence, tobacco control policies have been unevenly applied--due partly to political constraints. This paper provides a summary of these issues, beginning with an overview of trends in global tobacco use and its consequences and followed by a review of the evidence on the effectiveness of tobacco control policies in reducing tobacco use. A description of the types and comprehensiveness of policies currently in place and a discussion of some of the factors correlated with the strength and comprehensive of these policies follows.

  17. Diabetic kidney disease: world wide difference of prevalence and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Gheith, Osama; Farouk, Nashwa; Nampoory, Narayanan; Halim, Medhat A; Al-Otaibi, Torki

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic kidney disease – which is defined by elevated urine albumin excretion or reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) or both – is a serious complication that occurs in 20% to 40% of all diabetics. In this review we try to highlight the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy which is not uncommon complication of diabetes all over the world. The prevalence of diabetes worldwide has extended epidemic magnitudes and is expected to affect more than 350 million people by the year 2035. There is marked racial/ethnic besides international difference in the epidemiology of diabetic kidney disease which could be explained by the differences in economic viability and governmental infrastructures. Approximately one-third of diabetic patients showed microalbuminuria after 15 years of disease duration and less than half develop real nephropathy. Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is more frequent in African-Americans, Asian-Americans, and Native Americans. Progressive kidney disease is more frequent in Caucasians patients with type 1 than type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), although its overall prevalence in the diabetic population is higher in patients with type 2 DM while this type of DM is more prevalent. Hyperglycemia is well known risk factor for in addition to other risk factors like male sex, obesity, hypertension, chronic inflammation, resistance to insulin, hypovitaminosis D, and dyslipidemia and some genetic loci and polymorphisms in specific genes. Management of its modifiable risk factors might help in reducing its incidence in the nearby future. PMID:28197499

  18. Photosystem II Function and Dynamics in Three Widely Used Arabidopsis thaliana Accessions

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Lan; Fristedt, Rikard; Vener, Alexander V.; Schoefs, Benoît; Spetea, Cornelia

    2012-01-01

    Columbia-0 (Col-0), Wassilewskija-4 (Ws-4), and Landsberg erecta-0 (Ler-0) are used as background lines for many public Arabidopsis mutant collections, and for investigation in laboratory conditions of plant processes, including photosynthesis and response to high-intensity light (HL). The photosystem II (PSII) complex is sensitive to HL and requires repair to sustain its function. PSII repair is a multistep process controlled by numerous factors, including protein phosphorylation and thylakoid membrane stacking. Here we have characterized the function and dynamics of PSII complex under growth-light and HL conditions. Ws-4 displayed 30% more thylakoid lipids per chlorophyll and 40% less chlorophyll per carotenoid than Col-0 and Ler-0. There were no large differences in thylakoid stacking, photoprotection and relative levels of photosynthetic complexes among the three accessions. An increased efficiency of PSII closure was found in Ws-4 following illumination with saturation flashes or continuous light. Phosphorylation of the PSII D1/D2 proteins was reduced by 50% in Ws-4 as compared to Col-0 and Ler-0. An increase in abundance of the responsible STN8 kinase in response to HL treatment was found in all three accessions, but Ws-4 displayed 50% lower levels than Col-0 and Ler-0. Despite this, the HL treatment caused in Ws-4 the lagest extent of PSII inactivation, disassembly, D1 protein degradation, and the largest decrease in the size of stacked thylakoids. The dilution of chlorophyll-protein complexes with additional lipids and carotenoids in Ws-4 may represent a mechanism to facilitate lateral protein traffic in the membrane, thus compensating for the lack of a full complement of STN8 kinase. Nevertheless, additional PSII damage occurs in Ws-4, which exceeds the D1 protein synthesis capacity, thus leading to enhanced photoinhibition. Our findings are valuable for selection of appropriate background line for PSII characterization in Arabidopsis mutants, and also

  19. Autonomous Satellite Command and Control Through the World Wide Web. Phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantwell, Brian; Twiggs, Robert

    1998-01-01

    The Automated Space System Experimental Testbed (ASSET) system is a simple yet comprehensive real-world operations network being developed. Phase 3 of the ASSET Project was January-December 1997 and is the subject of this report. This phase permitted SSDL and its project partners to expand the ASSET system in a variety of ways. These added capabilities included the advancement of ground station capabilities, the adaptation of spacecraft on-board software, and the expansion of capabilities of the ASSET management algorithms. Specific goals of Phase 3 were: (1) Extend Web-based goal-level commanding for both the payload PI and the spacecraft engineer. (2) Support prioritized handling of multiple (PIs) Principle Investigators as well as associated payload experimenters. (3) Expand the number and types of experiments supported by the ASSET system and its associated spacecraft. (4) Implement more advanced resource management, modeling and fault management capabilities that integrate the space and ground segments of the space system hardware. (5) Implement a beacon monitoring test. (6) Implement an experimental blackboard controller for space system management. (7) Further define typical ground station developments required for Internet-based remote control and for full system automation of the PI-to-spacecraft link. Each of those goals are examined. Significant sections of this report were also published as a conference paper. Several publications produced in support of this grant are included as attachments. Titles include: 1) Experimental Initiatives in Space System Operations; 2) The ASSET Client Interface: Balancing High Level Specification with Low Level Control; 3) Specifying Spacecraft Operations At The Product/Service Level; 4) The Design of a Highly Configurable, Reusable Operating System for Testbed Satellites; 5) Automated Health Operations For The Sapphire Spacecraft; 6) Engineering Data Summaries for Space Missions; and 7) Experiments In Automated Health

  20. World-wide deployment of Robo-AO visible-light robotic laser adaptive optics systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed; Law, Nicholas Michael; Lu, Jessica R.; Tonry, John; Tully, R. Brent; Wright, Shelley; Kulkarni, Shrinivas; Severson, Scott; Choi, Philip; Ramaprakash, A.; Chun, Mark; Connelley, Mike; Tokunaga, Alan; Hall, Donald

    2015-08-01

    In the next few years, several modest-sized telescopes around the world will be upgraded with autonomous laser adaptive optics systems based on the Robo-AO prototype deployed at the Palomar Observatory 1.5-m telescope. The prototype commenced scientific operations in June 2012 and more than 19,000 observations have since been performed at the ~0.12" visible-light diffraction limit. We are planning to move the prototype system to the 2.1-m telescope at Kitt Peak for a 3-year deployment which will serve a consortium of users including Caltech, the University of Hawai`i, IUCAA, NCU and institutions in China. Additionally, 2 months per year will be made available to the US astronomical community.New Robo-AO systems are in various stages of development: a clone by IUCAA for the 2-m IGO telescope in India; a natural guide star variant, KAPAO, by Pomona College at the 1-m Table Mountain telescope in California; and second generation Robo-AO systems are planned for the 3-m IRTF and 2.2-m University of Hawai'i telescopes on Maunakea, Hawai`i. The latter will exploit Maunakea's excellent observing conditions to provide higher Strehl ratios, sharper imaging, ~0.07", and correction to lambda = 400 nm. An additional infrared integral-field spectrograph will be fed by the UH 2.2-m Robo-AO system to quickly classify transients, such as supernovae and asteroids, discovered by the ATLAS system in Hawai`i.

  1. Alcoa World Alumina: Plant Wide Assessment at Arkansas Operation Reveals More than $900,000 in Potential Annual Savings

    SciTech Connect

    2003-07-01

    The plant-wide energy-efficiency assessment performed in 2001 at the Alcoa World Alumina Arkansas Operations in Bauxite, Arkansas, identified seven opportunities to save energy and reduce costs. By implementing five of these improvements, the facility can save 15,100 million British thermal units per year in natural gas and 8.76 million kilowatt-hours per year in electricity. This translates into approximate annual savings of $925,300 in direct energy costs and non-fuel operating and maintenance costs. The required capital investment is estimated at $271,200. The average payback period for all five projects would be approximately 8 months.

  2. Alcoa World Alumina: Plant-Wide Assessment at Arkansas Operations Reveals More than$900,000 in Potential Annual Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-07-01

    The plant-wide energy-efficiency assessment performed in 2001 at the Alcoa World Alumina Arkansas Operations in Bauxite, Arkansas, identified seven opportunities to save energy and reduce costs. By implementing five of these improvements, the facility can save 15,100 million British thermal units per year in natural gas and 8.76 million kilowatt-hours per year in electricity. This translates into approximate annual savings of$925,300 in direct energy costs and non-fuel operating and maintenance costs. The required capital investment is estimated at$271,200. The average payback period for all five projects would be approximately 8 months.

  3. Dissemination of information about the technologies of the Vision Research Lab through the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorais, Christopher M.

    2004-01-01

    The Vision Research Lab at NASA John Glenn Research Center is headed by Dr. Rafat Ansari. Dr. Ansari and other researchers have developed technologies that primarily use laser and fiber optics to non-invasively detect different ailments and diseases of the eye. One of my goals as a LERCIP intern and ACCESS scholar for the 2004 summer is to inform other NASA employees, researchers and the general public about these technologies through the development of a website. The website incorporates the theme that the eye is a window to the body. Thus by investigating the processes of the eye, we can better understand and diagnosis different ailments and diseases. These ailments occur in not only earth bound humans, but astronauts as well as a result of exposure to elevated levels of radiation and microgravity conditions. Thus the technologies being developed at the Vision Research Lab are invaluable to humans on Earth in addition to those astronauts in space. One of my first goals was to research the technologies being developed at the lab. The first several days were spent immersing myself in the various articles, journals and reports about the theories behind Dynamic Light Scattering, Laser Doppler Flowmetry, Autofluoresence, Raman Spectroscopy, Polarimetry and Oximetry. Interviews with the other researchers proved invaluable to help understand these theories as well gain hands on experience with the devices being developed using these technologies. The rest of the Vision Research Team and I sat down and discussed how the overall website should be presented. Combining this information with the knowledge of the theories and applications of the hardware being developed, I worked out different ideas to present this information. I quickly learned Paint Shop Pro 8 and FrontPage 2002, as well as using online tutorials and other resources to help design an effective website. The Vision Research Lab website incorporates the anatomy and physiology of the eye, different diseases

  4. Nutrient Intake Values for Folate during Pregnancy and Lactation Vary Widely around the World

    PubMed Central

    Stamm, Rosemary A.; Houghton, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    Folate is a B-vitamin with particular importance during reproduction due to its role in the synthesis and maintenance of DNA. Folate is well known for its role in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) during the periconceptional period. There is also an increased need for folate throughout pregnancy to support optimal growth and development of the fetus and blood volume expansion and tissue growth of the mother. During lactation, women are at risk of folate deficiency due to increased demands to accommodate milk folate levels. Nutrient Intake Values (NIVs) for folate have been calculated to take into account additional needs during pregnancy and lactation. However, these values vary widely between countries. For example, the folate requirement that is set to meet the needs of almost all healthy women during pregnancy varies from 300 µg/day in the United Kingdom to 750 µg/day in Mexico. Currently, there is no accepted standardized terminology or framework for establishing NIVs. This article reviews country-specific NIVs for folate during pregnancy and lactation and the basis for setting these reference values. PMID:24084052

  5. Medical knowledge packages and their integration into health-care information systems and the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter; Rappelsberger, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Software-based medical knowledge packages (MKPs) are packages of highly structured medical knowledge that can be integrated into various health-care information systems or the World Wide Web. They have been established to provide different forms of clinical decision support such as textual interpretation of combinations of laboratory rest results, generating diagnostic hypotheses as well as confirmed and excluded diagnoses to support differential diagnosis in internal medicine, or for early identification and automatic monitoring of hospital-acquired infections. Technically, an MKP may consist of a number of inter-connected Arden Medical Logic Modules. Several MKPs have been integrated thus far into hospital, laboratory, and departmental information systems. This has resulted in useful and widely accepted software-based clinical decision support for the benefit of the patient, the physician, and the organization funding the health care system.

  6. Genome-wide profiling of nucleosome sensitivity and chromatin accessibility in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Chereji, Răzvan V; Kan, Tsung-Wai; Grudniewska, Magda K; Romashchenko, Alexander V; Berezikov, Eugene; Zhimulev, Igor F; Guryev, Victor; Morozov, Alexandre V; Moshkin, Yuri M

    2016-02-18

    Nucleosomal DNA is thought to be generally inaccessible to DNA-binding factors, such as micrococcal nuclease (MNase). Here, we digest Drosophila chromatin with high and low concentrations of MNase to reveal two distinct nucleosome types: MNase-sensitive and MNase-resistant. MNase-resistant nucleosomes assemble on sequences depleted of A/T and enriched in G/C-containing dinucleotides, whereas MNase-sensitive nucleosomes form on A/T-rich sequences found at transcription start and termination sites, enhancers and DNase I hypersensitive sites. Estimates of nucleosome formation energies indicate that MNase-sensitive nucleosomes tend to be less stable than MNase-resistant ones. Strikingly, a decrease in cell growth temperature of about 10°C makes MNase-sensitive nucleosomes less accessible, suggesting that observed variations in MNase sensitivity are related to either thermal fluctuations of chromatin fibers or the activity of enzymatic machinery. In the vicinity of active genes and DNase I hypersensitive sites nucleosomes are organized into periodic arrays, likely due to 'phasing' off potential barriers formed by DNA-bound factors or by nucleosomes anchored to their positions through external interactions. The latter idea is substantiated by our biophysical model of nucleosome positioning and energetics, which predicts that nucleosomes immediately downstream of transcription start sites are anchored and recapitulates nucleosome phasing at active genes significantly better than sequence-dependent models.

  7. Ensembl Genomes 2013: scaling up access to genome-wide data

    PubMed Central

    Kersey, Paul Julian; Allen, James E.; Christensen, Mikkel; Davis, Paul; Falin, Lee J.; Grabmueller, Christoph; Hughes, Daniel Seth Toney; Humphrey, Jay; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Khobova, Julia; Langridge, Nicholas; McDowall, Mark D.; Maheswari, Uma; Maslen, Gareth; Nuhn, Michael; Ong, Chuang Kee; Paulini, Michael; Pedro, Helder; Toneva, Iliana; Tuli, Mary Ann; Walts, Brandon; Williams, Gareth; Wilson, Derek; Youens-Clark, Ken; Monaco, Marcela K.; Stein, Joshua; Wei, Xuehong; Ware, Doreen; Bolser, Daniel M.; Howe, Kevin Lee; Kulesha, Eugene; Lawson, Daniel; Staines, Daniel Michael

    2014-01-01

    Ensembl Genomes (http://www.ensemblgenomes.org) is an integrating resource for genome-scale data from non-vertebrate species. The project exploits and extends technologies for genome annotation, analysis and dissemination, developed in the context of the vertebrate-focused Ensembl project, and provides a complementary set of resources for non-vertebrate species through a consistent set of programmatic and interactive interfaces. These provide access to data including reference sequence, gene models, transcriptional data, polymorphisms and comparative analysis. This article provides an update to the previous publications about the resource, with a focus on recent developments. These include the addition of important new genomes (and related data sets) including crop plants, vectors of human disease and eukaryotic pathogens. In addition, the resource has scaled up its representation of bacterial genomes, and now includes the genomes of over 9000 bacteria. Specific extensions to the web and programmatic interfaces have been developed to support users in navigating these large data sets. Looking forward, analytic tools to allow targeted selection of data for visualization and download are likely to become increasingly important in future as the number of available genomes increases within all domains of life, and some of the challenges faced in representing bacterial data are likely to become commonplace for eukaryotes in future. PMID:24163254

  8. Evolution of grid-wide access to database resident information in ATLAS using Frontier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberis, D.; Bujor, F.; de Stefano, J.; Dewhurst, A. L.; Dykstra, D.; Front, D.; Gallas, E.; Gamboa, C. F.; Luehring, F.; Walker, R.

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS experiment deployed Frontier technology worldwide during the initial year of LHC collision data taking to enable user analysis jobs running on the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid to access database resident data. Since that time, the deployment model has evolved to optimize resources, improve performance, and streamline maintenance of Frontier and related infrastructure. In this presentation we focus on the specific changes in the deployment and improvements undertaken, such as the optimization of cache and launchpad location, the use of RPMs for more uniform deployment of underlying Frontier related components, improvements in monitoring, optimization of fail-over, and an increasing use of a centrally managed database containing site specific information (for configuration of services and monitoring). In addition, analysis of Frontier logs has allowed us a deeper understanding of problematic queries and understanding of use cases. Use of the system has grown beyond user analysis and subsystem specific tasks such as calibration and alignment, extending into production processing areas, such as initial reconstruction and trigger reprocessing. With a more robust and tuned system, we are better equipped to satisfy the still growing number of diverse clients and the demands of increasingly sophisticated processing and analysis.

  9. Point of use household drinking water filtration: A practical, effective solution for providing sustained access to safe drinking water in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Sobsey, Mark D; Stauber, Christine E; Casanova, Lisa M; Brown, Joseph M; Elliott, Mark A

    2008-06-15

    The lack of safe water creates a tremendous burden of diarrheal disease and other debilitating, life-threatening illnesses for people in the developing world. Point-of-use (POU) water treatment technology has emerged as an approach that empowers people and communities without access to safe water to improve water quality by treating it in the home. Several POU technologies are available, but, except for boiling, none have achieved sustained, large-scale use. Sustained use is essential if household water treatment technology (HWT) is to provide continued protection, but it is difficult to achieve. The most effective, widely promoted and used POU HWTs are critically examined according to specified criteria for performance and sustainability. Ceramic and biosand household water filters are identified as most effective according to the evaluation criteria applied and as having the greatest potential to become widely used and sustainable for improving household water quality to reduce waterborne disease and death.

  10. A large-scale study of the world wide web: network correlation functions with scale-invariant boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludueña, Guillermo A.; Meixner, Harald; Kaczor, Gregor; Gros, Claudius

    2013-08-01

    We performed a large-scale crawl of the world wide web, covering 6.9 million domains and 57 million subdomains, including all high-traffic sites of the internet. We present a study of the correlations found between quantities measuring the structural relevance of each node in the network (the in- and out-degree, the local clustering coefficient, the first-neighbor in-degree and the Alexa rank). We find that some of these properties show strong correlation effects and that the dependencies occurring out of these correlations follow power laws not only for the averages, but also for the boundaries of the respective density distributions. In addition, these scale-free limits do not follow the same exponents as the corresponding averages. In our study we retain the directionality of the hyperlinks and develop a statistical estimate for the clustering coefficient of directed graphs. We include in our study the correlations between the in-degree and the Alexa traffic rank, a popular index for the traffic volume, finding non-trivial power-law correlations. We find that sites with more/less than about 103 links from different domains have remarkably different statistical properties, for all correlation functions studied, indicating towards an underlying hierarchical structure of the world wide web.

  11. Medical computing over the World Wide Web: use of forms and CGI scripts for constructing medical algorithm Web pages.

