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Sample records for accessing sorting analyzing

  1. Analyzing the role of AP-1B in polarized sorting from recycling endosomes in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Fölsch, Heike

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial cells polarize their plasma membrane into apical and basolateral domains where the apical membrane faces the luminal side of an organ and the basolateral membrane is in contact with neighboring cells and the basement membrane. To maintain this polarity, newly synthesized and internalized cargos must be sorted to their correct target domain. Over the last ten years, recycling endosomes have emerged as an important sorting station at which proteins destined for the apical membrane are segregated from those destined for the basolateral membrane. Essential for basolateral sorting from recycling endosomes is the tissue-specific adaptor complex AP-1B. This chapter describes experimental protocols to analyze the AP-1B function in epithelial cells including the analysis of protein sorting in LLC-PK1 cells lines, immunoprecipitation of cargo proteins after chemical crosslinking to AP-1B, and radioactive pulse-chase experiments in MDCK cells depleted of the AP-1B subunit μ1B.

  2. Internet Access and Pricing: Sorting Out the Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Thomas B.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses Internet access and pricing options. Highlights include restructuring of the telecommunications industry; current methods of access; economics of high-speed access; the impact of cheap Internet access; long-term possibilities; and a table that provides a comparison of Internet access methods. (LRW)

  3. Direct memory access digital events analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basano, L.; Ottonello, P.

    1989-06-01

    We present a random-point-process multifunction analyzer in which a long sequence of interpulse intervals are recorded in the RAM bank of a personal computer, through a suitably designed front end attached to a commercial DMA interface. Laser light scattered by ground-glass disks and by aqueous suspensions of polystyrene latex spheres has been used to test the performance of the device that may be employed in a broad range of applications.

  4. Rare cancer cell analyzer for whole blood applications: microcytometer cell counting and sorting subcircuits.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, C; Kokoris, M; Nabavi, M; Clemmens, J; Maloney, P; Capadanno, J; Gerdes, J; Battrell, C F

    2005-09-01

    We demonstrate sorting of rare cancer cells from blood using a thin ribbon monolayer of cells within a credit-card sized, microfluidic laboratory-on-a-card ("lab card") structure. This enables higher cell throughput per minute thereby speeding up cell interrogation. In this approach, multiple cells are viewed and sorted, not individually, but as a whole cell row or section of the ribbon at a time. Gated selection of only the cell rows containing a tagged rare cell provides enrichment of the rare cell relative to background blood cells. We also designed the cell injector for laminar flow antibody labeling within 20s. The approach combines rapid laminar flow cell labeling with monolayer cell sorting thereby enabling rare cell target detection at sensitivity levels 1000 to 10,000 times that of existing flow cytometers. Using this method, total cell labeling and data acquisition time on card may be reduced to a few minutes compared to 30-60 min for standard flow methods. PMID:16199174

  5. Replication Improves Sorting-Task Results Analyzed by DISTATIS in a Consumer Study of American Bourbon and Rye Whiskeys.

    PubMed

    Lahne, Jacob; Collins, Thomas S; Heymann, Hildegarde

    2016-05-01

    In consumer food-sensory studies, sorting and closely related methods (for example, projective mapping) have often been applied to large product sets which are complex and fatiguing for panelists. Analysis of sorting by Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS) is common, but this method discards relevant individual decisions; analysis by DISTATIS, which accounts for individual differences, is gaining acceptance. This research posits that replication can improve DISTATIS analysis by stabilizing consumer sensory maps, which are often extremely unstable. As a case study a fatiguing product set was sorted: 10 American whiskeys-5 bourbons and 5 ryes-were sorted into groups by 21 consumers over 2 replications. These products were chosen because American whiskeys are some of the most important distilled beverages in today's market; in particular, "bourbon" (mashbill more than 50% corn) and "rye" (more than 50% rye) whiskeys are important and assumed to be products with distinct sensory attributes. However, there is almost no scientific information about their sensory properties. Data were analyzed using standard and aggregated DISTATIS and MDS. No significant relationship between mashbill and consumer categorization in whiskeys was found; instead, there was evidence of producer and aging effects. aggregated DISTATIS was found to provide more stable results than without replication, and DISTATIS results provided a number of benefits over MDS, including bootstrapped confidence intervals for product separation. In addition, this is the first published evidence that mashbill does not determine sensory properties of American whiskey: bourbons and ryes, while legally distinct, were not separated by consumers.

  6. Replication Improves Sorting-Task Results Analyzed by DISTATIS in a Consumer Study of American Bourbon and Rye Whiskeys.

    PubMed

    Lahne, Jacob; Collins, Thomas S; Heymann, Hildegarde

    2016-05-01

    In consumer food-sensory studies, sorting and closely related methods (for example, projective mapping) have often been applied to large product sets which are complex and fatiguing for panelists. Analysis of sorting by Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS) is common, but this method discards relevant individual decisions; analysis by DISTATIS, which accounts for individual differences, is gaining acceptance. This research posits that replication can improve DISTATIS analysis by stabilizing consumer sensory maps, which are often extremely unstable. As a case study a fatiguing product set was sorted: 10 American whiskeys-5 bourbons and 5 ryes-were sorted into groups by 21 consumers over 2 replications. These products were chosen because American whiskeys are some of the most important distilled beverages in today's market; in particular, "bourbon" (mashbill more than 50% corn) and "rye" (more than 50% rye) whiskeys are important and assumed to be products with distinct sensory attributes. However, there is almost no scientific information about their sensory properties. Data were analyzed using standard and aggregated DISTATIS and MDS. No significant relationship between mashbill and consumer categorization in whiskeys was found; instead, there was evidence of producer and aging effects. aggregated DISTATIS was found to provide more stable results than without replication, and DISTATIS results provided a number of benefits over MDS, including bootstrapped confidence intervals for product separation. In addition, this is the first published evidence that mashbill does not determine sensory properties of American whiskey: bourbons and ryes, while legally distinct, were not separated by consumers. PMID:27088440

  7. Optimizing recovery using on-line ash analyzers or sorting for dollars

    SciTech Connect

    Litz, P.

    1995-08-01

    The quest for profitability in the complex coal industry requires continual examination of common practices looking for better and more cost effective methods of performing these tasks. As the available coal reserves become more difficult to mine and the quality decreases, this examination process grows in importance. Over the past fifteen years, we have all seen major changes in the methods used to mine, clean and load coal in an attempt to increase the bottom line and proliferate a safer work place. The long wall mining method has greatly increased the profitably of the larger mines that have the reserves and the seams suitable for this method. Bigger and faster conveyor belts have increased loading capacities and decreased time spent performing the task. New technology in the cleaning and preparation of coal has also assisted in increasing yield and thus decreasing the final cost of a ton of coal. What about the smaller mines that do not have the mining conditions or reserves for a longwall or the monetary resources to upgrade belt lines and preparation plants, they to must remain profitable. The on-line ash analyzer is one answer that is not only for the smaller mines but can show quick and substantial returns for the larger operations. The on-line ash analyzer is a nuclear device that is mounted directly on the conveyor belt to produce an instantaneous ash analysis on the coal as it moves beneath the detector. The on-line ash analyzer is described.

  8. External sorting: I/O analysis and parallel processing techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, S.C.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis deals with sorting of data that are much too large to fit in main memory or external sorting. The author focuses on two aspects of external sorting: I/O analysis and parallel processing techniques. Storage device models are defined and applied to analyze the I/O complexities of multi-way merge sort and tag sort (or key sort). It is shown that using higher-merge order, through, reduces the number of merge passes, causes excessive random I/O accesses and degrades the overall I/O performance of multi-way merge sort. Techniques are developed for producing long runs in merge sort and for rearranging the records in tag sort after their ranks are determined. A lower bound for the I/O access time or rearranging the records in tag sort is derived. Two methods are explored for implementing distribution sort on parallel computers. The first method, multi-pass distribution sort, determines the bucket ranges with one read pass over the input file, and uses subsequent passes to distribute the data into buckets and sort them. The distribution and sorting of the buckets are processed in parallel using a two-stage pipeline. The second method, one-pass distribution sort, coalesces the bucket partition, bucket distribution, and sort-bucket phases all together so that the input file needs to be processed only once.

  9. Combining magnetic sorting of mother cells and fluctuation tests to analyze genome instability during mitotic cell aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Melissa N; Maxwell, Patrick H

    2014-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been an excellent model system for examining mechanisms and consequences of genome instability. Information gained from this yeast model is relevant to many organisms, including humans, since DNA repair and DNA damage response factors are well conserved across diverse species. However, S. cerevisiae has not yet been used to fully address whether the rate of accumulating mutations changes with increasing replicative (mitotic) age due to technical constraints. For instance, measurements of yeast replicative lifespan through micromanipulation involve very small populations of cells, which prohibit detection of rare mutations. Genetic methods to enrich for mother cells in populations by inducing death of daughter cells have been developed, but population sizes are still limited by the frequency with which random mutations that compromise the selection systems occur. The current protocol takes advantage of magnetic sorting of surface-labeled yeast mother cells to obtain large enough populations of aging mother cells to quantify rare mutations through phenotypic selections. Mutation rates, measured through fluctuation tests, and mutation frequencies are first established for young cells and used to predict the frequency of mutations in mother cells of various replicative ages. Mutation frequencies are then determined for sorted mother cells, and the age of the mother cells is determined using flow cytometry by staining with a fluorescent reagent that detects bud scars formed on their cell surfaces during cell division. Comparison of predicted mutation frequencies based on the number of cell divisions to the frequencies experimentally observed for mother cells of a given replicative age can then identify whether there are age-related changes in the rate of accumulating mutations. Variations of this basic protocol provide the means to investigate the influence of alterations in specific gene functions or specific environmental conditions on

  10. Combining Magnetic Sorting of Mother Cells and Fluctuation Tests to Analyze Genome Instability During Mitotic Cell Aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Melissa N.; Maxwell, Patrick H.

    2014-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been an excellent model system for examining mechanisms and consequences of genome instability. Information gained from this yeast model is relevant to many organisms, including humans, since DNA repair and DNA damage response factors are well conserved across diverse species. However, S. cerevisiae has not yet been used to fully address whether the rate of accumulating mutations changes with increasing replicative (mitotic) age due to technical constraints. For instance, measurements of yeast replicative lifespan through micromanipulation involve very small populations of cells, which prohibit detection of rare mutations. Genetic methods to enrich for mother cells in populations by inducing death of daughter cells have been developed, but population sizes are still limited by the frequency with which random mutations that compromise the selection systems occur. The current protocol takes advantage of magnetic sorting of surface-labeled yeast mother cells to obtain large enough populations of aging mother cells to quantify rare mutations through phenotypic selections. Mutation rates, measured through fluctuation tests, and mutation frequencies are first established for young cells and used to predict the frequency of mutations in mother cells of various replicative ages. Mutation frequencies are then determined for sorted mother cells, and the age of the mother cells is determined using flow cytometry by staining with a fluorescent reagent that detects bud scars formed on their cell surfaces during cell division. Comparison of predicted mutation frequencies based on the number of cell divisions to the frequencies experimentally observed for mother cells of a given replicative age can then identify whether there are age-related changes in the rate of accumulating mutations. Variations of this basic protocol provide the means to investigate the influence of alterations in specific gene functions or specific environmental conditions on

  11. New Technology and Digital Worlds: Analyzing Evidence of Equity in Access, Use, and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warschauer, Mark; Matuchniak, Tina

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors take a broad perspective on how to analyze issues of technology and equity for youth in the United States. They begin with "access" as a starting point, but consider not only whether diverse groups of youth have digital media available to them but also how that access is supported or constrained by technological and…

  12. Sort computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorband, John E.

    1988-01-01

    Sorting has long been used to organize data in preparation for further computation, but sort computation allows some types of computation to be performed during the sort. Sort aggregation and sort distribution are the two basic forms of sort computation. Sort aggregation generates an accumulative or aggregate result for each group of records and places this result in one of the records. An aggregate operation can be any operation that is both associative and commutative, i.e., any operation whose result does not depend on the order of the operands or the order in which the operations are performed. Sort distribution copies the value from a field of a specific record in a group into that field in every record of that group.

  13. Analyzing green/open space accessibility by using GIS: case study of northern Cyprus cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kara, Can; Akçit, Nuhcan

    2015-06-01

    It is well known that green spaces are vital for increasing the quality of life within the urban environment. World Health Organization states that it should be 9 square meters per person at least. European Environment Agency defines that 5000 square meters of green space should be accessible within 300 meters distance from households. Green structure in Northern Cyprus is not sufficient and effective in this manner. In Northern Cyprus, they have neglected the urban planning process and they have started to lose significance and importance. The present work analyzes the accessibility of green spaces in Northern Cyprus cities. Kioneli, Famagusta, Kyrenia and the northern part of Nicosia are analyzed in this manner. To do that, green space structure is analyzed by using digital data. Additionally, accessibility of the green space is measured by using 300-meter buffers for each city. Euclidean distance is used from each building and accessibility maps are generated. Kyrenia and Famagusta have shortage in green space per capita. The amount of green space in these cities is less than 4 square meters. The factors affecting the accessibility and utilization of public spaces are discussed to present better solutions to urban planning.

  14. SeismicCanvas: Interactive software for accessing and analyzing seismic waveform data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroeger, G. C.

    2011-12-01

    SeismicCavas, a cross-platform, graphically interactive application for accessing and analyzing waveform data is presented. Unlike command-line driven packages like SAC and MatSeis, SeismicCanvas adopts a graphically interactive interface to minimize the learning curve for classroom and laboratory application. The menu structure is patterned after common desktop word processing and spreadsheet applications. Direct graphical interaction with traces adopts a "select, then operate" paradigm used in familiar desktop graphics packages. Viewing options include arbitrary arrangement of traces, seismic sections, spectra and spectrograms. Operations include stacking, filtering, windowing and tapering. Interactive picking and measurement of times and amplitudes and WYSIWYG printing are implemented. SeismicCanvas can import data from local files, or through the new web services interface of the IRIS Data Management System. We invite feedback including suggestions for changes to the user interface or additional capabilities that will allow SeismicCanvas to support classroom and laboratory use of digital seismic data.

  15. Determination of free and total carnitine with a random-access chemistry analyzer.

    PubMed

    Wan, L; Hubbard, R W

    1998-04-01

    Carnitine deficiency presents as a major problem in fatty acid oxidation. The use of a plasma carnitine assay can rapidly help to describe this deficiency. The method we describe here requires two simple steps of sample preparation, followed by automated analysis with the Beckman Synchron CX4 random-access chemistry analyzer. The goal of this method development was to reduce the cost of analysis and to allow a greater number of laboratories to perform this assay on demand within 1 h for both free and total carnitine. The method has a linearity of 0-150 micromol/L and a detection limit of 5 micromol/L. The inter- and intraday CVs are <20%. The method agreed closely with both the widely used RIA and spectrophotometric methods.

  16. MATISSE a web-based tool to access, visualize and analyze high resolution minor bodies observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinzi, Angelo; Capria, Maria Teresa; Palomba, Ernesto; Antonelli, Lucio Angelo; Giommi, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    In the recent years planetary exploration missions acquired data from minor bodies (i.e., dwarf planets, asteroid and comets) at a detail level never reached before. Since these objects often present very irregular shapes (as in the case of the comet 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko target of the ESA Rosetta mission) "classical" bidimensional projections of observations are difficult to understand. With the aim of providing the scientific community a tool to access, visualize and analyze data in a new way, ASI Science Data Center started to develop MATISSE (Multi-purposed Advanced Tool for the Instruments for the Solar System Exploration - http://tools.asdc.asi.it/matisse.jsp) in late 2012. This tool allows 3D web-based visualization of data acquired by planetary exploration missions: the output could either be the straightforward projection of the selected observation over the shape model of the target body or the visualization of a high-order product (average/mosaic, difference, ratio, RGB) computed directly online with MATISSE. Standard outputs of the tool also comprise downloadable files to be used with GIS software (GeoTIFF and ENVI format) and 3D very high-resolution files to be viewed by means of the free software Paraview. During this period the first and most frequent exploitation of the tool has been related to visualization of data acquired by VIRTIS-M instruments onboard Rosetta observing the comet 67P. The success of this task, well represented by the good number of published works that used images made with MATISSE confirmed the need of a different approach to correctly visualize data coming from irregular shaped bodies. In the next future the datasets available to MATISSE are planned to be extended, starting from the addition of VIR-Dawn observations of both Vesta and Ceres and also using standard protocols to access data stored in external repositories, such as NASA ODE and Planetary VO.

  17. Sorting choanoflagellates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marconi, Veronica I.; Miño, Gaston L.; Sparacino, Javier; Banchio, Adolfo J.; Condat, Carlos A.; Koehl, Mimi A. R.; King, Nicole; Stocker, Roman

    2015-03-01

    In freshwater environments, as well as in oceans, environmental conditions are in constant fluctuation. Some heterotrophic plankton must adapt their swimming behavior in order to survive under these conditions. In the case of the choanoflagellate, the closest animal ancestor, the ability to forage for food is given not only by its single flagellum, but also by its differentiation between fast and slow swimmers. The understanding of how these cells with different strategies to swim search for food can give us a better insight into how eukaryotes respond to different stimuli. In this work, we have designed a microfluidic device that sorts choanoflagellates by their speed. The optimal geometry was found by a numerical model using the experimentally determined motilities of each swimmer type.

  18. Increased access rate to a primary health-care centre by introducing a structured patient sorting system developed to make the most efficient use of the personnel: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Thorn, Jörgen; Maun, Andy; Bornhöft, Lena; Kornbakk, Malena; Wedham, Sofia; Zaffar, Mona; Thanner, Cathrine

    2010-11-01

    The primary health-care centre (PHCC) participating in the study has had financial problems for several years and it has been particularly difficult to recruit general practitioners (GPs). As a result, the access rate to the PHCC was low. The purpose of this study was to increase the access rate to the PHCC and to make the most efficient use of the staff by introducing a structured patient sorting system. All personnel were involved in the implementation process and participated regularly in interdisciplinary work-groups. A variety of Drop-in receptions were created and a manual for sorting patients by condition was introduced. The main finding was that the total access rate to the PHCC increased by 27% and that each staff member increased their personal access rate by an average of 13%. Eighty-three percent of the patients who were initially treated by the rehabilitation team were treated solely by the team and did not need to see a GP. No medical backlashes were reported. These findings indicate a more efficient use of the personnel. Furthermore, both personnel and patients indicated an improvement in the possibility to book patient appointments after the introduction of the structured patient sorting system. PMID:21097727

  19. Lipid Vesicle-mediated Affinity Chromatography using Magnetic Activated Cell Sorting (LIMACS): a Novel Method to Analyze Protein-lipid Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Bieberich, Erhard

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of lipid protein interaction is difficult because lipids are embedded in cell membranes and therefore, inaccessible to most purification procedures. As an alternative, lipids can be coated on flat surfaces as used for lipid ELISA and Plasmon resonance spectroscopy. However, surface coating lipids do not form microdomain structures, which may be important for the lipid binding properties. Further, these methods do not allow for the purification of larger amounts of proteins binding to their target lipids. To overcome these limitations of testing lipid protein interaction and to purify lipid binding proteins we developed a novel method termed lipid vesicle-mediated affinity chromatography using magnetic-activated cell sorting (LIMACS). In this method, lipid vesicles are prepared with the target lipid and phosphatidylserine as the anchor lipid for Annexin V MACS. Phosphatidylserine is a ubiquitous cell membrane phospholipid that shows high affinity to the protein Annexin V. Using magnetic beads conjugated to Annexin V the phosphatidylserine-containing lipid vesicles will bind to the magnetic beads. When the lipid vesicles are incubated with a cell lysate the protein binding to the target lipid will also be bound to the beads and can be co-purified using MACS. This method can also be used to test if recombinant proteins reconstitute a protein complex binding to the target lipid. We have used this method to show the interaction of atypical PKC (aPKC) with the sphingolipid ceramide and to co-purify prostate apoptosis response 4 (PAR-4), a protein binding to ceramide-associated aPKC. We have also used this method for the reconstitution of a ceramide-associated complex of recombinant aPKC with the cell polarity-related proteins Par6 and Cdc42. Since lipid vesicles can be prepared with a variety of sphingo- or phospholipids, LIMACS offers a versatile test for lipid-protein interaction in a lipid environment that resembles closely that of the cell membrane

  20. Derivation of sorting programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varghese, Joseph; Loganantharaj, Rasiah

    1990-01-01

    Program synthesis for critical applications has become a viable alternative to program verification. Nested resolution and its extension are used to synthesize a set of sorting programs from their first order logic specifications. A set of sorting programs, such as, naive sort, merge sort, and insertion sort, were successfully synthesized starting from the same set of specifications.

  1. Application of ISSR markers to analyze molecular relationships in Iranian jasmine (Jasminum spp.) accessions.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi Ghehsareh, Masood; Salehi, Hassan; Khosh-Khui, Morteza; Niazi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    There are many species of jasmines in different regions of Iran in natural or cultivated form, and there is no information about their genetic status. Therefore, inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis was used to evaluate genetic variations of the 53 accessions representing eight species of Jasminum collected from different regions of Iran. A total of 21 ISSR primers were used which generated 981 bands of different sizes. Mean percentage of polymorphic bands was 90.64 %. Maximum resolving power, polymorphic information content average, and marker index values were 21.55, 0.35, and 14.42 for primers of 3, 4, and 3 respectively. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram based on Jaccard's coefficients indicated that 53 accessions were divided into two major clusters. The first major cluster was divided into two subclusters; the subcluster A included Jasminum grandiflorum L., J. officinale L., and J. azoricum L. and the subcluster B consisted of three forms of J. sambac L. (single, semi-double, and double flowers). The second major cluster was divided into two subclusters; the first subcluster (C) included J. humile L., J. primulinum Hemsl., J. nudiflorum Lindl. and the second subcluster (D) consisted of J. fruticans L. At the species level, the highest percentage of polymorphism (34.05 %), numbers of effective alleles (1.16), Shannon index (0.151), and Nei's genetic diversity (0.098) were observed in J. officinale. The lowest values of percentage polymorphism (0.011), number of effective alleles (1.009), Shannon index (0.007), and Nei's genetic diversity (0.005) were obtained for J. nudiflorum. Based on pairwise population matrix of Nei's unbiased genetic identity, the highest identity (0.85) was found between J.officinale and J. azoricum and the lowest identity (0.69) was between J. grandiflorum and J. perimulinum. Based on analysis of molecular variance, the amount of genetic variations among the eight populations was 83 %. This study

  2. Analyzing the Energy and Power Consumption of Remote Memory Accesses in the OpenSHMEM Model

    SciTech Connect

    Jana, Siddhartha; Hernandez, Oscar R; Poole, Stephen W; Hsu, Chung-Hsing; Chapman, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    PGAS models like OpenSHMEM provide interfaces to explicitly initiate one-sided remote memory accesses among processes. In addition, the model also provides synchronizing barriers to ensure a consistent view of the distributed memory at different phases of an application. The incorrect use of such interfaces affects the scalability achievable while using a parallel programming model. This study aims at understanding the effects of these constructs on the energy and power consumption behavior of OpenSHMEM applications. Our experiments show that cost incurred in terms of the total energy and power consumed depends on multiple factors across the software and hardware stack. We conclude that there is a significant impact on the power consumed by the CPU and DRAM due to multiple factors including the design of the data transfer patterns within an application, the design of the communication protocols within a middleware, the architectural constraints laid by the interconnect solutions, and also the levels of memory hierarchy within a compute node. This work motivates treating energy and power consumption as important factors while designing compute solutions for current and future distributed systems.

  3. BIOMECHANICAL ACCESS METHOD FOR ANALYZING ISOMETRICITY IN RECONSTRUCTING THE MEDIAL PATELLOFEMORAL LIGAMENT

    PubMed Central

    Sadigursky, David; Gobbi, Riccardo Gomes; Pereira, César Augusto Martins; Pécora, José Ricardo; Camanho, Gilberto Luis

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To present a biomechanical device for evaluating medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction and its isometricity. Methods: An accessible biomechanical method that allowed application of physiological and non-physiological forces to the knee using a mechanical arm and application of weights and counterweights was developed, so as to enable many different evaluations and have a very accurate measurement system for distances between different structures, for analysis on experiments. This article describes the assembly of this system, and suggests some practical applications. Six cadaver knees were studied. The knees were prepared in a testing machine developed at the Biomechanics Laboratory of IOT–HCFMUSP, which allowed dynamic evaluation of patellar behavior, with quantification of patellar lateralization between 0° and 120°. The differences between the distances found with and without load applied to the patella were grouped according to the graft fixation angle (0°, 30°, 60° or 90°) and knee position (intact, damaged or reconstructed). Results: There was a tendency for smaller lateral displacement to occur at fixation angles greater than 30 degrees of flexion, especially between the angles of 45° and 60° degrees of flexion, after the reconstruction. For the other angles, there was no statistical significance. Conclusion: The method developed is a useful tool for studies on the patellofemoral joint and the MPFL, and has a very accurate measurement system for distances between different structures. It can be used in institutions with fewer resources available. PMID:27047872

  4. Analyzing the effect of routing protocols on media access control protocols in radio networks

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, C. L.; Drozda, M.; Marathe, A.; Marathe, M. V.

    2002-01-01

    We study the effect of routing protocols on the performance of media access control (MAC) protocols in wireless radio networks. Three well known MAC protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA are considered. Similarly three recently proposed routing protocols: AODV, DSR and LAR scheme 1 are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of our experiments was to study how the routing protocols affect the performance of the MAC protocols when the underlying network and traffic parameters are varied. The performance of the protocols was measured w.r.t. five important parameters: (i) number of received packets, (ii) average latency of each packet, (iii) throughput (iv) long term fairness and (v) number of control packets at the MAC layer level. Our results show that combinations of routing and MAC protocols yield varying performance under varying network topology and traffic situations. The result has an important implication; no combination of routing protocol and MAC protocol is the best over all situations. Also, the performance analysis of protocols at a given level in the protocol stack needs to be studied not locally in isolation but as a part of the complete protocol stack. A novel aspect of our work is the use of statistical technique, ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) to characterize the effect of routing protocols on MAC protocols. This technique is of independent interest and can be utilized in several other simulation and empirical studies.

  5. IPAT: a freely accessible software tool for analyzing multiple patent documents with inbuilt landscape visualizer.

    PubMed

    Ajay, Dara; Gangwal, Rahul P; Sangamwar, Abhay T

    2015-01-01

    Intelligent Patent Analysis Tool (IPAT) is an online data retrieval tool, operated based on text mining algorithm to extract specific patent information in a predetermined pattern into an Excel sheet. The software is designed and developed to retrieve and analyze technology information from multiple patent documents and generate various patent landscape graphs and charts. The software is C# coded in visual studio 2010, which extracts the publicly available patent information from the web pages like Google Patent and simultaneously study the various technology trends based on user-defined parameters. In other words, IPAT combined with the manual categorization will act as an excellent technology assessment tool in competitive intelligence and due diligence for predicting the future R&D forecast.

  6. IPAT: a freely accessible software tool for analyzing multiple patent documents with inbuilt landscape visualizer.

    PubMed

    Ajay, Dara; Gangwal, Rahul P; Sangamwar, Abhay T

    2015-01-01

    Intelligent Patent Analysis Tool (IPAT) is an online data retrieval tool, operated based on text mining algorithm to extract specific patent information in a predetermined pattern into an Excel sheet. The software is designed and developed to retrieve and analyze technology information from multiple patent documents and generate various patent landscape graphs and charts. The software is C# coded in visual studio 2010, which extracts the publicly available patent information from the web pages like Google Patent and simultaneously study the various technology trends based on user-defined parameters. In other words, IPAT combined with the manual categorization will act as an excellent technology assessment tool in competitive intelligence and due diligence for predicting the future R&D forecast. PMID:26452016

  7. Prefectural difference in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage incidence in Japan analyzed with publically accessible diagnosis procedure combination data: possibilities and limitations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Annually reported, publically accessible Diagnosis Procedure Combination (DPC) data from the Japanese government is a part of the total DPC database of the Japanese medical reimbursement system for hospitalization. Although medical issues can be evaluated with these data promptly, the applicability of these data in epidemiological analyses has not been assessed. METHODS: We performed analyses using only statistical indices reported on the a government website. As a preliminary step, the prefectural consistency of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) was examined with prefectural mortality over 20 years. Then the prefectural incidence of sICH for four years was calculated, utilizing publically accessible DPC data. To determine its reliability, the consistency was examined, and correlations were analyzed with three prefectural factors expected to have an effect: the elderly rate, mortality due to sICH, and the non-DPC bed rate. In addition, a comparison model between prefectures with this method was developed by analyzing other prefecture-specific factors. RESULTS: Prefectural mortality due to sICH and prefectural sICH incidence in the DPC database were both consistent over the years. Prefectural sICH incidence had a constant positive correlation with the elderly rate, a partial correlation with mortality due to sICH, but no correlation with the non-DPC bed rate, which is one of the major biases when utilizing the DPC database. In the comparison model, the factors of low income and alcohol consumption showed increased sICH incidence. CONCLUSIONS: Although careful attention to its limitations is required, publically accessible DPC data will provide insights into epidemiological issues. PMID:27384329

  8. Sorting to Extremes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Sandy; McPherson, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    The world of higher education is a world of sorting, selecting, and ranking--on both sides of the market. Colleges select students to recruit and then to admit; students choose where to apply and which offer to accept. The sorting process that gets the most attention is in the higher reaches of the market, where it is not too much to say that…

  9. Sorting large files on a backend multiprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, M.; Bitton, D.; Wilkinson, W.K.

    1988-07-01

    A fundamental measure of processing power in a database management system is the performance of the sort utility it provides. When sorting a large data file on a serial computer, performance is limited by factors involving processor speed, memory capacity, and I/O bandwidth. In this paper, the authors investigate the feasibility and efficiency of a parallel sort-merge algorithm through implementation on the JASMIN prototype, a backend multiprocessor built around a fast packet bus. The authors describe the design and implementation of a parallel sort utility. They then present and analyze the results of measurements corresponding to a range of file sizes and processor configurations. Their results show that using current, off-the-shelf technology coupled with a streamlined distributed operating system, three- and five-microprocessor configurations provide a very cost-effective sort of large files. The three-processor configuration sorts a 100 Mbyte file in 1 h, which compares well to commercial sort packages available on high-performance mainframes. In additional experiments, the authors investigate a model to tune their sort software and scale their results to higher processor and network capabilities.

  10. Systolic s/sup 2/-way merge sort is optimal

    SciTech Connect

    Schmeck, H.; Schroder, H.; Starke, C.

    1989-07-01

    The time complexity of Thompson and Kun's s/sup 2/-way merge sort is analyzed and shown to be asymptotically optimal with respect to the recently improved lower bound on sorting on a mesh-connected n x n array. Furthermore, new lower bounds for systolic sorting are derived. A systolic version of s/sup 2/-way merge sort is systematically constructed and shown to be asymptotically optimal as well.

  11. Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Back to Health Library Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies Sneezing, runny nose, nasal congestion. Symptoms of the common ... simple preventive measures, you can help reduce your sneezing, coughing and general stuffiness, according to Pamela A. ...

  12. The Use of Binary Search Trees in External Distribution Sorting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, David; Lynch, Michael F.

    1984-01-01

    Suggests new method of external distribution called tree partitioning that involves use of binary tree to split incoming file into successively smaller partitions for internal sorting. Number of disc accesses during a tree-partitioning sort were calculated in simulation using files extracted from British National Bibliography catalog files. (19…

  13. BioExtract Server - An integrated workflow-enabling system to access and analyze heterogeneous, distributed biomolecular data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many computational workflows in bioinformatics require access to multiple, distributed data sources and analytic tools. The requisite data sources may include large public data repositories, community databases, and project databases for use in domain-specific research. Because different data source...

  14. Sorting Sloppy Sonic

    PubMed Central

    Little, Shawn C.; Gregor, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In the classic picture of morphogen-mediated patterning, cells acquire the correct spatial arrangement of specified fates by reading a precisely distributed gradient of morphogen. Xiong et al. now provide evidence for an alternate strategy—cells of the zebrafish neural tube actively sort to their correct positions following disordered specification by Sonic hedgehog. PMID:23622235

  15. Lipoprotein sorting in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Suguru; Tokuda, Hajime

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins are synthesized as precursors in the cytoplasm and processed into mature forms on the cytoplasmic membrane. A lipid moiety attached to the N terminus anchors these proteins to the membrane surface. Many bacteria are predicted to express more than 100 lipoproteins, which play diverse functions on the cell surface. The Lol system, composed of five proteins, catalyzes the localization of Escherichia coli lipoproteins to the outer membrane. Some lipoproteins play vital roles in the sorting of other lipoproteins, lipopolysaccharides, and β-barrel proteins to the outer membrane. On the basis of results from biochemical, genetic, and structural studies, we discuss the biogenesis of lipoproteins in bacteria, their importance in cellular functions, and the molecular mechanisms underlying efficient sorting of hydrophobic lipoproteins to the outer membrane through the hydrophilic periplasm. PMID:21663440

  16. Event shape sorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopečná, Renata; Tomášik, Boris

    2016-04-01

    We propose a novel method for sorting events of multiparticle production according to the azimuthal anisotropy of their momentum distribution. Although the method is quite general, we advocate its use in analysis of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions where a large number of hadrons is produced. The advantage of our method is that it can automatically sort out samples of events with histograms that indicate similar distributions of hadrons. It takes into account the whole measured histograms with all orders of anisotropy instead of a specific observable ( e.g., v_2 , v_3 , q_2 . It can be used for more exclusive experimental studies of flow anisotropies which are then more easily compared to theoretical calculations. It may also be useful in the construction of mixed-events background for correlation studies as it allows to select events with similar momentum distribution.

  17. Sorting quantum systems efficiently.

    PubMed

    Ionicioiu, Radu

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the state of a quantum system is a fundamental process in quantum mechanics and plays an essential role in quantum information and quantum technologies. One method to measure a quantum observable is to sort the system in different spatial modes according to the measured value, followed by single-particle detectors on each mode. Examples of quantum sorters are polarizing beam-splitters (PBS) - which direct photons according to their polarization - and Stern-Gerlach devices. Here we propose a general scheme to sort a quantum system according to the value of any d-dimensional degree of freedom, such as spin, orbital angular momentum (OAM), wavelength etc. Our scheme is universal, works at the single-particle level and has a theoretical efficiency of 100%. As an application we design an efficient OAM sorter consisting of a single multi-path interferometer which is suitable for a photonic chip implementation. PMID:27142705

  18. Sorting quantum systems efficiently

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionicioiu, Radu

    2016-05-01

    Measuring the state of a quantum system is a fundamental process in quantum mechanics and plays an essential role in quantum information and quantum technologies. One method to measure a quantum observable is to sort the system in different spatial modes according to the measured value, followed by single-particle detectors on each mode. Examples of quantum sorters are polarizing beam-splitters (PBS) – which direct photons according to their polarization – and Stern-Gerlach devices. Here we propose a general scheme to sort a quantum system according to the value of any d-dimensional degree of freedom, such as spin, orbital angular momentum (OAM), wavelength etc. Our scheme is universal, works at the single-particle level and has a theoretical efficiency of 100%. As an application we design an efficient OAM sorter consisting of a single multi-path interferometer which is suitable for a photonic chip implementation.

  19. Sorting quantum systems efficiently

    PubMed Central

    Ionicioiu, Radu

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the state of a quantum system is a fundamental process in quantum mechanics and plays an essential role in quantum information and quantum technologies. One method to measure a quantum observable is to sort the system in different spatial modes according to the measured value, followed by single-particle detectors on each mode. Examples of quantum sorters are polarizing beam-splitters (PBS) – which direct photons according to their polarization – and Stern-Gerlach devices. Here we propose a general scheme to sort a quantum system according to the value of any d-dimensional degree of freedom, such as spin, orbital angular momentum (OAM), wavelength etc. Our scheme is universal, works at the single-particle level and has a theoretical efficiency of 100%. As an application we design an efficient OAM sorter consisting of a single multi-path interferometer which is suitable for a photonic chip implementation. PMID:27142705

  20. Chip-based droplet sorting

    DOEpatents

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Lee, Abraham; Hatch, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    A non-contact system for sorting monodisperse water-in-oil emulsion droplets in a microfluidic device based on the droplet's contents and their interaction with an applied electromagnetic field or by identification and sorting.

  1. A Sequence of Sorting Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, David R.; Litwiller, Bonnie H.

    1984-01-01

    Describes eight increasingly sophisticated and efficient sorting algorithms including linear insertion, binary insertion, shellsort, bubble exchange, shakersort, quick sort, straight selection, and tree selection. Provides challenges for the reader and the student to program these efficiently. (JM)

  2. Sorting out Ideas about Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillen, Amy F.; Malik, LuAnn

    2013-01-01

    Card sorting has the potential to provide opportunities for exploration of a variety of topics and levels. In a card-sorting task, each participant is presented with a set of cards--each of which depicts a relationship--and is asked to sort the cards into categories that make sense to him or her. The concept of function is critical to…

  3. BiNoM 2.0, a Cytoscape plugin for accessing and analyzing pathways using standard systems biology formats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Public repositories of biological pathways and networks have greatly expanded in recent years. Such databases contain many pathways that facilitate the analysis of high-throughput experimental work and the formulation of new biological hypotheses to be tested, a fundamental principle of the systems biology approach. However, large-scale molecular maps are not always easy to mine and interpret. Results We have developed BiNoM (Biological Network Manager), a Cytoscape plugin, which provides functions for the import-export of some standard systems biology file formats (import from CellDesigner, BioPAX Level 3 and CSML; export to SBML, CellDesigner and BioPAX Level 3), and a set of algorithms to analyze and reduce the complexity of biological networks. BiNoM can be used to import and analyze files created with the CellDesigner software. BiNoM provides a set of functions allowing to import BioPAX files, but also to search and edit their content. As such, BiNoM is able to efficiently manage large BioPAX files such as whole pathway databases (e.g. Reactome). BiNoM also implements a collection of powerful graph-based functions and algorithms such as path analysis, decomposition by involvement of an entity or cyclic decomposition, subnetworks clustering and decomposition of a large network in modules. Conclusions Here, we provide an in-depth overview of the BiNoM functions, and we also detail novel aspects such as the support of the BioPAX Level 3 format and the implementation of a new algorithm for the quantification of pathways for influence networks. At last, we illustrate some of the BiNoM functions on a detailed biological case study of a network representing the G1/S transition of the cell cycle, a crucial cellular process disturbed in most human tumors. PMID:23453054

  4. Multiple sort flow cytometer

    DOEpatents

    Engh, G. van den; Esposito, R.J.

    1996-01-09

    A flow cytometer utilizes multiple lasers for excitation and respective fluorescence of identified dyes bonded to specific cells or events to identify and verify multiple events to be sorted from a sheath flow and droplet stream. Once identified, verified and timed in the sheath flow, each event is independently tagged upon separation from the flow by an electrical charge of +60, +120, or +180 volts and passed through oppositely charged deflection plates with ground planes to yield a focused six way deflection of at least six events in a narrow plane. 8 figs.

  5. Multiple sort flow cytometer

    DOEpatents

    Van den Engh, Ger; Esposito, Richard J.

    1996-01-01

    A flow cytometer utilizes multiple lasers for excitation and respective fluorescence of identified dyes bonded to specific cells or events to identify and verify multiple events to be sorted from a sheath flow and droplet stream. Once identified, verified and timed in the sheath flow, each event is independently tagged upon separation from the flow by an electrical charge of +60, +120, or +180 volts and passed through oppositely charged deflection plates with ground planes to yield a focused six way deflection of at least six events in a narrow plane.

  6. SYBR Green-activated sorting of Arabidopsis pollen nuclei based on different DNA/RNA content.

    PubMed

    Schoft, Vera K; Chumak, Nina; Bindics, János; Slusarz, Lucyna; Twell, David; Köhler, Claudia; Tamaru, Hisashi

    2015-03-01

    Key message: Purification of pollen nuclei. Germ cell epigenetics is a critical topic in plants and animals. The male gametophyte (pollen) of flowering plants is an attractive model to study genetic and epigenetic reprogramming during sexual reproduction, being composed of only two sperm cells contained within, its companion, vegetative cell. Here, we describe a simple and efficient method to purify SYBR Green-stained sperm and vegetative cell nuclei of Arabidopsis thaliana pollen using fluorescence-activated cell sorting to analyze chromatin and RNA profiles. The method obviates generating transgenic lines expressing cell-type-specific fluorescence reporters and facilitates functional genomic analysis of various mutant lines and accessions. We evaluate the purity and quality of the sorted pollen nuclei and analyze the technique's molecular basis. Our results show that both DNA and RNA contents contribute to SYBR Green-activated nucleus sorting and RNA content differences impact on the separation of sperm and vegetative cell nuclei. We demonstrate the power of the approach by sorting wild-type and polyploid mutant sperm and vegetative cell nuclei from mitotic and meiotic mutants, which is not feasible using cell-type-specific transgenic reporters. Our approach should be applicable to pollen nuclei of crop plants and possibly to cell/nucleus types and cell cycle phases of different species containing substantially different amounts of DNA and/or RNA.

  7. Teleoperated robotic sorting system

    DOEpatents

    Roos, Charles E.; Sommer, Edward J.; Parrish, Robert H.; Russell, James R.

    2000-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for classifying materials utilizing a computerized touch sensitive screen or other computerized pointing device for operator identification and electronic marking of spatial coordinates of materials to be extracted. An operator positioned at a computerized touch sensitive screen views electronic images of the mixture of materials to be sorted as they are conveyed past a sensor array which transmits sequences of images of the mixture either directly or through a computer to the touch sensitive display screen. The operator manually "touches" objects displayed on the screen to be extracted from the mixture thereby registering the spatial coordinates of the objects within the computer. The computer then tracks the registered objects as they are conveyed and directs automated devices including mechanical means such as air jets, robotic arms, or other mechanical diverters to extract the registered objects.

  8. Teleoperated robotic sorting system

    DOEpatents

    Roos, Charles E.; Sommer, Jr., Edward J.; Parrish, Robert H.; Russell, James R.

    2008-06-24

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for classifying materials utilizing a computerized touch sensitive screen or other computerized pointing device for operator identification and electronic marking of spatial coordinates of materials to be extracted. An operator positioned at a computerized touch sensitive screen views electronic images of the mixture of materials to be sorted as they are conveyed past a sensor array which transmits sequences of images of the mixture either directly or through a computer to the touch sensitive display screen. The operator manually "touches" objects displayed on the screen to be extracted from the mixture thereby registering the spatial coordinates of the objects within the computer. The computer then tracks the registered objects as they are conveyed and directs automated devices including mechanical means such as air jets, robotic arms, or other mechanical diverters to extract the registered objects.

  9. Sorting Through Vendors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Jim

    2001-01-01

    Offers advice on selecting online vendors, such as determining quality, graduation credit, course articulation, delivery equipment, teacher support, handicap accessibility, pricing methods, and grading functions. Includes a selected list of vendors of online courses. (PKP)

  10. Label-free cell separation and sorting in microfluidic systems

    PubMed Central

    Gossett, Daniel R.; Weaver, Westbrook M.; Mach, Albert J.; Hur, Soojung Claire; Tse, Henry Tat Kwong; Lee, Wonhee; Amini, Hamed

    2010-01-01

    Cell separation and sorting are essential steps in cell biology research and in many diagnostic and therapeutic methods. Recently, there has been interest in methods which avoid the use of biochemical labels; numerous intrinsic biomarkers have been explored to identify cells including size, electrical polarizability, and hydrodynamic properties. This review highlights microfluidic techniques used for label-free discrimination and fractionation of cell populations. Microfluidic systems have been adopted to precisely handle single cells and interface with other tools for biochemical analysis. We analyzed many of these techniques, detailing their mode of separation, while concentrating on recent developments and evaluating their prospects for application. Furthermore, this was done from a perspective where inertial effects are considered important and general performance metrics were proposed which would ease comparison of reported technologies. Lastly, we assess the current state of these technologies and suggest directions which may make them more accessible. Figure A wide range of microfluidic technologies have been developed to separate and sort cells by taking advantage of differences in their intrinsic biophysical properties PMID:20419490

  11. Sorting it Out: Pile Sorting as a Mixed Methodology for Exploring Barriers to Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Gajewski, Byron J.; Perdue, David G.; Cully, Angel; Cully, Lance; Greiner, K. Allen; Choi, Won S.; Daley, Christine Makosy

    2013-01-01

    We discuss a mixed methodology for analyzing pile sorting data. We created a list of 14 barriers to colon cancer screening and recruited 18, 13, and 14 participants from three American Indian (AI) communities to perform pile sorting. Quantitative data were analyzed by cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling. Differences across sites were compared using permutation bootstrapping. Qualitative data collected during sorting were compiled by AI staff members who determined names for the clusters found in quantitative analysis. Results showed 5 clusters of barriers in each site although barriers in the clusters varied slightly across sites. Simulation demonstrated type I error rates around the nominal 0.05 level whereas power depended on the numbers of clusters, and between and within cluster variability. PMID:25143659

  12. To sort or not to sort: the impact of spike-sorting on neural decoding performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todorova, Sonia; Sadtler, Patrick; Batista, Aaron; Chase, Steven; Ventura, Valérie

    2014-10-01

    Objective. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are a promising technology for restoring motor ability to paralyzed patients. Spiking-based BCIs have successfully been used in clinical trials to control multi-degree-of-freedom robotic devices. Current implementations of these devices require a lengthy spike-sorting step, which is an obstacle to moving this technology from the lab to the clinic. A viable alternative is to avoid spike-sorting, treating all threshold crossings of the voltage waveform on an electrode as coming from one putative neuron. It is not known, however, how much decoding information might be lost by ignoring spike identity. Approach. We present a full analysis of the effects of spike-sorting schemes on decoding performance. Specifically, we compare how well two common decoders, the optimal linear estimator and the Kalman filter, reconstruct the arm movements of non-human primates performing reaching tasks, when receiving input from various sorting schemes. The schemes we tested included: using threshold crossings without spike-sorting; expert-sorting discarding the noise; expert-sorting, including the noise as if it were another neuron; and automatic spike-sorting using waveform features. We also decoded from a joint statistical model for the waveforms and tuning curves, which does not involve an explicit spike-sorting step. Main results. Discarding the threshold crossings that cannot be assigned to neurons degrades decoding: no spikes should be discarded. Decoding based on spike-sorted units outperforms decoding based on electrodes voltage crossings: spike-sorting is useful. The four waveform based spike-sorting methods tested here yield similar decoding efficiencies: a fast and simple method is competitive. Decoding using the joint waveform and tuning model shows promise but is not consistently superior. Significance. Our results indicate that simple automated spike-sorting performs as well as the more computationally or manually intensive

  13. Parallel mergs sort using comparison matrices. I

    SciTech Connect

    Romm, Y.E.

    1995-05-01

    The topics discussed in this paper are connected with internal merge sorting by a key (in short, M-sorting or M-sort). Originally developed by von Neumann, this is one of the first sorting methods. It still remains one of the fastest, involving Nlog{sub 2}N comparisons. The purpose of our article is to demonstrate the use of comparison matrices (CMs) for merging in M-sort. While preserving the known advantages of the sequential implementation of M-sort. CMs ensure more efficient use of main memory (one of the known weaknesses of M-sort is its large memory requirements) and effective parallelizability.

  14. All sorts of options for food product sorting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most food products undergo significant processing before arrival at the grocery store or local market. A major component of this processing includes sorting the product according to quality attributes such as size, color, sweetness, and ripeness. In addition, removal of defects or contaminants is a ...

  15. Sex-sorting sperm using flow cytometry/cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Garner, Duane L; Evans, K Michael; Seidel, George E

    2013-01-01

    The sex of mammalian offspring can be predetermined by flow sorting relatively pure living populations of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm. This method is based on precise staining of the DNA of sperm with the nucleic acid-specific fluorophore, Hoechst 33342, to differentiate between the subpopulations of X- and Y-sperm. The fluorescently stained sperm are then sex-sorted using a specialized high speed sorter, MoFlo(®) SX XDP, and collected into biologically supportive media prior to reconcentration and cryopreservation in numbers adequate for use with artificial insemination for some species or for in vitro fertilization. Sperm sorting can provide subpopulations of X- or Y-bearing bovine sperm at rates in the 8,000 sperm/s range while maintaining; a purity of 90% such that it has been applied to cattle on a commercial basis. The sex of offspring has been predetermined in a wide variety of mammalian species including cattle, swine, horses, sheep, goats, dogs, cats, deer, elk, dolphins, water buffalo as well as in humans using flow cytometric sorting of X- and Y-sperm. PMID:22992923

  16. Sex-sorting sperm using flow cytometry/cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Garner, Duane L; Evans, K Michael; Seidel, George E

    2013-01-01

    The sex of mammalian offspring can be predetermined by flow sorting relatively pure living populations of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm. This method is based on precise staining of the DNA of sperm with the nucleic acid-specific fluorophore, Hoechst 33342, to differentiate between the subpopulations of X- and Y-sperm. The fluorescently stained sperm are then sex-sorted using a specialized high speed sorter, MoFlo(®) SX XDP, and collected into biologically supportive media prior to reconcentration and cryopreservation in numbers adequate for use with artificial insemination for some species or for in vitro fertilization. Sperm sorting can provide subpopulations of X- or Y-bearing bovine sperm at rates in the 8,000 sperm/s range while maintaining; a purity of 90% such that it has been applied to cattle on a commercial basis. The sex of offspring has been predetermined in a wide variety of mammalian species including cattle, swine, horses, sheep, goats, dogs, cats, deer, elk, dolphins, water buffalo as well as in humans using flow cytometric sorting of X- and Y-sperm.

  17. Automated Sorting of Transuranic Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Shurtliff, Rodney Marvin

    2001-03-01

    The HANDSS-55 Transuranic Waste Sorting Module is designed to sort out items found in 55-gallon drums of waste as determined by an operator. Innovative imaging techniques coupled with fast linear motor-based motion systems and a flexible end-effector system allow the operator to remove items from the waste stream by a touch of the finger. When all desired items are removed from the waste stream, the remaining objects are automatically moved to a repackaging port for removal from the glovebox/cell. The Transuranic Waste Sorting Module consists of 1) a high accuracy XYZ Stereo Measurement and Imaging system, 2) a vibrating/tilting sorting table, 3) an XY Deployment System, 4) a ZR Deployment System, 5) several user-selectable end-effectors, 6) a waste bag opening system, 7) control and instrumentation, 8) a noncompliant waste load-out area, and 9) a Human/Machine Interface (HMI). The system is modular in design to accommodate database management tools, additional load-out ports, and other enhancements. Manually sorting the contents of a 55-gallon drum takes about one day per drum. The HANDSS-55 Waste Sorting Module is designed to significantly increase the throughput of this sorting process by automating those functions that are strenuous and tiresome for an operator to perform. The Waste Sorting Module uses the inherent ability of an operator to identify the items that need to be segregated from the waste stream and then, under computer control, picks that item out of the waste and deposits it in the appropriate location. The operator identifies the object by locating the visual image on a large color display and touches the image on the display with his finger. The computer then determines the location of the object, and performing a highspeed image analysis determines its size and orientation, so that a robotic gripper can be deployed to pick it up. Following operator verification by voice or function key, the object is deposited into a specified location.

  18. Hybrid optical and acoustic force based sorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Mahoney, Paul; Brodie, Graham W.; Wang, Han; Demore, Christine E. M.; Cochran, Sandy; Spalding, Gabriel C.; MacDonald, Michael P.

    2014-09-01

    We report the combined use of optical sorting and acoustic levitation to give particle sorting. Differing sizes of microparticles are sorted optically both with and without the aid of acoustic levitation, and the results compared to show that the use of acoustic trapping can increase sorting efficiency. The use of a transparent ultrasonic transducer is also shown to streamline the integration of optics and acoustics. We also demonstrate the balance of optical radiation pressure and acoustic levitation to achieve vertical sorting.

  19. Deformability-based capsule sorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Goff, Anne; Munier, Nadege; Maire, Pauline; Edwards-Levy, Florence; Salsac, Anne-Virginie

    2015-11-01

    Many microfluidic devices have been developed for cancer diagnosis applications, most of which relying on costly antibodies. Since some cancer cells display abnormal mechanical properties, new sorting tools based on mechanical sensing are of particular interest. We present a simple, passive pinched flow microfluidic system for capsule sorting. The device consists of a straight microchannel containing a cylindrical obstacle. Thanks to a flow-focusing module placed at the channel entrance, capsules arrive well-centered in the vicinity of the obstacle. Pure size-sorting can be achieved at low shear rate. When increasing the shear rate, capsules are deformed in the narrow space between the pillar and the wall. The softer the capsule, the more tightly it wraps around the obstacle. After the obstacle, streamlines diverge, allowing for the separation between soft capsules, that follow central streamlines, and stiff capsules, that drift away from the obstacle with a wider angle. This proves that we have developed a flexible multipurpose sorting microsystem based on a simple design.

  20. Magnetoresistive emulsion analyzer.

    PubMed

    Lin, Gungun; Baraban, Larysa; Han, Luyang; Karnaushenko, Daniil; Makarov, Denys; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2013-01-01

    We realize a magnetoresistive emulsion analyzer capable of detection, multiparametric analysis and sorting of ferrofluid-containing nanoliter-droplets. The operation of the device in a cytometric mode provides high throughput and quantitative information about the dimensions and magnetic content of the emulsion. Our method offers important complementarity to conventional optical approaches involving ferrofluids, and paves the way to the development of novel compact tools for diagnostics and nanomedicine including drug design and screening. PMID:23989504

  1. Magnetoresistive Emulsion Analyzer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Gungun; Baraban, Larysa; Han, Luyang; Karnaushenko, Daniil; Makarov, Denys; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Schmidt, Oliver G.

    2013-01-01

    We realize a magnetoresistive emulsion analyzer capable of detection, multiparametric analysis and sorting of ferrofluid-containing nanoliter-droplets. The operation of the device in a cytometric mode provides high throughput and quantitative information about the dimensions and magnetic content of the emulsion. Our method offers important complementarity to conventional optical approaches involving ferrofluids, and paves the way to the development of novel compact tools for diagnostics and nanomedicine including drug design and screening. PMID:23989504

  2. The analysis and synthesis of a parallel sorting engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, B.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the development of a unique parallel sort-merge system suitable for implementation in VLSI. Two new sorting subsystems, a high performance VLSI sorter and a four-way merger, were also realized during the development process. In addition, the analysis of several existing parallel sorting architectures and algorithms was carried out. Algorithmic time complexity, VLSI processor performance, and chip area requirements for the existing sorting systems were evaluated. The rebound sorting algorithm was determined to be the most efficient among those considered. The rebound sorter algorithm was implemented in hardware as a systolic array with external expansion capability. The second phase of the research involved analyzing several parallel merge algorithms and their buffer management schemes. The dominant considerations for this phase of the research were the achievement of minimum VLSI chip area, design complexity, and logic delay. It was determined that the proposed merger architecture could be implemented in several ways. Selecting the appropriate microarchitecture for the merge, given the constraints of chip area and performance, was the major problem. The tradeoffs associated with this process are outlined. Finally, a pipelined sort-merge system was implemented in VLSI by combining a rebound sorter and a four-way merger on a single chip. The final chip size was 416 mils by 432 mils. Two micron CMOS technology was utilized in this chip realization. An overall throughput rate of 10M bytes/sec was achieved.

  3. Sorted.

    PubMed

    Towers, S

    1997-04-01

    Each year in Accident and Emergency an increasing number of young people present with acute problems related to social drugs. These problems range from mild symptoms to life-threatening conditions, many of which can be extremely difficult and time consuming for staff to manage. It has become apparent that as with sex the experimental age for taking drugs is getting younger as youths are now far more 'streetwise' than their predecessors. This is one of the main reasons for this paper being written; it is imperative that staff are equipped with the appropriate knowledge to deal with the challenge and are educated about the problems associated with current drug trends. This potentially improves the quality of care and, in turn, good communication improves relationships. Ecstasy is once again becoming increasingly popular within mainstream clubs, as recently highlighted in the media, and with it reappear its problems. This article discusses the historical aspects of Ecstasy and aims to educate staff about its use and effects and provides health promotion advice for those who are involved in the care of people who take Ecstasy.

  4. Sorting of solid radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Marek, J.; Pecival, I.; Hejtman, J.; Wildman, J.; Cechak, T.

    1993-12-31

    In the nuclear power plants solid radioactive wastes are produced during regular operation and during small repairs. It is necessary to sort them into the highly contaminated wastes for which a special procedure for storage is necessary and waste that is not radioactive and can be stored in the environment under specific regulations. The aim of the project was to propose and to construct equipment, which is able to sort the waste with a high degree of reliability and to distinguish highly contaminated wastes from wastes which are less dangerous to the environment. The sensitivity of the detection system was tested by a mathematical model. The radioactive wastes from the primary part of the nuclear power plant can have three composition types. Details of the composition of the radioisotopes mixture are presented.

  5. Sorting fluorescent nanocrystals with DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Gerion, Daniele; Parak, Wolfgang J.; Williams, Shara C.; Zanchet, Daniela; Micheel, Christine M.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2001-12-10

    Semiconductor nanocrystals with narrow and tunable fluorescence are covalently linked to oligonucleotides. These biocompounds retain the properties of both nanocrystals and DNA. Therefore, different sequences of DNA can be coded with nanocrystals and still preserve their ability to hybridize to their complements. We report the case where four different sequences of DNA are linked to four nanocrystal samples having different colors of emission in the range of 530-640 nm. When the DNA-nanocrystal conjugates are mixed together, it is possible to sort each type of nanoparticle using hybridization on a defined micrometer -size surface containing the complementary oligonucleotide. Detection of sorting requires only a single excitation source and an epifluorescence microscope. The possibility of directing fluorescent nanocrystals towards specific biological targets and detecting them, combined with their superior photo-stability compared to organic dyes, opens the way to improved biolabeling experiments, such as gene mapping on a nanometer scale or multicolor microarray analysis.

  6. Amplitude sorting of oscillatory burst signals by sampling

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Thomas J.

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus for amplitude sorting of oscillatory burst signals is described in which the burst signal is detected to produce a burst envelope signal and an intermediate or midportion of such envelope signal is sampled to provide a sample pulse output. The height of the sample pulse is proportional to the amplitude of the envelope signal and to the maximum burst signal amplitude. The sample pulses are fed to a pulse height analyzer for sorting. The present invention is used in an acoustic emission testing system to convert the amplitude of the acoustic emission burst signals into sample pulse heights which are measured by a pulse height analyzer for sorting the pulses in groups according to their height in order to identify the material anomalies in the test material which emit the acoustic signals.

