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Sample records for accessory basal nucleus

  1. Macaque accessory optic system: I. Definition of the medial terminal nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, H.M.; Baleydier, C.; Magnin, M. )

    1990-12-08

    The organization of the accessory optic system (AOS) has been studied in the macaque monkey following intravitreal injections of tritiated amino acids in one eye. Retinal projections to the dorsal (DTN) and the lateral (LTN) terminal nuclei are identical to those previously described in other primate species. We observed an additional group of retinorecipient cells of the AOS, located between the cerebral peduncle and the substantia nigra, which we define as the interstitial nucleus of the superior fasiculus, medial fibers. In this report, we focus our attention on the medial terminal nucleus (MTN). Although a ventral division of this nucleus (MTNv) was not observed in the macaque, the retina projects to a group of cells in the midbrain reticular formation (MRF), which we argue to be homologous to the dorsal division of the MTN (MTNd). To provide evidence in support of this homology, the retinal projection to the MTNv and MTNd was also examined in 21 additional species from 11 orders of mammals including carnivores, marsupials, lagomorphs, rodents, bats, insectivores, tree shrews, hyraxes, pholidotes, edentates, and five additional species of primates. Whereas the retina projects to both ventral and dorsal divisions in all species studied, in haplorhine primates only the projection to the MTNd is conserved. The relative topological position of the MTNd in the MRF, dorsomedial to the substantia nigra and ventrolateral to the red nucleus, remains constant throughout the mammals. The trajectory of fiber paths innervating the MTNd is also similar in all species. In addition, the MTNd has comparable afferent and efferent connections with retina, pretectum, and vestibular nuclei in all species thus far studied. These results support the unequivocal conclusion that the MTNd is an unvarying feature of the mammalian AOS.

  2. Pedunculopontine nucleus and basal ganglia: distant relatives or part of the same family?

    PubMed

    Mena-Segovia, Juan; Bolam, J Paul; Magill, Peter J

    2004-10-01

    The basal ganglia are more highly interconnected with the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPN) than with any other brain region. Regulation and relay of basal ganglia activity are two key functions of the PPN. The PPN provides an interface for the basal ganglia to influence sleep and waking, and the two structures are similarly implicated in learning, reward and other cognitive functions. Perturbations of basal ganglia activity have consequences for the PPN and vice versa, exemplified by their interdependencies in motor function and Parkinson's disease. Thus, close anatomical and physiological links between the PPN and basal ganglia make it increasingly difficult to consider the two as separate functional entities. PMID:15374668

  3. Effects of synaptic drugs on turtle optokinetic nystagmus and the spike responses of the basal optic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Ariel, M; Rosenberg, A F

    1991-11-01

    Behavioral and electrophysiological measures were used to elucidate the retinal modulation of oculomotor control in the turtle. Eye movements were recorded following intravitreal applications of 2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (APB) and the GABA antagonists picrotoxin and bicuculline. Visual responses of single basal optic nucleus (BON) neurons of the accessory optic system were studied in parallel experiments. The effectiveness of APB, a glutamate analog thought to act selectively on the retinal ON pathway, was assessed independently by recording electroretinograms or ganglion cell activity. Injections of APB into the turtle's eye reduced or blocked the injected eye's ability to drive horizontal optokinetic nystagmus, as also observed in rabbit and cat (Knapp et al., 1988; Yucel et al., 1989). Single-unit recordings from the BON during APB superfusion (50-200 microM APB) of the contralateral retina demonstrated that these cells, which are direction-sensitive and respond to the offset of light flashes, have their responses to moving stimuli blocked by APB. During the APB effect, GABA antagonists were applied to the same eye. Although moderate doses of APB were sufficient to block optokinetic or BON light responses, the addition of GABA blockers still elicited a spontaneous temporal-to-nasal nystagmus (Ariel, 1989) or visually responsive yet direction-insensitive responses from BON cells (Schuerger et al., 1990). These results are discussed in terms of the retinal output to pathways involved in oculomotor control of optokinetic nystagmus. PMID:1764413

  4. Brain atrophy in primary progressive aphasia involves the cholinergic basal forebrain and Ayala’s nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Teipel, Stefan J.; Flatz, Wilhelm; Ackl, Nibal; Grothe, Michel; Kilimann, Ingo; Bokde, Arun L.W.; Grinberg, Lea; Amaro, Edson; Kljajevic, Vanja; Alho, Eduardo; Knels, Christina; Ebert, Anne; Heinsen, Helmut; Danek, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is characterized by left hemispheric frontotemporal cortical atrophy. Evidence from anatomical studies suggests that the nucleus subputaminalis (NSP), a subnucleus of the cholinergic basal forebrain, may be involved in the pathological process of PPA. Therefore, we studied the pattern of cortical and basal forebrain atrophy in 10 patients with a clinical diagnosis of PPA and 18 healthy age-matched controls using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We determined the cholinergic basal forebrain nuclei according to Mesulam’s nomenclature and the NSP in MRI reference space based on histological sections and the MRI scan of a post-mortem brain in cranio. Using voxel-based analysis, we found left hemispheric cortical atrophy in PPA patients compared with controls, including prefrontal, lateral temporal and medial temporal lobe areas. We detected cholinergic basal forebrain atrophy in left predominant localizations of Ch4p, Ch4am, Ch4al, Ch3 and NSP. For the first time, we have described the pattern of basal forebrain atrophy in PPA and confirmed the involvement of NSP that had been predicted based on theoretical considerations. Our findings may enhance understanding of the role of cholinergic degeneration for the regional specificity of the cortical destruction leading to the syndrome of PPA. PMID:24434193

  5. A cortical motor nucleus drives the basal ganglia-recipient thalamus in singing birds

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Jesse H.

    2012-01-01

    The pallido-recipient thalamus transmits information from the basal ganglia (BG) to the cortex and plays a critical role motor initiation and learning. Thalamic activity is strongly inhibited by pallidal inputs from the BG, but the role of non-pallidal inputs, such as excitatory inputs from cortex, is unclear. We have recorded simultaneously from presynaptic pallidal axon terminals and postsynaptic thalamocortical neurons in a BG-recipient thalamic nucleus necessary for vocal variability and learning in zebra finches. We found that song-locked rate modulations in the thalamus could not be explained by pallidal inputs alone, and persisted following pallidal lesion. Instead, thalamic activity was likely driven by inputs from a motor ‘cortical’ nucleus also necessary for singing. These findings suggest a role for cortical inputs to the pallido-recipient thalamus in driving premotor signals important for exploratory behavior and learning. PMID:22327474

  6. Active Avoidance Requires a Serial Basal Amygdala to Nucleus Accumbens Shell Circuit

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Franchesca; Moscarello, Justin M.; LeDoux, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Freezing is a species-typical defensive reaction to conditioned threats. While the neural circuitry of aversive Pavlovian behavior has been extensively studied, less is known about the circuitry underlying more active responses to danger. Here we show that the flow of information between the basal amygdala (BA) and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) is necessary for signaled active avoidance behavior. Rats trained to avoid shock by shuttling during an auditory conditioned stimulus showed increased expression of the activity-dependent protein c-Fos in the NAcc, specifically the shell subregion (NAccSh). Silencing neural activity in the NAccSh, but not in the adjacent NAcc core, disrupted avoidance behavior. Disconnection of the BA and the NAccSh was just as effective at disrupting avoidance behavior as bilateral NAccSh inactivations, suggesting learned avoidance behavior requires an intact BA-NAccSh circuit. Together, these data highlight an essential role for the amygdalar projection to the ventral striatum in aversively motivated actions. PMID:25716846

  7. Basal and morphine-evoked dopaminergic neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens of MOR- and DOR-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Chefer, Vladimir I; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Shippenberg, Toni S

    2003-10-01

    Conventional and no net flux microdialysis were used to quantify basal and morphine-induced extracellular dopamine (DA) levels and the basal extraction fraction, which provides an estimate of the rate of DA uptake, in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of wild-type mice and those with a constitutive deletion of mu (MOR)- or delta (DOR)-opioid receptors. Locomotor activity was assessed in these same animals. No difference between genotypes in basal dialysate DA levels was seen. No net flux studies revealed significant decreases in the DA extraction fraction in both MOR- and DOR-knockout mice, indicating decreased basal DA uptake in both genotypes. Extracellular DA, however, was unchanged. Because extracellular neurotransmitter levels are determined by the dynamics of both release and uptake, these findings provide suggestive evidence that basal DA release is decreased in mutant mice. Systemic administration of morphine significantly increased locomotor activity and dialysate DA levels in wild-type mice. MOR-knockout mice failed to exhibit a behavioural response to morphine. The ability of morphine to increase DA levels, however, was reduced but not prevented. No alteration in the effects of morphine was observed in DOR-knockout mice. These data provide genetic evidence for the existence of tonically active MOR and DOR systems that modulate basal DA neurotransmission in the NAc. Furthermore, they demonstrate that in contrast to the locomotor-activating effects of morphine, a small component of morphine-evoked DA release occurs independently of MOR activation. PMID:14622224

  8. Paradoxical effects of prodynorphin gene deletion on basal and cocaine-evoked dopaminergic neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Chefer, V I; Shippenberg, T S

    2006-01-01

    Quantitative and conventional microdialysis were used to investigate the effects of constitutive deletion of the prodynorphin gene on basal dopamine (DA) dynamics in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the responsiveness of DA neurons to an acute cocaine challenge. Saline- and cocaine-evoked locomotor activity were also assessed. Quantitative microdialysis revealed that basal extracellular DA levels were decreased, while the DA extraction fraction, an indirect measure of DA uptake, was unchanged in dynorphin (DYN) knockout (KO) mice. The ability of cocaine to increase NAc DA levels was reduced in KO. Similarly, cocaine-evoked locomotor activity was decreased in KO. The selective kappa opioid receptor agonist U-69593 decreased NAc dialysate DA levels in wildtype mice and this effect was enhanced in KO. Administration of the selective kappa opioid receptor (KOPr) antagonist nor-binaltorphimine to KO mice attenuated the decrease in cocaine-induced DA levels. However, it was ineffective in altering the decreased locomotor response to cocaine. These studies demonstrate that constitutive deletion of prodynorphin is associated with a reduction of extracellular NAc DA levels and a decreased responsiveness to acute cocaine. Data regarding the effects of U-69593 and nor-binaltorphimine in KO suggest that the kappa opioid receptor is up-regulated as a consequence of prodynorphin gene deletion and that this adaptation underlies the decrease in basal DA dynamics and cocaine-evoked DA levels observed in DYN KO mice. These findings suggest that the phenotype of DYN KO mice is not solely due to loss of endogenous opioid peptide but also reflects developmental compensations that occur at the level of the opioid receptor. PMID:16420432

  9. Extracellular dopamine and its metabolites in the nucleus accumbens of Fisher and Lewis rats: Basal levels and cocaine-induced changes

    SciTech Connect

    Strecker, R.E.; Eberle, W.F.; Ashby, C.R. Jr.

    1995-11-01

    Rats of the Lewis (LEW) strain show a greater preference for drugs of abuse than do Fisher 344 (F344) rats. The in vivo microdialysis procedure was used to examine basal and cocaine-evoked extracellular (EC) levels of dopamine (DA), DOPAC, and HVA in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of F344 and LEW rats. The basal EC levels of the DA metabolites DOPAC and HVA in the NAc were markedly lower in LEW than in F344 rats. Although the increase in ECDA after 3, 10 or 30 mg/kg, i/p. of cocaine was similar in both strains, LEW rats had a smaller peak DA elevation followed by a slower return to basal DA levels at the 30 mg/kg dose. The neurochemical differences observed may contribute to the strain differences in the behavioral response to cocaine. 20 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Raclopride or high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus stops cocaine-induced motor stereotypy and restores related alterations in prefrontal basal ganglia circuits.

    PubMed

    Aliane, Verena; Pérez, Sylvie; Deniau, Jean-Michel; Kemel, Marie-Louise

    2012-11-01

    Motor stereotypy is a key symptom of various neurological or neuropsychiatric disorders. Neuroleptics or the promising treatment using deep brain stimulation stops stereotypies but the mechanisms underlying their actions are unclear. In rat, motor stereotypies are linked to an imbalance between prefrontal and sensorimotor cortico-basal ganglia circuits. Indeed, cortico-nigral transmission was reduced in the prefrontal but not sensorimotor basal ganglia circuits and dopamine and acetylcholine release was altered in the prefrontal but not sensorimotor territory of the dorsal striatum. Furthermore, cholinergic transmission in the prefrontal territory of the dorsal striatum plays a crucial role in the arrest of motor stereotypy. Here we found that, as previously observed for raclopride, high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (HFS STN) rapidly stopped cocaine-induced motor stereotypies in rat. Importantly, raclopride and HFS STN exerted a strong effect on cocaine-induced alterations in prefrontal basal ganglia circuits. Raclopride restored the cholinergic transmission in the prefrontal territory of the dorsal striatum and the cortico-nigral information transmissions in the prefrontal basal ganglia circuits. HFS STN also restored the N-methyl-d-aspartic-acid-evoked release of acetylcholine and dopamine in the prefrontal territory of the dorsal striatum. However, in contrast to raclopride, HFS STN did not restore the cortico-substantia nigra pars reticulata transmissions but exerted strong inhibitory and excitatory effects on neuronal activity in the prefrontal subdivision of the substantia nigra pars reticulata. Thus, both raclopride and HFS STN stop cocaine-induced motor stereotypy, but exert different effects on the related alterations in the prefrontal basal ganglia circuits. PMID:22845853

  11. Incomplete and Inaccurate Vocal Imitation after Knockdown of FoxP2 in Songbird Basal Ganglia Nucleus Area X

    PubMed Central

    Haesler, Sebastian; Rochefort, Christelle; Georgi, Benjamin; Licznerski, Pawel; Osten, Pavel; Scharff, Constance

    2007-01-01

    The gene encoding the forkhead box transcription factor, FOXP2, is essential for developing the full articulatory power of human language. Mutations of FOXP2 cause developmental verbal dyspraxia (DVD), a speech and language disorder that compromises the fluent production of words and the correct use and comprehension of grammar. FOXP2 patients have structural and functional abnormalities in the striatum of the basal ganglia, which also express high levels of FOXP2. Since human speech and learned vocalizations in songbirds bear behavioral and neural parallels, songbirds provide a genuine model for investigating the basic principles of speech and its pathologies. In zebra finch Area X, a basal ganglia structure necessary for song learning, FoxP2 expression increases during the time when song learning occurs. Here, we used lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) to reduce FoxP2 levels in Area X during song development. Knockdown of FoxP2 resulted in an incomplete and inaccurate imitation of tutor song. Inaccurate vocal imitation was already evident early during song ontogeny and persisted into adulthood. The acoustic structure and the duration of adult song syllables were abnormally variable, similar to word production in children with DVD. Our findings provide the first example of a functional gene analysis in songbirds and suggest that normal auditory-guided vocal motor learning requires FoxP2. PMID:18052609

  12. Altered Neuronal Firing Pattern of the Basal Ganglia Nucleus Plays a Role in Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesia in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoyu; Zhuang, Ping; Li, Yongjie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Levodopa therapy alleviates the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD), but long-term treatment often leads to motor complications such as levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID). Aim: To explore the neuronal activity in the basal ganglia nuclei in patients with PD and LID. Methods: Thirty patients with idiopathic PD (age, 55.1 ± 11.0 years; disease duration, 8.7 ± 5.6 years) were enrolled between August 2006 and August 2013 at the Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, China. Their Hoehn and Yahr (1967) scores ranged from 2–4 and their UPDRS III scores were 28.5 ± 5.2. Fifteen of them had severe LID (UPDRS IV scores of 6.7 ± 1.6). Microelectrode recording was performed in the globus pallidus internus (GPi) and subthalamic nucleus (STN) during pallidotomy (n = 12) or STN deep brain stimulation (DBS; bilateral, n = 12; unilateral, n = 6). The firing patterns and frequencies of various cell types were analyzed by assessing single cell interspike intervals (ISIs) and the corresponding coefficient of variation (CV). Results: A total of 295 neurons were identified from the GPi (n = 12) and STN (n = 18). These included 26 (8.8%) highly grouped discharge, 30 (10.2%) low frequency firing, 78 (26.4%) rapid tonic discharge, 103 (34.9%) irregular activity, and 58 (19.7%) tremor-related activity. There were significant differences between the two groups (p < 0.05) for neurons with irregular firing, highly irregular cluster-like firing, and low-frequency firing. Conclusion: Altered neuronal activity was observed in the basal ganglia nucleus of GPi and STN, and may play important roles in the pathophysiology of PD and LID. PMID:26635583

  13. Resting state functional connectivity of the basal nucleus of Meynert in humans: in comparison to the ventral striatum and the effects of age

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chiang-shan R.; Ide, Jaime S.; Zhang, Sheng; Hu, Sien; Chao, Herta H.; Zaborszky, Laszlo