    PubMed

    Doyle, D J; Jarvis, B A; Ruskin, K J; Engel, T P

    1997-01-01

    The development of the World Wide Web has led to an explosion of educational and clinical resources available via the Internet with minimal effort or special training. However, most of these Web pages contain only static information; few offer dynamic information shaped around clinical or laboratory test findings. In this report we show how this goal can be achieved with the design and construction of Medical Algorithm Web Pages (MAWP). Specifically, using Internet technologies known as forms and CGI scripts we demonstrate how one can implement medical algorithms remotely over the Internet's World Wide Web. To use a MAWP, one enters the URL for the site and then enters information according to the instructions presented there, usually by entering numbers and other information into fields displayed on screen. When all the data is entered, the user clicks on the SUBMIT icon, resulting in a new Web page being constructed "on-the-fly" containing diagnostic calculations and other information pertinent to the patient's clinical management. Four sample applications are presented in detail to illustrate the concept of a Medical Algorithm Web page: Computation of the alveolar-arterial oxygen tension difference using the alveolar gas equation; Computation of renal creatinine clearance; drug infusion calculation (micrograms/kilogram/minute); Computation of the renal failure index.

  12. The shrinking world of girls at puberty: Violence and gender-divergent access to the public sphere among adolescents in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Hallman, Kelly K.; Kenworthy, Nora J.; Diers, Judith; Swan, Nick; Devnarain, Bashi

    2015-01-01

    Participatory mapping was undertaken with single-sex groups of grade 5 and grade 8–9 children in KwaZulu-Natal. Relative to grade 5 students, wide gender divergence in access to the public sphere was found at grade 8–9. With puberty, girls' worlds shrink, while boys' expand. At grade 5, female-defined community areas were equal or larger in size than those of males. Community area mapped by urban grade 8–9 girls, however, was only one-third that of male classmates and two-fifths that of grade 5 girls. Conversely, community area mapped by grade 8–9 boys was twice that of grade 5 boys. Similar differences emerged in the rural site. No female group rated a single community space as more than ‘somewhat safe’. Although curtailed spatial access is intended to protect girls, grade 8–9 girls reported most places in their small navigable areas as very unsafe. Expanded geographies of grade 8–9 boys contained a mix of safe and unsafe places. Reducing girls' access to the public sphere does not increase their perceived safety, but may instead limit their access to opportunities for human development. The findings emphasise the need for better violence prevention programming for very young adolescents. PMID:25303092

  13. New Technology and Digital Worlds: Analyzing Evidence of Equity in Access, Use, and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warschauer, Mark; Matuchniak, Tina

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors take a broad perspective on how to analyze issues of technology and equity for youth in the United States. They begin with "access" as a starting point, but consider not only whether diverse groups of youth have digital media available to them but also how that access is supported or constrained by…

  14. Small World: Access to Higher Education between Methodological Nationalism and International Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goastellec, Gaele

    2010-01-01

    What do the shared norms emerging in the regulation of access reveal about the higher education internationalisation process? The history of access norms brings to light two characteristics of this process: the spreading of sociotechnic tools and the emergence of moral entrepreneurs. Based on case studies carried out in France, the US, South…

  15. Preparing Teachers for a Mobile World, to Improve Access to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ally, Mohamed; Grimus, Margarete; Ebner, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Recent statistics on the use of mobile technology proclaim that the world is becoming mobile. People use their phones to socialize, to conduct business, to search for information, and more. For the first time in history, people around the world have the potential to learn from any location at their own convenience. But first, education systems…

  16. Open-Access Textbooks and Financial Sustainability: A Case Study on Flat World Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, John, III; Wiley, David

    2011-01-01

    Many college students and their families are concerned about the high costs of textbooks. A company called Flat World Knowledge both gives away and sells open-source textbooks in a way it believes to be financially sustainable. This article reports on the financial sustainability of the Flat World Knowledge open-source textbook model after one…

  17. Mapping the footsteps of the green anole: A template for publishing ecological data on the World Wide Web

    SciTech Connect

    Carnes, E.T.; Truett, D.F.; Truett, L.F.

    1996-10-01

    In the handful of years since the World Wide Web (WWW or Web) came into being, Web sites have developed at an astonishing rate. With the influx of Web pages comes a disparity of site types, including personal homepages, commercial sales sites, and educational data. The variety of sites and the deluge of information contained on the Web exemplify the individual nature of the WWW. Whereas some people argue that it is this eclecticism which gives the Web its charm, we propose that sites which are repositories of technical data would benefit from standardization. This paper proffers a methodology for publishing ecological research on the Web. The template we describe uses capabilities of HTML (the HyperText Markup Language) to enhance the value of the traditional scientific paper.

  18. Local time variation in land/ocean lightning flash density as measured by the World Wide Lightning Location Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay, Erin H.; Jacobson, Abram R.; Holzworth, Robert H.; Rodger, Craig J.; Dowden, Richard L.

    2007-07-01

    We study local time variation in high peak current lightning over land versus over ocean by using lightning locations from the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN). Optical lightning data from the photodiode detector on the Fast On-Orbit Recording of Transient Events (FORTE) satellite are used to determine the relative detection efficiency of the WWLLN for lightning events by region, as well as over land versus over ocean. We find that the peak lightning flash density varies for the different continents by up to 5 hours in local time. Because the WWLLN measures lightning strokes with large peak currents, the variation in local time of WWLLN-detected strokes suggests a similar variation in local time of transient luminous events (e.g., elves) and their effects on the lower ionosphere.

  19. The efficacy of using search engines in procuring information about orthopaedic foot and ankle problems from the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Nogler, M; Wimmer, C; Mayr, E; Ofner, D

    1999-05-01

    This study has attempted to demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining information specific to foot and ankle orthopaedics from the World Wide Web (WWW). Six search engines (Lycos, AltaVista, Infoseek, Excite, Webcrawler, and HotBot) were used in scanning the Web for the following key words: "cavus foot," "diabetic foot," "hallux valgus,"and "pes equinovarus." Matches were classified by language, provider, type, and relevance to medical professionals or to patients. Sixty percent (407 sites) of the visited websites contained information intended for use by physicians and other medical professionals; 30% (206 sites) were related to patient information; 10% of the sites were not easily classifiable. Forty-one percent (169 sites) of the websites were commercially oriented homepages that included advertisements.

  20. Internet Technology in Magnetic Resonance: A Common Gateway Interface Program for the World-Wide Web NMR Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buszko, Marian L.; Buszko, Dominik; Wang, Daniel C.

    1998-04-01

    A custom-written Common Gateway Interface (CGI) program for remote control of an NMR spectrometer using a World Wide Web browser has been described. The program, running on a UNIX workstation, uses multiple processes to handle concurrent tasks of interacting with the user and with the spectrometer. The program's parent process communicates with the browser and sends out commands to the spectrometer; the child process is mainly responsible for data acquisition. Communication between the processes is via the shared memory mechanism. The WWW pages that have been developed for the system make use of the frames feature of web browsers. The CGI program provides an intuitive user interface to the NMR spectrometer, making, in effect, a complex system an easy-to-use Web appliance.

  1. A pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) study that suggests a major world-wide clone of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Pang, Jen-Chieh; Chiu, Tsai-Hsin; Helmuth, Reiner; Schroeter, Andreas; Guerra, Beatriz; Tsen, Hau-Yang

    2007-05-30

    Since human infections by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) have been increasing world-wide over the past years and epidemiological studies have implicated the consumption of meat, poultry, eggs and egg products, elucidation of the predominant subtypes for this Salmonella spp. is important. In this study, 107 poultry and food isolates of Salmonella Enteritidis obtained from Germany were analyzed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and the subtypes were compared with those of the 124 human isolates obtained in Taiwan. Results showed that for these 107 poultry and food isolates, when XbaI, SpeI and NotI were used for chromosomal DNA digestion followed by PFGE analysis, a total of 19, 20 and 19 PFGE patterns, respectively, were identified. Of them, 51 (47.7%), 52 (48.6%) and 42 (39.3%) strains belong to a single pattern of X3, S3 and N3, respectively, and 34 strains belong to a pattern combination of X3S3N3, which was the major subtype. When PFGE patterns of these 107 German isolates were compared with those of the 124 human isolates obtained in Taiwan, pattern combination of X3S3N3 was found as the most common pattern shared by isolates from both areas. PT4 is a major phage type for German and Taiwan isolates. Although most of the X3S3N3 strains are of this phage type, some strains of other PFGE patterns are also of this phage type. Since strains used in this study were unrelated, i.e., they were isolated from different origins in areas geographically far apart from each other, the PFGE study suggests a major world-wide clone of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis.

  2. Identification and Characterization of Highly Divergent Simian Foamy Viruses in a Wide Range of New World Primates from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Muniz, Cláudia P.; Troncoso, Lian L.; Moreira, Miguel A.; Soares, Esmeralda A.; Pissinatti, Alcides; Bonvicino, Cibele R.; Seuánez, Héctor N.; Sharma, Bechan; Jia, Hongwei; Shankar, Anupama; Switzer, William M.; Santos, André F.; Soares, Marcelo A.

    2013-01-01

    Foamy viruses naturally infect a wide range of mammals, including Old World (OWP) and New World primates (NWP), which are collectively called simian foamy viruses (SFV). While NWP species in Central and South America are highly diverse, only SFV from captive marmoset, spider monkey, and squirrel monkey have been genetically characterized and the molecular epidemiology of SFV infection in NWPs remains unknown. We tested a large collection of genomic DNA (n  = 332) comprising 14 genera of NWP species for the presence of SFV polymerase (pol) sequences using generic PCR primers. Further molecular characterization of positive samples was carried out by LTR-gag and larger pol sequence analysis. We identified novel SFVs infecting nine NWP genera. Prevalence rates varied between 14–30% in different species for which at least 10 specimens were tested. High SFV genetic diversity among NWP up to 50% in LTR-gag and 40% in pol was revealed by intragenus and intrafamilial comparisons. Two different SFV strains infecting two captive yellow-breasted capuchins did not group in species-specific lineages but rather clustered with SFVs from marmoset and spider monkeys, indicating independent cross-species transmission events. We describe the first SFV epidemiology study of NWP, and the first evidence of SFV infection in wild NWPs. We also document a wide distribution of distinct SFVs in 14 NWP genera, including two novel co-speciating SFVs in capuchins and howler monkeys, suggestive of an ancient evolutionary history in NWPs for at least 28 million years. A high SFV genetic diversity was seen among NWP, yet these viruses seem able to jump between NWP species and even genera. Our results raise concerns for the risk of zoonotic transmission of NWP SFV to humans as these primates are regularly hunted for food or kept as pets in forest regions of South America. PMID:23844033

  3. Dynamic Interactive Educational Diabetes Simulations Using the World Wide Web: An Experience of More Than 15 Years with AIDA Online.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Eldon D; Dewolf, Dennis K; Novotny, Christopher A; Reed, Karen; Gotwals, Robert R

    2014-01-01

    Background. AIDA is a widely available downloadable educational simulator of glucose-insulin interaction in diabetes. Methods. A web-based version of AIDA was developed that utilises a server-based architecture with HTML FORM commands to submit numerical data from a web-browser client to a remote web server. AIDA online, located on a remote server, passes the received data through Perl scripts which interactively produce 24 hr insulin and glucose simulations. Results. AIDA online allows users to modify the insulin regimen and diet of 40 different prestored "virtual diabetic patients" on the internet or create new "patients" with user-generated regimens. Multiple simulations can be run, with graphical results viewed via a standard web-browser window. To date, over 637,500 diabetes simulations have been run at AIDA online, from all over the world. Conclusions. AIDA online's functionality is similar to the downloadable AIDA program, but the mode of implementation and usage is different. An advantage to utilising a server-based application is the flexibility that can be offered. New modules can be added quickly to the online simulator. This has facilitated the development of refinements to AIDA online, which have instantaneously become available around the world, with no further local downloads or installations being required.

  4. Dynamic Interactive Educational Diabetes Simulations Using the World Wide Web: An Experience of More Than 15 Years with AIDA Online

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Eldon D.; DeWolf, Dennis K.; Novotny, Christopher A.; Reed, Karen; Gotwals, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    Background. AIDA is a widely available downloadable educational simulator of glucose-insulin interaction in diabetes. Methods. A web-based version of AIDA was developed that utilises a server-based architecture with HTML FORM commands to submit numerical data from a web-browser client to a remote web server. AIDA online, located on a remote server, passes the received data through Perl scripts which interactively produce 24 hr insulin and glucose simulations. Results. AIDA online allows users to modify the insulin regimen and diet of 40 different prestored “virtual diabetic patients” on the internet or create new “patients” with user-generated regimens. Multiple simulations can be run, with graphical results viewed via a standard web-browser window. To date, over 637,500 diabetes simulations have been run at AIDA online, from all over the world. Conclusions. AIDA online's functionality is similar to the downloadable AIDA program, but the mode of implementation and usage is different. An advantage to utilising a server-based application is the flexibility that can be offered. New modules can be added quickly to the online simulator. This has facilitated the development of refinements to AIDA online, which have instantaneously become available around the world, with no further local downloads or installations being required. PMID:24511312

  5. Toward a Next Generation of Widely Accessible Spatial Interfaces: Mobile VR Environments for Patients with Persistent Pain

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, David; Korsakov, Fedor; Jolton, Joseph; Keefe, Francis J.; Haley, Alex; Keefe, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    We present a series of multi-modal spatial interfaces and virtual environments that can be implemented with widely accessible virtual reality (VR) technologies. The results demonstrate and evaluate the new degree to which rich virtual experiences involving motion sensing, physiological inputs, stereoscopic imagery, sound, and haptic feedback can now be created using low-cost (e.g., mobile phone based) VR environments. Adapting spatial interfaces to these new platforms can open up exciting new application areas for VR. This is demonstrated through a series of prototype systems aimed at delivering in-home VR therapies to patients suffering from persistent pain conditions (e.g. arthritis pain, cancer pain). A rich spatial interface and visual aesthetic is particularly important for the success of these applications; thus an interdisciplinary team with expertise in technology, design, meditation, and the psychology of pain worked together to iteratively develop and evaluate the current prototypes. PMID:24807994

  6. Trade policy, health, and corporate influence: British American tobacco and China's accession to the World Trade Organization.

    PubMed

    Holden, Chris; Lee, Kelley; Gilmore, Anna; Fooks, Gary; Wander, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco market liberalization can have a profound impact on health. This article analyzes internal documents of British American Tobacco (BAT), released as a result of litigation in the United States, in order to examine the company's attempts to influence negotiations over China's accession to the World Trade Organization. The documents demonstrate that BAT attempted to influence these negotiations through a range of mechanisms, including personal access of BAT employees and lobbyists to policymakers; employment of former civil servants from key U.K. government departments; use of organized business groups such as the Multinational Chairmen's Group and the European Round Table; and participation and leadership in forums organized by Chatham House. These processes contributed to significant concessions on the liberalization of the tobacco market in China, although the failure to break the Chinese state monopoly over the manufacture and distribution of cigarettes has ensured that foreign tobacco companies' share of the Chinese market has remained small. World Trade Organization accession has nevertheless led to a profound restructuring of the Chinese tobacco industry in anticipation of foreign competition, which may result in more market-based and internationally oriented Chinese tobacco firms.

  7. The Big Census Data Revolution: IPUMS-International. Trans-Border Access to Decades of Census Samples for Three-Fourths of the World and more

    PubMed Central

    McCaa, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade a revolution has occurred in the dissemination and analysis of census microdata. This paper discusses the IPUMS-International initiative to liberate census data for researchers world-wide without cost. As of June 2013, academic researchers and policy makers may access, 234 anonymized samples representing 74 countries and totaling over one-half billion person records. The database expands with the addition of 20–30 samples each year. Data are downloadable as extracts from the project website: www.ipums.org/international. To facilitate good use, both metadata and microdata are integrated. The analysis of 450 citations in the project bibliography reveals patterns in publications by country and topic. PMID:25506369

  8. Accessibility

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Federal laws, including Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act, mandate that people with disabilities have access to the same information that someone without a disability would have. 508 standards cover electronic and information technology (EIT) products.

  9. Online Public Access Catalog: The Google Maps of the Library World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Kieren

    2011-01-01

    What do Google Maps and a library's Online Public Access Catalog (OPAC) have in common? Google Maps provides users with all the information they need for a trip in one place; users can get directions and find out what attractions, hotels, and restaurants are close by. Librarians must find the ultimate OPAC that will provide, in one place, all the…

  10. Mobilizing Curriculum Studies in a (Virtual) World: Open Access, Edupunks, and the Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Julie Ann; Ng-A-Fook, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Despite societal imperatives for equity--whether espoused by nation states or transnational agencies like UNESCO--current models of higher education are unequivocally failing to provide universal access. This paper seeks to explore the (cyber)spaces (un)occupied by higher education, specifically in the area of curriculum studies, arguing that the…

  11. Mind the gaps - the epidemiology of poor-quality anti-malarials in the malarious world - analysis of the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network database

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Poor quality medicines threaten the lives of millions of patients and are alarmingly common in many parts of the world. Nevertheless, the global extent of the problem remains unknown. Accurate estimates of the epidemiology of poor quality medicines are sparse and are influenced by sampling methodology and diverse chemical analysis techniques. In order to understand the existing data, the Antimalarial Quality Scientific Group at WWARN built a comprehensive, open-access, global database and linked Antimalarial Quality Surveyor, an online visualization tool. Analysis of the database is described here, the limitations of the studies and data reported, and their public health implications discussed. Methods The database collates customized summaries of 251 published anti-malarial quality reports in English, French and Spanish by time and location since 1946. It also includes information on assays to determine quality, sampling and medicine regulation. Results No publicly available reports for 60.6% (63) of the 104 malaria-endemic countries were found. Out of 9,348 anti-malarials sampled, 30.1% (2,813) failed chemical/packaging quality tests with 39.3% classified as falsified, 2.3% as substandard and 58.3% as poor quality without evidence available to categorize them as either substandard or falsified. Only 32.3% of the reports explicitly described their definitions of medicine quality and just 9.1% (855) of the samples collected in 4.6% (six) surveys were conducted using random sampling techniques. Packaging analysis was only described in 21.5% of publications and up to twenty wrong active ingredients were found in falsified anti-malarials. Conclusions There are severe neglected problems with anti-malarial quality but there are important caveats to accurately estimate the prevalence and distribution of poor quality anti-malarials. The lack of reports in many malaria-endemic areas, inadequate sampling techniques and inadequate chemical analytical methods and

  12. Toward Robust Climate Baselining: Objective Assessment of Climate Change Using Widely Distributed Miniaturized Sensors for Accurate World-Wide Geophysical Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Teller, E; Leith, C; Canavan, G; Marion, J; Wood, L

    2001-11-13

    A gap-free, world-wide, ocean-, atmosphere-, and land surface-spanning geophysical data-set of three decades time-duration containing the full set of geophysical parameters characterizing global weather is the scientific perquisite for defining the climate; the generally-accepted definition in the meteorological community is that climate is the 30-year running-average of weather. Until such a tridecadal climate base line exists, climate change discussions inevitably will have a semi-speculative, vs. a purely scientific, character, as the baseline against which changes are referenced will be at least somewhat uncertain. The contemporary technology base provides ways-and-means for commencing the development of such a meteorological measurement-intensive climate baseline, moreover with a program budget far less than the {approx}$2.5 B/year which the US. currently spends on ''global change'' studies. In particular, the recent advent of satellite-based global telephony enables real-time control of, and data-return from, instrument packages of very modest scale, and Silicon Revolution-based sensor, data-processing and -storage advances permit 'intelligent' data-gathering payloads to be created with 10 gram-scale mass budgets. A geophysical measurement system implemented in such modern technology is a populous constellation 03 long-lived, highly-miniaturized robotic weather stations deployed throughout the weather-generating portions of the Earths atmosphere, throughout its oceans and across its land surfaces. Leveraging the technological advances of the OS, the filly-developed atmospheric weather station of this system has a projected weight of the order of 1 ounce, and contains a satellite telephone, a GPS receiver, a full set of atmospheric sensing instruments and a control computer - and has an operational life of the order of 1 year and a mass-production cost of the order of $20. Such stations are effectively ''intra-atmospheric satellites'' but likely have serial