  7. Karyotyping human and mouse cells using probes from single-sorted chromosomes and open source software.

    PubMed

    Potapova, Tamara A; Unruh, Jay R; Box, Andrew C; Bradford, William D; Seidel, Christopher W; Slaughter, Brian D; Sivagnanam, Shamilene; Wu, Yuping; Li, Rong

    2015-12-01

    Multispectral karyotyping analyzes all chromosomes in a single cell by labeling them with chromosome-specific probes conjugated to unique combinations of fluorophores. Currently available multispectral karyotyping systems require the purchase of specialized equipment and reagents. However, conventional laser scanning confocal microscopes that are capable of separating multiple overlapping emission spectra through spectral imaging and linear unmixing can be utilized for classifying chromosomes painted with multicolor probes. Here, we generated multicolor chromosome paints from single-sorted human and mouse chromosomes and developed the Karyotype Identification via Spectral Separation (KISS) analysis package, a set of freely available open source ImageJ tools for spectral unmixing and karyotyping. Chromosome spreads painted with our multispectral probe sets can be imaged on widely available spectral laser scanning confocal microscopes and analyzed using our ImageJ tools. Together, our probes and software enable academic labs with access to a laser-scanning spectral microscope to perform multicolor karyotyping in a cost-effective manner.

  8. Dissimilarity Measures for Unconstrained Sorting Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Michael L.

    1975-01-01

    Three dissimilarity measures for the unconstrained sorting task are investigated. All three are metrics, but differ in the kind of compensation which they make for differences in the sizes of cells within sortings. Empirical tests of the measures are done with sorting data for occupations names and the names of behaviors, using multidimensional…

  9. Word Sorts for General Music Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2015-01-01

    Word sorts are standard practice for aiding children in acquiring skills in English language arts. When included in the general music classroom, word sorts may aid students in acquiring a working knowledge of music vocabulary. The author shares a word sort activity drawn from vocabulary in John Lithgow's children's book "Never Play…

  10. Developing Automated Methods of Waste Sorting

    SciTech Connect

    Shurtliff, Rodney Marvin

    2002-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) analyzed the need complex-wide for remote and automated technologies as they relate to the treatment and disposal of mixed wastes. This analysis revealed that several DOE sites need the capability to open drums containing waste, visually inspect and sort the contents, and finally repackage the containers that are acceptable at a waste disposal facility such as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. Conditioning contaminated waste so that it is compatible with the WIPP criteria for storage is an arduous task whether the waste is contact handled (waste having radioactivity levels below 200 mrem/hr) or remote handled. Currently, WIPP non-compliant items are removed from the waste stream manually, at a rate of about one 55-gallon drum per day. Issues relating to contamination-based health hazards as well as repetitive motion health hazards are steering industry towards a more user-friendly, method of conditioning or sorting waste.

  11. Identification and genetic analysis of cancer cells with PCR-activated cell sorting

    PubMed Central

    Eastburn, Dennis J.; Sciambi, Adam; Abate, Adam R.

    2014-01-01

    Cell sorting is a central tool in life science research for analyzing cellular heterogeneity or enriching rare cells out of large populations. Although methods like FACS and FISH-FC can characterize and isolate cells from heterogeneous populations, they are limited by their reliance on antibodies, or the requirement to chemically fix cells. We introduce a new cell sorting technology that robustly sorts based on sequence-specific analysis of cellular nucleic acids. Our approach, PCR-activated cell sorting (PACS), uses TaqMan PCR to detect nucleic acids within single cells and trigger their sorting. With this method, we identified and sorted prostate cancer cells from a heterogeneous population by performing >132 000 simultaneous single-cell TaqMan RT-PCR reactions targeting vimentin mRNA. Following vimentin-positive droplet sorting and downstream analysis of recovered nucleic acids, we found that cancer-specific genomes and transcripts were significantly enriched. Additionally, we demonstrate that PACS can be used to sort and enrich cells via TaqMan PCR reactions targeting single-copy genomic DNA. PACS provides a general new technical capability that expands the application space of cell sorting by enabling sorting based on cellular information not amenable to existing approaches. PMID:25030902

  12. "Clothed in triple blues": sorting out the Italian blues.

    PubMed

    Bimler, David; Uusküla, Mari

    2014-04-01

    Cross-cultural comparisons of color perception and cognition often feature versions of the "similarity sorting" procedure. By interpreting the assignment of two color samples to different groups as an indication that the dissimilarity between them exceeds some threshold, sorting data can be regarded as low-resolution similarity judgments. Here we analyze sorting data from speakers of Italian, Russian, and English, applying multidimensional scaling to delineate the boundaries between perceptual categories while highlighting differences between the three populations. Stimuli were 55 color swatches, predominantly from the blue region. Results suggest that at least two Italian words for "blue" are basic, a similar situation to Russian, in contrast to English where a single "blue" term is basic. PMID:24695190

  13. "Clothed in triple blues": sorting out the Italian blues.

    PubMed

    Bimler, David; Uusküla, Mari

    2014-04-01

    Cross-cultural comparisons of color perception and cognition often feature versions of the "similarity sorting" procedure. By interpreting the assignment of two color samples to different groups as an indication that the dissimilarity between them exceeds some threshold, sorting data can be regarded as low-resolution similarity judgments. Here we analyze sorting data from speakers of Italian, Russian, and English, applying multidimensional scaling to delineate the boundaries between perceptual categories while highlighting differences between the three populations. Stimuli were 55 color swatches, predominantly from the blue region. Results suggest that at least two Italian words for "blue" are basic, a similar situation to Russian, in contrast to English where a single "blue" term is basic.

  14. On-Line Sorting Maturity of Cherry Tomato Bymachine Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yinglong; Yin, Xiaoping; Xu, Tongyu; Zhao, Jiewen

    The cherry tomatoes online sorting according to their maturity is an important procedure after harvest. This research proposed an automated cherry tomato grading system base on machine vision. Three images of different angles are obtained from each cherry tomato, allowing the inspection of approximately 90% of the fruit surface. 9 features were extracted from the one cherry tomato images. In order to distinguish into three grades (immature, half ripe and ripe), Principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discrimination analysis (LDA) were used to analyze the features. The PCA results show that ripe cherry tomatoes are distinguished from immature and half ripe ones. 414 cherry tomatoes were tested by the online sorting system. The overall accuracy was up to 94.9%. Furthermore, the grading speed of the sorting line reaches 7 cherry tomatoes per second which meet the actual demand of many farms.

  15. Fast Intersection Algorithms for Sorted Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeza-Yates, Ricardo; Salinger, Alejandro

    This paper presents and analyzes a simple intersection algorithm for sorted sequences that is fast on average. It is related to the multiple searching problem and to merging. We present the worst and average case analysis, showing that in the former, the complexity nicely adapts to the smallest list size. In the latter case, it performs less comparisons than the total number of elements on both inputs, n and m, when n = αm (α> 1), achieving O(m log(n/m)) complexity. The algorithm is motivated by its application to fast query processing in Web search engines, where large intersections, or differences, must be performed fast. In this case we experimentally show that the algorithm is faster than previous solutions.

  16. Analyzing binding data.

    PubMed

    Motulsky, Harvey J; Neubig, Richard R

    2010-07-01

    Measuring the rate and extent of radioligand binding provides information on the number of binding sites, and their affinity and accessibility of these binding sites for various drugs. This unit explains how to design and analyze such experiments.

  17. Application of visible spectroscopy in waste sorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiga, Philippe; Bourely, Antoine

    2011-10-01

    Today, waste recycling, (bottles, papers...), is a mechanical operation: the waste are crushed, fused and agglomerated in order to obtain new manufactured products (e.g. new bottles, clothes ...). The plastics recycling is the main application in the color sorting process. The colorless plastics recovered are more valuable than the colored plastics. Other emergent applications are in the paper sorting, where the main goal is to sort dyed paper from white papers. Up to now, Pellenc Selective Technologies has manufactured color sorting machines based on RGB cameras. Three dimensions (red, green and blue) are no longer sufficient to detect low quantities of dye in the considered waste. In order to increase the efficiency of the color detection, a new sorting machine, based on visible spectroscopy, has been developed. This paper presents the principles of the two approaches and their difference in terms of sorting performance, making visible spectroscopy a clear winner.

  18. Flow sorting of microorganisms for molecular analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Wallner, G; Fuchs, B; Spring, S; Beisker, W; Amann, R

    1997-01-01

    Not only classical cultivation-based methods but also the new molecular approaches may result in incomplete and selective information on the natural diversity of microbial communities. Flow sorting of microorganisms from environmental samples allows the deliberate selection of cell populations of interest from highly diverse systems for molecular analysis. Several cellular parameters that can be measured by flow cytometry are useful as sort criteria. Here, we report sorting of bacteria from activated sludge, lake water, and lake sediment according to differences in light scattering, DNA content, and/or affiliation to certain phylogenetic groups as assessed by fluorescein-labeled, rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. Microscopy of the sorted cells showed that populations of originally low abundance could be strongly enriched by flow sorting (up to 280-fold), depending on the original abundance of the cells of interest and the type of sample sorted. The purity of the cells of interest could be further increased by repeated sorting, but this increase was limited by cell aggregation in the case of activated-sludge samples. It was possible to amplify almost full-length 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) fragments from sorted microbial cells by PCR, even after fixation with paraformaldehyde and in situ hybridization. Dot blot hybridization and sequencing demonstrated that most of the amplified rDNA originated from those cells that had been selected for by flow sorting. Comparative analysis of 16S rDNA sequences revealed previously unknown species of magnetotactic or activated-sludge bacteria. PMID:9361408

  19. Topographic control of sorted circle morphology on Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Joana; Hauber, Ernst; Reiss, Dennis; Hiesinger, Harald; Johnsson, Andreas; van Gasselt, Stephan; Balme, Matt; Head, Jim; de Verra, Jean-Pierre; Steinbrügge, Gregor; Jaumann, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Patterned ground is a typical phenomenon in polar, subpolar and alpine regions [1]. As it is commonly (but not necessarily!) related to freeze-thaw cycles, its presence on Mars could possibly point to locations and periods where and when liquid water existed in the recent past [2]. Sorted circles are a class of patterned ground that was tentatively identified in Elysium Planitia (Mars) [3], but this interpretation has been challenged on the basis of physical considerations [4]. Without direct access to potential patterned ground on Mars, the analysis of terrestrial analogues can inform the interpretation of Martian landforms. Svalbard (Norway) offers a wide variety of permafrost features that are morphologically analogous to Martian cold-climate landforms [5]. It hosts some of the best examples of sorted circles on Earth, which are located on the westernmost tip of Brøgger peninsula, on a broad strand flat that is characterized by a series of postglacial beach ridges [6]. Here we report on our analysis of sorted circle morphology (especially their plan-view shape, i.e. their "roundness" or ellipticity) and its correlation with local topography (slopes, curvature). Sorted circle morphology was determined from HRSC-AX images (for details on the flight campaign and image properties see ref [5]) and through field work. Topographic information comes from a 50 cm gridded DEM derived from HRSC-AX stereo images. We measured sorted circle morphology (ellipticity, azimuth of major axis) along a WNW-ESE traverse that runs from the inland towards the sea and is oriented perpendicular to the local beach ridge trend. Selected areas with homogeneous sorted circle appearance were visually mapped, and compared to the average slope, aspect, and the calculated topographic wetness index (TWI). Furthermore the whole traverse was classified into four different morphologies of the sorted patterned ground (sorted circles, sorted "ellipses", sorted nets and areas without patterned ground

  20. Ion channel regulation by phosphoinositides analyzed with VSPs-PI(4,5)P2 affinity, phosphoinositide selectivity, and PI(4,5)P2 pool accessibility.

    PubMed

    Rjasanow, Alexandra; Leitner, Michael G; Thallmair, Veronika; Halaszovich, Christian R; Oliver, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    The activity of many proteins depends on the phosphoinositide (PI) content of the membrane. E.g., dynamic changes of the concentration of PI(4,5)P2 are cellular signals that regulate ion channels. The susceptibility of a channel to such dynamics depends on its affinity for PI(4,5)P2. Yet, measuring affinities for endogenous PIs has not been possible directly, but has relied largely on the response to soluble analogs, which may not quantitatively reflect binding to native lipids. Voltage-sensitive phosphatases (VSPs) turn over PI(4,5)P2 to PI(4)P when activated by depolarization. In combination with voltage-clamp electrophysiology VSPs are useful tools for rapid and reversible depletion of PI(4,5)P2. Because cellular PI(4,5)P2 is resynthesized rapidly, steady state PI(4,5)P2 changes with the degree of VSP activation and thus depends on membrane potential. Here we show that titration of endogenous PI(4,5)P2 with Ci-VSP allows for the quantification of relative PI(4,5)P2 affinities of ion channels. The sensitivity of inward rectifier and voltage-gated K(+) channels to Ci-VSP allowed for comparison of PI(4,5)P2 affinities within and across channel subfamilies and detected changes of affinity in mutant channels. The results also reveal that VSPs are useful only for PI effectors with high binding specificity among PI isoforms, because PI(4,5)P2 depletion occurs at constant overall PI level. Thus, Kir6.2, a channel activated by PI(4,5)P2 and PI(4)P was insensitive to VSP. Surprisingly, despite comparable PI(4,5)P2 affinity as determined by Ci-VSP, the Kv7 and Kir channel families strongly differed in their sensitivity to receptor-mediated depletion of PI(4,5)P2. While Kv7 members were highly sensitive to activation of PLC by Gq-coupled receptors, Kir channels were insensitive even when PI(4,5)P2 affinity was lowered by mutation. We hypothesize that different channels may be associated with distinct pools of PI(4,5)P2 that differ in their accessibility to PLC and VSPs.

  1. Ion channel regulation by phosphoinositides analyzed with VSPs—PI(4,5)P2 affinity, phosphoinositide selectivity, and PI(4,5)P2 pool accessibility

    PubMed Central

    Rjasanow, Alexandra; Leitner, Michael G.; Thallmair, Veronika; Halaszovich, Christian R.; Oliver, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    The activity of many proteins depends on the phosphoinositide (PI) content of the membrane. E.g., dynamic changes of the concentration of PI(4,5)P2 are cellular signals that regulate ion channels. The susceptibility of a channel to such dynamics depends on its affinity for PI(4,5)P2. Yet, measuring affinities for endogenous PIs has not been possible directly, but has relied largely on the response to soluble analogs, which may not quantitatively reflect binding to native lipids. Voltage-sensitive phosphatases (VSPs) turn over PI(4,5)P2 to PI(4)P when activated by depolarization. In combination with voltage-clamp electrophysiology VSPs are useful tools for rapid and reversible depletion of PI(4,5)P2. Because cellular PI(4,5)P2 is resynthesized rapidly, steady state PI(4,5)P2 changes with the degree of VSP activation and thus depends on membrane potential. Here we show that titration of endogenous PI(4,5)P2 with Ci-VSP allows for the quantification of relative PI(4,5)P2 affinities of ion channels. The sensitivity of inward rectifier and voltage-gated K+ channels to Ci-VSP allowed for comparison of PI(4,5)P2 affinities within and across channel subfamilies and detected changes of affinity in mutant channels. The results also reveal that VSPs are useful only for PI effectors with high binding specificity among PI isoforms, because PI(4,5)P2 depletion occurs at constant overall PI level. Thus, Kir6.2, a channel activated by PI(4,5)P2 and PI(4)P was insensitive to VSP. Surprisingly, despite comparable PI(4,5)P2 affinity as determined by Ci-VSP, the Kv7 and Kir channel families strongly differed in their sensitivity to receptor-mediated depletion of PI(4,5)P2. While Kv7 members were highly sensitive to activation of PLC by Gq-coupled receptors, Kir channels were insensitive even when PI(4,5)P2 affinity was lowered by mutation. We hypothesize that different channels may be associated with distinct pools of PI(4,5)P2 that differ in their accessibility to PLC and VSPs. PMID

  2. Microfluidic EmbryoSort technology: towards in flow analysis, sorting and dispensing of individual vertebrate embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuad, Nurul M.; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2013-12-01

    The demand to reduce the numbers of laboratory animals has facilitated the emergence of surrogate models such as tests performed on zebrafish (Danio rerio) or African clawed frog's (Xenopus levis) eggs, embryos and larvae. Those two model organisms are becoming increasingly popular replacements to current adult animal testing in toxicology, ecotoxicology and also in drug discovery. Zebrafish eggs and embryos are particularly attractive for toxicological analysis due their size (diameter 1.6 mm), optical transparency, large numbers generated per fish and very straightforward husbandry. The current bottleneck in using zebrafish embryos for screening purposes is, however, a tedious manual evaluation to confirm the fertilization status and subsequent dispensing of single developing embryos to multitier plates to perform toxicity analysis. Manual procedures associated with sorting hundreds of embryos are very monotonous and as such prone to significant analytical errors due to operator's fatigue. In this work, we present a proofof- concept design of a continuous flow embryo sorter capable of analyzing, sorting and dispensing objects ranging in size from 1.5 - 2.5 mm. The prototypes were fabricated in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) transparent thermoplastic using infrared laser micromachining. The application of additive manufacturing processes to prototype Lab-on-a-Chip sorters using both fused deposition manufacturing (FDM) and stereolithography (SLA) were also explored. The operation of the device was based on a revolving receptacle capable of receiving, holding and positioning single fish embryos for both interrogation and subsequent sorting. The actuation of the revolving receptacle was performed using a DC motor and/or microservo motor. The system was designed to separate between fertilized (LIVE) and non-fertilized (DEAD) eggs, based on optical transparency using infrared (IR) emitters and receivers.

  3. Design and realization of sort manipulator of crystal-angle sort machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ming-shun; Chen, Shu-ping; Guan, Shou-ping; Zhang, Yao-wei

    2005-12-01

    It is a current tendency of development in automation technology to replace manpower with manipulators in working places where dangerous, harmful, heavy or repetitive work is involved. The sort manipulator is installed in a crystal-angle sort machine to take the place of manpower, and engaged in unloading and sorting work. It is the outcome of combing together mechanism, electric transmission, and pneumatic element and micro-controller control. The step motor makes the sort manipulator operate precisely. The pneumatic elements make the sort manipulator be cleverer. Micro-controller's software bestows some simple artificial intelligence on the sort manipulator, so that it can precisely repeat its unloading and sorting work. The combination of manipulator's zero position and step motor counting control puts an end to accumulating error in long time operation. A sort manipulator's design in the practice engineering has been proved to be correct and reliable.

  4. Seminal plasma effects on sex-sorting bovine sperm.

    PubMed

    Burroughs, C A; Graham, J K; Lenz, R W; Seidel, G E

    2013-02-01

    The objective was to determine which characteristics of bovine ejaculates affected efficacy of sex sorting bovine sperm by flow cytometry. The effects of first versus second ejaculates, seminal plasma content, addition of BSA, and seminal plasma from different bulls during staining were all studied, as was the effect of 8-hour storage with and without seminal plasma. Semen collected by artificial vagina was centrifuged at 1000 ×g for 15 minutes to separate sperm from seminal plasma; seminal plasma was clarified by 10 minutes of additional centrifugation at 2000 ×g. Sperm were rediluted to 160 × 10(6) sperm per mL with: Tyrode's medium plus albumin, lactate, and pyruvate (TALP) containing 0%, 5%, 10%, or 20% homologous seminal plasma, TALP containing 10% heterologous seminal plasma, or TALP containing 0.3% (control), 0.6%, or 1.2% BSA. After incubation with Hoechst 33342 for 45 minutes, an equal volume of TALP containing red food dye was added, and sperm were analyzed by flow cytometry/cell sorting to determine percent of live-oriented sperm, X sort rate, percent of membrane-impaired sperm, and split (degree of separation between X- and Y-bearing sperm populations). The percent of live-oriented sperm was higher for sperm incubated with 0% seminal plasma (64%) than for sperm incubated with 5%, 10%, or 20% seminal plasma (60%, 59%, and 58%, respectively; P < 0.05). The X sort rate was higher for sperm incubated with 0% seminal plasma than sperm with 20% seminal plasma (4.26 vs. 3.61 × 10(3) sperm per second). When seminal plasma was exchanged between bull ejaculates, only one bull had seminal plasma that was detrimental to sperm, resulting in 31% membrane-impaired sperm compared with a range of 16% to 19% for seminal plasmas from other bulls (P < 0.05). The addition of BSA did not affect sort efficiency at the concentrations studied. Sperm from six bulls stored for 8 hours without seminal plasma had more membrane-impaired sperm (which were discarded) during

  5. Kuder Interest Card Sort: Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanasou, James A.; Lucas, Charles

    The Kuder Interest Card Sort (KICS) is presented as an interest exploration process prepared to assist psychologists, vocational counselors or career advisors in assessment of vocational preferences when a detailed interest-inventory is unnecessary. The card sort concept and rationale, physical and content format, administering procedure, and uses…

  6. PULSE AMPLITUDE ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Greenblatt, M.H.

    1958-03-25

    This patent pertains to pulse amplitude analyzers for sorting and counting a serles of pulses, and specifically discloses an analyzer which ls simple in construction and presents the puise height distribution visually on an oscilloscope screen. According to the invention, the pulses are applied to the vertical deflection plates of an oscilloscope and trigger the horizontal sweep. Each pulse starts at the same point on the screen and has a maximum amplitude substantially along the same vertical line. A mask is placed over the screen except for a slot running along the line where the maximum amplitudes of the pulses appear. After the slot has been scanned by a photocell in combination with a slotted rotating disk, the photocell signal is displayed on an auxiliary oscilloscope as vertical deflection along a horizontal time base to portray the pulse amplitude distribution.

  7. An Unsupervised Online Spike-Sorting Framework.

    PubMed

    Knieling, Simeon; Sridharan, Kousik S; Belardinelli, Paolo; Naros, Georgios; Weiss, Daniel; Mormann, Florian; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2016-08-01

    Extracellular neuronal microelectrode recordings can include action potentials from multiple neurons. To separate spikes from different neurons, they can be sorted according to their shape, a procedure referred to as spike-sorting. Several algorithms have been reported to solve this task. However, when clustering outcomes are unsatisfactory, most of them are difficult to adjust to achieve the desired results. We present an online spike-sorting framework that uses feature normalization and weighting to maximize the distinctiveness between different spike shapes. Furthermore, multiple criteria are applied to either facilitate or prevent cluster fusion, thereby enabling experimenters to fine-tune the sorting process. We compare our method to established unsupervised offline (Wave_Clus (WC)) and online (OSort (OS)) algorithms by examining their performance in sorting various test datasets using two different scoring systems (AMI and the Adamos metric). Furthermore, we evaluate sorting capabilities on intra-operative recordings using established quality metrics. Compared to WC and OS, our algorithm achieved comparable or higher scores on average and produced more convincing sorting results for intra-operative datasets. Thus, the presented framework is suitable for both online and offline analysis and could substantially improve the quality of microelectrode-based data evaluation for research and clinical application.

  8. Genetic mapping of paternal sorting of mitochondria in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Calderon, Claudia I; Yandell, Brian S; Havey, Michael J

    2012-06-01

    Mitochondria are organelles that have their own DNA; serve as the powerhouses of eukaryotic cells; play important roles in stress responses, programmed cell death, and ageing; and in the vast majority of eukaryotes, are maternally transmitted. Strict maternal transmission of mitochondria makes it difficult to select for better-performing mitochondria, or against deleterious mutations in the mitochondrial DNA. Cucumber is a useful plant for organellar genetics because its mitochondria are paternally transmitted and it possesses one of the largest mitochondrial genomes among all eukaryotes. Recombination among repetitive motifs in the cucumber mitochondrial DNA produces rearrangements associated with strongly mosaic (MSC) phenotypes. We previously reported nuclear control of sorting among paternally transmitted mitochondrial DNAs. The goal of this project was to map paternal sorting of mitochondria as a step towards its eventual cloning. We crossed single plants from plant introduction (PI) 401734 and Cucumis sativus var. hardwickii and produced an F(2) family. A total of 425 F(2) plants were genotyped for molecular markers and testcrossed as the female with MSC16. Testcross families were scored for frequencies of wild-type versus MSC progenies. Discrete segregations for percent wild-type progenies were not observed and paternal sorting of mitochondria was therefore analyzed as a quantitative trait. A major quantitative trait locus (QTL; LOD >23) was mapped between two simple sequence repeats encompassing a 459-kb region on chromosome 3. Nuclear genes previously shown to affect the prevalence of mitochondrial DNAs (MSH1, OSB1, and RECA homologs) were not located near this major QTL on chromosome 3. Sequencing of this region from PI 401734, together with improved annotation of the cucumber genome, should result in the eventual cloning of paternal sorting of mitochondria and provide insights about nuclear control of organellar-DNA sorting.

  9. The Q sort theory and technique.

    PubMed

    Nyatanga, L

    1989-10-01

    This paper is based on the author's experience of using the Q sort technique with BA Social Sciences (BASS) students, and the community psychiatric nursing (CPN, ENB No 811 course). The paper focuses on two main issues: 1. The theoretical assumptions underpinning the Q Sort technique. Carl Rogers' self theory and some of the values of humanistic psychology are summarised. 2. The actual technique procedure and meaning of results are highlighted. As the Q Sort technique is potentially useful in a variety of sittings some of which are listed in this paper, the emphasis has deliberately been placed in understanding the theoretical underpinning and the operationalisation (sensitive interpretation) of the theory to practice.

  10. An improved infrared technique for sorting pecans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graeve, Thorsten; Dereniak, Eustace L.; Lamonica, John A., Jr.

    1991-10-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of pecan spectral reflectances. It describes an experiment for measuring the contrast between several components of raw pecan product to be sorted. An analysis of the experimental data reveals high contrast ratios in the infrared spectrum, suggesting a potential improvement in sorting efficiency when separating pecan meat from shells. It is believed that this technique has the potential to dramatically improve the efficiency of current sorting machinery, and to reduce the cost of processing pecans for the consumer market.

  11. Intuitive, Image-Based Cell Sorting Using Opto-fluidic Cell Sorting

    PubMed Central

    Kovac, J. R.; Voldman, J.

    2008-01-01

    We present a microfluidic cell sorting device which augments microscopy with the capability to perform facile image-based cell sorting. This combination enables intuitive, complex phenotype sorting based on spatio-temporal fluorescence or cell morphology. The microfluidic device contains a microwell array that can be passively loaded with mammalian cells via sedimentation and can be subsequently inspected with microscopy. After inspection, we use the scattering force from a focused infrared laser to levitate cells of interest from their wells into a flow field for collection. First, we demonstrate image-based sorting predicated on whole-cell fluorescence, which could enable sorting based on temporal whole-cell fluorescence behavior. Second, we demonstrate image-based sorting predicated on fluorescence localization (nuclear vs. whole-cell fluorescence), highlighting the capability of our approach to sort based on imaged sub-cellular events, such as localized protein expression or translocation events. We achieve post-sort purities up to 89%, and up to 155-fold enrichment of target cells. Optical manipulation literature and a direct cell viability assay suggest that cells remain viable after using our technique. The architecture is highly scalable and supports over 10,000 individually addressable trap sites. Our approach enables sorting of significant populations based on sub-cellular spatio-temporal information, which is difficult or impossible with existing widespread sorting technologies. PMID:18004819

  12. Short communication: Effect of diet changes on sorting behavior of weaned dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Costa, J H C; Adderley, N A; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2016-07-01

    Dairy cows sort mixed rations; in some cases sorting can lead to digestive disorders. How sorting behavior develops in calves is poorly understood. The objective of this observational study was to determine if sorting behavior of total mixed ration (TMR)-fed dairy calves was affected by the removal of supplementary concentrate. Dairy bull calves (n=18) were provided access to both a TMR (49.1% dry matter) and calf starter fed separately during the preweaning period starting at 3 d of age. Sorting of the TMR was assessed after weaning when calves were provided both feeds at 65 d of age, and again at 70 d immediately following the removal of calf starter from the calf pen. Sorting was measured by comparing the particle size composition of the TMR offered with that of the orts following 24h of feed access. Feed particle fractions were measured using the Penn State Particle Separator with 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18mm) and a bottom pan to separate the TMR into long, medium, short, and fine fractions, respectively. At d 65, calves sorted for long particles (133±9%) and against small particles (92±3%), with no differences for the remaining fractions (99±5% for medium; 107±5% for fine); these preferences were reversed at d 70 when calf starter was no longer available with calves preferentially selecting fine particles (113±4%), but showing no preference for other fractions (101±11% for long; 99±6% for medium; 97±4% for short). These results indicate that young dairy calves are capable of sorting a TMR and they adjust this behavior in response to the availability of grain. PMID:27108168

  13. 13. SANDSORTING BUILDING, THIRD FLOOR, VIBRATING SCREENS FOR SAND SORTING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. SAND-SORTING BUILDING, THIRD FLOOR, VIBRATING SCREENS FOR SAND SORTING, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Mill "C" Complex, Sand-Sorting Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  14. Nuclear fuel microsphere gamma analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Valentine, Kenneth H.; Long, Jr., Ernest L.; Willey, Melvin G.

    1977-01-01

    A gamma analyzer system is provided for the analysis of nuclear fuel microspheres and other radioactive particles. The system consists of an analysis turntable with means for loading, in sequence, a plurality of stations within the turntable; a gamma ray detector for determining the spectrum of a sample in one section; means for analyzing the spectrum; and a receiver turntable to collect the analyzed material in stations according to the spectrum analysis. Accordingly, particles may be sorted according to their quality; e.g., fuel particles with fractured coatings may be separated from those that are not fractured, or according to other properties.

  15. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Sorensen, E.G.; Gordon, C.M.

    1959-02-10

    Improvements in analog eomputing machines of the class capable of evaluating differential equations, commonly termed differential analyzers, are described. In general form, the analyzer embodies a plurality of basic computer mechanisms for performing integration, multiplication, and addition, and means for directing the result of any one operation to another computer mechanism performing a further operation. In the device, numerical quantities are represented by the rotation of shafts, or the electrical equivalent of shafts.

  16. Dielectrophoretic sorting of membrane protein nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Bahige G; Chao, Tzu-Chiao; Kupitz, Christopher; Fromme, Petra; Ros, Alexandra

    2013-10-22

    Structure elucidation of large membrane protein complexes is still a considerable challenge, yet is a key factor in drug development and disease combat. Femtosecond nanocrystallography is an emerging technique with which structural information of membrane proteins is obtained without the need to grow large crystals, thus overcoming the experimental riddle faced in traditional crystallography methods. Here, we demonstrate for the first time a microfluidic device capable of sorting membrane protein crystals based on size using dielectrophoresis. We demonstrate the excellent sorting power of this new approach with numerical simulations of selected submicrometer beads in excellent agreement with experimental observations. Crystals from batch crystallization broths of the huge membrane protein complex photosystem I were sorted without further treatment, resulting in a high degree of monodispersity and crystallinity in the ~100 nm size range. Microfluidic integration, continuous sorting, and nanometer-sized crystal fractions make this method ideal for direct coupling to femtosecond nanocrystallography.

  17. Visual ergonomics interventions in mail sorting facilities.

    PubMed

    Hemphälä, H; Hansson, G-Å; Dahlqvist, C; Eklund, J

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed between 2004 and 2011 at mail sorting facilities in Sweden. During this time, different interventions were performed. The first was a lighting intervention that had a positive impact on the postal workers, especially those with eyestrain. A new lighting system also improved the illuminance and gave better light distribution. The second intervention involved new personal spectacles for the postal workers who needed them and this had a positive effect on eyestrain. The third intervention involved a specific type of sorting spectacles for the postal workers who already used progressive lenses privately. The reading distances that the postal workers had while sorting the mail was inverted to the distances in their regular progressive lenses. The new sorting spectacles had a positive effect on head postures and on muscular activity. PMID:22317243

  18. Glycosaminoglycans: Sorting determinants in intracellular protein traffic.

    PubMed

    Mihov, Deyan; Spiess, Martin

    2015-11-01

    Intracellular transport of proteins to their appropriate destinations is crucial for the maintenance of cellular integrity and function. Sorting information is contained either directly in the amino acid sequence or in a protein's post-translational modifications. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are characteristic modifications of proteoglycans. GAGs are long unbranched polysaccharide chains with unique structural and functional properties also contributing to protein sorting in various ways. By deletion or insertion of GAG attachment sites it has been shown that GAGs affect polarized sorting in epithelial cells, targeting to and storage in secretory granules, and endocytosis. Most recently, the role of GAGs as signals for rapid trans-Golgi-to-cell surface transport, dominant over the cytosolic sorting motifs in the core protein, was demonstrated. Here, we provide an overview on existing data on the roles of GAGs on protein and proteoglycan trafficking.

  19. Armoring and vertical sorting in aeolian dune fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xin; Narteau, Clément; Rozier, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    Unlike ripples, there are only few numerical studies on grain-size segregation at the scale of dunes in aeolian environments. Here we use a cellular automaton model to analyze vertical sorting in granular mixtures under steady unidirectional flow conditions. We investigate the feedbacks between dune growth and the segregation mechanisms by varying the size of coarse grains and their proportion within the bed. We systematically observe the development of a horizontal layer of coarse grains at the top of which sorted bed forms may grow by amalgamation. The formation of such an armor layer controls the overall sediment transport and availability. The emergence of dunes and the transition from barchan to transverse dune fields depend only on the grain size distribution of the initial sediment layer. As confirmed by observation, this result indicates that armor layers should be present in most arid deserts, where they are likely to control dune morphodynamics.

  20. Automatic spike sorting using tuning information.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Valérie

    2009-09-01

    Current spike sorting methods focus on clustering neurons' characteristic spike waveforms. The resulting spike-sorted data are typically used to estimate how covariates of interest modulate the firing rates of neurons. However, when these covariates do modulate the firing rates, they provide information about spikes' identities, which thus far have been ignored for the purpose of spike sorting. This letter describes a novel approach to spike sorting, which incorporates both waveform information and tuning information obtained from the modulation of firing rates. Because it efficiently uses all the available information, this spike sorter yields lower spike misclassification rates than traditional automatic spike sorters. This theoretical result is verified empirically on several examples. The proposed method does not require additional assumptions; only its implementation is different. It essentially consists of performing spike sorting and tuning estimation simultaneously rather than sequentially, as is currently done. We used an expectation-maximization maximum likelihood algorithm to implement the new spike sorter. We present the general form of this algorithm and provide a detailed implementable version under the assumptions that neurons are independent and spike according to Poisson processes. Finally, we uncover a systematic flaw of spike sorting based on waveform information only.

  1. Gas Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-01-01

    The M200 originated in the 1970's under an Ames Research Center/Stanford University contract to develop a small, lightweight gas analyzer for Viking Landers. Although the unit was not used on the spacecraft, it was further developed by The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Three researchers from the project later formed Microsensor Technology, Inc. (MTI) to commercialize the analyzer. The original version (Micromonitor 500) was introduced in 1982, and the M200 in 1988. The M200, a more advanced version, features dual gas chromatograph which separate a gaseous mixture into components and measure concentrations of each gas. It is useful for monitoring gas leaks, chemical spills, etc. Many analyses are completed in less than 30 seconds, and a wide range of mixtures can be analyzed.

  2. Process Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The ChemScan UV-6100 is a spectrometry system originally developed by Biotronics Technologies, Inc. under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. It is marketed to the water and wastewater treatment industries, replacing "grab sampling" with on-line data collection. It analyzes the light absorbance characteristics of a water sample, simultaneously detects hundreds of individual wavelengths absorbed by chemical substances in a process solution, and quantifies the information. Spectral data is then processed by ChemScan analyzer and compared with calibration files in the system's memory in order to calculate concentrations of chemical substances that cause UV light absorbance in specific patterns. Monitored substances can be analyzed for quality and quantity. Applications include detection of a variety of substances, and the information provided enables an operator to control a process more efficiently.

  3. Blood Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    In the 1970's, NASA provided funding for development of an automatic blood analyzer for Skylab at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL devised "dynamic loading," which employed a spinning rotor to load, transfer, and analyze blood samples by centrifugal processing. A refined, commercial version of the system was produced by ABAXIS and is marketed as portable ABAXIS MiniLab MCA. Used in a doctor's office, the equipment can perform 80 to 100 chemical blood tests on a single drop of blood and report results in five minutes. Further development is anticipated.

  4. Defibrillator analyzers.

    PubMed

    1999-12-01

    Defibrillator analyzers automate the inspection and preventive maintenance (IPM) testing of defibrillators. They need to be able to test at least four basic defibrillator performance characteristics: discharge energy, synchronized-mode operation, automated external defibrillation, and ECG monitoring. We prefer that they also be able to test a defibrillator's external noninvasive pacing function--but this is not essential if a facility already has a pacemaker analyzer that can perform this testing. In this Evaluation, we tested seven defibrillator analyzers from six suppliers. All seven units accurately measure the energies of a variety of discharge wave-forms over a wide range of energy levels--from 1 J for use in a neonatal intensive care unit to 360 J for use on adult patients requiring maximum discharge energy. Most of the analyzers are easy to use. However, only three of the evaluated units could perform the full range of defibrillator tests that we prefer. We rated these units Acceptable--Preferred. Three more units could perform four of the five tests, they could not test the pacing feature of a defibrillator. These units were rated Acceptable. The seventh unit could perform only discharge energy testing and synchronized-mode testing and was difficult to use. We rate that unit Acceptable--Not Recommended. PMID:10604089

  5. Process Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Under a NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, Axiomatics Corporation developed a shunting Dielectric Sensor to determine the nutrient level and analyze plant nutrient solutions in the CELSS, NASA's space life support program. (CELSS is an experimental facility investigating closed-cycle plant growth and food processing for long duration manned missions.) The DiComp system incorporates a shunt electrode and is especially sensitive to changes in dielectric property changes in materials at measurements much lower than conventional sensors. The analyzer has exceptional capabilities for predicting composition of liquid streams or reactions. It measures concentrations and solids content up to 100 percent in applications like agricultural products, petrochemicals, food and beverages. The sensor is easily installed; maintenance is low, and it can be calibrated on line. The software automates data collection and analysis.

  6. Oxygen analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Benner, W.H.

    1984-05-08

    An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N/sub 2/), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135/sup 0/C, or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135/sup 0/C as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N/sub 2/, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

  7. Oxygen analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Benner, William H.

    1986-01-01

    An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N.sub.2), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable oxygen obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135.degree. C., or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135.degree. C. as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N.sub.2, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

  8. MULTICHANNEL ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Kelley, G.G.

    1959-11-10

    A multichannel pulse analyzer having several window amplifiers, each amplifier serving one group of channels, with a single fast pulse-lengthener and a single novel interrogation circuit serving all channels is described. A pulse followed too closely timewise by another pulse is disregarded by the interrogation circuit to prevent errors due to pulse pileup. The window amplifiers are connected to the pulse lengthener output, rather than the linear amplifier output, so need not have the fast response characteristic formerly required.

  9. Color sorting algorithm based on K-means clustering algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, BaoFeng; Huang, Qian

    2009-11-01

    In the process of raisin production, there were a variety of color impurities, which needs be removed effectively. A new kind of efficient raisin color-sorting algorithm was presented here. First, the technology of image processing basing on the threshold was applied for the image pre-processing, and then the gray-scale distribution characteristic of the raisin image was found. In order to get the chromatic aberration image and reduce some disturbance, we made the flame image subtraction that the target image data minus the background image data. Second, Haar wavelet filter was used to get the smooth image of raisins. According to the different colors and mildew, spots and other external features, the calculation was made to identify the characteristics of their images, to enable them to fully reflect the quality differences between the raisins of different types. After the processing above, the image were analyzed by K-means clustering analysis method, which can achieve the adaptive extraction of the statistic features, in accordance with which, the image data were divided into different categories, thereby the categories of abnormal colors were distinct. By the use of this algorithm, the raisins of abnormal colors and ones with mottles were eliminated. The sorting rate was up to 98.6%, and the ratio of normal raisins to sorted grains was less than one eighth.

  10. Contamination Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Measurement of the total organic carbon content in water is important in assessing contamination levels in high purity water for power generation, pharmaceutical production and electronics manufacture. Even trace levels of organic compounds can cause defects in manufactured products. The Sievers Model 800 Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Analyzer, based on technology developed for the Space Station, uses a strong chemical oxidizing agent and ultraviolet light to convert organic compounds in water to carbon dioxide. After ionizing the carbon dioxide, the amount of ions is determined by measuring the conductivity of the deionized water. The new technique is highly sensitive, does not require compressed gas, and maintenance is minimal.

  11. PCR-Activated Cell Sorting for Cultivation-Free Enrichment and Sequencing of Rare Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Shaun W.; Tran, Tuan M.; Abate, Adam R.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial systems often exhibit staggering diversity, making the study of rare, interesting species challenging. For example, metagenomic analyses of mixed-cell populations are often dominated by the sequences of the most abundant organisms, while those of rare microbes are detected only at low levels, if at all. To overcome this, selective cultivation or fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) can be used to enrich for the target species prior to sequence analysis; however, since most microbes cannot be grown in the lab, cultivation strategies often fail, while cell sorting requires techniques to uniquely label the cell type of interest, which is often not possible with uncultivable microbes. Here, we introduce a culture-independent strategy for sorting microbial cells based on genomic content, which we term PCR-activated cell sorting (PACS). This technology, which utilizes the power of droplet-based microfluidics, is similar to FACS in that it uses a fluorescent signal to uniquely identify and sort target species. However, PACS differs importantly from FACS in that the signal is generated by performing PCR assays on the cells in microfluidic droplets, allowing target cells to be identified with high specificity with suitable design of PCR primers and TaqMan probes. The PACS assay is general, requires minimal optimization and, unlike antibody methods, can be developed without access to microbial antigens. Compared to non-specific methods in which cells are sorted based on size, granularity, or the ability to take up dye, PACS enables genetic sequence-specific sorting and recovery of the cell genomes. In addition to sorting microbes, PACS can be applied to eukaryotic cells, viruses, and naked nucleic acids. PMID:25629401

  12. PCR-activated cell sorting for cultivation-free enrichment and sequencing of rare microbes.

    PubMed

    Lim, Shaun W; Tran, Tuan M; Abate, Adam R

    2015-01-01

    Microbial systems often exhibit staggering diversity, making the study of rare, interesting species challenging. For example, metagenomic analyses of mixed-cell populations are often dominated by the sequences of the most abundant organisms, while those of rare microbes are detected only at low levels, if at all. To overcome this, selective cultivation or fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) can be used to enrich for the target species prior to sequence analysis; however, since most microbes cannot be grown in the lab, cultivation strategies often fail, while cell sorting requires techniques to uniquely label the cell type of interest, which is often not possible with uncultivable microbes. Here, we introduce a culture-independent strategy for sorting microbial cells based on genomic content, which we term PCR-activated cell sorting (PACS). This technology, which utilizes the power of droplet-based microfluidics, is similar to FACS in that it uses a fluorescent signal to uniquely identify and sort target species. However, PACS differs importantly from FACS in that the signal is generated by performing PCR assays on the cells in microfluidic droplets, allowing target cells to be identified with high specificity with suitable design of PCR primers and TaqMan probes. The PACS assay is general, requires minimal optimization and, unlike antibody methods, can be developed without access to microbial antigens. Compared to non-specific methods in which cells are sorted based on size, granularity, or the ability to take up dye, PACS enables genetic sequence-specific sorting and recovery of the cell genomes. In addition to sorting microbes, PACS can be applied to eukaryotic cells, viruses, and naked nucleic acids. PMID:25629401

  13. The Q sort theory and technique.

    PubMed

    Nyatanga, L

    1989-10-01

    This paper is based on the author's experience of using the Q sort technique with BA Social Sciences (BASS) students, and the community psychiatric nursing (CPN, ENB No 811 course). The paper focuses on two main issues: 1. The theoretical assumptions underpinning the Q Sort technique. Carl Rogers' self theory and some of the values of humanistic psychology are summarised. 2. The actual technique procedure and meaning of results are highlighted. As the Q Sort technique is potentially useful in a variety of sittings some of which are listed in this paper, the emphasis has deliberately been placed in understanding the theoretical underpinning and the operationalisation (sensitive interpretation) of the theory to practice. PMID:2811828

  14. Stress Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    SPATE 900 Dynamic Stress Analyzer is an acronym for Stress Pattern Analysis by Thermal Emission. It detects stress-induced temperature changes in a structure and indicates the degree of stress. Ometron, Inc.'s SPATE 9000 consists of a scan unit and a data display. The scan unit contains an infrared channel focused on the test structure to collect thermal radiation, and a visual channel used to set up the scan area and interrogate the stress display. Stress data is produced by detecting minute temperature changes, down to one-thousandth of a degree Centigrade, resulting from the application to the structure of dynamic loading. The electronic data processing system correlates the temperature changes with a reference signal to determine stress level.

  15. Optical analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, A.D.

    1987-09-28

    An optical analyzer wherein a sample of particulate matter, and particularly of organic matter, which has been collected on a quartz fiber filter is placed in a combustion tube, and light from a light source is passed through the sample. The temperature of the sample is raised at a controlled rate and in a controlled atmosphere. The magnitude of the transmission of light through the sample is detected as the temperature is raised. A data processor, differentiator and a two pen recorder provide a chart of the optical transmission versus temperature and the rate of change of optical transmission versus temperature signatures (T and D) of the sample. These signatures provide information as to physical and chemical processes and a variety of quantitative and qualitative information about the sample. Additional information is obtained by repeating the run in different atmospheres and/or different rates or heating with other samples of the same particulate material collected on other filters. 7 figs.

  16. Optical analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, Anthony D.

    1989-02-07

    An optical analyzer (10) wherein a sample (19) of particulate matter, and particularly of organic matter, which has been collected on a quartz fiber filter (20) is placed in a combustion tube (11), and light from a light source (14) is passed through the sample (19). The temperature of the sample (19) is raised at a controlled rate and in a controlled atmosphere. The magnitude of the transmission of light through the sample (19) is detected (18) as the temperature is raised. A data processor (23), differentiator (28) and a two pen recorder (24) provide a chart of the optical transmission versus temperature and the rate of change of optical transmission versus temperature signatures (T and D) of the sample (19). These signatures provide information as to physical and chemical processes and a variety of quantitative and qualitative information about the sample (19). Additional information is obtained by repeating the run in different atmospheres and/or different rates of heating with other samples of the same particulate material collected on other filters.

  17. Optical analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, Anthony D.

    1989-01-01

    An optical analyzer (10) wherein a sample (19) of particulate matter, and particularly of organic matter, which has been collected on a quartz fiber filter (20) is placed in a combustion tube (11), and light from a light source (14) is passed through the sample (19). The temperature of the sample (19) is raised at a controlled rate and in a controlled atmosphere. The magnitude of the transmission of light through the sample (19) is detected (18) as the temperature is raised. A data processor (23), differentiator (28) and a two pen recorder (24) provide a chart of the optical transmission versus temperature and the rate of change of optical transmission versus temperature signatures (T and D) of the sample (19). These signatures provide information as to physical and chemical processes and a variety of quantitative and qualitative information about the sample (19). Additional information is obtained by repeating the run in different atmospheres and/or different rates of heating with other samples of the same particulate material collected on other filters.

  18. ABSORPTION ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Brooksbank, W.A. Jr.; Leddicotte, G.W.; Strain, J.E.; Hendon, H.H. Jr.

    1961-11-14

    A means was developed for continuously computing and indicating the isotopic assay of a process solution and for automatically controlling the process output of isotope separation equipment to provide a continuous output of the desired isotopic ratio. A counter tube is surrounded with a sample to be analyzed so that the tube is exactly in the center of the sample. A source of fast neutrons is provided and is spaced from the sample. The neutrons from the source are thermalized by causing them to pass through a neutron moderator, and the neutrons are allowed to diffuse radially through the sample to actuate the counter. A reference counter in a known sample of pure solvent is also actuated by the thermal neutrons from the neutron source. The number of neutrons which actuate the detectors is a function of a concentration of the elements in solution and their neutron absorption cross sections. The pulses produced by the detectors responsive to each neu tron passing therethrough are amplified and counted. The respective times required to accumulate a selected number of counts are measured by associated timing devices. The concentration of a particular element in solution may be determined by utilizing the following relation: T2/Ti = BCR, where B is a constant proportional to the absorption cross sections, T2 is the time of count collection for the unknown solution, Ti is the time of count collection for the pure solvent, R is the isotopic ratlo, and C is the molar concentration of the element to be determined. Knowing the slope constant B for any element and when the chemical concentration is known, the isotopic concentration may be readily determined, and conversely when the isotopic ratio is known, the chemical concentrations may be determined. (AEC)

  19. A multispectral sorting device for wheat kernels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A low-cost multispectral sorting device was constructed using three visible and three near-infrared light-emitting diodes (LED) with peak emission wavelengths of 470 nm (blue), 527 nm (green), 624 nm (red), 850 nm, 940 nm, and 1070 nm. The multispectral data were collected by rapidly (~12 kHz) blin...

  20. Microwave Conductivity of Sorted CNT Assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Bulmer, John S.; Martens, Jon; Kurzepa, Lukasz; Gizewski, Tomasz; Egilmez, M.; Blamire, M. G.; Yahya, Noorhana; Koziol, Krzysztof K. K.

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress with tailored growth and post-process sorting enables carbon nanotube (CNT) assemblies with predominantly metallic or semi-conducting concentrations. Cryogenic and microwave measurements performed here show transport dimensionality and overall order increasing with increasing metallic concentration, even in atmospheric doping conditions. By 120 GHz, the conductivity of predominantly semi-conducting assemblies grew to 400% its DC value at an increasing growth rate, while other concentrations a growth rate that tapered off. A generalized Drude model fits to the different frequency dependent behaviors and yields useful quality control parameters such as plasma frequency, mean free path, and degree of localization. As one of the first demonstrations of waveguides fabricated from this material, sorted CNTs from both as-made and post-process sources were inserted into sections of practical micro-strip. With both sources, sorted CNT micro-strip increasingly outperformed the unsorted with increasing frequency-- illustrating that sorted CNT assemblies will be important for high frequency applications. PMID:24446019

  1. Integration through a Card-Sort Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kris; Ricca, Bernard P.

    2015-01-01

    Learning to compute integrals via the various techniques of integration (e.g., integration by parts, partial fractions, etc.) is difficult for many students. Here, we look at how students in a college level Calculus II course develop the ability to categorize integrals and the difficulties they encounter using a card sort-resort activity. Analysis…

  2. Sorting cells by their dynamical properties

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Ewan; Holm, Stefan H.; Zhang, Zunmin; Beech, Jason P.; Tegenfeldt, Jonas O.; Fedosov, Dmitry A.; Gompper, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in cell sorting aim at the development of novel methods that are sensitive to various mechanical properties of cells. Microfluidic technologies have a great potential for cell sorting; however, the design of many micro-devices is based on theories developed for rigid spherical particles with size as a separation parameter. Clearly, most bioparticles are non-spherical and deformable and therefore exhibit a much more intricate behavior in fluid flow than rigid spheres. Here, we demonstrate the use of cells’ mechanical and dynamical properties as biomarkers for separation by employing a combination of mesoscale hydrodynamic simulations and microfluidic experiments. The dynamic behavior of red blood cells (RBCs) within deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) devices is investigated for different device geometries and viscosity contrasts between the intra-cellular fluid and suspending medium. We find that the viscosity contrast and associated cell dynamics clearly determine the RBC trajectory through a DLD device. Simulation results compare well to experiments and provide new insights into the physical mechanisms which govern the sorting of non-spherical and deformable cells in DLD devices. Finally, we discuss the implications of cell dynamics for sorting schemes based on properties other than cell size, such as mechanics and morphology. PMID:27708337

  3. Credit Scores, Race, and Residential Sorting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Ashlyn Aiko

    2010-01-01

    Credit scores have a profound impact on home purchasing power and mortgage pricing, yet little is known about how credit scores influence households' residential location decisions. This study estimates the effects of credit scores on residential sorting behavior using a novel mortgage industry data set combining household demographic, credit, and…

  4. Microwave conductivity of sorted CNT assemblies.

    PubMed

    Bulmer, John S; Martens, Jon; Kurzepa, Lukasz; Gizewski, Tomasz; Egilmez, M; Blamire, M G; Yahya, Noorhana; Koziol, Krzysztof K K

    2014-01-21

    Recent progress with tailored growth and post-process sorting enables carbon nanotube (CNT) assemblies with predominantly metallic or semi-conducting concentrations. Cryogenic and microwave measurements performed here show transport dimensionality and overall order increasing with increasing metallic concentration, even in atmospheric doping conditions. By 120 GHz, the conductivity of predominantly semi-conducting assemblies grew to 400% its DC value at an increasing growth rate, while other concentrations a growth rate that tapered off. A generalized Drude model fits to the different frequency dependent behaviors and yields useful quality control parameters such as plasma frequency, mean free path, and degree of localization. As one of the first demonstrations of waveguides fabricated from this material, sorted CNTs from both as-made and post-process sources were inserted into sections of practical micro-strip. With both sources, sorted CNT micro-strip increasingly outperformed the unsorted with increasing frequency-- illustrating that sorted CNT assemblies will be important for high frequency applications.

  5. Sorting cells by their dynamical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Ewan; Holm, Stefan H.; Zhang, Zunmin; Beech, Jason P.; Tegenfeldt, Jonas O.; Fedosov, Dmitry A.; Gompper, Gerhard

    2016-10-01

    Recent advances in cell sorting aim at the development of novel methods that are sensitive to various mechanical properties of cells. Microfluidic technologies have a great potential for cell sorting; however, the design of many micro-devices is based on theories developed for rigid spherical particles with size as a separation parameter. Clearly, most bioparticles are non-spherical and deformable and therefore exhibit a much more intricate behavior in fluid flow than rigid spheres. Here, we demonstrate the use of cells’ mechanical and dynamical properties as biomarkers for separation by employing a combination of mesoscale hydrodynamic simulations and microfluidic experiments. The dynamic behavior of red blood cells (RBCs) within deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) devices is investigated for different device geometries and viscosity contrasts between the intra-cellular fluid and suspending medium. We find that the viscosity contrast and associated cell dynamics clearly determine the RBC trajectory through a DLD device. Simulation results compare well to experiments and provide new insights into the physical mechanisms which govern the sorting of non-spherical and deformable cells in DLD devices. Finally, we discuss the implications of cell dynamics for sorting schemes based on properties other than cell size, such as mechanics and morphology.

  6. Airborne microorganisms associated with packaging glass sorting facilities.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Marta Jorge de Vasconcelos; Veiga, José Miguel; Fernandes, Paulo; Ramos, Carla; Gonçalves, Sérgio; Velho, Maria Manuela Lemos Vaz; Guerreiro, Joana Santos

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, efforts have been undertaken to reduce the volume of residual waste through sorting and recycling. The waste management and recycling sector is thriving and the number of workers there is increasing. In this context, prior knowledge of the risks to which workers may be exposed is of crucial importance, and preventive measures need to be put in place to accurately identify and quantify those risks. This study aimed to assess occupational risk of exposure to biological agents (viable bacteria and fungi) in a Portuguese waste packaging glass sorting plant. Air samples were collected from selected locations in waste sorting cabins (critical area, CA), administrative services (noncritical area, NCA) and outdoors (control point, CP). Duplicate air samples were collected through an impaction method. The investigation was carried out over an 8-mo period with two collection periods, autumn/winter (AW) and spring/summer (SS), in order to access the influence of any seasonal variation. In the 36 air samples collected, 319 bacterial and 196 mold identifications were performed. Air samples revealed existence of high environmental contamination by bacteria (1.6 × 10(4) colony forming units [cfu]/m(3)) and fungi (1.5 × 10(4) cfu/m(3)). The predominant bacterial genus was Staphylococcus (coagulase negative) with values ranging from 29.6 to 60% of the total count of bacteria. Genera Bacillus, Micrococcus, and Staphylococcus (coagulase negative) were also present at all sampling sites, regardless of the season. However, the counts of these genera, in the CA, were higher in warmer seasons. The genus Penicillium was the most frequent genus present with an approximate value of 95% of total fungal count in the CA. Seasonal variation was a significant factor for total bacteria and fungi, except for NCA versus CP. Overall, the highest levels of bacterial and fungal species (10(4) cfu/m(3)) were found in the waste sorting cabin (CA). These results highlight the

  7. Airborne microorganisms associated with packaging glass sorting facilities.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Marta Jorge de Vasconcelos; Veiga, José Miguel; Fernandes, Paulo; Ramos, Carla; Gonçalves, Sérgio; Velho, Maria Manuela Lemos Vaz; Guerreiro, Joana Santos

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, efforts have been undertaken to reduce the volume of residual waste through sorting and recycling. The waste management and recycling sector is thriving and the number of workers there is increasing. In this context, prior knowledge of the risks to which workers may be exposed is of crucial importance, and preventive measures need to be put in place to accurately identify and quantify those risks. This study aimed to assess occupational risk of exposure to biological agents (viable bacteria and fungi) in a Portuguese waste packaging glass sorting plant. Air samples were collected from selected locations in waste sorting cabins (critical area, CA), administrative services (noncritical area, NCA) and outdoors (control point, CP). Duplicate air samples were collected through an impaction method. The investigation was carried out over an 8-mo period with two collection periods, autumn/winter (AW) and spring/summer (SS), in order to access the influence of any seasonal variation. In the 36 air samples collected, 319 bacterial and 196 mold identifications were performed. Air samples revealed existence of high environmental contamination by bacteria (1.6 × 10(4) colony forming units [cfu]/m(3)) and fungi (1.5 × 10(4) cfu/m(3)). The predominant bacterial genus was Staphylococcus (coagulase negative) with values ranging from 29.6 to 60% of the total count of bacteria. Genera Bacillus, Micrococcus, and Staphylococcus (coagulase negative) were also present at all sampling sites, regardless of the season. However, the counts of these genera, in the CA, were higher in warmer seasons. The genus Penicillium was the most frequent genus present with an approximate value of 95% of total fungal count in the CA. Seasonal variation was a significant factor for total bacteria and fungi, except for NCA versus CP. Overall, the highest levels of bacterial and fungal species (10(4) cfu/m(3)) were found in the waste sorting cabin (CA). These results highlight the

  8. PhySortR: a fast, flexible tool for sorting phylogenetic trees in R

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Timothy G.; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Ragan, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    A frequent bottleneck in interpreting phylogenomic output is the need to screen often thousands of trees for features of interest, particularly robust clades of specific taxa, as evidence of monophyletic relationship and/or reticulated evolution. Here we present PhySortR, a fast, flexible R package for classifying phylogenetic trees. Unlike existing utilities, PhySortR allows for identification of both exclusive and non-exclusive clades uniting the target taxa based on tip labels (i.e., leaves) on a tree, with customisable options to assess clades within the context of the whole tree. Using simulated and empirical datasets, we demonstrate the potential and scalability of PhySortR in analysis of thousands of phylogenetic trees without a priori assumption of tree-rooting, and in yielding readily interpretable trees that unambiguously satisfy the query. PhySortR is a command-line tool that is freely available and easily automatable. PMID:27190724

  9. PhySortR: a fast, flexible tool for sorting phylogenetic trees in R.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Timothy G; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Ragan, Mark A; Chan, Cheong Xin

    2016-01-01

    A frequent bottleneck in interpreting phylogenomic output is the need to screen often thousands of trees for features of interest, particularly robust clades of specific taxa, as evidence of monophyletic relationship and/or reticulated evolution. Here we present PhySortR, a fast, flexible R package for classifying phylogenetic trees. Unlike existing utilities, PhySortR allows for identification of both exclusive and non-exclusive clades uniting the target taxa based on tip labels (i.e., leaves) on a tree, with customisable options to assess clades within the context of the whole tree. Using simulated and empirical datasets, we demonstrate the potential and scalability of PhySortR in analysis of thousands of phylogenetic trees without a priori assumption of tree-rooting, and in yielding readily interpretable trees that unambiguously satisfy the query. PhySortR is a command-line tool that is freely available and easily automatable. PMID:27190724

  10. Differential expression of axon-sorting molecules in mouse olfactory sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Naoki; Nakashima, Ai; Hoshina, Naosuke; Ikegaya, Yuji; Takeuchi, Haruki

    2016-08-01

    In the mouse olfactory system, the axons of olfactory sensory neurons that express the same type of odorant receptor (OR) converge to a specific set of glomeruli in the olfactory bulb (OB). It is widely accepted that expressed OR molecules instruct glomerular segregation by regulating the expression of axon-sorting molecules. Although the relationship between the expression of axon-sorting molecules and OR types has been analyzed in detail, those between the expressions of axon-sorting molecules remain to be elucidated. Here we collected the expression profiles of four axon-sorting molecules from a large number of glomeruli in the OB. These molecules demonstrated position-independent mosaic expressions, but their patterns were not identical in the OB. Comparing their expressions identified positive and negative correlations between several pairs of genes even though they showed various expressions. Furthermore, the principal component analysis revealed that the factor loadings in the principal component 1, which explain the largest amount of variation, were most likely to reflect the degree of the cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channel dependence on the expression of axon-sorting molecules. Thus, neural activity generated through the CNG channel is a major component in the generation of a wide variety of expressions of axon-sorting molecules in glomerular segregation.