    2014-01-01

    The basal nucleus of Meynert (BNM) provides the primary cholinergic inputs to the cerebral cortex. Loss of neurons in the BNM is linked to cognitive deficits in Alzheimer’s disease and other degenerative conditions. Numerous animal studies described cholinergic and non-cholinergic neuronal responses in the BNM; however, work in humans has been hampered by the difficulty of defining the BNM anatomically. Here, on the basis of a previous study that delineated the BNM of post-mortem human brains in a standard stereotaxic space, we sought to examine functional connectivity of the BNM, as compared to the nucleus accumbens (or ventral striatum, VS), in a large resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data set. The BNM and VS shared but also showed a distinct pattern of cortical and subcortical connectivity. Compared to the VS, the BNM showed stronger positive connectivity with the putamen, pallidum, thalamus, amygdala and midbrain, as well as the anterior cingulate cortex, supplementary motor area and pre-supplementary motor area, a network of brain regions that respond to salient stimuli and orchestrate motor behavior. In contrast, compared to the BNM, the VS showed stronger positive connectivity with the ventral caudate and medial orbitofrontal cortex, areas implicated in reward processing and motivated behavior. Furthermore, the BNM and VS each showed extensive negative connectivity with visual and lateral prefrontal cortices. Together, the distinct cerebral functional connectivities support the role of the BNM in arousal, saliency responses and cognitive motor control and the VS in reward related behavior. Considering the importance of BNM in age-related cognitive decline, we explored the effects of age on BNM and VS connectivities. BNM connectivity to the visual and somatomotor cortices decreases while connectivity to subcortical structures including the midbrain, thalamus, and pallidum increases with age. These findings of age-related changes of

  14. The Effects of Methylphenidate on Resting-State Functional Connectivity of the Basal Nucleus of Meynert, Locus Coeruleus, and Ventral Tegmental Area in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Ryan L.; Zhang, Sheng; Farr, Olivia M.; Hu, Sien; Zaborszky, Laszlo; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R.; Li, Chiang-Shan R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Methylphenidate (MPH) influences catecholaminergic signaling. Extant work examined the effects of MPH on the neural circuits of attention and cognitive control, but few studies have investigated the effect of MPH on the brain's resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC). Methods: In this observational study, we compared rsFC of a group of 24 healthy adults who were administered an oral 45 mg dose of MPH with a group of 24 age and gender matched controls who did not receive MPH. We focused on three seed regions: basal nucleus of Meynert (BNM), locus coeruleus (LC), and ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra, pars compacta (VTA/SNc), each providing cholinergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic inputs to the cerebral cortex. Images were pre-processed and analyzed as in our recent work (Li et al., 2014; Zhang et al., 2015). We used one-sample t-test to characterize group-specific rsFC of each seed region and two-sample t-test to compare rsFC between groups. Results: MPH reversed negative connectivity between BNM and precentral gyri. MPH reduced positive connectivity between LC and cerebellum, and induced positive connectivity between LC and right hippocampus. MPH decreased positive VTA/SNc connectivity to the cerebellum and putamen, and reduced negative connectivity to left middle occipital gyrus. Conclusion: MPH had distinct effects on the rsFC of BNM, LC, and VTA/SNc in healthy adults. These new findings may further our understanding of the role of catecholaminergic signaling in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Parkinson's disease and provide insights into the therapeutic mechanisms of MPH in the treatment of clinical conditions that implicate catecholaminergic dysfunction. PMID:27148006

  15. Accessory lateral discoid meniscus.

    PubMed

    Saygi, Baransel; Yildirim, Yakup; Senturk, Salih; Sezgin Ramadan, Saime; Gundes, Hakan

    2006-12-01

    The lateral meniscus tends to have more developmental variation than the medial counterpart. This is a report of an accessory discoid layer of lateral meniscus. All arthroscopic, magnetic resonance imaging and histopathological views are presented. PMID:16710729

  16. Anterior olfactory organ removal produces anxiety-like behavior and increases spontaneous neuronal firing rate in basal amygdala.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Carlos M; Gutiérrez-García, Ana G; Molina-Jiménez, Tania

    2013-09-01

    Some chemical cues may produce signs of anxiety and fear mediated by amygdala nuclei, but unknown is the role of two anterior olfactory epithelial organs, the septal and vomeronasal organs (SO-VNOs). The effects of SO-VNO removal were explored in different groups of Wistar rats using two complementary approaches: (i) the assessment of neuronal firing rate in basal and medial amygdala nuclei and (ii) behavioral testing. Fourteen days after SO-VNO removal, spontaneous activity in basal and medial amygdala nuclei in one group was determined using single-unit extracellular recordings. A separate group of rats was tested in the elevated plus maze, social interaction test, and open field test. Compared with sham-operated and intact control rats, SO-VNO removal produced a higher neuronal firing rate in the basal amygdala but not medial amygdala. In the behavioral tests, SO-VNO removal increased signs of anxiety in the elevated plus maze, did not alter locomotion, and increased self-directed behavior, reflecting anxiety-like behavior. Histological analysis showed neuronal destruction in the accessory olfactory bulb but not anterior olfactory nucleus in the SO-VNO group. The present results suggest the participation of SO-VNO/accessory olfactory bulb/basal amygdala relationships in the regulation of anxiety through a process of disinhibition. PMID:23721965

  17. The Drosophila SUN protein Spag4 cooperates with the coiled-coil protein Yuri Gagarin to maintain association of the basal body and spermatid nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Kracklauer, Martin P.; Wiora, Heather M.; Deery, William J.; Chen, Xin; Bolival, Benjamin; Romanowicz, Dwight; Simonette, Rebecca A.; Fuller, Margaret T.; Fischer, Janice A.; Beckingham, Kathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    Maintaining the proximity of centrosomes to nuclei is important in several cellular contexts, and LINC complexes formed by SUN and KASH proteins are crucial in this process. Here, we characterize the presumed Drosophila ortholog of the mammalian SUN protein, sperm-associated antigen 4 (Spag4, previously named Giacomo), and demonstrate that Spag4 is required for centriole and nuclear attachment during spermatogenesis. Production of spag4 mRNA is limited to the testis, and Spag4 protein shows a dynamic pattern of association with the germline nuclei, including a concentration of protein at the site of attachment of the single spermatid centriole. In the absence of Spag4, nuclei and centrioles or basal bodies (BBs) dissociate from each other after meiosis. This role of Spag4 in centriolar attachment does not involve either of the two KASH proteins of the Drosophila genome (Klarsicht and MSP-300), but does require the coiled-coil protein Yuri Gagarin. Yuri shows an identical pattern of localization at the nuclear surface to Spag4 during spermatogenesis, and epistasis studies show that the activities of Yuri and dynein-dynactin are downstream of spag4 in this centriole attachment pathway. The later defects in spermatogenesis seen for yuri and spag4 mutants are similar, suggesting they could be secondary to initial disruption of events at the nuclear surface. PMID:20647369

  18. The Drosophila SUN protein Spag4 cooperates with the coiled-coil protein Yuri Gagarin to maintain association of the basal body and spermatid nucleus.

    PubMed

    Kracklauer, Martin P; Wiora, Heather M; Deery, William J; Chen, Xin; Bolival, Benjamin; Romanowicz, Dwight; Simonette, Rebecca A; Fuller, Margaret T; Fischer, Janice A; Beckingham, Kathleen M

    2010-08-15

    Maintaining the proximity of centrosomes to nuclei is important in several cellular contexts, and LINC complexes formed by SUN and KASH proteins are crucial in this process. Here, we characterize the presumed Drosophila ortholog of the mammalian SUN protein, sperm-associated antigen 4 (Spag4, previously named Giacomo), and demonstrate that Spag4 is required for centriole and nuclear attachment during spermatogenesis. Production of spag4 mRNA is limited to the testis, and Spag4 protein shows a dynamic pattern of association with the germline nuclei, including a concentration of protein at the site of attachment of the single spermatid centriole. In the absence of Spag4, nuclei and centrioles or basal bodies (BBs) dissociate from each other after meiosis. This role of Spag4 in centriolar attachment does not involve either of the two KASH proteins of the Drosophila genome (Klarsicht and MSP-300), but does require the coiled-coil protein Yuri Gagarin. Yuri shows an identical pattern of localization at the nuclear surface to Spag4 during spermatogenesis, and epistasis studies show that the activities of Yuri and dynein-dynactin are downstream of spag4 in this centriole attachment pathway. The later defects in spermatogenesis seen for yuri and spag4 mutants are similar, suggesting they could be secondary to initial disruption of events at the nuclear surface. PMID:20647369

  19. An investigation of interactions between hypocretin/orexin signaling and glutamate receptor surface expression in the rat nucleus accumbens under basal conditions and after cocaine exposure

    PubMed Central

    Plaza-Zabala, Ainhoa; Li, Xuan; Milovanovic, Mike; Loweth, Jessica A.; Maldonado, Rafael; Berrendero, Fernando; Wolf, Marina E.

    2013-01-01

    Hypocretin peptides are critical for the effects of cocaine on excitatory synaptic strength in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). However, little is known about their role in cocaine-induced synaptic plasticity in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). First, we tested whether hypocretin-1 by itself could acutely modulate glutamate receptor surface expression in the NAc, given that hypocretin-1 in the VTA reproduces cocaine’s effects on glutamate transmission. We found no effect of hypocretin-1 infusion on AMPA or NMDA receptor surface expression in the NAc, measured by biotinylation, either 30 min or 3 h after the infusion. Second, we were interested in whether changes in hypocretin receptor-2 (Hcrtr-2) expression contribute to cocaine-induced plasticity in the NAc. As a first step towards addressing this question, Hcrtr-2 surface expression was compared in the NAc after withdrawal from extended-access self-administration of saline (control) versus cocaine. We found that surface Hcrtr-2 levels remain unchanged following 14, 25 or 48 days of withdrawal from cocaine, a time period in which high conductance GluA2-lacking AMPA receptors progressively emerge in the NAc. Overall, our results fail to support a role for hypocretins in acute modulation of glutamate receptor levels in the NAc or a role for altered Hcrtr-2 expression in withdrawal-dependent synaptic adaptations in the NAc following cocaine self-administration. PMID:24262606

  20. Accessory oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Gnaneswaran, Manica Ramamoorthy; Varadarajan, Usha; Srinivasan, Ramesh; Kamatchi, Sangeetha

    2012-01-01

    This is a rare case report of a patient around 11 years with the complaint of extra mouth who reported to the hospital for removal of that extra mouth. On examination there was accessory oral cavity with small upper and lower lips, seven teeth and saliva was drooling out. Under general anesthesia crevicular incision from 32 to 43 was put and labial gingiva with alveolar mucosa was reflected completely and bone exposed to lower border of mandible. There were seven teeth resembling lower permanent anterior teeth in the accessory mouth, which was excised with the accessory lips. 41 extracted and osteotomy carried out extending the incision from the extracted site and osteotomy carried out. Dermoid cyst both below and above the mylohyoid muscle and rudimentary tongue found and excised and the specimen sent for histopathological examination. The wound was closed and uneventful healing noted to the satisfaction of the patient. This is a rare and interesting case which has been documented. PMID:23833508

  1. Accessory apartment conversion programs.

    PubMed

    Retsinas, J; Retsinas, N P

    1991-01-01

    In recent years, state housing finance agencies have joined with state units on aging to develop programs to help the frail, elderly homeowner. Under an accessory apartment conversion program, a low-income homeowner will borrow money at a reduced interest rate to underwrite conversion of excess space into a rental apartment. The tenant will provide additional income as well as, ideally, certain kinds of personal assistance and a friendly presence. To date, few elderly clients have used this option. The initial rationale for the program is explained as are plausible reasons for the fact that it has not met expectations. PMID:10186784

  2. Amygdala projections to the lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in the Macaque: comparison with ventral striatal afferents

    PubMed Central

    deCampo, Danielle M.; Fudge, Julie L.

    2013-01-01

    The lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTL) is involved in mediating anxiety-related behaviors to sustained aversive stimuli. The BSTL forms part of the central extended amygdala, a continuum composed of the BSTL, the amygdala central nucleus, and cell columns running between the two. The central subdivision (BSTLcn), and the juxtacapsular subdivision (BSTLJ) are two BSTL regions that lie above the anterior commissure, near the ventral striatum. The amygdala, a heterogeneous structure that encodes emotional salience, projects to both the BSTL and ventral striatum. We placed small injections of retrograde tracers into the BSTL, focusing on the BSTLcn and BSTLJ, and analyzed the distribution of labeled cells in amygdala subregions. We compared this to the pattern of labeled cells following injections into the ventral striatum. All retrograde results were confirmed by anterograde studies. We found that the BSTLcn receives stronger amygdala inputs relative to the BSTLJ. Furthermore, the BSTLcn is defined by inputs from the corticoamygdaloid transition area and central nucleus, while the BSTLJ receives inputs mainly from the magnocellular accessory basal and basal nucleus. In the ventral striatum, the dorsomedial shell receives inputs that are similar, but not identical, to inputs to the BSTLcn. In contrast, amygdala projections to the ventral shell/core are similar to projections to the BSTLJ. These findings indicate that the BSTLcn and BSTLJ receive distinct amygdala afferent inputs and that the dorsomedial shell is a transition zone with the BSTLcn, while the ventral shell/core are transition zones with the BSTLJ. PMID:23696521

  3. Basal body replication and cilogenesis in a suctorian, Tokophrya infusionum.

    PubMed

    Millecchia, L L; Rudzinska, M A

    1970-09-01

    Basal body replication and ciliogenesis in Tokophrya infusionum were studied in synchronized cultures. Basal body replication occurs during the 1st hr of reproduction, which in Tokophrya is by internal budding. The number of basal bodies increases from about 20 to over 300 within this period. New basal bodies develop in association with mature basal bodies; they are formed at right angles to the mature basal body as short "probasal" bodies, which elongate, slant upward, become parallel to the mature basal body, and elongate to the mature size. Ciliogenesis occurs only during reproduction; the nonreproducing adult is not ciliated, and has only 18-25 barren basal bodies. Cilia first appear as short bulges above the basal body. The axonemal structure is incomplete at first, with one or both central microtubules absent, and occasionally the B fibers of the outer doublets are missing. Several accessory fibers are associated with the basal bodies, both in the adult and during reproduction. One of the fibers appears only after the cilia have sprouted. The scheme of basal body replication and ciliogenesis in Tokophrya is compared to that reported in other organisms, and the role of the accessory fibers is discussed. PMID:4349131

  4. The basal ganglia communicate with the cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Bostan, Andreea C; Dum, Richard P; Strick, Peter L

    2010-05-01

    The basal ganglia and cerebellum are major subcortical structures that influence not only movement, but putatively also cognition and affect. Both structures receive input from and send output to the cerebral cortex. Thus, the basal ganglia and cerebellum form multisynaptic loops with the cerebral cortex. Basal ganglia and cerebellar loops have been assumed to be anatomically separate and to perform distinct functional operations. We investigated whether there is any direct route for basal ganglia output to influence cerebellar function that is independent of the cerebral cortex. We injected rabies virus (RV) into selected regions of the cerebellar cortex in cebus monkeys and used retrograde transneuronal transport of the virus to determine the origin of multisynaptic inputs to the injection sites. We found that the subthalamic nucleus of the basal ganglia has a substantial disynaptic projection to the cerebellar cortex. This pathway provides a means for both normal and abnormal signals from the basal ganglia to influence cerebellar function. We previously showed that the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum has a disynaptic projection to an input stage of basal ganglia processing, the striatum. Taken together these results provide the anatomical substrate for substantial two-way communication between the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Thus, the two subcortical structures may be linked together to form an integrated functional network. PMID:20404184

  5. Basal telencephalic regions connected with the olfactory bulb in a Madagascan hedgehog tenrec.

    PubMed

    Künzle, H; Radtke-Schuller, S

    2000-08-01

    In an attempt to gain insight into the organization and evolution of the basal forebrain, the region was analysed cytoarchitecturally, chemoarchitecturally, and hodologically in a lower placental mammal, the lesser hedgehog tenrec. Particular emphasis was laid on the subdivision of the olfactory tubercle, the nuclear complex of the diagonal band, and the cortical amygdala. The proper tubercule and the rostrolateral tubercular seam differed from each other with regard to their immunoreactivity to calbindin and calretinin, as well as their afferents from the piriform cortex. Interestingly, the tubercular seam showed similar properties to the dwarf cell compartment, located immediately adjacent to the islands of Calleja. The most prominent input to the olfactory bulb (OfB) originated from the diagonal nuclear complex. This projection was ipsilateral, whereas the bulbar afferents from the hypothalamus and the mesopontine tegmentum were bilateral. The amygdala projected only sparsely to the OfB, but received a prominent bulbar projection. An exception was the nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract, which was poorly connected with the OfB. Unlike other species with an accessory OfB, the projections from the tenrec's main OfB did not show a topographic organization upon the lateral and medial olfactory amygdala. However, there was an accessory amygdala, which could be differentiated from the lateral nuclei by its intense reaction to NADPh-diaphorase. This reaction was poor in the diagonal nuclear complex as in monkey but unlike in rat. The variability of cell populations and olfactory bulb connections shown here may help to clarify both phylogenetic relationships and the significance of individual basal telencephalic subdivisions. PMID:10880998

  6. Automobile accessories: Assessment and improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.

    1995-11-01

    With mandates and regulatory policies to meet both the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), designing vehicles of the future will become a difficult task. As we look into the use of electric and hybrid vehicles, reduction of the required power demand by influential automobile components is necessary in order to obtain performance and range goals. Among those automobile components are accessories. Accessories have a profound impact on the range and mileage of future vehicles with limited amounts of energy or without power generating capabilities such as conventional vehicles. Careful assessment of major power consuming accessories helps us focus on those that need improvement and contributes to attainment of mileage and range goals for electric and hybrid vehicles.