  13. Number Worlds: Visual and Experimental Access to Elementary Number Theory Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Nathalie; Zazkis, Rina; Liljedahl, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Recent research demonstrates that many issues related to the structure of natural numbers and the relationship among numbers are not well grasped by students. In this article, we describe a computer-based learning environment called "Number Worlds" that was designed to support the exploration of elementary number theory concepts by…

  14. Genome-Wide Association Study for Traits Related to Plant and Grain Morphology, and Root Architecture in Temperate Rice Accessions

    PubMed Central

    Cozzi, Paolo; Casella, Laura; Riccardi, Paolo; Vattari, Alessandra; Orasen, Gabriele; Perrini, Rosaria; Tacconi, Gianni; Tondelli, Alessandro; Biselli, Chiara; Cattivelli, Luigi; Spindel, Jennifer; McCouch, Susan; Abbruscato, Pamela; Valé, Giampiero; Piffanelli, Pietro; Greco, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    Background In this study we carried out a genome-wide association analysis for plant and grain morphology and root architecture in a unique panel of temperate rice accessions adapted to European pedo-climatic conditions. This is the first study to assess the association of selected phenotypic traits to specific genomic regions in the narrow genetic pool of temperate japonica. A set of 391 rice accessions were GBS-genotyped yielding—after data editing—57000 polymorphic and informative SNPS, among which 54% were in genic regions. Results In total, 42 significant genotype-phenotype associations were detected: 21 for plant morphology traits, 11 for grain quality traits, 10 for root architecture traits. The FDR of detected associations ranged from 3 · 10−7 to 0.92 (median: 0.25). In most cases, the significant detected associations co-localised with QTLs and candidate genes controlling the phenotypic variation of single or multiple traits. The most significant associations were those for flag leaf width on chromosome 4 (FDR = 3 · 10−7) and for plant height on chromosome 6 (FDR = 0.011). Conclusions We demonstrate the effectiveness and resolution of the developed platform for high-throughput phenotyping, genotyping and GWAS in detecting major QTLs for relevant traits in rice. We identified strong associations that may be used for selection in temperate irrigated rice breeding: e.g. associations for flag leaf width, plant height, root volume and length, grain length, grain width and their ratio. Our findings pave the way to successfully exploit the narrow genetic pool of European temperate rice and to pinpoint the most relevant genetic components contributing to the adaptability and high yield of this germplasm. The generated data could be of direct use in genomic-assisted breeding strategies. PMID:27228161

  15. Examining Our Instrumented World for Greater Understanding; N.E.S.O. Provides Access to NASA Remote Sensing Data That Describes Our World and How It Is Changing.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    NASA Earth and Space Observations (NESO) is an interactive map and measurements tool that fosters active sharing and discussion among dispersed learners and educators in both formal and informal settings. NESO provides access to timely and relevant remote sensing data which will enable novice or non-technical users to pursue a scientific inquiry process to reach conclusions about our changing world as scientists might do. Participants in this session will gain a working knowledge of how to ask questions of NASA data using the functionality and interactivity of our tool across three platforms; a webpage, an iPad app, and NOAA's Science on a Sphere(SOS). We will access data to create animations and time series over entire missions and allow the user to generate specific statistics and graphs.The name NESO is derived from the web tool NEO which provided the original functionality, and Earth Science data sets. The tool has been enhanced and expanded to include Space Science data sets such as planetary, lunar, and all-sky maps, and we are continuing to expand the data catalog. Our future work includes a support web page for educators and other users with samples of analysis and lesson plans. The next phase of tool development will include layering capability, floating point data handling, and an additional server mode to drive other display technologies such as high resolution flat panel systems.

  16. Driving nanocars and nanomachines at interfaces: From concept of nanoarchitectonics to actual use in world wide race and hand operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, Yasuhiro; Minami, Kosuke; Nakanishi, Waka; Yonamine, Yusuke; Joachim, Christian; Ariga, Katsuhiko

    2016-11-01

    Nanomachine and molecular machines are state-of-the-art objects in current physics and chemistry. The operation and manufacturing of nanosize machines are top-level technologies that we have desired to accomplish for a long time. There have been extensive attempts to design and synthesize nanomachines. In this paper, we review the these attempts using the concept of nanoarchitectonics toward the design, synthesis, and testing of molecular machinery, especially at interfacial media. In the first half of this review, various historical attempts to design and prepare nanomachines are introduced as well as their operation mechanisms from their basic principles. Furthermore, in order to emphasize the importance and possibilities of this research field, we also give examples of two new challenging topics in the second half of this review: (i) a world wide nanocar race and (ii) new modes of nanomachine operation on water. The nanocar race event involves actual use of nanomachines and will take place in the near future, and nanomachine operation of a dynamic fluidic interface will enable future advances in nanomachine science and technology.

  17. Genome-wide screening for highly discriminative SNPs for personal identification and their assessment in world populations.

    PubMed

    Li, Liming; Wang, Yi; Yang, Shuping; Xia, Mingying; Yang, Yajun; Wang, Jiucun; Lu, Daru; Pan, Xingwei; Ma, Teng; Jiang, Pei; Yu, Ge; Zhao, Ziqin; Ping, Yuan; Zhou, Huaigu; Zhao, Xueying; Sun, Hui; Liu, Bing; Jia, Dongtao; Li, Chengtao; Hu, Rile; Lu, Hongzhou; Liu, Xiaoyang; Chen, Wenqing; Mi, Qin; Xue, Fuzhong; Su, Yongdong; Jin, Li; Li, Shilin

    2017-05-01

    The applications of DNA profiling aim to identify perpetrators, missing family members and disaster victims in forensic investigations. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) based forensic applications are emerging rapidly with a potential to replace short tandem repeats (STRs) based panels which are now being used widely, and there is a need for a well-designed SNP panel to meet such challenge for this transition. Here we present a panel of 175 SNP markers (referred to as Fudan ID Panel or FID), selected from ∼3.6 million SNPs, for the application of personal identification. We optimized and validated FID panel using 729 Chinese individuals using a next generation sequencing (NGS) technology. We showed that the SNPs in the panel possess very high heterozygosity as well as low within- and among-continent differentiations, enabling FID panel exhibit discrimination power in both regional and worldwide populations, with the average match probabilities ranging from 4.77×10(-71) to 1.06×10(-64) across 54 world populations. With the advent of biomedical research, the SNPs connecting physical anthropological, physiological, behavioral and phenotypic traits will be eventually added to the forensic panels that will revolutionize criminal investigation.

  18. Data access systems in the real world: How distributed environmental and socio-economic data from the Dutch Wadden Sea are being integrated and made accessible through one portal, using the SeaDataNet infrastructure as a basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Bruin, T.; Thijsse, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Wadden Sea, an UNESCO World Heritage Site along the Northern coasts of The Netherlands, Germany and Denmark, is a very valuable, yet also highly vulnerable tidal flats area. It is noted for its ecological diversity and value, being a stopover for large numbers of migrating birds. The Wadden Sea is also used intensively for economic activities by inhabitants of the surrounding coasts and islands, as well as by the many tourists visiting the area every year. A whole series of monitoring programmes of both ecological and socio-economic parameters is carried out by a range of governmental bodies and institutes, to study the natural processes occuring in the Wadden Sea ecosystems as well as the influence of human activities on those ecosystems. Yet, the monitoring programmes are scattered and it is difficult to get an overview of those monitoring activities or to get access to the data resulting from those monitoring programmes. The Wadden Sea Long Term Ecosystem Research (WaLTER) project aims to: 1. Provide access through one data portal to a base set of consistent, standardized, long-term data on changes in the Wadden Sea ecological and socio-economic systems, in order to model and understand interrelationships with human use, climate variation and possible other drivers. 2. Provide a research infrastructure, open access to commonly shared databases, educational facilities and one or more field sites in which experimental, innovative and process-driven research can be carried out. This presentation will, after a short introduction of the WaLTER-project (2011-2015), focus on the distributed data access infrastructure which is being developed and used for WaLTER. This is based on and makes use of the existing data access infrastructure of the Netherlands National Oceanographic Data Committee (NL-NODC), which has been operational since early 2009. The NL-NODC system is identical to and in fact developed by the European SeaDataNet project, furthering standardisation

  19. Accessing numeric data via flags and tags: A final report on a real world experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kottenstette, J. P.; Freeman, J. E.; Staskin, E. R.; Hargrave, C. W.

    1978-01-01

    An experiment is reported which: extended the concepts of data flagging and tagging to the aerospace scientific and technical literature; generated experience with the assignment of data summaries and data terms by documentation specialists; and obtained real world assessments of data summaries and data terms in information products and services. Inclusion of data summaries and data terms improved users' understanding of referenced documents from a subject perspective as well as from a data perspective; furthermore, a radical shift in document ordering behavior occurred during the experiment toward proportionately more requests for data-summarized items.

  20. Extensive diversity and inter-genepool introgression in a world-wide collection of indeterminate snap bean accessions.

    PubMed

    Blair, Matthew W; Chaves, Alejandro; Tofiño, Adriana; Calderón, Juan Felipe; Palacio, Juan Diego

    2010-05-01

    Common bean can be grown as a grain crop (dry beans) or as a fresh vegetable (snap beans/green beans), both items being important in nutritional terms for providing essential minerals and vitamins to the diet. Snap beans are thought to be derived predominantly from dry beans of the Andean genepool and to be of a recent European origin; however, the existence of Mesoamerican genepool characteristics especially in traditional indeterminate growth habit snap beans indicates a wider origin. The objective of this study was to evaluate genetic diversity within a set of 120 indeterminate (pole type) snap beans and 7 control genotypes representing each genepool using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and simple sequence repeat or microsatellite (SSR) markers. The genotypes were predominantly from Asia, Europe and the United States but included some varieties from Latin America and Africa. AFLP polymorphism ranged from 53.2 to 67.7% while SSR polymorphism averaged 95.3% for the 32 fluorescent and 11 non-fluorescent markers evaluated and total expected heterozygosity was higher for SSR markers (0.521) than for AFLP markers (0.209). Both marker systems grouped the genotypes into two genepools with Andean and Mesoamerican controls, respectively, with the Mesoamerican group being predominant in terms of the number of genotypes assigned to this genepool. Phaseolin alleles were not tightly associated with genepool assignment indicating that introgression of this locus had occurred between the genepools, especially with phaseolin "S" in the Andean group (23.5%) and phaseolins "T" and "C" in the Mesoamerican group (12.2 and 8.2%, respectively). The implications of these results on the origin of pole type snap beans and on breeding strategies for this horticultural crop are discussed.

  1. World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilinc, M.; Beringer, J.; Hutley, L.; Kurioka, K.; Wood, S.; D'Argent, N.; Martin, D.; McHugh, I.; Tapper, N.; McGuire, D.

    2009-04-01

    Natural forests store vast amounts of carbon in the terrestrial biosphere, and play an important role in the global carbon cycle. Given the significance of natural forests, there is a lack of carbon accounting of primary forests that are undisturbed by human activities. One reason for this lack of interest stems from ecological orthodoxy that suggests that primary forests should be close to dynamic equilibrium, in that Net Ecosystem Production (NEP) approaches zero. However, recent results from the northern hemisphere and tropics, using eddy covariance flux towers, indicate that primary forests are a greater sink than first thought. The role of evergreen primary forests in Australian carbon balance studies remain uncertain and hence may function differently to their deciduous counterparts in the Northern Hemisphere. In order to address the lack of baseline carbon accounts, an undisturbed, 300 year old Mountain Ash (Eucalyptus regnans) ecosystem, located in the Central Highlands of Victoria (Australia) was selected as a permanent study site to investigate carbon and water budgets over diurnal, seasonal and annual cycles. Mountain Ash trees are the world's tallest angiosperms (flowering plants), and one of the largest carbon reservoirs in the biosphere, with an estimated 1900 tC ha-1. A 110 m tall micrometeorological tower that includes eddy covariance instrumentation was installed in August 2005. An independent biometric approach quantifying the annual net gain or loss of carbon was also made within close proximity to the flux tower. Analysis of NEP in 2006 suggests that the ecosystem acted as a carbon sink of 2.5 tC ha-1 yr-1. Woody and soil biomass increment for the same year was estimated to be 2.8 tC ha-1yr-1, in which nearly half of the biomass production was partitioned into the aboveground woody tissue. These results indicate that temperate primary forests act as carbon sinks, and are able to maintain their carbon sink status due to their uneven stand

  2. Evolution and connectivity in the world-wide migration system of the mallard: Inferences from mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Main waterfowl migration systems are well understood through ringing activities. However, in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) ringing studies suggest deviations from general migratory trends and traditions in waterfowl. Furthermore, surprisingly little is known about the population genetic structure of mallards, and studying it may yield insight into the spread of diseases such as Avian Influenza, and in management and conservation of wetlands. The study of evolution of genetic diversity and subsequent partitioning thereof during the last glaciation adds to ongoing discussions on the general evolution of waterfowl populations and flyway evolution. Hypothesised mallard flyways are tested explicitly by analysing mitochondrial mallard DNA from the whole northern hemisphere. Results Phylogenetic analyses confirm two mitochondrial mallard clades. Genetic differentiation within Eurasia and North-America is low, on a continental scale, but large differences occur between these two land masses (FST = 0.51). Half the genetic variance lies within sampling locations, and a negligible portion between currently recognised waterfowl flyways, within Eurasia and North-America. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) at continent scale, incorporating sampling localities as smallest units, also shows the absence of population structure on the flyway level. Finally, demographic modelling by coalescence simulation proposes a split between Eurasia and North-America 43,000 to 74,000 years ago and strong population growth (~100fold) since then and little migration (not statistically different from zero). Conclusions Based on this first complete assessment of the mallard's world-wide population genetic structure we confirm that no more than two mtDNA clades exist. Clade A is characteristic for Eurasia, and clade B for North-America although some representatives of clade A are also found in North-America. We explain this pattern by evaluating competing hypotheses and conclude that a

  3. 28 CFR 16.41 - Requests for access to records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the Government Printing Office's World Wide Web site (which can be found at http://www.access.gpo.gov... accessed electronically at the Government Printing Office's World Wide Web site (which can be found at http... requested records, you may also, at your option, include your social security number. (e) Verification...

  4. 6 CFR 5.21 - Requests for access to records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... accessed electronically at the Government Printing Office's World Wide Web site (which can be found at http... Printing Office's World Wide Web site (which can be found at http://www.access.gpo.gov/su_docs). (c... acting on behalf of that individual in making the request. (f) Verification in the case of third...

  5. 6 CFR 5.21 - Requests for access to records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... accessed electronically at the Government Printing Office's World Wide Web site (which can be found at http... Printing Office's World Wide Web site (which can be found at http://www.access.gpo.gov/su_docs). (c... requested records, you may also, at your option, include your social security number. (e) Verification...

  6. Successful Wide Hybridization and Introgression Breeding in a Diverse Set of Common Peppers (Capsicum annuum) Using Different Cultivated Ají (C. baccatum) Accessions as Donor Parents

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Capsicum baccatum, commonly known as ají, has been reported as a source of variation for many different traits to improve common pepper (C. annuum), one of the most important vegetables in the world. However, strong interspecific hybridization barriers exist between them. A comparative study of two wide hybridization approaches for introgressing C. baccatum genes into C. annuum was performed: i) genetic bridge (GB) using C. chinense and C. frutescens as bridge species; and, ii) direct cross between C. annuum and C. baccatum combined with in vitro embryo rescue (ER). A diverse and representative collection of 18 accessions from four cultivated species of Capsicum was used, including C. annuum (12), C. baccatum (3), C. chinense (2), and C. frutescens (1). More than 5000 crosses were made and over 1000 embryos were rescued in the present study. C. chinense performed as a good bridge species between C. annuum and C. baccatum, with the best results being obtained with the cross combination [C. baccatum (♀) × C. chinense (♂)] (♀) × C. annuum (♂), while C. frutescens gave poor results as bridge species due to strong prezygotic and postzygotic barriers. Virus-like-syndrome or dwarfism was observed in F1 hybrids when both C. chinense and C. frutescens were used as female parents. Regarding the ER strategy, the best response was found in C. annuum (♀) × C. baccatum (♂) crosses. First backcrosses to C. annuum (BC1s) were obtained according to the crossing scheme [C. annuum (♀) × C. baccatum (♂)] (♀) × C. annuum (♂) using ER. Advantages and disadvantages of each strategy are discussed in relation to their application to breeding programmes. These results provide breeders with useful practical information for the regular utilization of the C. baccatum gene pool in C. annuum breeding. PMID:26642059

  7. The HyperText Markup Language (HTML) and the World-Wide Web: Raising ASCII Text to a New Level of Usability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Jeff

    1994-01-01

    Describes HyperText Markup Language (HTML), which is used to format documents for the World-Wide Web. HTML tags that enhance ASCII files, examples of their use, and guidelines for organizing hypertext documents are given. Types of documents suitable for the Web and the future of HTML are discussed. (Contains seven references.) (KRN)

  8. The World Wide Web as a Tool for Information Retrieval: An Exploratory Study of Users' Strategies in an Open-Ended System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Janette R.

    1997-01-01

    Presents the results of an exploratory study that focused on three elements in information retrieval research: the ways information systems are being used, the strategies users engage as they work in these systems, and the use of the World Wide Web as an information retrieval tool. Highlights include open-ended systems and self-efficacy.…

  9. Improving Web Accessibility in a University Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olive, Geoffrey C.

    2010-01-01

    Improving Web accessibility for disabled users visiting a university's Web site is explored following the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) guidelines and Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act rules for Web page designers to ensure accessibility. The literature supports the view that accessibility is sorely lacking, not only in the USA, but also…

  10. Open-Access Electronic Textbooks: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ovadia, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Given the challenging economic climate in the United States, many academics are looking to open-access electronic textbooks as a way to provide students with traditional textbook content at a more financially advantageous price. Open access refers to "the free and widely available information throughout the World Wide Web. Once an article's…

  11. Models for User Access Patterns on the Web: Semantic Content versus Access History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Arun; Owen, Charles B.; Vailaya, Aditya

    This paper focuses on clustering a World Wide Web site (i.e., the 1998 World Cup Soccer site) into groups of documents that are predictive of future user accesses. Two approaches were developed and tested. The first approach uses semantic information inherent in the documents to facilitate the clustering process. User access history is then used…

  12. The world-wide increase in tuberculosis: how demographic changes, HIV infection and increasing numbers in poverty are increasing tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Davies, Peter D O

    2003-01-01

    After more than a century of decline, in the mid 1980s tuberculosis began to increase in some developed countries. Health care workers were then forced to look to the developing world, where they found tuberculosis to be out of control, in many countries. It is now appreciated that tuberculosis is not only increasing globally but is likely to do so beyond the next decade for three principal reasons. First, demographically as the expected population increase will be greatest in areas of the world where tuberculosis is most prevalent, particularly middle Africa and South Asia. Secondly, the increase of HIV, which renders the host uniquely susceptible to tuberculosis, is occurring in the same areas of the world and is already causing an increase in tuberculosis case rates of up to tenfold. Thirdly, as more and more people are forced to live in poverty, where poor nutrition and crowded conditions lead to the spread of tuberculosis, the disease risk will be compounded. Sound medical management, particularly the use of the five components of directly observed therapy, will relieve the situation. But until world conditions of poverty and HIV spread are addressed, it is unlikely that tuberculosis can be controlled.