  11. Different sensitivity to wortmannin of two vacuolar sorting signals indicates the presence of distinct sorting machineries in tobacco cells

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Vacuolar matrix proteins in plant cells are sorted from the secretory pathway to the vacuoles at the Golgi apparatus. Previously, we reported that the NH2-terminal propeptide (NTPP) of the sporamin precursor and the COOH-terminal propeptide (CTPP) of the barley lectin precursor contain information for vacuolar sorting. To analyze whether these propeptides are interchangeable, we expressed constructs consisting of wild-type or mutated NTPP with the mature part of barley lectin and sporamin with CTPP and mutated NTPP in tobacco BY-2 cells. The vacuolar localization of these constructs indicated that the signals were interchangeable. We next analyzed the effect of wortmannin, a specific inhibitor of mammalian phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase on vacuolar delivery by NTPP and CTPP in tobacco cells. Pulse-chase analysis indicated that 33 microM wortmannin caused almost complete inhibition of CTPP-mediated transport to the vacuoles, while NTPP-mediated transport displayed almost no sensitivity to wortmannin at this concentration. This indicates that there are at least two different mechanisms for vacuolar sorting in tobacco cells, and the CTPP-mediated pathway is sensitive to wortmannin. We compared the dose dependencies of wortmannin on the inhibition of CTPP-mediated vacuolar delivery of proteins and on the inhibition of the synthesis of phospholipids in tobacco cells. Wortmannin inhibited PI 3- and PI 4-kinase activities and phospholipid synthesis. Missorting caused by wortmannin displays a dose dependency that is similar to the dose dependency for the inhibition of synthesis of PI 4-phosphate and major phospholipids. This is different, however, than the inhibition of synthesis of PI 3- phosphate. Thus, the synthesis of phospholipids could be involved in CTPP-mediated vacuolar transport. PMID:7559754

  12. Information sharing and sorting in a community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacherjee, Biplab; Manna, S. S.; Mukherjee, Animesh

    2013-06-01

    We present the results of a detailed numerical study of a model for the sharing and sorting of information in a community consisting of a large number of agents. The information gathering takes place in a sequence of mutual bipartite interactions where randomly selected pairs of agents communicate with each other to enhance their knowledge and sort out the common information. Although our model is less restricted compared to the well-established naming game, the numerical results strongly indicate that the whole set of exponents characterizing this model are different from those of the naming game and they assume nontrivial values. Finally, it appears that in analogy to the emergence of clusters in the phenomenon of percolation, one can define clusters of agents here having the same information. We have studied in detail the growth of the largest cluster in this article and performed its finite-size scaling analysis.

  13. A mower detector to judge soil sorting

    SciTech Connect

    Bramlitt, E.T.; Johnson, N.R.

    1995-12-31

    Thermo Nuclear Services (TNS) has developed a mower detector as an inexpensive and fast means for deciding potential value of soil sorting for cleanup. It is a shielded detector box on wheels pushed over the ground (as a person mows grass) at 30 ft/min with gamma-ray counts recorded every 0.25 sec. It mirror images detection by the TNS transportable sorter system which conveys soil at 30 ft/min and toggles a gate to send soil on separate paths based on counts. The mower detector shows if contamination is variable and suitable for sorting, and by unique calibration sources, it indicates detection sensitivity. The mower detector has been used to characterize some soil at Department of Energy sites in New Jersey and South Carolina.

  14. Fluorescence-Activated Nucleolus Sorting in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Pontvianne, Frédéric; Boyer-Clavel, Myriam; Sáez-Vásquez, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Nucleolar isolation allows exhaustive characterization of the nucleolar content. Centrifugation-based protocols are not adapted to isolation of nucleoli directly from a plant tissue because of copurification of cellular debris. We describe here a method that allows the purification of nucleoli using fluorescent-activated cell sorting from Arabidopsis thaliana leaves. This approach requires the expression of a specific nucleolar protein such as fibrillarin fused to green fluorescent protein in planta. PMID:27576720

  15. Exploiting osmosis for blood cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Parichehreh, Vahidreza; Estrada, Rosendo; Kumar, Srikanth Suresh; Bhavanam, Kranthi Kumar; Raj, Vinay; Raj, Ashok; Sethu, Palaniappan

    2011-06-01

    Blood is a valuable tissue containing cellular populations rich in information regarding the immediate immune and inflammatory status of the body. Blood leukocytes or white blood cells (WBCs) provide an ideal sample to monitor systemic changes and understand molecular signaling mechanisms in disease processes. Blood samples need to be processed to deplete contaminating erythrocytes or red blood cells (RBCs) and sorted into different WBC sub-populations prior to analysis. This is typically accomplished using immuno-affinity protocols which result in undesirable activation. An alternative is size based sorting which by itself is unsuitable for WBCs sorting due to size overlap between different sub-populations. To overcome this limitation, we investigated the possibility of using controlled osmotic exposure to deplete and/or create a differential size increase between WBC populations. Using a new microfluidic cell docking platform, the response of RBCs and WBCs to deionized (DI) water was evaluated. Time lapse microscopy confirms depletion of RBCs within 15 s and creation of > 3 μm size difference between lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes. A flow through microfluidic device was also used to expose different WBCs to DI water for 30, 60 and 90 s to quantify cell loss and activation. Results confirm preservation of ~100% of monocytes, granulocytes and loss of ~30% of lymphocytes (mostly CD3+/CD4+) with minimal activation. These results indicate feasibility of this approach for monocyte, granulocyte and lymphocyte (sub-populations) isolation based on size. PMID:21279444

  16. Exploiting osmosis for blood cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Parichehreh, Vahidreza; Estrada, Rosendo; Kumar, Srikanth Suresh; Bhavanam, Kranthi Kumar; Raj, Vinay; Raj, Ashok; Sethu, Palaniappan

    2011-06-01

    Blood is a valuable tissue containing cellular populations rich in information regarding the immediate immune and inflammatory status of the body. Blood leukocytes or white blood cells (WBCs) provide an ideal sample to monitor systemic changes and understand molecular signaling mechanisms in disease processes. Blood samples need to be processed to deplete contaminating erythrocytes or red blood cells (RBCs) and sorted into different WBC sub-populations prior to analysis. This is typically accomplished using immuno-affinity protocols which result in undesirable activation. An alternative is size based sorting which by itself is unsuitable for WBCs sorting due to size overlap between different sub-populations. To overcome this limitation, we investigated the possibility of using controlled osmotic exposure to deplete and/or create a differential size increase between WBC populations. Using a new microfluidic cell docking platform, the response of RBCs and WBCs to deionized (DI) water was evaluated. Time lapse microscopy confirms depletion of RBCs within 15 s and creation of > 3 μm size difference between lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes. A flow through microfluidic device was also used to expose different WBCs to DI water for 30, 60 and 90 s to quantify cell loss and activation. Results confirm preservation of ~100% of monocytes, granulocytes and loss of ~30% of lymphocytes (mostly CD3+/CD4+) with minimal activation. These results indicate feasibility of this approach for monocyte, granulocyte and lymphocyte (sub-populations) isolation based on size.

  17. Genomic sorting with length-weighted reversals.

    PubMed

    Pinter, Ron Y; Skiena, Steven

    2002-01-01

    Current algorithmic studies of genome rearrangement ignore the length of reversals (or inversions); rather, they only count their number. We introduce a new cost model in which the lengths of the reversed sequences play a role, allowing more flexibility in accounting for mutation phenomena. Our focus is on sorting unsigned (unoriented) permutations by reversals; since this problem remains difficult (NP-hard) in our new model, the best we can hope for are approximation results. We propose an efficient, novel algorithm that takes (a monotonic function f of) length into account as an optimization criterion and study its properties. Our results include an upper bound of O(fn lg2n) for any additive cost measure f on the cost of sorting any n-element permutation, and a guaranteed approximation ratio of O(lg2n) times optimal for sorting a given permutation. Our work poses some interesting questions to both biologists and computer scientists and suggests some new bioinformatic insights that are currently being studied. PMID:14571379

  18. Gender Sorting across K-12 Schools in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Mark C.; Conger, Dylan

    2013-01-01

    This article documents evidence of nonrandom gender sorting across K-12 schools in the United States. The sorting exists among coed schools and at all grade levels, and it is highest in the secondary school grades. We observe some gender sorting across school sectors and types: for instance, males are slightly underrepresented in private schools…

  19. Categorizing Variations of Student-Implemented Sorting Algorithms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taherkhani, Ahmad; Korhonen, Ari; Malmi, Lauri

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examined freshmen students' sorting algorithm implementations in data structures and algorithms' course in two phases: at the beginning of the course before the students received any instruction on sorting algorithms, and after taking a lecture on sorting algorithms. The analysis revealed that many students have insufficient…

  20. Online sorting of recovered wood waste by automated XRF-technology: part II. Sorting efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Hasan, A Rasem; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Townsend, Timothy

    2011-04-01

    Sorting of waste wood is an important process practiced at recycling facilities in order to detect and divert contaminants from recycled wood products. Contaminants of concern include arsenic, chromium and copper found in chemically preserved wood. The objective of this research was to evaluate the sorting efficiencies of both treated and untreated parts of the wood waste stream, and metal (As, Cr and Cu) mass recoveries by the use of automated X-ray fluorescence (XRF) systems. A full-scale system was used for experimentation. This unit consisted of an XRF-detection chamber mounted on the top of a conveyor and a pneumatic slide-way diverter which sorted wood into presumed treated and presumed untreated piles. A randomized block design was used to evaluate the operational conveyance parameters of the system, including wood feed rate and conveyor belt speed. Results indicated that online sorting efficiencies of waste wood by XRF technology were high based on number and weight of pieces (70-87% and 75-92% for treated wood and 66-97% and 68-96% for untreated wood, respectively). These sorting efficiencies achieved mass recovery for metals of 81-99% for As, 75-95% for Cu and 82-99% of Cr. The incorrect sorting of wood was attributed almost equally to deficiencies in the detection and conveyance/diversion systems. Even with its deficiencies, the system was capable of producing a recyclable portion that met residential soil quality levels established for Florida, for an infeed that contained 5% of treated wood. PMID:21194917

  1. Online sorting of recovered wood waste by automated XRF-technology: part II. Sorting efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Hasan, A Rasem; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Townsend, Timothy

    2011-04-01

    Sorting of waste wood is an important process practiced at recycling facilities in order to detect and divert contaminants from recycled wood products. Contaminants of concern include arsenic, chromium and copper found in chemically preserved wood. The objective of this research was to evaluate the sorting efficiencies of both treated and untreated parts of the wood waste stream, and metal (As, Cr and Cu) mass recoveries by the use of automated X-ray fluorescence (XRF) systems. A full-scale system was used for experimentation. This unit consisted of an XRF-detection chamber mounted on the top of a conveyor and a pneumatic slide-way diverter which sorted wood into presumed treated and presumed untreated piles. A randomized block design was used to evaluate the operational conveyance parameters of the system, including wood feed rate and conveyor belt speed. Results indicated that online sorting efficiencies of waste wood by XRF technology were high based on number and weight of pieces (70-87% and 75-92% for treated wood and 66-97% and 68-96% for untreated wood, respectively). These sorting efficiencies achieved mass recovery for metals of 81-99% for As, 75-95% for Cu and 82-99% of Cr. The incorrect sorting of wood was attributed almost equally to deficiencies in the detection and conveyance/diversion systems. Even with its deficiencies, the system was capable of producing a recyclable portion that met residential soil quality levels established for Florida, for an infeed that contained 5% of treated wood.

  2. Insect's intestinal organ for symbiont sorting.

    PubMed

    Ohbayashi, Tsubasa; Takeshita, Kazutaka; Kitagawa, Wataru; Nikoh, Naruo; Koga, Ryuichi; Meng, Xian-Ying; Tago, Kanako; Hori, Tomoyuki; Hayatsu, Masahito; Asano, Kozo; Kamagata, Yoichi; Lee, Bok Luel; Fukatsu, Takema; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo

    2015-09-15

    Symbiosis has significantly contributed to organismal adaptation and diversification. For establishment and maintenance of such host-symbiont associations, host organisms must have evolved mechanisms for selective incorporation, accommodation, and maintenance of their specific microbial partners. Here we report the discovery of a previously unrecognized type of animal organ for symbiont sorting. In the bean bug Riptortus pedestris, the posterior midgut is morphologically differentiated for harboring specific symbiotic bacteria of a beneficial nature. The sorting organ lies in the middle of the intestine as a constricted region, which partitions the midgut into an anterior nonsymbiotic region and a posterior symbiotic region. Oral administration of GFP-labeled Burkholderia symbionts to nymphal stinkbugs showed that the symbionts pass through the constricted region and colonize the posterior midgut. However, administration of food colorings revealed that food fluid enters neither the constricted region nor the posterior midgut, indicating selective symbiont passage at the constricted region and functional isolation of the posterior midgut for symbiosis. Coadministration of the GFP-labeled symbiont and red fluorescent protein-labeled Escherichia coli unveiled selective passage of the symbiont and blockage of E. coli at the constricted region, demonstrating the organ's ability to discriminate the specific bacterial symbiont from nonsymbiotic bacteria. Transposon mutagenesis and screening revealed that symbiont mutants in flagella-related genes fail to pass through the constricted region, highlighting that both host's control and symbiont's motility are involved in the sorting process. The blocking of food flow at the constricted region is conserved among diverse stinkbug groups, suggesting the evolutionary origin of the intestinal organ in their common ancestor. PMID:26324935

  3. Analyzing radioligand binding data.

    PubMed

    Motulsky, H; Neubig, R

    2001-05-01

    A radioligand is a radioactively labeled drug that can associate with a receptor, transporter, enzyme, or any protein of interest. Measuring the rate and extent of binding provides information on the number of binding sites, and their affinity and accessibility for various drugs. Radioligand binding experiments are easy to perform, and provide useful data in many fields. For example, radioligand binding studies are used to study receptor regulation, investigate receptor localization in different organs or regions using autoradiography, categorize receptor subtypes, and probe mechanisms of receptor signaling. This unit reviews the theory of receptor binding and explains how to analyze experimental data. Since binding data are usually best analyzed using nonlinear regression, this unit also explains the principles of curve fitting with nonlinear regression.

  4. Mechanism for Particle Transport and Size Sorting via Low-Frequency Vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Scott, James S.; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2010-01-01

    There is a need for effective sample handling tools to deliver and sort particles for analytical instruments that are planned for use in future NASA missions. Specifically, a need exists for a compact mechanism that allows transporting and sieving particle sizes of powdered cuttings and soil grains that may be acquired by sampling tools such as a robotic scoop or drill. The required tool needs to be low mass and compact to operate from such platforms as a lander or rover. This technology also would be applicable to sample handling when transporting samples to analyzers and sorting particles by size.

  5. Lateral chirality-sorting optical forces.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Amaury; Mueller, J P Balthasar; Capasso, Federico

    2015-10-27

    The transverse component of the spin angular momentum of evanescent waves gives rise to lateral optical forces on chiral particles, which have the unusual property of acting in a direction in which there is neither a field gradient nor wave propagation. Because their direction and strength depends on the chiral polarizability of the particle, they act as chirality-sorting and may offer a mechanism for passive chirality spectroscopy. The absolute strength of the forces also substantially exceeds that of other recently predicted sideways optical forces. PMID:26453555

  6. Regolith migration and sorting on asteroid Itokawa.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Hideaki; Yano, Hajime; Scheeres, Daniel J; Abe, Shinsuke; Barnouin-Jha, Olivier; Cheng, Andrew F; Demura, Hirohide; Gaskell, Robert W; Hirata, Naru; Ishiguro, Masateru; Michikami, Tatsuhiro; Nakamura, Akiko M; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Saito, Jun; Sasaki, Sho

    2007-05-18

    High-resolution images of the surface of asteroid Itokawa from the Hayabusa mission reveal it to be covered with unconsolidated millimeter-sized and larger gravels. Locations and morphologic characteristics of this gravel indicate that Itokawa has experienced considerable vibrations, which have triggered global-scale granular processes in its dry, vacuum, microgravity environment. These processes likely include granular convection, landslide-like granular migrations, and particle sorting, resulting in the segregation of the fine gravels into areas of potential lows. Granular processes become major resurfacing processes because of Itokawa's small size, implying that they can occur on other small asteroids should those have regolith. PMID:17446355

  7. Specified neural progenitors sort to form sharp domains after noisy Shh signaling.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Fengzhu; Tentner, Andrea R; Huang, Peng; Gelas, Arnaud; Mosaliganti, Kishore R; Souhait, Lydie; Rannou, Nicolas; Swinburne, Ian A; Obholzer, Nikolaus D; Cowgill, Paul D; Schier, Alexander F; Megason, Sean G

    2013-04-25

    Sharply delineated domains of cell types arise in developing tissues under instruction of inductive signal (morphogen) gradients, which specify distinct cell fates at different signal levels. The translation of a morphogen gradient into discrete spatial domains relies on precise signal responses at stable cell positions. However, cells in developing tissues undergoing morphogenesis and proliferation often experience complex movements, which may affect their morphogen exposure, specification, and positioning. How is a clear pattern achieved with cells moving around? Using in toto imaging of the zebrafish neural tube, we analyzed specification patterns and movement trajectories of neural progenitors. We found that specified progenitors of different fates are spatially mixed following heterogeneous Sonic Hedgehog signaling responses. Cell sorting then rearranges them into sharply bordered domains. Ectopically induced motor neuron progenitors also robustly sort to correct locations. Our results reveal that cell sorting acts to correct imprecision of spatial patterning by noisy inductive signals.

  8. Sex-sorting sperm by flow cytometry in pigs: issues and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, J M; Parrilla, I; Roca, J; Gil, M A; Cuello, C; Vazquez, J L; Martínez, E A

    2009-01-01

    Several hundred thousand offspring of preselected sex of various species have been born since sperm sexing technology based on flow cytometric sorting of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm and DNA was first demonstrated in 1989. The advantages derived from application of sexing technology to commercial dairy cattle production have been demonstrated worldwide. Utilizing sex-sorting technology for pig production systems offers many similar advantages. However, several factors currently limit implementation of sexing technology in pigs. Anatomical and physiological features inherent to the female pig, together with the relatively low sperm output of a flow sorter, are the main limitations to widespread use of this technology in pig production systems. This review analyzes the factors that limit the efficiency of sperm sorting technology for commercial swine production. In addition, this review discusses recent innovations in technical instrumentation and applied reproductive techniques that may help to overcome some of these limitations. PMID:18977521

  9. Performance of multiprocessors and parallel algorithms: Quick-sort, a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, I.M.

    1989-01-01

    Performance of parallel algorithms on multiprocessors has been traditionally analyzed by looking at either the algorithm or the architecture of the multiprocessor system. However, it is important to study the combined effect of both these factors in order to evaluate and predict performance. A different methodology based on approximate trace-driven simulation is adopted in this thesis to study the performance of a class of non-numerical algorithms. Performance of parallel quick-sort and parallel quick-merge sort is investigated in order to demonstrate the methodology as well as develop an understanding of the limitations imposed by a cache-based single bus environment on achievable speedup. A wide range of issues including the effect of cache parameters, coherency protocol, scheduling mechanisms and technology effects are discussed in the context of performance of the two versions of parallel quick-sort.

  10. Flow sorting of X and Y chromosome-bearing spermatozoa into two populations.

    PubMed

    Johnson, L A; Flook, J P; Look, M V; Pinkel, D

    1987-01-01

    The only established difference on which to base the separation of X and Y chromosome-bearing spermatozoa is chromosomal constitution. This difference is quantifiable both from chromosome morphology (karyotype) and from DNA content. Flow cytometric techniques were used to measure relative DNA content of the X and Y populations and to flow-sort spermatozoa from Chinchilla laniger. Epididymal spermatozoa were recovered in PBS, fixed in 80% ethanol, treated with papain and dithioerythritol, and stained for DNA with Hoechst 33342. Sperm nuclei were analyzed and sorted on an EPICS V flow cytometer/cell sorter, modified specifically for spermatozoa. Two clearly resolved peaks (coefficient of variation less than 1.5%) with approximately 7.5% difference in DNA content between X and Y chromosome-bearing spermatozoa were evident. Sperm nuclei were sorted from a portion of the X and Y peaks at a rate of 55 nuclei/sec for each population. Purities of individual X and Y populations averaged 95% as determined by reanalysis of the sorted populations. Successful sorting of Chinchilla X and Y chromosome-bearing spermatozoa into separate populations may aid in the identification of a biochemical marker that could be used to discriminate between the two sperm populations and lead to a practical procedure for sexing spermatozoa. PMID:3506896

  11. A method to analyze, sort, and retain viability of obligate anaerobic microorganisms from complex microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Anne W; Crow, Matthew J; Wadey, Brian; Arens, Christina; Turkarslan, Serdar; Stolyar, Sergey; Elliott, Nicholas; Petersen, Timothy W; van den Engh, Ger; Stahl, David A; Baliga, Nitin S

    2015-10-01

    A high speed flow cytometric cell sorter was modified to maintain a controlled anaerobic environment. This technology enabled coupling of the precise high-throughput analytical and cell separation capabilities of flow cytometry to the assessment of cell viability of evolved lineages of obligate anaerobic organisms from cocultures.

  12. Downstream Sediment Sorting as a Fractionation Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paola, C.; Fedele, J. J.

    2007-12-01

    Downstream size segregation in net depositional systems can be thought of as a fractination process in which a well mixed, heterogeneous input is unmixed based on its relative mobility. Although we are accustomed to thinking of the segregation process as hydraulically driven and rather complex, we argue that at large time and length scales size segregation can be substantially simplified. The main controls are the downstream distribution of sediment extraction, which is typically controlled externally (e.g. by subsidence) and the size distribution of the sediment supply. Hydraulics plays a secondary role because of the tendency for river channels to self organize to a shape that maintains a limited range of dimensionless shear stress on the channel bed. The end result of this line of reasoning is a simple method for calculating downstream size segregation in depositional systems that is in good agreement with the limited data available. In terms of local dynamics, we introduce evidence that topographic roughness plays an important role. This is not explicitly incorporated in our analysis, and the best ways to characterize roughness for this purpose are yet to be determined. Finally, to estimate the importance of abrasion effects at large scales, we re-introduce a dimensionless parameter to describe the relative importance of abrasion, which sorts material by durability, and selective transport, which sorts by transportability.

  13. Micro acoustic spectrum analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Schubert, W. Kent; Butler, Michael A.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Anderson, Larry F.

    2004-11-23

    A micro acoustic spectrum analyzer for determining the frequency components of a fluctuating sound signal comprises a microphone to pick up the fluctuating sound signal and produce an alternating current electrical signal; at least one microfabricated resonator, each resonator having a different resonant frequency, that vibrate in response to the alternating current electrical signal; and at least one detector to detect the vibration of the microfabricated resonators. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer can further comprise a mixer to mix a reference signal with the alternating current electrical signal from the microphone to shift the frequency spectrum to a frequency range that is a better matched to the resonant frequencies of the microfabricated resonators. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer can be designed specifically for portability, size, cost, accuracy, speed, power requirements, and use in a harsh environment. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer is particularly suited for applications where size, accessibility, and power requirements are limited, such as the monitoring of industrial equipment and processes, detection of security intrusions, or evaluation of military threats.

  14. Do Vouchers Lead to Sorting under Random Private School Selection? Evidence from the Milwaukee Voucher Program. Working Paper #09-02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakrabarti, Rajashri

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of voucher design on student sorting, and more specifically investigates whether there are feasible ways of designing vouchers that can reduce or eliminate student sorting. It studies these questions in the context of the first five years of the Milwaukee voucher program. Much of the existing literature investigates…

  15. Do Vouchers Lead to Sorting under Random Private-School Selection? Evidence from the Milwaukee Voucher Program. Staff Report No. 379

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakrabarti, Rajashri

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of voucher design on student sorting in the application and enrollment phases of parental choice. More specifically, it investigates whether there are feasible ways of designing vouchers that can reduce or eliminate student sorting in these phases. Much of the existing literature investigates the question of…

  16. Corner Sort for Pareto-Based Many-Objective Optimization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Handing; Yao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Nondominated sorting plays an important role in Pareto-based multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs). When faced with many-objective optimization problems multiobjective optimization problems (MOPs) with more than three objectives, the number of comparisons needed in nondominated sorting becomes very large. In view of this, a new corner sort is proposed in this paper. Corner sort first adopts a fast and simple method to obtain a nondominated solution from the corner solutions, and then uses the nondominated solution to ignore the solutions dominated by it to save comparisons. Obtaining the nondominated solutions requires much fewer objective comparisons in corner sort. In order to evaluate its performance, several state-of-the-art nondominated sorts are compared with our corner sort on three kinds of artificial solution sets of MOPs and the solution sets generated from MOEAs on benchmark problems. On one hand, the experiments on artificial solution sets show the performance on the solution sets with different distributions. On the other hand, the experiments on the solution sets generated from MOEAs show the influence that different sorts bring to MOEAs. The results show that corner sort performs well, especially on many-objective optimization problems. Corner sort uses fewer comparisons than others.

  17. Fluorescence activated cell sorting of plant protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Bargmann, Bastiaan O R; Birnbaum, Kenneth D

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution, cell type-specific analysis of gene expression greatly enhances understanding of developmental regulation and responses to environmental stimuli in any multicellular organism. In situ hybridization and reporter gene visualization can to a limited extent be used to this end but for high resolution quantitative RT-PCR or high-throughput transcriptome-wide analysis the isolation of RNA from particular cell types is requisite. Cellular dissociation of tissue expressing a fluorescent protein marker in a specific cell type and subsequent Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) makes it possible to collect sufficient amounts of material for RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis/amplification and microarray analysis. An extensive set of cell type-specific fluorescent reporter lines is available to the plant research community. In this case, two marker lines of the Arabidopsis thaliana root are used: P(SCR;)::GFP (endodermis and quiescent center) and P(WOX5;)::GFP (quiescent center). Large numbers (thousands) of seedlings are grown hydroponically or on agar plates and harvested to obtain enough root material for further analysis. Cellular dissociation of plant material is achieved by enzymatic digestion of the cell wall. This procedure makes use of high osmolarity-induced plasmolysis and commercially available cellulases, pectinases and hemicellulases to release protoplasts into solution. FACS of GFP-positive cells makes use of the visualization of the green versus the red emission spectra of protoplasts excited by a 488 nm laser. GFP-positive protoplasts can be distinguished by their increased ratio of green to red emission. Protoplasts are typically sorted directly into RNA extraction buffer and stored for further processing at a later time. This technique is revealed to be straightforward and practicable. Furthermore, it is shown that it can be used without difficulty to isolate sufficient numbers of cells for transcriptome analysis, even for very scarce

  18. Fluorescence activated cell sorting of plant protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Bargmann, Bastiaan O R; Birnbaum, Kenneth D

    2010-02-18

    High-resolution, cell type-specific analysis of gene expression greatly enhances understanding of developmental regulation and responses to environmental stimuli in any multicellular organism. In situ hybridization and reporter gene visualization can to a limited extent be used to this end but for high resolution quantitative RT-PCR or high-throughput transcriptome-wide analysis the isolation of RNA from particular cell types is requisite. Cellular dissociation of tissue expressing a fluorescent protein marker in a specific cell type and subsequent Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) makes it possible to collect sufficient amounts of material for RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis/amplification and microarray analysis. An extensive set of cell type-specific fluorescent reporter lines is available to the plant research community. In this case, two marker lines of the Arabidopsis thaliana root are used: P(SCR;)::GFP (endodermis and quiescent center) and P(WOX5;)::GFP (quiescent center). Large numbers (thousands) of seedlings are grown hydroponically or on agar plates and harvested to obtain enough root material for further analysis. Cellular dissociation of plant material is achieved by enzymatic digestion of the cell wall. This procedure makes use of high osmolarity-induced plasmolysis and commercially available cellulases, pectinases and hemicellulases to release protoplasts into solution. FACS of GFP-positive cells makes use of the visualization of the green versus the red emission spectra of protoplasts excited by a 488 nm laser. GFP-positive protoplasts can be distinguished by their increased ratio of green to red emission. Protoplasts are typically sorted directly into RNA extraction buffer and stored for further processing at a later time. This technique is revealed to be straightforward and practicable. Furthermore, it is shown that it can be used without difficulty to isolate sufficient numbers of cells for transcriptome analysis, even for very scarce

  19. Improving the efficiency of insemination with sex-sorted spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, J M; Parrilla, I; Gil, M A; Cuello, C; Caballero, I; Vazquez, J L; Roca, J; Martínez, E A

    2008-10-01

    The sorting of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa by flow cytometry is nowadays one of the most apt assisted-reproduction technologies in livestock production. Potential economic and biological benefits, as well as those related to easier management of herds, have been reported arising out of the application of this technique, especially in cattle. Yet, the sex-sorting procedure induces damage to spermatozoa, affecting their function and fertilizing ability. Different species present varying degrees of susceptibility to damage from the sorting process and each has its own requirements for sex-sorted insemination procedures. Thus, several new protocols and strategies have been designed for the handling of sorted spermatozoa, with the main objective of optimizing their fertilizing ability and the consequent application of flow-cytometric sex-sorting technology. This article reviews current advances in this technology, pointing out the components to be improved before this technology may be widely applied in different domestic species. PMID:18803751

  20. Concurrent droplet charging and sorting by electrostatic actuation.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Byungwook; Lee, Kangsun; Louge, Romain; Oh, Kwang W

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a droplet-based microfluidic device for concurrent droplet charging and sorting by electrostatic actuation. Water-in-oil droplets can be charged on generation by synchronized electrostatic actuation. Then, simultaneously, the precharged droplets can be electrostatically steered into any designated laminar streamline, thus they can be sorted into one of multiple sorting channels one by one in a controlled fashion. In this paper, we studied the size dependence of the water droplets under various relative flow rates of water and oil. We demonstrated the concurrent charging and sorting of up to 600 dropletss by synchronized electrostatic actuation. Finally, we investigated optimized voltages for stable droplet charging and sorting. This is an essential enabling technology for fast, robust, and multiplexed sorting of microdroplets, and for the droplet-based microfluidic systems.

  1. Passive chip-based droplet sorting

    DOEpatents

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Lee, Abraham P; Hatch, Andrew C; Fisher, Jeffrey S

    2015-03-03

    An apparatus for passive sorting of microdroplets including a main flow channel, a flow stream of microdroplets in the main flow channel wherein the microdroplets have substantially the same diameter and wherein the flow stream of microdroplets includes first microdroplets having a first degree of stiffness and second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness wherein the second degree of stiffness is different than the first degree of stiffness. A second flow channel is connected to the main flow channel for the second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness. A separator separates the second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness from the first microdroplets and directs the second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness into the second flow channel.

  2. Passive chip-based droplet sorting

    DOEpatents

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Lee, Abraham P; Hatch, Andrew C; Fisher, Jeffrey S

    2015-11-05

    An apparatus for passive sorting of microdroplets including a main flow channel, a flow stream of microdroplets in the main flow channel wherein the microdroplets have substantially the same diameter and wherein the flow stream of microdroplets includes first microdroplets having a first degree of stiffness and second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness wherein the second degree of stiffness is different than the first degree of stiffness. A second flow channel is connected to the main flow channel for the second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness. A separator separates the second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness from the first microdroplets and directs the second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness into the second flow channel.

  3. Solution structure of human sorting nexin 22.

    PubMed

    Song, Jikui; Zhao, Kate Qin; Newman, Carrie L Loushin; Vinarov, Dmitriy A; Markley, John L

    2007-05-01

    The sorting nexins (SNXs) constitute a large group of PX domain-containing proteins that play critical roles in protein trafficking. We report here the solution structure of human sorting nexin 22 (SNX22). Although SNX22 has <30% sequence identity with any PX domain protein of known structure, it was found to contain the alpha/beta fold and compact structural core characteristic of PX domains. Analysis of the backbone dynamics of SNX22 by NMR relaxation measurements revealed that the two walls of the ligand binding cleft undergo internal motions: on the picosecond timescale for the beta1/beta2 loop and on the micro- to millisecond timescale for the loop between the polyproline motif and helix alpha2. Regions of the SNX22 structure that differ from those of other PX domains include the loop connecting strands beta1 and beta2 and the loop connecting helices alpha1 and alpha2, which appear to be more mobile than corresponding loops in other known structures. The interaction of dibutanoyl-phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (dibutanoyl-PtdIns(3)P) with SNX22 was investigated by an NMR titration experiment, which identified the binding site in a basic cleft and indicated that ligand binding leads only to a local structural rearrangement as has been found with other PX domains. Because motions in the loops are damped out when dibutanoyl-PtdIns(3)P binds, entropic effects could contribute to the lower affinity of SNX22 for this ligand compared to other PX domains. PMID:17400918

  4. Learning sorting algorithms through visualization construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cetin, Ibrahim; Andrews-Larson, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Recent increased interest in computational thinking poses an important question to researchers: What are the best ways to teach fundamental computing concepts to students? Visualization is suggested as one way of supporting student learning. This mixed-method study aimed to (i) examine the effect of instruction in which students constructed visualizations on students' programming achievement and students' attitudes toward computer programming, and (ii) explore how this kind of instruction supports students' learning according to their self-reported experiences in the course. The study was conducted with 58 pre-service teachers who were enrolled in their second programming class. They expect to teach information technology and computing-related courses at the primary and secondary levels. An embedded experimental model was utilized as a research design. Students in the experimental group were given instruction that required students to construct visualizations related to sorting, whereas students in the control group viewed pre-made visualizations. After the instructional intervention, eight students from each group were selected for semi-structured interviews. The results showed that the intervention based on visualization construction resulted in significantly better acquisition of sorting concepts. However, there was no significant difference between the groups with respect to students' attitudes toward computer programming. Qualitative data analysis indicated that students in the experimental group constructed necessary abstractions through their engagement in visualization construction activities. The authors of this study argue that the students' active engagement in the visualization construction activities explains only one side of students' success. The other side can be explained through the instructional approach, constructionism in this case, used to design instruction. The conclusions and implications of this study can be used by researchers and

  5. 34. VIEW OF VIVIANNA WORKS ORE SORTING AND CRUSHING PLATFORM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. VIEW OF VIVIANNA WORKS ORE SORTING AND CRUSHING PLATFORM LOOKING EAST, NORTHEAST. NOTICE RAIL TIES EMBEDDED IN CONCRETE. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  6. Pattern matching based active optical sorting of colloids/cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, R. S.; Dasgupta, R.; Ahlawat, S.; Kumar, N.; Uppal, A.; Gupta, P. K.

    2013-08-01

    We report active optical sorting of colloids/cells by employing a cross correlation based pattern matching technique for selection of the desired objects and thereafter sorting using dynamically controllable holographic optical traps. The problem of possible collision between the different sets of objects during sorting was avoided by raising one set of particles to a different plane. We also present the results obtained on using this approach for some representative applications such as sorting of silica particles of two different sizes, of closely packed colloids and of white blood cells and red blood cells from a mixture of the two.

  7. Digital Analysis and Sorting of Fluorescence Lifetime by Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Jessica P.; Naivar, Mark A.; Freyer, James P.

    2010-01-01

    Frequency-domain flow cytometry techniques are combined with modifications to the digital signal processing capabilities of the Open Reconfigurable Cytometric Acquisition System (ORCAS) to analyze fluorescence decay lifetimes and control sorting. Real-time fluorescence lifetime analysis is accomplished by rapidly digitizing correlated, radiofrequency modulated detector signals, implementing Fourier analysis programming with ORCAS’ digital signal processor (DSP) and converting the processed data into standard cytometric list mode data. To systematically test the capabilities of the ORCAS 50 MS/sec analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and our DSP programming, an error analysis was performed using simulated light scatter and fluorescence waveforms (0.5–25 ns simulated lifetime), pulse widths ranging from 2 to 15 µs, and modulation frequencies from 2.5 to 16.667 MHz. The standard deviations of digitally acquired lifetime values ranged from 0.112 to >2 ns, corresponding to errors in actual phase shifts from 0.0142° to 1.6°. The lowest coefficients of variation (<1%) were found for 10-MHz modulated waveforms having pulse widths of 6 µs and simulated lifetimes of 4 ns. Direct comparison of the digital analysis system to a previous analog phase-sensitive flow cytometer demonstrated similar precision and accuracy on measurements of a range of fluorescent microspheres, unstained cells and cells stained with three common fluorophores. Sorting based on fluorescence lifetime was accomplished by adding analog outputs to ORCAS and interfacing with a commercial cell sorter with a radiofrequency modulated solid-state laser. Two populations of fluorescent microspheres with overlapping fluorescence intensities but different lifetimes (2 and 7 ns) were separated to ~98% purity. Overall, the digital signal acquisition and processing methods we introduce present a simple yet robust approach to phase-sensitive measurements in flow cytometry. The ability to simply and inexpensively

  8. Sperm sex-sorting and preservation for managing the sex ratio and genetic diversity of the southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum).

    PubMed

    O'Brien, J K; Roth, T L; Stoops, M A; Ball, R L; Steinman, K J; Montano, G A; Love, C C; Robeck, T R

    2015-01-01

    White rhinoceros ejaculates (n=9) collected by electroejaculation from four males were shipped (10°C, 12h) to develop procedures for the production of chilled and frozen-thawed sex-sorted spermatozoa of adequate quality for artificial insemination (AI). Of all electroejaculate fractions, 39.7% (31/78) exhibited high quality post-collection (≥70% total motility and membrane integrity) and of those, 54.8% (17/31) presented reduced in vitro quality after transport and were retrospectively determined to exhibit urine-contamination (≥21.0μg creatinine/ml). Of fractions analyzed for creatinine concentration, 69% (44/64) were classified as urine-contaminated. For high quality non-contaminated fractions, in vitro parameters (motility, velocity, membrane, acrosome and DNA integrity) of chilled non-sorted and sorted spermatozoa were well-maintained at 5°C up to 54h post-collection, whereby >70% of post-transport (non-sorted) or post-sort (sorted) values were retained. By 54h post-collection, some motility parameters were higher (P<0.05) for non-sorted spermatozoa (total motility, rapid velocity, average path velocity) whereas all remaining motion parameters as well as membrane, acrosome and DNA integrity were similar between sperm types. In comparison with a straw method, directional freezing resulted in enhanced (P<0.05) motility and velocity of non-sorted and sorted spermatozoa, with comparable overall post-thaw quality between sperm types. High purity enrichment of X-bearing (89±6%) or Y-bearing (86±3%) spermatozoa was achieved using moderate sorting rates (2540±498X-spermatozoa/s; 1800±557Y-spermatozoa/s). Collective in vitro characteristics of sorted-chilled or sorted-frozen-thawed spermatozoa derived from high quality electroejaculates indicate acceptable fertility potential for use in AI. PMID:25497423

  9. An analytical comparison of the information in sorted and non-sorted cosine-tuned spike activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, D. S.; Tiesinga, P. H. E.; Henriquez, C. S.; Wolf, P. D.

    2007-09-01

    Spike sorting is a technologically expensive component of the signal processing chain required to interpret population spike activity acquired in a neuromotor prosthesis. No systematic analysis of the value of spike sorting has been carried out, and little is known about the effects of spike sorting error on the ability of a brain-machine interface (BMI) to decode intended motor commands. We developed a theoretical framework to examine the effects of spike processing on the information available to a BMI decoder. We computed the mutual information in neural activity in a simplified model of directional cosine tuning to compare the effects of pooling activity from up to four neurons to the effects of sorting with varying amounts of spike error. The results showed that information in a small population of cosine-tuned neurons is maximized when the responses are sorted and there is diverse tuning of units, but information was affected little when pooling units with similar preferred directions. Spike error had adverse effects on information, such that non-sorted population activity had 79-92% of the information in its sorted counterpart for reasonable amounts of detection and sorting error and for units with moderate differences in preferred direction. This quantification of information loss associated with pooling units and with spike detection and sorting error will help to guide the engineering decisions in designing a BMI spike processing system.

  10. Building Global Capacity for Conducting Operational Research Using the SORT IT Model: Where and Who?

    PubMed Central

    Zachariah, Rony; Rust, Stefanie; Berger, Selma Dar; Guillerm, Nathalie; Bissell, Karen; Delaunois, Paul; Reid, Anthony J.; Kumar, Ajay M. V.; Olliaro, Piero L.; Reeder, John C.; Harries, Anthony D.; Ramsay, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Setting Research capacity is weakest in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) where operational research is highly relevant and needed. Structured Operational Research and Training Initiative (SORT IT) courses have been developed to train participants to conduct and publish operational research and influence policy and practice. Twenty courses were completed in Asia, Africa, Europe and the South Pacific between 2009 and 2014. Objectives In the 20 completed SORT IT courses, to assess where the research was conducted, who was trained, who became facilitators in subsequent courses and course outcomes. Design A cohort study of completed SORT IT courses Results There were 236 participants (41% female) including 64 nationalities who conducted research in 59 countries, mostly from Asia and Africa (mean course duration = 9.7 months). Most participants (68%) were from government health programs and non-governmental agencies. A total of 213(90%) participants completed all milestones successfully with 41(19%) becoming subsequent course facilitators, 88% of whom were from LMICs. Of 228 manuscripts submitted to scientific journals, 197(86%) were either published or in press; in 86%, the principal investigator (first author) was a LMIC national. Papers were published in 23 scientific journals (impact factor 0.5–4.4) and covered 21 disease categories (median publication time = 5.7 months). Published papers (186) had 94,794 cumulative article views/downloads. Article views/downloads for immediate open access articles were double those from closed access journals. Conclusion The SORT IT model has been effective in training personnel to produce relevant operational research in LMICs. It merits continued commitment and support for further scale-up and development. PMID:27505253

  11. Signature neural networks: definition and application to multidimensional sorting problems.

    PubMed

    Latorre, Roberto; de Borja Rodriguez, Francisco; Varona, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a self-organizing neural network paradigm that is able to discriminate information locally using a strategy for information coding and processing inspired in recent findings in living neural systems. The proposed neural network uses: 1) neural signatures to identify each unit in the network; 2) local discrimination of input information during the processing; and 3) a multicoding mechanism for information propagation regarding the who and the what of the information. The local discrimination implies a distinct processing as a function of the neural signature recognition and a local transient memory. In the context of artificial neural networks none of these mechanisms has been analyzed in detail, and our goal is to demonstrate that they can be used to efficiently solve some specific problems. To illustrate the proposed paradigm, we apply it to the problem of multidimensional sorting, which can take advantage of the local information discrimination. In particular, we compare the results of this new approach with traditional methods to solve jigsaw puzzles and we analyze the situations where the new paradigm improves the performance.

  12. Sorting, Education and Inequality. NBER Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Raquel

    This paper examines the literature in the growing field of education and inequality that is concerned with how individuals sort, and the consequences of this knowledge for the accumulation of human capital, equity, efficiency, and welfare. It argues that how individuals sort across neighborhoods, schools, and households (spouses) can have…

  13. The PreferenSort: A Holistic Instrument for Career Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amit, Adi; Sagiv, Lilach

    2013-01-01

    We present the PreferenSort, a career counseling instrument that derives counselees' vocational interests from their preferences among occupational titles. The PreferenSort allows for a holistic decision process, while taking into account the full complexity of occupations and encouraging deliberation about one's preferences and…

  14. Surface free energy activated high-throughput cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinru; Zhang, Qian; Yan, Tao; Jiang, Zeyi; Zhang, Xinxin; Zuo, Yi Y

    2014-09-16

    Cell sorting is an important screening process in microbiology, biotechnology, and clinical research. Existing methods are mainly based on single-cell analysis as in flow cytometric and microfluidic cell sorters. Here we report a label-free bulk method for sorting cells by differentiating their characteristic surface free energies (SFEs). We demonstrated the feasibility of this method by sorting model binary cell mixtures of various bacterial species, including Pseudomonas putida KT2440, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028, and Escherichia coli DH5α. This method can effectively separate 10(10) bacterial cells within 30 min. Individual bacterial species can be sorted with up to 96% efficiency, and the cell viability ratio can be as high as 99%. In addition to its capacity of sorting evenly mixed bacterial cells, we demonstrated the feasibility of this method in selecting and enriching cells of minor populations in the mixture (presenting at only 1% in quantity) to a purity as high as 99%. This SFE-activated method may be used as a stand-alone method for quickly sorting a large quantity of bacterial cells or as a prescreening tool for microbial discrimination. Given its advantages of label-free, high-throughput, low cost, and simplicity, this SFE-activated cell sorting method has potential in various applications of sorting cells and abiotic particles. PMID:25184988

  15. Disentangling Dimensions in the Dimensional Change Card-Sorting Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloo, Daniela; Perner, Josef

    2005-01-01

    The dimensional change card-sorting task (DCCS task) is frequently used to assess young children's executive abilities. However, the source of children's difficulty with this task is still under debate. In the standard DCCS task, children have to sort, for example, test cards with a red cherry or a blue banana into two boxes marked with target…

  16. Supramolecular fibres: Self-sorting shows its true colours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, Emily R.; Adams, Dave J.

    2016-08-01

    Self-sorting events in supramolecular assembly lead to complex systems that are attractive for the design of functional materials, but have remained difficult to understand and control. Now, the growth of self-sorted supramolecular nanofibres has been elucidated by direct imaging through real-time in situ confocal microscopy.

  17. "Sort of" in British Women's and Men's Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miettinen, Hanna; Watson, Greg

    2013-01-01

    This paper (Note 1) examines the form sort of in British men and women's speech, and investigates whether there is a gender difference in the use of this form. We do so through corpus analysis of the British National Corpus (BNC). We contend there is no quantitative difference in the use of sort of in men and women's speech. Contrary to general…

  18. A FORTRAN Computer Program for Q Sort Calculations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, William R.

    1978-01-01

    The Q Sort method is a rank order procedure. A FORTRAN program is described which calculates a total value for any group of cases for the items in the Q Sort, and rank orders the items according to this composite value. (Author/JKS)

  19. Microfluidic-chip platform for cell sorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Sarul; Balyan, Prerna; Akhtar, J.; Agarwal, Ajay

    2016-04-01

    Cell sorting and separation are considered to be very crucial preparatory steps for numerous clinical diagnostics and therapeutics applications in cell biology research arena. Label free cell separation techniques acceptance rate has been increased to multifold by various research groups. Size based cell separation method focuses on the intrinsic properties of the cell which not only avoids clogging issues associated with mechanical and centrifugation filtration methods but also reduces the overall cost for the process. Consequentially flow based cell separation method for continuous flow has attracted the attention of millions. Due to the realization of structures close to particle size in micro dimensions, the microfluidic devices offer precise and rapid particle manipulation which ultimately leads to an extraordinary cell separation results. The proposed microfluidic device is fabricated to separate polystyrene beads of size 1 µm, 5 µm, 10 µm and 20 µm. The actual dimensions of blood corpuscles were kept in mind while deciding the particle size of polystyrene beads which are used as a model particles for study.

  20. Cell sorting using efficient light shaping approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bañas, Andrew; Palima, Darwin; Villangca, Mark; Glückstad, Jesper

    2016-03-01

    Early detection of diseases can save lives. Hence, there is emphasis in sorting rare disease-indicating cells within small dilute quantities such as in the confines of lab-on-a-chip devices. In our work, we use optical forces to isolate red blood cells detected by machine vision. This approach is gentler, less invasive and more economical compared to conventional FACS systems. As cells are less responsive to plastic or glass beads commonly used in the optical manipulation literature, and since laser safety would be an issue in clinical use, we develop efficient approaches in utilizing lasers and light modulation devices. The Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) method that can be used for efficiently illuminating spatial light modulators or creating well-defined contiguous optical traps is supplemented by diffractive techniques capable of integrating the available light and creating 2D or 3D beam distributions aimed at the positions of the detected cells. Furthermore, the beam shaping freedom provided by GPC can allow optimizations in the beam's propagation and its interaction with the catapulted cells.

  1. Nanoplasmonic lenses for bacteria sorting (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiangchao; Yanik, Ahmet A.

    2015-08-01

    We demonstrate that patches of two dimensional arrays of circular plasmonic nanoholes patterned on gold-titanium thin film enables subwavelength focusing of visible light in far field region. Efficient coupling of the light with the excited surface plasmon at metal dielectric interface results in strong light transmission. As a result, surface plasmon plays an important role in the far field focusing behavior of the nanohole-aperture patches device. Furthermore, the focal length of the focused beam was found to be predominantly dependent on the overall size of the patch, which is in good agreement with that calculated by Rayleigh-Sommerfield integral formula. The focused light beam can be utilized to separate bio-particles in the dynamic range from 0.1 μm to 1 μm through mainly overcoming the drag force induced by fluid flow. In our proposed model, focused light generated by our plasmonic lenses will push the larger bio-particles in size back to the source of fluid flow and allow the smaller particles to move towards the central aperture of the patch. Such a new kind of plasmonic lenses open up possibility of sorting bacterium-like particles with plasmonic nanolenses, and also represent a promising tool in the field of virology.

  2. Cloning of Plasmodium falciparum by single-cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Miao, Jun; Li, Xiaolian; Cui, Liwang

    2010-10-01

    Malaria parasite cloning is traditionally carried out mainly by using the limiting dilution method, which is laborious, imprecise, and unable to distinguish multiply-infected RBCs. In this study, we used a parasite engineered to express green fluorescent protein (GFP) to evaluate a single-cell sorting method for rapidly cloning Plasmodium falciparum. By dividing a two-dimensional scattergram from a cell sorter into 17 gates, we determined the parameters for isolating singly-infected erythrocytes and sorted them into individual cultures. Pre-gating of the engineered parasites for GFP allowed the isolation of almost 100% GFP-positive clones. Compared with the limiting dilution method, the number of parasite clones obtained by single-cell sorting was much higher. Molecular analyses showed that parasite isolates obtained by single-cell sorting were highly homogenous. This highly efficient single-cell sorting method should prove very useful for cloning both P. falciparum laboratory populations from genetic manipulation experiments and clinical samples.

  3. Regular expression order-sorted unification and matching

    PubMed Central

    Kutsia, Temur; Marin, Mircea

    2015-01-01

    We extend order-sorted unification by permitting regular expression sorts for variables and in the domains of function symbols. The obtained signature corresponds to a finite bottom-up unranked tree automaton. We prove that regular expression order-sorted (REOS) unification is of type infinitary and decidable. The unification problem presented by us generalizes some known problems, such as, e.g., order-sorted unification for ranked terms, sequence unification, and word unification with regular constraints. Decidability of REOS unification implies that sequence unification with regular hedge language constraints is decidable, generalizing the decidability result of word unification with regular constraints to terms. A sort weakening algorithm helps to construct a minimal complete set of REOS unifiers from the solutions of sequence unification problems. Moreover, we design a complete algorithm for REOS matching, and show that this problem is NP-complete and the corresponding counting problem is #P-complete. PMID:26523088

  4. Multiphase ferrofluid flows for micro-particle sorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ran; Wang, Cheng

    2015-11-01

    Utilizing negative magnetophoresis, ferrofluids have demonstrated great potential for sorting nonmagnetic micro-particles by size. Most of the existing techniques use single phase ferrofluids by pushing micro-particles to channel walls; the sorting speed is thus hindered. We demonstrate a novel sorting strategy by co-flowing a ferrofluid and a non-magnetic fluid in microchannels. Due to the magnetic force, the particles migrate across the ferrofluid stream at size-dependent velocities as they travel downstream. The laminar interface between the two fluids functions as a virtual boundary to accumulate particles, resulting in effective separation of particles. A stable and sharp interface is important to the success of this sorting technique. We investigate several factors that affect sorting efficiency, including magnetic field, susceptibility difference of the fluids, flow velocity, and channel geometry.

  5. Quantitative assessment of distance to collection point and improved sorting information on source separation of household waste.

    PubMed

    Rousta, Kamran; Bolton, Kim; Lundin, Magnus; Dahlén, Lisa

    2015-06-01

    The present study measures the participation of households in a source separation scheme and, in particular, if the household's application of the scheme improved after two interventions: (a) shorter distance to the drop-off point and (b) easy access to correct sorting information. The effect of these interventions was quantified and, as far as possible, isolated from other factors that can influence the recycling behaviour. The study was based on households located in an urban residential area in Sweden, where waste composition studies were performed before and after the interventions by manual sorting (pick analysis). Statistical analyses of the results indicated a significant decrease (28%) of packaging and newsprint in the residual waste after establishing a property close collection system (intervention (a)), as well as significant decrease (70%) of the miss-sorted fraction in bags intended for food waste after new information stickers were introduced (intervention (b)). Providing a property close collection system to collect more waste fractions as well as finding new communication channels for information about sorting can be used as tools to increase the source separation ratio. This contribution also highlights the need to evaluate the effects of different types of information and communication concerning sorting instructions in a property close collection system. PMID:25817721

  6. Quantitative assessment of distance to collection point and improved sorting information on source separation of household waste.

    PubMed

    Rousta, Kamran; Bolton, Kim; Lundin, Magnus; Dahlén, Lisa

    2015-06-01

    The present study measures the participation of households in a source separation scheme and, in particular, if the household's application of the scheme improved after two interventions: (a) shorter distance to the drop-off point and (b) easy access to correct sorting information. The effect of these interventions was quantified and, as far as possible, isolated from other factors that can influence the recycling behaviour. The study was based on households located in an urban residential area in Sweden, where waste composition studies were performed before and after the interventions by manual sorting (pick analysis). Statistical analyses of the results indicated a significant decrease (28%) of packaging and newsprint in the residual waste after establishing a property close collection system (intervention (a)), as well as significant decrease (70%) of the miss-sorted fraction in bags intended for food waste after new information stickers were introduced (intervention (b)). Providing a property close collection system to collect more waste fractions as well as finding new communication channels for information about sorting can be used as tools to increase the source separation ratio. This contribution also highlights the need to evaluate the effects of different types of information and communication concerning sorting instructions in a property close collection system.

  7. Label-free density difference amplification-based cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Song, Jihwan; Song, Minsun; Kang, Taewook; Kim, Dongchoul; Lee, Luke P

    2014-11-01

    The selective cell separation is a critical step in fundamental life sciences, translational medicine, biotechnology, and energy harvesting. Conventional cell separation methods are fluorescent activated cell sorting and magnetic-activated cell sorting based on fluorescent probes and magnetic particles on cell surfaces. Label-free cell separation methods such as Raman-activated cell sorting, electro-physiologically activated cell sorting, dielectric-activated cell sorting, or inertial microfluidic cell sorting are, however, limited when separating cells of the same kind or cells with similar sizes and dielectric properties, as well as similar electrophysiological phenotypes. Here we report a label-free density difference amplification-based cell sorting (dDACS) without using any external optical, magnetic, electrical forces, or fluidic activations. The conceptual microfluidic design consists of an inlet, hydraulic jump cavity, and multiple outlets. Incoming particles experience gravity, buoyancy, and drag forces in the separation chamber. The height and distance that each particle can reach in the chamber are different and depend on its density, thus allowing for the separation of particles into multiple outlets. The separation behavior of the particles, based on the ratio of the channel heights of the inlet and chamber and Reynolds number has been systematically studied. Numerical simulation reveals that the difference between the heights of only lighter particles with densities close to that of water increases with increasing the ratio of the channel heights, while decreasing Reynolds number can amplify the difference in the heights between the particles considered irrespective of their densities. PMID:25553185

  8. Accessibility Videos.

    PubMed

    Kurppa, Ari; Nordlund, Marika

    2016-01-01

    It can be difficult to understand accessibility, if you do not have the personal experience. The Accessibility Centre ESKE produced short videos which demonstrate the meaning of accessibility in different situations. Videos will raise accessibility awareness of architects, other planners and professionals in the construction field and maintenance. PMID:27534282

  9. Iterative sorting of apical and basolateral cargo in Madin–Darby canine kidney cells

    PubMed Central

    Treyer, Aleksandr; Pujato, Mario; Pechuan, Ximo; Müsch, Anne

    2016-01-01

    For several decades, the trans-Golgi network (TGN) was considered the most distal stop and hence the ultimate protein-sorting station for distinct apical and basolateral transport carriers that reach their respective surface domains in the direct trafficking pathway. However, recent reports of apical and basolateral cargoes traversing post-Golgi compartments accessible to endocytic ligands before their arrival at the cell surface and the post-TGN breakup of large pleomorphic membrane fragments that exit the Golgi region toward the surface raised the possibility that compartments distal to the TGN mediate or contribute to biosynthetic sorting. Here we describe the development of a novel assay that quantitatively distinguishes different cargo pairs by their degree of colocalization at the TGN and by the evolution of colocalization during their TGN-to-surface transport. Keys to the high resolution of our approach are 1) conversion of perinuclear organelle clustering into a two-dimensional microsomal spread and 2) identification of TGN and post-TGN cargo without the need for a TGN marker that universally cosegregates with all cargo. Using our assay, we provide the first evidence that apical NTRp75 and basolateral VSVG in Madin–Darby canine kidney cells still undergo progressive sorting after they exit the TGN toward the cell surface. PMID:27226480

  10. Homoeologous Chromosome Sorting and Progression of Meiotic Recombination in Brassica napus: Ploidy Does Matter!

    PubMed

    Grandont, Laurie; Cuñado, Nieves; Coriton, Olivier; Huteau, Virgine; Eber, Frédérique; Chèvre, Anne Marie; Grelon, Mathilde; Chelysheva, Liudmila; Jenczewski, Eric

    2014-04-15

    Meiotic recombination is the fundamental process that produces balanced gametes and generates diversity within species. For successful meiosis, crossovers must form between homologous chromosomes. This condition is more difficult to fulfill in allopolyploid species, which have more than two sets of related chromosomes (homoeologs). Here, we investigated the formation, progression, and completion of several key hallmarks of meiosis in Brassica napus (AACC), a young polyphyletic allotetraploid crop species with closely related homoeologous chromosomes. Altogether, our results demonstrate a precocious and efficient sorting of homologous versus homoeologous chromosomes during early prophase I in two representative B. napus accessions that otherwise show a genotypic difference in the progression of homologous recombination. More strikingly, our detailed comparison of meiosis in near isogenic allohaploid and euploid plants showed that the mechanism(s) promoting efficient chromosome sorting in euploids is adjusted to promote crossover formation between homoeologs in allohaploids. This suggests that, in contrast to other polyploid species, chromosome sorting is context dependent in B. napus. PMID:24737673

  11. Iterative sorting of apical and basolateral cargo in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Treyer, Aleksandr; Pujato, Mario; Pechuan, Ximo; Müsch, Anne

    2016-07-15

    For several decades, the trans-Golgi network (TGN) was considered the most distal stop and hence the ultimate protein-sorting station for distinct apical and basolateral transport carriers that reach their respective surface domains in the direct trafficking pathway. However, recent reports of apical and basolateral cargoes traversing post-Golgi compartments accessible to endocytic ligands before their arrival at the cell surface and the post-TGN breakup of large pleomorphic membrane fragments that exit the Golgi region toward the surface raised the possibility that compartments distal to the TGN mediate or contribute to biosynthetic sorting. Here we describe the development of a novel assay that quantitatively distinguishes different cargo pairs by their degree of colocalization at the TGN and by the evolution of colocalization during their TGN-to-surface transport. Keys to the high resolution of our approach are 1) conversion of perinuclear organelle clustering into a two-dimensional microsomal spread and 2) identification of TGN and post-TGN cargo without the need for a TGN marker that universally cosegregates with all cargo. Using our assay, we provide the first evidence that apical NTRp75 and basolateral VSVG in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells still undergo progressive sorting after they exit the TGN toward the cell surface. PMID:27226480

  12. PFAAT version 2.0: A tool for editing, annotating, and analyzing multiple sequence alignments

    PubMed Central

    Caffrey, Daniel R; Dana, Paul H; Mathur, Vidhya; Ocano, Marco; Hong, Eun-Jong; Wang, Yaoyu E; Somaroo, Shyamal; Caffrey, Brian E; Potluri, Shobha; Huang, Enoch S

    2007-01-01

    Background By virtue of their shared ancestry, homologous sequences are similar in their structure and function. Consequently, multiple sequence alignments are routinely used to identify trends that relate to function. This type of analysis is particularly productive when it is combined with structural and phylogenetic analysis. Results Here we describe the release of PFAAT version 2.0, a tool for editing, analyzing, and annotating multiple sequence alignments. Support for multiple annotations is a key component of this release as it provides a framework for most of the new functionalities. The sequence annotations are accessible from the alignment and tree, where they are typically used to label sequences or hyperlink them to related databases. Sequence annotations can be created manually or extracted automatically from UniProt entries. Once a multiple sequence alignment is populated with sequence annotations, sequences can be easily selected and sorted through a sophisticated search dialog. The selected sequences can be further analyzed using statistical methods that explicitly model relationships between the sequence annotations and residue properties. Residue annotations are accessible from the alignment viewer and are typically used to designate binding sites or properties for a particular residue. Residue annotations are also searchable, and allow one to quickly select alignment columns for further sequence analysis, e.g. computing percent identities. Other features include: novel algorithms to compute sequence conservation, mapping conservation scores to a 3D structure in Jmol, displaying secondary structure elements, and sorting sequences by residue composition. Conclusion PFAAT provides a framework whereby end-users can specify knowledge for a protein family in the form of annotation. The annotations can be combined with sophisticated analysis to test hypothesis that relate to sequence, structure and function. PMID:17931421

  13. On-demand electrostatic droplet charging and sorting

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Byungwook; Lee, Kangsun; Panchapakesan, Rajagopal; Oh, Kwang W.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports a droplet-based microfluidic device for on-demand electrostatic droplet charging and sorting. This device combines two independent modules: one is a hydrodynamic flow focusing structure to generate water-in-oil droplets, and the other is the two paired-electrodes for charging and sorting of the droplets. Depending on the polarity on charging electrodes, water-in-oil droplets can be electrostatically charged positively or negatively, followed by automatic real-time electric sorting. This approach will be useful when preformed droplets, with a positive, a negative, or with no charge, need to be manipulated for further on-chip droplet manipulation. PMID:21772936

  14. Microspherical photonics: Sorting resonant photonic atoms by using light

    SciTech Connect

    Maslov, Alexey V.; Astratov, Vasily N.