  7. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual... Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. (a) Identification. A manual operating table and accessories and a manual operating chair...

  8. Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC)

    MedlinePlus

    ... carcinomas: Infiltrating basal cell carcinomas can be more aggressive and locally destructive than other types of basal ... to treat them early and with slightly more aggressive techniques. Excision – The basal cell carcinoma is cut ...

  9. Teaching Techniques for Accessory Percussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micallef, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Everyone is familiar with the main percussion instruments of the contemporary orchestra: bass drum, snare drum, suspended cymbal, vibraphone, and timpani. But as source material broadens, so do the demands placed on the percussion section. Accessory, or auxiliary percussion, can make the difference between a typical rendition of a well-known piece…

  10. 14 CFR 25.1167 - Accessory gearboxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accessory gearboxes. 25.1167 Section 25... Accessory gearboxes. For airplanes equipped with an accessory gearbox that is not certificated as part of an engine— (a) The engine with gearbox and connecting transmissions and shafts attached must be subjected...

  11. 14 CFR 25.1167 - Accessory gearboxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accessory gearboxes. 25.1167 Section 25... Accessory gearboxes. For airplanes equipped with an accessory gearbox that is not certificated as part of an engine— (a) The engine with gearbox and connecting transmissions and shafts attached must be subjected...

  12. 14 CFR 25.1167 - Accessory gearboxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accessory gearboxes. 25.1167 Section 25... Accessory gearboxes. For airplanes equipped with an accessory gearbox that is not certificated as part of an engine— (a) The engine with gearbox and connecting transmissions and shafts attached must be subjected...

  13. 14 CFR 25.1167 - Accessory gearboxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accessory gearboxes. 25.1167 Section 25... Accessory gearboxes. For airplanes equipped with an accessory gearbox that is not certificated as part of an engine— (a) The engine with gearbox and connecting transmissions and shafts attached must be subjected...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1167 - Accessory gearboxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessory gearboxes. 25.1167 Section 25... Accessory gearboxes. For airplanes equipped with an accessory gearbox that is not certificated as part of an engine— (a) The engine with gearbox and connecting transmissions and shafts attached must be subjected...

  15. Reward functions of the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-07-01

    Besides their fundamental movement function evidenced by Parkinsonian deficits, the basal ganglia are involved in processing closely linked non-motor, cognitive and reward information. This review describes the reward functions of three brain structures that are major components of the basal ganglia or are closely associated with the basal ganglia, namely midbrain dopamine neurons, pedunculopontine nucleus, and striatum (caudate nucleus, putamen, nucleus accumbens). Rewards are involved in learning (positive reinforcement), approach behavior, economic choices and positive emotions. The response of dopamine neurons to rewards consists of an early detection component and a subsequent reward component that reflects a prediction error in economic utility, but is unrelated to movement. Dopamine activations to non-rewarded or aversive stimuli reflect physical impact, but not punishment. Neurons in pedunculopontine nucleus project their axons to dopamine neurons and process sensory stimuli, movements and rewards and reward-predicting stimuli without coding outright reward prediction errors. Neurons in striatum, besides their pronounced movement relationships, process rewards irrespective of sensory and motor aspects, integrate reward information into movement activity, code the reward value of individual actions, change their reward-related activity during learning, and code own reward in social situations depending on whose action produces the reward. These data demonstrate a variety of well-characterized reward processes in specific basal ganglia nuclei consistent with an important function in non-motor aspects of motivated behavior. PMID:26838982

  16. Melanocortin receptor accessory proteins in adrenal disease and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, David S.; Ramachandrappa, Shwetha; Clark, Adrian J.; Chan, Li F.

    2015-01-01

    Melanocortin receptor accessory proteins (MRAPs) are regulators of the melanocortin receptor family. MRAP is an essential accessory factor for the functional expression of the MC2R/ACTH receptor. The importance of MRAP in adrenal gland physiology is demonstrated by the clinical condition familial glucocorticoid deficiency type 2. The role of its paralog melanocortin-2-receptor accessory protein 2 (MRAP2), which is predominantly expressed in the hypothalamus including the paraventricular nucleus, has recently been linked to mammalian obesity. Whole body deletion and targeted brain specific deletion of the Mrap2 gene result in severe obesity in mice. Interestingly, Mrap2 complete knockout (KO) mice have increased body weight without detectable changes to food intake or energy expenditure. Rare heterozygous variants of MRAP2 have been found in humans with severe, early-onset obesity. In vitro data have shown that Mrap2 interaction with the melanocortin-4-receptor (Mc4r) affects receptor signaling. However, the mechanism by which Mrap2 regulates body weight in vivo is not fully understood and differences between the phenotypes of Mrap2 and Mc4r KO mice may point toward Mc4r independent mechanisms. PMID:26113808

  17. Advanced Accessory Power Supply Topologies

    SciTech Connect

    Marlino, L.D.

    2010-06-15

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) began December 8, 2000 and ended September 30, 2009. The total funding provided by the Participant (General Motors Advanced Technology Vehicles [GM]) during the course of the CRADA totaled $1.2M enabling the Contractor (UT-Battelle, LLC [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a.k.a. ORNL]) to contribute significantly to the joint project. The initial task was to work with GM on the feasibility of developing their conceptual approach of modifying major components of the existing traction inverter/drive to develop low cost, robust, accessory power. Two alternate methods for implementation were suggested by ORNL and both were proven successful through simulations and then extensive testing of prototypes designed and fabricated during the project. This validated the GM overall concept. Moreover, three joint U.S. patents were issued and subsequently licensed by GM. After successfully fulfilling the initial objective, the direction and duration of the CRADA was modified and GM provided funding for two additional tasks. The first new task was to provide the basic development for implementing a cascaded inverter technology into hybrid vehicles (including plug-in hybrid, fuel cell, and electric). The second new task was to continue the basic development for implementing inverter and converter topologies and new technology assessments for hybrid vehicle applications. Additionally, this task was to address the use of high temperature components in drive systems. Under this CRADA, ORNL conducted further research based on GM’s idea of using the motor magnetic core and windings to produce bidirectional accessory power supply that is nongalvanically coupled to the terminals of the high voltage dc-link battery of hybrid vehicles. In order not to interfere with the motor’s torque, ORNL suggested to use the zero-sequence, highfrequency harmonics carried by the main fundamental motor current for producing the accessory power

  18. Mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, M.J.; Herndon, J.N.

    1985-01-01

    The choice of optimum mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators involves matching the criteria for emergency response with the available technology. This paper presents a general background to teleoperations, a potpourri of the manipulator systems available, and an argument for force reflecting manipulation. The theme presented is that the accomplishment of humanlike endeavors in hostile environments will be most successful when man model capabilities are utilized. The application of recent electronic technology to manipulator development has made new tools available to be applied to emergency response activities. The development activities described are products of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Basal body structure and cell cycle-dependent biogenesis in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Sue; Gull, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Basal bodies are microtubule-based organelles that assemble cilia and flagella, which are critical for motility and sensory functions in all major eukaryotic lineages. The core structure of the basal body is highly conserved, but there is variability in biogenesis and additional functions that are organism and cell type specific. Work carried out in the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei has arguably produced one of the most detailed dissections of basal body structure and biogenesis within the context of the flagellar pocket and associated organelles. In this review, we provide a detailed overview of the basic basal body structure in T. brucei along with the accessory structures and show how basal body movements during the basal body duplication cycle orchestrate cell and organelle morphogenesis. With this in-depth three-dimensional knowledge, identification of many basal body genes coupled with excellent genetic tools makes it an attractive model organism to study basal body biogenesis and maintenance. PMID:26862392

  20. 21 CFR 878.4350 - Cryosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and accessories. (a) Identification—(1) Cryosurgical unit with a liquid nitrogen cooled cryoprobe and accessories. A cryosurgical unit with a liquid nitrogen cooled cryoprobe and accessories is a device...

  1. 21 CFR 878.4350 - Cryosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and accessories. (a) Identification—(1) Cryosurgical unit with a liquid nitrogen cooled cryoprobe and accessories. A cryosurgical unit with a liquid nitrogen cooled cryoprobe and accessories is a device...

  2. 21 CFR 878.4350 - Cryosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and accessories. (a) Identification—(1) Cryosurgical unit with a liquid nitrogen cooled cryoprobe and accessories. A cryosurgical unit with a liquid nitrogen cooled cryoprobe and accessories is a device...

  3. 21 CFR 878.4350 - Cryosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and accessories. (a) Identification—(1) Cryosurgical unit with a liquid nitrogen cooled cryoprobe and accessories. A cryosurgical unit with a liquid nitrogen cooled cryoprobe and accessories is a device...

  4. 21 CFR 878.4350 - Cryosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and accessories. (a) Identification—(1) Cryosurgical unit with a liquid nitrogen cooled cryoprobe and accessories. A cryosurgical unit with a liquid nitrogen cooled cryoprobe and accessories is a device...

  5. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  6. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  7. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  8. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  9. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  10. 46 CFR 169.671 - Accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accessories. 169.671 Section 169.671 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and... Gross Tons § 169.671 Accessories. Each light, receptacle and switch exposed to the weather must...

  11. 46 CFR 169.671 - Accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accessories. 169.671 Section 169.671 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and... Gross Tons § 169.671 Accessories. Each light, receptacle and switch exposed to the weather must...

  12. Three Accessories for a Rotating Platform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, James A.; Fryer, Oscar G.

    1980-01-01

    Describes three accessories developed to be used in conjunction with the rotating platform or turntable. Three demonstrations using these accessories are included. These demonstrations are: (a) conservation of angular momentum; (b) gravity-defying goblets; and (c) direct measurement of centripetal force. (HM)

  13. Accessory tragus: a dentist's perspective

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Vishal; Banda, Naveen Reddy; Nayak, Ullal Anand; Banda, Vanaja Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Accessory tragus (AT) also referred as preauricular tag is a rudimentary tag of ear tissue This paper presents two specific cases: one hereditary and another sporadic case of AT. A general clinical description of AT, its associated syndromes, embryology aetiopathogenesis and management is discussed. A dentist can play an important role in spotting the AT during their head and neck examination. The presence of this defect can be correlated to other congenital defects of first branchial arch. On recognising its occurrence, the dentist can refer to a specialist for thorough investigation management. A dentist can play a vital role in encouraging and counselling the parents for the correction of such defects as it improves the aesthetics of the face. Usually, children with these defects are often targets of teasing by peers. PMID:23761605

  14. Carcinoma in accessory axillary breast.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Seema; Mishra, Shashi Prakash; Kumar, Satendra; Khanna, Ajay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of carcinoma developing in an accessory breast. The patient presented with a progressive lump in her right axilla for 1 year. On examination, there was a well-developed nipple areola complex in the right axilla overlying a hard, fixed 5 × 3 cm lump. On investigation, core biopsy revealed poorly differentiated carcinoma of the breast. Mammography also revealed features of a malignant lesion with skin and muscle infiltration. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was administered followed by modified radical mastectomy after three cycles. Immunohistochemistry study showed positive status of oestrogen and progesterone receptors, and negative HER-2 neu. Three more cycles of chemotherapy along with 50 Gy radiotherapy were given in an adjuvant setting followed by hormone therapy. PMID:26260957

  15. 19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts or tools. 10.456 Section... Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts or tools that form part of the good's standard accessories, spare parts or tools and are delivered with...

  16. 19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts or tools. 10.456 Section... Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts or tools that form part of the good's standard accessories, spare parts or tools and are delivered with...

  17. 19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts or tools. 10.456 Section... Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts or tools that form part of the good's standard accessories, spare parts or tools and are delivered with...

  18. 19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts or tools. 10.456 Section... Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts or tools that form part of the good's standard accessories, spare parts or tools and are delivered with...

  19. 47 CFR 15.27 - Special accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... manual is provided only in a form other than paper, such as on a computer disk or over the Internet, the... requiring special accessories is installed by or under the supervision of the party marketing the device,...

  20. 47 CFR 15.27 - Special accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... manual is provided only in a form other than paper, such as on a computer disk or over the Internet, the... requiring special accessories is installed by or under the supervision of the party marketing the device,...

  1. 47 CFR 15.27 - Special accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... manual is provided only in a form other than paper, such as on a computer disk or over the Internet, the... requiring special accessories is installed by or under the supervision of the party marketing the device,...

  2. The Accessory Genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Vanderlene L.; Ozer, Egon A.; Hauser, Alan R.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains exhibit significant variability in pathogenicity and ecological flexibility. Such interstrain differences reflect the dynamic nature of the P. aeruginosa genome, which is composed of a relatively invariable “core genome” and a highly variable “accessory genome.” Here we review the major classes of genetic elements comprising the P. aeruginosa accessory genome and highlight emerging themes in the acquisition and functional importance of these elements. Although the precise phenotypes endowed by the majority of the P. aeruginosa accessory genome have yet to be determined, rapid progress is being made, and a clearer understanding of the role of the P. aeruginosa accessory genome in ecology and infection is emerging. PMID:21119020

  3. 47 CFR 15.27 - Special accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... requiring special accessories is installed by or under the supervision of the party marketing the device, it... equipment requiring professional installation, it is not necessary for the responsible party to market...

  4. Extrastriatal Dopaminergic Circuits of the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Rommelfanger, Karen S.; Wichmann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The basal ganglia are comprised of the striatum, the external and internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPe and GPi, respectively), the subthalamic nucleus (STN), and the substantia nigra pars compacta and reticulata (SNc and SNr, respectively). Dopamine has long been identified as an important modulator of basal ganglia function in the striatum, and disturbances of striatal dopaminergic transmission have been implicated in diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), addiction and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, recent evidence suggests that dopamine may also modulate basal ganglia function at sites outside of the striatum, and that changes in dopaminergic transmission at these sites may contribute to the symptoms of PD and other neuropsychiatric disorders. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the anatomy, functional effects and behavioral consequences of the dopaminergic innervation to the GPe, GPi, STN, and SNr. Further insights into the dopaminergic modulation of basal ganglia function at extrastriatal sites may provide us with opportunities to develop new and more specific strategies for treating disorders of basal ganglia dysfunction. PMID:21103009

  5. Autoimmune basal ganglia disorders.

    PubMed

    Dale, Russell C; Brilot, Fabienne

    2012-11-01

    The basal ganglia are deep nuclei in the brain that include the caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra. Pathological processes involving the basal ganglia often result in disorders of movement and behavior. A number of different autoimmune disorders predominantly involve the basal ganglia and can result in movement and psychiatric disorders. The classic basal ganglia autoimmune disorder is Sydenham chorea, a poststreptococcal neuropsychiatric disorder. Resurgence in the interest in Sydenham chorea is the result of the descriptions of other poststreptococcal neuropsychiatric disorders including tics and obsessive-compulsive disorder, broadly termed pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection. Encephalitic processes affecting the basal ganglia are also described including the syndromes basal ganglia encephalitis, encephalitis lethargica, and bilateral striatal necrosis. Last, systemic autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome can result in chorea or parkinsonism. Using paradigms learned from other autoantibody associated disorders, the authors discuss the autoantibody hypothesis and the role of systemic inflammation in autoimmune basal ganglia disorders. Identification of these entities is important as the clinician has an increasing therapeutic repertoire to modulate or suppress the aberrant immune system. PMID:22832771

  6. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  7. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  8. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  9. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  10. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  11. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  12. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  13. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  14. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  15. Basal cell cancer (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... is needed to prove the diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma. Treatment varies depending on the size, depth, and location of the cancer. Early treatment by a dermatologist may result in a cure rate of more than 95%, but regular examination ...

  16. Basal cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur in younger people who have had extensive sun exposure. You are more likely to get basal cell ... severe sunburns early in life Long-term daily sun exposure (such as the sun exposure received by people ...