  13. Access to Transplantation and Transplant Outcome Measures (ATTOM): study protocol of a UK wide, in-depth, prospective cohort analysis

    PubMed Central

    Oniscu, Gabriel C; Ravanan, Rommel; Wu, Diana; Gibbons, Andrea; Li, Bernadette; Tomson, Charles; Forsythe, John L; Bradley, Clare; Cairns, John; Dudley, Christopher; Watson, Christopher J E; Bolton, Eleanor M; Draper, Heather; Robb, Matthew; Bradbury, Lisa; Pruthi, Rishi; Metcalfe, Wendy; Fogarty, Damian; Roderick, Paul; Bradley, J Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is significant intercentre variability in access to renal transplantation in the UK due to poorly understood factors. The overarching aims of this study are to improve equity of access to kidney and kidney–pancreas transplantation across the UK and to optimise organ allocation to maximise the benefit and cost-effectiveness of transplantation. Methods and analysis 6844 patients aged 18–75 years starting dialysis and/or receiving a transplant together with matched patients active on the transplant list from all 72 UK renal units were recruited between November 2011 and March 2013 and will be followed for at least 3 years. The outcomes of interest include patient survival, access to the transplant list, receipt of a transplant, patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) including quality of life, treatment satisfaction, well-being and health status on different forms of renal replacement therapy. Sociodemographic and clinical data were prospectively collected from case notes and from interviews with patients and local clinical teams. Qualitative process exploration with clinical staff will help identify unit-specific factors that influence access to renal transplantation. A health economic analysis will explore costs and outcomes associated with alternative approaches to organ allocation. The study will deliver: (1) an understanding of patient and unit-specific factors influencing access to renal transplantation in the UK, informing potential changes to practices and policies to optimise outcomes and reduce intercentre variability; (2) a patient-survival probability model to standardise access to the renal transplant list and (3) an understanding of PROMs and health economic impact of kidney and kidney–pancreas transplantation to inform the development of a more sophisticated and fairer organ allocation algorithm. Ethics and dissemination The protocol has been independently peer reviewed by National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) and

  14. The Sector-Wide Approach in Bangladesh Primary Education: A Critical View. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 57

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Manzoor

    2011-01-01

    This monograph, in the CREATE Pathways to Access series, is about the modality of cooperation and programme management in primary education in Bangladesh, based specifically on the experience of the Second Primary Education Development Programme (PEDP II). It is not intended to be an assessment of PEDP II accomplishments, but key information and a…

  15. The Whole World at Our Door and in Their Hands: Library Media Specialists, Internet Access, and PDAs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Daniel D.

    2003-01-01

    Considers the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) report on Internet access and the rapidly growing importance of Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) in education. Highlights include school access to the Internet; classroom access; types of connections; home access; special hardware and software for students with disabilities; and…

  16. Genome-Wide Analysis of Nucleosome Positions, Occupancy, and Accessibility in Yeast: Nucleosome Mapping, High-Resolution Histone ChIP, and NCAM.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Jairo; McKnight, Jeffrey N; Tsukiyama, Toshio

    2014-10-01

    Because histones bind DNA very tightly, the location on DNA and the level of occupancy of a given DNA sequence by nucleosomes can profoundly affect accessibility of non-histone proteins to chromatin, affecting virtually all DNA-dependent processes, such as transcription, DNA repair, DNA replication and recombination. Therefore, it is often necessary to determine positions and occupancy of nucleosomes to understand how DNA-dependent processes are regulated. Recent technological advances made such analyses feasible on a genome-wide scale at high resolution. In addition, we have recently developed a method to measure nuclease accessibility of nucleosomes on a global scale. This unit describes methods to map nucleosome positions, to determine nucleosome density, and to determine nuclease accessibility of nucleosomes using deep sequencing.

  17. Accessibility of School Districts' Web Sites: A Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Marty; Flowers, Claudia; Gibson, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Many school districts (SDs) use the World Wide Web (WWW or Web) to disseminate a wide variety of information about things such as district events, policies, and a wide variety of student information. On-line barriers limit the accessibility of the WWW for persons and students with disabilities and thus can limit their access to vital information.…

  18. Raising the Barriers to Access to Medicines in the Developing World - The Relentless Push for Data Exclusivity.

    PubMed

    Diependaele, Lisa; Cockbain, Julian; Sterckx, Sigrid

    2017-04-01

    Since the adoption of the WTO-TRIPS Agreement in 1994, there has been significant controversy over the impact of pharmaceutical patent protection on the access to medicines in the developing world. In addition to the market exclusivity provided by patents, the pharmaceutical industry has also sought to further extend their monopolies by advocating the need for additional 'regulatory' protection for new medicines, known as data exclusivity. Data exclusivity limits the use of clinical trial data that need to be submitted to the regulatory authorities before a new drug can enter the market. For a specified period, generic competitors cannot apply for regulatory approval for equivalent drugs relying on the originator's data. As a consequence, data exclusivity lengthens the monopoly for the original drug, impairing the availability of generic drugs. This article illustrates how the pharmaceutical industry has convinced the US and the EU to impose data exclusivity on their trade partners, many of them developing countries. The key arguments formulated by the pharmaceutical industry in favor of adopting data exclusivity and their underlying ethical assumptions are described in this article, analyzed, and found to be unconvincing. Contrary to industry's arguments, it is unlikely that data exclusivity will promote innovation, especially in developing countries. Moreover, the industry's appeal to a property rights claim over clinical test data and the idea that data exclusivity can prevent the generic competitors from 'free-riding' encounters some important problems: Neither legitimize excluding all others.

  19. Access to Third World Journals and Conference Proceedings: Report on a Workshop at the 59th IFLA General Conference, Barcelona, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Discusses problems in access to journals and conference proceedings published in Third World countries, including government roles, the lack of use of information networks due to costs, serials agents' roles, poor distribution and marketing, poor bibliographic control, postal service and telecommunications, language barriers, and lack of…

  20. International Student Access to U.S. Higher Education since World War II: How NAFSA (Association of International Educators) Has Influenced Federal Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyokawa, Norifumi

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation is a study of the policy process behind the legislation and regulation governing international student access to U.S. higher education since the immediate aftermath of World War II. The particular research focus of this dissertation is on NAFSA: Association of International Educators (originally established as the National…

  1. Widening Access through Openness in Higher Education in the Developing World: A Bourdieusian Field Analysis of Experiences from the National Open University of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olakulehin, Felix Kayode; Singh, Gurmit

    2013-01-01

    Bourdieu has argued that higher education is a field that reproduces social inequality, thus complicating how openness widens access to higher education in the developing world. Drawing on the experiences of the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN), this paper critically analyses and evaluates the rationale, approach, difficulties,…

  2. The role of a nation-wide information system in improving the access to surgery in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Pedro; Lapão, Luís Velez

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the design and definitions of an information system (SIGLIC) to support a new integrated management program (SIGA) to improve the access to surgery in Portugal. SIGIC, the Ministry of Health's agency responsible for access to surgery management, started re-thinking the system in 2005 by re-defining key processes and workflows. The designed information system SIGLIC integrates all hospitals with surgery with every other hospital, where it picks the data to help manage optimal solutions for each patient. The results since 2005 are very interesting and show the importance of an integrated information system to overcome the bureaucracy in the system: it was noticed a 50% improvement in scheduled surgical episodes and a 49% reduction in waiting time.

  3. Genome-Wide Association Study of Ureide Concentration in Diverse Maturity Group IV Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] Accessions

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Jeffery D.; Dhanapal, Arun Prabhu; Singh, Shardendu K.; Hoyos-Villegas, Valerio; Smith, James R.; Purcell, Larry C.; King, C. Andy; Boykin, Debbie; Cregan, Perry B.; Song, Qijian; Fritschi, Felix B.

    2015-01-01

    Ureides are the N-rich products of N-fixation that are transported from soybean nodules to the shoot. Ureides are known to accumulate in leaves in response to water-deficit stress, and this has been used to identify genotypes with reduced N-fixation sensitivity to drought. Our objectives in this research were to determine shoot ureide concentrations in 374 Maturity Group IV soybean accessions and to identify genomic regions associated with shoot ureide concentration. The accessions were grown at two locations (Columbia, MO, and Stuttgart, AR) in 2 yr (2009 and 2010) and characterized for ureide concentration at beginning flowering to full bloom. Average shoot ureide concentrations across all four environments (two locations and two years) and 374 accessions ranged from 12.4 to 33.1 µmol g−1 and were comparable to previously reported values. SNP–ureide associations within and across the four environments were assessed using 33,957 SNPs with a MAF ≥0.03. In total, 53 putative loci on 18 chromosomes were identified as associated with ureide concentration. Two of the putative loci were located near previously reported QTL associated with ureide concentration and 30 loci were located near genes associated with ureide metabolism. The remaining putative loci were not near chromosomal regions previously associated with shoot ureide concentration and may mark new genes involved in ureide metabolism. Ultimately, confirmation of these putative loci will provide new sources of variation for use in soybean breeding programs. PMID:26374596

  4. Utilizing DNA analysis to combat the world wide plague of present day slavery--trafficking in persons.

    PubMed

    Palmbach, Timothy M; Blom, Jeffrey; Hoynes, Emily; Primorac, Dragan; Gaboury, Mario

    2014-02-01

    A study was conducted to determine if modern forensic DNA typing methods can be properly employed throughout the world with a final goal of increasing arrests, prosecutions, and convictions of perpetrators of modern day trafficking in persons while concurrently reducing the burden of victim testimony in legal proceedings. Without interruption of investigations, collection of samples containing DNA was conducted in a variety of settings. Evidentiary samples were analyzed on the ANDE Rapid DNA system. Many of the collected swabs yielded informative short tandem repeat profiles with Rapid DNA technology.

  5. Utilizing DNA analysis to combat the world wide plague of present day slavery – trafficking in persons

    PubMed Central

    Palmbach, Timothy; Blom, Jeffrey; Hoynes, Emily; Primorac, Dragan; Gaboury, Mario

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine if modern forensic DNA typing methods can be properly employed throughout the world with a final goal of increasing arrests, prosecutions, and convictions of perpetrators of modern day trafficking in persons while concurrently reducing the burden of victim testimony in legal proceedings. Without interruption of investigations, collection of samples containing DNA was conducted in a variety of settings. Evidentiary samples were analyzed on the ANDE Rapid DNA system. Many of the collected swabs yielded informative short tandem repeat profiles with Rapid DNA technology. PMID:24577820

  6. Investigating health information needs of community radio stations and applying the World Wide Web to disseminate audio products.

    PubMed

    Snyders, Janus; van Wyk, Elmarie; van Zyl, Hendra

    2010-01-01

    The Web and Media Technologies Platform (WMTP) of the South African Medical Research Council (MRC) conducted a pilot project amongst community radio stations in South Africa. Based on previous research done in Africa WMTP investigated the following research question: How reliable is the content of health information broadcast by community radio stations? The main objectives of the project were to determine the 1) intervals of health slots on community radio stations, 2) sources used by community radio stations for health slots, 3) type of audio products needed for health slots, and 4) to develop a user friendly Web site in response to the stations' needs for easy access to audio material on health information.

  7. [Pathology websites in the World Wide Web. A guide for a specific research of pathology information on the Internet].

    PubMed

    Böhm, J

    2008-05-01

    Being a global information network, the internet has becoming increasingly important for pathologists as a medium for professional communication and information. Although a large number of pathology-specific websites (PSWs) are accessible on the internet, the potentials of PSWs are still barely known. Since there is no global catalog for all the pathology websites, certain PSWs are difficult to find on the internet. PSWs offer lavishly illustrated education material for undergraduates and postgraduates in pathology, but may also be very useful as reference books or as an instrument of continuing medical education (CME) for experienced pathologists. The spectrum of PSW media comprises electronic training manuals, journals, case collections, photo-archives, and even complete section series of virtual microscopy. PSWs are available at any time, can be updated permanently and linked to further online sources of information. We demonstrate how to find PSWs and present an annotated list of some 100 of the best PSWs.

  8. Building upon Historical Competencies: Next-generation Clean-up Technologies for World-Wide Application - 13368

    SciTech Connect

    Guevara, K.C.; Fellinger, A.P.; Aylward, R.S.; Griffin, J.C.; Hyatt, J.E.; Bush, S.R.

    2013-07-01

    The Department of Energy's Savannah River Site has a 60-year history of successfully operating nuclear facilities and cleaning up the nuclear legacy of the Cold War era through the processing of radioactive and otherwise hazardous wastes, remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater, management of nuclear materials, and deactivation and decommissioning of excess facilities. SRS recently unveiled its Enterprise.SRS (E.SRS) strategic vision to identify and facilitate application of the historical competencies of the site to current and future national and global challenges. E.SRS initiatives such as the initiative to Develop and Demonstrate Next generation Clean-up Technologies seek timely and mutually beneficial engagements with entities around the country and the world. One such ongoing engagement is with government and industry in Japan in the recovery from the devastation of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. (authors)

  9. W3MAMCAT: a world wide web based tool for mammillary and catenary compartmental modeling and expert system distinguishability.

    PubMed

    Russell, Solomon; Distefano, Joseph J

    2006-07-01

    W(3)MAMCAT is a new web-based and interactive system for building and quantifying the parameters or parameter ranges of n-compartment mammillary and catenary model structures, with input and output in the first compartment, from unstructured multiexponential (sum-of-n-exponentials) models. It handles unidentifiable as well as identifiable models and, as such, provides finite parameter interval solutions for unidentifiable models, whereas direct parameter search programs typically do not. It also tutorially develops the theory of model distinguishability for same order mammillary versus catenary models, as did its desktop application predecessor MAMCAT+. This includes expert system analysis for distinguishing mammillary from catenary structures, given input and output in similarly numbered compartments. W(3)MAMCAT provides for universal deployment via the internet and enhanced application error checking. It uses supported Microsoft technologies to form an extensible application framework for maintaining a stable and easily updatable application. Most important, anybody, anywhere, is welcome to access it using Internet Explorer 6.0 over the internet for their teaching or research needs. It is available on the Biocybernetics Laboratory website at UCLA: www.biocyb.cs.ucla.edu.

  10. The efficacy of World Wide Web-mediated microcomputer-based laboratory activities in the high school physics classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slykhuis, David A.

    This research project examined the efficacy of an online microcomputer-based laboratory based (MBL) physics unit. One hundred and fifty physics students from five high schools in North Carolina were divided into online and classroom groups. The classroom group completed the MBL unit in small groups with assistance from their teachers. The online groups completed the MBL unit in small groups using a website designed for this project for guidance. Pre- and post-unit content specific tests and surveys were given. Statistical analysis of the content tests showed significant development of conceptual understanding by the online group over the course of the unit. There was not a significant difference between the classroom and online group with relation to the amount of conceptual understanding developed. Correlations with post-test achievement showed that pre-test scores and math background were the most significant correlates with success. Computer related variables, such as computer comfort and online access, were only mildly correlated with the online group. Students' views about the nature of physics were not well developed prior to the unit and did not significantly change over the course of the unit. Examination of the students' physics conceptions after instruction revealed common alternative conceptions such as confusing position and velocity variables and incorrect interpretations of graphical features such as slope.

  11. Study of Streptococcus thermophilus population on a world-wide and historical collection by a new MLST scheme.

    PubMed

    Delorme, Christine; Legravet, Nicolas; Jamet, Emmanuel; Hoarau, Caroline; Alexandre, Bolotin; El-Sharoud, Walid M; Darwish, Mohamed S; Renault, Pierre

    2017-02-02

    We analyzed 178 Streptococcus thermophilus strains isolated from diverse products, from around the world, over a 60-year period with a new multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme. This collection included isolates from two traditional cheese-making sites with different starter-use practices, in sampling campaigns carried out over a three years period. The nucleotide diversity of the S. thermophilus population was limited, but 116 sequence types (ST) were identified. Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated sequences of the six housekeeping genes revealed the existence of groups confirmed by eBURST analysis. Deeper analyses performed on 25 strains by CRISPR and whole-genome analysis showed that phylogenies obtained by MLST and whole-genome analysis were in agreement but differed from that inferred by CRISPR analysis. Strains isolated from traditional products could cluster in specific groups indicating their origin, but also be mixed in groups containing industrial starter strains. In the traditional cheese-making sites, we found that S. thermophilus persisted on dairy equipment, but that occasionally added starter strains may become dominant. It underlined the impact of starter use that may reshape S. thermophilus populations including in traditional products. This new MLST scheme thus provides a framework for analyses of S. thermophilus populations and the management of its biodiversity.

  12. Range-Wide Latitudinal and Elevational Temperature Gradients for the World's Terrestrial Birds: Implications under Global Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    La Sorte, Frank A.; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Jetz, Walter; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    Species' geographical distributions are tracking latitudinal and elevational surface temperature gradients under global climate change. To evaluate the opportunities to track these gradients across space, we provide a first baseline assessment of the steepness of these gradients for the world's terrestrial birds. Within the breeding ranges of 9,014 bird species, we characterized the spatial gradients in temperature along latitude and elevation for all and a subset of bird species, respectively. We summarized these temperature gradients globally for threatened and non-threatened species and determined how their steepness varied based on species' geography (range size, shape, and orientation) and projected changes in temperature under climate change. Elevational temperature gradients were steepest for species in Africa, western North and South America, and central Asia and shallowest in Australasia, insular IndoMalaya, and the Neotropical lowlands. Latitudinal temperature gradients were steepest for extratropical species, especially in the Northern Hemisphere. Threatened species had shallower elevational gradients whereas latitudinal gradients differed little between threatened and non-threatened species. The strength of elevational gradients was positively correlated with projected changes in temperature. For latitudinal gradients, this relationship only held for extratropical species. The strength of latitudinal gradients was better predicted by species' geography, but primarily for extratropical species. Our findings suggest threatened species are associated with shallower elevational temperature gradients, whereas steep latitudinal gradients are most prevalent outside the tropics where fewer bird species occur year-round. Future modeling and mitigation efforts would benefit from the development of finer grain distributional data to ascertain how these gradients are structured within species' ranges, how and why these gradients vary among species, and the capacity

  13. Range-wide latitudinal and elevational temperature gradients for the world's terrestrial birds: implications under global climate change.