    2014-09-22

    A method of sorting microspheres by resonant light forces in vacuum, air, or liquid is proposed. Based on a two-dimensional model, it is shown that the sorting can be realized by allowing spherical particles to traverse a focused beam. Under resonance with the whispering gallery modes, the particles acquire significant velocity along the beam direction. This opens a unique way of large-volume sorting of nearly identical photonic atoms with 1/Q accuracy, where Q is the resonance quality factor. This is an enabling technology for developing super-low-loss coupled-cavity structures and devices.

  15. On-demand electrostatic droplet charging and sorting.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Byungwook; Lee, Kangsun; Panchapakesan, Rajagopal; Oh, Kwang W

    2011-06-01

    This study reports a droplet-based microfluidic device for on-demand electrostatic droplet charging and sorting. This device combines two independent modules: one is a hydrodynamic flow focusing structure to generate water-in-oil droplets, and the other is the two paired-electrodes for charging and sorting of the droplets. Depending on the polarity on charging electrodes, water-in-oil droplets can be electrostatically charged positively or negatively, followed by automatic real-time electric sorting. This approach will be useful when preformed droplets, with a positive, a negative, or with no charge, need to be manipulated for further on-chip droplet manipulation.

  16. Identification and sorting of regular textures according to their similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández Mesa, Pilar; Anastasiadis, Johannes; Puente León, Fernando

    2015-05-01

    Regardless whether mosaics, material surfaces or skin surfaces are inspected their texture plays an important role. Texture is a property which is hard to describe using words but it can easily be described in pictures. Furthermore, a huge amount of digital images containing a visual description of textures already exists. However, this information becomes useless if there are no appropriate methods to browse the data. In addition, depending on the given task some properties like scale, rotation or intensity invariance are desired. In this paper we propose to analyze texture images according to their characteristic pattern. First a classification approach is proposed to separate regular from non-regular textures. The second stage will focus on regular textures suggesting a method to sort them according to their similarity. Different features will be extracted from the texture in order to describe its scale, orientation, texel and the texel's relative position. Depending on the desired invariance of the visual characteristics (like the texture's scale or the texel's form invariance) the comparison of the features between images will be weighted and combined to define the degree of similarity between them. Tuning the weighting parameters allows this search algorithm to be easily adapted to the requirements of the desired task. Not only the total invariance of desired parameters can be adjusted, the weighting of the parameters may also be modified to adapt to an application-specific type of similarity. This search method has been evaluated using different textures and similarity criteria achieving very promising results.

  17. Empirical approach to interpreting card-sorting data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Steven F.; Dougherty, Daniel P.; Kortemeyer, Gerd

    2012-06-01

    Since it was first published 30 years ago, the seminal paper of Chi et al. on expert and novice categorization of introductory problems led to a plethora of follow-up studies within and outside of the area of physics [Cogn. Sci. 5, 121 (1981)COGSD50364-021310.1207/s15516709cog0502_2]. These studies frequently encompass “card-sorting” exercises whereby the participants group problems. While this technique certainly allows insights into problem solving approaches, simple descriptive statistics more often than not fail to find significant differences between experts and novices. In moving beyond descriptive statistics, we describe a novel microscopic approach that takes into account the individual identity of the cards and uses graph theory and models to visualize, analyze, and interpret problem categorization experiments. We apply these methods to an introductory physics (mechanics) problem categorization experiment, and find that most of the variation in sorting outcome is not due to the sorter being an expert versus a novice, but rather due to an independent characteristic that we named “stacker” versus “spreader.” The fact that the expert-novice distinction only accounts for a smaller amount of the variation may explain the frequent null results when conducting these experiments.

  18. Using Sorting Networks for Skill Building and Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andre, Robert; Wiest, Lynda R.

    2007-01-01

    Sorting networks, used in graph theory, have instructional value as a skill- building tool as well as an interesting exploration in discrete mathematics. Students can practice mathematics facts and develop reasoning and logic skills with this topic. (Contains 4 figures.)

  19. 23. LOWER END OF HIDE CHUTE, BASEMENT LEVEL; NOTE SORTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. LOWER END OF HIDE CHUTE, BASEMENT LEVEL; NOTE SORTING TABLE AND HANDCART FOR MOVING HIDES - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  20. Long-term persistence of sort strategy in free classification.

    PubMed

    Milton, Fraser; Wills, Andy J

    2009-02-01

    Two free classification experiments that investigate the persistence of sort strategy are reported. Participants tend to persist with their initial categorization type (family resemblance or unidimensional) for the remaining sorts, overriding the effects of otherwise influential stimulus properties. Sort type was found to persist even after a one-week delay. Stimulus-driven models of free classification (e.g., the SUSTAIN model, [Love, B. C., Medin, D. L., & Gureckis, T. M. (2004). SUSTAIN: A network model of category learning. Psychological Review, 111, 309-332]) cannot predict the sort type persistence effects we observe, but they are naturally accounted for by theories that posit strategic selection of a problem-solving strategy (e.g., Hypothesis theory, [Levine, M. (1971). Hypothesis theory and nonlearning despite ideal S-R-reinforcement contingencies. Psychological Review, 78, 130-140]).

  1. An FPGA-based platform for accelerated offline spike sorting.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Sarah; Judy, Jack W; Marković, Dejan

    2013-04-30

    There is a push in electrophysiology experiments to record simultaneously from many channels (upwards of 64) over long time periods (many hours). Given the relatively high sampling rates (10-40 kHz) and resolutions (12-24 bits per sample), these experiments accumulate exorbitantly large amounts of data (e.g., 100 GB per experiment), which can be very time-consuming to process. Here, we present an FPGA-based spike-sorting platform that can increase the speed of offline spike sorting by at least 25 times, effectively reducing the time required to sort data from long experiments from several hours to just a few minutes. We attempted to preserve the flexibility of software by implementing several different algorithms in the design, and by providing user control over parameters such as spike detection thresholds. The results of sorting a published benchmark dataset using this hardware tool are shown to be comparable to those using similar software tools.

  2. Natural Selection Is a Sorting Process: What Does that Mean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Rebecca M.

    2013-01-01

    To learn why natural selection acts only on existing variation, students categorize processes as either creative or sorting. This activity helps students confront the misconception that adaptations evolve because species need them.

  3. [Sorting oleaginous yeast by using optical manipulation and Raman spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Li, Zi-Da; Chen, Liang; Meng, Ling-Jing; Liu, Jun-Xian; Wang, Gui-Wen

    2011-04-01

    Extensive research has been carried out in an effort to screen the oleaginous microorganisms. Here, Raman spectroscopy and laser tweezers were used to sort oleaginous yeast from mixed yeast cells. The preprocessing of subtracted background, 17 points S-G smoothing filter, polynomial fitting baseline correction and vector normalization were performed and the main features information of intracellular substances from the Raman spectroscopy of yeast cells was extracted by combining principal component analysis. Based on the distinguished composition of oleaginous yeast and non-oleaginous different yeast, a sorting model was established. The test yeast cell in optical trapping was distinguished real-time by the model referring to its Raman spectra. The cells distinguished as oleaginous yeast were collected by means of optical manipulation. The sorted oleaginous yeast cells were verified by microbial culture and Sudan black B test. The result illustrates that Raman spectroscopy combined with optical manipulation is an effective technique for sorting oleaginous yeast and other economic microorganisms.

  4. Differential interaction forces govern bacterial sorting in early biofilms.

    PubMed

    Oldewurtel, Enno R; Kouzel, Nadzeya; Dewenter, Lena; Henseler, Katja; Maier, Berenike

    2015-09-24

    Bacterial biofilms can generate micro-heterogeneity in terms of surface structures. However, little is known about the associated changes in the physics of cell-cell interaction and its impact on the architecture of biofilms. In this study, we used the type IV pilus of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to test whether variation of surface structures induces cell-sorting. We show that the rupture forces between pili are fine-tuned by post-translational modification. Bacterial sorting was dependent on pilus post-translational modification and pilus density. Active force generation was necessary for defined morphologies of mixed microcolonies. The observed morphotypes were in remarkable agreement with the differential strength of adhesion hypothesis proposing that a tug-of-war among surface structures of different cells governs cell sorting. We conclude that in early biofilms the density and rupture force of bacterial surface structures can trigger cell sorting based on similar physical principles as in developing embryos.

  5. Brazil Nuts on Eros: Size-Sorting of Asteroid Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asphaug, E.; King, P. J.; Swift, M. R.; Merrifield, M. R.

    2001-01-01

    We consider the hypothesis that frequent cratering produces size- or compositionally-sorted asteroid regolith, affecting the structure, texture, and in extreme cases the shape of asteroids. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  6. A virtual zero-time, monolithic systolic sorting array

    SciTech Connect

    Britton, C.L.; Ericson, M.N.; Bouldin, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    A virtual zero-time monolithic sorting chip is described. The chip has a systolic array architecture and implements the ''sinking sort'' algorithm. The basic functional module of the systolic array is detailed and development techniques employed as well as functional simulation and results are presented. Lessons learned and educational significance of the development of this chip at a university are discussed. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  7. A virtual zero-time, monolithic systolic sorting array

    SciTech Connect

    Britton, C.L. Jr.; Ericson, M.N.; Bouldin, D.W.; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN )

    1990-01-01

    A virtual zero-time monolithic sorting chip is described. The chip has a systolic array architecture and implements the sinking sort'' algorithm. The basic functional module of the systolic array is detailed and development techniques employed as well as functional simulation and results are presented. Lessons learned and educational significance of the development of this chip at a university are discussed. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Sorting and hardware assisted rendering for volume visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, C.; Becker, B.; Max, N.

    1994-03-01

    We present some techniques for volume rendering unstructured data. Interpolation between vertex colors and opacities is performed using hardware assisted texture mapping, and color is integrated for use with a volume rendering system. We also present an O(n{sup 2}) method for sorting n arbitrarily shaped convex polyhedra prior to visualization. It generalizes the Newell, Newell and Sancha sort for polygons to 3-D volume elements.

  9. Application and commercialization of flow cytometrically sex-sorted semen.

    PubMed

    Rath, D; Johnson, L A

    2008-07-01

    The current technology to sort X and Y chromosome bearing sperm population requires individual identification and selection of spermatozoa in a modified high-speed flow cytometer. For farm animal species, the technology is capable of producing sexed sperm at greater than 90% purity. However, only in the bovine, the technology has reached a developmental level that allows its commercial application. Meanwhile, the demand for female calves has grown rapidly, which encourages the demand for sex-sorted semen from high genetic value bulls. The success of the technology will depend mainly on the fertilizing capacity of the sorted spermatozoa, as this is the most affecting and economically relevant factor. To date, fertility is still variable and is quite dependent on post-sort processing. New processing techniques are under investigation and will likely be able to improve the fertility rates after AI with sex-sorted semen. It is of great importance to select the right bulls and to test the sorted samples on a routine basis. In addition to the demand for sex-sorted semen by the cattle industry, there is also a significant demand expressed by pig farmers. However, it is still unknown if the use of sex-sorted semen through commercial pig AI will be economically feasible. For the pig, the combination of in vitro fertilization with sexed semen and non-surgical embryo transfer is an alternative that merits further scientific attention. Recent developments in ovine AI and ET will make it very likely that commercial sheep industry will adopt the sexing technology in their breeding concepts. PMID:18638144

  10. Design of mode-sorting asymmetric Y-junctions.

    PubMed

    Riesen, Nicolas; Love, John D

    2012-05-20

    The theory of mode-sorting in bimodal asymmetric Y-junctions is extended to multimode asymmetric Y-junctions with multiple output arms. This theory allows for the optimization of these mode-sorting planar structures. Asymmetric Y-junctions provide unique opportunities for spatial mode division multiplexing (MDM) of optical fiber. Spatial MDM is considered paramount to overcoming the bandwidth limitations of single-mode fiber. The design criteria presented in this paper facilitate their design.

  11. Tunable superomniphobic surfaces for sorting droplets by surface tension.

    PubMed

    Movafaghi, S; Wang, W; Metzger, A; Williams, D D; Williams, J D; Kota, A K

    2016-08-16

    We utilized tunable superomniphobic surfaces with flower-like TiO2 nanostructures to fabricate a simple device with precisely tailored surface energy domains that, for the first time, can sort droplets by surface tension. We envision that our methodology for droplet sorting will enable inexpensive and energy-efficient analytical devices for personalized point-of-care diagnostic platforms, lab-on-a-chip systems, biochemical assays and biosensors. PMID:27412084

  12. Trade-Off between Effectiveness and Equity? An Analysis of Social Sorting between Classrooms and between Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer-Esteban, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes whether school social segregation, derived from policies and practices of both between-school student allocation and within-school streaming, is related to the effectiveness of the Italian education system. Hierarchical regression models are used to set out territorially aggregated factors of social sorting influencing…

  13. Upper limb functional assessment of children with cerebral palsy using a sorting box.

    PubMed

    Quijano-Gonzalez, Y; Melendez-Calderon, A; Burdet, E; Chong-Quero, J E; Villanueva-Ayala, D; Perez-Moreno, J C

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the use of a sorting box to obtain a quantitative assessment of upper limb motor function in children with cerebral palsy. In our study, children with and without cerebral palsy placed and removed geometrical objects of a sorting-box while their wrist position was monitored by a camera-based, motion-tracking system. We analyzed three different smoothness metrics (logarithmic dimensionless jerk, spectral arc-length and number of peaks) together with time to task completion. Our results suggest that smoothness metrics are an effective tool to distinguish between impaired and non-impaired subjects, as well as to quantify differences between the affected and less-affected sides in children with hemiparetic cerebral palsy.

  14. Combined imaging and neural-network-based approach in solid waste sorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alunni, Stefano; Bonifazi, Giuseppe; de Carli, Alessandro; Massacci, Paolo

    2002-04-01

    Solid waste recycling is more and more increasing according to the need to realize dismantled material recovery and to reduce overall environmental pollution. When a recycling strategy is applied sorting strategies have to be developed and implemented. Such an approach ca be considered as the second logical step of the process that is, after that the attributes (physical, chemical, morphological, morphometrical, textural, etc.) of the materials resulting from classical processing (comminution, classification, separation, etc.) are detected and numerically modeled. The resulting feature vector need to be handled by a software architecture performing the required recognition/classification procedure and defining the quality of the investigated products. From the results further feed-back or feed-forward control strategies can be applied in order to improve equipment or processing architectures performances. In this paper are analyzed and described neural network based sorting strategies applied with reference to fluff (light fraction of the materials resulting from car dismantling) recognition.

  15. Occupational exposure to mould and microbial metabolites during onion sorting--insights into an overlooked workplace.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Stefan; Twarużek, Magdalena; Błajet-Kosicka, Anna; Grajewski, Jan

    2016-03-01

    Manual sorting of onions is known to be associated with a bioaerosol exposure. The study aimed to gain an initial indication as to what extent manual sorting of onions is also associated with mycotoxin exposure. Twelve representative samples of outer onion skins from different onion origins were sampled and analyzed with a multimycotoxin method comprising 40 mycotoxins using a single extraction step followed by liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Six of the 12 samples were positive for mycotoxins. In those samples, deoxynivalenol, fumonisin B1, and B2 were observed in quantitatively detectable amounts of 3940 ng/g for fumonisin B1 and in the range of 126-587 ng/g for deoxynivalenol and 55-554 ng/g for fumonisin B2. Although the results point to a lower risk due to mycotoxins, the risk should not be completely neglected and has to be considered in the risk assessment.

  16. Integrative self-sorting is a programming language for high level self-assembly

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei; Schalley, Christoph A.

    2009-01-01

    Starting from the basis of a simple 4-component self-sorting system of crown ethers and ammonium ions, we design 6 building blocks in which 2 identical or different binding sites are incorporated. These building blocks can be mixed in many different ways to yield quite distinctly different pseudorotaxane assemblies. The self-sorting process integrates all building blocks in specific places so that this approach permits us to exert positional control and can widely influence the resulting assemblies with respect to the details of their structures. At maximum, we report quadruply interlocked species with up to 5 subunits that form specific assemblies. Although NMR methods are limited to the analysis of simpler complexes, ESI-MS and, in particular, tandem mass spectrometry is highly useful to analyze the assemblies' connectivities. PMID:19289838

  17. Upper limb functional assessment of children with cerebral palsy using a sorting box.

    PubMed

    Quijano-Gonzalez, Y; Melendez-Calderon, A; Burdet, E; Chong-Quero, J E; Villanueva-Ayala, D; Perez-Moreno, J C

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the use of a sorting box to obtain a quantitative assessment of upper limb motor function in children with cerebral palsy. In our study, children with and without cerebral palsy placed and removed geometrical objects of a sorting-box while their wrist position was monitored by a camera-based, motion-tracking system. We analyzed three different smoothness metrics (logarithmic dimensionless jerk, spectral arc-length and number of peaks) together with time to task completion. Our results suggest that smoothness metrics are an effective tool to distinguish between impaired and non-impaired subjects, as well as to quantify differences between the affected and less-affected sides in children with hemiparetic cerebral palsy. PMID:25570455

  18. Molecular characterization of flow-sorted mammalian centromeres

    SciTech Connect

    Hamkalo, B.A.; Henschen, A.; Parseghian, M.H.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project involved experiments directed towards developing a molecular characterization of the centromere region of mammalian chromosomes. Attempts to purify this essential chromosomal locus by conventional methods have thus far been unsuccessful. However, preliminary data obtained in collaboration with the National Flow Cytometry Resource (NFCR) showed that it is possible to purify a chromosome fragment that is present in certain cultured mouse cell lines and has all the properties expected of an intact centromere region. To begin sorting this minichromosome for the identification of proteins preferentially associated with centromere regions, standard buffers utilized in chromosome sorting were evaluated for potential effects on maintenance of chromosomal proteins during sorting. The data indicate that the presence of several buffer constituents results in the extraction of all but a few chromosomal proteins. The subsequent use of a magnesium sulfate buffer resulted in the sorting of mouse chromosomes that do not suffer a significant loss of proteins. Several DNA stains were also evaluated for causing protein dissociation, but no significant losses were observed. Although flow-sorted chromosomes have been used extensively for DNA analysis and cloning, this is a pioneering effort by the NFCR, and its collaborators, to exploit chromosome sorting capabilities for the analysis of chromosomal proteins.

  19. Marker-specific sorting of rare cells using dielectrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiaoyuan; Bessette, Paul H.; Qian, Jiangrong; Meinhart, Carl D.; Daugherty, Patrick S.; Soh, Hyongsok T.

    2005-11-01

    Current techniques in high-speed cell sorting are limited by the inherent coupling among three competing parameters of performance: throughput, purity, and rare cell recovery. Microfluidics provides an alternate strategy to decouple these parameters through the use of arrayed devices that operate in parallel. To efficiently isolate rare cells from complex mixtures, an electrokinetic sorting methodology was developed that exploits dielectrophoresis (DEP) in microfluidic channels. In this approach, the dielectrophoretic amplitude response of rare target cells is modulated by labeling cells with particles that differ in polarization response. Cell mixtures were interrogated in the DEP-activated cell sorter in a continuous-flow manner, wherein the electric fields were engineered to achieve efficient separation between the dielectrophoretically labeled and unlabeled cells. To demonstrate the efficiency of marker-specific cell separation, DEP-activated cell sorting (DACS) was applied for affinity-based enrichment of rare bacteria expressing a specific surface marker from an excess of nontarget bacteria that do not express this marker. Rare target cells were enriched by >200-fold in a single round of sorting at a single-channel throughput of 10,000 cells per second. DACS offers the potential for automated, surface marker-specific cell sorting in a disposable format that is capable of simultaneously achieving high throughput, purity, and rare cell recovery. cell sorting | microfluidics

  20. Success Is Cheesecake: A Guide to Analyzing Student Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrelchik, Hillary

    2016-01-01

    Action research, conducted by teachers in their own classrooms, with the goal of improving practice, is an invaluable practice that can provide insight into students' lives. One of the many challenges associated with action research is knowing how to analyze and interpret data. In this manuscript, written as a "how to" of sorts, I…

  1. SoRT2: a tool for sorting genomes and reconstructing phylogenetic trees by reversals, generalized transpositions and translocations.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yen-Lin; Huang, Chen-Cheng; Tang, Chuan Yi; Lu, Chin Lung

    2010-07-01

    SoRT(2) is a web server that allows the user to perform genome rearrangement analysis involving reversals, generalized transpositions and translocations (including fusions and fissions), and infer phylogenetic trees of genomes being considered based on their pairwise genome rearrangement distances. It takes as input two or more linear/circular multi-chromosomal gene (or synteny block) orders in FASTA-like format. When the input is two genomes, SoRT(2) will quickly calculate their rearrangement distance, as well as a corresponding optimal scenario by highlighting the genes involved in each rearrangement operation. In the case of multiple genomes, SoRT(2) will also construct phylogenetic trees of these genomes based on a matrix of their pairwise rearrangement distances using distance-based approaches, such as neighbor-joining (NJ), unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) and Fitch-Margoliash (FM) methods. In addition, if the function of computing jackknife support values is selected, SoRT(2) will further perform the jackknife analysis to evaluate statistical reliability of the constructed NJ, UPGMA and FM trees. SoRT(2) is available online at http://bioalgorithm.life.nctu.edu.tw/SORT2/.

  2. Technical assessment of processing plants as exemplified by the sorting of beverage cartons from lightweight packaging wastes.

    PubMed

    Feil, A; Thoden van Velzen, E U; Jansen, M; Vitz, P; Go, N; Pretz, T

    2016-02-01

    The recovery of beverage cartons (BC) in three lightweight packaging waste processing plants (LP) was analyzed with different input materials and input masses in the area of 21-50Mg. The data was generated by gravimetric determination of the sorting products, sampling and sorting analysis. Since the particle size of beverage cartons is larger than 120mm, a modified sampling plan was implemented and targeted multiple sampling (3-11 individual samplings) and a total sample size of respectively 1200l (ca. 60kg) for the BC-products and of about 2400l (ca. 120kg) for material-heterogeneous mixed plastics (MP) and sorting residue products. The results infer that the quantification of the beverage carton yield in the process, i.e., by including all product-containing material streams, can be specified only with considerable fluctuation ranges. Consequently, the total assessment, regarding all product streams, is rather qualitative than quantitative. Irregular operation conditions as well as unfavorable sampling conditions and capacity overloads are likely causes for high confidence intervals. From the results of the current study, recommendations can basically be derived for a better sampling in LP-processing plants. Despite of the suboptimal statistical results, the results indicate very clear that the plants show definite optimisation potentials with regard to the yield of beverage cartons as well as the required product purity. Due to the test character of the sorting trials the plant parameterization was not ideal for this sorting task and consequently the results should be interpreted with care.

  3. Viability and DNA fragmentation in differently sorted boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    De Ambrogi, M; Spinaci, M; Galeati, G; Tamanini, C

    2006-11-01

    Sperm cell defense against DNA damage relies on two factors: the tight packaging of chromatin, based on condensation and substitution of histones with protamines, and the antioxidant agents present in seminal plasma. These defenses are extremely important as mature sperm is unable to repair DNA damage and even if a successful fertilization occurs, embryo undergoes apoptosis at the time of genomic activation. Sex-sorting exposes spermatozoa to stress sources such as high pressure, laser beam and electrical charge. The aim of this work was to determine how sorting procedures affect viability and DNA integrity in boar spermatozoa, by using the newly developed Sperm-Sus-Halomax. Four sperm populations were considered: CONTROL (no treatment), REAL (sex-sorted semen), BULK (semen sorted without sex separation) and NO LASER (semen only exposed to the high pressure, but including also cells normally discarded from sex-sorting). A significantly (P=0.019) lower viability in NO LASER (64.71%) than in CONTROL (78.6%) and REAL (80.5%) groups was found; this was accompanied by a significantly (P=0.001) higher DNA fragmentation index (DFI) in NO LASER group (6.86%) respect to CONTROL (3.30%) and REAL (3.42%) groups. BULK group did not show any difference in viability or DFI as compared to the other groups. In conclusion, we may believe that sex-sorting procedure as a whole does not affect either viability or DFI and that shear mechanical forces are a relevant source of DNA damage for sorted semen. PMID:16814375

  4. Perilous terra incognita--open-access journals.

    PubMed

    Balon, Richard

    2014-04-01

    The author focuses on a new rapidly spreading practice of publication in open-access journals. The pros and cons of open-access journals are discussed. Publishing in these journals may be cost prohibitive for educators and junior faculty members. Some authors may be lured by the ease of publishing in open-access journals (and their, at times, inflated self-description, e.g., "international", "scientific"), and their possibly valuable contributions will escape the attention of Academic Psychiatry readership in the vast sea of open-access journals. The readership may be flooded with a large number of low-quality articles (maybe not even properly peer-reviewed) from open-access journals. It may take some time to sort out what is and what is not relevant and useful. Open-access publishing represents a problematic and controversial practice and may be associated with a conflict of interest for the editors and publishers of these journals.

  5. Web Accessibility and Accessibility Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Ravonne A.; Huprich, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Section 508 of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) mandates that programs and services be accessible to people with disabilities. While schools of library and information science (SLIS*) and university libraries should model accessible Web sites, this may not be the case. This article examines previous studies about the Web accessibility of…

  6. Effectiveness of hand sorting, flotation/washing, dehulling and combinations thereof on the decontamination of mycotoxin-contaminated white maize.

    PubMed

    Matumba, Limbikani; Van Poucke, Christof; Njumbe Ediage, Emmanuel; Jacobs, Bart; De Saeger, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Maize is one of the major staple foods of Sub-Saharan Africa and is consumed as whole or dehulled grain. In this region, where the environmental conditions favour fungal growth and mycotoxin production, the majority of the population are subsistence consumers who, unfortunately, have little or no access to mycotoxin testing of their food. In an attempt to develop feasible reduction strategies in dietary mycotoxin exposure of the population, a three-factorial design experiment was conducted to examine and compare the efficacy of hand sorting, flotation, dehulling and combinations thereof in removing naturally occurring aflatoxins, fumonisins, nivalenol, deoxynivalenol and alternariol in shelled white maize. Regression analysis was used to determine the significant (p < 0.05) process variables on the removal of mycotoxins from the maize. Results from this experiment indicated that hand sorting had the greatest effect on mycotoxin removal, while flotation yielded the least effect. In particular hand sorting left < 6% of aflatoxin B1 and < 5% of fumonisin B1. Based on these results, hand sorting of maize grains is being recommended as a last line of defence against mycotoxin exposure among subsistence consumers.

  7. Sex-sorted canine sperm cryopreservation: limits and procedural considerations.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Barbara; Zambelli, Daniele; Cunto, Marco; Iacono, Eleonora; Nasi, Ludovica; Giaretta, Elisa; Galeati, Giovanna; Bucci, Diego; Spinaci, Marcella

    2015-04-15

    The aim of this study was to define a protocol to store dog sperm before and after sorting to obtain an insemination dose sufficient to allow the conception by artificial insemination. Experiment 1 and 2 were performed to evaluate the more appropriate extender for preserving at room temperature dog sperm before and after sorting. Four extenders were tested: (1) Tris-fructose-citrate (TFC), (2) Tris-glucose-citrate (TGC), (3) modified Tyrode's albumin lactate pyruvate medium (mTALP), and (4) third fraction of the ejaculate (after centrifugation at 5000× g for 10 minutes; III FRAC). Experiment 3 and 4 were performed to evaluate the ability of dog semen to withstand sex sorting and freezing/thawing. Modified Tyrode's albumin lactate pyruvate medium was the best extender for canine sperm storage at room temperature (20 °C-25 °C) before (total motility: TFC, 8.3 ± 1.7; TGC, 50.0 ± 11.5; mTALP, 70.0 ± 0.1; III FRAC, 25.0 ± 1 0.4; P < 0.05) and after sorting (total motility: TFC, 7.3 ± 1.5; TGC, 10.3 ± 1.5; mTALP, 33.3 ± 6.7; III FRAC, 8.7 ± 5.8; P < 0.05), even if at 24-hour sorted sperm quality was impaired in all extenders tested herein. Sperm quality decreased after sorting (total motility: control, 92.5 ± 0.9; sorted, 52.9 ± 6.0; P < 0.05) and, especially, after freezing/thawing (total motility: frozen control, 25.7 ± 4.1; frozen sorted, 2.4 ± 1.2; P < 0.05). In conclusion, mTALP is an appropriate medium for canine sperm storage before and soon after sorting (hours), but a long storage period of sexed sperm at room temperature is not adequate. Cryopreservation greatly impaired sperm quality, and further studies are needed to optimize the freezing protocol for sexed dog sperm.

  8. High-throughput sorting of drops in microfluidic chips using electric capacitance

    PubMed Central

    Pit, Arjen M.; de Ruiter, Riëlle; Kumar, Anand; Wijnperlé, Daniel; Duits, Michèl H. G.; Mugele, Frieder

    2015-01-01

    We analyze a recently introduced approach for the sorting of aqueous drops with biological content immersed in oil, using a microfluidic chip that combines the functionality of electrowetting with the high throughput of two-phase flow microfluidics. In this electrostatic sorter, three co-planar electrodes covered by a thin dielectric layer are placed directly below the fluidic channel. Switching the potential of the central electrode creates an electrical guide that leads the drop to the desired outlet. The generated force, which deflects the drop, can be tuned via the voltage. The working principle is based on a contrast in conductivity between the drop and the continuous phase, which ensures successful operation even for drops of highly conductive biological media like phosphate buffered saline. Moreover, since the electric field does not penetrate the drop, its content is protected from electrical currents and Joule heating. A simple capacitive model allows quantitative prediction of the electrostatic forces exerted on drops. The maximum achievable sorting rate is determined by a competition between electrostatic and hydrodynamic forces. Sorting speeds up to 1200 per second are demonstrated for conductive drops of 160 pl in low viscosity oil. PMID:26339316

  9. Microfluidic sorting and multimodal typing of cancer cells in self-assembled magnetic arrays.

    PubMed

    Saliba, Antoine-Emmanuel; Saias, Laure; Psychari, Eleni; Minc, Nicolas; Simon, Damien; Bidard, François-Clément; Mathiot, Claire; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Fraisier, Vincent; Salamero, Jean; Saada, Véronique; Farace, Françoise; Vielh, Philippe; Malaquin, Laurent; Viovy, Jean-Louis

    2010-08-17

    We propose a unique method for cell sorting, "Ephesia," using columns of biofunctionalized superparamagnetic beads self-assembled in a microfluidic channel onto an array of magnetic traps prepared by microcontact printing. It combines the advantages of microfluidic cell sorting, notably the application of a well controlled, flow-activated interaction between cells and beads, and those of immunomagnetic sorting, notably the use of batch-prepared, well characterized antibody-bearing beads. On cell lines mixtures, we demonstrated a capture yield better than 94%, and the possibility to cultivate in situ the captured cells. A second series of experiments involved clinical samples--blood, pleural effusion, and fine needle aspirates--issued from healthy donors and patients with B-cell hematological malignant tumors (leukemia and lymphoma). The immunophenotype and morphology of B-lymphocytes were analyzed directly in the microfluidic chamber, and compared with conventional flow cytometry and visual cytology data, in a blind test. Immunophenotyping results using Ephesia were fully consistent with those obtained by flow cytometry. We obtained in situ high resolution confocal three-dimensional images of the cell nuclei, showing intranuclear details consistent with conventional cytological staining. Ephesia thus provides a powerful approach to cell capture and typing allowing fully automated high resolution and quantitative immunophenotyping and morphological analysis. It requires at least 10 times smaller sample volume and cell numbers than cytometry, potentially increasing the range of indications and the success rate of microbiopsy-based diagnosis, and reducing analysis time and cost. PMID:20679245

  10. Microfluidic sorting and multimodal typing of cancer cells in self-assembled magnetic arrays

    PubMed Central

    Saliba, Antoine-Emmanuel; Saias, Laure; Psychari, Eleni; Minc, Nicolas; Simon, Damien; Bidard, François-Clément; Mathiot, Claire; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Fraisier, Vincent; Salamero, Jean; Saada, Véronique; Farace, Françoise; Vielh, Philippe; Malaquin, Laurent; Viovy, Jean-Louis

    2010-01-01

    We propose a unique method for cell sorting, “Ephesia,” using columns of biofunctionalized superparamagnetic beads self-assembled in a microfluidic channel onto an array of magnetic traps prepared by microcontact printing. It combines the advantages of microfluidic cell sorting, notably the application of a well controlled, flow-activated interaction between cells and beads, and those of immunomagnetic sorting, notably the use of batch-prepared, well characterized antibody-bearing beads. On cell lines mixtures, we demonstrated a capture yield better than 94%, and the possibility to cultivate in situ the captured cells. A second series of experiments involved clinical samples—blood, pleural effusion, and fine needle aspirates— issued from healthy donors and patients with B-cell hematological malignant tumors (leukemia and lymphoma). The immunophenotype and morphology of B-lymphocytes were analyzed directly in the microfluidic chamber, and compared with conventional flow cytometry and visual cytology data, in a blind test. Immunophenotyping results using Ephesia were fully consistent with those obtained by flow cytometry. We obtained in situ high resolution confocal three-dimensional images of the cell nuclei, showing intranuclear details consistent with conventional cytological staining. Ephesia thus provides a powerful approach to cell capture and typing allowing fully automated high resolution and quantitative immunophenotyping and morphological analysis. It requires at least 10 times smaller sample volume and cell numbers than cytometry, potentially increasing the range of indications and the success rate of microbiopsy-based diagnosis, and reducing analysis time and cost. PMID:20679245

  11. Pure chromosome-specific PCR libraries from single sorted chromosomes.

    PubMed Central

    VanDevanter, D R; Choongkittaworn, N M; Dyer, K A; Aten, J; Otto, P; Behler, C; Bryant, E M; Rabinovitch, P S

    1994-01-01

    Chromosome-specific DNA libraries can be very useful in molecular and cytogenetic genome mapping studies. We have developed a rapid and simple method for the generation of chromosome-specific DNA sequences that relies on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a single flow-sorted chromosome or chromosome fragment. Previously reported methods for the development of chromosome libraries require larger numbers of chromosomes, with preparation of pure chromosomes sorted by flow cytometry, generation of somatic cell hybrids containing targeted chromosomes, or a combination of both procedures. These procedures are labor intensive, especially when hybrid cell lines are not already available, and this has limited the generation of chromosome-specific DNA libraries from nonhuman species. In contrast, a single sorted chromosome is a pure source of DNA for library production even when flow cytometric resolution of chromosome populations is poor. Furthermore, any sorting cytometer may be used with this technique. Using this approach, we demonstrate the generation of PCR libraries suitable for both molecular and fluorescence in situ hybridization studies from individual baboon and canine chromosomes, separate human homologues, and a rearranged marker chromosome from a transformed cell line. PCR libraries specific to subchromosomal regions have also been produced by sorting a small chromosome fragment. This simple and rapid technique will allow generation of nonhuman linkage maps and probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization and the characterization of marker chromosomes from solid tumors. In addition, allele-specific libraries generated by this strategy may also be useful for mapping genetic diseases. Images PMID:8016078

  12. Mechanically robust microfluidics and bulk wave acoustics to sort microparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauson, Erin R.; Gregory, Kelvin B.; Greve, David W.; Healy, Gregory P.; Oppenheim, Irving J.

    2016-04-01

    Sorting microparticles (or cells, or bacteria) is significant for scientific, medical and industrial purposes. Research groups have used lithium niobate SAW devices to produce standing waves, and then to align microparticles at the node lines in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, silicone) microfluidic channels. The "tilted angle" (skewed) configuration is a recent breakthrough producing particle trajectories that cross multiple node lines, making it practical to sort particles. However, lithium niobate wafers and PDMS microfluidic channels are not mechanically robust. We demonstrate "tilted angle" microparticle sorting in novel devices that are robust, rapidly prototyped, and manufacturable. We form our microfluidic system in a rigid polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA, acrylic) prism, sandwiched by lead-zirconium-titanate (PZT) wafers, operating in through-thickness mode with inertial backing, that produce standing bulk waves. The overall configuration is compact and mechanically robust, and actuating PZT wafers in through-thickness mode is highly efficient. Moving to this novel configuration introduced new acoustics questions involving internal reflections, but we show experimental images confirming the intended nodal geometry. Microparticles in "tilted angle" devices display undulating trajectories, where deviation from the straight path increases with particle diameter and with excitation voltage to create the mechanism by which particles are sorted. We show a simplified analytical model by which a "phase space" is constructed to characterize effective particle sorting, and we compare our experimental data to the predictions from that simplified model; precise correlation is not expected and is not observed, but the important physical trends from the model are paralleled in the measured particle trajectories.

  13. Marker-specific sorting of rare cells using dielectrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaoyuan; Bessette, Paul H.; Qian, Jiangrong; Meinhart, Carl D.; Daugherty, Patrick S.; Soh, Hyongsok T.

    2005-01-01

    Current techniques in high-speed cell sorting are limited by the inherent coupling among three competing parameters of performance: throughput, purity, and rare cell recovery. Microfluidics provides an alternate strategy to decouple these parameters through the use of arrayed devices that operate in parallel. To efficiently isolate rare cells from complex mixtures, an electrokinetic sorting methodology was developed that exploits dielectrophoresis (DEP) in microfluidic channels. In this approach, the dielectrophoretic amplitude response of rare target cells is modulated by labeling cells with particles that differ in polarization response. Cell mixtures were interrogated in the DEP-activated cell sorter in a continuous-flow manner, wherein the electric fields were engineered to achieve efficient separation between the dielectrophoretically labeled and unlabeled cells. To demonstrate the efficiency of marker-specific cell separation, DEP-activated cell sorting (DACS) was applied for affinity-based enrichment of rare bacteria expressing a specific surface marker from an excess of nontarget bacteria that do not express this marker. Rare target cells were enriched by >200-fold in a single round of sorting at a single-channel throughput of 10,000 cells per second. DACS offers the potential for automated, surface marker-specific cell sorting in a disposable format that is capable of simultaneously achieving high throughput, purity, and rare cell recovery. PMID:16236724

  14. Viable infectious cell sorting in a BSL-3 facility.

    PubMed

    Perfetto, Stephen P; Ambrozak, David R; Roederer, Mario; Koup, Richard A

    2004-01-01

    With the increase in demand for high-speed cell sorting of viable infectious and now therapeutic cell samples, safety concerns for the protection of flow cytometer operators have increased. This chapter describes a quick, sensitive, and reproducible procedure to assure sample containment before sorting these samples. This procedure includes aerosol containment, physical barriers, environmental controls, and personal protection. An aerosol management system produces a negative pressure within the sort chamber where aerosols are vacuumed directly into a HEPA filter. Physical barriers include the manufacturer's standard plastic shield and panels. The flow cytometer is contained in a BSL-3 laboratory for maximum environmental control and the operator is protected using a respiratory system. Containment is measured using highly fluorescent Glo-Germ particles under the same conditions as the cell sort but with the sorter adjusted to produce large amounts of aerosols. These aerosols are collected by a vacuum air sampling system for 10 min in three locations onto a glass slide and examined microscopically. With this system in place, aerosol containment can be measured quickly and efficiently, therefore reducing the risk to the operator when sorting viable infectious cells. PMID:14976381

  15. Sorting centimetre-long single-walled carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Woo Jong; Chae, Sang Hoon; Vu, Quoc An; Lee, Young Hee

    2016-01-01

    While several approaches have been developed for sorting metallic (m) or semiconducting (s) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), the length of SWCNTs is limited within a micrometer, which restricts excellent electrical performances of SWCNTs for macro-scale applications. Here, we demonstrate a simple sorting method of centimetre-long aligned m- and s-SWCNTs. Ni particles were selectively and uniformly coated along the 1-cm-long m-SWCNTs by applying positive gate bias during electrochemical deposition with continuous electrolyte injection. To sort s-SWCNTs, the Ni coating was oxidized to form insulator outer for blocking of current flow through inner m-SWCNTs. Sorting of m-SWCNTs were demonstrated by selective etching of s-SWCNTs via oxygen plasma, while the protected m-SWCNTs by Ni coating remained intact. The series of source-drain pairs were patterned along the 1-cm-long sorted SWCNTs, which confirmed high on/off ratio of 104–108 for s-SWCNTs and nearly 1 for m-SWCNTs. PMID:27476909

  16. Sorting centimetre-long single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Woo Jong; Chae, Sang Hoon; Vu, Quoc An; Lee, Young Hee

    2016-08-01

    While several approaches have been developed for sorting metallic (m) or semiconducting (s) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), the length of SWCNTs is limited within a micrometer, which restricts excellent electrical performances of SWCNTs for macro-scale applications. Here, we demonstrate a simple sorting method of centimetre-long aligned m- and s-SWCNTs. Ni particles were selectively and uniformly coated along the 1-cm-long m-SWCNTs by applying positive gate bias during electrochemical deposition with continuous electrolyte injection. To sort s-SWCNTs, the Ni coating was oxidized to form insulator outer for blocking of current flow through inner m-SWCNTs. Sorting of m-SWCNTs were demonstrated by selective etching of s-SWCNTs via oxygen plasma, while the protected m-SWCNTs by Ni coating remained intact. The series of source-drain pairs were patterned along the 1-cm-long sorted SWCNTs, which confirmed high on/off ratio of 104–108 for s-SWCNTs and nearly 1 for m-SWCNTs.

  17. The Method of Sorting as a Data-Gathering Procedure in Multivariate Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Seymour; Kim, Moonja Park

    1975-01-01

    Compares two basic variants of the sorting method: single-sort and multiple sort. The nature of individual differences in sorting, as well as sex differences, were also investigated. Stimulus materials were the 15 mutually exclusive kinship terms selected by Wallace and Atkins (1960). (RC)

  18. Assessment of Preschool Classroom Practices: Application of Q-Sort Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracken, Stacey Storch; Fischel, Janet E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the application of Q-sort methodology to the development of the Preschool Classroom Practices (PCP) Q-sort. The PCP Q-sort was tested in a sample of 66 preschool teachers and assistants. Results demonstrated the existence of a 2-cluster structure within the Q-sort, comprised of Cognitive Development Activities and…

  19. REAL-WORLD SORTING OF RHIC SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETS.

    SciTech Connect

    WEI,J.; GUPTA,R.; HARRISON,M.; JAIN,A.; PEGGS,S.; THOMPSON,P.; TRBOJEVIC,D.; WANDERER,P.

    1999-03-29

    During the seven-year construction of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), more than 1700 superconducting dipoles, quadrupoles, sextupoles, and multi-layer correctors have been constructed and installed. These magnets have been sorted at several production stages to optimize their performance and reliability. For arc magnets, priorities have been put first on quench performance and operational risk minimization, second on field transfer function and other first-order quantities, and finally on nonlinear field errors which were painstakingly optimized at design. For Interaction-Region (IR) magnets, sorting is applied to select the best possible combination of magnets for the low-{beta}* interaction points (IP). This paper summarizes the history of this real-world sorting process.

  20. Development of the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort.

    PubMed

    Berg, Christine; McCollum, Mary; Cho, Esther; Jason, Dawn

    2015-10-01

    Emerging adulthood defines transition to employment, higher education, and domestic life. This study describes the development of an assessment of self-reported participation in a range of age-appropriate activities. Item selection was established from literature review, feedback from youth and professionals, the former Adolescent Activity Card Sort (AACS), and the original Activity Card Sort (ACS). Iterative item selection occurred with three separate samples of emerging adults and six professionals. Test-retest reliability was evaluated. The Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) consists of chores (11 items), leisure (13), social (10), health and fitness (9), work (10), education (8), and parenting (9). Test-retest reliability showed significant moderate to substantial Kappa agreement (.48-.85) for all domains except parenting (κ = .15). This preliminary study describes the development of the AYA-ACS to be used with individuals who encounter challenges when transitioning to young adulthood.

  1. Development of magnetic chromatography to sort polydisperse nanoparticles in ferrofluids.

    PubMed

    Forge, Delphine; Gossuin, Yves; Roch, Alain; Laurent, Sophie; Elst, Luce Vander; Muller, Robert N

    2010-01-01

    Whatever the strategy of synthesis, nanoparticles in magnetic fluids commonly feature a broad size distribution. However, the presence of several size populations in ferrofluids is often problematic because of the close relationship between the efficiency of the nanoparticles and their physicochemical properties. In this work, a magnetic size sorting procedure is developed in order to reduce this polydispersity, using the magnetic properties of the iron oxide nanoparticles. This magnetic sorting with an adjustable magnetic field allows isolation of the small superparamagnetic particles as well as the larger particles. Magnetometry, nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion profiles and transmission electron microscopy were successfully used to check the efficiency of the magnetic sorting procedure, which was shown to work as a 'magnetic' chromatography.

  2. Particle migration and sorting in microbubble streaming flows.

    PubMed

    Thameem, Raqeeb; Rallabandi, Bhargav; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic driving of semicylindrical microbubbles generates strong streaming flows that are robust over a wide range of driving frequencies. We show that in microchannels, these streaming flow patterns can be combined with Poiseuille flows to achieve two distinctive, highly tunable methods for size-sensitive sorting and trapping of particles much smaller than the bubble itself. This method allows higher throughput than typical passive sorting techniques, since it does not require the inclusion of device features on the order of the particle size. We propose a simple mechanism, based on channel and flow geometry, which reliably describes and predicts the sorting behavior observed in experiment. It is also shown that an asymptotic theory that incorporates the device geometry and superimposed channel flow accurately models key flow features such as peak speeds and particle trajectories, provided it is appropriately modified to account for 3D effects caused by the axial confinement of the bubble.

  3. Development of the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort.

    PubMed

    Berg, Christine; McCollum, Mary; Cho, Esther; Jason, Dawn

    2015-10-01

    Emerging adulthood defines transition to employment, higher education, and domestic life. This study describes the development of an assessment of self-reported participation in a range of age-appropriate activities. Item selection was established from literature review, feedback from youth and professionals, the former Adolescent Activity Card Sort (AACS), and the original Activity Card Sort (ACS). Iterative item selection occurred with three separate samples of emerging adults and six professionals. Test-retest reliability was evaluated. The Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) consists of chores (11 items), leisure (13), social (10), health and fitness (9), work (10), education (8), and parenting (9). Test-retest reliability showed significant moderate to substantial Kappa agreement (.48-.85) for all domains except parenting (κ = .15). This preliminary study describes the development of the AYA-ACS to be used with individuals who encounter challenges when transitioning to young adulthood. PMID:27505902

  4. Sorting of bending magnets for the SSRF booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Jie; Liu, Gui-Min; Li, Hao-Hu; Zhang, Man-Zhou

    2008-04-01

    The Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF)booster ring, a full energy injector for the storage ring, is deigned to accelerate the electron beam energy from 150 MeV to 3.5 GeV that demands high extraction efficiency at the extraction energy with low beam loss rate when electrons are ramping. Closed orbit distortion (COD) caused by bending magnet field uniformity errors which affects the machine performance harmfully could be effectively reduced by bending magnet location sorting. Considering the affections of random errors in measurement, both ideal sorting and realistic sorting are studied based on measured bending magnet field uniformity errors and one reasonable combination of bending magnets which can reduce the horizontal COD by a factor of 5 is given as the final installation sequence of the booster bending magnets in this paper. Supported by SSRF Project

  5. Blood Gas Analyzers.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Anthony L; Waddell, Lori S

    2016-03-01

    Acid-base and respiratory disturbances are common in sick and hospitalized veterinary patients; therefore, blood gas analyzers have become integral diagnostic and monitoring tools. This article will discuss uses of blood gas analyzers, types of samples that can be used, sample collection methods, potential sources of error, and potential alternatives to blood gas analyzers and their limitations. It will also discuss the types of analyzers that are available, logistical considerations that should be taken into account when purchasing an analyzer, and the basic principles of how these analyzers work. PMID:27451046

  6. Large-Volume Microfluidic Cell Sorting for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Warkiani, Majid Ebrahimi; Wu, Lidan; Tay, Andy Kah Ping; Han, Jongyoon

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidic cell-separation technologies have been studied for almost two decades, but the limited throughput has restricted their impact and range of application. Recent advances in microfluidics enable high-throughput cell sorting and separation, and this has led to various novel diagnostic and therapeutic applications that previously had been impossible to implement using microfluidics technologies. In this review, we focus on recent progress made in engineering large-volume microfluidic cell-sorting methods and the new applications enabled by them. PMID:26194427

  7. Cell sorting is analogous to phase ordering in fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beysens, D. A.; Forgacs, G.; Glazier, J. A.

    2000-08-01

    Morphogenetic processes, like sorting or spreading of tissues, characterize early embryonic development. An analogy between viscoelastic fluids and certain properties of embryonic tissues helps interpret these phenomena. The values of tissue-specific surface tensions are consistent with the equilibrium configurations that the Differential Adhesion Hypothesis predicts such tissues reach after sorting and spreading. Here we extend the fluid analogy to cellular kinetics. The same formalism applies to recent experiments on the kinetics of phase ordering in two-phase fluids. Our results provide biologically relevant information on the strength of binding between cell adhesion molecules under near-physiological conditions.

  8. New coke-sorting system at OAO Koks

    SciTech Connect

    B.Kh. Bulaevskii; V.S. Shved; Yu.V. Kalimin; S.D. Filippov

    2009-05-15

    A new coke-sorting system has been introduced at OAO Koks. It differs from the existing system in that it has no bunkers for all-purpose coke but only bunkers for commercial coke. In using this system with coke from battery 4, the crushing of the coke on conveyer belts, at roller screens, and in the commercial-coke bunkers is studied. After installing braking elements in the coke path, their effectiveness in reducing coke disintegration and improving coke screening is investigated. The granulometric composition and strength of the commercial coke from coke battery 3, with the new coke-sorting system, is evaluated.

  9. New designs in the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems

    SciTech Connect

    A.S. Larin; V.V. Demenko; V.L. Voitanik

    2009-07-15

    In recent Giprokoks designs for the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems, high-productivity vibrational-inertial screens have been employed. This permits single-stage screening and reduction in capital and especially operating expenditures, without loss of coke quality. In two-stage screening, >80 mm coke (for foundry needs) is additionally separated, with significant improvement in quality of the metallurgical coke (25-80 mm). New designs for the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems employ mechanical treatment of the coke outside the furnace, which offers new scope for stabilization of coke quality and permits considerable improvement in mechanical strength and granulometric composition of the coke by mechanical crushing.

  10. Wideband digital spectrum analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, G. A., Jr.; Wilck, H. C.

    1979-01-01

    Modular spectrum analyzer consisting of RF receiver, fast fourier transform spectrum analyzer, and data processor samples stochastic signals in 220 channels. Construction reduces design and fabrication costs of assembled unit.

  11. Image quality analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukin, V. P.; Botugina, N. N.; Emaleev, O. N.; Antoshkin, L. V.; Konyaev, P. A.

    2012-07-01

    Image quality analyzer (IQA) which used as device for efficiency analysis of adaptive optics application is described. In analyzer marketed possibility estimations quality of images on three different criterions of quality images: contrast, sharpnesses and the spectral criterion. At present given analyzer is introduced on Big Solar Vacuum Telescope in stale work that allows at observations to conduct the choice of the most contrasting images of Sun. Is it hereinafter planned use the analyzer in composition of the ANGARA adaptive correction system.

  12. Wisconsin card sorting test: a new global score, with Italian norms, and its relationship with the Weigl sorting test.

    PubMed

    Laiacona, M; Inzaghi, M G; De Tanti, A; Capitani, E

    2000-10-01

    The Wisconsin card sorting test and the Weigl test are two neuropsychological tools widely used in clinical practice to assess frontal lobe functions. In this study we present norms useful for Italian subjects aged from 15 to 85 years, with 5-17 years of education. Concerning the Wisconsin card sorting test, a new measure of global efficiency (global score) is proposed as well as norms for some well known qualitative aspects of the performance, i.e. perseverative responses, failure to maintain the set and non-perseverative errors. In setting normative values, we followed a statistical methodology (equivalent scores) employed in Italy for other neuropsychological tests, in order to favour the possibility of comparison among these tests. A correlation study between the global score of the Wisconsin card sorting test and the score on the Weigl test was carried out and it emerges that some cognitive aspects are not overlapping in these two measures.

  13. Bioassay and biomolecular identification, sorting, and collection methods using magnetic microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, Jr., Robert H.; Zhou, Feng; Nolan, John P

    2007-06-19

    The present invention is directed to processes of separating, analyzing and/or collecting selected species within a target sample by use of magnetic microspheres including magnetic particles, the magnetic microspheres adapted for attachment to a receptor agent that can subsequently bind to selected species within the target sample. The magnetic microspheres can be sorted into a number of distinct populations, each population with a specific range of magnetic moments and different receptor agents can be attached to each distinct population of magnetic microsphere.

  14. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Building access control (BAC)--a catchall phrase to describe the systems that control access to facilities across campus--has traditionally been handled with remarkably low-tech solutions: (1) manual locks; (2) electronic locks; and (3) ID cards with magnetic strips. Recent improvements have included smart cards and keyless solutions that make use…

  15. Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  16. The Q Sort Technique Applied to Nutrition Attitudes Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutnick, Mona R.

    1981-01-01

    Suggests the use of the Q Sort Technique to assess attitudes toward nutrition-related topics. Describes research utilizing this technique to assess junior high school students' (N=512) attitudes toward and knowledge of nutrition with and without nutrition instruction. (DS)

  17. Topological Index as a Sorting Device for Coding Chemical Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosoya, Haruo

    1972-01-01

    Although the topological index does not uniquely correspond to the individual structure of a graph, it roughly represents the topological nature of the graph. Examples are given for using the topological index as a first sorting device for coding and retrieving structures, especially of fused polycyclic systems. (14 references) (Author/NH)

  18. Local Residential Sorting and Public Goods Provision: A Classroom Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouhle, Keith; Corrigan, Jay; Croson, Rachel; Farnham, Martin; Garip, Selhan; Habodaszova, Luba; Johnson, Laurie Tipton; Johnson, Martin; Reiley, David

    2005-01-01

    This classroom exercise illustrates the Tiebout (1956) hypothesis that residential sorting across multiple jurisdictions leads to a more efficient allocation of local public goods. The exercise places students with heterogeneous preferences over a public good into a single classroom community. A simple voting mechanism determines the level of…

  19. Disentangling dimensions in the dimensional change card-sorting task.

    PubMed

    Kloo, Daniela; Perner, Josef

    2005-01-01

    The dimensional change card-sorting task (DCCS task) is frequently used to assess young children's executive abilities. However, the source of children's difficulty with this task is still under debate. In the standard DCCS task, children have to sort, for example, test cards with a red cherry or a blue banana into two boxes marked with target cards showing a blue cherry and a red banana. Typically, 3-year-olds have severe problems switching from sorting by one dimension (e.g. color) to sorting by the other dimension (e.g. shape). Three experiments with 3- to 4-year-olds showed that separating the two dimensions as properties of a single object, and having them characterize two different objects (e.g. by displaying an outline of a cherry next to a red filled circle on the card) improves performance considerably. Results are discussed in relation to a number of alternative explanations for 3-year-olds' difficulty with the DCCS task.