  17. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lanoue, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly occurring cancer in the world and overall incidence is still on the rise. While typically a slow-growing tumor for which metastases is rare, basal cell carcinoma can be locally destructive and disfiguring. Given the vast prevalence of this disease, there is a significant overall burden on patient well-being and quality of life. The current mainstay of basal cell carcinoma treatment involves surgical modalities, such as electrodessication and curettage, excision, cryosurgery, and Mohs micrographic surgery. Such methods are typically reserved for localized basal cell carcinoma and offer high five-year cure rates, but come with the risk of functional impairment, disfigurement, and scarring. Here, the authors review the evidence and indications for nonsurgical treatment modalities in cases where surgery is impractical, contraindicated, or simply not desired by the patient. PMID:27386043

  18. [Clinical features of accessory parotid gland tumors].

    PubMed

    Iguchi, Hiroyoshi; Wada, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Hidefumi; Yamada, Kei; Matsushita, Naoki; Okamoto, Sachimi; Teranishi, Yuichi; Koda, Yuki; Kosugi, Yuki; Yamane, Hideo

    2013-12-01

    Accessory parotid gland tumors are relatively rare; hence, adequately detailed clinical analyses of these tumors are difficult to perform at a single institution. In this report, we describe the findings for 65 patients [29 men, 36 women; median age, 51 (9-81) years] with accessory parotid gland tumors, consisting of 4 cases documented by us and 61 cases previously reported by other Japanese authors. Approximately 50% of the patients were treated in an otolaryngology department, while the remaining patients were treated in plastic surgery, oral surgery, or dermatology departments. In 4 patients, the results of preoperative fine-needle aspiration cytology indicated that the tumor was benign; however, the postoperative histopathology results revealed malignant tumors. The frequencies of malignant and benign tumors were 44.6% (n = 29) and 55.4% (n = 36), respectively. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma and pleomorphic adenoma were the most frequent types of malignant and benign accessory parotid gland tumors, respectively. Among the various surgical methods that were used, such as direct cheek and intraoral incisions, a standard parotidectomy incision was the most preferred treatment approach for these tumors. Recently, an endoscopic approach has also been found to yield satisfactory results. An optimal approach should be selected after evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of these methods. No definite guidelines are available regarding the choice of elective neck dissection and postoperative radiation therapy for malignant accessory parotid gland tumors. Although tumor resection (plus elective neck dissection) and postoperative radiation therapy have been frequently performed for various kinds of malignant accessory parotid gland tumors to date, additional studies are needed regarding the criteria for selecting elective neck dissection and postoperative radiation therapy. Since the malignancy rate for accessory parotid gland tumors is higher than that for parotid gland

  19. Functional anatomy of thalamus and basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Herrero, María-Trinidad; Barcia, Carlos; Navarro, Juana Mari

    2002-08-01

    THALAMUS: The human thalamus is a nuclear complex located in the diencephalon and comprising of four parts (the hypothalamus, the epythalamus, the ventral thalamus, and the dorsal thalamus). The thalamus is a relay centre subserving both sensory and motor mechanisms. Thalamic nuclei (50-60 nuclei) project to one or a few well-defined cortical areas. Multiple cortical areas receive afferents from a single thalamic nucleus and send back information to different thalamic nuclei. The corticofugal projection provides positive feedback to the "correct" input, while at the same time suppressing irrelevant information. Topographical organisation of the thalamic afferents and efferents is contralateral, and the lateralisation of the thalamic functions affects both sensory and motoric aspects. Symptoms of lesions located in the thalamus are closely related to the function of the areas involved. An infarction or haemorrhage thalamic lesion can develop somatosensory disturbances and/or central pain in the opposite hemibody, analgesic or purely algesic thalamic syndrome characterised by contralateral anaesthesia (or hypaesthesia), contralateral weakness, ataxia and, often, persistent spontaneous pain. BASAL GANGLIA: Basal ganglia form a major centre in the complex extrapyramidal motor system, as opposed to the pyramidal motor system (corticobulbar and corticospinal pathways). Basal ganglia are involved in many neuronal pathways having emotional, motivational, associative and cognitive functions as well. The striatum (caudate nucleus, putamen and nucleus accumbens) receive inputs from all cortical areas and, throughout the thalamus, project principally to frontal lobe areas (prefrontal, premotor and supplementary motor areas) which are concerned with motor planning. These circuits: (i) have an important regulatory influence on cortex, providing information for both automatic and voluntary motor responses to the pyramidal system; (ii) play a role in predicting future events

  20. Controlled Speed Accessory Drive demonstration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehn, F. W.

    1981-01-01

    A Controlled Speed Accessory Drive System was examined in an effort to improve the fuel economy of passenger cars. Concept feasibility and the performance of a typical system during actual road driving conditions were demonstrated. The CSAD system is described as a mechanical device which limits engine accessory speeds, thereby reducing parasitic horsepower losses and improving overall vehicle fuel economy. Fuel consumption data were compiled for fleets of GSA vehicles. Various motor pool locations were selected, each representing different climatic conditions. On the basis of a total accumulated fleet usage of nearly three million miles, an overall fuel economy improvement of 6 percent to 7 percent was demonstrated. Coincident chassis dynamometer tests were accomplished on selected vehicles to establish the effect of different accessory drive systems on exhaust emissions, and to evaluate the magnitude of the mileage benefits which could be derived.

  1. Accessory breast tissue mimicking pedunculated lipoma.

    PubMed

    Husain, Musharraf; Khan, Sabina; Bhat, Ashraf; Hajini, Firdoos

    2014-01-01

    Accessory breast tissue is an uncommon condition which occurs in 0.4-6% of women. It is mostly located in the axilla where it can cause diagnostic difficulty, especially if it is unilateral and large. Usually it is bilateral and presents as an asymptomatic mass during pregnancy or lactation. The diagnosis of ectopic breast tissue is important as it can undergo the same pathological changes that occur in a normal breast, such as mastitis, fibrocystic disease and carcinoma. We present a case of a large right-sided accessory breast in a 32-year-old woman that was clinically diagnosed as pedunculated lipoma. However, subsequent histopathological examination proved it to be an accessory breast tissue with lactational changes. PMID:25006058

  2. Fungating accessory breast carcinoma in Nigerian women.

    PubMed

    Badejo, O A

    1984-03-01

    Three cases of fungating accessory breast carcinoma out of a total of 22 malignant breast formations seen and treated in Ile-Ife, Nigeria between January 1977 and November 1981 are described. The clinical presentations, features and histologic findings are presented. The methods of management and the need for close observation as well as follow up for at least two years is emphasized. A frequency of 14% as seen in this series appears so high that one cannot describe the occurrence of malignant changes in the accessory breast as rare. PMID:6328710

  3. 19 CFR 10.537 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.537 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. Accessories,...

  4. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  5. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  6. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  7. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  8. Electronic Position Sensor for Power Operated Accessory

    DOEpatents

    Haag, Ronald H.; Chia, Michael I.

    2005-05-31

    An electronic position sensor for use with a power operated vehicle accessory, such as a power liftgate. The position sensor includes an elongated resistive circuit that is mounted such that it is stationary and extends along the path of a track portion of the power operated accessory. The position sensor further includes a contact nub mounted to a link member that moves within the track portion such that the contact nub is slidingly biased against the elongated circuit. As the link member moves under the force of a motor-driven output gear, the contact nub slides along the surface of the resistive circuit, thereby affecting the overall resistance of the circuit. The position sensor uses the overall resistance to provide an electronic position signal to an ECU, wherein the signal is indicative of the absolute position of the power operated accessory. Accordingly, the electronic position sensor is capable of providing an electronic signal that enables the ECU to track the absolute position of the power operated accessory.

  9. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  10. Home Economics Careers in Apparel and Accessories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Dept. of Occupational Education and Technology.

    This course of study on careers in apparel and accessories is one of a series on home economics careers designed to assist teacher-coordinators in Texas in promotion and/or teaching home economics cooperative education programs. The course of study consists of (1) an overview and job description, (2) a job analysis, (3) a course outline, (4)…

  11. 14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... continued operation of the engine must be provided. (e) Each accessory driven by a gearbox that is not approved as part of the powerplant driving the gearbox must— (1) Have torque limiting means to prevent the... gearbox for mounting; and (3) Be sealed to prevent contamination of the gearbox oil system and...

  12. 14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Have torque limiting means on all accessory drives in order to prevent the torque limits established... approved as part of the powerplant driving the gearbox must— (1) Have torque limiting means to prevent the torque limits established for the affected drive from being exceeded; (2) Use the provisions on...

  13. 14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Have torque limiting means on all accessory drives in order to prevent the torque limits established... approved as part of the powerplant driving the gearbox must— (1) Have torque limiting means to prevent the torque limits established for the affected drive from being exceeded; (2) Use the provisions on...

  14. 14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Have torque limiting means on all accessory drives in order to prevent the torque limits established... approved as part of the powerplant driving the gearbox must— (1) Have torque limiting means to prevent the torque limits established for the affected drive from being exceeded; (2) Use the provisions on...

  15. 14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Have torque limiting means on all accessory drives in order to prevent the torque limits established... approved as part of the powerplant driving the gearbox must— (1) Have torque limiting means to prevent the torque limits established for the affected drive from being exceeded; (2) Use the provisions on...

  16. Life beyond the Basal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grey, Jeanne; Carbone, Carole

    1987-01-01

    Reading is a tool for learning. The goal for the teaching of reading must be to produce lovers of reading. A holistic approach should replace exclusive dependence on basal readers. Effective methods are the following: (1) language experience approach; (2) word banks; (3) pattern books; (4) sustained silent reading; and (5) directed…

  17. 21 CFR 868.5860 - Pressure tubing and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pressure tubing and accessories. 868.5860 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5860 Pressure tubing and accessories. (a) Identification. Pressure tubing and accessories are flexible or rigid devices intended...

  18. 21 CFR 868.5860 - Pressure tubing and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pressure tubing and accessories. 868.5860 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5860 Pressure tubing and accessories. (a) Identification. Pressure tubing and accessories are flexible or rigid devices intended...

  19. 21 CFR 868.5860 - Pressure tubing and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pressure tubing and accessories. 868.5860 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5860 Pressure tubing and accessories. (a) Identification. Pressure tubing and accessories are flexible or rigid devices intended...

  20. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surgical microscope and accessories. 878.4700 Section 878.4700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical microscope and accessories is an AC-powered...

  1. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Surgical microscope and accessories. 878.4700 Section 878.4700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical microscope and accessories is an AC-powered...

  2. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bone cutting instrument and accessories. 872.4120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4120 Bone cutting instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device intended for...

  3. 21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6120 Assisted reproduction accessories. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction accessories are a group...

  4. 21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6120 Assisted reproduction accessories. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction accessories are a group...

  5. 21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6120 Assisted reproduction accessories. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction accessories are a group...

  6. 21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6120 Assisted reproduction accessories. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction accessories are a group...

  7. 21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6120 Assisted reproduction accessories. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction accessories are a group...

  8. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories. (a) Identification. An abrasive device and accessories is a device constructed of various abrasives... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abrasive device and accessories. 872.6010...

  9. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories. (a) Identification. An abrasive device and accessories is a device constructed of various abrasives... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Abrasive device and accessories. 872.6010...

  10. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4200 Dental handpiece and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental handpiece and accessories is an AC-powered, water-powered, air-powered, or...

  11. 21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872.6250 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental chair and accessories is a device, usually AC-powered, in which a patient sits....

  12. 21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872.6250 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental chair and accessories is a device, usually AC-powered, in which a patient sits....

  13. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872.6640... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental operative unit and accessories is an AC-powered device that...

  14. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872.6640... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental operative unit and accessories is an AC-powered device that...

  15. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872.6640... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental operative unit and accessories is an AC-powered device that...

  16. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a) Identification. Endosseous dental implant accessories are manually powered devices...

  17. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4200 Dental handpiece and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental handpiece and accessories is an AC-powered, water-powered, air-powered, or...

  18. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4200 Dental handpiece and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental handpiece and accessories is an AC-powered, water-powered, air-powered, or...

  19. 21 CFR 872.4920 - Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories. 872... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4920 Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental electrosurgical unit and accessories is an...

  20. 21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872.6250 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental chair and accessories is a device, usually AC-powered, in which a patient sits....

  1. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a) Identification. Endosseous dental implant accessories are manually powered devices...

  2. 21 CFR 872.4920 - Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories. 872... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4920 Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental electrosurgical unit and accessories is an...

  3. 21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872.6250 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental chair and accessories is a device, usually AC-powered, in which a patient sits....

  4. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872.6640... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental operative unit and accessories is an AC-powered device that...

  5. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4200 Dental handpiece and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental handpiece and accessories is an AC-powered, water-powered, air-powered, or...

  6. 21 CFR 872.4920 - Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories. 872... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4920 Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental electrosurgical unit and accessories is an...

  7. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a) Identification. Endosseous dental implant accessories are manually powered devices...

  8. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872.6640... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental operative unit and accessories is an AC-powered device that...

  9. 21 CFR 872.4920 - Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories. 872... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4920 Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental electrosurgical unit and accessories is an...

  10. 21 CFR 872.4920 - Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories. 872... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4920 Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental electrosurgical unit and accessories is an...

  11. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4200 Dental handpiece and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental handpiece and accessories is an AC-powered, water-powered, air-powered, or...

  12. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a) Identification. Endosseous dental implant accessories are manually powered devices...

  13. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a) Identification. Endosseous dental implant accessories are manually powered devices...

  14. 21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872.6250 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental chair and accessories is a device, usually AC-powered, in which a patient sits....

  15. 14 CFR 25.1192 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 25.1192....1192 Engine accessory section diaphragm. For reciprocating engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust system must be isolated from the engine accessory compartment by a diaphragm...

  16. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bone cutting instrument and accessories. 872.4120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4120 Bone cutting instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device intended for...

  17. 14 CFR 25.1192 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 25.1192....1192 Engine accessory section diaphragm. For reciprocating engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust system must be isolated from the engine accessory compartment by a diaphragm...

  18. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  19. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  20. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  1. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  2. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  3. 19 CFR 10.537 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.537 Section... Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.537 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and that form part of the good's standard...

  4. 19 CFR 10.3020 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.3020...-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.3020 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. (a) General. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and that form part of the...

  5. 19 CFR 10.537 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.537 Section... Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.537 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and that form part of the good's standard...

  6. 19 CFR 10.920 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.920 Section... Promotion Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.920 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. (a) General. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and that form part of the good's...

  7. 19 CFR 10.920 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.920 Section... Promotion Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.920 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. (a) General. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and that form part of the good's...

  8. 19 CFR 10.3020 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.3020...-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.3020 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. (a) General. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and that form part of the...

  9. 19 CFR 10.537 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.537 Section... Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.537 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and that form part of the good's standard...

  10. 19 CFR 10.1020 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.1020... Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.1020 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. (a) General. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and that form part of the good's...

  11. 19 CFR 10.600 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.600 Section... tools. (a) General. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and that form part of the good's standard accessories, spare parts, or tools will be treated as originating goods if...

  12. 19 CFR 10.2020 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.2020... Trade Promotion Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.2020 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. (a) General. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and that form part of the good's...

  13. 19 CFR 10.1020 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.1020... Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.1020 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. (a) General. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and that form part of the good's...

  14. 19 CFR 10.1020 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.1020... Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.1020 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. (a) General. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and that form part of the good's...

  15. 19 CFR 10.537 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.537 Section... Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.537 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and that form part of the good's standard...

  16. 19 CFR 10.920 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.920 Section... Promotion Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.920 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. (a) General. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and that form part of the good's...

  17. 21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orthodontic appliance and accessories. 872.5410... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5410 Orthodontic appliance and accessories. (a) Identification. An orthodontic appliance and accessories is a device intended for use...

  18. 21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orthodontic appliance and accessories. 872.5410... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5410 Orthodontic appliance and accessories. (a) Identification. An orthodontic appliance and accessories is a device intended for use...

  19. 21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orthodontic appliance and accessories. 872.5410... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5410 Orthodontic appliance and accessories. (a) Identification. An orthodontic appliance and accessories is a device intended for use...

  20. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Surgical microscope and accessories. 878.4700 Section 878.4700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical microscope and accessories is an AC-powered...

  1. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Surgical microscope and accessories. 878.4700 Section 878.4700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical microscope and accessories is an AC-powered...

  2. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Surgical microscope and accessories. 878.4700 Section 878.4700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical microscope and accessories is an AC-powered...

  3. 21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orthodontic appliance and accessories. 872.5410... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5410 Orthodontic appliance and accessories. (a) Identification. An orthodontic appliance and accessories is a device intended for use...

  4. 21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orthodontic appliance and accessories. 872.5410... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5410 Orthodontic appliance and accessories. (a) Identification. An orthodontic appliance and accessories is a device intended for use...

  5. 21 CFR 868.5860 - Pressure tubing and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pressure tubing and accessories. 868.5860 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5860 Pressure tubing and accessories. (a) Identification. Pressure tubing and accessories are flexible or rigid devices intended...