    PubMed

    La Sorte, Frank A; Butchart, Stuart H M; Jetz, Walter; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    Species' geographical distributions are tracking latitudinal and elevational surface temperature gradients under global climate change. To evaluate the opportunities to track these gradients across space, we provide a first baseline assessment of the steepness of these gradients for the world's terrestrial birds. Within the breeding ranges of 9,014 bird species, we characterized the spatial gradients in temperature along latitude and elevation for all and a subset of bird species, respectively. We summarized these temperature gradients globally for threatened and non-threatened species and determined how their steepness varied based on species' geography (range size, shape, and orientation) and projected changes in temperature under climate change. Elevational temperature gradients were steepest for species in Africa, western North and South America, and central Asia and shallowest in Australasia, insular IndoMalaya, and the Neotropical lowlands. Latitudinal temperature gradients were steepest for extratropical species, especially in the Northern Hemisphere. Threatened species had shallower elevational gradients whereas latitudinal gradients differed little between threatened and non-threatened species. The strength of elevational gradients was positively correlated with projected changes in temperature. For latitudinal gradients, this relationship only held for extratropical species. The strength of latitudinal gradients was better predicted by species' geography, but primarily for extratropical species. Our findings suggest threatened species are associated with shallower elevational temperature gradients, whereas steep latitudinal gradients are most prevalent outside the tropics where fewer bird species occur year-round. Future modeling and mitigation efforts would benefit from the development of finer grain distributional data to ascertain how these gradients are structured within species' ranges, how and why these gradients vary among species, and the capacity

  14. Chromosomal dynamics predicted by an elastic network model explains genome-wide accessibility and long-range couplings.

    PubMed

    Sauerwald, Natalie; Zhang, She; Kingsford, Carl; Bahar, Ivet

    2017-03-16

    Understanding the three-dimensional (3D) architecture of chromatin and its relation to gene expression and regulation is fundamental to understanding how the genome functions. Advances in Hi-C technology now permit us to study 3D genome organization, but we still lack an understanding of the structural dynamics of chromosomes. The dynamic couplings between regions separated by large genomic distances (>50 Mb) have yet to be characterized. We adapted a well-established protein-modeling framework, the Gaussian Network Model (GNM), to model chromatin dynamics using Hi-C data. We show that the GNM can identify spatial couplings at multiple scales: it can quantify the correlated fluctuations in the positions of gene loci, find large genomic compartments and smaller topologically-associating domains (TADs) that undergo en bloc movements, and identify dynamically coupled distal regions along the chromosomes. We show that the predictions of the GNM correlate well with genome-wide experimental measurements. We use the GNM to identify novel cross-correlated distal domains (CCDDs) representing pairs of regions distinguished by their long-range dynamic coupling and show that CCDDs are associated with increased gene co-expression. Together, these results show that GNM provides a mathematically well-founded unified framework for modeling chromatin dynamics and assessing the structural basis of genome-wide observations.

  15. Microsatellite markers used for genome-wide association mapping of partial resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in a world collection of Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Gyawali, Sanjaya; Harrington, Myrtle; Durkin, Jonathan; Horner, Kyla; Parkin, Isobel A P; Hegedus, Dwayne D; Bekkaoui, Diana; Buchwaldt, Lone

    The fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes stem rot of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) worldwide. In preparation for genome-wide association mapping (GWAM) of sclerotinia resistance in B. napus, 152 accessions from diverse geographical regions were screened with a single Canadian isolate, #321. Plants were inoculated by attaching mycelium plugs to the main stem at full flower. Lesion lengths measured 7, 14 and 21 days after inoculation were used to calculate the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC). Depth of penetration was noted and used to calculate percent soft and collapsed lesions (% s + c). The two disease traits were highly correlated (r = 0.93). Partially resistant accessions (AUDPC <7 and % s + c <2) were identified primarily from South Korea and Japan with a few from Pakistan, China and Europe. Genotyping of accessions with 84 simple sequence repeat markers provided 690 polymorphic loci for GWAM. The general linear model in TASSEL best fitted the data when adjusted for population structure (STRUCTURE), GLM + Q. After correction for positive false discovery rate, 34 loci were significantly associated with both disease traits of which 21 alleles contributed to resistance, while the remaining enhanced susceptibility. The phenotypic variation explained by the loci ranged from 6 to 25 %. Five loci mapped to published quantitative trait loci conferring sclerotinia resistance in Chinese lines.

  16. Does tree harvesting in riparian areas increase stream sedimentation and turbidity - world-wide experience relative to Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neary, D.; Smethurst, P.; Petrone, K.

    2009-04-01

    A typical improved-pasture property in the high-rainfall zone of Australia contains 0.5-2.0 km of waterways per 100 ha. Nationwide, some 25-30 million ha of improved pasture contains about 100,000 km of streams, of which about 75% are currently un-buffered and contributing to soil and water degradation. Farmers and natural resource managers are considering ways to enhance environmental outcomes at farm and catchment scales using stream-side buffers of trees and other perennial vegetation. Benefits of buffers include improved water quality, biodiversity, carbon sequestration and aesthetics. Lack of sound information and funding for establishing and managing buffer zones is hindering wide-scale adoption of this practice. Stream-side areas of farms are generally highly productive (wet and nutrient-rich) and contain a high biodiversity, but they are also high-risk zones for soil and water values and stock safety. Development of options based on a balance between environmental and economic outcomes would potentially promote wider adoption. Australian codes of forest practice currently discourage or prevent harvesting of trees in streamside buffers. These codes were developed exclusively for large-scale native forests and industrial-scale plantations, and were applicable to farm forestry as now required. In countries including USA and Germany trees in stream-side buffers are harvested using Best Management Practices. Trees may grow at a faster rate in riparian zones and provide a commercial return, but the impacts of tree establishment and harvesting on water yield and quality must be evaluated. However, there have been few designed experiments investigating this problem. Australia has recently initiated studies to explore the use of high-value timber species and associated vegetation in riparian zones to improve water quality, particularly suspended sediment. Preliminary information from the Yan Yan Gurt Catchment in Victoria indicate that forested riparian strips can

  17. Assessing the quality of infertility resources on the World Wide Web: tools to guide clients through the maze of fact and fiction.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Kyoko; Bernstein, Judith; Fidler, Anne T

    2002-01-01

    The Internet has become a major source of health information for women, but information placed on the World Wide Web does not routinely undergo a peer review process before dissemination. In this study, we present an analysis of 197 infertility-related Web sites for quality and accountability, using JAMA's minimal core standards for responsible print. Only 2% of the web sites analyzed met all four recommended standards, and 50.8% failed to report any of the four. Commercial web sites were more likely to fail to meet minimum standards (71.2%) than those with educational (46.8%) or supportive (29.8%) elements. Web sites with educational and informational components were most common (70.6%), followed by commercial sites (52.8%) and sites that offered a forum for infertility support and activism (28.9%). Internet resources available to infertile patients are at best variable. The current state of infertility-related materials on the World Wide Web offers unprecedented opportunities to improve services to a growing number of e-health users. Because of variations in quality of site content, women's health clinicians must assume responsibility for a new role as information monitor. This study provides assessment tools clinicians can apply and share with clients.

  18. Developing genome-wide microsatellite markers of bamboo and their applications on molecular marker assisted taxonomy for accessions in the genus Phyllostachys

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hansheng; Yang, Li; Peng, Zhenhua; Sun, Huayu; Yue, Xianghua; Lou, Yongfeng; Dong, Lili; Wang, Lili; Gao, Zhimin

    2015-01-01

    Morphology-based taxonomy via exiguously reproductive organ has severely limitation on bamboo taxonomy, mainly owing to infrequent and unpredictable flowering events of bamboo. Here, we present the first genome-wide analysis and application of microsatellites based on the genome of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) to assist bamboo taxonomy. Of identified 127,593 microsatellite repeat-motifs, the primers of 1,451 microsatellites were designed and 1,098 markers were physically mapped on the genome of moso bamboo. A total of 917 markers were successfully validated in 9 accessions with ~39.8% polymorphic potential. Retrieved from validated microsatellite markers, 23 markers were selected for polymorphic analysis among 78 accessions and 64 alleles were detected with an average of 2.78 alleles per primers. The cluster result indicated the majority of the accessions were consistent with their current taxonomic classification, confirming the suitability and effectiveness of the developed microsatellite markers. The variations of microsatellite marker in different species were confirmed by sequencing and in silico comparative genome mapping were investigated. Lastly, a bamboo microsatellites database (http://www.bamboogdb.org/ssr) was implemented to browse and search large information of bamboo microsatellites. Consequently, our results of microsatellite marker development are valuable for assisting bamboo taxonomy and investigating genomic studies in bamboo and related grass species. PMID:25620112

  19. Developing genome-wide microsatellite markers of bamboo and their applications on molecular marker assisted taxonomy for accessions in the genus Phyllostachys.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hansheng; Yang, Li; Peng, Zhenhua; Sun, Huayu; Yue, Xianghua; Lou, Yongfeng; Dong, Lili; Wang, Lili; Gao, Zhimin

    2015-01-26

    Morphology-based taxonomy via exiguously reproductive organ has severely limitation on bamboo taxonomy, mainly owing to infrequent and unpredictable flowering events of bamboo. Here, we present the first genome-wide analysis and application of microsatellites based on the genome of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) to assist bamboo taxonomy. Of identified 127,593 microsatellite repeat-motifs, the primers of 1,451 microsatellites were designed and 1,098 markers were physically mapped on the genome of moso bamboo. A total of 917 markers were successfully validated in 9 accessions with ~39.8% polymorphic potential. Retrieved from validated microsatellite markers, 23 markers were selected for polymorphic analysis among 78 accessions and 64 alleles were detected with an average of 2.78 alleles per primers. The cluster result indicated the majority of the accessions were consistent with their current taxonomic classification, confirming the suitability and effectiveness of the developed microsatellite markers. The variations of microsatellite marker in different species were confirmed by sequencing and in silico comparative genome mapping were investigated. Lastly, a bamboo microsatellites database (http://www.bamboogdb.org/ssr) was implemented to browse and search large information of bamboo microsatellites. Consequently, our results of microsatellite marker development are valuable for assisting bamboo taxonomy and investigating genomic studies in bamboo and related grass species.

  20. A Quest for Website Accessibility in Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Kelly A.; DeWaters, Jamie

    2008-01-01

    Researchers increasingly suggest that accessibility remains a prominent issue across the World Wide Web (www). This study raises awareness about issues of access in higher education. This qualitative research design utilized a listserv that invited university based webmasters to use freeware to evaluate the overall accessibility of their…

  1. Efforts and success world-wide in the field of clinical pharmacology. A personal review on the occasion of Folke Sjöqvist's 80th birthday.

    PubMed

    Orme, Michael

    2013-05-01

    In this personal review I describe my early expectations and experiences when I first came to work with Prof. Folke Sjöqvist as a training fellow in the early 1970s. At that time Prof. Sjöqvist and his unit had already earned an international reputation, and in the following decades this success has been magnified many times. Although a description of the research performed by Prof. Sjöqvist during his long career is not the main objective of this article, it is clear that the research carried out in his unit has been instrumental in the development of his international reputation. Over an 18-year period from 1994 onwards, some 272 papers bearing the name of Folke Sjöqvist have been cited over 13,000 times, with an average of over 50 citations per paper. In terms of training clinical pharmacologists from around the world, at the last count 112 individuals from 37 different countries have received a substantial part of their training in his unit. As another measure of his world-wide success, 33 individuals from 18 different countries who received a substantial part of their training in his unit between 1968 and 1996 have gone on to become professors of clinical pharmacology. Prof. Sjöqvist has been requested to consult on various aspects of clinical pharmacology in 15 different countries, from Russia to Spain and from Egypt to Latvia. Here I describe the long-term involvement that Prof. Sjöqvist has had with IUPHAR (now the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology) and with institutions such as the World Health Organisation (WHO). In particular, I recount his role in the long-term saga involved in updating the original WHO manifesto on clinical pharmacology published in 1970 up to the eventual success of the new manifesto published by WHO in 2012. Finally, I briefly describe the international honours that have been bestowed on Prof. Sjöqvist, including various prizes, designated lectureships and honorary Doctorates (5). Taken together, these

  2. A Wide World of Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Der Werf, Martin

    2007-01-01

    As the number of American students studying overseas increases, it will be difficult for colleges to establish or find enough adequate programs with challenging curricula. Students desire ever more remote locations, and colleges are being pushed to support the extremely adventurous. With more students studying abroad, and amid heightened fears…

  3. Patient information on breast reconstruction in the era of the world wide web. A snapshot analysis of information available on youtube.com.

    PubMed

    Tan, M L H; Kok, K; Ganesh, V; Thomas, S S

    2014-02-01

    Breast cancer patient's expectation and choice of reconstruction is increasing and patients often satisfy their information needs outside clinic time by searching the world wide web. The aim of our study was to analyse the quality of content and extent of information regarding breast reconstruction available on YouTube videos and whether this is an appropriate additional source of information for patients. A snapshot qualitative and quantitative analysis of the first 100 videos was performed after the term 'breast reconstruction' was input into the search window of the video sharing website www.youtube.com on the 1st of September 2011. Qualitative categorical analysis included patient, oncological and reconstruction factors. It was concluded that although videos uploaded onto YouTube do not provide comprehensive information, it is a useful resource that can be utilised in patient education provided comprehensive and validated videos are made available.

  4. Is there a species spectrum within the world-wide leaf economics spectrum? Major variations in leaf functional traits in the Mediterranean sclerophyll Quercus ilex.

    PubMed

    Niinemets, Ulo

    2015-01-01

    The leaf economics spectrum is a general concept describing coordinated variation in foliage structural, chemical and physiological traits across resource gradients. Yet, within this concept,the role of within-species variation, including ecotypic and plastic variation components, has been largely neglected. This study hypothesized that there is a within-species economics spectrum within the general spectrum in the evergreen sclerophyll Quercus ilex which dominates low resource ecosystems over an exceptionally wide range. An extensive database of foliage traits covering the full species range was constructed, and improved filtering algorithms were developed. Standardized data filtering was deemed absolutely essential as additional variation sources can result in trait variation of 10–300%,blurring the broad relationships. Strong trait variation, c. two-fold for most traits to up to almost an order of magnitude, was uncovered.Although the Q. ilex spectrum is part of the general spectrum, within-species trait and climatic relationships in this species partly differed from the overall spectrum. Contrary to world-wide trends, Q. ilex does not necessarily have a low nitrogen content per mass and can increase photosynthetic capacity with increasing foliage robustness. This study argues that the within-species economics spectrum needs to be considered in regional- to biome-level analyses.

  5. Reliability of health information for the public on the World Wide Web: systematic survey of advice on managing fever in children at home.

    PubMed Central

    Impicciatore, P.; Pandolfini, C.; Casella, N.; Bonati, M.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the reliability of healthcare information on the world wide web and therefore how it may help lay people cope with common health problems. METHODS: Systematic search by means of two search engines, Yahoo and Excite, of parent oriented web pages relating to home management of feverish children. Reliability of information on the web sites was checked by comparison with published guidelines. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Minimum temperature of child that should be considered as fever, optimal sites for measuring temperature, pharmacological and physical treatment of fever, conditions that may warrant a doctor's visit. RESULTS: 41 web pages were retrieved and considered. 28 web pages gave a temperature above which a child is feverish; 26 pages indicated the optimal site for taking temperature, most recommending rectal measurement; 31 of the 34 pages that mentioned drug treatment recommended paracetamol as an antipyretic; 38 pages recommended non-drug measures, most commonly tepid sponging, dressing lightly, and increasing fluid intake; and 36 pages gave some indication of when a doctor should be called. Only four web pages adhered closely to the main recommendations in the guidelines. The largest deviations were in sponging procedures and how to take a child's temperature, whereas there was a general agreement in the use of paracetamol. CONCLUSIONS: Only a few web sites provided complete and accurate information for this common and widely discussed condition. This suggests an urgent need to check public oriented healthcare information on the internet for accuracy, completeness, and consistency. PMID:9224132

  6. Web Accessibility and Guidelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Simon; Yesilada, Yeliz

    Access to, and movement around, complex online environments, of which the World Wide Web (Web) is the most popular example, has long been considered an important and major issue in the Web design and usability field. The commonly used slang phrase ‘surfing the Web’ implies rapid and free access, pointing to its importance among designers and users alike. It has also been long established that this potentially complex and difficult access is further complicated, and becomes neither rapid nor free, if the user is disabled. There are millions of people who have disabilities that affect their use of the Web. Web accessibility aims to help these people to perceive, understand, navigate, and interact with, as well as contribute to, the Web, and thereby the society in general. This accessibility is, in part, facilitated by the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) currently moving from version one to two. These guidelines are intended to encourage designers to make sure their sites conform to specifications, and in that conformance enable the assistive technologies of disabled users to better interact with the page content. In this way, it was hoped that accessibility could be supported. While this is in part true, guidelines do not solve all problems and the new WCAG version two guidelines are surrounded by controversy and intrigue. This chapter aims to establish the published literature related to Web accessibility and Web accessibility guidelines, and discuss limitations of the current guidelines and future directions.

  7. Genome-wide chromatin accessibility, DNA methylation and gene expression analysis of histone deacetylase inhibition in triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bustos, Matias A; Salomon, Matthew P; Nelson, Nellie; Hsu, Sandy C; DiNome, Maggie L; Hoon, Dave S B; Marzese, Diego M

    2017-06-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), especially the subset with a basal phenotype, represents the most aggressive subtype of breast cancer. Unlike other solid tumors, TNBCs harbor a low number of driver mutations. Conversely, we and others have demonstrated a significant impact of epigenetic alterations, including DNA methylation and histone post-translational modifications, affecting TNBCs. Due to the promising results in pre-clinical studies, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are currently being tested in several clinical trials for breast cancer and other solid tumors. However, the genome-wide epigenetic and transcriptomic implications of HDAC inhibition are still poorly understood. Here, we provide detailed information about the design of a multi-platform dataset that describes the epigenomic and transcriptomic effects of HDACi. This dataset includes genome-wide chromatin accessibility (assessed by ATAC-Sequencing), DNA methylation (assessed by Illumina HM450K BeadChip) and gene expression (assessed by RNA-Sequencing) analyses before and after HDACi treatment of HCC1806 and MDA-MB-231, two human TNBC cell lines with basal-like phenotype.

  8. Who shall live when not all can live? Intellectual property in accessing and benefit-sharing influenza viruses through the World Health Organisation.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Charles

    2011-03-01

    This article addresses the development of the World Health Organisation's (WHO) arrangements for accessing viruses and the development of vaccines to respond to potential pandemics (and other lesser outbreaks). It examines the ongoing "conflict" between the United Nations' Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the World Trade Organisation's Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) in the context of the debates about the paramountcy of intellectual property, and the potential for other (equity and development) imperatives to over-ride respect for intellectual property and TRIPS. The article concludes that the same intellectual property fault lines are evident in the WHO forum as those apparent at the CBD and the WTO fora, and an ongoing failure to properly address questions of equity and development. This poses a challenge for the Australian Government in guaranteeing a satisfactory pandemic influenza preparation and response.