  20. Differential interaction forces govern bacterial sorting in early biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Oldewurtel, Enno R; Kouzel, Nadzeya; Dewenter, Lena; Henseler, Katja; Maier, Berenike

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms can generate micro-heterogeneity in terms of surface structures. However, little is known about the associated changes in the physics of cell–cell interaction and its impact on the architecture of biofilms. In this study, we used the type IV pilus of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to test whether variation of surface structures induces cell-sorting. We show that the rupture forces between pili are fine-tuned by post-translational modification. Bacterial sorting was dependent on pilus post-translational modification and pilus density. Active force generation was necessary for defined morphologies of mixed microcolonies. The observed morphotypes were in remarkable agreement with the differential strength of adhesion hypothesis proposing that a tug-of-war among surface structures of different cells governs cell sorting. We conclude that in early biofilms the density and rupture force of bacterial surface structures can trigger cell sorting based on similar physical principles as in developing embryos. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10811.001 PMID:26402455

  1. A Kinetic Self-Sorting Approach to Heterocircuit [3]Rotaxanes.

    PubMed

    Neal, Edward A; Goldup, Stephen M

    2016-09-26

    In this proof-of-concept study, an active-template coupling is used to demonstrate a novel kinetic self-sorting process. This process iteratively increases the yield of the target heterocircuit [3]rotaxane product at the expense of other threaded species. PMID:27600208

  2. Development of the Arab Heritage Activity Card Sort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamed, Razan; AlHeresh, Rawan; Dahab, Sana Abu; Collins, Brittany; Fryer, Jasmine; Holm, Margo B.

    2011-01-01

    Participation is an indicator of healthy functioning and well-being, as emphasized by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (World Health Organization, 2001). The Activity Card Sort (ACS) is a valid and reliable assessment tool that measures participation. This study describes the process of developing the Arab…

  3. On-chip cell sorting via patterned magnetic traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byvank, Tom; Prikockis, Michael; Chen, Aaron; Miller, Brandon; Chalmers, Jeffrey; Sooryakumar, Ratnasingham

    2015-03-01

    Due to their importance in research for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, numerous schemes have been developed to sort rare cell populations, e.g., circulating tumor cells (CTCs), from a larger ensemble of cells. Here, we improve upon a previously developed microfluidic device (Lab Chip 13, 1172, (2013)) to increase throughput and sorting purity of magnetically labeled cells. The separation mechanism involves controlling magnetic forces by manipulating the magnetic domain structures of embedded permalloy microdisks with weak external fields. These forces move labeled cells from the input flow stream into an adjacent buffer flow stream. Such magnetically activated transfer separates the magnetic entities from their non-magnetic counterparts as the two flow streams split apart and move toward their respective outputs. Purity of the magnetic output is modulated by the withdrawal rate of the non-magnetic output relative to the inputs. A proof of concept shows that CTCs from metastatic breast cancer patients can be sorted, recovered from the device, and confirmed as CTCs using separate immunofluorescence staining and analysis. With further optimizations, the channel could become a useful device for high purity final sorting of enriched patient cell samples.

  4. Sorting Recycled Trash: An Activity for Earth Day 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary E.; Harris, Harold H.

    2007-01-01

    Middle or high school students celebrate Earth Day on April 22, 2007 by participating in the activity to separate commingled recyclable trash to simulate sorting in a recycling center. Students would gain an appreciation for recyclable trash, after it is taken to a recycling center and learn about properties of recyclables.

  5. Sorting of household waste and thermal treatment of waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ferranti, M.P.; Ferrero, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    The priorities in waste policy are implicit in the title of this book. The first goal is sorting and recycling of materials whenever possible. The second priority is for thermal treatment of any materials unsuitable for recovery. The different sessions dealt with the research carried out under cost-shared contracts in the various programme areas.

  6. Empirical Approach to Interpreting Card-Sorting Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Steven F.; Dougherty, Daniel P.; Kortemeyer, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Since it was first published 30 years ago, the seminal paper of Chi "et al." on expert and novice categorization of introductory problems led to a plethora of follow-up studies within and outside of the area of physics [Cogn. Sci. 5 121 (1981)]. These studies frequently encompass "card-sorting" exercises whereby the participants group problems.…

  7. Getting a "Decent Sort": Key Considerations when Planning for AMH

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canty, Adrienne Brown

    2010-01-01

    In 2008 and 2009, the Edmonton Public Library (EPL), where the author works as an information professional, completed a $6 million CDN (about $5.7 million) RFID conversion project with the installation of automated check-in and sorting equipment at six of its 17 service points. The sorters currently handle about 55% of EPL's system's total…

  8. Pseudorotaxanes with self-sorted sequence and stereochemical orientation.

    PubMed

    Talotta, Carmen; Gaeta, Carmine; Qi, Zhenhui; Schalley, Christoph A; Neri, Placido

    2013-07-15

    Partner preferences in pseudorotaxane formation were exploited to establish an integrative self-sorting system able to discriminate simultaneously at the sequence and stereochemical level (see picture). It was found that calix[6]arenes were threaded selectively with a preferred orientation onto bisammonium axles, even when the structural differences between the possible building blocks were small and located remote from the binding sites.

  9. Personal Wellness Card Sort: A Strategy for Promoting Relational Healing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenz, A. Stephen; Roscoe, Lauren J.

    2011-01-01

    The Personal Wellness Card Sort task is presented as a practical tool for mediating a therapeutic impasse when working with clients who have experienced a traumatic event. The authors describe how this activity can assist clients with viewing themselves in a holistic way, regaining disowned aspects of self and initiating movement toward connecting…

  10. Spike sorting of synchronous spikes from local neuron ensembles.

    PubMed

    Franke, Felix; Pröpper, Robert; Alle, Henrik; Meier, Philipp; Geiger, Jörg R P; Obermayer, Klaus; Munk, Matthias H J

    2015-10-01

    Synchronous spike discharge of cortical neurons is thought to be a fingerprint of neuronal cooperativity. Because neighboring neurons are more densely connected to one another than neurons that are located further apart, near-synchronous spike discharge can be expected to be prevalent and it might provide an important basis for cortical computations. Using microelectrodes to record local groups of neurons does not allow for the reliable separation of synchronous spikes from different cells, because available spike sorting algorithms cannot correctly resolve the temporally overlapping waveforms. We show that high spike sorting performance of in vivo recordings, including overlapping spikes, can be achieved with a recently developed filter-based template matching procedure. Using tetrodes with a three-dimensional structure, we demonstrate with simulated data and ground truth in vitro data, obtained by dual intracellular recording of two neurons located next to a tetrode, that the spike sorting of synchronous spikes can be as successful as the spike sorting of nonoverlapping spikes and that the spatial information provided by multielectrodes greatly reduces the error rates. We apply the method to tetrode recordings from the prefrontal cortex of behaving primates, and we show that overlapping spikes can be identified and assigned to individual neurons to study synchronous activity in local groups of neurons. PMID:26289473

  11. Spike sorting of synchronous spikes from local neuron ensembles

    PubMed Central

    Pröpper, Robert; Alle, Henrik; Meier, Philipp; Geiger, Jörg R. P.; Obermayer, Klaus; Munk, Matthias H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Synchronous spike discharge of cortical neurons is thought to be a fingerprint of neuronal cooperativity. Because neighboring neurons are more densely connected to one another than neurons that are located further apart, near-synchronous spike discharge can be expected to be prevalent and it might provide an important basis for cortical computations. Using microelectrodes to record local groups of neurons does not allow for the reliable separation of synchronous spikes from different cells, because available spike sorting algorithms cannot correctly resolve the temporally overlapping waveforms. We show that high spike sorting performance of in vivo recordings, including overlapping spikes, can be achieved with a recently developed filter-based template matching procedure. Using tetrodes with a three-dimensional structure, we demonstrate with simulated data and ground truth in vitro data, obtained by dual intracellular recording of two neurons located next to a tetrode, that the spike sorting of synchronous spikes can be as successful as the spike sorting of nonoverlapping spikes and that the spatial information provided by multielectrodes greatly reduces the error rates. We apply the method to tetrode recordings from the prefrontal cortex of behaving primates, and we show that overlapping spikes can be identified and assigned to individual neurons to study synchronous activity in local groups of neurons. PMID:26289473

  12. Autism and Attachment: The Attachment Q-Sort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutgers, Anna H.; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.

    2007-01-01

    Children with autism are able to show secure attachment behaviours to their parents/caregivers. Most studies on attachment in children with autism used a (modified) Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) to examine attachment security. An advantage of the Attachment Q-Sort (AQS) over the SSP is that it can be attuned to the secure-base behaviour of…

  13. A Pictorial Description of Cole's Parallel Merge Sort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagerup, Torben

    A largely pictorial description is given of a variant of an ingenious parallel sorting algorithm due to Richard Cole. The new description strives to achieve greater simplicity by exploiting symmetries that were not explicit in the original exposition and that can be conveyed nicely with pictures. Not paying attention to constant factors allows an additional slight simplification of the algorithm.

  14. Disentangling dimensions in the dimensional change card-sorting task.

    PubMed

    Kloo, Daniela; Perner, Josef

    2005-01-01

    The dimensional change card-sorting task (DCCS task) is frequently used to assess young children's executive abilities. However, the source of children's difficulty with this task is still under debate. In the standard DCCS task, children have to sort, for example, test cards with a red cherry or a blue banana into two boxes marked with target cards showing a blue cherry and a red banana. Typically, 3-year-olds have severe problems switching from sorting by one dimension (e.g. color) to sorting by the other dimension (e.g. shape). Three experiments with 3- to 4-year-olds showed that separating the two dimensions as properties of a single object, and having them characterize two different objects (e.g. by displaying an outline of a cherry next to a red filled circle on the card) improves performance considerably. Results are discussed in relation to a number of alternative explanations for 3-year-olds' difficulty with the DCCS task. PMID:15647066

  15. Q Fever Outbreak among Workers at a Waste-Sorting Plant.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Eva; Lopez-Etxaniz, Idoia; Hurtado, Ana; Liendo, Paloma; Urbaneja, Felix; Aspiritxaga, Inmaculada; Olaizola, Jose Ignacio; Piñero, Alvaro; Arrazola, Iñaki; Barandika, Jesús F; Hernáez, Silvia; Muniozguren, Nerea; García-Pérez, Ana L

    2015-01-01

    An outbreak of Q fever occurred in February-April 2014 among workers at a waste-sorting plant in Bilbao (Spain). The outbreak affected 58.5% of investigated employees, 47.2% as confirmed cases (PCR and/or serology) and 11.3% as probable cases (symptoms without laboratory confirmation). Only employees who had no-access to the waste processing areas of the plant were not affected and incidence of infection was significantly higher among workers not using respiratory protection masks. Detection by qPCR of Coxiella burnetii in dust collected from surfaces of the plant facilities confirmed exposure of workers inside the plant. Animal remains sporadically detected among the residues received for waste-sorting were the most probable source of infection. After cleaning and disinfection, all environmental samples tested negative. Personal protection measures were reinforced and made compulsory for the staff and actions were taken to raise farmers' awareness of the biological risk of discharging animal carcasses as urban waste. PMID:26398249

  16. Structure of the Bacillus anthracis Sortase A Enzyme Bound to Its Sorting Signal

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Albert H.; Yi, Sung Wook; Terwilliger, Austen L.; Maresso, Anthony W.; Jung, Michael E.; Clubb, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    The endospore forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis causes lethal anthrax disease in humans and animals. The ability of this pathogen to replicate within macrophages is dependent upon the display of bacterial surface proteins attached to the cell wall by the B. anthracis Sortase A (BaSrtA) enzyme. Previously, we discovered that the class A BaSrtA sortase contains a unique N-terminal appendage that wraps around the body of the protein to contact the active site of the enzyme. To gain insight into its function, we determined the NMR structure of BaSrtA bound to a LPXTG sorting signal analog. The structure, combined with dynamics, kinetics, and whole cell protein display data suggest that the N terminus modulates substrate access to the enzyme. We propose that it may increase the efficiency of protein display by reducing the unproductive hydrolytic cleavage of enzyme-protein covalent intermediates that form during the cell wall anchoring reaction. Notably, a key active site loop (β7/β8 loop) undergoes a disordered to ordered transition upon binding the sorting signal, potentially facilitating recognition of lipid II. PMID:26324714

  17. Q Fever Outbreak among Workers at a Waste-Sorting Plant.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Eva; Lopez-Etxaniz, Idoia; Hurtado, Ana; Liendo, Paloma; Urbaneja, Felix; Aspiritxaga, Inmaculada; Olaizola, Jose Ignacio; Piñero, Alvaro; Arrazola, Iñaki; Barandika, Jesús F; Hernáez, Silvia; Muniozguren, Nerea; García-Pérez, Ana L

    2015-01-01

    An outbreak of Q fever occurred in February-April 2014 among workers at a waste-sorting plant in Bilbao (Spain). The outbreak affected 58.5% of investigated employees, 47.2% as confirmed cases (PCR and/or serology) and 11.3% as probable cases (symptoms without laboratory confirmation). Only employees who had no-access to the waste processing areas of the plant were not affected and incidence of infection was significantly higher among workers not using respiratory protection masks. Detection by qPCR of Coxiella burnetii in dust collected from surfaces of the plant facilities confirmed exposure of workers inside the plant. Animal remains sporadically detected among the residues received for waste-sorting were the most probable source of infection. After cleaning and disinfection, all environmental samples tested negative. Personal protection measures were reinforced and made compulsory for the staff and actions were taken to raise farmers' awareness of the biological risk of discharging animal carcasses as urban waste.

  18. Q Fever Outbreak among Workers at a Waste-Sorting Plant

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Eva; Lopez-Etxaniz, Idoia; Hurtado, Ana; Liendo, Paloma; Urbaneja, Felix; Aspiritxaga, Inmaculada; Olaizola, Jose Ignacio; Piñero, Alvaro; Arrazola, Iñaki; Barandika, Jesús F.; Hernáez, Silvia; Muniozguren, Nerea; García- Pérez, Ana L.

    2015-01-01

    An outbreak of Q fever occurred in February–April 2014 among workers at a waste-sorting plant in Bilbao (Spain). The outbreak affected 58.5% of investigated employees, 47.2% as confirmed cases (PCR and/or serology) and 11.3% as probable cases (symptoms without laboratory confirmation). Only employees who had no-access to the waste processing areas of the plant were not affected and incidence of infection was significantly higher among workers not using respiratory protection masks. Detection by qPCR of Coxiella burnetii in dust collected from surfaces of the plant facilities confirmed exposure of workers inside the plant. Animal remains sporadically detected among the residues received for waste-sorting were the most probable source of infection. After cleaning and disinfection, all environmental samples tested negative. Personal protection measures were reinforced and made compulsory for the staff and actions were taken to raise farmers’ awareness of the biological risk of discharging animal carcasses as urban waste. PMID:26398249

  19. Hurricane Sandy's Fingerprint: Ripple Bedforms at an Inner Continental Shelf Sorted Bedform Field Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DuVal, C.; Trembanis, A. C.; Beaudoin, J. D.; Schmidt, V. E.; Mayer, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    orbital ripples. Using the Fingerprint Algorithm technique developed by Skarke and Trembanis (2011), sonar images have been analyzed to quantify ripple orientation, wavelength and defects (e.g. bifurcation and terminations). Correlation to time-series current and wave data shows strong agreement between peak-storm ripple wavelength scaling predictions and Fingerprint Algorithm wavelength measurements of relict ripples, indicating a non-equilibrated response of ripple bedforms to near bed orbital currents. Preliminary results further indicate an increase of ripple bedform defects near seabed objects, and deviations in ripple orientation and wavelength possibly related to current steering and vortices shed from nearby objects. Subsequent surveys and instrument deployments at the site have recorded the burial of these ripple bedforms during low-energy conditions, typical with the cyclical evolution of sorted bedform sites.

  20. The Polarity Protein Pals1 Regulates Radial Sorting of Axons.

    PubMed

    Zollinger, Daniel R; Chang, Kae-Jiun; Baalman, Kelli; Kim, Seonhee; Rasband, Matthew N

    2015-07-22

    Myelin is essential for rapid and efficient action potential propagation in vertebrates. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating myelination remain incompletely characterized. For example, even before myelination begins in the PNS, Schwann cells must radially sort axons to form 1:1 associations. Schwann cells then ensheathe and wrap axons, and establish polarized, subcellular domains, including apical and basolateral domains, paranodes, and Schmidt-Lanterman incisures. Intriguingly, polarity proteins, such as Pals1/Mpp5, are highly enriched in some of these domains, suggesting that they may regulate the polarity of Schwann cells and myelination. To test this, we generated mice with Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes that lack Pals1. During early development of the PNS, Pals1-deficient mice had impaired radial sorting of axons, delayed myelination, and reduced nerve conduction velocities. Although myelination and conduction velocities eventually recovered, polyaxonal myelination remained a prominent feature of adult Pals1-deficient nerves. Despite the enrichment of Pals1 at paranodes and incisures of control mice, nodes of Ranvier and paranodes were unaffected in Pals1-deficient mice, although we measured a significant increase in the number of incisures. As in other polarized cells, we found that Pals1 interacts with Par3 and loss of Pals1 reduced levels of Par3 in Schwann cells. In the CNS, loss of Pals1 affected neither myelination nor the establishment of polarized membrane domains. These results demonstrate that Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes use distinct mechanisms to control their polarity, and that radial sorting in the PNS is a key polarization event that requires Pals1. Significance statement: This paper reveals the role of the canonical polarity protein Pals1 in radial sorting of axons by Schwann cells. Radial sorting is essential for efficient and proper myelination and is disrupted in some types of congenital muscular dystrophy.

  1. Parallel sort with a ranged, partitioned key-value store in a high perfomance computing environment

    DOEpatents

    Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin; Grider, Gary; Torres, Aaron; Poole, Stephen W.

    2016-01-26

    Improved sorting techniques are provided that perform a parallel sort using a ranged, partitioned key-value store in a high performance computing (HPC) environment. A plurality of input data files comprising unsorted key-value data in a partitioned key-value store are sorted. The partitioned key-value store comprises a range server for each of a plurality of ranges. Each input data file has an associated reader thread. Each reader thread reads the unsorted key-value data in the corresponding input data file and performs a local sort of the unsorted key-value data to generate sorted key-value data. A plurality of sorted, ranged subsets of each of the sorted key-value data are generated based on the plurality of ranges. Each sorted, ranged subset corresponds to a given one of the ranges and is provided to one of the range servers corresponding to the range of the sorted, ranged subset. Each range server sorts the received sorted, ranged subsets and provides a sorted range. A plurality of the sorted ranges are concatenated to obtain a globally sorted result.

  2. A fast sorting algorithm for a hypersonic rarefied flow particle simulation on the connection machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dagum, Leonardo

    1989-01-01

    The data parallel implementation of a particle simulation for hypersonic rarefied flow described by Dagum associates a single parallel data element with each particle in the simulation. The simulated space is divided into discrete regions called cells containing a variable and constantly changing number of particles. The implementation requires a global sort of the parallel data elements so as to arrange them in an order that allows immediate access to the information associated with cells in the simulation. Described here is a very fast algorithm for performing the necessary ranking of the parallel data elements. The performance of the new algorithm is compared with that of the microcoded instruction for ranking on the Connection Machine.

  3. A sorting nexin 17-binding domain within the LRP1 cytoplasmic tail mediates receptor recycling through the basolateral sorting endosome.

    PubMed

    Farfán, Pamela; Lee, Jiyeon; Larios, Jorge; Sotelo, Pablo; Bu, Guojun; Marzolo, María-Paz

    2013-07-01

    Sorting nexin 17 (SNX17) is an adaptor protein present in early endosomal antigen 1 (EEA1)-positive sorting endosomes that promotes the efficient recycling of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) to the plasma membrane through recognition of the first NPxY motif in the cytoplasmic tail of this receptor. The interaction of LRP1 with SNX17 also regulates the basolateral recycling of the receptor from the basolateral sorting endosome (BSE). In contrast, megalin, which is apically distributed in polarized epithelial cells and localizes poorly to EEA1-positive sorting endosomes, does not interact with SNX17, despite containing three NPxY motifs, indicating that this motif is not sufficient for receptor recognition by SNX17. Here, we identified a cluster of 32 amino acids within the cytoplasmic domain of LRP1 that is both necessary and sufficient for SNX17 binding. To delineate the function of this SNX17-binding domain, we generated chimeric proteins in which the SNX17-binding domain was inserted into the cytoplasmic tail of megalin. This insertion mediated the binding of megalin to SNX17 and modified the cell surface expression and recycling of megalin in non-polarized cells. However, the polarized localization of chimeric megalin was not modified in polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. These results provide evidence regarding the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the specificity of SNX17-binding receptors and the restricted function of SNX17 in the BSE.

  4. Gaining Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Discusses issues schools and universities have encountered in complying with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and making their facilities more accessible to the disabled. The ADA's vagueness and the architect's need for understanding the regulations is highlighted. (GR)

  5. Equal Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Patta, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Presents an interview with Stephen McCarthy, co-partner and president of Equal Access ADA Consulting Architects of San Diego, California, about designing schools to naturally integrate compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). (EV)

  6. Capital access.

    PubMed

    Towne, Jennifer

    2004-06-01

    To maintain their viability, hospitals are being compelled to invest in big capital projects such as information technology and renovation and construction. This gatefold examines the trends in credit and capital, and how they affect hospitals' access to money.

  7. Simplified Digital Spectrum Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Steven W.

    1992-01-01

    Spectrum analyzer computes approximate cross-correlations between noisy input signal and reference signal of known frequency, yielding measure of amplitude of sinusoidal component of input. Complexity and power consumed less than other digital spectrum analyzers. Performs no multiplications, and because processes data on each frequency independently, focuses on narrow spectral range without processing data on rest of spectrum.

  8. Analyzing Peace Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haavelsrud, Magnus; Stenberg, Oddbjorn

    2012-01-01

    Eleven articles on peace education published in the first volume of the Journal of Peace Education are analyzed. This selection comprises peace education programs that have been planned or carried out in different contexts. In analyzing peace pedagogies as proposed in the 11 contributions, we have chosen network analysis as our method--enabling…

  9. Portable automatic blood analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Analyzer employs chemical-sensing electrodes for determination of blood, gas, and ion concentrations. It is rugged, easily serviced, and comparatively simple to operate. System can analyze up to eight parameters and can be modified to measure other blood constituents including nonionic species, such as urea, glucose, and oxygen.

  10. Analyzing Costs of Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, James O.; Black, Talbot

    A simplified method to gather and analyze cost data is presented for administrators of Handicapped Children's Early Education Programs, and specifically for members of the Technical Assistance Development System, North Carolina. After identifying benefits and liabilities associated with analyzing program costs, attention is focused on the internal…

  11. High-speed real-time data classification and cell sorting using discriminant functions and probabilities of misclassification for stem cell enrichment and tumor purging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leary, James F.; McLaughlin, Scott R.; Hokanson, James A.; Rosenblatt, Judah I.

    1998-04-01

    Data analysis and cell sorting are both fundamentally the same except in terms of the time available to make classification decisions. In the case of cell sorting the cell classification decisions must be made in real-time (in the case of cell sorting, real-time means in about 625 microseconds on this system). This dictates an approach to classification which can be implemented at memory speeds or in pre-programmed hardware. We have been developing new high-speed lookup table transformation methods, suitable for real-time data classification or cell sorting based on statistical classifiers. Multiparameter data mixtures of human MCF-7 breast cancer cells and human bone marrow were analyzed by discriminant function analysis. Cell identification tags, implemented as additional correlated listmode parameters not used for these analyses, were used to uniquely identify each cell type and to compare classifier results. The performance of classifier systems was also assessed using ROC ('receiver operating characteristics') analysis. The effectiveness of the classification system for cell sorting can be evaluated using molecular characterizations of sorted cells, either in small numbers or at single-cell level.

  12. Intra- and interboar variability in flow cytometric sperm sex sorting.

    PubMed

    Alkmin, Diego V; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Tarantini, Tatiana; Parlapan, Laura; Del Olmo, David; Vazquez, Juan M; Martinez, Emilio A; Roca, Jordi

    2014-08-01

    To improve the efficiency of porcine sperm sex sorting using flow cytometry, the aims of the present study were to determine the relevance of inter- and intraboar variability in sperm sortability and to evaluate the significance of ejaculate semen characteristics in such variability. In addition, the variability among boars in the ability of sex-sorted spermatozoa to survive liquid storage at 15 °C to 17 °C was also evaluated. In total, 132 ejaculates collected from 67 boars of different breeds that were housed at an artificial insemination center were used in three experiments. X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm were simultaneously separated according to the Beltsville sperm-sorting technology using a high-speed flow cytometer. In the first experiment, interboar variability in the ability of the ejaculated spermatozoa to undergo the flow-based sex-sorting procedure was observed; the ejaculates of nearly 15% of the boars (n = 67) did not exhibit well-defined X- and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa peaks in the histogram, and the ejaculate sperm concentration demonstrated good predictive value for explaining this variation, as indicated by the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (0.88, P < 0.001). In the second experiment, a certain degree of intraboar variability was observed only in the boars that showed poor sperm sortability (measured according to the presence or not a well-defined split together with sperm sortability parameters) in the first ejaculate (n = 3). In contrast, boars classified as having good sperm sortability in the first ejaculate (n = 5) maintained this condition in five ejaculates collected over the subsequent 5 months. In the third experiment, sex-sorted spermatozoa from boars with good sperm sortability (n = 5) remained viable and motile (above 70% in all boars) after 48 hours of storage at 15 °C to 17 °C, which may facilitate the commercial application of sex-sorted spermatozoa in swine artificial insemination programs

  13. Buoyancy-Activated Cell Sorting Using Targeted Biotinylated Albumin Microbubbles

    PubMed Central

    Liou, Yu-Ren; Wang, Yu-Hsin; Lee, Chia-Ying; Li, Pai-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Cell analysis often requires the isolation of certain cell types. Various isolation methods have been applied to cell sorting, including florescence-activated cell sorting and magnetic-activated cell sorting. However, these conventional approaches involve exerting mechanical forces on the cells, thus risking cell damage. In this study we applied a novel isolation method called buoyancy-activated cell sorting, which involves using biotinylated albumin microbubbles (biotin-MBs) conjugated with antibodies (i.e., targeted biotin-MBs). Albumin MBs are widely used as contrast agents in ultrasound imaging due to their good biocompatibility and stability. For conjugating antibodies, biotin is conjugated onto the albumin MB shell via covalent bonds and the biotinylated antibodies are conjugated using an avidin-biotin system. The albumin microbubbles had a mean diameter of 2μm with a polydispersity index of 0.16. For cell separation, the MDA-MB-231 cells are incubated with the targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 for 10 min, centrifuged at 10g for 1 min, and then allowed 1 hour at 4°C for separation. The results indicate that targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 antibodies can be used to separate MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells; more than 90% of the cells were collected in the MB layer when the ratio of the MBs to cells was higher than 70:1. Furthermore, we found that the separating efficiency was higher for targeted biotin-MBs than for targeted avidin-incorporated albumin MBs (avidin-MBs), which is the most common way to make targeted albumin MBs. We also demonstrated that the recovery rate of targeted biotin-MBs was up to 88% and the sorting purity was higher than 84% for a a heterogenous cell population containing MDA-MB-231 cells (CD44+) and MDA-MB-453 cells (CD44–), which are classified as basal-like breast cancer cells and luminal breast cancer cells, respectively. Knowing that the CD44+ is a commonly used cancer-stem-cell biomarker, our targeted

  14. Effect of Wildfire on Sediment Sorting in a Steep Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florsheim, J. L.; Chin, A.; O'Hirok, L.; Storesund, R.

    2014-12-01

    Wildfire is an external forcing factor in the landscape. In chaparral environments, wildfire initiates transport of well-sorted fine sediment through dry-ravel processes on hillslopes and facilitates delivery of sediment to stream channels. In turn, this periodic post-fire sediment influx governs sorting of channel-bed material during subsequent floods that mobilize and transport the sediment downstream. We investigated the effects of the May 2013 Springs Wildfire in the Santa Monica Mountains in semi-arid southern California with field measurements and terrestrial LiDAR scanning. Before the fire, sediment sorting within the heterogeneous bed material present in Big Sycamore Creek was controlled by organized step-pool bedforms. Boulders formed steps with relatively finer cobbles, gravel, and sand filling the pools. Before the fire, the grain size distribution present in the substrate between boulder steps was relatively coarse (D84 = 250 mm), in contrast to that in the influx of sediment contributed by post-fire dry-ravel processes deposited at channel margins (D84 = 8 mm). Flow shear stress during one small flood in 2014 (post-fire) was adequate to mobilize fine dry ravel- related sediment. Transport capacity was sufficient to mobilize and transport this sediment within a study reach; however, it was not adequate to flush the fine material downstream. Shear stress required to mobilize sediment contributed by dry ravel was substantially less than that required to transport the substrate material present before the wildfire. The small flood deposited fine sediment (D84 = 16 mm) as flow lost capacity. Resulting deposition buried bedforms, changing the step-pool profile to a plane bed. The relatively poorly sorted, coarse, rough bed changed to a well sorted, fine, smooth, bed. These changes have implications for sediment transport dynamics and aquatic ecology. In steep, semi-arid, chaparral fluvial systems, sediment derived from dry-ravel processes influences the

  15. Software Design Analyzer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tausworthe, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    CRISP80 software design analyzer system a set of programs that supports top-down, hierarchic, modular structured design, and programing methodologies. CRISP80 allows for expression of design as picture of program.

  16. Automatic amino acid analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdahl, B. J.; Carle, G. C.; Oyama, V. I.

    1971-01-01

    Analyzer operates unattended or up to 15 hours. It has an automatic sample injection system and can be programmed. All fluid-flow valve switching is accomplished pneumatically from miniature three-way solenoid pilot valves.

  17. Soil Rock Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A redesigned version of a soil/rock analyzer developed by Martin Marietta under a Langley Research Center contract is being marketed by Aurora Tech, Inc. Known as the Aurora ATX-100, it has self-contained power, an oscilloscope, a liquid crystal readout, and a multichannel spectrum analyzer. It measures energy emissions to determine what elements in what percentages a sample contains. It is lightweight and may be used for mineral exploration, pollution monitoring, etc.

  18. Lecturers' vs. Students' Perceptions of the Accessibility of Instructional Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Linda

    2007-01-01

    This goal of this study was to examine the differences between lecturers and students' perceptions of the accessibility of instructional materials. The perceptions of 12 mature computing distance education students and 12 computing lecturers were examined using the knowledge elicitation techniques of card sorting and laddering. The study showed…

  19. Extending the Online Public Access Catalog into the Microcomputer Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Brett

    1990-01-01

    Describes PCBIS, a database program for MS-DOS microcomputers that features a utility for automatically converting online public access catalog search results stored as text files into structured database files that can be searched, sorted, edited, and printed. Topics covered include the general features of the program, record structure, record…

  20. Flexible Access to Vocational Qualifications. Second Edition. Revised and Updated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pursaill, John; Potter, Mary

    This guide is designed to explore how British further education colleges can open up their vocational programs to the whole community and to describe the sort of strategic planning necessary to achieve flexible access. Chapter 1 discusses the content and purpose of the handbook. Chapter 2 provides an overview of the new framework for vocational…

  1. Self-organized sorting limits behavioral variability in swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copenhagen, Katherine; Quint, David A.; Gopinathan, Ajay

    2016-08-01

    Swarming is a phenomenon where collective motion arises from simple local interactions between typically identical individuals. Here, we investigate the effects of variability in behavior among the agents in finite swarms with both alignment and cohesive interactions. We show that swarming is abolished above a critical fraction of non-aligners who do not participate in alignment. In certain regimes, however, swarms above the critical threshold can dynamically reorganize and sort out excess non-aligners to maintain the average fraction close to the critical value. This persists even in swarms with a distribution of alignment interactions, suggesting a simple, robust and efficient mechanism that allows heterogeneously mixed populations to naturally regulate their composition and remain in a collective swarming state or even differentiate among behavioral phenotypes. We show that, for evolving swarms, this self-organized sorting behavior can couple to the evolutionary dynamics leading to new evolutionarily stable equilibrium populations set by the physical swarm parameters.

  2. Self-organized sorting limits behavioral variability in swarms

    PubMed Central

    Copenhagen, Katherine; Quint, David A.; Gopinathan, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Swarming is a phenomenon where collective motion arises from simple local interactions between typically identical individuals. Here, we investigate the effects of variability in behavior among the agents in finite swarms with both alignment and cohesive interactions. We show that swarming is abolished above a critical fraction of non-aligners who do not participate in alignment. In certain regimes, however, swarms above the critical threshold can dynamically reorganize and sort out excess non-aligners to maintain the average fraction close to the critical value. This persists even in swarms with a distribution of alignment interactions, suggesting a simple, robust and efficient mechanism that allows heterogeneously mixed populations to naturally regulate their composition and remain in a collective swarming state or even differentiate among behavioral phenotypes. We show that, for evolving swarms, this self-organized sorting behavior can couple to the evolutionary dynamics leading to new evolutionarily stable equilibrium populations set by the physical swarm parameters. PMID:27550316

  3. What about inhibition in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test?

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, Jean-Paul; Houssemand, Claude

    2011-05-01

    The commercially available Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) is one of the most commonly used tests for assessing executive functions within clinical settings. Importantly, however, it remains relatively unclear exactly what processes are assessed by the test. Conceptually, increased perseverative errors in sorting cards are usually related to deficient inhibition processes. Empirically, evidence supporting this conclusion is limited. In a sample of 38 healthy adults we addressed the question to what extent inhibition mechanisms assessed by the go/no-go and the stop-signal paradigm are related to WCST performances. Inhibition-related scores were found to predict non-perseverative errors better than perseverative errors. Consequently we conclude that the non-perseverative errors score reflects processes that are partly dependent on inhibition functions.

  4. Theoretical model for morphogenesis and cell sorting in Dictyostelium discoideum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeda, T.; Inouye, K.

    1999-02-01

    The morphogenetic movement and cell sorting in cell aggregates from the mound stage to the migrating slug stage of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum were studied using a mathematical model. The model postulates that the motive force generated by the cells is in equilibrium with the internal pressure and mechanical resistance. The moving boundary problem derived from the force balance equation and the continuity equation has stationary solutions in which the aggregate takes the shape of a spheroid (or an ellipse in two-dimensional space) with the pacemaker at one of its foci, moving at a constant speed. Numerical calculations in two-dimensional space showed that an irregularly shaped aggregate changes its shape to become an ellipse as it moves. Cell aggregates consisting of two cell types differing in motive force exhibit cell sorting and become elongated, suggesting the importance of prestalk/prespore differentiation in the morphogenesis of Dictyostelium.

  5. Sorting and Manipulation of Magnetic Droplets in Continuous Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hetlani, Entesar; Hatt, Oliver J.; Vojtíšek, Martin; Tarn, Mark D.; Iles, Alexander; Pamme, Nicole

    2010-12-01

    We report the rapid on-chip generation and subsequent manipulation of magnetic droplets in continuous flow. Magnetic droplets were formed using aqueous-based ferrofluid as the dispersed phase and fluorocarbon oil as the continuous phase. Droplet manipulation was demonstrated with simple permanent magnets using two microfluidic platforms: (i) flow focusing droplet generation followed by their splitting into daughter droplets containing different amounts of magnetic nanoparticles, and (ii) droplet generation at a T-junction and their downstream deflection across a chamber for sorting based on the applied magnetic field and magnetite loading of the droplet. Both systems show great potential for performing a wide range of high throughput continuous flow processes including sample dilution, cell sorting and screening, and microparticle fabrication.

  6. Spatial sorting promotes the spread of maladaptive hybridization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowe, Winsor H.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Allendorf, Fred W.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive hybridization is causing loss of biodiversity worldwide. The spread of such introgression can occur even when hybrids have reduced Darwinian fitness, which decreases the frequency of hybrids due to low survival or reproduction through time. This paradox can be partially explained by spatial sorting, where genotypes associated with dispersal increase in frequency at the edge of expansion, fueling further expansion and allowing invasive hybrids to increase in frequency through space rather than time. Furthermore, because all progeny of a hybrid will be hybrids (i.e., will possess genes from both parental taxa), nonnative admixture in invaded populations can increase even when most hybrid progeny do not survive. Broader understanding of spatial sorting is needed to protect native biodiversity.

  7. Method and apparatus for electrostatically sorting biological cells

    DOEpatents

    Merrill, John T.

    1982-01-01

    An improved method of sorting biological cells in a conventional cell sorter apparatus includes generating a fluid jet containing cells to be sorted, measuring the distance between the centers of adjacent droplets in a zone thereof defined at the point where the fluid jet separates into descrete droplets, setting the distance between the center of a droplet in said separation zone and the position along said fluid jet at which the cell is optically sensed for specific characteristics to be an integral multiple of said center-to-center distance, and disabling a charger from electrically charging a specific droplet if a cell is detected by the optical sensor in a position wherein it will be in the neck area between droplets during droplet formation rather than within a predetermined distance from the droplet center.

  8. Self-organized sorting limits behavioral variability in swarms.

    PubMed

    Copenhagen, Katherine; Quint, David A; Gopinathan, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Swarming is a phenomenon where collective motion arises from simple local interactions between typically identical individuals. Here, we investigate the effects of variability in behavior among the agents in finite swarms with both alignment and cohesive interactions. We show that swarming is abolished above a critical fraction of non-aligners who do not participate in alignment. In certain regimes, however, swarms above the critical threshold can dynamically reorganize and sort out excess non-aligners to maintain the average fraction close to the critical value. This persists even in swarms with a distribution of alignment interactions, suggesting a simple, robust and efficient mechanism that allows heterogeneously mixed populations to naturally regulate their composition and remain in a collective swarming state or even differentiate among behavioral phenotypes. We show that, for evolving swarms, this self-organized sorting behavior can couple to the evolutionary dynamics leading to new evolutionarily stable equilibrium populations set by the physical swarm parameters. PMID:27550316

  9. New optical configuration for flow cytometric sorting of aspherical cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, John C.; Schaare, Peter N.; Kuennemeyer, Rainer

    1997-05-01

    The orthogonal axes of illumination, flow, and detection in conventional sorting flow cytometers can limit accuracy or throughput when making fluorescence measurements on a spherical cells. A new radially symmetric optical configuration has been designed to overcome these problems. Both illumination and fluorescence collection are performed by a single optical element which encircles the sample stream flow axis. Unlike existing epi-illumination flow cytometer designs, these optics are compatible with electrostatic sorting. The resolution of this system is currently being evaluated for DNA chromosome content measurement with an ultimate goal of separation of X- and Y- chromosome-bearing mammalian spermatozoa. We describe the new optical configuration and present preliminary results of instrument performance. Comparison with a conventional orthogonal optical geometry is made using fluorescent microspheres, chicken red blood cells and chinchilla sperm.

  10. Large area magnetic micropallet arrays for cell colony sorting.

    PubMed

    Cox-Muranami, Wesley A; Nelson, Edward L; Li, G P; Bachman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    A new micropallet array platform for adherent cell colony sorting has been developed. The platform consisted of thousands of square plastic pallets, 270 μm by 270 μm on each side, large enough to hold a single colony of cells. Each pallet included a magnetic core, allowing them to be collected with a magnet after being released using a microscope mounted laser system. The micropallets were patterned from 1002F epoxy resist and were fabricated on translucent, gold coated microscope slides. The gold layer was used as seed for electroplating the ferromagnetic cores within every individual pallet. The gold layer also facilitated the release of each micropallet during laser release. This array allows for individual observation, sorting and collection of isolated cell colonies for biological cell colony research. In addition to consistent release and recovery of individual colonies, we demonstrated stable biocompatibility and minimal loss in imaging quality compared to previously developed micropallet arrays. PMID:26606460

  11. Control of a brain-computer interface without spike sorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, George W.; Chase, Steven M.; Whitford, Andrew; Schwartz, Andrew B.

    2009-10-01

    Two rhesus monkeys were trained to move a cursor using neural activity recorded with silicon arrays of 96 microelectrodes implanted in the primary motor cortex. We have developed a method to extract movement information from the recorded single and multi-unit activity in the absence of spike sorting. By setting a single threshold across all channels and fitting the resultant events with a spline tuning function, a control signal was extracted from this population using a Bayesian particle-filter extraction algorithm. The animals achieved high-quality control comparable to the performance of decoding schemes based on sorted spikes. Our results suggest that even the simplest signal processing is sufficient for high-quality neuroprosthetic control.

  12. Proteoglycan-mediated axon degeneration corrects pretarget topographic sorting errors.

    PubMed

    Poulain, Fabienne E; Chien, Chi-Bin

    2013-04-10

    Proper arrangement of axonal projections into topographic maps is crucial for brain function, especially in sensory systems. An important mechanism for map formation is pretarget axon sorting, in which topographic ordering of axons appears in tracts before axons reach their target, but this process remains poorly understood. Here, we show that selective axon degeneration is used as a correction mechanism to eliminate missorted axons in the optic tract during retinotectal development in zebrafish. Retinal axons are not precisely ordered during initial pathfinding but become corrected later, with missorted axons selectively fragmenting and degenerating. We further show that heparan sulfate is required non-cell-autonomously to correct missorted axons and that restoring its synthesis at late stages in a deficient mutant is sufficient to restore topographic sorting. These findings uncover a function for developmental axon degeneration in ordering axonal projections and identify heparan sulfate as a key regulator of that process. PMID:23583107

  13. Cell wall sorting of lipoproteins in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed Central

    Navarre, W W; Daefler, S; Schneewind, O

    1996-01-01

    Many surface proteins are thought to be anchored to the cell wall of gram-positive organisms via their C termini, while the N-terminal domains of these molecules are displayed on the bacterial surface. Cell wall anchoring of surface proteins in Staphylococcus aureus requires both an N-terminal leader peptide and a C-terminal cell wall sorting signal. By fusing the cell wall sorting of protein A to the C terminus of staphylococcal beta-lactamase, we demonstrate here that lipoproteins can also be anchored to the cell wall of S. aureus. The topology of cell wall-anchored beta-lactamase is reminiscent of that described for Braun's murein lipoprotein in that the N terminus of the polypeptide chain is membrane anchored whereas the C-terminal end is tethered to the bacterial cell wall. PMID:8550464

  14. Commensal bacteria direct selective cargo sorting to promote symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qin; Pan, Ying; Yan, Ruiqing; Zeng, Benhua; Wang, Haifang; Zhang, Xinwen; Li, Wenxia; Wei, Hong; Liu, Zhihua

    2015-09-01

    Mucosal immunity protects a host from intestinal inflammation and infection and is profoundly influenced by symbiotic bacteria. Here we report that in mice symbiotic bacteria directed selective cargo sorting in Paneth cells to promote symbiosis through Nod2, a cytosolic bacterial sensor, and the multifunctional protein kinase LRRK2, both encoded by inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-associated genes. Commensals recruited Nod2 onto lysozyme-containing dense core vesicles (DCVs), which was required for DCV localization of LRRK2 and a small GTPase, Rab2a. Deficiency of Nod2, LRRK2 or Rab2a or depletion of commensals resulted in lysosomal degradation of lysozyme. Thus, commensal bacteria and host factors orchestrate the lysozyme-sorting process to protect the host from enteric infection, implicating Paneth cell dysfunction in IBD pathogenesis.

  15. Size-reduction and sorting behavior in sieve hammer mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schallnus, Harald

    Experiments were performed in a continuously operating sieve hammer mill to determine the duration of presence of the material to be ground in the size reduction machine. The test stand, analysis techniques, evaluation methods, and selection and production of samples are described. It is shown that the duration of presence of the material in the grinding space of the mill is approximately comparable to that in an ideal mixer. The type of sieve casing has an essential effect on the duration of presence. A combined model for the description of the size reduction and sorting behavior which allows the determination of the process coefficients (size reduction speed, sorting speed, mass transition coefficient) and their dependence on the different parameters, was developed.

  16. Droplet sorting in a loop of flat microfluidic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadivar, Erfan; Herminghaus, Stephan; Brinkmann, Martin

    2013-07-01

    Motivated by recent experiments, we numerically study the droplet traffic in microfluidic channels forming an asymmetric loop with a long and a short arm. The loop is connected to an inlet and an outlet channel by two right angled T-junctions. Assuming flat channels, we employ the boundary element method (BEM) to numerically solve the two-dimensional Darcy equation that governs two phase flow in the Hele-Shaw limit. The occurrence of different sorting regimes is summarized in sorting diagrams in terms of droplet size, distance between consecutive droplets in the inlet channel, and loop asymmetry for mobility ratios of the liquid phases larger and smaller than one. For large droplet distances, the traffic is regulated by the ratio of the total hydraulic resistances of the long and short arms. At high droplet densities and below a critical droplet size, droplet-droplet collisions are observed for both mobility ratios.

  17. Large area magnetic micropallet arrays for cell colony sorting.

    PubMed

    Cox-Muranami, Wesley A; Nelson, Edward L; Li, G P; Bachman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    A new micropallet array platform for adherent cell colony sorting has been developed. The platform consisted of thousands of square plastic pallets, 270 μm by 270 μm on each side, large enough to hold a single colony of cells. Each pallet included a magnetic core, allowing them to be collected with a magnet after being released using a microscope mounted laser system. The micropallets were patterned from 1002F epoxy resist and were fabricated on translucent, gold coated microscope slides. The gold layer was used as seed for electroplating the ferromagnetic cores within every individual pallet. The gold layer also facilitated the release of each micropallet during laser release. This array allows for individual observation, sorting and collection of isolated cell colonies for biological cell colony research. In addition to consistent release and recovery of individual colonies, we demonstrated stable biocompatibility and minimal loss in imaging quality compared to previously developed micropallet arrays.

  18. Remote Data Access with IDL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloy, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A tool based on IDL (Interactive Data Language) and DAP (Data Access Protocol) has been developed for user-friendly remote data access. A difficulty for many NASA researchers using IDL is that often the data to analyze are located remotely and are too large to transfer for local analysis. Researchers have developed a protocol for accessing remote data, DAP, which is used for both SOHO and STEREO data sets. Server-side side analysis via IDL routine is available through DAP.

  19. An algorithm to enumerate sorting reversals for signed permutations.

    PubMed

    Siepel, Adam C

    2003-01-01

    The rearrangement distance between single-chromosome genomes can be estimated as the minimum number of inversions required to transform the gene ordering observed in one into that observed in the other. This measure, known as "inversion distance," can be computed as the reversal distance between signed permutations. During the past decade, much progress has been made both on the problem of computing reversal distance and on the related problem of finding a minimum-length sequence of reversals, which is known as "sorting by reversals." For most problem instances, however, many minimum-length sequences of reversals exist, and in the absence of auxiliary information, no one is of greater value than the others. The problem of finding all minimum-length sequences of reversals is thus a natural generalization of sorting by reversals, yet it has received little attention. This problem reduces easily to the problem of finding all "sorting reversals" of one permutation with respect to another - that is, all reversals rho such that, if rho is applied to one permutation, then the reversal distance of that permutation from the other is decreased. In this paper, an efficient algorithm is derived to solve the problem of finding all sorting reversals, and experimental results are presented indicating that, while the new algorithm does not represent a significant improvement in asymptotic terms (it takes O(n(3)) time, for permutations of size n; the problem can now be solved by brute force in Theta(n(3)) time), it performs dramatically better in practice than the best known alternative. An implementation of the algorithm is available at www.cse.ucsc.edu/~acs.

  20. Osteogenic potential of sorted equine mesenchymal stem cell subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Radtke, Catherine L; Nino-Fong, Rodolfo; Rodriguez-Lecompte, Juan Carlos; Esparza Gonzalez, Blanca P; Stryhn, Henrik; McDuffee, Laurie A

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to use non-equilibrium gravitational field-flow fractionation (GrFFF), an immunotag-less method of sorting mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), to sort equine muscle tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MMSCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) into subpopulations and to carry out assays in order to compare their osteogenic capabilities. Cells from 1 young adult horse were isolated from left semitendinosus muscle tissue and from bone marrow aspirates of the fourth and fifth sternebrae. Aliquots of 800 × 10(3) MSCs from each tissue source were sorted into 5 fractions using non-equilibrium GrFFF (GrFFF proprietary system). Pooled fractions were cultured and expanded for use in osteogenic assays, including flow cytometry, histochemistry, bone nodule assays, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for gene expression of osteocalcin (OCN), RUNX2, and osterix. Equine MMSCs and BMSCs were consistently sorted into 5 fractions that remained viable for use in further osteogenic assays. Statistical analysis confirmed strongly significant upregulation of OCN, RUNX2, and osterix for the BMSC fraction 4 with P < 0.00001. Flow cytometry revealed different cell size and granularity for BMSC fraction 4 and MMSC fraction 2 compared to unsorted controls and other fractions. Histochemisty and bone nodule assays revealed positive staining nodules without differences in average nodule area, perimeter, or stain intensity between tissues or fractions. As there are different subpopulations of MSCs with different osteogenic capacities within equine muscle- and bone marrow-derived sources, these differences must be taken into account when using equine stem cell therapy to induce bone healing in veterinary medicine.

  1. Osteogenic potential of sorted equine mesenchymal stem cell subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Radtke, Catherine L.; Nino-Fong, Rodolfo; Rodriguez-Lecompte, Juan Carlos; Esparza Gonzalez, Blanca P.; Stryhn, Henrik; McDuffee, Laurie A.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to use non-equilibrium gravitational field-flow fractionation (GrFFF), an immunotag-less method of sorting mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), to sort equine muscle tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MMSCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) into subpopulations and to carry out assays in order to compare their osteogenic capabilities. Cells from 1 young adult horse were isolated from left semitendinosus muscle tissue and from bone marrow aspirates of the fourth and fifth sternebrae. Aliquots of 800 × 103 MSCs from each tissue source were sorted into 5 fractions using non-equilibrium GrFFF (GrFFF proprietary system). Pooled fractions were cultured and expanded for use in osteogenic assays, including flow cytometry, histochemistry, bone nodule assays, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for gene expression of osteocalcin (OCN), RUNX2, and osterix. Equine MMSCs and BMSCs were consistently sorted into 5 fractions that remained viable for use in further osteogenic assays. Statistical analysis confirmed strongly significant upregulation of OCN, RUNX2, and osterix for the BMSC fraction 4 with P < 0.00001. Flow cytometry revealed different cell size and granularity for BMSC fraction 4 and MMSC fraction 2 compared to unsorted controls and other fractions. Histochemisty and bone nodule assays revealed positive staining nodules without differences in average nodule area, perimeter, or stain intensity between tissues or fractions. As there are different subpopulations of MSCs with different osteogenic capacities within equine muscle- and bone marrow-derived sources, these differences must be taken into account when using equine stem cell therapy to induce bone healing in veterinary medicine. PMID:25852225

  2. Sorting and biological characteristics analysis for side population cells in human primary hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yegui; Gao, Hucheng; Liu, Mingdong; Mao, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cause of the tumor worldwide, its incidence is increasing year by year. This study aims to investigate the sorting and biological characteristics of side population (SP) cells. Human HCC tissues used were obtained from patients undergoing surgical resection. SP cells were sorted using flow cytometry. Cell cycle assay, apoptosis assay and colony formation assay were performed to detect cell proliferation and apoptosis. Invasion assay was employed to examine SP cell invasion. Tumorigenicity assay was used to evaluate tumorigenicity. HCC related microRNAs (miRNA) were analyzed using Micro-array analysis. Target genes were predicted using miRNA database. GO analsis was employed to predict target gene function. Apoptosis percentage was lower and cell viability was higher in SP cells than non-SP (NSP) cells. Colony forming ability of SP cells was significantly higher than NSP cells. Transwell assay positive cells in SP cells were higher significantly than NSP cells. Tumorigenicity of SP cells was higher significantly than NSP cells. 107 differentially expression miRNA were discovered, including 45 up-expressed miRNAs and 62 down-expressed miRNAs in SP cells. Up-regulated hsa-miR-193b-3p and hsa-miR-505-3p predict 25 and 35 target genes, and correlated with 4 and 42 GO terms, respectively. Down-regulated hsa-miR-200a-3p, hsa-miR-194-5p, hsa-miR-130b-3p predict 133, 48 and 127 target genes, and correlate with 10, 7 and 109 GO terms, respectively. In conclusion, proliferation, colony formation, anti-apoptosis, self-renewal capavility, invasive characteristic and tumorigenicity in SP cells isolated from HCC tissues was higher compared to NSP cells. Therefore, sorted SP cells could characterize with biological functions of cancer stem cells. PMID:27725897

  3. Hemodialysis access - self care

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency - hemodialysis access; Chronic kidney failure - hemodialysis access; Chronic renal failure - hemodialysis access; dialysis - hemodialysis access

  4. Thermochemical Pretreatment for Anaerobic Digestion of Sorted Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, W.; Hongtao, W.

    2008-02-01

    The effect of alkaline hydrothermal pre-treatment for anaerobic digestion of mechanically-sorted municipal solid waste (MSW) and source-sorted waste was studied. Waste was hydrothermally pre-treated in dilute alkali solution. Hydrolysis product was incubated in 500 ml saline bottle to determine methane potential (MP) under mesospheric anaerobic conditions. Optimum reaction condition obtained in the study is 170 °C at the dose of 4 g NaOH/100 g solid for one hour. Soluble COD was 13936 mg/L and methane yield was 164 ml/g VS for 6 days incubation at optimum conditions. More than 50% biogas increase was achieved over the control, and methane conversion ratio on carbon basis was enhanced to 30.6%. The digestion period was less than 6 days when pre-treatment temperature was above 130 °C. The organic part of sorted waste is mainly constituted of kitchen garbage and leaf. Model kitchen garbage was completely liquidized at 130 °C for one hour and the methane yield was 276 ml/g VS. Addition of alkali enhance hydroxylation rate and methane yield slightly. The biogas potential of leaf could be observed by pre-treatment above 150 °C under alkaline condition.

  5. Efficient Architecture for Spike Sorting in Reconfigurable Hardware

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Wen-Jyi; Lee, Wei-Hao; Lin, Shiow-Jyu; Lai, Sheng-Ying

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel hardware architecture for fast spike sorting. The architecture is able to perform both the feature extraction and clustering in hardware. The generalized Hebbian algorithm (GHA) and fuzzy C-means (FCM) algorithm are used for feature extraction and clustering, respectively. The employment of GHA allows efficient computation of principal components for subsequent clustering operations. The FCM is able to achieve near optimal clustering for spike sorting. Its performance is insensitive to the selection of initial cluster centers. The hardware implementations of GHA and FCM feature low area costs and high throughput. In the GHA architecture, the computation of different weight vectors share the same circuit for lowering the area costs. Moreover, in the FCM hardware implementation, the usual iterative operations for updating the membership matrix and cluster centroid are merged into one single updating process to evade the large storage requirement. To show the effectiveness of the circuit, the proposed architecture is physically implemented by field programmable gate array (FPGA). It is embedded in a System-on-Chip (SOC) platform for performance measurement. Experimental results show that the proposed architecture is an efficient spike sorting design for attaining high classification correct rate and high speed computation. PMID:24189331

  6. Sort-Mid tasks scheduling algorithm in grid computing.

    PubMed

    Reda, Naglaa M; Tawfik, A; Marzok, Mohamed A; Khamis, Soheir M

    2015-11-01

    Scheduling tasks on heterogeneous resources distributed over a grid computing system is an NP-complete problem. The main aim for several researchers is to develop variant scheduling algorithms for achieving optimality, and they have shown a good performance for tasks scheduling regarding resources selection. However, using of the full power of resources is still a challenge. In this paper, a new heuristic algorithm called Sort-Mid is proposed. It aims to maximizing the utilization and minimizing the makespan. The new strategy of Sort-Mid algorithm is to find appropriate resources. The base step is to get the average value via sorting list of completion time of each task. Then, the maximum average is obtained. Finally, the task has the maximum average is allocated to the machine that has the minimum completion time. The allocated task is deleted and then, these steps are repeated until all tasks are allocated. Experimental tests show that the proposed algorithm outperforms almost other algorithms in terms of resources utilization and makespan. PMID:26644937

  7. Scalable orbital-angular-momentum sorting without destroying photon states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang-Xiang; Chen, Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Wang, Shuang; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2016-09-01

    Single photons with orbital angular momentum (OAM) have attracted substantial attention from researchers. A single photon can carry infinite OAM values theoretically. Thus, OAM photon states have been widely used in quantum information and fundamental quantum mechanics. Although there have been many methods for sorting quantum states with different OAM values, the nondestructive and efficient sorter of high-dimensional OAM remains a fundamental challenge. Here, we propose a scalable OAM sorter which can categorize different OAM states simultaneously, meanwhile, preserving both OAM and spin angular momentum. Fundamental elements of the sorter are composed of symmetric multiport beam splitters (BSs) and Dove prisms with cascading structure, which in principle can be flexibly and effectively combined to sort arbitrarily high-dimensional OAM photons. The scalable structures proposed here greatly reduce the number of BSs required for sorting high-dimensional OAM states. In view of the nondestructive and extensible features, the sorters can be used as fundamental devices not only for high-dimensional quantum information processing, but also for traditional optics.

  8. Sort-Mid tasks scheduling algorithm in grid computing.

    PubMed

    Reda, Naglaa M; Tawfik, A; Marzok, Mohamed A; Khamis, Soheir M

    2015-11-01

    Scheduling tasks on heterogeneous resources distributed over a grid computing system is an NP-complete problem. The main aim for several researchers is to develop variant scheduling algorithms for achieving optimality, and they have shown a good performance for tasks scheduling regarding resources selection. However, using of the full power of resources is still a challenge. In this paper, a new heuristic algorithm called Sort-Mid is proposed. It aims to maximizing the utilization and minimizing the makespan. The new strategy of Sort-Mid algorithm is to find appropriate resources. The base step is to get the average value via sorting list of completion time of each task. Then, the maximum average is obtained. Finally, the task has the maximum average is allocated to the machine that has the minimum completion time. The allocated task is deleted and then, these steps are repeated until all tasks are allocated. Experimental tests show that the proposed algorithm outperforms almost other algorithms in terms of resources utilization and makespan.

  9. GRAIN SORTING IN COMETARY DUST FROM THE OUTER SOLAR NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    Wozniakiewicz, P. J.; Bradley, J. P.; Ishii, H. A.; Brownlee, D. E.; Kearsley, A. T.; Burchell, M. J.; Price, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    Most young stars are surrounded by a disk of gas and dust. Close to the hot stars, amorphous dust grains from the parent molecular cloud are reprocessed into crystals that are then distributed throughout the accretion disk. In some disks, there is a reduction in crystalline grain size with heliocentric distance from the star. We investigated crystalline grain size distributions in chondritic porous (CP) interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) believed to be from small, icy bodies that accreted in outer regions of the solar nebula. The grains are Mg-rich silicates and Fe-rich sulfides, the two most abundant minerals in CP IDPs. We find that they are predominantly <0.25 {mu}m in radius with a mean grain size that varies from one CP IDP to another. We report a size-density relationship between the silicates and sulfides. A similar size-density relationship between much larger silicate and sulfide grains in meteorites from the asteroid belt is ascribed to aerodynamic sorting. Since the silicate and sulfide grains in CP IDPs are theoretically too small for aerodynamic sorting, their size-density relationship may be due to another process capable of sorting small grains.