  6. 21 CFR 868.5860 - Pressure tubing and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pressure tubing and accessories. 868.5860 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5860 Pressure tubing and accessories. (a) Identification. Pressure tubing and accessories are flexible or rigid devices intended...

  7. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories. (a) Identification. An abrasive device and accessories is a device constructed of various abrasives... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abrasive device and accessories. 872.6010...

  8. 14 CFR 25.1192 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 25.1192....1192 Engine accessory section diaphragm. For reciprocating engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust system must be isolated from the engine accessory compartment by a diaphragm...

  9. 21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surgical camera and accessories. 878.4160 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical camera and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical camera and accessories is a device intended to be...

  10. Detection of accessory spleens with indium 111-labeled autologous platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, H.H., II; Varki, A.; Heaton, W.A.; Siegel, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    In two patients with recurrent immune thrombocytopenia, accessory splenic tissue was demonstrated by radionuclide imaging following administration of indium 111-labeled autologous platelets. In one of these patients, no accessory splenic tissue was seen on images obtained with technetium 99m sulfur colloid. This new technique provides a simple means for demonstrating accessory spleens and simultaneously evaluating the life-span of autologous platelets.

  11. 14 CFR 25.1192 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 25.1192....1192 Engine accessory section diaphragm. For reciprocating engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust system must be isolated from the engine accessory compartment by a diaphragm...

  12. Nuclear morphometry and chromatin textural characteristics of basal cell carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Mendaçolli, Paola Jung; Brianezi, Gabrielli; Schmitt, Juliano Vilaverde; Marques, Mariângela Esther Alencar; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2015-01-01

    Histological subtypes of basal cell carcinoma have biological, evolutionary and distinct prognostic behavior. The analysis of characteristics of the nucleus can provide data on their cellular physiology and behavior. The authors of this study evaluated nuclear morphological parameters and textural patterns of chromatin from different subtypes of basal cell carcinoma: nodular (n=37), superficial (n=28) and sclerodermiform (n=28). The parameters were compared between neoplasms' subtypes and with unaffected adjacent basal epithelium. Nuclear area and diameter of sclerodermiform neoplasms were superior to the other subtypes. Chromatin's color intensity and fractal dimension were less intense in superficial subtypes. Nuclear roundness and chromatin's entropy presented lower values in tumors than in normal epithelium. There was significant correlation between morphological and textural variables of normal skin and tumors. Morphometric elements and textural chromatin's homogeneity of basal cell carcinomas may be related to evolutionary, biological and behavior particularities related to each histotype. PMID:26734870

  13. High energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wosiek, B.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental results on high energy nucleus-nucleus interactions are presented. The data are discussed within the framework of standard super-position models and from the point-of-view of the possible formation of new states of matter in heavy ion collisions.

  14. Infrahyoid and accessory motoneurons in the Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Ueyama, T; Satoda, T; Tashiro, T; Sugimoto, T; Matsushima, R; Mizuno, N

    1990-01-15

    The segmental and topographical organization of motoneurons innervating the infrahyoid (IH) and the spinal accessory (AC) muscles was studied in the Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata) with the retrograde horseradish peroxidase (HRP) method after application of HRP to the peripheral nerve branches supplying the IH and AC muscles. IH motoneurons constitute two distinct slender cell columns, a longer medial and a shorter lateral one. The medial cell column extends from the most caudal level of the hypoglossal nucleus to the lower levels of the second cervical (C2) cord segment. In the medial column, motoneurons supplying the sternohyoid and sternothyroid muscles are distributed at the medullary and C1 levels, while those innervating the omohyoid muscle are primarily distributed at the C2 level. The lateral cell column consists of motoneurons supplying the thyrohyoid muscle and extends from the most caudal level of the hypoglossal nucleus to the middle levels of the C1 cord segment. Axons of thyrohyoid motoneurons follow a dorsomedially directed bent emergent course, making a hairpin turn. AC motoneurons supplying the sternocleidomastoid (SC) and trapezius (TZ) muscles form a single slender cell column extending from the most rostral level of the pyramidal decussation to the middle levels of the C6 cord segment. SC motoneurons are distributed from the most rostral level of the pyramidal decussation to the middle levels of the C3 cord segment, while TZ motoneurons are distributed from the upper levels of the C2 cord segment to the lower levels of the C6 cord segment. At the levels of the C2 and C3 cord segments, both SC and TZ motoneurons are distributed in the AC cell column; the cluster of SC motoneurons is located dorsomedial to that of TZ motoneurons. PMID:2152765

  15. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this disorder is a type of skin cancer called basal cell carcinoma , that develops around the time of puberty. Other ... if: You or any family members have nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, especially if you are planning to have ...

  16. [Accessory renal arteries in human fetuses].

    PubMed

    Gościcka, D; Szpinda, M; Kochan, J

    1996-12-01

    Using conventional anatomical methods, renal arteries of 140 human fetuses were studied. It was found (21.1%) that the accessory renal arteries occurred in a three-fold manner: 1. as single arteries (19.2%), 2. as double arteries (2.1%) and 3. as triplex arteries (0.7%). More often they originated from the right part of the circumference of the abdominal aorta, mainly in the female fetuses. These arteries penetrated the following segments of the kidney: the inferior (12.9%), the superior (2.3%), the anterior inferior (2.8%), the posterior (2.1%) and the anterior superior (1.5%). They crossed the renal pelvis more often in front (12.2%) than from behind of it (5%). The frequency of the occurrence of the accessory arteries depends not from the age of the fetus. PMID:9082875

  17. Entosiphon sulcatum (Euglenophyceae): flagellar roots of the basal body complex and reservoir region

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, J.A.; Walne, P.L.; Kivic, P.A.

    1987-03-01

    The flagellar root system of Entosiphon sulcatum (Dujardin) Stein (Euglenophyceae) is described and compared with kinetoplastid and other euglenoid systems. An asymmetric pattern of three microtubular roots, one between the two flagellar basal bodies and one on either side (here called the intermediate, dorsal, and ventral roots), is consistent within the euglenoid flagellates studied thus far. The dorsal root is associated with the basal body of the anterior flagellum (F1) and lies on the left dorsal side of the basal body complex. Originating between the two flagellar basal bodies, and associated with the basal body of the trailing flagellum (F2), the intermediate root is morphologically distinguished by fibrils interconnecting the individual microtubules to one another and to the overlying reservoir membrane. The intermediate root is often borne on a ridge projecting into the reservoir. The ventral root originates near the F2 basal body and lies on the right ventral side of the cell. Fibrillar connections link the membrane of F2 with the reservoir membrane at the reservoir-canal transition level. A large cross-banded fiber joins the two flagellar basal bodies, and a series of smaller striated fibers links the anterior accessory and flagellar basal bodies. Large nonstriated fibers extend from the basal body complex posteriorly into the cytoplasm.

  18. Cortical basal ganglionic degeneration.

    PubMed

    Scarmeas, N; Chin, S S; Marder, K

    2001-10-01

    In this case study, we describe the symptoms, neuropsychological testing, and brain pathology of a retired mason's assistant with cortical basal ganglionic degeneration (CBGD). CBGD is an extremely rare neurodegenerative disease that is categorized under both Parkinsonian syndromes and frontal lobe dementias. It affects men and women nearly equally, and the age of onset is usually in the sixth decade of life. CBGD is characterized by Parkinson's-like motor symptoms and by deficits of movement and cognition, indicating focal brain pathology. Neuronal cell loss is ultimately responsible for the neurological symptoms. PMID:14602941

  19. Active decorrelation in the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Wilson, C J

    2013-10-10

    The cytoarchitecturally-homogeneous appearance of the globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra has long been said to imply a high degree of afferent convergence and sharing of inputs by nearby neurons. Moreover, axon collaterals of neurons in the external segment of the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra pars reticulata arborize locally and make inhibitory synapses on other cells of the same type. These features suggest that the connectivity of the basal ganglia may impose spike-time correlations among the cells, and it has been puzzling that experimental studies have failed to demonstrate such correlations. One possible solution arises from studies of firing patterns in basal ganglia cells, which reveal that they are nearly all pacemaker cells. Their high rate of firing does not depend on synaptic excitation, but they fire irregularly because a dense barrage of synaptic inputs normally perturbs the timing of their autonomous activity. Theoretical and computational studies show that the responses of repetitively-firing neurons to shared input or mutual synaptic coupling often defy classical intuitions about temporal synaptic integration. The patterns of spike-timing among such neurons depend on the ionic mechanism of pacemaking, the level of background uncorrelated cellular and synaptic noise, and the firing rates of the neurons, as well as the properties of their synaptic connections. Application of these concepts to the basal ganglia circuitry suggests that the connectivity and physiology of these nuclei may be configured to prevent the establishment of permanent spike-timing relationships between neurons. The development of highly synchronous oscillatory patterns of activity in Parkinson's disease may result from the loss of pacemaking by some basal ganglia neurons, and accompanying breakdown of the mechanisms responsible for active decorrelation. PMID:23892007

  20. Nucleus-nucleus scattering at high energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franco, V.; Varma, G. K.

    1977-01-01

    Nucleus-nucleus scattering is treated in the Glauber approximation. The usual optical limit result, generally thought to improve as the number of nucleons in the colliding nuclei increases, is found to be the first term of a series which diverges for large nuclei. Corrections to the optical limit are obtained which provide a means of performing realistic calculations for collisions involving light nuclei. Total cross section predictions agree well with recent measurements.

  1. Imaging of the symptomatic type II accessory navicular bone.

    PubMed

    Mosel, Leigh D; Kat, Evelyn; Voyvodic, Frank

    2004-06-01

    Accessory ossicles of the foot are commonly mistaken for fractures. The accessory navicular is one of the most common accessory ossicles of the foot. There is a higher incidence in women and the finding might be bilateral in 50-90%. This entity is usually asymptomatic, although populations with medial foot pain have a higher prevalence. Three types of accessory navicular bone have been described. The type II accessory navicular is the most commonly symptomatic variant with localized chronic or acute on chronic medial foot pain and tenderness with associated inflammation of overlying soft tissues. Plain radiographic identification of the accessory navicular is insufficient to attribute symptomatology. Ultrasound allows for comparison with the asymptomatic side and localization of pain. Bone scintigraphy has a high sensitivity but positive findings lack specificity. Magnetic resonance imaging is of high diagnostic value for demonstrating both bone marrow and soft tissue oedema. PMID:15230772

  2. Sialolithiasis of an accessory parotid gland: an unusual case.

    PubMed

    Debnath, S C; Adhyapok, A K

    2015-09-01

    We report a rare case of sialolithiasis of an accessory parotid gland, which was located anteromedial to the masseter muscle and isolated from the main parotid gland. The calculus developed from this accessory gland, and the main gland was free of lithiasis and inflammation. To our knowledge, there is no reported case of 14 stones in an accessory parotid salivary gland. The calculus was removed through a standard incision without injury to the facial nerve or a salivary fistula. PMID:26048098

  3. Paramecium tetraurelia basal body structure.

    PubMed

    Tassin, Anne-Marie; Lemullois, Michel; Aubusson-Fleury, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Paramecium is a free-living unicellular organism, easy to cultivate, featuring ca. 4000 motile cilia emanating from longitudinal rows of basal bodies anchored in the plasma membrane. The basal body circumferential polarity is marked by the asymmetrical organization of its associated appendages. The complex basal body plus its associated rootlets forms the kinetid. Kinetids are precisely oriented within a row in correlation with the cell polarity. Basal bodies also display a proximo-distal polarity with microtubule triplets at their proximal ends, surrounding a permanent cartwheel, and microtubule doublets at the transition zone located between the basal body and the cilium. Basal bodies remain anchored at the cell surface during the whole cell cycle. On the opposite to metazoan, there is no centriolar stage and new basal bodies develop anteriorly and at right angle from the base of the docked ones. Ciliogenesis follows a specific temporal pattern during the cell cycle and both unciliated and ciliated docked basal bodies can be observed in the same cell. The transition zone is particularly well organized with three distinct plates and a maturation of its structure is observed during the growth of the cilium. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses have been performed in different organisms including Paramecium to understand the ciliogenesis process. The data have incremented a multi-organism database, dedicated to proteins involved in the biogenesis, composition and function of centrosomes, basal bodies or cilia. Thanks to its thousands of basal bodies and the well-known choreography of their duplication during the cell cycle, Paramecium has allowed pioneer studies focusing on the structural and functional processes underlying basal body duplication. Proteins involved in basal body anchoring are sequentially recruited to assemble the transition zone thus indicating that the anchoring process parallels the structural differentiation of the transition zone. This feature

  4. 21 CFR 884.1690 - Hysteroscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Diagnostic Devices... portals for electrosurgical, laser, or other power sources. Such hysteroscope accessory...

  5. 21 CFR 884.1690 - Hysteroscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Diagnostic Devices... portals for electrosurgical, laser, or other power sources. Such hysteroscope accessory...

  6. Human basal body basics.

    PubMed

    Vertii, Anastassiia; Hung, Hui-Fang; Hehnly, Heidi; Doxsey, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    In human cells, the basal body (BB) core comprises a ninefold microtubule-triplet cylindrical structure. Distal and subdistal appendages are located at the distal end of BB, where they play indispensable roles in cilium formation and function. Most cells that arrest in the G0 stage of the cell cycle initiate BB docking at the plasma membrane followed by BB-mediated growth of a solitary primary cilium, a structure required for sensing the extracellular environment and cell signaling. In addition to the primary cilium, motile cilia are present in specialized cells, such as sperm and airway epithelium. Mutations that affect BB function result in cilia dysfunction. This can generate syndromic disorders, collectively called ciliopathies, for which there are no effective treatments. In this review, we focus on the features and functions of BBs and centrosomes in Homo sapiens. PMID:26981235

  7. Accessory slips of the extensor digiti minimi.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Mao, Qing Hua

    2014-01-01

    During the educational dissection of a 69-year-old Chinese male cadaver, an extensor digiti minimi (EDM) with five slips on the right hand was discovered. Except for the two slips of the little finger, the two radial slips were inserted into the dorsal aponeurosis of the middle finger and the ring finger, respectively. The middle slip was connected to the junctura tendinum in the fourth intermetacarpal spaces. Variations in this region are of paramount importance for the reconstructive surgeons, who may utilize the accessory slips to restore functional capacity of the fingers. PMID:24970007

  8. [THE ORGANIZATION OF PROJECTIONS OF MIDBRAIN LATERAL TEGMENTAL NUCLEI THE TO BRAIN BASAL GANGLIA IN DOGS].

    PubMed

    Gorbachevskaya, A I

    2015-01-01

    The organization of the projections of midbrain lateral tegmental nuclei (peripeduncular nucleus, paralemniscal nucleus, nucleus of the brachium of inferior colliculus) to functionally diverse nuclei of the basal ganglia system was studied in dogs (n = 34) by the method of retrograde axonal transport of horse-radish peroxidase. It was found that the midbrain nuclei studied were involved in functionally different circuits, containing the basal ganglia as their components. These nuclei innervate the regions of the putamen, globus pallidus, cuneate nucleus, subcuneate nucleus, which are the motor or the limbic structures on the basis of their predominant connections with the motor or the limbic brain nuclei, and also regions of the caudate nucleus, nucleus accumbens, entopeduncular nucleus, compact part of the pedunculopontine nucleus, which receive the projections from the functionally various structures. The analysis of Nissl-stained frontal sections allowed to refine the anatomical topography of the individual nuclei of the midbrain lateral tegmentum. The cholinergic nature of their neurons was demonstrated based on of the positive histochemical reaction to NADPH diaphorase. PMID:27141581

  9. Deep-Brain Stimulation for Basal Ganglia Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wichmann, Thomas; DeLong, Mahlon R.

    2011-01-01

    The realization that medications used to treat movement disorders and psychiatric conditions of basal ganglia origin have significant shortcomings, as well as advances in the understanding of the functional organization of the brain, has led to a renaissance in functional neurosurgery, and particularly the use of deep brain stimulation (DBS). Movement disorders are now routinely being treated with DBS of ‘motor’ portions of the basal ganglia output nuclei, specifically the subthalamic nucleus and the internal pallidal segment. These procedures are highly effective and generally safe. Use of DBS is also being explored in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders, with targeting of the ‘limbic’ basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuitry. The results of these procedures are also encouraging, but many unanswered questions remain in this emerging field. This review summarizes the scientific rationale and practical aspects of using DBS for neurologic and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:21804953

  10. 21 CFR 884.2700 - Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories. 884... Monitoring Devices § 884.2700 Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. An intrauterine pressure monitor is a device designed to detect and measure intrauterine and amniotic...

  11. 21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. 876... Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification. (1) A peritoneal dialysis system and... peritoneal dialysis, a source of dialysate, and, in some cases, a water purification mechanism. After...