  9. Wide-Field Plate Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsvetkov, M. K.; Stavrev, K. Y.; Tsvetkova, K. P.; Semkov, E. H.; Mutatov, A. S.

    The Wide-Field Plate Database (WFPDB) and the possibilities for its application as a research tool in observational astronomy are presented. Currently the WFPDB comprises the descriptive data for 400 000 archival wide field photographic plates obtained with 77 instruments, from a total of 1 850 000 photographs stored in 269 astronomical archives all over the world since the end of last century. The WFPDB is already accessible for the astronomical community, now only in batch mode through user requests sent by e-mail. We are working on on-line interactive access to the data via INTERNET from Sofia and parallel from the Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg. (Initial information can be found on World Wide Web homepage URL http://www.wfpa.acad.bg.) The WFPDB may be useful in studies of a variety of astronomical objects and phenomena, andespecially for long-term investigations of variable objects and for multi-wavelength research. We have analysed the data in the WFPDB in order to derive the overall characteristics of the totality of wide-field observations, such as the sky coverage, the distributions by observation time and date, by spectral band, and by object type. We have also examined the totality of wide-field observations from point of view of their quality, availability and digitisation. The usefulness of the WFPDB is demonstrated by the results of identification and investigation of the photometrical behaviour of optical analogues of gamma-ray bursts.

  10. World Health Assembly Resolution 60.22 and its importance as a health care policy tool for improving emergency care access and availability globally.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Philip D; Suter, Robert E; Mulligan, Terrence; Bodiwala, Gautam; Razzak, Junaid A; Mock, Charles

    2012-07-01

    The recent adoption of World Health Assembly Resolution 60.22, titled "Health Systems: Emergency Care Systems," has established an important health care policy tool for improving emergency care access and availability globally. The resolution highlights the role that strengthened emergency care systems can play in reducing the increasing burden of disease from acute illness and injury in populations across the socioeconomic spectrum and calls on governments and the World Health Organization to take specific and concrete actions to make this happen. This resolution constitutes recognition by the World Health Assembly of the growing public health role of emergency care systems and is the highest level of international attention ever devoted to emergency care systems worldwide. Emergency care systems for secondary prevention of acute illnesses and injury remain inadequately developed in many low- and middle-income countries, despite evidence that basic strategies for improving emergency care systems can reduce preventable mortality and morbidity and can in many cases also be cost-effective. Emergency care providers and their professional organizations have used their comprehensive expertise to strengthen emergency care systems worldwide through the development of tools for emergency medicine education, systems assessment, quality improvement, and evidence-based clinical practice. World Health Assembly 60.22 represents a unique opportunity for emergency care providers and other advocates for improved emergency care to engage with national and local health care officials and policymakers, as well as with the World Health Organization, and leverage the expertise within the international emergency medicine community to make substantial improvements in emergency care delivery in places where it is most needed.

  11. Searching for information on the World Wide Web with a search engine: a pilot study on cognitive flexibility in younger and older users.

    PubMed

    Dommes, Aurelie; Chevalier, Aline; Rossetti, Marilyne

    2010-04-01

    This pilot study investigated the age-related differences in searching for information on the World Wide Web with a search engine. 11 older adults (6 men, 5 women; M age=59 yr., SD=2.76, range=55-65 yr.) and 12 younger adults (2 men, 10 women; M=23.7 yr., SD=1.07, range=22-25 yr.) had to conduct six searches differing in complexity, and for which a search method was or was not induced. The results showed that the younger and older participants provided with an induced search method were less flexible than the others and produced fewer new keywords. Moreover, older participants took longer than the younger adults, especially in the complex searches. The younger participants were flexible in the first request and spontaneously produced new keywords (spontaneous flexibility), whereas the older participants only produced new keywords when confronted by impasses (reactive flexibility). Aging may influence web searches, especially the nature of keywords used.

  12. World Ocean Database online: Access and use of quality controlled oceanographic profile data for oceanographic and climate change studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, T.; Levitus, S.; Baranova, O.; Locarnini, R.; Garcia, H.; Johnson, D.; Antonov, J.; Gelfeld, B.; Tatusko, R.

    2004-12-01

    The World Ocean Database 2001 (WOD01) was released in 2001 on CD and online as part of the IOC "Global Ocean Data Archeology and Rescue" (GODAR) and "World Ocean Database projects". The goal of these projects is to make available the largest possible database of quality controlled historical and modern oceanographic profile data to be used in scientific studies. The database contains nearly 7 million temperature profiles, more than 2 million salinity profiles, as well as observations of oxygen content, nutrient levels, and plankton counts. To help users of the data who want to work with only a subset of the data, the online WODselect system was developed to select, view, and download user specified subsets of the WOD01. All data undergo rigorous quality control procedures. The results of the quality control do not result in elimination of data from the database. Rather, flags are attached to each measurement leaving the decision to the user on whether to follow the underlying quality control decisions. The most important quality control is the use of the data in-house for scientific research. This research reveals quality control problems which have eluded all previous steps in the quality control procedure. The online version of the WOD01 is updated monthly based on ongoing quality control through scientific research.

  13. Intelligent computer aided training systems in the real world: Making the technology accessible to the educational mainstream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovarik, Madeline

    1993-01-01

    Intelligent computer aided training systems hold great promise for the application of this technology to mainstream education and training. Yet, this technology, which holds such a vast potential impact for the future of education and training, has had little impact beyond the enclaves of government research labs. This is largely due to the inaccessibility of the technology to those individuals in whose hands it can have the greatest impact, teachers and educators. Simply throwing technology at an educator and expecting them to use it as an effective tool is not the answer. This paper provides a background into the use of technology as a training tool. MindLink, developed by HyperTech Systems, provides trainers with a powerful rule-based tool that can be integrated directly into a Windows application. By embedding expert systems technology it becomes more accessible and easier to master.

  14. Ideological vs. Instrumental Barriers to Accessing Formal Mental Health care in the Developing World: Focus on South-eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ikwuka, Ugo; Galbraith, Niall; Manktelow, Ken; Chen-Wilson, Josephine; Oyebode, Femi; Muomah, Rosemary C; Igboaka, Anuli

    2016-01-01

    The striking gaps in formal mental health care in the developing world are largely traceable to Instrumental and Ideological Barriers. Focusing on south-eastern Nigeria, the study aimed to establish the relative weight, significance and determinants of these barriers for prioritised policy interventions. Multistage sampling method was used to select participants (n = 706) to whom questionnaires were administered. Ideological Barriers (cultural and mental health literacy constraints) were more significantly perceived (84.8%) than Instrumental Barriers (systemic and financial impediments) (56.6%). The study demonstrated the primacy of improved knowledge in plugging the gap in conventional mental health care in a region ironically defined more by systemic and material poverty. This is instructive for prioritised policy interventions with an indication that even if facilities and socio-economic status improve, services will likely be underused without greater improvement in people's conceptualisation of mental illness. It equally underscored the need for cultural competence in mental health service provision.

  15. More surprises in the global greenhouse: Human health impacts from recent toxic marine aerosol formations, due to centennial alterations of world-wide coastal food webs.

    PubMed

    Walsh, J J; Lenes, J M; Weisberg, R H; Zheng, L; Hu, C; Fanning, K A; Snyder, R; Smith, J

    2017-03-15

    Reductions of zooplankton biomasses and grazing pressures were observed during overfishing-induced trophic cascades and concurrent oil spills at global scales. Recent phytoplankton increments followed, once Fe-, P-, and N-nutrient limitations of commensal diazotrophs and dinoflagellates were also eliminated by respective human desertification, deforestation, and eutrophication during climate changes. Si-limitation of diatoms instead ensued during these last anthropogenic perturbations of agricultural effluents and sewage loadings. Consequently, ~15% of total world-wide annual asthma trigger responses, i.e. amounting to ~45 million adjacent humans during 2004, resulted from brevetoxin and palytoxin poisons in aerosol forms of western boundary current origins. They were denoted by greater global harmful algal bloom [HAB] abundances and breathing attacks among sea-side children during prior decadal surveys of asthma prevalence, compiled here in ten paired shelf ecosystems of western and eutrophied boundary currents. Since 1965, such inferred onshore fluxes of aerosolized DOC poisons of HABs may have served as additional wind-borne organic carriers of toxic marine MeHg, phthalate, and DDT/DDE vectors, traced by radio-iodine isotopes to potentially elicit carcinomas. During these exchanges, as much as 40% of mercury poisonings may instead have been effected by inhalation of collateral HAB-carried marine neurotoxic aerosols of MeHg, not just from eating marine fish. Health impacts in some areas were additional asthma and pneumonia episodes, as well as endocrine disruptions among the same adjacent humans, with known large local rates of thyroid cancers, physician-diagnosed pulmonary problems, and ubiquitous high indices of mercury in hair, pesticides in breast milk, and phthalates in urine.

  16. Computer Access: Selected Legal Issues Affecting Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sermersheim, Michael D.

    This pamphlet analyzes some of the legal issues colleges and universities face in regard to faculty and student access to computers and the World Wide Web, evaluates current legal developments, and offers guidelines for developing policies for computer access. It examines sample acceptable-use standards, procedures for suspending or terminating a…

  17. Web Information Resources for Students with Disabilities: How Accessible are They?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurniawan, Sri H.

    This study investigated whether World Wide Web information resources for students with disabilities are accessible and whether there is an accessibility difference between Web sites from the United Kingdom, United States, Australia, and Canada as rated by the Bobby automatic accessibility tool. Thirty academic Web sites from each country were…

  18. 26 CFR 301.6104(d)-2 - Making applications and returns widely available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of paragraph (d) of this section. (2) Internet posting—(i) In general. A tax-exempt organization can... individual with access to the Internet can access, download, view and print the document without special... entity maintaining the World Wide Web page. (iii) Reliability and accuracy. In order for the document...

  19. 26 CFR 301.6104(d)-2 - Making applications and returns widely available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of paragraph (d) of this section. (2) Internet posting—(i) In general. A tax-exempt organization can... individual with access to the Internet can access, download, view and print the document without special... entity maintaining the World Wide Web page. (iii) Reliability and accuracy. In order for the document...

  20. Nurses & Physicians of Tomorrow. A World-Wide Survey on Professional Roles and Their Use as a Basis for Educational Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilbert, J. J., Ed.

    Results of a World Health Organization survey concerning the use of learning objectives in medical and nursing education programs are presented, along with five case studies of educational programs. A total of 42 schools of nursing and 21 schools of medicine completed a questionnaire designed to elicit information concerning learning objectives.…

  1. Differential survival benefit of universal HAART access in Brazil: A Nation-wide Comparison of Injecting Drug Users versus Men who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Malta, Monica; Bastos, Francisco I.; da Silva, Cosme MFP; Pereira, Gerson Fernando Mendes; Lucena, Francisca FA; Fonseca, Maria GP; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Brazil accounts for ∼70% of injection drug users (IDU) receiving HAART in low/middle income countries. We evaluated the impact of HAART availability/access on AIDS-related mortality among IDU versus men who have sex with men (MSM). Design Nationwide analysis on Brazilian IDU and MSM diagnosed with AIDS in 2000-2006. Methods Four national information systems were linked and Cox regression was used to assess impact of HAART availability/access on differential AIDS-related mortality. Results Among 28,426 patients, 6,777 died during 87,792 person-years of follow-up. Compared to MSM, IDU were significantly less likely to be receiving HAART, to have ever had determinations for CD4 or viral load. After controlling for confounders, IDU had a significantly higher risk of death (AHR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.84-2.05). Among the subset that had at least one CD4 and viral load determination, higher risk of death among IDU persisted (HR: 1.82; 95% CI: 1.58-2.11). Non-white ethnicity significantly increased this risk, while prompt HAART uptake after AIDS diagnosis reduced the risk of death. After controlling for spatially-correlated survival data, AIDS-related mortality remained higher in IDU than in MSM. Conclusions Despite free/universal HAART access, differential AIDS-related mortality exists in Brazil. Efforts are needed to identify and eliminate these health disparities. PMID:19675464

  2. Assessing the Long-Term Hydrologic Impact of Land Use Change Using a GIS-NPS Model and the World Wide Web

    SciTech Connect

    Bhaduri, B.; Engel, B.; Harbor, J.; Jones, D.; Lim, K.J.

    1999-09-22

    Assessment of the long-term hydrologic impacts of land use change is important for optimizing management practices to control runoff and non-point source (NPS) pollution associated with watershed development. Land use change, dominated by an increase in urban/impervious areas, can have a significant impact on water resources. Non-point source (NPS) pollution is the leading cause of degraded water quality in the US and urban areas are an important source of NPS pollution. Despite widespread concern over the environmental impacts of land use changes such as urban sprawl, most planners, government agencies and consultants lack access to simple impact-assessment tools that can be used with readily available data. Before investing in sophisticated analyses and customized data collection, it is desirable to be able to run initial screening analyses using data that are already available. In response to this need, we developed a long-term hydrologic impact assessment technique (L-THIA) using the popular Curve Number (CN) method that makes use of basic land use, soils and long-term rainfall data. Initially developed as a spreadsheet application, the technique allows a user to compare the hydrologic impacts of past, present and any future land use change. Consequently, a NPS pollution module was incorporated to develop the L-THWNPS model. Long-term daily rainfall records are used in combination with soils and land use information to calculate average annual runoff and NPS pollution at a watershed scale. Because of the geospatial nature of land use and soils data, and the increasingly widespread use of GE by planners, government agencies and consultants, the model is linked to a Geographic Information System (GIS) that allows convenient generation and management of model input and output data, and provides advanced visualization of the model results. Manipulation of the land use layer, or provision of multiple land use layers (for different scenarios), allows for rapid and

  3. Advanced Use of Wolrd-Wide Web in the Online System of Delphi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DöNszelmann, M.; Carvalho, D.; Mundim, L. M.; Du, S.; Rodden, K.; TennebØ, F.

    The World-Wide Web technology is used by the DELPHI experiment at CERN to provide easy access to information of the `On-line System'. WWW technology on both client and server side is used in five different projects. The World-Wide Web has its advantages concerning the network technology, the practical user interface and its scalability. It however also demands a stateless protocol and format negotiation.

  4. [Genome-wide non-sequencing strategies for bacterial genome comparison: the necessity and an analysis of the variable bacterial world].

    PubMed

    Sverdlov, E D

    2003-01-01

    A tremendous success in bacterial genome sequencing has been achieved during the recent years; it resulted in making available, for analysis, multiple sequences of different bacterial genomes, including such pathogens as causative agents of syphilis, typhus, and tuberculosis as well as such organisms like archaebacterias living under extreme conditions. A comparative analysis of bacterial genomes leads to conclusions, which have a general biological value, and, in particular, to the conclusions about mechanisms and evolution rate as well as about the variability of genomes and interrelation between organisms and their habitat. On the other hand, the analysis reveals specific features of separate bacterial species responsible for their pathogenicity and ability to avoid the destruction of the host immune system as well as for adaptation to exist within a certain ecological niche. However, the variability of bacterial genomes is so high that methods, which enable to evaluate the variability without full genome sequencing, are needed to depict adequately the evolution and ecological characteristics of the prokaryotic world and to develop new effective therapeutics and diagnostic tools. The survey covers two approaches to such comparative analysis, i.e. DNA arrays and subtractive hybridization. The advantages and disadvantages of each approach are discussed and the necessity in a new approach combining the positive features of the two mentioned approaches is substantiated.

  5. From interaction to co-association --a Fisher r-to-z transformation-based simple statistic for real world genome-wide association study.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhongshang; Liu, Hong; Zhang, Xiaoshuai; Li, Fangyu; Zhao, Jinghua; Zhang, Furen; Xue, Fuzhong

    2013-01-01

    Currently, the genetic variants identified by genome wide association study (GWAS) generally only account for a small proportion of the total heritability for complex disease. One crucial reason is the underutilization of gene-gene joint effects commonly encountered in GWAS, which includes their main effects and co-association. However, gene-gene co-association is often customarily put into the framework of gene-gene interaction vaguely. From the causal graph perspective, we elucidate in detail the concept and rationality of gene-gene co-association as well as its relationship with traditional gene-gene interaction, and propose two Fisher r-to-z transformation-based simple statistics to detect it. Three series of simulations further highlight that gene-gene co-association refers to the extent to which the joint effects of two genes differs from the main effects, not only due to the traditional interaction under the nearly independent condition but the correlation between two genes. The proposed statistics are more powerful than logistic regression under various situations, cannot be affected by linkage disequilibrium and can have acceptable false positive rate as long as strictly following the reasonable GWAS data analysis roadmap. Furthermore, an application to gene pathway analysis associated with leprosy confirms in practice that our proposed gene-gene co-association concepts as well as the correspondingly proposed statistics are strongly in line with reality.

  6. Lower critical solution temperature behavior of alpha-substituted poly(acrylic acids)s, cyclopolymerization of N-vinylformamido-methylacrylates, and use of the World-Wide Web in polymer science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalovic, Mark Stephen

    cyclopolymerize, but only in DMF at 122°C and at a 10:1 solvent:monomer ratio. A multimedia educational program called The Macrogalleria dealing with polymer science was created and distributed by the world wide web and on cd-rom. The site is made in the form of a virtual shopping mall in which each store is a lesson on some aspect of polymer science. The lessons are written in informal language to make the material more accessible. Also, the lessons are connected by hypertext links in a nonlinear fashion to allow students to create their own pathways through the material. The Macrogalleria has been very successful, being used by educational institutions to incorporate polymer science into the undergraduate chemistry curriculum, and by many industrial users as well. It has received numerous awards as well.

  7. Unlocking the Gates to the Kingdom: Designing Web Pages for Accessibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Steven C.

    As the use of the Web is perceived to be an effective tool for dissemination of research findings for the provision of asynchronous instruction, the issue of accessibility of Web page information will become more and more relevant. The World Wide Web consortium (W3C) has recognized a disparity in accessibility to the Web between persons with and…

  8. Global Access to Library of Congress' Digital Resources: National Digital Library and Internet Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ching-chih

    1996-01-01

    Summarizes how the Library of Congress' digital library collections can be accessed globally via the Internet and World Wide Web. Outlines the resources found in each of the various access points: gopher, online catalog, library and legislative Web sites, legal and copyright databases, and FTP (file transfer protocol) sites. (LAM)

  9. Free Scholarly Electronic Journals: What Access Do College and University Libraries Provide?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fosmire, Michael; Young, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    The 25 most popular free scholarly electronic journal titles, determined by number of holding institutions on OCLC, were searched on a random sample of library World Wide Web sites and catalogs to provide a separate gauge for access levels provided by institutions. Access levels were fairly low and decreased dramatically with size of the…

  10. Adaptive Technology for the Internet: Making Electronic Resources Accessible to All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mates, Barbara T.

    This book seeks to guide information providers in establishing accessible World Wide Web sites and acquiring the hardware and software needed by people with disabilities, focusing on access to the Internet using large print, voice, and Braille. The book also covers how to acquire the funds for adaptive technology, what type of equipment to choose,…

  11. Sharing geographic databases via the world wide web: applications to the whole Italian territory and a focus on lava flow hazard at Mount Etna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarquini, S.; Favalli, M.; Nannipieri, L.