  10. Differential vesicular sorting of AMPA and GABAA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yi; Chiu, Shu-Ling; Liu, Bian; Wu, Pei-Hsun; Delannoy, Michael; Lin, Da-Ting; Wirtz, Denis; Huganir, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    In mature neurons AMPA receptors cluster at excitatory synapses primarily on dendritic spines, whereas GABAA receptors cluster at inhibitory synapses mainly on the soma and dendritic shafts. The molecular mechanisms underlying the precise sorting of these receptors remain unclear. By directly studying the constitutive exocytic vesicles of AMPA and GABAA receptors in vitro and in vivo, we demonstrate that they are initially sorted into different vesicles in the Golgi apparatus and inserted into distinct domains of the plasma membrane. These insertions are dependent on distinct Rab GTPases and SNARE complexes. The insertion of AMPA receptors requires SNAP25–syntaxin1A/B–VAMP2 complexes, whereas insertion of GABAA receptors relies on SNAP23–syntaxin1A/B–VAMP2 complexes. These SNARE complexes affect surface targeting of AMPA or GABAA receptors and synaptic transmission. Our studies reveal vesicular sorting mechanisms controlling the constitutive exocytosis of AMPA and GABAA receptors, which are critical for the regulation of excitatory and inhibitory responses in neurons. PMID:26839408

  11. Quadrupole Magnetic Sorting of Porcine Islets of Langerhans

    PubMed Central

    Shenkman, Rustin M.; Chalmers, Jeffrey J.; Hering, Bernhard J.; Kirchhof, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Islet transplantation is emerging as a treatment option for selected patients with type 1 diabetes. Inconsistent isolation, purification, and recovery of large numbers of high-quality islets remain substantial impediments to progress in the field. Removing islets as soon as they are liberated from the pancreas during digestion and circumventing the need for density gradient purification is likely to result in substantially increased viable islet yields by minimizing exposure to proteolytic enzymes, reactive oxygen intermediates, and mechanical stress associated with centrifugation. This study capitalized on the hypervascularity of islets compared with acinar tissue to explore their preferential enrichment with magnetic beads to enable immediate separation in a magnetic field utilizing a quadrupole magnetic sorting. The results demonstrate that (1) preferential enrichment of porcine islets is achievable, but homogeneous bead distribution within the pancreas is difficult to achieve with current protocols; (2) greater than 70% of islets in the dissociated pancreatic tissue were recovered by quadrupole magnetic sorting, but their purity was low; and (3) infused islets purified by density gradients and subsequently passed through quadrupole magnetic sorting had similar potency as uninfused islets. These results demonstrate proof of concept and define the steps for implementation of this technology in pig and human islet isolation. PMID:19505179

  12. Sort-Mid tasks scheduling algorithm in grid computing

    PubMed Central

    Reda, Naglaa M.; Tawfik, A.; Marzok, Mohamed A.; Khamis, Soheir M.

    2014-01-01

    Scheduling tasks on heterogeneous resources distributed over a grid computing system is an NP-complete problem. The main aim for several researchers is to develop variant scheduling algorithms for achieving optimality, and they have shown a good performance for tasks scheduling regarding resources selection. However, using of the full power of resources is still a challenge. In this paper, a new heuristic algorithm called Sort-Mid is proposed. It aims to maximizing the utilization and minimizing the makespan. The new strategy of Sort-Mid algorithm is to find appropriate resources. The base step is to get the average value via sorting list of completion time of each task. Then, the maximum average is obtained. Finally, the task has the maximum average is allocated to the machine that has the minimum completion time. The allocated task is deleted and then, these steps are repeated until all tasks are allocated. Experimental tests show that the proposed algorithm outperforms almost other algorithms in terms of resources utilization and makespan. PMID:26644937

  13. Constant-time parallel sorting algorithm and its optical implementation using smart pixels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louri, Ahmed; Hatch, James A., Jr.; Na, Jongwhoa

    1995-06-01

    Sorting is a fundamental operation that has important implications in a vast number of areas. For instance, sorting is heavily utilized in applications such as database machines, in which hashing techniques are used to accelerate data-processing algorithms. It is also the basis for interprocessor message routing and has strong implications in video telecommunications. However, high-speed electronic sorting networks are difficult to implement with VLSI technology because of the dense, global connectivity required. Optics eliminates this bottleneck by offering global interconnects, massive parallelism, and noninterfering communications. We present a parallel sorting algorithm and its efficient optical implementation. The algorithm sorts n data elements in few steps, independent of the number of elements to be sorted. Thus it is a constant-time sorting algorithm [i.e., O(1) time]. We also estimate the system's performance to show that the proposed sorting algorithm can provide at least 2 orders of magnitude improvement in execution time over conventional electronic algorithms.

  14. Technical assessment of processing plants as exemplified by the sorting of beverage cartons from lightweight packaging wastes.

    PubMed

    Feil, A; Thoden van Velzen, E U; Jansen, M; Vitz, P; Go, N; Pretz, T

    2016-02-01

    The recovery of beverage cartons (BC) in three lightweight packaging waste processing plants (LP) was analyzed with different input materials and input masses in the area of 21-50Mg. The data was generated by gravimetric determination of the sorting products, sampling and sorting analysis. Since the particle size of beverage cartons is larger than 120mm, a modified sampling plan was implemented and targeted multiple sampling (3-11 individual samplings) and a total sample size of respectively 1200l (ca. 60kg) for the BC-products and of about 2400l (ca. 120kg) for material-heterogeneous mixed plastics (MP) and sorting residue products. The results infer that the quantification of the beverage carton yield in the process, i.e., by including all product-containing material streams, can be specified only with considerable fluctuation ranges. Consequently, the total assessment, regarding all product streams, is rather qualitative than quantitative. Irregular operation conditions as well as unfavorable sampling conditions and capacity overloads are likely causes for high confidence intervals. From the results of the current study, recommendations can basically be derived for a better sampling in LP-processing plants. Despite of the suboptimal statistical results, the results indicate very clear that the plants show definite optimisation potentials with regard to the yield of beverage cartons as well as the required product purity. Due to the test character of the sorting trials the plant parameterization was not ideal for this sorting task and consequently the results should be interpreted with care. PMID:26547410

  15. Total organic carbon analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godec, Richard G.; Kosenka, Paul P.; Smith, Brian D.; Hutte, Richard S.; Webb, Johanna V.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1991-01-01

    The development and testing of a breadboard version of a highly sensitive total-organic-carbon (TOC) analyzer are reported. Attention is given to the system components including the CO2 sensor, oxidation reactor, acidification module, and the sample-inlet system. Research is reported for an experimental reagentless oxidation reactor, and good results are reported for linearity, sensitivity, and selectivity in the CO2 sensor. The TOC analyzer is developed with gravity-independent components and is designed for minimal additions of chemical reagents. The reagentless oxidation reactor is based on electrolysis and UV photolysis and is shown to be potentially useful. The stability of the breadboard instrument is shown to be good on a day-to-day basis, and the analyzer is capable of 5 sample analyses per day for a period of about 80 days. The instrument can provide accurate TOC and TIC measurements over a concentration range of 20 ppb to 50 ppm C.

  16. Electrosurgical unit analyzers.

    PubMed

    1998-07-01

    Electrosurgical unit (ESU) analyzers automate the testing and inspection of the output circuits and safety features of ESUs. They perform testing that would otherwise require several other pieces of equipment, as well as considerably more time and greater technician expertise. They are used largely by clinical engineering departments for routine inspection and preventive maintenance (IPM) procedures and, less often, for accident investigations and troubleshooting. In this Evaluation, we tested three ESU analyzers from three suppliers. We rated all three analyzers Acceptable and ranked them in two groupings. In ranking the units, we placed the greatest weight on ease of use for routine ESU inspections, and gave additional consideration to versatility for advanced applications such as ESU research. The unit in Group 1 was the easiest to use, especially for infrequent users. The units in Group 2 were satisfactory but require more frequent use to maintain proficiency and to avoid user errors. PMID:9689540

  17. Sex-sorting of boar spermatozoa does not influence the localization of glucose transporters.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Diego; Galeati, Giovanna; Giaretta, Elisa; Tamanini, Carlo; Spinaci, Marcella

    2013-12-01

    Sex-sorting damages spermatozoa function, shortening their lifespan and fertility. This study used an immunofluorescence technique to investigate the effect of sex-sorting on the localization of glucose transporters (GLUTs) in boar spermatozoa. GLUTs are trans-membrane proteins responsible for glucose transport within cells. Distribution of GLUTs on sperm cells was similar in unsorted and sex-sorted semen, suggesting that the flow cytometric sex-sorting process did not affect the sperm energy apparatus. PMID:24287043

  18. Analyzing radioligand binding data.

    PubMed

    Motulsky, Harvey; Neubig, Richard

    2002-08-01

    Radioligand binding experiments are easy to perform, and provide useful data in many fields. They can be used to study receptor regulation, discover new drugs by screening for compounds that compete with high affinity for radioligand binding to a particular receptor, investigate receptor localization in different organs or regions using autoradiography, categorize receptor subtypes, and probe mechanisms of receptor signaling, via measurements of agonist binding and its regulation by ions, nucleotides, and other allosteric modulators. This unit reviews the theory of receptor binding and explains how to analyze experimental data. Since binding data are usually best analyzed using nonlinear regression, this unit also explains the principles of curve fitting with nonlinear regression.

  19. Experimental investigation of gravity effects on sediment sorting on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Kuhn, Brigitte; Gartmann, Andres

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: Sorting of sedimentary rocks is a proxy for the environmental conditions at the time of deposition, in particular the runoff that moved and deposited the material forming the rocks. Settling of sediment in water is strongly influenced by the gravity of a planetary body. As a consequence, sorting of a sedimentary rock varies with gravity for a given depth and velocity of surface runoff. Theoretical considerations for spheres indicate that sorting is more uniform on Mars than on Earth for runoff of identical depth. In reality, such considerations have to be applied with great caution because the shape of a particle strongly influences drag. Drag itself can only be calculated directly for an irregularly shaped particle with great computational effort, if at all. Therefore, even for terrestrial applications, sediment settling velocities are often determined directly, e.g. by measurements using settling tubes. Experiments: In this study the results of settling tube tests conducted under reduced gravity during three Mars Sedimentation Experiment (MarsSedEx I, II and III) flights, conducted between 2012 and 2015, are presented. Ten types of sediment, ranging in size, shape and density were tested in custom-designed settling tubes during parabolas of Martian gravity lasting 20 to 25 seconds. Results: The experiments conducted during the MarsSedEx reduced gravity experiments showed that the violation of fluid dynamics caused by using empirical models and parameter values developed for sediment transport on Earth lead to significant miscalculations for Mars, specifically an underetsimation of settling velcoity because of an overestimation of turbulant drag. The error is caused by the flawed representation of particle drag on Mars. Drag coefficients are not a property of a sediment particle, but a property of the flow around the particle, and thus strongly affected by gravity. Conlcusions: The observed errors in settling velocity when using terrestrial models

  20. Strengthening 4-H by Analyzing Enrollment Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Stephen F.; Northern, Angela; Neff, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The study reported here used data from the ACCESS 4-H Enrollment System to gain insight into strengthening New York State's 4-H programming. Member enrollment lists from 2009 to 2012 were analyzed using Microsoft Excel to determine trends and dropout rates. The descriptive data indicate declining 4-H enrollment in recent years and peak…

  1. Easy Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettelman, Alan

    2009-01-01

    School and university restrooms, locker and shower rooms have specific ADA accessibility requirements that serve the needs of staff, students and campus visitors who are disabled as a result of injury, illness or age. Taking good care of them is good for the reputation of a sensitive community institution, and fosters positive public relations.…

  2. Access Denied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2012-01-01

    As faculty members add online and multimedia elements to their courses, colleges and universities across the country are realizing that there is a lot of work to be done to ensure that disabled students (and employees) have equal access to course material and university websites. Unfortunately, far too few schools consider the task a top priority.…

  3. Expanding Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    There is no question that the United States lags behind most industrialized nations in consumer access to broadband Internet service. For many policy makers and activists, this shortfall marks the latest phase in the struggle to overcome the digital divide. To remedy this lack of broadband affordability and availability, one start-up firm--with…

  4. Two Types of Perseveration in the Dimension Change Card Sort Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanania, Rima

    2010-01-01

    In the Dimension Change Card Sort (DCCS) task, 3-year-olds can sort cards well by one dimension but have difficulty in switching to sort the same cards by another dimension when asked; that is, they perseverate on the first relevant information. What is the information that children perseverate on? Using a new version of the DCCS, the experiments…

  5. Lazarus's BASIC ID: Making Initial Client Assessments Using Q-Sorts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Mark J.

    1987-01-01

    Presents overview of Lazarus's multimodal therapy model and the Q-sort, an observer-evaluation scoring instrument. Outlines feasibility of integrating Q-sort within multimodal model. Describes both a preliminary attempt using expert raters to categorize Q-sort cards within the model and a case study on how to assess client by incorporating Q-sort…

  6. COST EVALUATION OF AUTOMATED AND MANUAL POST- CONSUMER PLASTIC BOTTLE SORTING SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluates, on the basis of performance and cost, two Automated BottleSort® sorting systems for post-consumer commingled plastic containers developed by Magnetic Separation Systems. This study compares the costs to sort mixed bales of post-consumer plastic at these t...

  7. Enhancing the Executive Functions of 3-Year-Olds in the Dimensional Change Card Sort Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perone, Sammy; Molitor, Stephen J.; Buss, Aaron T.; Spencer, John P.; Samuelson, Larissa K.

    2015-01-01

    Executive functions enable flexible thinking, something young children are notoriously bad at. For instance, in the dimensional change card sort (DCCS) task, 3-year-olds can sort cards by one dimension (shape), but continue to sort by this dimension when asked to switch (to color). This study tests a prediction of a dynamic neural field model that…

  8. Analyzing Bilingual Education Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, Joe J.

    This paper examines the particular problems involved in analyzing the costs of bilingual education and suggests that cost analysis of bilingual education requires a fundamentally different approach than that followed in other recent school finance studies. Focus of the discussion is the Intercultural Development Research Association's (IDRA)…

  9. List mode multichannel analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Archer, Daniel E.; Luke, S. John; Mauger, G. Joseph; Riot, Vincent J.; Knapp, David A.

    2007-08-07

    A digital list mode multichannel analyzer (MCA) built around a programmable FPGA device for onboard data analysis and on-the-fly modification of system detection/operating parameters, and capable of collecting and processing data in very small time bins (<1 millisecond) when used in histogramming mode, or in list mode as a list mode MCA.

  10. Analyzing Workforce Education. Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Community & Technical Coll. Workforce Education Consortium.

    This monograph examines the issue of task analysis as used in workplace literacy programs, debating the need for it and how to perform it in a rapidly changing environment. Based on experiences of community colleges in Texas, the report analyzes ways that task analysis can be done and how to implement work force education programs more quickly.…

  11. Electronic sleep analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, J. D., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    Electronic instrument automatically monitors the stages of sleep of a human subject. The analyzer provides a series of discrete voltage steps with each step corresponding to a clinical assessment of level of consciousness. It is based on the operation of an EEG and requires very little telemetry bandwidth or time.

  12. Ubiquitin initiates sorting of Golgi and plasma membrane proteins into the vacuolar degradation pathway

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In yeast and mammals, many plasma membrane (PM) proteins destined for degradation are tagged with ubiquitin. These ubiquitinated proteins are internalized into clathrin-coated vesicles and are transported to early endosomal compartments. There, ubiquitinated proteins are sorted by the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery into the intraluminal vesicles of multivesicular endosomes. Degradation of these proteins occurs after endosomes fuse with lysosomes/lytic vacuoles to release their content into the lumen. In plants, some PM proteins, which cycle between the PM and endosomal compartments, have been found to be ubiquitinated, but it is unclear whether ubiquitin is sufficient to mediate internalization and thus acts as a primary sorting signal for the endocytic pathway. To test whether plants use ubiquitin as a signal for the degradation of membrane proteins, we have translationally fused ubiquitin to different fluorescent reporters for the plasma membrane and analyzed their transport. Results Ubiquitin-tagged PM reporters localized to endosomes and to the lumen of the lytic vacuole in tobacco mesophyll protoplasts and in tobacco epidermal cells. The internalization of these reporters was significantly reduced if clathrin-mediated endocytosis was inhibited by the coexpression of a mutant of the clathrin heavy chain, the clathrin hub. Surprisingly, a ubiquitin-tagged reporter for the Golgi was also transported into the lumen of the vacuole. Vacuolar delivery of the reporters was abolished upon inhibition of the ESCRT machinery, indicating that the vacuolar delivery of these reporters occurs via the endocytic transport route. Conclusions Ubiquitin acts as a sorting signal at different compartments in the endomembrane system to target membrane proteins into the vacuolar degradation pathway: If displayed at the PM, ubiquitin triggers internalization of PM reporters into the endocytic transport route, but it also mediates

  13. Grain sorting in the morphological active layer of a braided river physical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leduc, P.; Ashmore, P.; Gardner, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    A physical scale model of a gravel-bed braided river was used to measure vertical grain size sorting in the morphological active layer aggregated over the width of the river. This vertical sorting is important for analyzing braided river sedimentology, for numerical modeling of braided river morphodynamics, and for measuring and predicting bedload transport rate. We define the morphological active layer as the bed material between the maximum and minimum bed elevations at a point over extended time periods sufficient for braiding processes to rework the river bed. The vertical extent of the active layer was measured using 40 hourly high-resolution DEMs (digital elevation models) of the model river bed. An image texture algorithm was used to map bed material grain size of each DEM. Analysis of the 40 DEMs and texture maps provides data on the geometry of the morphological active layer and variation in grain size in three dimensions. By normalizing active layer thickness and dividing into 10 sublayers, we show that all grain sizes occur with almost equal frequency in all sublayers. Occurrence of patches and strings of coarser (or finer) material relates to preservation of particular morpho-textural features within the active layer. For numerical modeling and bedload prediction, a morphological active layer that is fully mixed with respect to grain size is a reliable approximation.

  14. Rab43 regulates the sorting of a subset of membrane protein cargo through the medial Golgi

    PubMed Central

    Cox, John V.; Kansal, Rita; Whitt, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the role of cytoplasmic domains of membrane-spanning proteins in directing trafficking through the secretory pathway, we generated fluorescently tagged VSV G tsO45 with either the native G tail (G) or a cytoplasmic tail derived from the chicken AE1-4 anion exchanger (GAE). We previously showed that these two proteins progressed through the Golgi with distinct kinetics. To investigate the basis for the differential sorting of G and GAE, we analyzed the role of several Golgi-associated small GTP-binding proteins and found that Rab43 differentially regulated their transport through the Golgi. We show that the expression of GFP-Rab43 arrested the anterograde transport of GAE in a Rab43-positive medial Golgi compartment. GFP-Rab43 expression also inhibited the acquisition of endoH-resistant sugars and the surface delivery of GAE, as well as the surface delivery of the AE1-4 anion exchanger. In contrast, GFP-Rab43 expression did not affect the glycosylation or surface delivery of G. Unexpectedly, down-regulation of endogenous Rab43 using small interfering RNA resulted in an increase in the accumulation of GAE on the cell surface while having minimal effect on the surface levels of G. Our data demonstrate that Rab43 regulates the sorting of a subset of membrane-spanning cargo as they progress through the medial Golgi. PMID:27053659

  15. Computer vision-based sorting of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fillets according to their color level.

    PubMed

    Misimi, E; Mathiassen, J R; Erikson, U

    2007-01-01

    Computer vision method was used to evaluate the color of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fillets. Computer vision-based sorting of fillets according to their color was studied on 2 separate groups of salmon fillets. The images of fillets were captured using a digital camera of high resolution. Images of salmon fillets were then segmented in the regions of interest and analyzed in red, green, and blue (RGB) and CIE Lightness, redness, and yellowness (Lab) color spaces, and classified according to the Roche color card industrial standard. Comparisons of fillet color between visual evaluations were made by a panel of human inspectors, according to the Roche SalmoFan lineal standard, and the color scores generated from computer vision algorithm showed that there were no significant differences between the methods. Overall, computer vision can be used as a powerful tool to sort fillets by color in a fast and nondestructive manner. The low cost of implementing computer vision solutions creates the potential to replace manual labor in fish processing plants with automation.

  16. Evaluation of cell sorting aerosols and containment by an optical airborne particle counter.

    PubMed

    Xie, Mike; Waring, Michael T

    2015-08-01

    Understanding aerosols produced by cell sorting is critical to biosafety risk assessment and validation of containment efficiency. In this study an Optical Airborne Particle Counter was used to analyze aerosols produced by the BD FACSAria and to assess the effectiveness of its aerosol containment. The suitability of using this device to validate containment was directly compared to the Glo-Germ method put forth by the International Society for Advancement of Cytometry (ISAC) as a standard for testing. It was found that high concentrations of aerosols ranging from 0.3 µm to 10 µm can be detected in failure mode, with most less than 5 µm. In most cases, while numerous aerosols smaller than 5 µm were detected by the Optical Airborne Particle Counter, no Glo-Germ particles were detected, indicating that small aerosols are under-evaluated by the Glo-Germ method. The results demonstrate that the Optical Airborne Particle Counter offers a rapid, economic, and quantitative analysis of cell sorter aerosols and represents an improved method over Glo-Germ for the task of routine validation and monitoring of aerosol containment for cell sorting. PMID:26012776

  17. APPL endosomes are not obligatory endocytic intermediates but act as stable cargo-sorting compartments

    PubMed Central

    Kalaidzidis, Inna; Miaczynska, Marta; Brewińska-Olchowik, Marta; Hupalowska, Anna; Ferguson, Charles; Parton, Robert G.; Kalaidzidis, Yannis

    2015-01-01

    Endocytosis allows cargo to enter a series of specialized endosomal compartments, beginning with early endosomes harboring Rab5 and its effector EEA1. There are, however, additional structures labeled by the Rab5 effector APPL1 whose role in endocytic transport remains unclear. It has been proposed that APPL1 vesicles are transport intermediates that convert into EEA1 endosomes. Here, we tested this model by analyzing the ultrastructural morphology, kinetics of cargo transport, and stability of the APPL1 compartment over time. We found that APPL1 resides on a tubulo-vesicular compartment that is capable of sorting cargo for recycling or degradation and that displays long lifetimes, all features typical of early endosomes. Fitting mathematical models to experimental data rules out maturation of APPL1 vesicles into EEA1 endosomes as a primary mechanism for cargo transport. Our data suggest instead that APPL1 endosomes represent a distinct population of Rab5-positive sorting endosomes, thus providing important insights into the compartmental organization of the early endocytic pathway. PMID:26459602

  18. Grain sorting in the morphological active layer of a braided river physical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leduc, P.; Ashmore, P.; Gardner, J. T.

    2015-07-01

    A physical scale model of a gravel-bed braided river was used to measure vertical grain size sorting in the morphological active layer aggregated over the width of the river. This vertical sorting is important for analyzing braided river sedimentology, for numerical modeling of braided river morpho-dynamics and for measuring and predicting bed load transport rate. We define the morphological active layer as the bed material between the maximum and minimum bed elevations at a point over extended time periods sufficient for braiding processes to re-work the river bed. The vertical extent of the active layer was measured using 40 hourly high-resolution DEMs of the model river bed. An image texture algorithm was used to map bed material grain size of each DEM. Analysis of the 40 DEMs and texture maps provides data on the geometry of the morphological active layer and variation in grain size in three-dimensions. Normalizing active layer thickness and dividing into 10 sub-layers we show that all grain sizes occur with almost equal frequency in all sub-layers. Occurrence of patches and strings of coarser (or finer) material relates to preservation of particular morpho-textural features within the active layer. For numerical modeling and bed load prediction a morphological active layer that is fully mixed with respect to grain size is a reliable approximation.

  19. Analyzing Optical Communications Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, William K.; Burk, Brian D.

    1990-01-01

    Optical Communication Link Analysis Program, OPTI, analyzes optical and near-infrared communication links using pulse-position modulation (PPM) and direct detention. Link margins and design-control tables generated from input parameters supplied by user. Enables user to save sets of input parameters that define given link and read them back into program later. Alters automatically any of input parameters to achieve desired link margin. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  20. Analyzing Leakage Through Cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romine, William D.

    1993-01-01

    Two related computer programs written for use in analyzing leakage through cracks. Leakage flow laminar or turbulent. One program used to determine dimensions of crack under given flow conditions and given measured rate of leakage. Other used to determine rate of leakage of gas through crack of given dimensions under given flow conditions. Programs, written in BASIC language, accelerate and facilitate iterative calculations and parametric analyses. Solve equations of Fanno flow. Enables rapid solution of leakage problem.

  1. Controls on and effects of armoring and vertical sorting in aeolian dune fields: A numerical simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xin; Narteau, Clément; Rozier, Olivier

    2016-03-01

    Unlike ripples, there are only few numerical studies on grain size segregation at the scale of dunes in aeolian environments. Here we use a cellular automaton model to analyze vertical sorting in granular mixtures under steady unidirectional flow conditions. We investigate the feedbacks between dune growth and the segregation mechanisms by varying the size of coarse grains and their proportion within the bed. We systematically observe the development of a horizontal layer of coarse grains at the top of which sorted bed forms may grow by amalgamation. The formation of such an armor layer controls the overall sediment transport and availability. The emergence of dunes and the transition from barchan to transverse dune fields depend only on the grain size distribution of the initial sediment layer. As confirmed by observation, this result indicates that armor layers should be present in most arid deserts, where they are likely to control dune morphodynamics.

  2. Cost evaluation of automated and manual post-consumer plastic bottle sorting systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Burgiel, J.; Butcher, W.; Halpern, R.; Oliver, D.; Tangora, P.

    1994-09-01

    The study compares the costs to sort mixed bales of post-consumer plastic at two Magnetic Separation System facilities with costs developed from a study at a manual sorting facility. Three months of historical operating data was provided by each facility. This data, along with data obtained from three-day site visits to each facility, provided the basis for the economic analysis and comparison among the three facilities. Both facilities utilizing the automated sorting system produced material at lower costs than the manual sorting facility, based on overall sorting costs per pound of material generated for sale.

  3. The Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iceland, Charles

    2015-04-01

    As population growth and economic growth take place, and as climate change accelerates, many regions across the globe are finding themselves increasingly vulnerable to flooding. A recent OECD study of the exposure of the world's large port cities to coastal flooding found that 40 million people were exposed to a 1 in 100 year coastal flood event in 2005, and the total value of exposed assets was about US 3,000 billion, or 5% of global GDP. By the 2070s, those numbers were estimated to increase to 150 million people and US 35,000 billion, or roughly 9% of projected global GDP. Impoverished people in developing countries are particularly at risk because they often live in flood-prone areas and lack the resources to respond. WRI and its Dutch partners - Deltares, IVM-VU University Amsterdam, Utrecht University, and PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency - are in the initial stages of developing a robust set of river flood and coastal storm surge risk measures that show the extent of flooding under a variety of scenarios (both current and future), together with the projected human and economic impacts of these flood scenarios. These flood risk data and information will be accessible via an online, easy-to-use Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer. We will also investigate the viability, benefits, and costs of a wide array of flood risk reduction measures that could be implemented in a variety of geographic and socio-economic settings. Together, the activities we propose have the potential for saving hundreds of thousands of lives and strengthening the resiliency and security of many millions more, especially those who are most vulnerable. Mr. Iceland will present Version 1.0 of the Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer and provide a preview of additional elements of the Analyzer to be released in the coming years.

  4. Psychometric properties of the Arab Heritage Activity Card Sort.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Razan; Holm, Margo B

    2013-03-01

    The Activity Card Sort is a valid and reliable assessment tool that was created to assess Participation. It has been translated to several languages and adapted to different international cultures. The most recent version of this tool is the Arabic Heritage Activity Card Sort (A-ACS). The purpose of this study was to establish the psychometric properties of the new Arabic version in Jordanian adults. Forty three Jordanian patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 62 healthy adults were recruited to test the psychometric properties of the tool. The A-ACS correlated moderately with the participation index of the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (r = -0.458, p < 0.00) (concurrent validity), was able to discriminate between patients and healthy participants on the current and retained levels of participation (F = 5.09, p < 0.03; F = 6.01, p < 0.02, respectively) (discriminative validity), and correlated moderately with the total scores of the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (r = -0.458, p < 0.00) and the total score on the Arabic version of the self-report Performance Assessment of Self-care Skills (r = 0.581, p < 0.00) (convergent validity). The tool also showed good test-retest reliability (r = 0.80, p < 0.00) and excellent internal consistency (α = 0.90). The Arabic Heritage of the Activity Card Sort is a valid and reliable tool for Arabic-speaking occupational therapists to use when assessing participation in Jordanian patients with MS or healthy adults. Limitations of this study include using only one diagnostic group from Jordan and examining only the Recovery and Community Versions of the tool. Future studies are needed to examine further psychometric properties for patients with different diagnoses and from different countries in the Arabic region for all three versions of the A-ACS.

  5. Insect’s intestinal organ for symbiont sorting

    PubMed Central

    Ohbayashi, Tsubasa; Takeshita, Kazutaka; Kitagawa, Wataru; Nikoh, Naruo; Koga, Ryuichi; Meng, Xian-Ying; Tago, Kanako; Hori, Tomoyuki; Hayatsu, Masahito; Asano, Kozo; Kamagata, Yoichi; Lee, Bok Luel; Fukatsu, Takema; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo

    2015-01-01

    Symbiosis has significantly contributed to organismal adaptation and diversification. For establishment and maintenance of such host–symbiont associations, host organisms must have evolved mechanisms for selective incorporation, accommodation, and maintenance of their specific microbial partners. Here we report the discovery of a previously unrecognized type of animal organ for symbiont sorting. In the bean bug Riptortus pedestris, the posterior midgut is morphologically differentiated for harboring specific symbiotic bacteria of a beneficial nature. The sorting organ lies in the middle of the intestine as a constricted region, which partitions the midgut into an anterior nonsymbiotic region and a posterior symbiotic region. Oral administration of GFP-labeled Burkholderia symbionts to nymphal stinkbugs showed that the symbionts pass through the constricted region and colonize the posterior midgut. However, administration of food colorings revealed that food fluid enters neither the constricted region nor the posterior midgut, indicating selective symbiont passage at the constricted region and functional isolation of the posterior midgut for symbiosis. Coadministration of the GFP-labeled symbiont and red fluorescent protein-labeled Escherichia coli unveiled selective passage of the symbiont and blockage of E. coli at the constricted region, demonstrating the organ’s ability to discriminate the specific bacterial symbiont from nonsymbiotic bacteria. Transposon mutagenesis and screening revealed that symbiont mutants in flagella-related genes fail to pass through the constricted region, highlighting that both host’s control and symbiont’s motility are involved in the sorting process. The blocking of food flow at the constricted region is conserved among diverse stinkbug groups, suggesting the evolutionary origin of the intestinal organ in their common ancestor. PMID:26324935

  6. Sorting of synaptophysin into special vesicles in nonneuroendocrine epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Synaptophysin is a major transmembrane glycoprotein of a type of small vesicle with an electron-translucent content (SET vesicles), including the approximately 50-nm presynaptic vesicles in neuronal cells, and of similar, somewhat larger (< or = approximately 90 nm) vesicles (SLMV) in neuroendocrine (NE) cells. When certain epithelial non-NE cells, such as human hepatocellular carcinoma PLC cells, were cDNA transfected to synthesize synaptophysin, the new molecules appeared in specific SET vesicles. As this was in contrast to other reports that only NE cells were able to sort synaptophysin away from other plasma membrane proteins into presynaptic- or SLMV-type vesicles, we have further characterized the vesicles containing synaptophysin in transfected PLC cells. Using fractionation and immunoisolation techniques, we have separated different kinds of vesicles, and we have identified a distinct type of synaptophysin-rich, small (30-90-nm) vesicle that contains little, if any, protein of the constitutive secretory pathway marker hepatitis B surface antigen, of the fluid phase endocytosis marker HRP, and of the plasma membrane recycling endosomal marker transferrin receptor. In addition, we have found variously sized vesicles that contained both synaptophysin and transferrin receptor. A corresponding result was also obtained by direct visualization, using double-label immunofluorescence microscopy for the endocytotic markers and synaptophysin in confocal laser scan microscopy and in double- immunogold label electron microscopy. We conclude that diverse non-NE cells of epithelial nature are able to enrich the "foreign" molecule synaptophysin in a category of SET vesicles that are morphologically indistinguishable from SLMV of NE cells, including one type of vesicle in which synaptophysin is sorted away from endosomal marker proteins. Possible mechanisms of this sorting are discussed. PMID:7798314

  7. Preliminary Results on Sediment Sorting Under Intense Bedload Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez Moreira, R. R.; Vautin, D.; Mathews, S. L.; Kuprenas, R.; Viparelli, E.

    2014-12-01

    Previous experiments show that parallel-laminated deposits are emplaced under upper plane bed regime by the migration of small-amplitude, long-wavelength bedforms. The present research focuses on how sediment is sorted under upper plane bed and sheet flow transport regimes, and whether parallel-lamination is inhibited during sheet flow transport. The problem of studying the sorting of sediment under so intense transport conditions is plagued by the uncertainties related to flow resistances and bedload transport rates. We simplify the problem by first running the experiments with uniform sediment, to establish a baseline that will aid in the design of the experiments with poorly sorted material. We are running experiments at the Hydraulics Laboratory of the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of South Carolina in Columbia, in a unidirectional sediment-feed flume, 9 meters long by 0.2 meters wide, of which 7 meters are used as test section. During the experiments, water surface and bed elevations are periodically measured to characterize the global parameters of the flow, e.g. mean flow velocity and bed shear stress. When the flow and the sediment transport reach conditions of mobile bed equilibrium, bed elevation fluctuations are measured with ultrasonic transducer systems at six fixed locations. Channel bed aggradation is then induced by slowly raising the tail gate of the flume such that there is no change in transport regime, as confirmed by additional measurements of water surface and bed elevation and bed elevation fluctuations. Preliminary observations under upper plane bed regime show the formation of the small-amplitude and long-wavelength bedforms, as well as hints of parallel lamination in the deposits. In the near future we aim to achieve sheet flow transport conditions with both uniform and non-uniform grain size distributions to look at the internal structure of the emplaced deposit.

  8. Meat quality variation in the robotic sorting of pork loins.

    PubMed

    Swatland, H J; Uttaro, B; Goldenberg, A A; Lu, Z

    1998-10-01

    A robot was used to make fiber-optic reflectance measurements from 400 to 700 nm in 10-nm increments at six sites, 10 cm apart, along the length of 48 pork loins. Meat quality was assessed in the longissimus dorsi near the thoracolumbar junction using 1) a bag-drip method for fluid loss, 2) a subjective evaluation of wetness, 3) a colorimeter measurement of paleness (CIE L), and 4) a subjective evaluation for Japanese pork color scores (JPCS). Sorting of the loins in the commercial plant from which they originated was correlated (P < .01) with fluid loss (r=.57), with wetness scores (r=-.57), with CIE L* (r=.71), and with JPCS (r=-.64). Laboratory measurements of pH at the site of meat quality assessment were correlated (P < .01) with fluid loss (r=-.61), with wetness scores (r=.65), with CIE L* (r=-.74), and with JPCS (r=.77). Average spectra obtained robotically were correlated (P < .01) with fluid loss (r=.56 at 670 nm, and R=.76 adding 560 and 540 nm), with wetness score (r=-.65 at 480 nm, and R=.75 adding 530 and 570 nm), with CIE L* (r=.76 at 480 nm, and R=.82 adding 690 and 520 nm), and with JPCS (r=-.70). In sorting loins that were all categorized as normal at the plant, mean reflectance data collected robotically were correlated with fluid loss, r=.42 (P > .05) at 700 nm and R=.58 (P > .05) adding 430 nm; with wetness score, r=.25 (P > .05); with CIE L*, r=.58 (P < .025) at 700 nm; and with JPCS, r=-.71 (P < .01) at 700 nm. Thus, as well as detecting obvious PSE loins, the robotic probe also had a limited capability to sort loins all categorized as normal at the plant.

  9. An ultrasensitive sorting mechanism for EGF Receptor Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt-Glenewinkel, Hannah; Vacheva, Ivayla; Hoeller, Daniela; Dikic, Ivan; Eils, Roland

    2008-01-01

    Background The Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) receptor has been shown to internalize via clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE) in a ligand concentration dependent manner. From a modeling point of view, this resembles an ultrasensitive response, which is the ability of signaling networks to suppress a response for low input values and to increase to a pre-defined level for inputs exceeding a certain threshold. Several mechanisms to generate this behaviour have been described theoretically, the underlying assumptions of which, however, have not been experimentally demonstrated for the EGF receptor internalization network. Results Here, we present a mathematical model of receptor sorting into alternative pathways that explains the EGF-concentration dependent response of CIE. The described mechanism involves a saturation effect of the dominant clathrin-dependent endocytosis pathway and implies distinct steady-states into which the system is forced for low vs high EGF stimulations. The model is minimal since no experimentally unjustified reactions or parameter assumptions are imposed. We demonstrate the robustness of the sorting effect for large parameter variations and give an analytic derivation for alternative steady-states that are reached. Further, we describe extensibility of the model to more than two pathways which might play a role in contexts other than receptor internalization. Conclusion Our main result is that a scenario where different endocytosis routes consume the same form of receptor corroborates the observation of a clear-cut, stimulus dependent sorting. This is especially important since a receptor modification discriminating between the pathways has not been found experimentally. The model is not restricted to EGF receptor internalization and might account for ultrasensitivity in other cellular contexts. PMID:18394191

  10. Construction of DNA libraries from flow sorted human chromosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Deaven, L.L.; McCormick, M.K.; Grady, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    We have constructed a series of DNA libraries from flow-sorted chromosomes. Small insert, complete digest libraries cloned into the EcoRI insertion site of Charon 21A are available from the American Type Culture Collection, Rockville, MD. Partial digest libraries cloned into cosmid (sCos1) or phage (Charon 40) vectors have been constructed for chromosomes 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 20, X and Y. Purity estimates by in situ analysis of sorted chromosomes, flow karyotype analysis, and plaque or colony hybridization indicate that most of these libraries are 90-95% pure. Additional cosmid library constructions, 5-10X arrays of libraries into microtiter plates, and high density membrane arrays of libraries are in progress. Recently, we have completed YAC libraries for chromosomes 5, 9, 16, and 21. These libraries are made from complete DNA digests using the rare cutters Clal, SacII, EagI, or NotI/NheI. The average insert size is {similar_to}200 kb, and chimera frequencies are low (1-10%). Libraries have also been constructed using M13 or bluescript vectors (chromosomes 5, 7, 17) to generate STS markers for the selection of chromosome-specific inserts from total genomic AC libraries. Because of the advantages of insert size and stability associated with BAC and PAC cloning systems, we are currently attempting to adapt pBAC108L and pCYPAC1 vectors for use with flow-sorted chromosomal DNA.

  11. Automated single cell sorting and deposition in submicroliter drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salánki, Rita; Gerecsei, Tamás; Orgovan, Norbert; Sándor, Noémi; Péter, Beatrix; Bajtay, Zsuzsa; Erdei, Anna; Horvath, Robert; Szabó, Bálint

    2014-08-01

    Automated manipulation and sorting of single cells are challenging, when intact cells are needed for further investigations, e.g., RNA or DNA sequencing. We applied a computer controlled micropipette on a microscope admitting 80 PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) tubes to be filled with single cells in a cycle. Due to the Laplace pressure, fluid starts to flow out from the micropipette only above a critical pressure preventing the precise control of drop volume in the submicroliter range. We found an anomalous pressure additive to the Laplace pressure that we attribute to the evaporation of the drop. We have overcome the problem of the critical dropping pressure with sequentially operated fast fluidic valves timed with a millisecond precision. Minimum drop volume was 0.4-0.7 μl with a sorting speed of 15-20 s per cell. After picking NE-4C neuroectodermal mouse stem cells and human primary monocytes from a standard plastic Petri dish we could gently deposit single cells inside tiny drops. 94 ± 3% and 54 ± 7% of the deposited drops contained single cells for NE-4C and monocytes, respectively. 7.5 ± 4% of the drops contained multiple cells in case of monocytes. Remaining drops were empty. Number of cells deposited in a drop could be documented by imaging the Petri dish before and after sorting. We tuned the adhesion force of cells to make the manipulation successful without the application of microstructures for trapping cells on the surface. We propose that our straightforward and flexible setup opens an avenue for single cell isolation, critically needed for the rapidly growing field of single cell biology.

  12. Consensus-Based Sorting of Neuronal Spike Waveforms.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Julien; Mueller, Christian M; Shein-Idelson, Mark; Hemberger, Mike; Laurent, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing spike-sorting algorithms is difficult because sorted clusters can rarely be checked against independently obtained "ground truth" data. In most spike-sorting algorithms in use today, the optimality of a clustering solution is assessed relative to some assumption on the distribution of the spike shapes associated with a particular single unit (e.g., Gaussianity) and by visual inspection of the clustering solution followed by manual validation. When the spatiotemporal waveforms of spikes from different cells overlap, the decision as to whether two spikes should be assigned to the same source can be quite subjective, if it is not based on reliable quantitative measures. We propose a new approach, whereby spike clusters are identified from the most consensual partition across an ensemble of clustering solutions. Using the variability of the clustering solutions across successive iterations of the same clustering algorithm (template matching based on K-means clusters), we estimate the probability of spikes being clustered together and identify groups of spikes that are not statistically distinguishable from one another. Thus, we identify spikes that are most likely to be clustered together and therefore correspond to consistent spike clusters. This method has the potential advantage that it does not rely on any model of the spike shapes. It also provides estimates of the proportion of misclassified spikes for each of the identified clusters. We tested our algorithm on several datasets for which there exists a ground truth (simultaneous intracellular data), and show that it performs close to the optimum reached by a support vector machine trained on the ground truth. We also show that the estimated rate of misclassification matches the proportion of misclassified spikes measured from the ground truth data. PMID:27536990

  13. Consensus-Based Sorting of Neuronal Spike Waveforms

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Julien; Mueller, Christian M.; Shein-Idelson, Mark; Hemberger, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing spike-sorting algorithms is difficult because sorted clusters can rarely be checked against independently obtained “ground truth” data. In most spike-sorting algorithms in use today, the optimality of a clustering solution is assessed relative to some assumption on the distribution of the spike shapes associated with a particular single unit (e.g., Gaussianity) and by visual inspection of the clustering solution followed by manual validation. When the spatiotemporal waveforms of spikes from different cells overlap, the decision as to whether two spikes should be assigned to the same source can be quite subjective, if it is not based on reliable quantitative measures. We propose a new approach, whereby spike clusters are identified from the most consensual partition across an ensemble of clustering solutions. Using the variability of the clustering solutions across successive iterations of the same clustering algorithm (template matching based on K-means clusters), we estimate the probability of spikes being clustered together and identify groups of spikes that are not statistically distinguishable from one another. Thus, we identify spikes that are most likely to be clustered together and therefore correspond to consistent spike clusters. This method has the potential advantage that it does not rely on any model of the spike shapes. It also provides estimates of the proportion of misclassified spikes for each of the identified clusters. We tested our algorithm on several datasets for which there exists a ground truth (simultaneous intracellular data), and show that it performs close to the optimum reached by a support vector machine trained on the ground truth. We also show that the estimated rate of misclassification matches the proportion of misclassified spikes measured from the ground truth data. PMID:27536990

  14. Microfabricated Sieve for the Continuous Sorting of Macromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, T. A. J.; Austin, R. H.

    1998-02-01

    In a two-dimensional periodic but asymmetric environment, a Brownian particle that is driven in one direction by a potential gradient will also drift in the orthogonal direction at a rate that depends on its diffusion coefficient. On this basis, we propose a new method for separating biological macromolecules according to size. A fine stream of molecules is electrophoresed through a microfabricated sieve, etched from a silicon chip by lithography. The sieve consists of a periodic array of oblong obstacles, which deflect the molecules so that each species follows a different trajectory, oblique to the flow. Advantages promised by the technique include improved efficiency, continuous sorting and ready automation.

  15. Shrink-induced sorting using integrated nanoscale magnetic traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawarathna, Dharmakeerthi; Norouzi, Nazila; McLane, Jolie; Sharma, Himanshu; Sharac, Nicholas; Grant, Ted; Chen, Aaron; Strayer, Scott; Ragan, Regina; Khine, Michelle

    2013-02-01

    We present a plastic microfluidic device with integrated nanoscale magnetic traps (NSMTs) that separates magnetic from non-magnetic beads with high purity and throughput, and unprecedented enrichments. Numerical simulations indicate significantly higher localized magnetic field gradients than previously reported. We demonstrated >20 000-fold enrichment for 0.001% magnetic bead mixtures. Since we achieve high purity at all flow-rates tested, this is a robust, rapid, portable, and simple solution to sort target species from small volumes amenable for point-of-care applications. We used the NSMT in a 96 well format to extract DNA from small sample volumes for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR).

  16. Study for standardization of the lighting system in fruit sorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, J. F. S.; Baldner, F. O.; Costa, P. B.; Guedes, M. B.; Oliveira, I. A. A.; Leta, F. R.

    2016-07-01

    Sorting is a very important step in the fruit processing. The attributes definition and characterization are important for both marketing and end user, making it necessary to establish regulations for classification and standardization in order to unify the language of the market and enabling a more efficient market and also increase consumer awareness. For this end, it is necessary to standardize the technical criteria that can change the perception of the product. Studies have been developed in order to standardize a methodology to determine the subclass of fruit ripening, evaluating the influence of different light sources in the subclass evaluation.

  17. A Special Sort of Forgetting: Negation in Freud and Augustine.

    PubMed

    Rosengart, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The development from a positive, dualistic theory of memory and forgetting to a concept of memory that includes forgetting as a variety of remembering is traced in two thinkers. Freud's concept of repression is discussed as a complex negation of both remembering and forgetting, and the development of this construct is shown in his letters to Wilhelm Fliess. A close reading of Augustine of Hippo's Confessions shows a similar concept of a special sort of forgetting, in which what is forgotten is remembered nonetheless. Finally, the limits of the comparison are discussed, and a reading of Freud's "Negation" reveals ways in which the unconscious is fundamentally unlike Augustine's interiority.

  18. Principles of Adaptive Sorting Revealed by In Silico Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalanne, Jean-Benoît; François, Paul

    2013-05-01

    Many biological networks have to filter out useful information from a vast excess of spurious interactions. In this Letter, we use computational evolution to predict design features of networks processing ligand categorization. The important problem of early immune response is considered as a case study. Rounds of evolution with different constraints uncover elaborations of the same network motif we name “adaptive sorting.” Corresponding network substructures can be identified in current models of immune recognition. Our work draws a deep analogy between immune recognition and biochemical adaptation.

  19. Fractional channel multichannel analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Brackenbush, Larry W.; Anderson, Gordon A.

    1994-01-01

    A multichannel analyzer incorporating the features of the present invention obtains the effect of fractional channels thus greatly reducing the number of actual channels necessary to record complex line spectra. This is accomplished by using an analog-to-digital converter in the asynscronous mode, i.e., the gate pulse from the pulse height-to-pulse width converter is not synchronized with the signal from a clock oscillator. This saves power and reduces the number of components required on the board to achieve the effect of radically expanding the number of channels without changing the circuit board.

  20. Portable Gas Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Michromonitor M500 universal gas analyzer contains a series of miniature modules, each of which is a complete gas chromatograph, an instrument which separates a gaseous mixture into its components and measures the concentrations of each gas in the mixture. The system is manufactured by Microsensor Technology, and is used for environmental analysis, monitoring for gas leaks and chemical spills, compliance with pollution laws, etc. The technology is based on a Viking attempt to detect life on Mars. Ames/Stanford miniaturized the system and NIOSH funded further development. Three Stanford researchers commercialized the technology, which can be operated by unskilled personnel.

  1. RELAPS desktop analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Beelman, R.J.; Grush, W.H.; Mortensen, G.A.; Snider, D.M.; Wagner, K.L.

    1989-01-01

    The previously mainframe bound RELAP5 reactor safety computer code has been installed on a microcomputer. A simple color-graphic display driver has been developed to enable the user to view the code results as the calculation advances. In order to facilitate future interactive desktop applications, the Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA), also previously mainframe bound, is being redesigned to encompass workstation applications. The marriage of RELAP5 simulation capabilities with NPA interactive graphics on a desktop workstation promises to revolutionize reactor safety analysis methodology. 8 refs.

  2. Fluorescence analyzer for lignin

    DOEpatents

    Berthold, John W.; Malito, Michael L.; Jeffers, Larry

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring lignin concentration in a sample of wood pulp or black liquor comprises a light emitting arrangement for emitting an excitation light through optical fiber bundles into a probe which has an undiluted sensing end facing the sample. The excitation light causes the lignin concentration to produce fluorescent emission light which is then conveyed through the probe to analyzing equipment which measures the intensity of the emission light. Measures a This invention was made with Government support under Contract Number DOE: DE-FC05-90CE40905 awarded by the Department of Energy (DOE). The Government has certain rights in this invention.

  3. New high-speed cell sorting methods for stem cell sorting and breast cancer cell purging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leary, James F.; McLaughlin, Scott R.; Hokanson, James A.; Rosenblatt, Judah I.

    1998-04-01

    An important problem in clinical medicine is that of positively selecting hematopoietic stem cells or mobilized peripheral blood stem cells for autologous bone marrow transplantation while purging it of contaminating tumor cells. Since both the stem cells to be positively selected and the tumor cells to be purged are relatively rare cells, this poses special problems for their isolation in terms of purity and yield of stem cells, with a high penalty of misclassification for contaminating tumor cells. A model system of tumor cells spiked into bone marrow or blood cells was used to validate the system. Multiparameter data mixtures of human MCF-7 breast cancer cells and human peripheral blood or bone marrow cells were first analyzed by discriminant function analysis. Mathematical methods were developed to assess the relative probabilities of misclassification. Cell identification tags, implemented as additional correlated listmode parameters not used for these analyses, were used to uniquely identify each cell type and to compare classifier results. The performance of classifier systems was also assessed using ROC (`receiver operating characteristics') analysis. Then the classification system was implemented using lookup tables allowing for real-time (in this system approximately 625 microseconds) rapid separation of these cell types. Isolated cell types, purities and yields were assessed by single-cell PCR molecular characterizations.

  4. Analyzing Aeroelasticity in Turbomachines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, T. S. R.; Srivastava, R.

    2003-01-01

    ASTROP2-LE is a computer program that predicts flutter and forced responses of blades, vanes, and other components of such turbomachines as fans, compressors, and turbines. ASTROP2-LE is based on the ASTROP2 program, developed previously for analysis of stability of turbomachinery components. In developing ASTROP2- LE, ASTROP2 was modified to include a capability for modeling forced responses. The program was also modified to add a capability for analysis of aeroelasticity with mistuning and unsteady aerodynamic solutions from another program, LINFLX2D, that solves the linearized Euler equations of unsteady two-dimensional flow. Using LINFLX2D to calculate unsteady aerodynamic loads, it is possible to analyze effects of transonic flow on flutter and forced response. ASTROP2-LE can be used to analyze subsonic, transonic, and supersonic aerodynamics and structural mistuning for rotors with blades of differing structural properties. It calculates the aerodynamic damping of a blade system operating in airflow so that stability can be assessed. The code also predicts the magnitudes and frequencies of the unsteady aerodynamic forces on the airfoils of a blade row from incoming wakes. This information can be used in high-cycle fatigue analysis to predict the fatigue lives of the blades.

  5. Ring Image Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strekalov, Dmitry V.

    2012-01-01

    Ring Image Analyzer software analyzes images to recognize elliptical patterns. It determines the ellipse parameters (axes ratio, centroid coordinate, tilt angle). The program attempts to recognize elliptical fringes (e.g., Newton Rings) on a photograph and determine their centroid position, the short-to-long-axis ratio, and the angle of rotation of the long axis relative to the horizontal direction on the photograph. These capabilities are important in interferometric imaging and control of surfaces. In particular, this program has been developed and applied for determining the rim shape of precision-machined optical whispering gallery mode resonators. The program relies on a unique image recognition algorithm aimed at recognizing elliptical shapes, but can be easily adapted to other geometric shapes. It is robust against non-elliptical details of the image and against noise. Interferometric analysis of precision-machined surfaces remains an important technological instrument in hardware development and quality analysis. This software automates and increases the accuracy of this technique. The software has been developed for the needs of an R&TD-funded project and has become an important asset for the future research proposal to NASA as well as other agencies.

  6. Plutonium solution analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    A fully automated analyzer has been developed for plutonium solutions. It was assembled from several commercially available modules, is based upon segmented flow analysis, and exhibits precision about an order of magnitude better than commercial units (0.5%-O.05% RSD). The system was designed to accept unmeasured, untreated liquid samples in the concentration range 40-240 g/L and produce a report with sample identification, sample concentrations, and an abundance of statistics. Optional hydraulics can accommodate samples in the concentration range 0.4-4.0 g/L. Operating at a typical rate of 30 to 40 samples per hour, it consumes only 0.074 mL of each sample and standard, and generates waste at the rate of about 1.5 mL per minute. No radioactive material passes through its multichannel peristaltic pump (which remains outside the glovebox, uncontaminated) but rather is handled by a 6-port, 2-position chromatography-type loop valve. An accompanying computer is programmed in QuickBASIC 4.5 to provide both instrument control and data reduction. The program is truly user-friendly and communication between operator and instrument is via computer screen displays and keyboard. Two important issues which have been addressed are waste minimization and operator safety (the analyzer can run in the absence of an operator, once its autosampler has been loaded).

  7. Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Dovichi, Norman J.; Zhang, Jian Z.

    1995-01-01

    A multiple capillary analyzer allows detection of light from multiple capillaries with a reduced number of interfaces through which light must pass in detecting light emitted from a sample being analyzed, using a modified sheath flow cuvette. A linear or rectangular array of capillaries is introduced into a rectangular flow chamber. Sheath fluid draws individual sample streams through the cuvette. The capillaries are closely and evenly spaced and held by a transparent retainer in a fixed position in relation to an optical detection system. Collimated sample excitation radiation is applied simultaneously across the ends of the capillaries in the retainer. Light emitted from the excited sample is detected by the optical detection system. The retainer is provided by a transparent chamber having inward slanting end walls. The capillaries are wedged into the chamber. One sideways dimension of the chamber is equal to the diameter of the capillaries and one end to end dimension varies from, at the top of the chamber, slightly greater than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries to, at the bottom of the chamber, slightly smaller than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries. The optical system utilizes optic fibres to deliver light to individual photodetectors, one for each capillary tube. A filter or wavelength division demultiplexer may be used for isolating fluorescence at particular bands.

  8. Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Dovichi, N.J.; Zhang, J.Z.

    1995-08-08

    A multiple capillary analyzer allows detection of light from multiple capillaries with a reduced number of interfaces through which light must pass in detecting light emitted from a sample being analyzed, using a modified sheath flow cuvette. A linear or rectangular array of capillaries is introduced into a rectangular flow chamber. Sheath fluid draws individual sample streams through the cuvette. The capillaries are closely and evenly spaced and held by a transparent retainer in a fixed position in relation to an optical detection system. Collimated sample excitation radiation is applied simultaneously across the ends of the capillaries in the retainer. Light emitted from the excited sample is detected by the optical detection system. The retainer is provided by a transparent chamber having inward slanting end walls. The capillaries are wedged into the chamber. One sideways dimension of the chamber is equal to the diameter of the capillaries and one end to end dimension varies from, at the top of the chamber, slightly greater than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries to, at the bottom of the chamber, slightly smaller than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries. The optical system utilizes optic fibers to deliver light to individual photodetectors, one for each capillary tube. A filter or wavelength division demultiplexer may be used for isolating fluorescence at particular bands. 21 figs.

  9. Field Deployable DNA analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, E; Christian, A; Marion, J; Sorensen, K; Arroyo, E; Vrankovich, G; Hara, C; Nguyen, C

    2005-02-09

    This report details the feasibility of a field deployable DNA analyzer. Steps for swabbing cells from surfaces and extracting DNA in an automatable way are presented. Since enzymatic amplification reactions are highly sensitive to environmental contamination, sample preparation is a crucial step to make an autonomous deployable instrument. We perform sample clean up and concentration in a flow through packed bed. For small initial samples, whole genome amplification is performed in the packed bed resulting in enough product for subsequent PCR amplification. In addition to DNA, which can be used to identify a subject, protein is also left behind, the analysis of which can be used to determine exposure to certain substances, such as radionuclides. Our preparative step for DNA analysis left behind the protein complement as a waste stream; we determined to learn if the proteins themselves could be analyzed in a fieldable device. We successfully developed a two-step lateral flow assay for protein analysis and demonstrate a proof of principle assay.