  12. 14 CFR 125.149 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 125.149... Requirements § 125.149 Engine accessory section diaphragm. Unless equivalent protection can be shown by other means, a diaphragm that complies with § 125.145 must be provided on air-cooled engines to isolate...

  13. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  14. 14 CFR 125.149 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 125.149... Requirements § 125.149 Engine accessory section diaphragm. Unless equivalent protection can be shown by other means, a diaphragm that complies with § 125.145 must be provided on air-cooled engines to isolate...

  15. 14 CFR 125.149 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 125.149... Requirements § 125.149 Engine accessory section diaphragm. Unless equivalent protection can be shown by other means, a diaphragm that complies with § 125.145 must be provided on air-cooled engines to isolate...

  16. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  17. 21 CFR 884.2960 - Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories... Monitoring Devices § 884.2960 Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. (a) Identification. An obstetric ultrasonic transducer is a device used to apply ultrasonic energy to, and to receive...

  18. 21 CFR 884.2960 - Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories... Monitoring Devices § 884.2960 Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. (a) Identification. An obstetric ultrasonic transducer is a device used to apply ultrasonic energy to, and to receive...

  19. 21 CFR 884.2960 - Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories... Monitoring Devices § 884.2960 Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. (a) Identification. An obstetric ultrasonic transducer is a device used to apply ultrasonic energy to, and to receive...

  20. 21 CFR 884.2960 - Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories... Monitoring Devices § 884.2960 Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. (a) Identification. An obstetric ultrasonic transducer is a device used to apply ultrasonic energy to, and to receive...

  1. 21 CFR 884.2960 - Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories... Monitoring Devices § 884.2960 Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. (a) Identification. An obstetric ultrasonic transducer is a device used to apply ultrasonic energy to, and to receive...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine...

  6. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Microscopes and accessories. 864.3600 Section 864.3600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories §...

  7. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Microscopes and accessories. 864.3600 Section 864.3600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories §...

  8. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Microscopes and accessories. 864.3600 Section 864.3600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories §...

  9. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Microscopes and accessories. 864.3600 Section 864.3600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories §...

  10. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Microscopes and accessories. 864.3600 Section 864.3600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories §...

  11. 21 CFR 884.2660 - Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. 884.2660... Devices § 884.2660 Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. A fetal ultrasonic monitor is a device designed to transmit and receive ultrasonic energy into and from the pregnant...

  12. 21 CFR 884.2660 - Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. 884.2660... Devices § 884.2660 Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. A fetal ultrasonic monitor is a device designed to transmit and receive ultrasonic energy into and from the pregnant...

  13. 21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. 876... Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification. (1) A peritoneal dialysis system and... peritoneal dialysis, a source of dialysate, and, in some cases, a water purification mechanism. After...

  14. 21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. 876... Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification. (1) A peritoneal dialysis system and... peritoneal dialysis, a source of dialysate, and, in some cases, a water purification mechanism. After...

  15. 21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. 876... Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification. (1) A peritoneal dialysis system and... peritoneal dialysis, a source of dialysate, and, in some cases, a water purification mechanism. After...

  16. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urine collector and accessories. 876.5250 Section 876.5250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  17. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hemodialysis system and accessories. 876.5820 Section 876.5820 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5820 Hemodialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification....

  18. 14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine...

  19. 21 CFR 884.1690 - Hysteroscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hysteroscope and accessories. 884.1690 Section 884.1690 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Diagnostic Devices § 884.1690 Hysteroscope and accessories....

  20. 21 CFR 884.1640 - Culdoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Culdoscope and accessories. 884.1640 Section 884.1640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Diagnostic Devices § 884.1640 Culdoscope and accessories....

  1. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Endoscope and accessories. 876.1500 Section 876.1500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1500 Endoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. An endoscope...

  2. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... This generic type of device includes the suprapubic catheter and tube, Malecot catheter, catheter punch... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories... Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A suprapubic urological catheter...

  3. 21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. 876... Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification. (1) A peritoneal dialysis system and... peritoneal dialysis, a source of dialysate, and, in some cases, a water purification mechanism. After...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  5. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urine collector and accessories. 876.5250 Section 876.5250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  6. 14 CFR 125.149 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 125.149... Requirements § 125.149 Engine accessory section diaphragm. Unless equivalent protection can be shown by other means, a diaphragm that complies with § 125.145 must be provided on air-cooled engines to isolate...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  8. The Pseudorabies Virus DNA Polymerase Accessory Subunit UL42 Directs Nuclear Transport of the Holoenzyme

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi-Ping; Du, Wen-Juan; Huang, Li-Ping; Wei, Yan-Wu; Wu, Hong-Li; Feng, Li; Liu, Chang-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Pseudorabies virus (PRV) DNA replication occurs in the nuclei of infected cells and requires the viral DNA polymerase. The PRV DNA polymerase comprises a catalytic subunit, UL30, and an accessory subunit, UL42, that confers processivity to the enzyme. Its nuclear localization is a prerequisite for its enzymatic function in the initiation of viral DNA replication. However, the mechanisms by which the PRV DNA polymerase holoenzyme enters the nucleus have not been determined. In this study, we characterized the nuclear import pathways of the PRV DNA polymerase catalytic and accessory subunits. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that UL42 localizes independently in the nucleus, whereas UL30 alone predominantly localizes in the cytoplasm. Intriguingly, the localization of UL30 was completely shifted to the nucleus when it was coexpressed with UL42, demonstrating that nuclear transport of UL30 occurs in an UL42-dependent manner. Deletion analysis and site-directed mutagenesis of the two proteins showed that UL42 contains a functional and transferable bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) at amino acids 354–370 and that K354, R355, and K367 are important for the NLS function, whereas UL30 has no NLS. Coimmunoprecipitation assays verified that UL42 interacts with importins α3 and α4 through its NLS. In vitro nuclear import assays demonstrated that nuclear accumulation of UL42 is a temperature- and energy-dependent process and requires both importins α and β, confirming that UL42 utilizes the importin α/β-mediated pathway for nuclear entry. In an UL42 NLS-null mutant, the UL42/UL30 heterodimer was completely confined to the cytoplasm when UL42 was coexpressed with UL30, indicating that UL30 utilizes the NLS function of UL42 for its translocation into the nucleus. Collectively, these findings suggest that UL42 contains an importin α/β-mediated bipartite NLS that transports the viral DNA polymerase holoenzyme into the nucleus in an in vitro expression system

  9. Fluid assisted installation of electrical cable accessories

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, Robert W.; Silva, Frank A.

    1977-01-01

    An electrical cable accessory includes a generally tubular member of elastomeric material which is to be installed by placement over a cylindrical surface to grip the cylindrical surface, when in appropriate assembled relation therewith, with a predetermined gripping force established by dilation of the tubular member, the installation being facilitated by introducing fluid under pressure, through means provided in the tubular member, between the tubular member and the cylindrical surface, and simultaneously impeding the escape of the fluid under pressure from between the tubular member and the cylindrical surface by means adjacent one of the ends of the tubular member to cause dilation of the tubular member and establish a fluid layer between the tubular member and the cylindrical surface, thereby reducing the gripping force during installation.

  10. Hunting for eruption ages in accessory minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    A primary goal in geochronology is to provide precise and accurate ages for tephras that serve as chronostratigraphic markers for constraining the timing and rates of volcanism, sedimentation, climate change, and catastrophic events in Earth history. Zircon remains the most versatile accessory mineral for dating silicic tephras due to its common preservation in distal pyroclastic deposits, as well as the robustness of its U-Pb and U-series systems even after host materials have been hydrothermally altered or weathered. Countless studies document that zircon may be complexly zoned in age due to inheritance, contamination, recycling of antecrysts, protracted crystallization in long-lived magma reservoirs, or any combination of these. Other accessory minerals such as allanite or chevkinite can retain similar records of protracted crystallization. If the goal is to date the durations of magmatic crystallization, differentiation, and/or magma residence, then these protracted chronologies within and between accessory minerals are a blessing. However, if the goal is to date the timing of eruption with high precision, i.e., absolute ages with millennial-scale uncertainties, then this age zoning is a curse. Observations from ion microprobe 238U-230Th dating of Pleistocene zircon and allanite provide insight into the record of near-eruption crystallization in accessory minerals and serve as a guide for high-precision whole-crystal dating. Although imprecise relative to conventional techniques, ion probe analysis allows high-spatial resolution 238U-230Th dating that can document multi-millennial age distributions at the crystal scale. Analysis of unpolished rims and continuous depth profiling of zircon from small and large volume eruptions (e.g., Coso, Mono Craters, Yellowstone) reveals that the final several micrometers of crystallization often yield ages that are indistinguishable from associated eruption ages from the 40Ar/39Ar or (U-Th)/He methods. Using this approach, we

  11. Plasticity of basal cells during postnatal development in the rat epididymis

    PubMed Central

    Shum, Winnie W C; Hill, Eric; Brown, Dennis; Breton, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Our previous study has shown that basal cells sense luminal factors by forming a narrow body projection that can cross epithelial tight junctions. As a first step toward characterizing the structural plasticity of basal cells, in this study, we followed their appearance and morphology in the rat epididymis and vas deferens (VD) during postnatal development and examined their modulation by androgens in adulthood. Immunofluorescence labeling for cytokeratin 5 showed that basal cells are absent at birth. They progressively appear in a retrograde manner from the VD and cauda epididymis to the initial segments during the postnatal weeks PNW1–3. At the onset of differentiation, basal cells are in contact with the lumen and their nucleus is located at the same level as that of adjacent epithelial cells. Basal cells then position their nucleus to the base of the epithelium, and while some are still in contact with the lumen, others have a ‘dome-shaped’ appearance. At PNW5–6, basal cells form a loose network at the base of the epithelium, and luminal-reaching basal cells are rarely detected. The arrival of spermatozoa during PNW7–8 did not trigger the development of projections in basal cells. However, cells with a narrow luminal-reaching projection began to reappear between PNW8 and PNW12 in the corpus and the cauda. Treatment with flutamide from PNW10 to PNW12 significantly reduced the number of luminal-reaching basal cell projections. In summary, basal cells exhibit significant structural plasticity during differentiation. Fewer apical-reaching projections were detected after flutamide treatment in adulthood, indicating the role of androgens in the luminal-sensing function of basal cells. PMID:23960170

  12. Angiographically occult vascular malformation of the intracranial accessory nerve: case report.

    PubMed

    Terterov, Sergei; McLaughlin, Nancy; Vinters, Harry; Martin, Neil A

    2016-07-01

    Angiographically occult cerebral vascular malformations (AOVMs) are usually found in the supratentorial brain parenchyma. Uncommonly, AOVMs can be found within the cavernous sinus or basal cisterns and can be associated with cranial nerves. AOVMs involving the intracranial segment of the spinal accessory nerve have not been described. A 46-year-old female patient presented with a history of episodic frontal headaches and episodes of nausea and dizziness, as well as gait instability progressing over 6 months prior to evaluation. Imaging revealed a well-circumscribed 3-cm extraaxial T1-weighted isointense and T2-weighted hyperintense contrast-enhancing mass centered in the region of the right lateral cerebellomedullary cistern. The patient underwent resection of the lesion. Although the intraoperative appearance was suggestive of a cavernous malformation, some histological findings were atypical, leading to the final diagnosis of vascular malformation, not otherwise specified. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful with complete resolution of symptoms. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of an AOVM involving the intracranial portion of the accessory nerve. For any AOVM located within the cerebellomedullary cistern or one suspected of involving a cranial nerve, the authors recommend including immunohistochemistry with primary antibody to neurofilament in the histopathology workup. PMID:26566204

  13. Convergence of FPR-rs3-expressing neurons in the mouse accessory olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Dietschi, Quentin; Assens, Alexis; Challet, Ludivine; Carleton, Alan; Rodriguez, Ivan

    2013-09-01

    In the mouse, most members of the FPR receptor family are expressed by vomeronasal sensory neurons. The neural circuitry corresponding to this class of chemical sensors is unknown. Taking advantage of the presence of FPR-rs3 on both vomeronasal dendrites and axonal fibers, we visualized the distribution of sensory cells expressing this member of the FPR family, and their corresponding axonal projections in the olfactory bulb. We found a rostrocaudal gradient of receptor choice frequency in the vomeronasal sensory neuroepithelium, and observed a convergence of FPR-rs3 axons into multiple, linked and deeply located glomeruli. These were homogenously innervated, and spatially restricted to the basal portion of the rostral accessory olfactory bulb. This organization, reminiscent of the one that characterizes axonal projections of V1R-expressing neurons, supports a role played by these receptors in the perception of semiochemicals. PMID:23664818

  14. Anatomy and physiology of neurons with processes in the accessory medulla of the cockroach Leucophaea maderae.

    PubMed

    Loesel, R; Homberg, U

    2001-10-15

    The accessory medulla (AMe), a small neuropil in the insect optic lobe, has been proposed to serve a circadian pacemaker function analogous to the role of the suprachiasmatic nucleus in mammals. Building upon considerable knowledge of the circadian system of the cockroach Leucophaea maderae, we investigated the properties of AMe neurons in this insect with intracellular recordings combined with dye injections. Responses of neurons with processes in the AMe to visual stimuli, including stationary white light, moving objects, and polarized light were compared with the responses of adjacent medulla tangential neurons. Neurons with processes in the AMe and additional ramifications in the medulla strongly responded to stationary light stimuli and might, therefore, be part of photic entrainment pathways to the clock. Accessory medulla neurons lacking significant processes in the medulla but with projections to the midbrain or to the contralateral optic lobe, in contrast, responded weakly or not at all to light and, thus, seem to be part of the clock's output pathway. Two types of commissural neurons with tangential arborizations in both medullae were sensitive to polarized light, suggesting a role of these neurons in celestial navigation. Sidebranches in the AMae of one of the two cell types are discussed with respect to a possible involvement of the AMe in polarization vision. Finally, neurons responding to movement stimuli did not arborize in the AMe. The results show that the AMe receives photic input and support a role of this neuropil in circadian timekeeping functions. PMID:11596048

  15. The Nucleus Introduced

    PubMed Central

    Pederson, Thoru

    2011-01-01

    Now is an opportune moment to address the confluence of cell biological form and function that is the nucleus. Its arrival is especially timely because the recognition that the nucleus is extremely dynamic has now been solidly established as a paradigm shift over the past two decades, and also because we now see on the horizon numerous ways in which organization itself, including gene location and possibly self-organizing bodies, underlies nuclear functions. PMID:20660024

  16. The association of hallux limitus with the accessory navicular.

    PubMed

    Evans, R D Lee; Averett, Ryan; Sanders, Stephanie

    2002-06-01

    Hallux limitus is one of the most prevalent, debilitating disorders of the first metatarsophalangeal joint, and it has many proposed etiologies. This article reviews these etiologies, focusing primarily on the pes planus foot. The pes planus foot type is often associated with symptomatic hallux limitus and the accessory navicular. This article discusses this correlation, although a causal relationship has not been proven. The prevalence and classification of the accessory navicular are also discussed. Clinical cases involving symptomatic hallux limitus occurring concomitantly with an accessory navicular are reviewed, including radiographic findings, symptoms, and surgical treatment. PMID:12070237

  17. Accessory spleen compromising response to splenectomy for idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

    SciTech Connect

    Ambriz, P.; Munoz, R.; Quintanar, E.; Sigler, L.; Aviles, A.; Pizzuto, J.

    1985-06-01

    Accessory spleens were sought in 28 patients who had undergone splenectomy for chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), using a variety of techniques. Abdominal scintigraphy with autologous erythrocytes labeled with Tc-99m and opsonized with anit-D IgG (radioimmune method) proved to be most useful, clearly demonstrating one or more accessory spleens in 12 cases (43%). Computed tomography (CT) was also helpful. Four out of five patients demonstrated an increased platelet count following surgery, the effectiveness of which was illustrated by the radioimmune scan. Patients who have had splenectomy for chronic ITP should be scanned using radioimmune techniques and CT to determine whether an accessory spleen is present.