    2009-04-01

    The use of Geographic Information System (GIS) technologies is indispensable when dealing with the management of Natural Hazards. GIS software combines advanced elaboration tools with a flexible visualization of data providing an effective way to communicate the outcomes to non-experts. The popularity of easy accessible desktop tools such as Google Earth (GE in the following) and in-car satellite navigation systems testifies the global technological advancement of current low-cost electronic devices that provide effective 3D geospatial representations of data. The availability of a reliable Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is often important to carry out a suitable elaboration of a GIS database. A DEM is also necessary to derive a 3D representation of the landscape. During the last few years, we delivered two systems to allow online visualization of DEMs and/or other geospatial data. Since June 2007, a new Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the entire Italian territory, realized by the INGV (named TINITALY/01), is available to authorized users for web browsing. The system is based on the open source MAPSERVER and allows a dynamic visualization of high resolution zenithal or perspective views of the DEM as hillshaded or stereo anaglyph images. This system includes seven views cumulatively covering the entire Italian territory: four perspective views and three zenithal views. The pixel of these images ranges from 5 to 10 m. Since April 2008, we opened to authorized users a GE-based system to browse via Web four geographic databases: (1) 20 to 5 m resolution colour-shaded images of the TINITALY/01 DEM (covering the entire Italian territory); (2) colour-shaded images of a bathymetric and elevation model which covers the southernmost regions of Italy with the neighbouring seas (25 m resolution); (3) an intensity image of the LiDAR-derived DEM obtained from the September 2005 survey of Mount Etna (2 m resolution); (4) colour-shaded image obtained from the June 2005 Li

  12. The presence of major world-wide clones for phage type 4 and 8 Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and the evaluation of their virulence levels by invasiveness assays in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Pang, Jen-Chieh; Lin, Jer-Sheng; Tsai, Cheng-Chih; Tsen, Hau-Yang

    2006-10-01

    Seventy-seven animal isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) obtained from the United States were analyzed by phage typing and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Thirty-nine strains were found with phage types (PT) 4, 8, and 13a. When the chromosomal DNA of these 39 isolated strains with PT4, 8, and 13a were digested with XbaI, SpeI and NotI, followed by PFGE analysis, 28 strains were found with a pattern combination of X4S4N4, which was the major subtype. When PFGE patterns of the US isolates with PT 4 and 8 were compared with those of the Taiwanese and German isolates, pattern X3S3N3 was confirmed to be the world-wide subtype shared by PT 4 isolates, as previously reported, while pattern X4S4N4 was newly found to be the most common subtype shared by PT 8 strains. The presence of such major world-wide clones, however, does not necessarily mean that these clones are highly virulent, at least not according to the results of invasiveness assays using cultured human intestinal epithelium cell line Int-407 and living BALB/mice.

  13. A Case Study in Balancing Protection, Interpretation, and Public Access in the Treasure Hunting Capital of the World: The Management of the HMS Fowey Shipwreck in Biscayne National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marano, Joshua

    2015-08-01

    The management of the HMS Fowey shipwreck site in Biscayne National Park is a unique case study in the development of an interpretation and outreach program for the sensitive and now inaccessible site. Decades of restricted access and recent stabilization activities completed at the site have effectively closed archaeological access to it for the foreseeable future. The National Park Service did not come lightly to the decision to physically remove access the site. However, after several decades of monitoring significant loss, due to both erosion and looting, few options remained. This article utilizes the management of HMS Fowey as a case study in the development and modification of an interpretation and outreach program that can be applied to resources in similar peril and specifically to those located within the Florida Keys. Following a discussion of the archaeological history of the wreck site and the difficulties of regulating public access to HMS Fowey, this article addresses some of the difficulties associated with interpreting a closed and inaccessible archaeological site while detailing the Park's attempts to balance the protection, interpretation, and public access to sensitive archaeological sites in what could be described as the treasure hunting capital of the world.

  14. 40 CFR 1602.2 - Requests for access to records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Government Printing Office's World Wide Web site (which can be found at http://www.access.gpo.gov/su_docs... requested records, you may also, at your option, include your social security number. (e) Verification of..., date and place of birth, and, at your option, the social security number of the individual; (2)...

  15. 40 CFR 1602.2 - Requests for access to records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Government Printing Office's World Wide Web site (which can be found at http://www.access.gpo.gov/su_docs... requested records, you may also, at your option, include your social security number. (e) Verification of..., date and place of birth, and, at your option, the social security number of the individual; (2)...

  16. Browser-Based Accessibility Evaluation Tools for Beginners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHale, Nina

    2011-01-01

    There are hundreds of Web accessibility software options out in the world that serve many different functions. Not surprisingly, many of them are designed for users with a wide range of abilities, with the intent of making the use of computers and the Internet easier for both work and entertainment. There are, however, numerous products available…

  17. Information Monitoring System on World Wide Web

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-19

    PI: Dr. Byeong Ho Kang/University of Tasmania Report Documentation Page Form...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University of Tasmania ,GPO Box 252-100,Hobart TAS ,Australia,AU,7005 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT

  18. Women's Literacy in World-Wide Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limage, Leslie J.

    1994-01-01

    This overview of the special issue includes worldwide statistics on women's literacy, women's role in international decision making, and the role of international aid in increasing or decreasing sex bias. (SK)

  19. Vaccine Criticism on the World Wide Web

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Robert M; Fox, Dwight E; Fox, Jake R; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Troy, Judith A; Sharp, Lisa K

    2005-01-01

    Background The incidence of vaccine-preventable diseases is directly related to the number of unvaccinated children. Parents who refuse vaccination of their children frequently express concerns about vaccine safety. The Internet can influence perceptions about vaccines because it is the fastest growing source of consumer health information. However, few studies have analyzed vaccine criticism on the Web. Objective The purposes of this paper are to examine vaccine criticism on the Internet and to analyze the websites in order to identify common characteristics and ethical allegations. Methods A structured Web search was conducted for the terms “vaccine,” “vaccination,” “vaccinate,” and “anti-vaccination” using a metasearch program that incorporated 8 search engines. This yielded 1138 Web pages representing 750 sites. Two researchers reviewed the sites for inclusion/exclusion criteria, resulting in 78 vaccine-critical sites, which were then abstracted for design, content, and allegations. Results The most common characteristic of vaccine-critical websites was the inclusion of statements linking vaccinations with specific adverse reactions, especially idiopathic chronic diseases such as multiple sclerosis, autism, and diabetes. Other common attributes (≥ 70% of websites) were links to other vaccine-critical websites; charges that vaccines contain contaminants, mercury, or “hot lots” that cause adverse events; claims that vaccines provide only temporary protection and that the diseases prevented are mild; appeals for responsible parenting through education and resisting the establishment; allegations of conspiracies and cover-ups to hide the truth about vaccine safety; and charges that civil liberties are violated through mandatory vaccination. Conclusions Vaccine-critical websites frequently make serious allegations. With the burgeoning of the Internet as a health information source, an undiscerning or incompletely educated public may accept these claims and refuse vaccination of their children. As this occurs, the incidence of vaccine-preventable diseases can be expected to rise. PMID:15998608

  20. Critical care and the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Varon, J; Marik, P E

    1999-07-01

    The Internet was created in 1969, when the Advanced Research Projects Agency of the United States Department of Defense fired up an experimental network consisting of only four computers. Over the past five years there has been an exponential explosion in the number of computers added to this network. It is estimated that Internet traffic doubles every 100 days with more than 100 million people worldwide now on-line. The Internet is so vast that practically every aspect of human interest is represented is some form or fashion. From recreation to applied science and technology, and from Critical Care Medicine case scenarios to digitized radiology images and pathology specimens, the Internet has become increasingly useful for critical care practitioners. To date, no resource is better equipped to assist critical care providers in many of their daily tasks. This article presents some of the historical developments of the Internet as well as common applications that are useful for critical care practitioners.

  1. Sun protection factors: world wide confusion.

    PubMed

    Osterwalder, U; Herzog, B

    2009-11-01

    The Sun Protection Factor (SPF) is a very popular instrument in the marketing of sunscreens. Unfortunately it is often not understood how sunscreens work and where the limitations of the SPF are. A lot of aspects of the SPF are confusing, e.g. the race for higher and higher numbers, the effect on SPF when less sunscreen is applied and if sunscreen should be used at all because they may block the Vitamin D synthesis. All this has a negative impact on compliance by the consumer or patient which is the most important influence factor in sun protection. This paper explains how sunscreens work, how the SPF is determined and where the limitations of the current methods exist. The dynamic view of 'UV radiation applied' and the 'UV dose transmitted' through the sunscreen onto the skin as well as onto a substrate in vitro help in the understanding and are also promising approaches in the in vitro assessment. A variation of the in vitro assessment of a sunscreen is the in silico calculation based on the absorption spectrum of the UV filters and an assumption about the irregular sunscreen film on the skin. The sunscreen simulator program can be used to determine how the SPF is affected by applying smaller amounts of sunscreen. Besides the SPF, UVA protection is also discussed. The degree of UVA protection determines the quality of the overall UV protection, whereas the SPF is an indication of the quantity of protection. Furthermore other protection factors such as IPF, iSPF, RSF and p53, and the inhibition of the Vitamin D3 synthesis by sunscreens are also discussed. In conclusion it is shown that the accuracy and robustness of the SPF and other Protection Factors will improve significantly with the availability of true broad-spectrum sunscreens rather than conventional UVB-biased sunscreens, because uniform protection profiles lead to protection independent of the action spectrum of the endpoint and the UV-radiation source.

  2. Course Development on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kathleen P.

    1998-01-01

    Guidelines for developing Web-based course materials include considerations of available resources, how technology aids in meeting curricular goals and objectives, Web-site design and construction, and Web-course evaluation. (SK)

  3. The World Wide Web of War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-21

    one example. Another is Anne Garrels, a reporter on assignment to Baghdad for National Public Radio. She writes in her book Naked in Baghdad how she...6 Ibid., Overview 2. 7 Amanda Lenhart, Mary Madden, and Paul Hitlin, “ Teens and Technology: Youth are Leading the Transition to a Fully Wired and...Garrels, Naked in Bagdad: The Iraq War and the Aftermath as Seen by NPR’s Correspondent (New York, N.Y.: Picador, 2003, 2004), 82. 28 Brian McWilliams

  4. World-wide distribution automation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Devaney, T.M.

    1994-12-31

    A worldwide power distribution automation system is outlined. Distribution automation is defined and the status of utility automation is discussed. Other topics discussed include a distribution management system, substation feeder, and customer functions, potential benefits, automation costs, planning and engineering considerations, automation trends, databases, system operation, computer modeling of system, and distribution management systems.

  5. Libraries for Lifelong Literacy: Unrestricted Access to Information as a Basis for Lifelong Learning and Empowerment. IFLA/FAIFE Theme Report. World Report Series Volume IV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidelin, Susanne, Ed.; Hamilton, Stuart, Ed.; Sturges, Paul, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The IFLA/FAIFE (International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions/Committee on Free Access to Information and Freedom of Expression) Theme Report 2004 presents visions of how libraries can promote literacy and lifelong learning. The literacy process has to be recognised as inclusive of all ranges of communication, and it occurs at…

  6. Physical World Hyperlinking: Can Computer-Based Instruction in a K-6 Educational Setting Be Easily Accessed through Tangible Tagged Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parton, Becky Sue; Hancock, Robert; Mihir, Mihir

    2010-01-01

    This paper examined multiple types of physical world hyperlinking hardware configurations for the purpose of determining an optimal reader/tag combination for K-6 student use. Both traditional barcode tags and two types of RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tags were placed on tangible items. Students ranging from kindergarten to sixth grade…

  7. World Music Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beegle, Amy C.

    2012-01-01

    Access to world music resources such as videos and sound recordings have increased with the advent of YouTube and the efforts of music educators working closely with ethnomusicologists to provide more detailed visual and audio information about various musical practices. This column discusses some world music resources available for music…

  8. Our World Their World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brisco, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Build, create, make, blog, develop, organize, structure, perform. These are just a few verbs that illustrate the visual world. These words create images that allow students to respond to their environment. Visual culture studies recognize the predominance of visual forms of media, communication, and information in the postmodern world. This…

  9. Broadband passive optical network media access control protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quayle, Alan

    1996-11-01

    Most telecommunication operators are currently deciding on how to respond to customers' needs stimulated by the synergy between compression coding of multimedia and the emergence of broadband digital networks. This paper describes a range of broadband access architectures under consideration in the full services access network initiative. All architectures have a common requirement for a broadband ATM PON. A common broadband PON applicable to many operators increases the world-wide market for the product. With greater production volumes manufacturers' costs reduce because of the experience curve effect making broadband access systems economic.

  10. Television for World Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, I. Keith

    Television will be a valuable tool in preparing people to cope with a shrinking and increasingly interdependent world. A child left to his own devices will equate "strangeness" with "danger". Television can bring a wide variety of experiences with different cultures to a child and help him to formulate an understanding of his place in the world.…

  11. Rapid data access: Key to integrated use of environmental characterization and monitoring information

    SciTech Connect

    Canales, T.; Ottesen, P.

    1995-11-01

    Environmental investigations result in large quantities of data. The value of these data lies in their interpretation and use by project staff, management, and the regulatory community. Traditional modes of data access can be frustrating and time-consuming. Software tools that join networking technology of the World Wide Web with database access have decreased labor-intensive overhead in site characterization and monitoring, thus increasing the efficiency of the ground water restoration project at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  12. New World View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bainbridge, William Sims

    This chapter reports the wide range of ideas in a pair of major scientific conference meetings held inside the most popular virtual world, World of Warcraft (WoW), May 9 and May 10, 2008, plus the challenges of organizing these online events. More than a hundred scholars and scientists contributed to each session, the first covering research on World of Warcraft, and the second examining how virtual worlds fit into the larger world of human experience. A third session, held on May 11, was the starting point for the concluding chapter of this volume. This chapter describes how WoW and other virtual worlds can be used as laboratories for studying human behavior, using both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, and the affordances of virtual worlds can be used to support scientific communication (Bainbridge 2007, in press).

  13. Preservation and Access of Rare Maps at the University of Georgia Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henneberger, Bob

    1994-01-01

    Explains the University of Georgia's project to scan rare maps and make the digitized images available on the Internet via World Wide Web. Topics discussed include microfilming procedures; equipment used to convert film images to digital images; the use of CD-ROM; and retention and access policies. (LRW)

  14. Making Web-Based Tables Accessible for Users of Screen Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amtmann, Dagmar; Johnson, Kurt; Cook, Debbie

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes results from a study of problems blind people using screen readers and Web browsers experienced when reading tables on the World Wide Web. Explains accessibility factors including complexity of layout, use of HTML programming, features of screen-reading software, and user variables; and makes recommendations for Web-based tables,…

  15. Accessibility of State Department of Education Home Pages and Special Education Pages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opitz, Christine; Savenye, Wilhelmina; Rowland, Cyndi

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated State Department of Education Internet home pages and special education pages for accessibility compliance with standards of the World Wide Web Consortium and Section 508 of the revised Rehabilitation Act. Only 26% of state department home pages and 52% of special education pages achieved W3C compliance and fewer conformed…

  16. "Medical Education Online": A Case Study of an Open Access Journal in Health Professional Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, David J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The development of the World Wide Web (WWW) has made it possible of small groups of colleagues or even single individuals to create peer-reviewed scholarly journals. This paper discusses the development of Medical Education Online (MEO) an open access peer-reviewed journal in health professional education. Description: MEO was first…

  17. On2broker: Semantic-Based Access to Information Sources at the WWW.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fensel, Dieter; Angele, Jurgen; Decker, Stefan; Erdmann, Michael; Schnurr, Hans-Peter; Staab, Steffen; Studer, Rudi; Witt, Andreas

    On2broker provides brokering services to improve access to heterogeneous, distributed, and semistructured information sources as they are presented in the World Wide Web. It relies on the use of ontologies to make explicit the semantics of Web pages. This paper discusses the general architecture and main components (i.e., query engine, information…

  18. Secure Web-Site Access with Tickets and Message-Dependent Digests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donato, David I.

    2008-01-01

    Although there are various methods for restricting access to documents stored on a World Wide Web (WWW) site (a Web site), none of the widely used methods is completely suitable for restricting access to Web applications hosted on an otherwise publicly accessible Web site. A new technique, however, provides a mix of features well suited for restricting Web-site or Web-application access to authorized users, including the following: secure user authentication, tamper-resistant sessions, simple access to user state variables by server-side applications, and clean session terminations. This technique, called message-dependent digests with tickets, or MDDT, maintains secure user sessions by passing single-use nonces (tickets) and message-dependent digests of user credentials back and forth between client and server. Appendix 2 provides a working implementation of MDDT with PHP server-side code and JavaScript client-side code.

  19. Ancient and modern women in the "Woman's World".

    PubMed

    Hurst, Isobel

    2009-01-01

    Under the editorship of Oscar Wilde, the "Woman's World" exemplified the popular dissemination of Hellenism through periodical culture. Addressing topics such as marriage, politics, and education in relation to the lives of women in the ancient world, the magazine offered an unfamiliar version of the reception of ancient Greece and Rome in late-Victorian aestheticism, one that was accessible to a wide readership because it was often based on images rather than texts. The classical scholar Jane Ellen Harrison addressed herself to this audience of women readers, discussing the similarities between modern collegiate life and the "woman's world" that enabled Sappho to flourish in ancient Greece. The "Woman's World" thus questions gender stereotypes by juxtaposing ancient and modern women, implicitly endorsing varied models of womanhood.

  20. Arteriovenous Access

    PubMed Central

    MacRae, Jennifer M.; Dipchand, Christine; Oliver, Matthew; Moist, Louise; Yilmaz, Serdar; Lok, Charmaine; Leung, Kelvin; Clark, Edward; Hiremath, Swapnil; Kappel, Joanne; Kiaii, Mercedeh; Luscombe, Rick; Miller, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Complications of vascular access lead to morbidity and may reduce quality of life. In this module, we review both infectious and noninfectious arteriovenous access complications including neuropathy, aneurysm, and high-output access. For the challenging patients who have developed many complications and are now nearing their last vascular access, we highlight some potentially novel approaches. PMID:28270919

  1. World Energy Data Systems (WENDS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lareau, William E.

    The World Energy Data System (WENDS) allows qualified users on-line access to non-classified management level data on worldwide energy technology and research and development activities. Information is arranged on textual pages and available by means of a simple accessing procedure. Described in this report are the WENDS concept and approach, the…

  2. Internet-based search of randomised trials relevant to mental health originating in the Arab world

    PubMed Central

    Takriti, Yahya; El-Sayeh, Hany G; Adams, Clive E

    2005-01-01

    Background The internet is becoming a widely used source of accessing medical research through various on-line databases. This instant access to information is of benefit to busy clinicians and service users around the world. The population of the Arab World is comparable to that of the United States, yet it is widely believed to have a greatly contrasting output of randomised controlled trials related to mental health. This study was designed to investigate the existence of such research in the Arab World and also to investigate the availability of this research on-line. Methods Survey of findings from three internet-based potential sources of randomised trials originating from the Arab world and relevant to mental health care. Results A manual search of an Arabic online current contents service identified 3 studies, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO searches identified only 1 study, and a manual search of a specifically indexed, study-based mental health database, PsiTri, revealed 27 trials. Conclusion There genuinely seem to be few trials from the Arab world and accessing these on-line was problematic. Replication of some studies that guide psychiatric/psychological practice in the Arab world would seem prudent. PMID:16045805

  3. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-05-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  4. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan; Jersey Inst Ansari, New; Jersey Inst, New

    2005-04-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  5. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-06-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  6. Single nucleotide polymorphisms generated by genotyping by sequencing to characterize genome-wide diversity, linkage disequilibrium, and selective sweeps in cultivated watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large datasets containing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are used to analyze genome-wide diversity in a robust collection of cultivars from representative accessions, across the world. The extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) within a population determines the number of markers required fo...