  10. Hemodialysis access procedures

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic-dialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-dialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency-dialysis access; Chronic kidney failure-dialysis access; Chronic renal failure-dialysis access

  11. Influence of storage time on functional capacity of flow cytometrically sex-sorted boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Parrilla, Inmaculada; Vazquez, Juan M; Gil, Maria A; Caballero, Ignacio; Almiñana, Carmen; Roca, Jordi; Martinez, Emilio A

    2005-07-01

    Sex-sorting of boar spermatozoa is an emerging biotechnology, still considered suboptimal owing to the slowness of the process, which requires long sorting periods to obtain an adequate number of spermatozoa to perform a non-surgical insemination. This period involves storage of sorted cells that could impair their functional capacity. Here, we have studied how the storage of sex-sorted boar spermatozoa affects their functional capacity. Sorted spermatozoa were assessed at various times (0, 2, 5h or 10h) during storage after sorting and compared with diluted and unsorted spermatozoa for sperm motility patterns, plasma membrane and acrosomal integrity and their ability to penetrate homologous IVM oocytes. Sex-sorted sperm motility and membrane integrity only decreased significantly (p<0.05) by the end of the storage period (10h) compared to unsorted spermatozoa. Sperm velocity, ALH and Dance increased significantly (p<0.05), immediately post-sorting, returning to unsorted sperm values during storage. Acrosome integrity was not seriously affected by the sorting process, but decreased (p<0.05) during storage after sorting. Sorted spermatozoa stored 2h after sorting did not differ from unsorted in penetration rates and numbers of spermatozoa per oocyte, reaching the highest (p<0.05) penetration rates and sperm numbers per oocyte, when co-cultured for 6 or more hours. Non-storage or storage for 5h or 10h negatively (p<0.05) affected sperm penetration ability. In conclusion, although flow cytometrically sex-sorted spermatozoa are able to maintain motility, viability and acrosomal integrity at optimal levels until 10h of storage after sorting, fertilizing ability is maintained only over shorter storage times (<5h). PMID:15935845

  12. Rmax: A systematic approach to evaluate instrument sort performance using center stream catch.

    PubMed

    Riddell, Andrew; Gardner, Rui; Perez-Gonzalez, Alexis; Lopes, Telma; Martinez, Lola

    2015-07-01

    Sorting performance can be evaluated with regard to Purity, Yield and/or Recovery of the sorted fraction. Purity is a check on the quality of the sample and the sort decisions made by the instrument. Recovery and Yield definitions vary with some authors regarding both as how efficient the instrument is at sorting the target particles from the original sample, others distinguishing Recovery from Yield, where the former is used to describe the accuracy of the instrument's sort count. Yield and Recovery are often neglected, mostly due to difficulties in their measurement. Purity of the sort product is often cited alone but is not sufficient to evaluate sorting performance. All of these three performance metrics require re-sampling of the sorted fraction. But, unlike Purity, calculating Yield and/or Recovery calls for the absolute counting of particles in the sorted fraction, which may not be feasible, particularly when dealing with rare populations and precious samples. In addition, the counting process itself involves large errors. Here we describe a new metric for evaluating instrument sort Recovery, defined as the number of particles sorted relative to the number of original particles to be sorted. This calculation requires only measuring the ratios of target and non-target populations in the original pre-sort sample and in the waste stream or center stream catch (CSC), avoiding re-sampling the sorted fraction and absolute counting. We called this new metric Rmax, since it corresponds to the maximum expected Recovery for a particular set of instrument parameters. Rmax is ideal to evaluate and troubleshoot the optimum drop-charge delay of the sorter, or any instrument related failures that will affect sort performance. It can be used as a daily quality control check but can be particularly useful to assess instrument performance before single-cell sorting experiments. Because we do not perturb the sort fraction we can calculate Rmax during the sort process, being

  13. Effects of Hoechst33342 staining on the viability and flow cytometric sex-sorting of frozen-thawed ram sperm.

    PubMed

    Quan, Guo Bo; Ma, Yuan; Li, Jian; Wu, Guo Quan; Li, Dong Jiang; Ni, Yi Na; Lv, Chun Rong; Zhu, Lan; Hong, Qiong Hua

    2015-02-01

    Cytometric sorting of frozen-thawed sperm can overcome difficulties caused by the unavailability of sorting facilities on farms where semen is collected from male livestock. In order to optimize the cytometric sex-sorting procedure, effects of Hoechst33342 staining on the viability and cytometric sorting efficiency of frozen-thawed ram sperm were evaluated. The frozen-thawed sperm were stained with Hoechst33342 at various dye concentrations (80 μM, 120 μM, 160 μM, 200 μM, 240 μM, or 320 μM) for 45 min to evaluate effects of dye dose. The frozen-thawed sperm were stained with 160 μM Hoechst33342 for various durations (0 min, 15 min, 30 min, 45 min, 60 min, 75 min, or 90 min) to evaluate effects of staining duration. Sperm motility and moving velocity were analyzed using a computer-assisted sperm analysis system (CASAS). Acrosome status, membrane integrity, and distribution of phosphatidylserine (PS) in Hoechst33342-stained sperm were analyzed using flow cytometry after staining with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled lectin from pisum sativum (FITC-PSA), Annexin V, or propidium iodide (PI). The fertility of Hoechst33342-stained sperm was analyzed by in vitro fertilization (IVF). A high-speed cell sorter was used to evaluate effects of Hoechst33342 staining on cytometric sex-sorting of frozen-thawed sperm. The motility, moving velocity, membrane integrity, and PS distribution of Hoechst33342-stained sperm were significantly different from that of immediately thawed sperm (P<0.05). However, there is no significant difference existing among the Hoechst33342-stained groups with respect to the above evaluated parameters. Additionally, along with the staining durations, the adverse effects of the staining procedure on sperm showed a steady increase. However, Hoechst33342 staining did not damage acrosome and in vitro fertilizing capability of frozen-thawed ram sperm. Results of cytometric sorting indicated that frozen-thawed sperm can be efficiently sorted into two

  14. Effects of Hoechst33342 staining on the viability and flow cytometric sex-sorting of frozen-thawed ram sperm.

    PubMed

    Quan, Guo Bo; Ma, Yuan; Li, Jian; Wu, Guo Quan; Li, Dong Jiang; Ni, Yi Na; Lv, Chun Rong; Zhu, Lan; Hong, Qiong Hua

    2015-02-01

    Cytometric sorting of frozen-thawed sperm can overcome difficulties caused by the unavailability of sorting facilities on farms where semen is collected from male livestock. In order to optimize the cytometric sex-sorting procedure, effects of Hoechst33342 staining on the viability and cytometric sorting efficiency of frozen-thawed ram sperm were evaluated. The frozen-thawed sperm were stained with Hoechst33342 at various dye concentrations (80 μM, 120 μM, 160 μM, 200 μM, 240 μM, or 320 μM) for 45 min to evaluate effects of dye dose. The frozen-thawed sperm were stained with 160 μM Hoechst33342 for various durations (0 min, 15 min, 30 min, 45 min, 60 min, 75 min, or 90 min) to evaluate effects of staining duration. Sperm motility and moving velocity were analyzed using a computer-assisted sperm analysis system (CASAS). Acrosome status, membrane integrity, and distribution of phosphatidylserine (PS) in Hoechst33342-stained sperm were analyzed using flow cytometry after staining with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled lectin from pisum sativum (FITC-PSA), Annexin V, or propidium iodide (PI). The fertility of Hoechst33342-stained sperm was analyzed by in vitro fertilization (IVF). A high-speed cell sorter was used to evaluate effects of Hoechst33342 staining on cytometric sex-sorting of frozen-thawed sperm. The motility, moving velocity, membrane integrity, and PS distribution of Hoechst33342-stained sperm were significantly different from that of immediately thawed sperm (P<0.05). However, there is no significant difference existing among the Hoechst33342-stained groups with respect to the above evaluated parameters. Additionally, along with the staining durations, the adverse effects of the staining procedure on sperm showed a steady increase. However, Hoechst33342 staining did not damage acrosome and in vitro fertilizing capability of frozen-thawed ram sperm. Results of cytometric sorting indicated that frozen-thawed sperm can be efficiently sorted into two

  15. Analyzing Water's Optical Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A cooperative agreement between World Precision Instruments (WPI), Inc., and Stennis Space Center has led the UltraPath(TM) device, which provides a more efficient method for analyzing the optical absorption of water samples at sea. UltraPath is a unique, high-performance absorbance spectrophotometer with user-selectable light path lengths. It is an ideal tool for any study requiring precise and highly sensitive spectroscopic determination of analytes, either in the laboratory or the field. As a low-cost, rugged, and portable system capable of high- sensitivity measurements in widely divergent waters, UltraPath will help scientists examine the role that coastal ocean environments play in the global carbon cycle. UltraPath(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc. LWCC(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc.

  16. Motion detector and analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Unruh, W.P.

    1987-03-23

    Method and apparatus are provided for deriving positive and negative Doppler spectrum to enable analysis of objects in motion, and particularly, objects having rotary motion. First and second returned radar signals are mixed with internal signals to obtain an in-phase process signal and a quadrature process signal. A broad-band phase shifter shifts the quadrature signal through 90/degree/ relative to the in-phase signal over a predetermined frequency range. A pair of signals is output from the broad-band phase shifter which are then combined to provide a first side band signal which is functionally related to a negative Doppler shift spectrum. The distinct positive and negative Doppler spectra may then be analyzed for the motion characteristics of the object being examined.

  17. Analyzing geographic clustered response

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, D.W.; Selvin, S.; Mohr, M.S.

    1991-08-01

    In the study of geographic disease clusters, an alternative to traditional methods based on rates is to analyze case locations on a transformed map in which population density is everywhere equal. Although the analyst's task is thereby simplified, the specification of the density equalizing map projection (DEMP) itself is not simple and continues to be the subject of considerable research. Here a new DEMP algorithm is described, which avoids some of the difficulties of earlier approaches. The new algorithm (a) avoids illegal overlapping of transformed polygons; (b) finds the unique solution that minimizes map distortion; (c) provides constant magnification over each map polygon; (d) defines a continuous transformation over the entire map domain; (e) defines an inverse transformation; (f) can accept optional constraints such as fixed boundaries; and (g) can use commercially supported minimization software. Work is continuing to improve computing efficiency and improve the algorithm. 21 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. System performance analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helbig, H. R.

    1981-01-01

    The System Performance Analyzer (SPA) designed to provide accurate real time information about the operation of complex systems and developed for use on the Airborne Data Analysis/Monitor System (ADAMS), a ROLM 1666 based system is described. The system uses an external processor to operate an intelligent, simulated control panel. Also provided are functions to trace operations, determine frequency of use of memory areas, and time or count user tasks in a multitask environment. This augments the information available from the standard debugger and control panel, and reduces the time and effort needed by ROLM 1666 users in optimizing their system, as well as providing documentation of the effect of any changes. The operation and state of the system are evaluated.

  19. Analyzing a Cometary 'Sneeze'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Analyzing a Cometary 'Sneeze'

    This display shows highly processed images of the outburst of comet Tempel 1 between June 22 and 23, 2005. The pictures were taken by Deep Impact's medium-resolution camera. An average image of the comet has been subtracted from each picture to provide an enhanced view of the outburst. The intensity has also been stretched to show the faintest parts. This processing enables measurement of the outflow speed and the details of the dissipation of the outburst. The left image was taken when the comet was very close to its normal, non-bursting state, so almost nothing is visible.

  20. Residual gas analyzer calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilienkamp, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    A technique which employs known gas mixtures to calibrate the residual gas analyzer (RGA) is described. The mass spectra from the RGA are recorded for each gas mixture. This mass spectra data and the mixture composition data each form a matrix. From the two matrices the calibration matrix may be computed. The matrix mathematics requires the number of calibration gas mixtures be equal to or greater than the number of gases included in the calibration. This technique was evaluated using a mathematical model of an RGA to generate the mass spectra. This model included shot noise errors in the mass spectra. Errors in the gas concentrations were also included in the valuation. The effects of these errors was studied by varying their magnitudes and comparing the resulting calibrations. Several methods of evaluating an actual calibration are presented. The effects of the number of gases in then, the composition of the calibration mixture, and the number of mixtures used are discussed.

  1. A Screen Space GPGPU Surface LIC Algorithm for Distributed Memory Data Parallel Sort Last Rendering Infrastructures

    SciTech Connect

    Loring, Burlen; Karimabadi, Homa; Rortershteyn, Vadim

    2014-07-01

    The surface line integral convolution(LIC) visualization technique produces dense visualization of vector fields on arbitrary surfaces. We present a screen space surface LIC algorithm for use in distributed memory data parallel sort last rendering infrastructures. The motivations for our work are to support analysis of datasets that are too large to fit in the main memory of a single computer and compatibility with prevalent parallel scientific visualization tools such as ParaView and VisIt. By working in screen space using OpenGL we can leverage the computational power of GPUs when they are available and run without them when they are not. We address efficiency and performance issues that arise from the transformation of data from physical to screen space by selecting an alternate screen space domain decomposition. We analyze the algorithm's scaling behavior with and without GPUs on two high performance computing systems using data from turbulent plasma simulations.

  2. On the Performance of Different Genetic Programming Approaches for the SORTING Problem.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Markus; Neumann, Frank; Urli, Tommaso

    2015-01-01

    In genetic programming, the size of a solution is typically not specified in advance, and solutions of larger size may have a larger benefit. The flexibility often comes at the cost of the so-called bloat problem: individuals grow without providing additional benefit to the quality of solutions, and the additional elements can block the optimization process. Consequently, problems that are relatively easy to optimize cannot be handled by variable-length evolutionary algorithms. In this article, we analyze different single- and multiobjective algorithms on the sorting problem, a problem that typically lacks independent and additive fitness structures. We complement the theoretical results with comprehensive experiments to indicate the tightness of existing bounds, and to indicate bounds where theoretical results are missing.

  3. A Screen Space GPGPU Surface LIC Algorithm for Distributed Memory Data Parallel Sort Last Rendering Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loring, B.; Karimabadi, H.; Rortershteyn, V.

    2015-10-01

    The surface line integral convolution(LIC) visualization technique produces dense visualization of vector fields on arbitrary surfaces. We present a screen space surface LIC algorithm for use in distributed memory data parallel sort last rendering infrastructures. The motivations for our work are to support analysis of datasets that are too large to fit in the main memory of a single computer and compatibility with prevalent parallel scientific visualization tools such as ParaView and VisIt. By working in screen space using OpenGL we can leverage the computational power of GPUs when they are available and run without them when they are not. We address efficiency and performance issues that arise from the transformation of data from physical to screen space by selecting an alternate screen space domain decomposition. We analyze the algorithm's scaling behavior with and without GPUs on two high performance computing systems using data from turbulent plasma simulations.

  4. A Microfluidic Device to Sort Cells Based on Dynamic Response to a Stimulus

    PubMed Central

    Mathuru, Ajay Sriram; Burkholder, William F.; Jesuthasan, Suresh J.

    2013-01-01

    Single cell techniques permit the analysis of cellular properties that are obscured by studying the average behavior of cell populations. One way to determine how gene expression contributes to phenotypic differences among cells is to combine functional analysis with transcriptional profiling of single cells. Here we describe a microfluidic device for monitoring the responses of single cells to a ligand and then collecting cells of interest for transcriptional profiling or other assays. As a test, cells from the olfactory epithelium of zebrafish were screened by calcium imaging to identify sensory neurons that were responsive to the odorant L-lysine. Single cells were subsequently recovered for transcriptional profiling by qRT-PCR. Responsive cells all expressed TRPC2 but not OMP, consistent with known properties of amino-acid sensitive olfactory neurons. The device can be adapted for other areas in biology where there is a need to sort and analyze cells based on their signaling responses. PMID:24250795

  5. Proposed strategy to sort semiconducting nanotubes by band-gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, V.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a strategy that uses a tunable infra-red source and an alternating non-linear potential defined by an electrode to sort a suspension of assorted semiconducting nanotubes. The band-gap scales with the inverse of the nanotube diameter, hence the infra-red frequency can be tuned to create excitons in some of the nanotubes; these excitons will be polarized by the potential. Since, a polarized exciton is a dipole, the excited nanotubes will experience a net force and may then diffuse towards the electrode, unlike the other nanotubes. We discuss experimental parameters such as IR intensity, electrode design, and potential frequency for a pilot experiment to sort nanotubes with lengths ≈0.5 μm. The basic physics of the system has been illustrated using a Hartree model applied to nanotubes with nanoscale lengths. The calculated exciton binding energy suddenly drops to zero and the force on the nanotube increases dramatically when the exciton disassociates as the nanotube moves towards the electrode. The quantum adiabatic theorem shows that excitons will be adiabatically polarized for potential frequencies typical for experiments ≈1-10 MHz. The analysis indicates that the manipulation of nanotubes with nanometer lengths requires nanoscale electrodes.

  6. Sorting signals for PIN1 trafficking and localization.

    PubMed

    Marcote, María Jesús; Sancho-Andrés, Gloria; Soriano-Ortega, Esther; Aniento, Fernando

    2016-08-01

    PIN-FORMED (PIN) family proteins direct polar auxin transport based on their asymmetric (polar) localization at the plasma membrane. In the case of PIN1, it mainly localizes to the basal (rootward) plasma membrane domain of stele cells in root meristems. Vesicular trafficking events, such as clathrin-dependent PIN1 endocytosis and polar recycling, are probably the main determinants for PIN1 polar localization. However, very little is known about the signals which may be involved in binding the μ-adaptin subunit of clathrin adaptor complexes (APs) for sorting of PIN1 within clathrin-coated vesicles, which can determine its trafficking and localization. We have performed a systematic mutagenesis analysis to investigate putative sorting motifs in the hydrophilic loop of PIN1. We have found that a non-canonical motif, based in a phenylalanine residue, through the binding of μA(μ2)- and μD(μ3)-adaptin, is important for PIN1 endocytosis and for PIN1 traffcking along the secretory pathway, respectively. In addition, tyrosine-based motifs, which also bind different μ-adaptins, could also contribute to PIN1 trafficking and localization. PMID:27603315

  7. Thermal conductivity of chirality-sorted carbon nanotube networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Feifei; Llinas, Juan P.; Li, Zuanyi; Estrada, David; Pop, Eric

    2016-03-01

    The thermal properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are of significant interest, yet their dependence on SWNT chirality has been, until now, not explored experimentally. Here, we used electrical heating and infrared thermal imaging to simultaneously study thermal and electrical transport in chirality-sorted SWNT networks. We examined solution processed 90% semiconducting, 90% metallic, purified unsorted (66% semiconducting), and as-grown HiPco SWNT films. The thermal conductivities of these films range from 80 to 370 W m-1 K-1 but are not controlled by chirality, instead being dependent on the morphology (i.e., mass and junction density, quasi-alignment) of the networks. The upper range of the thermal conductivities measured is comparable to that of the best metals (Cu and Ag), but with over an order of magnitude lower mass density. This study reveals important factors controlling the thermal properties of light-weight chirality-sorted SWNT films, for potential thermal and thermoelectric applications.

  8. Index sorting resolves heterogeneous murine hematopoietic stem cell populations.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Reiner; Wilson, Nicola K; Prick, Janine C M; Cossetti, Chiara; Maj, Michal K; Gottgens, Berthold; Kent, David G

    2015-09-01

    Recent advances in the cellular and molecular biology of single stem cells have uncovered significant heterogeneity in the functional properties of stem cell populations. This has prompted the development of approaches to study single cells in isolation, often performed using multiparameter flow cytometry. However, many stem cell populations are too rare to test all possible cell surface marker combinations, and virtually nothing is known about functional differences associated with varying intensities of such markers. Here we describe the use of index sorting for further resolution of the flow cytometric isolation of single murine hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Specifically, we associate single-cell functional assay outcomes with distinct cell surface marker expression intensities. High levels of both CD150 and EPCR associate with delayed kinetics of cell division and low levels of differentiation. Moreover, cells that do not form single HSC-derived clones appear in the 7AAD(dim) fraction, suggesting that even low levels of 7AAD staining are indicative of less healthy cell populations. These data indicate that when used in combination with single-cell functional assays, index sorting is a powerful tool for refining cell isolation strategies. This approach can be broadly applied to other single-cell systems, both to improve isolation and to acquire additional cell surface marker information.

  9. Regolith Size Sorting on Q-type NEAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLennan, Eric; Emery, Joshua; Rozitis, Benjamin

    2016-08-01

    Q- and Sq-type near-Earth asteroids show a characteristically un-weathered surface due to regolith movement acting to effectively erase the effects of space weathering. It has been shown that these 'spectrally fresh' asteroids are always found in orbits that can bring them in close proximity to at least one terrestrial planet. This observation is used to infer that these close planetary encounters (i.e. tidal interactions) are likely causing regolith mobilization on these bodies. This mechanism may lead to particle size segregation on the surface and interior of these bodies, particularly the sorting of large boulders to the surface. We target seven Q-/Sq-types in a search for evidence that boulders have been brought to the surface via tidal-interactions. Since a large spatial fraction of boulders will raise the thermal inertia of a surface, we aim to constrain the thermal inertia of our targets using thermal emission observations with IRAC. Objects are strategically targeted at different observing geometries so that thermal inertia can be constrained without knowledge of the shape/spin state of these objects. These proposed observations will be used to test the occurrence of regolith sorting on asteroids that have undergone recent tidal interactions from close planetary encounters. Evidence of this will aid the understanding of the internal structure of these objects. Additionally, this study will provide information used to advance the understanding of the mechanical behavior of granular material at low gravitational regimes.

  10. Fast polyhedral cell sorting for interactive rendering of unstructured grids

    SciTech Connect

    Combra, J; Klosowski, J T; Max, N; Silva, C T; Williams, P L

    1998-10-30

    Direct volume rendering based on projective methods works by projecting, in visibility order, the polyhedral cells of a mesh onto the image plane, and incrementally compositing the cell's color and opacity into the final image. Crucial to this method is the computation of a visibility ordering of the cells. If the mesh is ''well-behaved'' (acyclic and convex), then the MPVO method of Williams provides a very fast sorting algorithm; however, this method only computes an approximate ordering in general datasets, resulting in visual artifacts when rendered. A recent method of Silva et al. removed the assumption that the mesh is convex, by means of a sweep algorithm used in conjunction with the MPVO method; their algorithm is substantially faster than previous exact methods for general meshes. In this paper we propose a new technique, which we call BSP-XMPVO, which is based on a fast and simple way of using binary space partitions on the boundary elements of the mesh to augment the ordering produced by MPVO. Our results are shown to be orders of magnitude better than previous exact methods of sorting cells.

  11. A novel fast median filter algorithm without sorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Weiping; Zhang, Zhilong; Lu, Xinping; Li, Jicheng; Chen, Dong; Yang, Guopeng

    2016-04-01

    As one of widely applied nonlinear smoothing filtering methods, median filter is quite effective for removing salt-andpepper noise and impulsive noise while maintaining image edge information without blurring its boundaries, but its computation load is the maximal drawback while applied in real-time processing systems. In order to solve the issue, researchers have proposed many effective fast algorithms and published many papers. However most of the algorithms are based on sorting operations so as to make real-time implementation difficult. In this paper considering the large scale Boolean calculation function and convenient shift operation which are two of the advantages of FPGA(Field Programmable Gate Array), we proposed a novel median value finding algorithm without sorting, which can find the median value effectively and its performing time almost keeps changeless despite how large the filter radius is. Based on the algorithm, a real-time median filter has been realized. A lot of tests demonstrate the validity and correctness of proposed algorithm.

  12. Lorentz force particle analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Thess, André; Moreau, René; Tan, Yanqing; Dai, Shangjun; Tao, Zhen; Yang, Wenzhi; Wang, Bo

    2016-07-01

    A new contactless technique is presented for the detection of micron-sized insulating particles in the flow of an electrically conducting fluid. A transverse magnetic field brakes this flow and tends to become entrained in the flow direction by a Lorentz force, whose reaction force on the magnetic-field-generating system can be measured. The presence of insulating particles suspended in the fluid produce changes in this Lorentz force, generating pulses in it; these pulses enable the particles to be counted and sized. A two-dimensional numerical model that employs a moving mesh method demonstrates the measurement principle when such a particle is present. Two prototypes and a three-dimensional numerical model are used to demonstrate the feasibility of a Lorentz force particle analyzer (LFPA). The findings of this study conclude that such an LFPA, which offers contactless and on-line quantitative measurements, can be applied to an extensive range of applications. These applications include measurements of the cleanliness of high-temperature and aggressive molten metal, such as aluminum and steel alloys, and the clean manufacturing of semiconductors.

  13. Analyzing nocturnal noise stratification.

    PubMed

    Rey Gozalo, Guillermo; Barrigón Morillas, Juan Miguel; Gómez Escobar, Valentín

    2014-05-01

    Pollution associated to traffic can be considered as one of the most relevant pollution sources in our cities; noise is one of the major components of traffic pollution; thus, efforts are necessary to search adequate noise assessment methods and low pollution city designs. Different methods have been proposed for the evaluation of noise in cities, including the categorization method, which is based on the functionality concept. Until now, this method has only been studied (with encouraging results) for short-term, diurnal measurements, but nocturnal noise presents a behavior clearly different on respect to the diurnal one. In this work 45 continuous measurements of approximately one week each in duration are statistically analyzed to identify differences between the proposed categories. The results show that the five proposed categories highlight the noise stratification of the studied city in each period of the day (day, evening, and night). A comparison of the continuous measurements with previous short-term measurements indicates that the latter can be a good approximation of the former in diurnal period, reducing the resource expenditure for noise evaluation. Annoyance estimated from the measured noise levels was compared with the response of population obtained from a questionnaire with good agreement. The categorization method can yield good information about the distribution of a pollutant associated to traffic in our cities in each period of the day and, therefore, is a powerful tool for town planning and the design of pollution prevention policies.

  14. TEAMS Model Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tijidjian, Raffi P.

    2010-01-01

    The TEAMS model analyzer is a supporting tool developed to work with models created with TEAMS (Testability, Engineering, and Maintenance System), which was developed by QSI. In an effort to reduce the time spent in the manual process that each TEAMS modeler must perform in the preparation of reporting for model reviews, a new tool has been developed as an aid to models developed in TEAMS. The software allows for the viewing, reporting, and checking of TEAMS models that are checked into the TEAMS model database. The software allows the user to selectively model in a hierarchical tree outline view that displays the components, failure modes, and ports. The reporting features allow the user to quickly gather statistics about the model, and generate an input/output report pertaining to all of the components. Rules can be automatically validated against the model, with a report generated containing resulting inconsistencies. In addition to reducing manual effort, this software also provides an automated process framework for the Verification and Validation (V&V) effort that will follow development of these models. The aid of such an automated tool would have a significant impact on the V&V process.

  15. PULSE HEIGHT ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Johnstone, C.W.

    1958-01-21

    An anticoincidence device is described for a pair of adjacent channels of a multi-channel pulse height analyzer for preventing the lower channel from generating a count pulse in response to an input pulse when the input pulse has sufficient magnitude to reach the upper level channel. The anticoincidence circuit comprises a window amplifier, upper and lower level discriminators, and a biased-off amplifier. The output of the window amplifier is coupled to the inputs of the discriminators, the output of the upper level discriminator is connected to the resistance end of a series R-C network, the output of the lower level discriminator is coupled to the capacitance end of the R-C network, and the grid of the biased-off amplifier is coupled to the junction of the R-C network. In operation each discriminator produces a negative pulse output when the input pulse traverses its voltage setting. As a result of the connections to the R-C network, a trigger pulse will be sent to the biased-off amplifier when the incoming pulse level is sufficient to trigger only the lower level discriminator.

  16. Analyzing Spacecraft Telecommunication Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kordon, Mark; Hanks, David; Gladden, Roy; Wood, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Multi-Mission Telecom Analysis Tool (MMTAT) is a C-language computer program for analyzing proposed spacecraft telecommunication systems. MMTAT utilizes parameterized input and computational models that can be run on standard desktop computers to perform fast and accurate analyses of telecommunication links. MMTAT is easy to use and can easily be integrated with other software applications and run as part of almost any computational simulation. It is distributed as either a stand-alone application program with a graphical user interface or a linkable library with a well-defined set of application programming interface (API) calls. As a stand-alone program, MMTAT provides both textual and graphical output. The graphs make it possible to understand, quickly and easily, how telecommunication performance varies with variations in input parameters. A delimited text file that can be read by any spreadsheet program is generated at the end of each run. The API in the linkable-library form of MMTAT enables the user to control simulation software and to change parameters during a simulation run. Results can be retrieved either at the end of a run or by use of a function call at any time step.

  17. PULSE HEIGHT ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Goldsworthy, W.W.

    1958-06-01

    A differential pulse-height discriminator circuit is described which is readily adaptable for operation in a single-channel pulse-height analyzer. The novel aspect of the circuit lies in the specific arrangement of differential pulse-height discriminator which includes two pulse-height discriminators having a comnnon input and an anticoincidence circuit having two interconnected vacuum tubes with a common cathode resistor. Pulses from the output of one discriminator circuit are delayed and coupled to the grid of one of the anticoincidence tubes by a resistor. The output pulses from the other discriminator circuit are coupled through a cathode follower circuit, which has a cathode resistor of such value as to provide a long time constant with the interelectrode capacitance of the tube, to lenthen the output pulses. The pulses are then fed to the grid of the other anticoincidence tube. With such connections of the circuits, only when the incoming pulse has a pesk value between the operating levels of the two discriminators does an output pulse occur from the anticoincidence circuit.

  18. Analyzing Atmospheric Neutrino Oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Escamilla, J.; Ernst, D. J.; Latimer, D. C.

    2007-10-26

    We provide a pedagogic derivation of the formula needed to analyze atmospheric data and then derive, for the subset of the data that are fully-contained events, an analysis tool that is quantitative and numerically efficient. Results for the full set of neutrino oscillation data are then presented. We find the following preliminary results: 1.) the sub-dominant approximation provides reasonable values for the best fit parameters for {delta}{sub 32}, {theta}{sub 23}, and {theta}{sub 13} but does not quantitatively provide the errors for these three parameters; 2.) the size of the MSW effect is suppressed in the sub-dominant approximation; 3.) the MSW effect reduces somewhat the extracted error for {delta}{sub 32}, more so for {theta}{sub 23} and {theta}{sub 13}; 4.) atmospheric data alone constrains the allowed values of {theta}{sub 13} only in the sub-dominant approximation, the full three neutrino calculations requires CHOOZ to get a clean constraint; 5.) the linear in {theta}{sub 13} terms are not negligible; and 6.) the minimum value of {theta}{sub 13} is found to be negative, but at a statistically insignificant level.

  19. Pseudostupidity and analyzability.

    PubMed

    Cohn, L S

    1989-01-01

    This paper seeks to heighten awareness of pseudostupidity and the potential analyzability of patients who manifest it by defining and explicating it, reviewing the literature, and presenting in detail the psychoanalytic treatment of a pseudostupid patient. Pseudostupidity is caused by an inhibition of the integration and synthesis of thoughts resulting in a discrepancy between intellectual capacity and apparent intellect. The patient's pseudostupidity was determined in part by his need to prevent his being more successful than father, i.e., defeating his oedipal rival. Knowing and learning were instinctualized. The patient libidinally and defensively identified with father's passive, masochistic position. He needed to frustrate the analyst as he had felt excited and frustrated by his parents' nudity and thwarted by his inhibitions. He wanted to cause the analyst to feel as helpless as he, the patient, felt. Countertransference frustration was relevant and clinically useful in the analysis. Interpretation of evolving relevant issues led to more anxiety and guilt, less pseudostupidity, a heightened alliance, and eventual working through. Negative therapeutic reactions followed the resolution of pseudostupidity. PMID:2708771

  20. Downhole Fluid Analyzer Development

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Turner

    2006-11-28

    A novel fiber optic downhole fluid analyzer has been developed for operation in production wells. This device will allow real-time determination of the oil, gas and water fractions of fluids from different zones in a multizone or multilateral completion environment. The device uses near infrared spectroscopy and induced fluorescence measurement to unambiguously determine the oil, water and gas concentrations at all but the highest water cuts. The only downhole components of the system are the fiber optic cable and windows. All of the active components--light sources, sensors, detection electronics and software--will be located at the surface, and will be able to operate multiple downhole probes. Laboratory testing has demonstrated that the sensor can accurately determine oil, water and gas fractions with a less than 5 percent standard error. Once installed in an intelligent completion, this sensor will give the operating company timely information about the fluids arising from various zones or multilaterals in a complex completion pattern, allowing informed decisions to be made on controlling production. The research and development tasks are discussed along with a market analysis.

  1. Boar sperm changes after sorting and encapsulation in barium alginate membranes.

    PubMed

    Spinaci, M; Bucci, D; Chlapanidas, T; Vallorani, C; Perteghella, S; Communod, R; Vigo, D; Tamanini, C; Galeati, G; Faustini, M; Torre, M L

    2013-09-15

    A routine use of boar-sexed semen is limited by the long sorting time necessary to obtain an adequate number of sexed spermatozoa for artificial insemination and by the high susceptibility of spermatozoa of this species to damages induced by sorting procedure and subsequent cryopreservation. The aim of this work was to study the impact of encapsulation in barium alginate membrane on sorted boar spermatozoa by evaluating membrane integrity, chlortetracycline staining patterns, protein tyrosine phosphorylation, and Hsp70 immunolocalization during storage over 72 hours in liquid or encapsulated form. The encapsulation procedure significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the overall membrane integrity of control unsorted semen (81.8 vs. 57.4, CTR vs. CPS), but did not negatively affect the overall viability and the chlortetracycline staining patterns of sorted encapsulated cells. Moreover, encapsulation significantly decreased (P < 0.05) the overall phosphotyrosin A pattern cell percentage in unsorted (98.4 vs. 92.6, CTR vs. CPS) but not in sorted semen (64.0 vs. 74.2; SORT CTR vs. SORT CPS). As for Hsp70, the overall percentage of cells displaying the different patterns was significantly influenced (P < 0.05) by treatment but not by storage time. The sorting procedure seems to induce the major changes, whereas encapsulation tends to exert a protective effect on sorted semen by increasing the percentage of spermatozoa displaying the T pattern (2.8 vs. 24.3; SORT CTR vs. SORT CPS). In conclusion, our data confirm that the damaging impact of the encapsulation in barium alginate capsules seems to be limited when compared with that of the sorting procedure and, moreover, the association of the two procedures does not result in an algebraic sum of the negative effects. These results suggest the possibility of a future utilization of the encapsulation technology in order to store sorted spermatozoa and permit their controlled release in the female genital tract. PMID:23791425

  2. Dimensional change card sort performance associated with age-related differences in functional connectivity of lateral prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Ezekiel, Fredrick; Bosma, Rachael; Morton, J Bruce

    2013-07-01

    The Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS) is a standard procedure for assessing executive functioning early in development. In the task, participants switch from sorting cards one way (e.g., by color) to sorting them a different way (e.g., by shape). Traditional accounts associate age-related changes in DCCS performance with circumscribed changes in lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC) functioning, but evidence of age-related differences in the modulation of lPFC activity by switching is mixed. The current study therefore tested for possible age-related differences in functional connectivity of lPFC with regions that comprise a larger cognitive control network. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data collected from children and adults performing the DCCS were analyzed by means of independent components analysis (ICA). The analysis revealed several important age-related differences in functional connectivity of lPFC. In particular, lPFC was more strongly connected with the anterior cingulate, inferior parietal cortex, and the ventral tegmental area in adults than in children. Theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:23328350

  3. The Cleveland Sorting Test: a preliminary study of an alternate form of the Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test.

    PubMed

    Poreh, Amir; Pastel, Dan; Miller, Ashley; Levin, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    During the past two decades, studies have repeatedly shown that the Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test (WCST) is not as sensitive to prefrontal-lobe functioning as was originally suspected. Specifically, both clinical and brain-imaging studies have shown that several distinct neural circuits contribute to one's ability to successfully complete different aspects of the test. Another limitation of the WCST is its length, which makes it difficult and frustrating for certain clinical populations. To address the above limitations, researchers have proposed the development of new indexes and the integration of an adaptive testing approach that will allow for the premature termination of the test. Unfortunately, given the proprietary nature of the WCST, none of the above recommendations have been adopted. The present preliminary study examined an alternate form of the 64-Item WCST (WCST-64), the Cleveland Sorting Test (CST-64). The normative data of the two measures as well as the total number of errors, perseverative responses, perseverative errors, and categories completed were compared using a repeated-measures design. Overall, the study supports psychometric approximation of the CST-64 and the WCST-64. Suggestions for future studies and modifications of the CST-64, including the use of recently proposed indexes and adaptive administration approaches, are provided.

  4. Digital Microfluidics Sample Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, Michael G.; Srinivasan, Vijay; Eckhardt, Allen; Paik, Philip Y.; Sudarsan, Arjun; Shenderov, Alex; Hua, Zhishan; Pamula, Vamsee K.

    2010-01-01

    Three innovations address the needs of the medical world with regard to microfluidic manipulation and testing of physiological samples in ways that can benefit point-of-care needs for patients such as premature infants, for which drawing of blood for continuous tests can be life-threatening in their own right, and for expedited results. A chip with sample injection elements, reservoirs (and waste), droplet formation structures, fluidic pathways, mixing areas, and optical detection sites, was fabricated to test the various components of the microfluidic platform, both individually and in integrated fashion. The droplet control system permits a user to control droplet microactuator system functions, such as droplet operations and detector operations. Also, the programming system allows a user to develop software routines for controlling droplet microactuator system functions, such as droplet operations and detector operations. A chip is incorporated into the system with a controller, a detector, input and output devices, and software. A novel filler fluid formulation is used for the transport of droplets with high protein concentrations. Novel assemblies for detection of photons from an on-chip droplet are present, as well as novel systems for conducting various assays, such as immunoassays and PCR (polymerase chain reaction). The lab-on-a-chip (a.k.a., lab-on-a-printed-circuit board) processes physiological samples and comprises a system for automated, multi-analyte measurements using sub-microliter samples of human serum. The invention also relates to a diagnostic chip and system including the chip that performs many of the routine operations of a central labbased chemistry analyzer, integrating, for example, colorimetric assays (e.g., for proteins), chemiluminescence/fluorescence assays (e.g., for enzymes, electrolytes, and gases), and/or conductometric assays (e.g., for hematocrit on plasma and whole blood) on a single chip platform.

  5. Soft Decision Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Glen; Lansdowne, Chatwin; Zucha, Joan; Schlensinger, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The Soft Decision Analyzer (SDA) is an instrument that combines hardware, firmware, and software to perform realtime closed-loop end-to-end statistical analysis of single- or dual- channel serial digital RF communications systems operating in very low signal-to-noise conditions. As an innovation, the unique SDA capabilities allow it to perform analysis of situations where the receiving communication system slips bits due to low signal-to-noise conditions or experiences constellation rotations resulting in channel polarity in versions or channel assignment swaps. SDA s closed-loop detection allows it to instrument a live system and correlate observations with frame, codeword, and packet losses, as well as Quality of Service (QoS) and Quality of Experience (QoE) events. The SDA s abilities are not confined to performing analysis in low signal-to-noise conditions. Its analysis provides in-depth insight of a communication system s receiver performance in a variety of operating conditions. The SDA incorporates two techniques for identifying slips. The first is an examination of content of the received data stream s relation to the transmitted data content and the second is a direct examination of the receiver s recovered clock signals relative to a reference. Both techniques provide benefits in different ways and allow the communication engineer evaluating test results increased confidence and understanding of receiver performance. Direct examination of data contents is performed by two different data techniques, power correlation or a modified Massey correlation, and can be applied to soft decision data widths 1 to 12 bits wide over a correlation depth ranging from 16 to 512 samples. The SDA detects receiver bit slips within a 4 bits window and can handle systems with up to four quadrants (QPSK, SQPSK, and BPSK systems). The SDA continuously monitors correlation results to characterize slips and quadrant change and is capable of performing analysis even when the

  6. Crew Activity Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, James; Kirillov, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The crew activity analyzer (CAA) is a system of electronic hardware and software for automatically identifying patterns of group activity among crew members working together in an office, cockpit, workshop, laboratory, or other enclosed space. The CAA synchronously records multiple streams of data from digital video cameras, wireless microphones, and position sensors, then plays back and processes the data to identify activity patterns specified by human analysts. The processing greatly reduces the amount of time that the analysts must spend in examining large amounts of data, enabling the analysts to concentrate on subsets of data that represent activities of interest. The CAA has potential for use in a variety of governmental and commercial applications, including planning for crews for future long space flights, designing facilities wherein humans must work in proximity for long times, improving crew training and measuring crew performance in military settings, human-factors and safety assessment, development of team procedures, and behavioral and ethnographic research. The data-acquisition hardware of the CAA (see figure) includes two video cameras: an overhead one aimed upward at a paraboloidal mirror on the ceiling and one mounted on a wall aimed in a downward slant toward the crew area. As many as four wireless microphones can be worn by crew members. The audio signals received from the microphones are digitized, then compressed in preparation for storage. Approximate locations of as many as four crew members are measured by use of a Cricket indoor location system. [The Cricket indoor location system includes ultrasonic/radio beacon and listener units. A Cricket beacon (in this case, worn by a crew member) simultaneously transmits a pulse of ultrasound and a radio signal that contains identifying information. Each Cricket listener unit measures the difference between the times of reception of the ultrasound and radio signals from an identified beacon

  7. Regolith Evolved Gas Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, John H.; Hedgecock, Jud; Nienaber, Terry; Cooper, Bonnie; Allen, Carlton; Ming, Doug

    2000-01-01

    The Regolith Evolved Gas Analyzer (REGA) is a high-temperature furnace and mass spectrometer instrument for determining the mineralogical composition and reactivity of soil samples. REGA provides key mineralogical and reactivity data that is needed to understand the soil chemistry of an asteroid, which then aids in determining in-situ which materials should be selected for return to earth. REGA is capable of conducting a number of direct soil measurements that are unique to this instrument. These experimental measurements include: (1) Mass spectrum analysis of evolved gases from soil samples as they are heated from ambient temperature to 900 C; and (2) Identification of liberated chemicals, e.g., water, oxygen, sulfur, chlorine, and fluorine. REGA would be placed on the surface of a near earth asteroid. It is an autonomous instrument that is controlled from earth but does the analysis of regolith materials automatically. The REGA instrument consists of four primary components: (1) a flight-proven mass spectrometer, (2) a high-temperature furnace, (3) a soil handling system, and (4) a microcontroller. An external arm containing a scoop or drill gathers regolith samples. A sample is placed in the inlet orifice where the finest-grained particles are sifted into a metering volume and subsequently moved into a crucible. A movable arm then places the crucible in the furnace. The furnace is closed, thereby sealing the inner volume to collect the evolved gases for analysis. Owing to the very low g forces on an asteroid compared to Mars or the moon, the sample must be moved from inlet to crucible by mechanical means rather than by gravity. As the soil sample is heated through a programmed pattern, the gases evolved at each temperature are passed through a transfer tube to the mass spectrometer for analysis and identification. Return data from the instrument will lead to new insights and discoveries including: (1) Identification of the molecular masses of all of the gases

  8. Sorting drops and cells with acoustics: acoustic microfluidic fluorescence-activated cell sorter.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Lothar; Weitz, David A; Franke, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    We describe a versatile microfluidic fluorescence-activated cell sorter that uses acoustic actuation to sort cells or drops at ultra-high rates. Our acoustic sorter combines the advantages of traditional fluorescence-activated cell (FACS) and droplet sorting (FADS) and is applicable for a multitude of objects. We sort aqueous droplets, at rates as high as several kHz, into two or even more outlet channels. We can also sort cells directly from the medium without prior encapsulation into drops; we demonstrate this by sorting fluorescently labeled mouse melanoma cells in a single phase fluid. Our acoustic microfluidic FACS is compatible with standard cell sorting cytometers, yet, at the same time, enables a rich variety of more sophisticated applications.

  9. Construction of BAC Libraries from Flow-Sorted Chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Šafář, Jan; Šimková, Hana; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Cloned DNA libraries in bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) are the most widely used form of large-insert DNA libraries. BAC libraries are typically represented by ordered clones derived from genomic DNA of a particular organism. In the case of large eukaryotic genomes, whole-genome libraries consist of a hundred thousand to a million clones, which make their handling and screening a daunting task. The labor and cost of working with whole-genome libraries can be greatly reduced by constructing a library derived from a smaller part of the genome. Here we describe construction of BAC libraries from mitotic chromosomes purified by flow cytometric sorting. Chromosome-specific BAC libraries facilitate positional gene cloning, physical mapping, and sequencing in complex plant genomes.

  10. Cell Sorting in the Mound Stage of Dictyostelium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yi; Levine, Herbert; Glazier, James

    1998-03-01

    In the mound stage of slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, cells differentiated into two types: pre-stalk and pre-spore. Pre-stalk cells sort and form a tip at the apex of the mound of prespore cells. How this pattern forms is as yet unknown. A cellular level model allows us to simulate both differential cell adhesion and chemotaxis, two principle mechanisms for cell migration. Simulations show that with differential adhesion only, pre-stalk cells move to the surface of the mound but form no tip. With chemotaxis driven by an outgoing circular wave only, a tip forms but contains both pre-stalk and pre-spore cells. Only for a narrow range of relative strengths between differential adhesion and chemotaxis, can both mechanisms work in concert to form a tip which contains only pre-stalk cells. The simulations provide a method to determine the processes necessary for patterning and suggest a series of further experiments.

  11. Construction of BAC Libraries from Flow-Sorted Chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Šafář, Jan; Šimková, Hana; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Cloned DNA libraries in bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) are the most widely used form of large-insert DNA libraries. BAC libraries are typically represented by ordered clones derived from genomic DNA of a particular organism. In the case of large eukaryotic genomes, whole-genome libraries consist of a hundred thousand to a million clones, which make their handling and screening a daunting task. The labor and cost of working with whole-genome libraries can be greatly reduced by constructing a library derived from a smaller part of the genome. Here we describe construction of BAC libraries from mitotic chromosomes purified by flow cytometric sorting. Chromosome-specific BAC libraries facilitate positional gene cloning, physical mapping, and sequencing in complex plant genomes. PMID:27511172

  12. Mixing and sorting of bidisperse two-dimensional bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, P. I. C.; Graner, F.; Fortes, M. A.

    2002-10-01

    We have examined a number of candidates for the minimum-surface-energy arrangement of two-dimensional clusters composed of N bubbles of area 1 and N bubbles of area λ (λ le 1). These include hexagonal bubbles sorted into two monodisperse honeycomb tilings, and various mixed periodic tilings with at most four bubbles per unit cell. We identify, as a function of λ, the minimal configuration for Nrightarrow infty. For finite N, the energy of the external (i.e., cluster-gas) boundary and that of the interface between honeycombs in “phase-separated” clusters have to be taken into account. We estimate these contributions and find the lowest total energy configuration for each pair (N,λ). As λ is varied, this alternates between a circular cluster of one of the mixed tilings, and “partial wetting” of the monodisperse honeycomb of bubble area 1 by the monodisperse honeycomb of bubble area λ.

  13. Endocytosis, the sorting problem and cell locomotion in fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Bretscher, M S

    1982-01-01

    Fibroblasts endocytose lipid plus a subset of plasma membrane proteins over their entire surface and reinsert this into the plasma membrane at the cell's leading edge. This process is used to extend the fibroblast forwards. This circulation causes a flow of these endocytosed molecules over the cell's surface. Molecules, such as proteins, sitting in this flow can distribute themselves randomly by Brownian motion, but large objects (or small tethered ones) cannot. These large objects therefore cap. A mechanism is presented whereby this process could be used for locomotion using many weak interactions with the substrate. In addition it is suggested that the observed selectivity of coated pits may be sufficient to sort out proteins during transfer of membrane from one organelle to another so that the specific characters of the parent membranes are maintained.

  14. Shrink-induced sorting using integrated nanoscale magnetic traps

    PubMed Central

    Nawarathna, Dharmakeerthi; Norouzi, Nazila; McLane, Jolie; Sharma, Himanshu; Sharac, Nicholas; Grant, Ted; Chen, Aaron; Strayer, Scott; Ragan, Regina; Khine, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    We present a plastic microfluidic device with integrated nanoscale magnetic traps (NSMTs) that separates magnetic from non-magnetic beads with high purity and throughput, and unprecedented enrichments. Numerical simulations indicate significantly higher localized magnetic field gradients than previously reported. We demonstrated >20 000-fold enrichment for 0.001% magnetic bead mixtures. Since we achieve high purity at all flow-rates tested, this is a robust, rapid, portable, and simple solution to sort target species from small volumes amenable for point-of-care applications. We used the NSMT in a 96 well format to extract DNA from small sample volumes for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). PMID:23479497

  15. Providing dynamic sorting and searching capabilities using SQL*Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Loftis, J.P.

    1990-06-12

    One goal of developers of software systems is to build an interface that provides the capability of retrieving and displaying data in a variety of ways, depending on the current needs of the user. This paper describes two techniques used for a prototype system under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) that provide easy interactive capability between the user and the database using ORACLE's SQL*Forms. The first technique demonstrates how to build an ORACLE application that allows users to decide whether they would like a subset of data retrieved to a multirecord display form and, if so, to define the boundaries for the subset. The second technique allows users to choose how these displayed data will be sorted. Neither of these techniques requires the user to understood SQL or the underlying database structure of table and column names. 3 figs.

  16. Analytical approach to sorting in periodic and random potentials.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, James P; Sancho, J M; Lacasta, A M; Lindenberg, Katja

    2006-04-01

    There has been a recent revolution in the ability to manipulate micrometer-sized objects on surfaces patterned by traps or obstacles of controllable configurations and shapes. One application of this technology is to separate particles driven across such a surface by an external force according to some particle characteristic such as size or index of refraction. The surface features cause the trajectories of particles driven across the surface to deviate from the direction of the force by an amount that depends on the particular characteristic, thus leading to sorting. While models of this behavior have provided a good understanding of these observations, the solutions have so far been primarily numerical. In this paper we provide analytic predictions for the dependence of the angle between the direction of motion and the external force on a number of model parameters for periodic as well as random surfaces. We test these predictions against exact numerical simulations. PMID:16711782

  17. Sorted Index Numbers for Privacy Preserving Face Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongjin; Hatzinakos, Dimitrios

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for changeable and privacy preserving face recognition. We first introduce a new method of biometric matching using the sorted index numbers (SINs) of feature vectors. Since it is impossible to recover any of the exact values of the original features, the transformation from original features to the SIN vectors is noninvertible. To address the irrevocable nature of biometric signals whilst obtaining stronger privacy protection, a random projection-based method is employed in conjunction with the SIN approach to generate changeable and privacy preserving biometric templates. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated on a large generic data set, which contains images from several well-known face databases. Extensive experimentation shows that the proposed solution may improve the recognition accuracy.

  18. Incomplete lineage sorting is common in extant gibbon genera.

    PubMed

    Wall, Jeffrey D; Kim, Sung K; Luca, Francesca; Carbone, Lucia; Mootnick, Alan R; de Jong, Pieter J; Di Rienzo, Anna

    2013-01-01

    We sequenced reduced representation libraries by means of Illumina technology to generate over 1.5 Mb of orthologous sequence from a representative of each of the four extant gibbon genera (Nomascus, Hylobates, Symphalangus, and Hoolock). We used these data to assess the evolutionary relationships between the genera by evaluating the likelihoods of all possible bifurcating trees involving the four taxa. Our analyses provide weak support for a tree with Nomascus and Hylobates as sister taxa and with Hoolock and Symphalangus as sister taxa, though bootstrap resampling suggests that other phylogenetic scenarios are also possible. This uncertainty is due to short internal branch lengths and extensive incomplete lineage sorting across taxa. The true phylogenetic relationships among gibbon genera will likely require a more extensive whole-genome sequence analysis.

  19. Micro and nanofluidic structures for cell sorting and genomic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Keith J.

    Microfluidic systems promise rapid analysis of small samples in a compact and inexpensive format. But direct scaling of lab bench protocols on-chip is challenging because laminar flows in typical microfluidic devices are characterized by non-mixing streamlines. Common microfluidic mixers and sorters work by diffusion, limiting application to objects that diffuse slowly such as cells and DNA. Recently Huang et.al. developed a passive microfluidic element to continuously separate bio-particles deterministically. In Deterministic Lateral Displacement (DLD), objects are sorted by size as they transit an asymmetric array of microfabricated posts. This thesis further develops DLD arrays with applications in three broad new areas. First the arrays are used, not simply to sort particles, but to move streams of cells through functional flows for chemical treatment---such as on-chip immunofluorescent labeling of blood cells with washing, and on-chip E.coli cell lysis with simultaneous chromosome extraction. Secondly, modular tiling of the basic DLD element is used to construct complex particle handling modes that include beam steering for jets of cells and beads. Thirdly, nanostructured DLD arrays are built using Nanoimprint Lithography (NIL) and continuous-flow separation of 100 nm and 200 nm size particles is demonstrated. Finally a number of ancillary nanofabrication techniques were developed in support of these overall goals, including methods to interface nanofluidic structures with standard microfluidic components such as inlet channels and reservoirs, precision etching of ultra-high aspect ratio (>50:1) silicon nanostructures, and fabrication of narrow (˜ 35 nm) channels used to stretch genomic length DNA.

  20. Encapsulation of sex sorted boar semen: sperm membrane status and oocyte penetration parameters.

    PubMed

    Spinaci, Marcella; Chlapanidas, Theodora; Bucci, Diego; Vallorani, Claudia; Perteghella, Sara; Lucconi, Giulia; Communod, Ricardo; Vigo, Daniele; Galeati, Giovanna; Faustini, Massimo; Torre, Maria Luisa

    2013-03-01

    Although sorted semen is experimentally used for artificial, intrauterine, and intratubal insemination and in vitro fertilization, its commercial application in swine species is still far from a reality. This is because of the low sort rate and the large number of sperm required for routine artificial insemination in the pig, compared with other production animals, and the greater susceptibility of porcine spermatozoa to stress induced by the different sex sorting steps and the postsorting handling protocols. The encapsulation technology could overcome this limitation in vivo, protecting and allowing the slow release of low-dose sorted semen. The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of the encapsulation process on viability, acrosome integrity, and on the in vitro fertilizing potential of sorted boar semen. Our results indicate that the encapsulation technique does not damage boar sorted semen; in fact, during a 72-hour storage, no differences were observed between liquid-stored sorted semen and encapsulated sorted semen in terms of plasma membrane (39.98 ± 14.38% vs. 44.32 ± 11.72%, respectively) and acrosome integrity (74.32 ± 12.17% vs. 66.07 ± 10.83%, respectively). Encapsulated sorted spermatozoa presented a lower penetration potential than nonencapsulated ones (47.02% vs. 24.57%, respectively, P < 0.0001), and a significant reduction of polyspermic fertilization (60.76% vs. 36.43%, respectively, polyspermic ova/total ova; P < 0.0001). However, no difference (P > 0.05) was observed in terms of total efficiency of fertilization expressed as normospermic oocytes/total oocytes (18.45% vs. 15.43% for sorted diluted and sorted encapsulated semen, respectively). The encapsulation could be an alternative method of storing of pig sex sorted spermatozoa and is potentially a promising technique in order to optimize the use of low dose of sexed spermatozoa in vivo. PMID:23261305

  1. Continuous sorting of Brownian particles using coupled photophoresis and asymmetric potential cycling.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tuck Wah; Neild, Adrian; Heeraman, Pascal

    2008-03-15

    Feasible sorters need to function rapidly and permit the input and delivery of particles continuously. Here, we describe a scheme that incorporates (i) restricted spatial input location and (ii) orthogonal sort and movement direction features. Sorting is achieved using an asymmetric potential that is cycled on and off, whereas movement is accomplished using photophoresis. Simulations with 0.2 and 0.5 microm diameter spherical particles indicate that sorting can commence quickly from a continuous stream. Procedures to optimize the sorting scheme are also described.

  2. Packaging and environment in Europe (EUREKA PACK-EE): Automated sorting of aluminum from domestic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bertaud, Y.; Guillermet, R.; Lemaire, H.; Cael, J.; Nijhof, G.; Rossel, H.

    1996-10-01

    A large European research project named EUREKA PACK-EE (for Packaging Environment in Europe) has been started in June 1993. The project carries out research and innovation into collection, sorting and valorization of types of packaging, with improvements to sorting procedures capable of meeting the needs of the recovery and recycling industries. The project includes studies of consumer behavior concerning waste, which will influence the choice of sorting techniques. The results are presented for automated sorting by different eddy current (EC) engineering and in two other papers for thermal separation and purification.

  3. Incomplete Lineage Sorting and Hybridization Statistics for Large-Scale Retroposon Insertion Data.

    PubMed

    Kuritzin, Andrej; Kischka, Tabea; Schmitz, Jürgen; Churakov, Gennady

    2016-03-01

    Ancient retroposon insertions can be used as virtually homoplasy-free markers to reconstruct the phylogenetic history of species. Inherited, orthologous insertions in related species offer reliable signals of a common origin of the given species. One prerequisite for such a phylogenetically informative insertion is that the inserted element was fixed in the ancestral population before speciation; if not, polymorphically inserted elements may lead to random distributions of presence/absence states during speciation and possibly to apparently conflicting reconstructions of their ancestry. Fortunately, such misleading fixed cases are relatively rare but nevertheless, need to be considered. Here, we present novel, comprehensive statistical models applicable for (1) analyzing any pattern of rare genomic changes, (2) testing and differentiating conflicting phylogenetic reconstructions based on rare genomic changes caused by incomplete lineage sorting or/and ancestral hybridization, and (3) differentiating between search strategies involving genome information from one or several lineages. When the new statistics are applied, in non-conflicting cases a minimum of three elements present in both of two species and absent in a third group are considered significant support (p<0.05) for the branching of the third from the other two, if all three of the given species are screened equally for genome or experimental data. Five elements are necessary for significant support (p<0.05) if a diagnostic locus derived from only one of three species is screened, and no conflicting markers are detected. Most potentially conflicting patterns can be evaluated for their significance and ancestral hybridization can be distinguished from incomplete lineage sorting by considering symmetric or asymmetric distribution of rare genomic changes among possible tree configurations. Additionally, we provide an R-application to make the new KKSC insertion significance test available for the scientific

  4. Incomplete Lineage Sorting and Hybridization Statistics for Large-Scale Retroposon Insertion Data

    PubMed Central

    Kuritzin, Andrej; Kischka, Tabea

    2016-01-01

    Ancient retroposon insertions can be used as virtually homoplasy-free markers to reconstruct the phylogenetic history of species. Inherited, orthologous insertions in related species offer reliable signals of a common origin of the given species. One prerequisite for such a phylogenetically informative insertion is that the inserted element was fixed in the ancestral population before speciation; if not, polymorphically inserted elements may lead to random distributions of presence/absence states during speciation and possibly to apparently conflicting reconstructions of their ancestry. Fortunately, such misleading fixed cases are relatively rare but nevertheless, need to be considered. Here, we present novel, comprehensive statistical models applicable for (1) analyzing any pattern of rare genomic changes, (2) testing and differentiating conflicting phylogenetic reconstructions based on rare genomic changes caused by incomplete lineage sorting or/and ancestral hybridization, and (3) differentiating between search strategies involving genome information from one or several lineages. When the new statistics are applied, in non-conflicting cases a minimum of three elements present in both of two species and absent in a third group are considered significant support (p<0.05) for the branching of the third from the other two, if all three of the given species are screened equally for genome or experimental data. Five elements are necessary for significant support (p<0.05) if a diagnostic locus derived from only one of three species is screened, and no conflicting markers are detected. Most potentially conflicting patterns can be evaluated for their significance and ancestral hybridization can be distinguished from incomplete lineage sorting by considering symmetric or asymmetric distribution of rare genomic changes among possible tree configurations. Additionally, we provide an R-application to make the new KKSC insertion significance test available for the scientific

  5. Electronic Sorting of Immune Cell Subpopulations Based on Highly Plastic Genes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pingzhang; Han, Wenling; Ma, Dalong

    2016-07-15

    Immune cells are highly heterogeneous and plastic with regard to gene expression and cell phenotype. In this study, we categorized genes into those with low and high gene plasticity, and those categories revealed different functions and applications. We proposed that highly plastic genes could be suited for the labeling of immune cell subpopulations; thus, novel immune cell subpopulations could be identified by gene plasticity analysis. For this purpose, we systematically analyzed highly plastic genes in human and mouse immune cells. In total, 1,379 human and 883 mouse genes were identified as being extremely plastic. We also expanded our previous immunoinformatic method, electronic sorting, which surveys big data to perform virtual analysis. This approach used correlation analysis and took dosage changes into account, which allowed us to identify the differentially expressed genes. A test with human CD4(+) T cells supported the method's feasibility, effectiveness, and predictability. For example, with the use of human nonregulatory T cells, we found that FOXP3(hi)CD4(+) T cells were highly expressive of certain known molecules, such as CD25 and CTLA4, and that this process of investigation did not require isolating or inducing these immune cells in vitro. Therefore, the sorting process helped us to discover the potential signature genes or marker molecules and to conduct functional evaluations for immune cell subpopulations. Finally, in human CD4(+) T cells, 747 potential immune cell subpopulations and their candidate signature genes were identified, which provides a useful resource for big data-driven knowledge discoveries. PMID:27288532

  6. New system analyzes pumping well performance

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, J.N. ); Podio, A.L. )

    1990-11-01

    A SYSTEM has been developed that allows real-time analysis and visualization of the performance of the pumping well, including the pumping unit (beam or submersible), wellbore and reservoir. At a time when maximum efficiency is a prerequisite to profitable operations, this system has the potential to improve drastically the manner in which pumping wells are managed and operated. Micro computers have already had a major impact on petroleum engineering. And today one is unlikely to see an engineer's desk without some sort of PC or terminal to a local network, even in remote district offices. The development of extremely powerful and portable lap-top computers is causing the PC revolution to move to the field in the form of an intelligent data acquisition and diagnostic system. This one system combines all necessary elements to obtain data for annular liquid level surveys, dynamometer analysis, pressure transient analysis and other measurements required to analyze pumping well performance properly. Moreover, the system includes a database management component that allows maintaining and retrieving accurate records from past analyses.