  18. Contactin-4 mediates axon-target specificity and functional development of the accessory optic system.

    PubMed

    Osterhout, Jessica A; Stafford, Benjamin K; Nguyen, Phong L; Yoshihara, Yoshihiro; Huberman, Andrew D

    2015-05-20

    The mammalian eye-to-brain pathway includes more than 20 parallel circuits, each consisting of precise long-range connections between specific sets of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and target structures in the brain. The mechanisms that drive assembly of these parallel connections and the functional implications of their specificity remain unresolved. Here we show that in the absence of contactin 4 (CNTN4) or one of its binding partners, amyloid precursor protein (APP), a subset of direction-selective RGCs fail to target the nucleus of the optic tract (NOT)--the accessory optic system (AOS) target controlling horizontal image stabilization. Conversely, ectopic expression of CNTN4 biases RGCs to arborize in the NOT, and that process also requires APP. Our data reveal critical and novel roles for CNTN4/APP in promoting target-specific axon arborization, and they highlight the importance of this process for functional development of a behaviorally relevant parallel visual pathway. PMID:25959733

  19. Functional Assembly of Accessory Optic System Circuitry Critical for Compensatory Eye Movements

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lu O.; Brady, Colleen M.; Cahill, Hugh; Al-Khindi, Timour; Sakuta, Hiraki; Dhande, Onkar S.; Noda, Masaharu; Huberman, Andrew D.; Nathans, Jeremy; Kolodkin, Alex L.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Accurate motion detection requires neural circuitry that compensates for global visual field motion. Select subtypes of retinal ganglion cells perceive image motion and connect to the accessory optic system (AOS) in the brain, which generates compensatory eye movements that stabilize images during slow visual field motion. Here, we show that the murine transmembrane semaphorin 6A (Sema6A) is expressed in a subset of On direction-selective ganglion cells (On DSGCs) and is required for retinorecipient axonal targeting to the medial terminal nucleus (MTN) of the AOS. Plexin A2 and A4, two Sema6A binding partners, are expressed in MTN cells, attract Sema6A+ On DSGC axons, and mediate MTN targeting of Sema6A+ RGC projections. Furthermore, Sema6A/Plexin-A2/A4 signaling is required for the functional output of the AOS. These data reveal molecular mechanisms underlying the assembly of AOS circuits critical for moving image perception. PMID:25959730

  20. [Basal and spinous cell epitheliomas].

    PubMed

    Shaw, M; Sanguinetti, O; de Kaminsky, A R; Kaminsky, C A

    1975-01-01

    A study on 502 epithelial cutaneous cancers was carried out by the authors. The study included 377 basal cell carcinomas (57,5% in males and 42,4% in females) and 125 squamous cell carcinomas (78,4% in males and 21,6% in females). The basal cell carcinomas in both sexs had an earlier onset than the squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:1241706

  1. [Anti-basal ganglia antibody].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Masaharu

    2013-04-01

    Sydenham's chorea (SC) is a major manifestation of rheumatic fever, and the production of anti-basal ganglia antibodies (ABGA) has been proposed in SC. The pathogenesis is hypothesized as autoimmune targeting of the basal ganglia via molecular mimicry, triggered by streptococcal infection. The spectrum of diseases in which ABGA may be involved has been broadened to include other extrapyramidal movement disorders, such as tics, dystonia, and Parkinsonism, as well as other psychiatric disorders. The autoimmune hypothesis in the presence and absence of ABGA has been suggested in Tourette's syndrome (TS), early onset obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD), and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS). Recently, the relationship between ABGA and dopamine neurons in the basal ganglia has been examined, and autoantibodies against dopamine receptors were detected in the sera from patients with basal ganglia encephalitis. In Japan, the occurrence of subacute encephalitis, where patients suffer from episodes of altered behavior and involuntary movements, has increased. Immune-modulating treatments are effective, indicating the involvement of an autoimmune mechanism. We aimed to detect the anti-neuronal autoantibodies in such encephalitis, using immunohistochemical assessment of patient sera. The sera from patients showing involuntary movements had immunoreactivity for basal ganglia neurons. Further epitopes for ABGA will be investigated in basal ganglia disorders other than SC, TS, OCD, and PANDAS. PMID:23568985

  2. Complete Spinal Accessory Nerve Palsy From Carrying Climbing Gear.

    PubMed

    Coulter, Jess M; Warme, Winston J

    2015-09-01

    We report an unusual case of spinal accessory nerve palsy sustained while transporting climbing gear. Spinal accessory nerve injury is commonly a result of iatrogenic surgical trauma during lymph node excision. This particular nerve is less frequently injured by blunt trauma. The case reported here results from compression of the spinal accessory nerve for a sustained period-that is, carrying a load over the shoulder using a single nylon rope for 2.5 hours. This highlights the importance of using proper load-carrying equipment to distribute weight over a greater surface area to avoid nerve compression in the posterior triangle of the neck. The signs and symptoms of spinal accessory nerve palsy and its etiology are discussed. This report is particularly relevant to individuals involved in mountaineering and rock climbing but can be extended to anyone carrying a load with a strap over one shoulder and across the body. PMID:25937552

  3. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 30 days. This generic type of device includes fistula needles, the single needle dialysis set (coaxial flow needle), and the single needle dialysis set (alternating flow needle). (3) Accessories...

  4. 21 CFR 876.4300 - Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... accessories is a device used to perform electrosurgical procedures through an endoscope. This generic type of device includes the electrosurgical generator, patient plate, electric biopsy forceps, electrode...-opening rigid snare, flexible suction coagulator electrode, patient return wristlet, contact...

  5. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 30 days. This generic type of device includes fistula needles, the single needle dialysis set (coaxial flow needle), and the single needle dialysis set (alternating flow needle). (3) Accessories...

  6. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 30 days. This generic type of device includes fistula needles, the single needle dialysis set (coaxial flow needle), and the single needle dialysis set (alternating flow needle). (3) Accessories...

  7. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 30 days. This generic type of device includes fistula needles, the single needle dialysis set (coaxial flow needle), and the single needle dialysis set (alternating flow needle). (3) Accessories...

  8. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 30 days. This generic type of device includes fistula needles, the single needle dialysis set (coaxial flow needle), and the single needle dialysis set (alternating flow needle). (3) Accessories...

  9. Cardiovascular effects of basal insulins.

    PubMed

    Mannucci, Edoardo; Giannini, Stefano; Dicembrini, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Basal insulin is an important component of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. One of the principal aims of treatment in patients with diabetes is the prevention of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence, although controversial, that attainment of good glycemic control reduces long-term cardiovascular risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential cardiovascular safety of the different available preparations of basal insulin. Current basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], or isophane) and basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir, and the more recent degludec) differ essentially by various measures of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in the bloodstream, presence and persistence of peak action, and within-subject variability in the glucose-lowering response. The currently available data show that basal insulin analogs have a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH human insulin, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, then excluding additional harmful effects on the cardiovascular system mediated by activation of the adrenergic system. Given that no biological rationale for a possible difference in cardiovascular effect of basal insulins has been proposed so far, available meta-analyses of publicly disclosed randomized controlled trials do not show any signal of increased risk of major cardiovascular events between the different basal insulin analogs. However, the number of available cardiovascular events in these trials is very small, preventing any clear-cut conclusion. The results of an ongoing clinical trial comparing glargine and degludec with regard to cardiovascular safety will provide definitive evidence. PMID:26203281

  10. Cardiovascular effects of basal insulins

    PubMed Central

    Mannucci, Edoardo; Giannini, Stefano; Dicembrini, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Basal insulin is an important component of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. One of the principal aims of treatment in patients with diabetes is the prevention of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence, although controversial, that attainment of good glycemic control reduces long-term cardiovascular risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential cardiovascular safety of the different available preparations of basal insulin. Current basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], or isophane) and basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir, and the more recent degludec) differ essentially by various measures of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in the bloodstream, presence and persistence of peak action, and within-subject variability in the glucose-lowering response. The currently available data show that basal insulin analogs have a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH human insulin, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, then excluding additional harmful effects on the cardiovascular system mediated by activation of the adrenergic system. Given that no biological rationale for a possible difference in cardiovascular effect of basal insulins has been proposed so far, available meta-analyses of publicly disclosed randomized controlled trials do not show any signal of increased risk of major cardiovascular events between the different basal insulin analogs. However, the number of available cardiovascular events in these trials is very small, preventing any clear-cut conclusion. The results of an ongoing clinical trial comparing glargine and degludec with regard to cardiovascular safety will provide definitive evidence. PMID:26203281

  11. Alternative delivery of male accessory gland products

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To increase fertilization success, males transfer accessory gland products (Acps). Several species have evolved unconventional Acps transfer modes, meaning that Acps are transferred separately from the sperm. By surveying the sperm-free Acps transfer cases, we show that these animals have evolved a common strategy to deliver Acps: they all inject Acps directly through the partner’s body wall into the hemolymph. Our review of this mode of Acps transfer reveals another striking similarity: they all transfer sperm in packages or via the skin, which may leave little room for Acps transfer via the conventional route in seminal fluid. We synthesise the knowledge about the function, and the effects in the recipients, of the Acps found in the widely diverse taxa (including earthworms, sea slugs, terrestrial snails, scorpions and salamanders) that inject these substances. Despite the clearly independent evolution of the injection devices, these animals have evolved a common alternative strategy to get their partners to accept and/or use their sperm. Most importantly, the evolution of the injection devices for the delivery of Acps highlights how the latter are pivotal for male reproductive success and, hence, strongly influence sexual selection. PMID:24708537

  12. PERSISTENT PUPILLARY MEMBRANE OR ACCESSORY IRIS MEMBRANE?.

    PubMed

    Gavriş, Monica; Horge, Ioan; Avram, Elena; Belicioiu, Roxana; Olteanu, Ioana Alexandra; Kedves, Hanga

    2015-01-01

    Frequently, in literature and curent practice, accessory iris membrane (AIM) and persistant pupillary membrane (PPM) are confused. Both AIM and PPM are congenital iris anomalies in which fine or thick iris strands arrise form the collarette and obscure the pupil. AIM, which is also called iris duplication, closely resembles the normal iris tissue in color and thickness and presents a virtual second pseudopupil aperture in the centre while PPM even in its extreme forms presents as a translucent or opaque membranous structure that extends across the pupil and has no pseudopupil. Mydriatiscs, laser treatment or surgery is used to clear the visual axis and optimize visual development. Surgical intervention is reserved for large, dense AIMs and PPMs. Our patient, a 29 year old male, has come with bilateral dense AIM, bilateral compound hyperopic astigmatism, BCVA OD = 0.6, BCVA OS = 0.4, IOP OU = 17 mmHg. To improve the visual acuity of the patient we decided to do a bilateral membranectomy, restoring in this way transparency of the visual axis. After surgery, the visual acuity improved to BCVA OD= 0.8, BCVA OS=0.8. PMID:26978889

  13. Accessory food factors: understanding the catalytic function.

    PubMed

    Braun, Robyn

    2011-01-01

    Despite the practical knowledge throughout the nineteenth century that citrus fruit cured scurvy, and that rickets and beriberi were diseases caused by poor diet, it was not until 1901 that animal feeding experiments led one investigator to propose the existence of 'accessory food factors,' a lack of which was determined to be the cause of some illnesses (Hopkins, 1949. In Joseph Needham and E. Baldwin (eds.), Hopkins and Biochemistry, 1861-1947: Papers Concerning Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins, O.M., P.R.S., with a Selection of His Addresses and a Bibliography of His Publications. Cambridge: W. Heffer and Sons Ltd). The discovery of vitamins has long been considered as a delayed discovery. This delay has been attributed to the power of the germ theory in physiology at the time. While the germ theory and theories of auto-intoxication certainly played a role in delaying the discovery of vitamins, I argue further that it is important to consider the difference made to physiology by understanding the vitamins' catalytic function. The profound difference made to physiology by the vitamins' catalytic function suggests that a vitamin concept had previously been systematically inaccessible to researchers working within the conceptual framework of Bernardian physiology. PMID:21069437

  14. Extensive Lesions of Cholinergic Basal Forebrain Neurons Do Not Impair Spatial Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuckovich, Joseph A.; Semel, Mara E.; Baxter, Mark G.

    2004-01-01

    A recent study suggests that lesions to all major areas of the cholinergic basal forebrain in the rat (medial septum, horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca, and nucleus basalis magnocellularis) impair a spatial working memory task. However, this experiment used a surgical technique that may have damaged cerebellar Purkinje cells. The…

  15. Wongabel Rhabdovirus Accessory Protein U3 Targets the SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodeling Complex

    PubMed Central

    Joubert, D. Albert; Rodriguez-Andres, Julio; Monaghan, Paul; Cummins, Michelle; McKinstry, William J.; Paradkar, Prasad N.; Moseley, Gregory W.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Wongabel virus (WONV) is an arthropod-borne rhabdovirus that infects birds. It is one of the growing array of rhabdoviruses with complex genomes that encode multiple accessory proteins of unknown function. In addition to the five canonical rhabdovirus structural protein genes (N, P, M, G, and L), the 13.2-kb negative-sense single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) WONV genome contains five uncharacterized accessory genes, one overlapping the N gene (Nx or U4), three located between the P and M genes (U1 to U3), and a fifth one overlapping the G gene (Gx or U5). Here we show that WONV U3 is expressed during infection in insect and mammalian cells and is required for efficient viral replication. A yeast two-hybrid screen against a mosquito cell cDNA library identified that WONV U3 interacts with the 83-amino-acid (aa) C-terminal domain of SNF5, a component of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. The interaction was confirmed by affinity chromatography, and nuclear colocalization was established by confocal microscopy. Gene expression studies showed that SNF5 transcripts are upregulated during infection of mosquito cells with WONV, as well as West Nile virus (Flaviviridae) and bovine ephemeral fever virus (Rhabdoviridae), and that SNF5 knockdown results in increased WONV replication. WONV U3 also inhibits SNF5-regulated expression of the cytokine gene CSF1. The data suggest that WONV U3 targets the SWI/SNF complex to block the host response to infection. IMPORTANCE The rhabdoviruses comprise a large family of RNA viruses infecting plants, vertebrates, and invertebrates. In addition to the major structural proteins (N, P, M, G, and L), many rhabdoviruses encode a diverse array of accessory proteins of largely unknown function. Understanding the role of these proteins may reveal much about host-pathogen interactions in infected cells. Here we examine accessory protein U3 of Wongabel virus, an arthropod-borne rhabdovirus that infects birds. We show that U3 enters the

  16. Review of accessory tragus with highlights of its associated syndromes.

    PubMed

    Bahrani, Bahar; Khachemoune, Amor

    2014-12-01

    Accessory tragus is a developmental defect involving malformation of part of the external ear. It is a moderately rare congenital condition reported in 1858 by Birkett for the first time. Histological features of accessory tragus include a thin layer of stratum corneum with a rugated epidermis, presence of eccrine glands, and irregular spatial positioning of vellus hair follicles accompanied by sebaceous glands. Accessory tragus is commonly a limited deformity; however, it can be a sign of associated congenital syndromes. It has been shown to be associated with Goldenhar syndrome, Townes-Brocks syndrome, Treacher-Collins syndrome, VACTERL syndrome, and Wolf-Hirschhron syndrome. Surgical excision, the most common form of management of accessory tragus lesions, typically leads to a positive outcome. An extensive search was performed using pubmed.gov, Embase, MedLine, and Googlescholar.com using key words: accessory tragus, congenital malformations of ear, first branchial arch, and embryology. In this paper, we review the clinical and histological presentation, associated syndromes, management, and outcome of accessory tragus. PMID:25266223

  17. Covert skill learning in a cortical-basal ganglia circuit.

    PubMed

    Charlesworth, Jonathan D; Warren, Timothy L; Brainard, Michael S

    2012-06-14

    We learn complex skills such as speech and dance through a gradual process of trial and error. Cortical-basal ganglia circuits have an important yet unresolved function in this trial-and-error skill learning; influential 'actor-critic' models propose that basal ganglia circuits generate a variety of behaviours during training and learn to implement the successful behaviours in their repertoire. Here we show that the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP), a cortical-basal ganglia circuit, contributes to skill learning even when it does not contribute to such 'exploratory' variation in behavioural performance during training. Blocking the output of the AFP while training Bengalese finches to modify their songs prevented the gradual improvement that normally occurs in this complex skill during training. However, unblocking the output of the AFP after training caused an immediate transition from naive performance to excellent performance, indicating that the AFP covertly gained the ability to implement learned skill performance without contributing to skill practice. In contrast, inactivating the output nucleus of the AFP during training completely prevented learning, indicating that learning requires activity within the AFP during training. Our results suggest a revised model of skill learning: basal ganglia circuits can monitor the consequences of behavioural variation produced by other brain regions and then direct those brain regions to implement more successful behaviours. The ability of the AFP to identify successful performances generated by other brain regions indicates that basal ganglia circuits receive a detailed efference copy of premotor activity in those regions. The capacity of the AFP to implement successful performances that were initially produced by other brain regions indicates precise functional connections between basal ganglia circuits and the motor regions that directly control performance. PMID:22699618

  18. Multiple pigmented basal cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Shoji, T; Lee, J; Hong, S H; Oh, C H; Kim, W K; Bhawan, J