  7. Access to and Utilization of ICT as Predictors of Students' Performance and Sustainable Development in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onuka, A. O. U.; Ajayi, Kassim O.; Lawani, Abisola O.

    2014-01-01

    Information Communication Technology (ICT) covers a wide range in our world today. This paper examined how students access and utilize information communication technology (ICT) for the betterment of their learning outcomes in Mathematics. This is because Mathematics is considered to be indispensable to humankind. The study adopted a survey…

  8. Optimal access to large databases via networks

    SciTech Connect

    Munro, J.K.; Fellows, R.L.; Phifer, D. Carrick, M.R.; Tarlton, N.

    1997-10-01

    A CRADA with Stephens Engineering was undertaken in order to transfer knowledge and experience about access to information in large text databases, with results of queries and searches provided using the multimedia capabilities of the World Wide Web. Data access is optimized by the use of intelligent agents. Technology Logic Diagram documents published for the DOE facilities in Oak Ridge (K-25, X-10, Y-12) were chosen for this effort because of the large number of technologies identified, described, evaluated, and ranked for possible use in the environmental remediation of these facilities. Fast, convenient access to this information is difficult because of the volume and complexity of the data. WAIS software used to provide full-text, field-based search capability can also be used, through the development of an appropriate hierarchy of menus, to provide tabular summaries of technologies satisfying a wide range of criteria. The menu hierarchy can also be used to regenerate dynamically many of the tables that appeared in the original hardcopy publications, all from a single text database of the technology descriptions. Use of the Web environment permits linking many of the Technology Logic Diagram references to on-line versions of these publications, particularly the DOE Orders and related directives providing the legal requirements that were the basis for undertaking the Technology Logic Diagram studies in the first place.

  9. Web Accessibility and Accessibility Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Ravonne A.; Huprich, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Section 508 of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) mandates that programs and services be accessible to people with disabilities. While schools of library and information science (SLIS*) and university libraries should model accessible Web sites, this may not be the case. This article examines previous studies about the Web accessibility of…

  10. Wide band data collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turkiewicz, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    The Incorporated Research Institutes for Seismology (IRIS) approached NASA Headquarters in 1986 about the need to collect data daily from seismic stations around the world as part of the Earth Observing System (EOS) mission. A typical IRIS Seismic Station generates 16 Megabytes of data per day when there is seismic activity. The Preliminary Design Parameters of the Wide Band Data Collection System are summarized.

  11. Windows to the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Amy

    2004-01-01

    Using an Around the World unit to introduce students to over 30 nations, Wilson proposes "trail mix" over "melting pot" as a metaphor for multiculturalism in this article. Students kept a travel journal as they explored different cultures, and a school-wide celebration of diversity included trying out the dress, music, and language of each.…

  12. Brief: Touch the world through Internet

    SciTech Connect

    Woolley, T.C. )

    1994-06-01

    Internet is the world's largest computer network. Access to Internet allows users to communicate with colleagues around the world, to access vast software archives, to visit university and public libraries, to search on-line databases, to participate in lively discussions on thousands of topics, to receive electronic journals, and much more. This paper describes Internet and discusses its current and future uses, ways to obtain access, and some of the resources available.

  13. World lines.

    PubMed

    Waser, Jürgen; Fuchs, Raphael; Ribicić, Hrvoje; Schindler, Benjamin; Blöschl, Günther; Gröller, Eduard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present World Lines as a novel interactive visualization that provides complete control over multiple heterogeneous simulation runs. In many application areas, decisions can only be made by exploring alternative scenarios. The goal of the suggested approach is to support users in this decision making process. In this setting, the data domain is extended to a set of alternative worlds where only one outcome will actually happen. World Lines integrate simulation, visualization and computational steering into a single unified system that is capable of dealing with the extended solution space. World Lines represent simulation runs as causally connected tracks that share a common time axis. This setup enables users to interfere and add new information quickly. A World Line is introduced as a visual combination of user events and their effects in order to present a possible future. To quickly find the most attractive outcome, we suggest World Lines as the governing component in a system of multiple linked views and a simulation component. World Lines employ linking and brushing to enable comparative visual analysis of multiple simulations in linked views. Analysis results can be mapped to various visual variables that World Lines provide in order to highlight the most compelling solutions. To demonstrate this technique we present a flooding scenario and show the usefulness of the integrated approach to support informed decision making.

  14. Superhabitable worlds.

    PubMed

    Heller, René; Armstrong, John

    2014-01-01

    To be habitable, a world (planet or moon) does not need to be located in the stellar habitable zone (HZ), and worlds in the HZ are not necessarily habitable. Here, we illustrate how tidal heating can render terrestrial or icy worlds habitable beyond the stellar HZ. Scientists have developed a language that neglects the possible existence of worlds that offer more benign environments to life than Earth does. We call these objects "superhabitable" and discuss in which contexts this term could be used, that is to say, which worlds tend to be more habitable than Earth. In an appendix, we show why the principle of mediocracy cannot be used to logically explain why Earth should be a particularly habitable planet or why other inhabited worlds should be Earth-like. Superhabitable worlds must be considered for future follow-up observations of signs of extraterrestrial life. Considering a range of physical effects, we conclude that they will tend to be slightly older and more massive than Earth and that their host stars will likely be K dwarfs. This makes Alpha Centauri B, which is a member of the closest stellar system to the Sun and is supposed to host an Earth-mass planet, an ideal target for searches for a superhabitable world.

  15. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-03-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  16. UK to support open access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2012-08-01

    The UK government has "widely accepted" the recommendations of a major report into open-access publishing that was released in June by a 15-strong working group led by the British sociologist Janet Finch.

  17. Complete nucleotide sequences of attenuated and severe isolates of Leek yellow stripe virus from garlic in northern Japan: identification of three distinct virus types in garlic and leek world-wide.

    PubMed

    Takaki, F; Sano, T; Yamashita, K; Fujita, T; Ueda, K; Kato, T

    2005-06-01

    We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of three isolates (two severe and one attenuated) of the potyvirus Leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV), the main causal agent of the garlic mosaic disease that is prevalent in Aomori prefecture, northern Japan. They contained 10,296-10,297 nucleotides and encoded a deduced polyprotein of 3,215 amino acids. Sequence variation among the three isolates was 1.5% at both the nucleotide and amino acid levels. Surprisingly, the sequences of all three isolates were quite different from that of recently described garlic isolate of LYSV from China. Sequence similarities among the 5'-UTR and P1 regions were only 56-57% and 52-53%, respectively, raising the possibility that these isolates may actually be distinct virus species. Phylogenetic analyses using 5'-UTR, P1 protein and coat protein revealed that all LYSV isolates described to date can be divided into three groups; i.e., those from leek, those from garlic in northern Japan, and those from garlic in southern Japan, China, and other parts of the world. The garlic isolates from northern Japan were more closely related to LYSV isolates from leek than to garlic isolates from southern Japan and China, suggesting a different origin for the garlic cultivars now cultivated in northern Japan.

  18. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Building access control (BAC)--a catchall phrase to describe the systems that control access to facilities across campus--has traditionally been handled with remarkably low-tech solutions: (1) manual locks; (2) electronic locks; and (3) ID cards with magnetic strips. Recent improvements have included smart cards and keyless solutions that make use…

  19. Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  20. The Accessible Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Disability, Washington, DC.

    The fourth in a series on implementation and enforcement of major civil rights laws relating to Americans with disabilities, this report looks at how such enforcement relates to electronic and information technology. As used in this report, Electronic and Information Technology (E&IT) particularly involves the Internet, the World Wide Web, and…

  1. Automatically Producing Accessible Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Iorio, Angelo; Feliziani, Antonio Angelo; Mirri, Silvia; Salomoni, Paola; Vitali, Fabio

    2006-01-01

    The "Anywhere, Anytime, Anyway" slogan is frequently associated to e-learning with the aim to emphasize the wide access offered by on-line education. Otherwise, learning materials are currently created to be used with a specific technology or configuration, leaving out from the virtual classroom students who have limited access capabilities and,…

  2. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-02-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  3. [Towards an urban world].

    PubMed

    1991-12-01

    It has been estimated that by the year 2006, the proportion of the world's population residing in cities will for the 1st time exceed 50%. The entire urban population will be living on 1% of the earth's surface. Rapid growth of cities is largely limited to developing countries, where about 9/10 of urban growth is expected to occur in coming decades. Urban growth in developing countries is due to high fertility as well as inmigration of poor peasants seeking a better life. The current growth rate of Third World cities is 3.6% annually, which signifies doubling of the population in 20 years. Paris required over a century to grow from 547,000 to 3 million, but Lagos grew from 700,000 to 5.6 million in 20 years and Cairo grew by 6.5 million in 34 years. Immoderate population growth places a great strain on cities attempting to provide basic services. Only a few authoritarian governments have succeeded in limiting immigration to their metropolitan areas. Rapidly growing cities have become symbols not only of poverty and social deterioration, but of ecological destruction, contamination, and lack of health. Air pollution, waste management, and the water supply are 3 of the most serious problems of hygiene and sanitation in the world's cities. Air pollution is caused by various factors including car exhausts and coal burning. According to World Health Organization data, less than 60% of Third World housing has access to an adequate sanitary system. 90% of sewage is not treated before elimination. And millions of persons with no potable water supply are obliged to consume contaminated water or to use their scarce resources to buy water. Many cities lose up to 60% of their scarce water supplies through leaking pipes. If these pipes were repaired, and the loss amounted to the 12% typical of the US and Great Britain, this single measure would double the volume of potable water available. The lack of social balance is at the root of urban problems in the Third World. 600

  4. Central venous access.

    PubMed

    Ganeshan, Arul; Warakaulle, Dinuke R; Uberoi, Raman

    2007-01-01

    Central venous access plays an important role in the management of an ever-increasing population of patients ranging from those that are critically ill to patients with difficult clinical access. Interventional radiologists are key in delivering this service and should be familiar with the wide range of techniques and catheters now available to them. A comprehensive description of these catheters with regard to indications, technical aspects of catheterization, success rates, and associated early and late complications, as well as a review of various published guidelines on central venous catheter insertion are given in this article.

  5. Optical Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-01-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks

    Guest Editors Jun Zheng, University of Ottawa Nirwan Ansari, New Jersey Institute of Technology

    Submission Deadline: 1 June 2005

    Background

    With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the

  6. Equal Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Patta, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Presents an interview with Stephen McCarthy, co-partner and president of Equal Access ADA Consulting Architects of San Diego, California, about designing schools to naturally integrate compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). (EV)

  7. FirstSearch and NetFirst--Web and Dial-up Access: Plus Ca Change, Plus C'est la Meme Chose?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, Wallace; Mincey, Danielle

    1996-01-01

    Compares and evaluates the differences between OCLC's dial-up and World Wide Web FirstSearch access methods and their interfaces with the underlying databases. Also examines NetFirst, OCLC's new Internet catalog, the only Internet tracking database from a "traditional" database service. (Author/PEN)

  8. World Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceres, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents a report that deals with several topics from different parts of the world. A system for creating more meaningful maps, the recycling of organic wastes in agriculture in China, and producing pigs and poultry without pollution problems are among the topics presented. (HM)

  9. Our World?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuelsson, Ingrid Pramling, Ed.

    Authored by individuals from five Nordic countries, this book focuses on questions about the child's right to live in and learn about an ecologically sustainable world. The first five chapters are theoretical in character, while the final six chapters are derived from work done by early childhood teachers together with children. The goal of the…

  10. A large-cavity zeolite with wide pore windows and potential as an oil refining catalyst.

    PubMed

    Corma, Avelino; Díaz-Cabañas, María J; Martínez-Triguero, Joaquín; Rey, Fernando; Rius, Jordi

    2002-08-01

    Crude oil is an important feedstock for the petrochemical industry and the dominant energy source driving the world economy, but known oil reserves will cover demand for no more than 50 years at the current rate of consumption. This situation calls for more efficient strategies for converting crude oil into fuel and petrochemical products. At present, more than 40% of oil conversion is achieved using catalysts based on faujasite; this zeolite requires extensive post-synthesis treatment to produce an ultrastable form, and has a large cavity accessible through four 0.74-nm-wide windows and thus limits the access of oil molecules to the catalytically active sites. The use of zeolites with better accessibility to their active sites should result in improved catalyst efficiency. To date, two zeolites with effective pore diameters exceeding that of faujasite have been reported, but their one-dimensional pore topology excludes use in oil refining. Similarly, zeolites with large pores and a three-dimensional pore topology have been reported, but in all these materials the pore openings are smaller than in faujasite. Here we report the synthesis of ITQ-21, a zeolite with a three-dimensional pore network containing 1.18-nm-wide cavities, each of which is accessible through six circular and 0.74-nm-wide windows. As expected for a zeolite with this structure, ITQ-21 exhibits high catalytic activity and selectivity for valuable products in preliminary oil refining tests.

  11. Water world 2000.

    PubMed Central

    Tibbetts, J

    2000-01-01

    Today, at least one-fifth of all people worldwide lack access to safe drinking water, a problem that will almost certainly worsen as the earth's population grows. Although the vast majority of industrial discharges into waterways are regulated and treated, and most cities and towns effectively monitor and treat their sewage for chemical contaminants, problems such as arsenic contamination and dangerous microorganisms still trouble public water supplies in wealthy nations. In developing countries, most cities discharge 80-90% of their untreated sewage directly into rivers and streams, which are used for drinking, bathing, and washing. This lack of sewage treatment has allowed dangerous microorganisms to spread, posing one of the greatest threats to human health in the developing world: waterborne diseases caused by deadly microbes in water. Contamination isn't the only problem: in many areas of the world, drinkable water is a scarce resource available to many only at high cost, when it is available at all. PMID:10656865

  12. The Present and Future of Low-Cost Diagnostics: A new class of portable, easy-to-use products is increasing access to health care around the world, yet challenges remain.

    PubMed

    Bates, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Imagine you?re in a rural health clinic in a Kenyan village. A child comes in with a fever. It could be any one of a number of life-threatening infectious diseases. There?s no refrigeration, no access to sophisticated laboratory equipment, and no highly trained personnel. How do you go about diagnosing and treating this child?

  13. An Information System to Access Status Information of the LHCb Online

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, M.; Gaspar, C.

    2012-12-01

    The LHCb collaboration consists of roughly 700 physicists from 52 institutes and universities. Most of the collaborating physicists - including subdetector experts - are not permanently based at CERN. This paper describes the architecture used to publish data internal to the LHCb experiment control- and data acquisition system to the World Wide Web. Collaborators can access the online (sub-) system status and the system performance directly from the institute abroad, from home or from a smart phone without the need of direct access to the online computing infrastructure.

  14. Open Access Publishing: What Authors Want

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nariani, Rajiv; Fernandez, Leila

    2012-01-01

    Campus-based open access author funds are being considered by many academic libraries as a way to support authors publishing in open access journals. Article processing fees for open access have been introduced recently by publishers and have not yet been widely accepted by authors. Few studies have surveyed authors on their reasons for publishing…

  15. Expanding Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    There is no question that the United States lags behind most industrialized nations in consumer access to broadband Internet service. For many policy makers and activists, this shortfall marks the latest phase in the struggle to overcome the digital divide. To remedy this lack of broadband affordability and availability, one start-up firm--with…

  16. Easy Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettelman, Alan

    2009-01-01

    School and university restrooms, locker and shower rooms have specific ADA accessibility requirements that serve the needs of staff, students and campus visitors who are disabled as a result of injury, illness or age. Taking good care of them is good for the reputation of a sensitive community institution, and fosters positive public relations.…

  17. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2012-01-01

    As faculty members add online and multimedia elements to their courses, colleges and universities across the country are realizing that there is a lot of work to be done to ensure that disabled students (and employees) have equal access to course material and university websites. Unfortunately, far too few schools consider the task a top priority.…

  18. World Space Observatory - Ultraviolet mission: state of art 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachkov, Mikhail; Gomez De Castro, Ana; Shustov, Boris M.

    2016-07-01

    The WSO-UV (World Space Observatory - Ultraviolet) project is intended to built and operate an international space observatory designed for observations in the UV (115 - 300 nm) range, where some of the most important astrophysical processes can be efficiently studied. The observatory includes a 170 cm aperture telescope capable of high-resolution spectroscopy and long slit low-resolution spectroscopy with the WUVS instrument; moreover UV imaging will be available with cameras. WSO-UV is a Russian led mission that will be operating in high Earth orbit (geosynchronous with inclination 51.^o6) for five+five years grating access to the UV range to the world-wide astronomical community in the post-Hubble era. Spain is a major partner to the project. Updated information of the WSO-UV project is provided periodically in the COSPAR meetings. Henceforth, this review provides a summary on the project, its status and the major outcomes since the last COSPAR Assembly.

  19. Trust evaluation in health information on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Moturu, Sai T; Liu, Huan; Johnson, William G

    2008-01-01

    The impact of health information on the web is mounting and with the Health 2.0 revolution around the corner, online health promotion and management is becoming a reality. User-generated content is at the core of this revolution and brings to the fore the essential question of trust evaluation, a pertinent problem for health applications in particular. Evolving Web 2.0 health applications provide abundant opportunities for research. We identify these applications, discuss the challenges for trust assessment, characterize conceivable variables, list potential techniques for analysis, and provide a vision for future research.

  20. Pilot using World Wide Web to prevent diabetes in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Long, Joann D; Armstrong, Myrna L; Amos, Elizabeth; Shriver, Brent; Roman-Shriver, Carmen; Feng, Du; Harrison, Lanell; Luker, Scott; Nash, Anita; Blevins, Monica Witcher

    2006-02-01

    This pilot study tested the effects of an interactive nutrition education Web site on fruit, vegetable, and fat consumption in minority adolescents genetically at risk for Type 2 diabetes. A one-group nonexperimental pretest, posttest focus group design was used. Twenty-one sixth-grade to eighth-grade junior high adolescents who were minorities volunteered to participate. Participants received 5 hours of Web-based nutrition education over 3 weeks. A significant difference in fat consumption was supported from the computerized dietary assessment. No difference was found in fruit or vegetable consumption. Comparative data indicated a rise in body mass index (BMI) percentile from 88.03 (1999) to 88.40 (2002; boys) and 88.25 (1999) to 91.2 (2002; girls). Focus group responses supported the satisfaction of adolescents in the study with the use of the Web-based intervention for nutrition education. Healthy eating interventions using Web-based nutrition education should be further investigated with adolescents.