  7. Automated multi-parametric sorting of micron-sized particles via multi-trap laser tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaputa, Daniel S.

    The capabilities of laser tweezers have rapidly expanded since the first demonstration by Ashkin and co-workers in 1970 of the ability to trap particles using optical energy. Laser tweezers have been used to measure piconewton forces in many biological and material science application, sort bacteria, measure DNA bond strength, and even perform microsurgery. The laser tweezers system developed for this dissertation foreshadows the next generation of laser tweezer systems that provide automated particle sorted based upon multiple criteria. Many laser tweezer sorting applications today entail the operator sorting cells from a bulk sample, one by one. This dissertation demonstrates the technologies of pattern recognition and image processing that allow for an entire microscope slide to be sorted without any operator intervention. We already live in an automated world where the cars we drive are built by machines instead of humans. The technology is there, and the only factors limiting the advancements of fully automated biological instrumentation is the lack of developers with the appropriate knowledge sets. This dissertation introduces the concept of sorting particles via a multi-parametric approach where several parameters such as size, fluorescence, and Raman spectra are used as sorting criteria. Since the advent of laser tweezers, several groups have demonstrated the ability to sort cells and other particle by size, or by fluorescence, or by any other parameter, but to our knowledge there does not exist a laser tweezer sorting system that can sort particles based upon multiple parameters. Sorting via a single parameter can be a severe limitation as the method lacks the robustness and class specificity that exists when sorting based upon multiple parameters. Simply put, it makes more sense to determine the worth of a baseball card by considering it's condition as well as it's age, rather then solely upon its condition. By adding another parameter such as the name of

  8. Magnetic Sorting of the Regolith on the Moon: Lunar Swirls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieters, C. M.; Garrick-Bethell, I.; Hemingway, D.

    2014-12-01

    All of the mysterious albedo features on the Moon called "lunar swirls" are associated with magnetic anomalies, but not all magnetic anomalies are associated with lunar swirls [1]. It is often hypothesized that the albedo markings are tied to immature regolith on the surface, perhaps due to magnetic shielding of the solar wind and prevention of normal space weathering of the soil. Although interaction of the solar wind with the surface at swirls is indeed affected by the local magnetic field [2], this does not appear to result in immature soils on the surface. Calibrated spectra from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper [M3] (in image format) demonstrate that the high albedo markings for swirls are simply not consistent with immature regolith as is now understood from detailed analyses of lunar samples [eg 3]. However, M3 data show that the high albedo features of swirls are distinct and quite different from normal soils (in both the highlands and the mare). They allexhibit a flatter continuum across the near-infrared, but the actual band strength of ferrous minerals shows little (if any) deviation [4]. Recent analyses of magnetic field direction at swirls [5] mimic the observed albedo patterns (horizontal surface fields in bright areas, vertical surface fields in dark lanes). When coupled with the optical properties of magnetic separates of lunar soils [6] and our knowledge that the magnetic component of the soil results from space weathering [3,6], we propose a new and very simple explanation for these enigmatic albedo markings: the lunar swirls result from magnetic sorting of a well developed regolith. With time, normal gardening of the soil over a magnetic anomaly causes some of the dark magnetic component of the soil to be gradually removed from regions (high albedo areas) and accumulated in others (dark lanes). We are modeling predicted sorting rates using realistic rates of dust production. If this mechanism is tenable, only the origin of these magnetic anomalies

  9. Improving efficiency or impairing access? Health care consolidation and quality of care: Evidence from emergency hospital closures in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Avdic, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Recent health care consolidation trends raise the important policy question whether improved emergency medical services and enhanced productivity can offset adverse quality effects from decreased access. This paper empirically analyzes how geographical distance from an emergency hospital affects the probability of surviving an acute myocardial infarction (AMI), accounting for health-based spatial sorting and data limitations on out-of-hospital mortality. Exploiting policy-induced variation in hospital distance derived from emergency hospital closures and detailed Swedish mortality data over two decades, results show a drastically decreasing probability of surviving an AMI as residential distance from a hospital increases one year after a closure occurred. The effect disappears in subsequent years, however, suggesting that involved agents quickly adapted to the new environment. PMID:27060525

  10. Imaging the Polarized Sorting of Proteins from the Golgi Complex in Live Neurons.

    PubMed

    Farías, Ginny G; Britt, Dylan J; Bonifacino, Juan S

    2016-01-01

    The study of polarized protein trafficking in live neurons is critical for understanding neuronal structure and function. Given the complex anatomy of neurons and the numerous trafficking pathways that are active in them, however, visualization of specific vesicle populations leaving the Golgi complex presents unique challenges. Indeed, several approaches used in non-polarized cells, and even in polarized epithelial cells, have been less successful in neurons. Here, we describe an adaptation of the recently developed Retention Using Selective Hooks (RUSH) system (Boncompain et al., Nat Methods 9:493-498, 2012), previously used in non-polarized cells, to analyze the polarized sorting of proteins from the Golgi complex to dendrites and axons in live neurons. The RUSH system involves the retention of a fluorescently tagged cargo protein fused to the streptavidin-binding peptide (SBP) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through the expression of an ER-hook protein fused to streptavidin. Upon D-biotin addition, the cargo protein is released and its traffic to dendrites and axons can be analyzed in live neurons. PMID:27631998

  11. Sex sorting increases the permeability of the membrane of stallion spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Balao da Silva, C M; Ortega Ferrusola, C; Morillo Rodriguez, A; Gallardo Bolaños, J M; Plaza Dávila, M; Morrell, J M; Rodriguez Martínez, H; Tapia, J A; Aparicio, I M; Peña, F J

    2013-05-01

    At present, the only repeatable means of selecting the sex of offspring is the Beltsville semen sorting technology using flow cytometry (FC). This technology has reached commercial status in the bovine industry and substantial advances have occurred recently in swine and ovine species. In the equine species, however, the technology is not as well developed. To better understand the changes induced in stallion spermatozoa during the sorting procedure, pooled sperm samples were sorted: sperm motility and kinematics were assessed using computer assisted sperm analysis, sperm membrane integrity was assessed using the YoPro-1 assay, while plasmalemmal stability and lipid architecture were assessed using Merocyanine 540/SYTOX green and Annexin-V, respectively. Lipid peroxidation was also investigated with the probe Bodipy(581/591)-C11. All assays were performed shortly after collection, after incubation and after sex sorting using FC. In order to characterize potential molecular mechanisms implicated in sperm damage, an apoptosis protein antibody dot plot array analysis was performed before and after sorting. While the percentage of total motile sperm remained unchanged, sex sorting reduced the percentages of progressive motile spermatozoa and of rapid spermatozoa as well as curvilinear velocity (VCL). Sperm membranes responded to sorting with an increase in the percentage of YoPro-1 positive cells, suggesting the sorted spermatozoa had a reduced energy status that was confirmed by measuring intracellular ATP content. PMID:23567220

  12. Improved Method for Bacterial Cell Capture after Flow Cytometry Cell Sorting

    PubMed Central

    Guillebault, D.; Laghdass, M.; Catala, P.; Obernosterer, I.; Lebaron, P.

    2010-01-01

    Fixed cells with different nucleic acid contents and scatter properties (low nucleic acid [LNA], high nucleic acid 1 [HNA1], and HNA2) were sorted by flow cytometry (FCM). For each sort, 10,000 cells were efficiently captured on poly-l-lysine-coated microplates, resulting in efficient and reproducible PCR amplification. PMID:20817799

  13. Card-Sorting Usability Tests of the WMU Libraries' Web Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whang, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the card-sorting techniques used by several academic libraries, reports and discusses the results of card-sorting usability tests of the Western Michigan University Libraries' Web site, and reveals how the WMU libraries incorporated the findings into a new Web site redesign, setting the design direction early on. The article…

  14. Does Sorting Students Improve Scores? An Analysis of Class Composition. NBER Working Paper No. 18848

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Courtney A.; Gan, Li

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines schools' decisions to sort students into different classes and how those sorting processes impact student achievement. There are two potential effects that result from schools creating homogeneous classes--a "tracking effect," which allows teachers to direct their focus to a more narrow range of students, and a peer effect,…

  15. Relations as Rules: The Role of Attention in the Dimensional Change Card Sort Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honomichl, Ryan D.; Chen, Zhe

    2011-01-01

    Preschoolers are typically unable to switch sorting rules during the Dimensional Change Card Sort task. One explanation for this phenomenon is attentional inflexibility (Kirkham, Cruess, & Diamond, 2003). In 4 experiments with 3- to 4-year-olds, we tested this hypothesis by examining the influence of dimensional salience on switching performance.…

  16. Nontraditional Card Sorts: Adding Critical Thinking and Inquiry to Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Linda; Deese, W. C.; Cox, Cathi

    2007-01-01

    A typical card sort is an activity in which students are given a set of cards with a single concept written on each card and asked to organize the cards by grouping related concepts. The nontraditional card sorts described in this article foster critical thinking and add elements of inquiry as students use them to develop flowcharts for complex…

  17. Can Concept Sorting Provide a Reliable, Valid and Sensitive Measure of Medical Knowledge Structure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mclaughlin, Kevin; Coderre, Sylvain; Mortis, Garth; Fick, Gordon; Mandin, Henry

    2007-01-01

    Context: Evolution from novice to expert is associated with the development of expert-type knowledge structure. The objectives of this study were to examine reliability and validity of concept sorting (ConSort[C]) as a measure of static knowledge structure and to determine the relationship between concepts in static knowledge structure and…

  18. On the Historical and Conceptual Background of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eling, Paul; Derckx, Kristianne; Maes, Roald

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the development of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). We trace the history of sorting tasks from the studies of Narziss Ach on the psychology of thinking, via the work of Kurt Goldstein and Adhemar Gelb on brain lesioned patients around 1920 and subsequent developments, up to the actual design of the WCST by Harry…

  19. A Computer Environment for Beginners' Learning of Sorting Algorithms: Design and Pilot Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kordaki, M.; Miatidis, M.; Kapsampelis, G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the design, features and pilot evaluation study of a web-based environment--the SORTING environment--for the learning of sorting algorithms by secondary level education students. The design of this environment is based on modeling methodology, taking into account modern constructivist and social theories of learning while at…

  20. Regulation of synaptic activity by snapin-mediated endolysosomal transport and sorting

    PubMed Central

    Di Giovanni, Jerome; Sheng, Zu-Hang

    2015-01-01

    Recycling synaptic vesicles (SVs) transit through early endosomal sorting stations, which raises a fundamental question: are SVs sorted toward endolysosomal pathways? Here, we used snapin mutants as tools to assess how endolysosomal sorting and trafficking impact presynaptic activity in wild-type and snapin−/− neurons. Snapin acts as a dynein adaptor that mediates the retrograde transport of late endosomes (LEs) and interacts with dysbindin, a subunit of the endosomal sorting complex BLOC-1. Expressing dynein-binding defective snapin mutants induced SV accumulation at presynaptic terminals, mimicking the snapin−/− phenotype. Conversely, over-expressing snapin reduced SV pool size by enhancing SV trafficking to the endolysosomal pathway. Using a SV-targeted Ca2+ sensor, we demonstrate that snapin–dysbindin interaction regulates SV positional priming through BLOC-1/AP-3-dependent sorting. Our study reveals a bipartite regulation of presynaptic activity by endolysosomal trafficking and sorting: LE transport regulates SV pool size, and BLOC-1/AP-3-dependent sorting fine-tunes the Ca2+ sensitivity of SV release. Therefore, our study provides new mechanistic insights into the maintenance and regulation of SV pool size and synchronized SV fusion through snapin-mediated LE trafficking and endosomal sorting. PMID:26108535

  1. A multispectral sorting device for isolating single wheat kernels with high protein content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Automated sorting of single wheat kernels according to protein content was demonstrated using two novel multispectral sorting devices with different spectral ranges; 470-1070 nm (silicone based detector) and 910nm-1550 nm (InGaAs based detector). The multispectral data were acquired by rapidly (~12...

  2. The Art of Sorting: Using Venn Diagrams To Learn Science Process Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jan E.

    2003-01-01

    Presents activities that have been proven to teach young learners to sort and classify objects that contain more than one attribute. The activities require that students employ the use of sorting hoops and attribute blocks to create Venn diagrams, the assembly of which requires practice. Includes cross-curricular uses of these learning tools.…

  3. Using the Identity Processing Style Q-Sort to Examine Identity Styles of Turkish Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eryigit, Suna; Kerpelman, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on two studies with Turkish young adults that used the Turkish version of the Identity Processing Style Q-Sort (IPSQ). The IPSQ is based on Berzonsky's informational, normative, and diffused identity styles. Participants sort descriptors of the styles into columns ranging from most to least like them. Patterns in Turkish young…

  4. Viable cell sorting of dinoflagellates by multi-parametric flow cytometry.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electronic cell sorting for isolation and culture of dinoflagellates and other marine eukaryotic phytoplankton was compared to the traditional method of manually picking of cells using a micropipette. Trauma to electronically sorted cells was not a limiting factor as fragile dinoflagellates, such a...

  5. The Methods and Goals of Teaching Sorting Algorithms in Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernát, Péter

    2014-01-01

    The topic of sorting algorithms is a pleasant subject of informatics education. Not only is it so because the notion of sorting is well known from our everyday life, but also because as an algorithm task, whether we expect naive or practical solutions, it is easy to define and demonstrate. In my paper I will present some of the possible methods…

  6. Neonatal Intensive-Care Unit Graduates Show Persistent Difficulties in an Intradimensional Shift Card Sort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittler, Phyllis M.; Brooks, Patricia J.; Rossi, Vanessa; Karmel, Bernard Z.; Gardner, Judith M.; Flory, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal intensive-care unit (NICU) graduates, a group at risk for attention problems and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, performed an intradimensional shift card sort at 34, 42, 51, and 60 months to assess executive function and to examine effects of individual risk factors. In the "silly" game, children sorted cards…

  7. Ion exchanger in the brain: Quantitative analysis of perineuronally fixed anionic binding sites suggests diffusion barriers with ion sorting properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morawski, Markus; Reinert, Tilo; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Wagner, Friedrich E.; Tröger, Wolfgang; Reinert, Anja; Jäger, Carsten; Brückner, Gert; Arendt, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Perineuronal nets (PNs) are a specialized form of brain extracellular matrix, consisting of negatively charged glycosaminoglycans, glycoproteins and proteoglycans in the direct microenvironment of neurons. Still, locally immobilized charges in the tissue have not been accessible so far to direct observations and quantifications. Here, we present a new approach to visualize and quantify fixed charge-densities on brain slices using a focused proton-beam microprobe in combination with ionic metallic probes. For the first time, we can provide quantitative data on the distribution and net amount of pericellularly fixed charge-densities, which, determined at 0.4-0.5 M, is much higher than previously assumed. PNs, thus, represent an immobilized ion exchanger with ion sorting properties high enough to partition mobile ions in accord with Donnan-equilibrium. We propose that fixed charge-densities in the brain are involved in regulating ion mobility, the volume fraction of extracellular space and the viscosity of matrix components.

  8. Real-time hyperspectral processing for automatic nonferrous material sorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picón, Artzai; Ghita, Ovidiu; Bereciartua, Aranzazu; Echazarra, Jone; Whelan, Paul F.; Iriondo, Pedro M.

    2012-01-01

    The application of hyperspectral sensors in the development of machine vision solutions has become increasingly popular as the spectral characteristics of the imaged materials are better modeled in the hyperspectral domain than in the standard trichromatic red, green, blue data. While there is no doubt that the availability of detailed spectral information is opportune as it opens the possibility to construct robust image descriptors, it also raises a substantial challenge when this high-dimensional data is used in the development of real-time machine vision systems. To alleviate the computational demand, often decorrelation techniques are commonly applied prior to feature extraction. While this approach has reduced to some extent the size of the spectral descriptor, data decorrelation alone proved insufficient in attaining real-time classification. This fact is particularly apparent when pixel-wise image descriptors are not sufficiently robust to model the spectral characteristics of the imaged materials, a case when the spatial information (or textural properties) also has to be included in the classification process. The integration of spectral and spatial information entails a substantial computational cost, and as a result the prospects of real-time operation for the developed machine vision system are compromised. To answer this requirement, in this paper we have reengineered the approach behind the integration of the spectral and spatial information in the material classification process to allow the real-time sorting of the nonferrous fractions that are contained in the waste of electric and electronic equipment scrap.

  9. baobabLUNA: the solution space of sorting by reversals

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Computing the reversal distance and searching for an optimal sequence of reversals to transform a unichromosomal genome into another are useful algorithmic tools to analyse real evolutionary scenarios. Currently, these problems can be solved by at least two available softwares, the prominent of which are GRAPPA and GRIMM. However, the number of different optimal sequences is usually huge and taking only the distance and/or one example is often insufficient to do a proper analysis. Here, we offer an alternative and present baobabLUNA, a framework that contains an algorithm to give a compact representation of the whole space of solutions for the sorting by reversals problem. Availability and Implementation: Compiled code implemented in Java is freely available for download at http://pbil.univ-lyon1.fr/software/luna/. Documentation with methodological background, technical aspects, download and setup instructions, interface description and tutorial are available at http://pbil.univ-lyon1.fr/software/luna/doc/luna-doc.pdf. Contact: mdvbraga@gmail.com Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:19401401

  10. Tuning myosin-driven sorting on cellular actin networks

    PubMed Central

    Hariadi, Rizal F; Sommese, Ruth F; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaraj

    2015-01-01

    Myosin V and VI are antagonistic motors that cohabit membrane vesicles in cells. A systematic study of their collective function, however, is lacking and forms the focus of this study. We functionally reconstitute a two-dimensional actin-myosin interface using myosin V and VI precisely patterned on DNA nanostructures, in combination with a model keratocyte actin meshwork. While scaffolds display solely unidirectional movement, their directional flux is modulated by both actin architecture and the structural properties of the myosin lever arm. This directional flux can be finely-tuned by the relative number of myosin V and VI motors on each scaffold. Pairing computation with experimental observations suggests that the ratio of motor stall forces is a key determinant of the observed competitive outcomes. Overall, our study demonstrates an elegant mechanism for sorting of membrane cargo using equally matched antagonistic motors, simply by modulating the relative number of engagement sites for each motor type. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05472.001 PMID:25738229

  11. Inferring Phylogenetic Networks with Maximum Pseudolikelihood under Incomplete Lineage Sorting

    PubMed Central

    Solís-Lemus, Claudia; Ané, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic networks are necessary to represent the tree of life expanded by edges to represent events such as horizontal gene transfers, hybridizations or gene flow. Not all species follow the paradigm of vertical inheritance of their genetic material. While a great deal of research has flourished into the inference of phylogenetic trees, statistical methods to infer phylogenetic networks are still limited and under development. The main disadvantage of existing methods is a lack of scalability. Here, we present a statistical method to infer phylogenetic networks from multi-locus genetic data in a pseudolikelihood framework. Our model accounts for incomplete lineage sorting through the coalescent model, and for horizontal inheritance of genes through reticulation nodes in the network. Computation of the pseudolikelihood is fast and simple, and it avoids the burdensome calculation of the full likelihood which can be intractable with many species. Moreover, estimation at the quartet-level has the added computational benefit that it is easily parallelizable. Simulation studies comparing our method to a full likelihood approach show that our pseudolikelihood approach is much faster without compromising accuracy. We applied our method to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships among swordtails and platyfishes (Xiphophorus: Poeciliidae), which is characterized by widespread hybridizations. PMID:26950302

  12. A role for sorting nexin 27 in AMPA receptor trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Loo, Li Shen; Tang, Ning; Al-Haddawi, Muthafar; Stewart Dawe, Gavin; Hong, Wanjin

    2014-01-01

    Sorting nexin 27 (SNX27), a PDZ domain-containing endosomal protein, was recently shown to modulate glutamate receptor recycling in Down’s syndrome. However, the precise molecular role of SNX27 in GluA1 trafficking is unclear. Here we report that SNX27 is enriched in dendrites and spines, along with recycling endosomes. Significantly, the mobilization of SNX27 along with recycling endosomes into spines was observed. Mechanistically, SNX27 interacts with K-ras GTPase via the RA domain; and following chemical LTP stimuli, K-ras is recruited to SNX27-enriched endosomes through a Ca2+/CaM-dependent mechanism, which in turn drives the synaptic delivery of homomeric GluA1 receptors. Impairment of SNX27 prevents LTP and associated trafficking of AMPARs. These results demonstrate a role for SNX27 in neuronal plasticity, provide a molecular explanation for the K-ras signal during LTP and identify SNX27 as the PDZ-containing molecular linker that couples the plasticity stimuli to the delivery of postsynaptic cargo. PMID:24458027

  13. Separation and sorting of cells in microsystems using physical principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gi-Hun; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Ahn, Kihoon; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Park, Joong Yull

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, microfabrication techniques have been combined with microfluidics and applied to cell biology. Utilizing such new techniques, various cell studies have been performed for the research of stem cells, immune cells, cancer, neurons, etc. Among the various biological applications of microtechnology-based platforms, cell separation technology has been highly regarded in biological and clinical fields for sorting different types of cells, finding circulating tumor cells (CTCs), and blood cell separation, amongst other things. Many cell separation methods have been created using various physical principles. Representatively, these include hydrodynamic, acoustic, dielectrophoretic, magnetic, optical, and filtering methods. In this review, each of these methods will be introduced, and their physical principles and sample applications described. Each physical principle has its own advantages and disadvantages. The engineers who design the systems and the biologists who use them should understand the pros and cons of each method or principle, to broaden the use of microsystems for cell separation. Continuous development of microsystems for cell separation will lead to new opportunities for diagnosing CTCs and cancer metastasis, as well as other elements in the bloodstream.

  14. Dysferlin-mediated phosphatidylserine sorting engages macrophages in sarcolemma repair.

    PubMed

    Middel, Volker; Zhou, Lu; Takamiya, Masanari; Beil, Tanja; Shahid, Maryam; Roostalu, Urmas; Grabher, Clemens; Rastegar, Sepand; Reischl, Markus; Nienhaus, Gerd Ulrich; Strähle, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Failure to repair the sarcolemma leads to muscle cell death, depletion of stem cells and myopathy. Hence, membrane lesions are instantly sealed by a repair patch consisting of lipids and proteins. It has remained elusive how this patch is removed to restore cell membrane integrity. Here we examine sarcolemmal repair in live zebrafish embryos by real-time imaging. Macrophages remove the patch. Phosphatidylserine (PS), an 'eat-me' signal for macrophages, is rapidly sorted from adjacent sarcolemma to the repair patch in a Dysferlin (Dysf) dependent process in zebrafish and human cells. A previously unrecognized arginine-rich motif in Dysf is crucial for PS accumulation. It carries mutations in patients presenting with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2B. This underscores the relevance of this sequence and uncovers a novel pathophysiological mechanism underlying this class of myopathies. Our data show that membrane repair is a multi-tiered process involving immediate, cell-intrinsic mechanisms as well as myofiber/macrophage interactions. PMID:27641898

  15. Development and construct validation of the Hand Function Sort.

    PubMed

    Matheson, L N; Kaskutas, V K; Mada, D

    2001-06-01

    The construct validity of the Hand Function Sort (HFS) was investigated in 126 adults of working age (65% male) with medical impairments. Principal components factor analysis identified one major factor and two minor factors, which was consistent with the findings of a subsequent Harris Image Analysis. A Kaiser Image Analysis identified seven factors, partitioning the first global factor. Construct validity also was studied. HFS scores of subjects who had impairment of the dominant upper extremity were compared with subjects whose dominant upper extremities were not impaired. Significant differences were found between groups for total scores and in categories of tasks for which hand dominance was likely to be important. Conversely, there were no significant differences with tasks for which hand dominance was not important. HFS scores were compared with grip strength, which accounted for significant variance in the total HFS score. When categories of tasks were considered, substantial variance in the factors for which grip strength was important was accounted for by grip strength. For tasks in which grip strength was not likely to be important, variance accounted for by grip strength was negligible.

  16. Regulatory Match Effects on a Modified Wisconsin Card Sort Task

    PubMed Central

    Maddox, W. Todd; Filoteo, J. Vincent; Glass, Brian D.; Markman, Arthur B.

    2009-01-01

    The Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST; Heaton, 1980) is commonly used to assess concept formation and set shifting. Cognitive research suggests that set shifting performance is enhanced by a match between a person’s regulatory focus (promotion focus: attempting to earn an entry into a cash drawing; prevention focus: attempting to avoid losing an entry into the drawing) and the task reward structure (gains: attempting to maximize points gained; losses: attempting to minimize points lost). A regulatory match results when attempting to earn an entry by maximizing points or attempting to avoid losing an entry by minimizing losses. We test the hypothesis that performance on a modified WCST is accentuated in younger, healthy participants when there is a match between the global performance incentive and the local task reward structure. As predicted, participants in a match showed better set shifting but equivalent initial concept formation when compared to participants in a mismatch. Further, relative to a baseline control group, mismatch participants were significantly worse at set shifting than were participants in a regulatory match. These results suggest that set shifting performance might be impacted by incentive and task reward factors in ways that have not been considered previously. PMID:20128935

  17. Dysferlin-mediated phosphatidylserine sorting engages macrophages in sarcolemma repair.

    PubMed

    Middel, Volker; Zhou, Lu; Takamiya, Masanari; Beil, Tanja; Shahid, Maryam; Roostalu, Urmas; Grabher, Clemens; Rastegar, Sepand; Reischl, Markus; Nienhaus, Gerd Ulrich; Strähle, Uwe

    2016-09-19

    Failure to repair the sarcolemma leads to muscle cell death, depletion of stem cells and myopathy. Hence, membrane lesions are instantly sealed by a repair patch consisting of lipids and proteins. It has remained elusive how this patch is removed to restore cell membrane integrity. Here we examine sarcolemmal repair in live zebrafish embryos by real-time imaging. Macrophages remove the patch. Phosphatidylserine (PS), an 'eat-me' signal for macrophages, is rapidly sorted from adjacent sarcolemma to the repair patch in a Dysferlin (Dysf) dependent process in zebrafish and human cells. A previously unrecognized arginine-rich motif in Dysf is crucial for PS accumulation. It carries mutations in patients presenting with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2B. This underscores the relevance of this sequence and uncovers a novel pathophysiological mechanism underlying this class of myopathies. Our data show that membrane repair is a multi-tiered process involving immediate, cell-intrinsic mechanisms as well as myofiber/macrophage interactions.

  18. Proteins interacting with Membranes: Protein Sorting and Membrane Shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callan-Jones, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    Membrane-bound transport in cells requires generating membrane curvature. In addition, transport is selective, in order to establish spatial gradients of membrane components in the cell. The mechanisms underlying cell membrane shaping by proteins and the influence of curvature on membrane composition are active areas of study in cell biophysics. In vitro approaches using Giant Unilamellar Vesicles (GUVs) are a useful tool to identify the physical mechanisms that drive sorting of membrane components and membrane shape change by proteins. I will present recent work on the curvature sensing and generation of IRSp53, a protein belonging to the BAR family, whose members, sharing a banana-shaped backbone, are involved in endocytosis. Pulling membrane tubes with 10-100 nm radii from GUVs containing encapsulated IRSp53 have, unexpectedly, revealed a non-monotonic dependence of the protein concentration on the tube as a function of curvature. Experiments also show that bound proteins alter the tube mechanics and that protein phase separation along the tube occurs at low tensions. I will present accompanying theoretical work that can explain these findings based on the competition between the protein's intrinsic curvature and the effective rigidity of a membrane-protein patch.

  19. Structure and Plasticity of Endophilin and Sorting Nexin 9

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qi; Kaan, Hung Yi Kristal; Hooda, Reshma Noordin; Goh, Shih Lin; Sondermann, Holger

    2009-06-17

    Endophilin and Sorting Nexin 9 (Snx9) play key roles in endocytosis by membrane curvature sensing and remodeling via their Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domains. BAR and the related F-BAR domains form dimeric, crescent-shaped units that occur N- or C-terminally to other lipid-binding, adaptor, or catalytic modules. In crystal structures, the PX-BAR unit of Snx9 (Snx9{sup PX-BAR}) adopts an overall compact, moderately curved conformation. SAXS-based solution studies revealed an alternative, more curved state of Snx9{sup PX-BAR} in which the PX domains are flexibly connected to the BAR domains, providing a model for how Snx9 exhibits lipid-dependent curvature preferences. In contrast, Endophilin appears to be rigid in solution, and the SH3 domains are located at the distal tips of a BAR domain dimer with fixed curvature. We also observed tip-to-tip interactions between the BAR domains in a trigonal crystal form of Snx9PX-BAR reminiscent of functionally important interactions described for F-BAR domains.

  20. Interstitial diffusion in systems with multiple sorts of traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, F. D.; Svoboda, J.; Kozeschnik, E.

    2013-03-01

    The role of several sorts of traps for one diffusing interstitial component is investigated. The site fraction of this component in each trap is calculated due to the local thermodynamic equilibrium condition with its site fraction in the lattice. Combining Fick's first law for diffusive fluxes of individual site fractions with the equilibrium condition and the mass balance allows deriving an extended nonlinear diffusion equation. If the molar volumes of the trap positions are constant with respect to time, then a generalized chemical diffusion coefficient can be derived, which allows performing the diffusion study in terms of the total concentration of the interstitial component. As an alternative way, the total diffusion flux can also be treated as the sum of diffusion fluxes of individual fractions combined with local redistribution of individual fractions based on the thermodynamic local equilibrium condition. Both concepts are presented in simulations for the diffusion of hydrogen in the system with traps as immobile dislocations, substitutional impurities and interfaces of incoherent carbide nanoprecipitates. Both concepts provide equivalent results and exhibit an asymmetric behaviour with respect to a charging/discharging process.

  1. Spectrometry: photon sorting at the speed of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vink, H. J. P.; Day, J. P. R.; Volatier, J. B. C.; Nijkerk, M. D.

    2015-09-01

    The fact that every spectrometer can sort light by wavelength at the speed of light is intriguing. The field of spectrometry is a long-existing and ever-changing one. The application areas extend from optical communication to possible extraterrestrial life detection, health monitoring, environmental monitoring and quite a long list of other topics. TNO has played a role in several of these areas, always using state of the art designs and components. Some of the recent developments are described, as well as a possible path for (near) future developments. Any spectrometer consists of a telescope, slit, collimator, disperser and an imager. Each of these functions is discussed using and even pushing progress in the manufacturing and design capabilities of the industry. The progress from a two-mirror spherical telescope for a pushbroom space-based daily global coverage spectroscopy instrument OMI to a two-mirror freeform telescope for TROPOMI is described, the design and manufacturing of supergratings showing very little straylight, freeform mirrors and the use of deliberately decentered lenses is shown. A near-future small-satellite system is shown that is being built and tested as this paper was written.

  2. Dysferlin-mediated phosphatidylserine sorting engages macrophages in sarcolemma repair

    PubMed Central

    Middel, Volker; Zhou, Lu; Takamiya, Masanari; Beil, Tanja; Shahid, Maryam; Roostalu, Urmas; Grabher, Clemens; Rastegar, Sepand; Reischl, Markus; Nienhaus, Gerd Ulrich; Strähle, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Failure to repair the sarcolemma leads to muscle cell death, depletion of stem cells and myopathy. Hence, membrane lesions are instantly sealed by a repair patch consisting of lipids and proteins. It has remained elusive how this patch is removed to restore cell membrane integrity. Here we examine sarcolemmal repair in live zebrafish embryos by real-time imaging. Macrophages remove the patch. Phosphatidylserine (PS), an ‘eat-me' signal for macrophages, is rapidly sorted from adjacent sarcolemma to the repair patch in a Dysferlin (Dysf) dependent process in zebrafish and human cells. A previously unrecognized arginine-rich motif in Dysf is crucial for PS accumulation. It carries mutations in patients presenting with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2B. This underscores the relevance of this sequence and uncovers a novel pathophysiological mechanism underlying this class of myopathies. Our data show that membrane repair is a multi-tiered process involving immediate, cell-intrinsic mechanisms as well as myofiber/macrophage interactions. PMID:27641898

  3. Phenotypic and Genetic Analyses of the Wisconsin Card Sort

    PubMed Central

    Godinez, Detre A.; Friedman, Naomi P.; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Miyake, Akira; Hewitt, John K.

    2012-01-01

    The present study assessed the factor structure and etiology of traditional perseverative and nonperseverative errors, and six narrowly defined errors that occur during the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST). A computer-administered version of the WCST, designed to maximize the variance in a nonclinical sample, was used. Phenotypic factor analysis and twin models were used to examine the structure and genetic and environmental etiology in 191 monozygotic and 165 dizygotic adolescent twin pairs. Factor analysis did not support the traditional division of errors into perseverative and nonperseverative errors. Heritability of individual indices was small to moderate (a2 = .10 – .42), with varying significance. Estimates of shared environment (c2 = .00 – .14) were not significant. The best fitting multivariate genetic model had one genetic factor, with specific variance and covariance due to nonshared environmental influences. These results suggest that there are common underlying genetic influences on WCST indices, along with index-specific environmental variance that does not correspond to the traditional division between perseverative and nonperseverative errors. PMID:21952792

  4. Application of Raman spectroscopy to identification and sorting of post-consumer plastics for recycling

    DOEpatents

    Sommer, Edward J.; Rich, John T.

    2001-01-01

    A high accuracy rapid system for sorting a plurality of waste products by polymer type. The invention involves the application of Raman spectroscopy and complex identification techniques to identify and sort post-consumer plastics for recycling. The invention reads information unique to the molecular structure of the materials to be sorted to identify their chemical compositions and uses rapid high volume sorting techniques to sort them into product streams at commercially viable throughput rates. The system employs a laser diode (20) for irradiating the material sample (10), a spectrograph (50) is used to determine the Raman spectrum of the material sample (10) and a microprocessor based controller (70) is employed to identify the polymer type of the material sample (10).

  5. Enhancing the executive functions of 3-year-olds in the dimensional change card sort task

    PubMed Central

    Perone, Sammy; Molitor, Stephen; Buss, Aaron T.; Spencer, John P.; Samuelson, Larissa K.

    2015-01-01

    Executive functions (EFs) enable flexible thinking, something young children are notoriously bad at. For instance, in the dimensional change card sort (DCCS) task, 3-year-olds can sort cards by one dimension (shape), but continue to sort by this dimension when asked to switch (to color). This study tests a prediction of a Dynamic Neural Field (DNF) model that prior experience with the post-switch dimension can enhance 3-year-old’s performance in the DCCS task. In Experiment 1A, a matching game was used to pre-expose 3-year-olds (n=36) to color. This facilitated switching from sorting by shape to color. In Experiment 1B, 3-year-olds (n=18) were pre-exposed to shape. This did not facilitate switching from sorting by color to shape. The DNF model was used to provide a mechanistic explanation for this asymmetry. PMID:25441395

  6. Comparison of spike sorting and thresholding of voltage waveforms for intracortical brain-machine interface performance

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Breanne P.; Tat, Derek M.; Irwin, Zachary T.; Gilja, Vikash; Nuyujukian, Paul; Foster, Justin D.; Ryu, Stephen I.; Shenoy, Krishna V.; Thompson, David E.; Chestek, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective For intracortical brain-machine interfaces (BMIs), action potential voltage waveforms are often sorted to separate out individual neurons. If these neurons contain independent tuning information, this process could increase BMI performance. However, the sorting of action potentials (“spikes”) requires high sampling rates and is computationally expensive. To explicitly define the difference between spike sorting and alternative methods, we quantified BMI decoder performance when using threshold-crossing events versus sorted action potentials. Approach We used data sets from 58 experimental sessions from two rhesus macaques implanted with Utah arrays. Data were recorded while the animals performed a center-out reaching task with seven different angles. For spike sorting, neural signals were sorted into individual units by using a mixture of gaussians to cluster the first four principal components of the waveforms. For thresholding events, spikes that simply crossed a set threshold were retained. We decoded the data offline using both a Naïve Bayes classifier for reaching direction and a linear regression to evaluate hand position. Results We found the highest performance for thresholding when placing a threshold between −3 to −4.5*VRMS. Spike sorted data outperformed thresholded data for one animal but not the other. The mean Naïve Bayes classification accuracy for sorted data was 88.5% and changed by 5% on average when data was thresholded. The mean correlation coefficient for sorted data was 0.92, and changed by 0.015 on average when thresholded. Significance For prosthetics applications, these results imply that when thresholding is used instead of spike sorting, only a small amount of performance may be lost. The utilization of threshold-crossing events may significantly extend the lifetime of a device because these events are often still detectable once single neurons are no longer isolated. PMID:25504690

  7. Comparison of spike sorting and thresholding of voltage waveforms for intracortical brain-machine interface performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christie, Breanne P.; Tat, Derek M.; Irwin, Zachary T.; Gilja, Vikash; Nuyujukian, Paul; Foster, Justin D.; Ryu, Stephen I.; Shenoy, Krishna V.; Thompson, David E.; Chestek, Cynthia A.

    2015-02-01

    Objective. For intracortical brain-machine interfaces (BMIs), action potential voltage waveforms are often sorted to separate out individual neurons. If these neurons contain independent tuning information, this process could increase BMI performance. However, the sorting of action potentials (‘spikes’) requires high sampling rates and is computationally expensive. To explicitly define the difference between spike sorting and alternative methods, we quantified BMI decoder performance when using threshold-crossing events versus sorted action potentials. Approach. We used data sets from 58 experimental sessions from two rhesus macaques implanted with Utah arrays. Data were recorded while the animals performed a center-out reaching task with seven different angles. For spike sorting, neural signals were sorted into individual units by using a mixture of Gaussians to cluster the first four principal components of the waveforms. For thresholding events, spikes that simply crossed a set threshold were retained. We decoded the data offline using both a Naïve Bayes classifier for reaching direction and a linear regression to evaluate hand position. Main results. We found the highest performance for thresholding when placing a threshold between -3 and -4.5 × Vrms. Spike sorted data outperformed thresholded data for one animal but not the other. The mean Naïve Bayes classification accuracy for sorted data was 88.5% and changed by 5% on average when data were thresholded. The mean correlation coefficient for sorted data was 0.92, and changed by 0.015 on average when thresholded. Significance. For prosthetics applications, these results imply that when thresholding is used instead of spike sorting, only a small amount of performance may be lost. The utilization of threshold-crossing events may significantly extend the lifetime of a device because these events are often still detectable once single neurons are no longer isolated.

  8. Give It AGO: The Search for miRNA-Argonaute Sorting Signals in Arabidopsis thaliana Indicates a Relevance of Sequence Positions Other than the 5′-Position Alone

    PubMed Central

    Thieme, Christoph J.; Schudoma, Christian; May, Patrick; Walther, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    The specific recognition of miRNAs by Argonaute (AGO) proteins, the effector proteins of the RNA-induced silencing complex, constitutes the final step of the biogenesis of miRNAs and is crucial for their target interaction. In the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana (Ath), 10 different AGO proteins are encoded and the sorting decision, which miRNA associates with which AGO protein, was reported to depend exclusively on the identity of the 5′-sequence position of mature miRNAs. Hence, with only four different bases possible, a 5′-position-only sorting signal would not suffice to specifically target all 10 different AGOs individually or would suggest redundant AGO action. Alternatively, other and as of yet unidentified sorting signals may exist. We analyzed a dataset comprising 117 Ath-miRNAs with clear sorting preference to either AGO1, AGO2, or AGO5 as identified in co-immunoprecipitation experiments combined with sequencing. While mutual information analysis did not identify any other single position but the 5′-nucleotide to be informative for the sorting at sufficient statistical significance, significantly better than random classification results using Random Forests nonetheless suggest that additional positions and combinations thereof also carry information with regard to the AGO sorting. Positions 2, 6, 9, and 13 appear to be of particular importance. Furthermore, uracil bases at defined positions appear to be important for the sorting to AGO2 and AGO5, in particular. No predictive value was associated with miRNA length or base pair binding pattern in the miRNA:miRNA* duplex. From inspecting available AGO gene expression data in Arabidopsis, we conclude that the temporal and spatial expression profile may also contribute to the fine-tuning of miRNA sorting and function. PMID:23233858

  9. Impact of sorting before feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of yearling steers.

    PubMed

    Hilscher, F H; Hussey, E M; Nuttelman, B L; Burken, D B; Griffin, W A; Vander Pol, K J; Hutcheson, J P; Erickson, G E

    2015-05-01

    Two studies evaluated sorting and feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics in randomized block-designed finishing trials. In Exp. 1 (initial BW 342 ± 10 kg, = 1,000), 5 treatments included an unsorted non-ZH fed negative control (-CON), an unsorted ZH fed positive control (+CON), and 3 treatments in which the heaviest 20% within the pen were sorted and marketed 28 d early and the remaining 80% were fed ZH. The 20% were identified at the beginning (EARLY), 100 d from slaughter (MIDDLE), or 50 d from slaughter (LATE). Because of sorting, the remaining steers in sorted treatments were fed 14 d longer than -CON and +CON. Average days on feed for control treatments were 165 and 173 d for the EARLY, MIDDLE, and LATE treatments. In Exp. 2 (initial BW 376 ± 29 kg, = 1,400), 4 treatments included -CON; +CON; an early weight sort fed ZH (1-SORT) with the heaviest 20% identified at d 1 and sorted 50 d from harvest and marketed 14 d before -CON and +CON, with the remaining 80% of the pen fed 7 d longer than -CON and +CON; and a 4-way sort 50 d from harvest fed ZH (4-SORT) with steers sorted into HEAVY, MID-HEAVY, MID-LIGHT, and LIGHT groups marketed -14, 0, +7, and +28 d from -CON and +CON, respectively. Average days on feed for control treatments were 154 and 157 d for the 1-SORT and 159 d for 4-SORT. Steers were fed Zilmax at 8.3 mg/kg DM for 20 d followed by a 3 d withdrawal. In Exp. 1, steers fed +CON had 13 kg greater (P < 0.01) HCW than steers fed -CON. Steers sorted EARLY, MIDDLE, and LATE had 28, 25, and 24 kg heavier ( P< 0.01) HCW than -CON steers, respectively. Carcass weight SD was greater (P = 0.01) for +CON than -CON but was not different (P = 0.17) between -CON and ZH sorted treatments. Percentage of overweight carcasses (454 kg) was greater (P ≤ 0.05) in sorted treatments than in -CON. In Exp. 2, HCW for +CON was 15 kg heavier (P < 0.01) than that for -CON, and HCW for 4-SORT was greater (P < 0.02) than that

  10. Impact of sorting before feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of yearling steers.

    PubMed

    Hilscher, F H; Hussey, E M; Nuttelman, B L; Burken, D B; Griffin, W A; Vander Pol, K J; Hutcheson, J P; Erickson, G E

    2015-05-01

    Two studies evaluated sorting and feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics in randomized block-designed finishing trials. In Exp. 1 (initial BW 342 ± 10 kg, = 1,000), 5 treatments included an unsorted non-ZH fed negative control (-CON), an unsorted ZH fed positive control (+CON), and 3 treatments in which the heaviest 20% within the pen were sorted and marketed 28 d early and the remaining 80% were fed ZH. The 20% were identified at the beginning (EARLY), 100 d from slaughter (MIDDLE), or 50 d from slaughter (LATE). Because of sorting, the remaining steers in sorted treatments were fed 14 d longer than -CON and +CON. Average days on feed for control treatments were 165 and 173 d for the EARLY, MIDDLE, and LATE treatments. In Exp. 2 (initial BW 376 ± 29 kg, = 1,400), 4 treatments included -CON; +CON; an early weight sort fed ZH (1-SORT) with the heaviest 20% identified at d 1 and sorted 50 d from harvest and marketed 14 d before -CON and +CON, with the remaining 80% of the pen fed 7 d longer than -CON and +CON; and a 4-way sort 50 d from harvest fed ZH (4-SORT) with steers sorted into HEAVY, MID-HEAVY, MID-LIGHT, and LIGHT groups marketed -14, 0, +7, and +28 d from -CON and +CON, respectively. Average days on feed for control treatments were 154 and 157 d for the 1-SORT and 159 d for 4-SORT. Steers were fed Zilmax at 8.3 mg/kg DM for 20 d followed by a 3 d withdrawal. In Exp. 1, steers fed +CON had 13 kg greater (P < 0.01) HCW than steers fed -CON. Steers sorted EARLY, MIDDLE, and LATE had 28, 25, and 24 kg heavier ( P< 0.01) HCW than -CON steers, respectively. Carcass weight SD was greater (P = 0.01) for +CON than -CON but was not different (P = 0.17) between -CON and ZH sorted treatments. Percentage of overweight carcasses (454 kg) was greater (P ≤ 0.05) in sorted treatments than in -CON. In Exp. 2, HCW for +CON was 15 kg heavier (P < 0.01) than that for -CON, and HCW for 4-SORT was greater (P < 0.02) than that

  11. Birth of kids after artificial insemination with sex-sorted, frozen-thawed goat spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Bathgate, R; Mace, N; Heasman, K; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C; de Graaf, S P

    2013-12-01

    Successful sex-sorting of goat spermatozoa and subsequent birth of pre-sexed kids have yet to be reported. As such, a series of experiments were conducted to develop protocols for sperm-sorting (using a modified flow cytometer, MoFlo SX(®) ) and cryopreservation of goat spermatozoa. Saanen goat spermatozoa (n = 2 males) were (i) collected into Salamon's or Tris catch media post-sorting and (ii) frozen in Tris-citrate-glucose media supplemented with 5, 10 or 20% egg yolk in (iii) 0.25 ml pellets on dry ice or 0.25 ml straws in a controlled-rate freezer. Post-sort and post-thaw sperm quality were assessed by motility (CASA), viability and acrosome integrity (PI/FITC-PNA). Sex-sorted goat spermatozoa frozen in pellets displayed significantly higher post-thaw motility and viability than spermatozoa frozen in straws. Catch media and differing egg yolk concentration had no effect on the sperm parameters tested. The in vitro and in vivo fertility of sex-sorted goat spermatozoa produced with this optimum protocol were then tested by means of a heterologous ova binding assay and intrauterine artificial insemination of Saanen goat does, respectively. Sex-sorted goat spermatozoa bound to sheep ova zona pellucidae in similar numbers (p > 0.05) to non-sorted goat spermatozoa, non-sorted ram spermatozoa and sex-sorted ram spermatozoa. Following intrauterine artificial insemination with sex-sorted spermatozoa, 38% (5/13) of does kidded with 83% (3/5) of kids being of the expected sex. Does inseminated with non-sorted spermatozoa achieved a 50% (3/6) kidding rate and a sex ratio of 3 : 1 (F : M). This study demonstrates for the first time that goat spermatozoa can be sex-sorted by flow cytometry, successfully frozen and used to produce pre-sexed kids.

  12. ITK and ANALYZE: a synergistic integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustine, Kurt E.; Holmes, David R., III; Robb, Richard A.

    2004-05-01

    The Insight Toolkit (ITK) is a C++ open-source software toolkit developed under sponsorship of the National Library of Medicine. It provides advanced algorithms for performing image registration and segmentation, but does not provide support for visualization and analysis, nor does it offer any graphical user interface (GUI). The purpose of this integration project is to make ITK readily accessible to end-users with little or no programming skills, and provide interactive processing, visualization and measurement capabilities. This is achieved through the integration of ITK with ANALYZE, a multi-dimension image visualization/analysis application installed in over 300 institutions around the world, with a user-base in excess of 4000. This integration is carried out at both the software foundation and GUI levels. The foundation technology upon which ANALYZE is built is a comprehensive C-function library called AVW. A new set of AVW-ITK functions have been developed and integrated into the AVW library, and four new ITK modules have been added to the ANALYZE interface. Since ITK is a software developer"s toolkit, the only way to access its intrinsic power is to write programs that incorporate it. Integrating ITK with ANALYZE opens the ITK algorithms to end-users who otherwise might never be able to take advantage of the toolkit"s advanced functionality. In addition, this integration provides end-to-end interactive problem solving capabilities which allow all users, including programmers, an integrated system to readily display and quantitatively evaluate the results from the segmentation and registration routines in ITK, regardless of the type or format of input images, which are comprehensively supported in ANALYZE.

  13. Pretarget sorting of retinocollicular axons in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Plas, Daniel T; Lopez, Joshua E; Crair, Michael C

    2005-10-31

    The map of the retina onto the optic tectum is a highly conserved feature of the vertebrate visual system; the mechanism by which this mapping is accomplished during development is a long-standing problem of neurobiology. The early suggestion by Roger Sperry that the map is formed through interactions between retinal ganglion cell axons and target cells within the tectum has gained significant experimental support and widespread acceptance. Nonetheless, reports in a variety of species indicate that some aspects of retinotopic order exist within the optic tract, leading to the suggestion that this "preordering" of retinal axons may play a role in the formation of the mature tectal map. A satisfactory account of pretarget order must provide the mechanism by which such axon order develops. Insofar as this mechanism must ultimately be determined genetically, the mouse suggests itself as the natural species in which to pursue these studies. Quantitative and repeatable methods are required to assess the contribution of candidate genes in mouse models. For these reasons, we have undertaken a quantitative study of the degree of retinotopic order within the optic tract and nerve of wild-type mice both before and after the development of the retinotectal map. Our methods are based on tract tracing using lipophilic dyes, and our results indicate that there is a reestablishment of dorsoventral but not nasotemporal retinal order when the axons pass through the chiasm and that this order is maintained throughout the subsequent tract. Furthermore, this dorsoventral retinotopic order is well established by the day after birth, long before the final target zone is discernible within the tectum. We conclude that pretarget sorting of axons according to origin along the dorsoventral axis of the retina is both spatially and chronologically appropriate to contribute to the formation of the retinotectal map, and we suggest that these methods be used to search for the molecular basis of

  14. High performance transistors via aligned polyfluorene-sorted carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Gerald J.; Joo, Yongho; Singha Roy, Susmit; Gopalan, Padma; Arnold, Michael S.

    2014-02-24

    We evaluate the performance of exceptionally electronic-type sorted, semiconducting, aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWCNTs) in field effect transistors (FETs). High on-conductance and high on/off conductance modulation are simultaneously achieved at channel lengths which are both shorter and longer than individual s-SWCNTs. The s-SWCNTs are isolated from heterogeneous mixtures using a polyfluorene-derivative as a selective agent and aligned on substrates via dose-controlled, floating evaporative self-assembly at densities of ∼50 s-SWCNTs μm{sup −1}. At a channel length of 9 μm the s-SWCNTs percolate to span the FET channel, and the on/off ratio and charge transport mobility are 2.2 × 10{sup 7} and 46 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}, respectively. At a channel length of 400 nm, a large fraction of the s-SWCNTs directly span the channel, and the on-conductance per width is 61 μS μm{sup −1} and the on/off ratio is 4 × 10{sup 5}. These results are considerably better than previous solution-processed FETs, which have suffered from poor on/off ratio due to spurious metallic nanotubes that bridge the channel. 4071 individual and small bundles of s-SWCNTs are tested in 400 nm channel length FETs, and all show semiconducting behavior, demonstrating the high fidelity of polyfluorenes as selective agents and the promise of assembling s-SWCNTs from solution to create high performance semiconductor electronic devices.

  15. Exploring Massive Incomplete Lineage Sorting in Arctoids (Laurasiatheria, Carnivora).

    PubMed

    Doronina, Liliya; Churakov, Gennady; Shi, Jingjing; Brosius, Jürgen; Baertsch, Robert; Clawson, Hiram; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    Freed from the competition of large raptors, Paleocene carnivores could expand their newly acquired habitats in search of prey. Such changing conditions might have led to their successful distribution and rapid radiation. Today, molecular evolutionary biologists are faced, however, with the consequences of such accelerated adaptive radiations, because they led to sequential speciation more rapidly than phylogenetic markers could be fixed. The repercussions being that current genealogies based on such markers are incongruent with species trees.Our aim was to explore such conflicting phylogenetic zones of evolution during the early arctoid radiation, especially to distinguish diagnostic from misleading phylogenetic signals, and to examine other carnivore-related speciation events. We applied a combination of high-throughput computational strategies to screen carnivore and related genomes in silico for randomly inserted retroposed elements that we then used to identify inconsistent phylogenetic patterns in the Arctoidea group, which is well known for phylogenetic discordances.Our combined retrophylogenomic and in vitro wet lab approach detected hundreds of carnivore-specific insertions, many of them confirming well-established splits or identifying and solving conflicting species distributions. Our systematic genome-wide screens for Long INterspersed Elements detected homoplasy-free markers with insertion-specific truncation points that we used to distinguish phylogenetically informative markers from conflicting signals. The results were independently confirmed by phylogenetic diagnostic Short INterspersed Elements. As statistical analysis ruled out ancestral hybridization, these doubly verified but still conflicting patterns were statistically determined to be genomic remnants from a time of ancestral incomplete lineage sorting that especially accompanied large parts of Arctoidea evolution. PMID:26337548

  16. Pretarget sorting of retinocollicular axons in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Plas, Daniel T; Lopez, Joshua E; Crair, Michael C

    2005-10-31

    The map of the retina onto the optic tectum is a highly conserved feature of the vertebrate visual system; the mechanism by which this mapping is accomplished during development is a long-standing problem of neurobiology. The early suggestion by Roger Sperry that the map is formed through interactions between retinal ganglion cell axons and target cells within the tectum has gained significant experimental support and widespread acceptance. Nonetheless, reports in a variety of species indicate that some aspects of retinotopic order exist within the optic tract, leading to the suggestion that this "preordering" of retinal axons may play a role in the formation of the mature tectal map. A satisfactory account of pretarget order must provide the mechanism by which such axon order develops. Insofar as this mechanism must ultimately be determined genetically, the mouse suggests itself as the natural species in which to pursue these studies. Quantitative and repeatable methods are required to assess the contribution of candidate genes in mouse models. For these reasons, we have undertaken a quantitative study of the degree of retinotopic order within the optic tract and nerve of wild-type mice both before and after the development of the retinotectal map. Our methods are based on tract tracing using lipophilic dyes, and our results indicate that there is a reestablishment of dorsoventral but not nasotemporal retinal order when the axons pass through the chiasm and that this order is maintained throughout the subsequent tract. Furthermore, this dorsoventral retinotopic order is well established by the day after birth, long before the final target zone is discernible within the tectum. We conclude that pretarget sorting of axons according to origin along the dorsoventral axis of the retina is both spatially and chronologically appropriate to contribute to the formation of the retinotectal map, and we suggest that these methods be used to search for the molecular basis of

  17. Exploring Massive Incomplete Lineage Sorting in Arctoids (Laurasiatheria, Carnivora).

    PubMed

    Doronina, Liliya; Churakov, Gennady; Shi, Jingjing; Brosius, Jürgen; Baertsch, Robert; Clawson, Hiram; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    Freed from the competition of large raptors, Paleocene carnivores could expand their newly acquired habitats in search of prey. Such changing conditions might have led to their successful distribution and rapid radiation. Today, molecular evolutionary biologists are faced, however, with the consequences of such accelerated adaptive radiations, because they led to sequential speciation more rapidly than phylogenetic markers could be fixed. The repercussions being that current genealogies based on such markers are incongruent with species trees.Our aim was to explore such conflicting phylogenetic zones of evolution during the early arctoid radiation, especially to distinguish diagnostic from misleading phylogenetic signals, and to examine other carnivore-related speciation events. We applied a combination of high-throughput computational strategies to screen carnivore and related genomes in silico for randomly inserted retroposed elements that we then used to identify inconsistent phylogenetic patterns in the Arctoidea group, which is well known for phylogenetic discordances.Our combined retrophylogenomic and in vitro wet lab approach detected hundreds of carnivore-specific insertions, many of them confirming well-established splits or identifying and solving conflicting species distributions. Our systematic genome-wide screens for Long INterspersed Elements detected homoplasy-free markers with insertion-specific truncation points that we used to distinguish phylogenetically informative markers from conflicting signals. The results were independently confirmed by phylogenetic diagnostic Short INterspersed Elements. As statistical analysis ruled out ancestral hybridization, these doubly verified but still conflicting patterns were statistically determined to be genomic remnants from a time of ancestral incomplete lineage sorting that especially accompanied large parts of Arctoidea evolution.

  18. United States Access Board

    MedlinePlus

    ... Communications & IT Access to information and communication technology (ICT) is addressed by Board standards and guidelines issued ... Engineer (November 3) Access Board Approves Rules on ICT Refresh and Medical Diagnostic Equipment (September 14) Access ...

  19. Distinct requirements for intra-ER sorting and budding of peroxisomal membrane proteins from the ER.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Gaurav; Fassas, Scott N; Xia, Zhi-Jie; Subramani, Suresh

    2016-02-01

    During de novo peroxisome biogenesis, importomer complex proteins sort via two preperoxisomal vesicles (ppVs). However, the sorting mechanisms segregating peroxisomal membrane proteins to the preperoxisomal endoplasmic reticulum (pER) and into ppVs are unknown. We report novel roles for Pex3 and Pex19 in intra-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) sorting and budding of the RING-domain peroxins (Pex2, Pex10, and Pex12). Pex19 bridged the interaction at the ER between Pex3 and RING-domain proteins, resulting in a ternary complex that was critical for the intra-ER sorting and subsequent budding of the RING-domain peroxins. Although the docking subcomplex proteins (Pex13, Pex14, and Pex17) also required Pex19 for budding from the ER, they sorted to the pER independently of Pex3 and Pex19 and were spatially segregated from the RING-domain proteins. We also discovered a unique role for Pex3 in sorting Pex10 and Pex12, but with the docking subcomplex. Our study describes an intra-ER sorting process that regulates segregation, packaging, and budding of peroxisomal importomer subcomplexes, thereby preventing their premature assembly at the ER. PMID:26833788

  20. System for flow sorting chromosomes on the basis of pulse shape.

    PubMed

    Bartholdi, M F; Parson, J D; Albright, K A; Cram, L S

    1990-01-01

    Sorting on the basis of the complex features resolved by chromosome slit-scan analysis requires rapid and flexible pulse shape acquisition and processing for determining sort decisions before droplet breakoff. Fluorescence scans of chromosome morphology contain centromeric index and banding information suitable for chromosome classification, but these scans are often characterized by variability in length and height and require sophisticated data processing procedures for identification. Setting sort criteria on such complex morphological data requires digitization and subsequent computation by an algorithm tolerant of variations in overall pulse shape. We demonstrate here the capability to sort individual chromosomes based on their morphological features measured by slit-scan flow cytometry. To do this we have constructed a sort controller capable of acquiring an 128 byte chromosome waveform and executing a series of numerical computations resulting in an area-based centromeric index sort decision in less than 2 ms. The system is configured in a NOVIX microprocessor, programmed in FORTH, and interfaced to a slit-scan flow cytometer data acquisition system. An advantage of this configuration is direct control over the machine state during program execution for minimal processing time. Examples of flow sorted chromosomes are shown with their corresponding fluorescence pulse shapes. PMID:2307057