    1998-04-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common of all skin cancers and the most prevalent one among Caucasians. Rarely, these tumors are seen in other races. We report a 77-year-old Korean woman who presented with multiple darkly pigmented enlarging nodules on her scalp, face, trunk, and extremities. The patient had first noted a 6-mm pigmented lesion on her left eyebrow 10 years previously. Since then, other lesions had appeared in many locations on her body. She had been otherwise healthy and without a history of exposure to arsenic or radiation. There was no family history of skin cancer, xeroderma pigmentosum, or basal cell nevus syndrome. On physical examination, multiple darkly pigmented dome-shaped papules and nodules were present on her scalp, face, right forearm, lower abdomen, and inguinal areas. They ranged in size from 0.5 mm to 2 cm. The larger ones showed central ulceration. Multiple biopsy specimens from different sites showed pigmented basal cell carcinomas. Clinically, there was no evidence of nevus sebaceus, xeroderma pigmentosum, basal cell nevus syndrome, or immunodeficiency. Clinical workup including chest radiography, abdominal ultrasound, bone scan, and brain computerized axial tomography scan did not demonstrate primary or secondary tumors. The results of serologic and hematologic tests were also within normal limits. This is an unusual case report of multiple pigmented basal cell carcinomas in an Asian woman without any predisposing risk factors. PMID:9557792

  19. A descending dopamine pathway conserved from basal vertebrates to mammals

    PubMed Central

    Ryczko, Dimitri; Cone, Jackson J.; Alpert, Michael H.; Goetz, Laurent; Auclair, François; Dubé, Catherine; Parent, Martin; Roitman, Mitchell F.; Alford, Simon; Dubuc, Réjean

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine neurons are classically known to modulate locomotion indirectly through ascending projections to the basal ganglia that project down to brainstem locomotor networks. Their loss in Parkinson’s disease is devastating. In lampreys, we recently showed that brainstem networks also receive direct descending dopaminergic inputs that potentiate locomotor output. Here, we provide evidence that this descending dopaminergic pathway is conserved to higher vertebrates, including mammals. In salamanders, dopamine neurons projecting to the striatum or brainstem locomotor networks were partly intermingled. Stimulation of the dopaminergic region evoked dopamine release in brainstem locomotor networks and concurrent reticulospinal activity. In rats, some dopamine neurons projecting to the striatum also innervated the pedunculopontine nucleus, a known locomotor center, and stimulation of the dopaminergic region evoked pedunculopontine dopamine release in vivo. Finally, we found dopaminergic fibers in the human pedunculopontine nucleus. The conservation of a descending dopaminergic pathway across vertebrates warrants re-evaluating dopamine’s role in locomotion. PMID:27071118

  20. A descending dopamine pathway conserved from basal vertebrates to mammals.

    PubMed

    Ryczko, Dimitri; Cone, Jackson J; Alpert, Michael H; Goetz, Laurent; Auclair, François; Dubé, Catherine; Parent, Martin; Roitman, Mitchell F; Alford, Simon; Dubuc, Réjean

    2016-04-26

    Dopamine neurons are classically known to modulate locomotion indirectly through ascending projections to the basal ganglia that project down to brainstem locomotor networks. Their loss in Parkinson's disease is devastating. In lampreys, we recently showed that brainstem networks also receive direct descending dopaminergic inputs that potentiate locomotor output. Here, we provide evidence that this descending dopaminergic pathway is conserved to higher vertebrates, including mammals. In salamanders, dopamine neurons projecting to the striatum or brainstem locomotor networks were partly intermingled. Stimulation of the dopaminergic region evoked dopamine release in brainstem locomotor networks and concurrent reticulospinal activity. In rats, some dopamine neurons projecting to the striatum also innervated the pedunculopontine nucleus, a known locomotor center, and stimulation of the dopaminergic region evoked pedunculopontine dopamine release in vivo. Finally, we found dopaminergic fibers in the human pedunculopontine nucleus. The conservation of a descending dopaminergic pathway across vertebrates warrants re-evaluating dopamine's role in locomotion. PMID:27071118

  1. Mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic neurotensin systems

    PubMed Central

    German, Christopher L.; Hoonakker, Amanda H.; Fleckenstein, Annette E.; Hanson, Glen R.

    2014-01-01

    Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) is a synthetic cathinone designer drug that alters presynaptic dopamine (DA) activity like many psychostimulants. However, little is known about the postsynaptic dopaminergic impacts of mephedrone. The neuropeptide neurotensin (NT) provides inhibitory feedback for basal ganglia and limbic DA pathways, and postsynaptic D1-like and D2-like receptor activity affects NT tissue levels. This study evaluated how mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic system NT content and the role of NT receptor activation in drug consumption behavior. Four 25 mg/kg injections of mephedrone increased NT content in basal ganglia (striatum, substantia nigra and globus pallidus) and the limbic regions (nucleus accumbens core), while a lower dosage (5 mg/kg/injection) only increased striatal NT content. Mephedrone-induced increases in basal ganglia NT levels were mediated by D1-like receptors in the striatum and the substantia nigra by both D1-like and D2-like receptors in the globus pallidus. Mephedrone increased substance P content, another neuropeptide, in the globus pallidus, but not in the dorsal striatum or substantia nigra. Finally, the NT receptor agonist PD149163 blocked mephedrone self-administration, suggesting reduced NT release, as indicated by increased tissue levels, likely contributing to patterns of mephedrone consumption. PMID:24678634

  2. [Parkinson's disease and cortico-Basal Ganglia circuits].

    PubMed

    Pan, Ming-Kai; Tai, Chun-Hwei; Kuo, Chung-Chin

    2010-09-01

    Cortico-basal ganglia circuit model has been studied extensively after it was first proposed by Alexander and Crutcher in 1990. This model accurately predicted the hyperactivity of indirect pathway and subthalamic nucleus(STN) in the dopamine deficiency state of Parkinson's disease (PD), prompting the experimental approaches of lesioning STN in parkinsonian primates. Application of these successful experiences with STN lesions in the reversal of parkinsonian symptoms to human PD patients facilitates the development of STN deep brain stimulation (DBS), which has become one of the most important therapies for PD in recent years. Although the classical model of the cortico-basal ganglia circuits by Alexander and Crutcher has provided many important insights into the basal ganglia function, the functional role of cortico-subthalamic "hyperdirect" pathway in the circuits has been relatively neglected. The first part of this article summarizes recent development concerning the cortico-basal ganglia circuits, especially emphasizing the importance of the hyperdirect pathway. In the second part of this article, we would describe the analyses of gross corticobasal ganglia circuit electrophysiological findings, especially emphasizing the coherence between two oscillating signals. We would also discuss the correlation between these parameters and the motor dysfunction, and its pathophysiological implications in PD. PMID:20824544

  3. Homology of the Fifth Epibranchial and Accessory Elements of the Ceratobranchials among Gnathostomes: Insights from the Development of Ostariophysans

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Murilo; Bockmann, Flávio Alicino; de Carvalho, Marcelo Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Epibranchials are among the main dorsal elements of the gill basket in jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata). Among extant fishes, chondrichthyans most resemble the putative ancestral condition as all branchial arches possess every serially homologous piece. In osteichthyans, a primitive rod-like epibranchial 5, articulated to ceratobranchial 5, is absent. Instead, epibranchial 5 of many actinopterygians is here identified as an accessory element attached to ceratobranchial 4. Differences in shape and attachment of epibranchial 5 in chondrichthyans and actinopterygians raised suspicions about their homology, prompting us to conduct a detailed study of the morphology and development of the branchial basket of three ostariophysans (Prochilodus argenteus, Characiformes; Lophiosilurus alexandri and Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, Siluriformes). Results were interpreted within a phylogenetic context of major gnathostome lineages. Developmental series strongly suggest that the so-called epibranchial 5 of actinopterygians does not belong to the epal series because it shares the same chondroblastic layer with ceratobranchial 4 and its ontogenetic emergence is considerably late. This neomorphic structure is called accessory element of ceratobranchial 4. Its distribution among gnathostomes indicates it is a teleost synapomorphy, occurring homoplastically in Polypteriformes, whereas the loss of the true epibranchial 5 is an osteichthyan synapomorphy. The origin of the accessory element of ceratobranchial 4 appears to have occurred twice in osteichthyans, but it may have a single origin; in this case, the accessory element of ceratobranchial 4 would represent a remnant of a series of elements distally attached to ceratobranchials 1–4, a condition totally or partially retained in basal actinopterygians. Situations wherein a structure is lost while a similar neomorphic element is present may lead to erroneous homology assessments; these can be avoided by detailed morphological and

  4. Understanding Parkinsonian handwriting through a computational model of basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Gangadhar, Garipelli; Joseph, Denny; Chakravarthy, V Srinivasa

    2008-10-01

    Handwriting in Parkinson's disease (PD) is typically characterized by micrographia, jagged line contour, and unusual fluctuations in pen tip velocity. Although PD handwriting features have been used for diagnostics, they are not based on a signaling model of basal ganglia (BG). In this letter, we present a computational model of handwriting generation that highlights the role of BG. When PD conditions like reduced dopamine and altered dynamics of the subthalamic nucleus and globus pallidus externa subsystems are simulated, the handwriting produced by the model manifested characteristic PD handwriting distortions like micrographia and velocity fluctuations. Our approach to PD modeling is in tune with the perspective that PD is a dynamic disease. PMID:18386983

  5. The nucleus basalis in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Clark, A W; Parhad, I M; Folstein, S E; Whitehouse, P J; Hedreen, J C; Price, D L; Chase, G A

    1983-10-01

    The nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM) provides most of the cholinergic input to the cerebral cortex. The loss of cortical choline acetyltransferase (CAT) activity in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and senile dementia of the Alzheimer's type (SDAT) appears to be related to a severe depopulation of the nbM in this dementia. In Huntington's disease (HD), by contrast, there is no loss of cortical CAT activity. The present quantitative study indicates that (1) there is no significant loss of neurons from the nbM in HD, and (2) that the previously described cytologic changes in the neurons of this nucleus in HD patients do not differ significantly from controls. These findings are consistent with the working hypothesis that the types of dementia associated with reductions of neocortical CAT activity are characterized by dysfunction or death of neurons in the nbM, but dementing disorders with normal neocortical CAT activity manifest no major abnormalities in this cholinergic nucleus of the basal forebrain. PMID:6225032

  6. Kaon-nucleus scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Byungsik; Maung, Khin Maung; Wilson, John W.; Buck, Warren W.

    1989-01-01

    The derivations of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation and Watson multiple scattering are given. A simple optical potential is found to be the first term of that series. The number density distribution models of the nucleus, harmonic well, and Woods-Saxon are used without t-matrix taken from the scattering experiments. The parameterized two-body inputs, which are kaon-nucleon total cross sections, elastic slope parameters, and the ratio of the real to the imaginary part of the forward elastic scattering amplitude, are presented. The eikonal approximation was chosen as our solution method to estimate the total and absorptive cross sections for the kaon-nucleus scattering.

  7. Convergence of the nucleus-nucleus Glauber multiple scattering series

    SciTech Connect

    Usmani, A.A.; Ahmad, I. )

    1991-05-01

    The Glauber {ital S}-matrix operator for nucleus-nucleus scattering is expressed as a finite series of matrix elements involving Bell's polynomials. Analyzing {alpha}{sup 4}He elastic-scattering data at the incident momentum of 4.32 GeV/{ital c}, we infer that our expansion is appreciably converging. Further, by applying closure over target and projectile states and neglecting a certain class of terms involving intermediate excitations, we arrive at a recurrence relation for nucleus-nucleus multiple scattering series terms, which invites further study as it seems to provide a simple method for calculating the nucleus-nucleus elastic-scattering cross section.

  8. Basal cell carcinoma – diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Bowszyc-Dmochowska, Monika; Strzelecka-Węklar, Daria; Dańczak-Pazdrowska, Aleksandra; Adamski, Zygmunt

    2013-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer in the Caucasian population. The cancer arises in sun exposed areas of the skin. The incidence of morbidity is high and it is still growing. The metastatic rate is low, but the enlarging tumor may cause severe tissue disfigurement and a poor cosmetic outcome. The diagnosis is usually clinical but there are many subtypes of this carcinoma and correct diagnosis is the clue to appropriate treatment of the lesion. The main problem in basal cell carcinoma management is the high recurrence rate. PMID:24592119

  9. Nucleus Course in Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiyama, Nobuo; Flamm, Carol S.

    The "Nucleus Course in Japanese," based on the Institute of Modern Languages'"Situational Reinforcement" approach, is designed for 80 to 100 hours of instruction. Each lesson has several sections--Response drills, Appropriate Response Sequence, and Reading. Most of the lessons also include optional sections with Sentences for Repetition or a…

  10. Cell nucleus in context

    SciTech Connect

    Lelievre, Sophie A.; Bissell, Mina J.; Pujuguet, Philippe

    1999-11-11

    The molecular pathways that participate in regulation of gene expression are being progressively unraveled. Extracellular signals, including the binding of extracellular matrix and soluble molecules to cell membrane receptors, activate specific signal transducers that convey information inside the cell and can alter gene products. Some of these transducers when translocated to the cell nucleus may bind to transcription complexes and thereby modify the transcriptional activity of specific genes. However, the basic molecules involved in the regulation of gene expression are found in many different cell and tissue types; thus the mechanisms underlying tissue-specific gene expression are still obscure. In this review, we focus on the study of signals that are conveyed to the nucleus. We propose that the way in which extracellular signals are integrated may account for tissue-specific gene expression. We argue that the integration of signals depends on the structural organization of cells ( i.e., extracellular matrix, cell membrane, cytoskeleton, nucleus) which a particular cell type within a tissue. Putting the nuclei in context allows us to envision gene expression as being regulated not only by the communication between the extracellular environment and the nucleus, but also by the influence of organized assemblies of cells on extracellular-nuclear communications.

  11. Teachers Reflect Standards in Basals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Dozens of teachers and literacy specialists from across the country hunkered down in Baltimore at round tables, with laptops, pens, and paper, intent on rewriting the collections that wield tremendous influence over the way millions of U.S. children learn literacy skills: the big-name basal readers. Hailing from 18 school districts in 11 states,…

  12. Onset of deconfinement in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Gazdzicki, M.; Gorenstein, M. I.; Seyboth, P.

    2012-05-15

    The energy dependence of hadron production in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions reveals anomalies-the kink, horn, and step. They were predicted as signals of the deconfinement phase transition and observed by the NA49 Collaboration in central PbPb collisions at the CERN SPS. This indicates the onset of the deconfinement in nucleus-nucleus collisions at about 30 A GeV.

  13. Extensive Direct Subcortical Cerebellum-Basal Ganglia Connections in Human Brain as Revealed by Constrained Spherical Deconvolution Tractography

    PubMed Central

    Milardi, Demetrio; Arrigo, Alessandro; Anastasi, Giuseppe; Cacciola, Alberto; Marino, Silvia; Mormina, Enricomaria; Calamuneri, Alessandro; Bruschetta, Daniele; Cutroneo, Giuseppina; Trimarchi, Fabio; Quartarone, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    The connections between the cerebellum and basal ganglia were assumed to occur at the level of neocortex. However evidences from animal data have challenged this old perspective showing extensive subcortical pathways linking the cerebellum with the basal ganglia. Here we tested the hypothesis if these connections also exist between the cerebellum and basal ganglia in the human brain by using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging and tractography. Fifteen healthy subjects were analyzed by using constrained spherical deconvolution technique obtained with a 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner. We found extensive connections running between the subthalamic nucleus and cerebellar cortex and, as novel result, we demonstrated a direct route linking the dentate nucleus to the internal globus pallidus as well as to the substantia nigra. These findings may open a new scenario on the interpretation of basal ganglia disorders. PMID:27047348

  14. Extensive Direct Subcortical Cerebellum-Basal Ganglia Connections in Human Brain as Revealed by Constrained Spherical Deconvolution Tractography.

    PubMed

    Milardi, Demetrio; Arrigo, Alessandro; Anastasi, Giuseppe; Cacciola, Alberto; Marino, Silvia; Mormina, Enricomaria; Calamuneri, Alessandro; Bruschetta, Daniele; Cutroneo, Giuseppina; Trimarchi, Fabio; Quartarone, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    The connections between the cerebellum and basal ganglia were assumed to occur at the level of neocortex. However evidences from animal data have challenged this old perspective showing extensive subcortical pathways linking the cerebellum with the basal ganglia. Here we tested the hypothesis if these connections also exist between the cerebellum and basal ganglia in the human brain by using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging and tractography. Fifteen healthy subjects were analyzed by using constrained spherical deconvolution technique obtained with a 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner. We found extensive connections running between the subthalamic nucleus and cerebellar cortex and, as novel result, we demonstrated a direct route linking the dentate nucleus to the internal globus pallidus as well as to the substantia nigra. These findings may open a new scenario on the interpretation of basal ganglia disorders. PMID:27047348

  15. [The role of the nucleus accumbens in psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Mavridis, I

    2015-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens is the most inferior part of the striatum and is mainly connected to the limbic system. It is neurochemically and immunohistochemically divided into a shell laterally and a core medially. As a functionally central structure between amygdala, basal ganglia, mesolimbic dopaminergic regions, mediodorsal thalamus and prefrontal cortex, the nucleus accumbens appears to play a modulative role in the flow of the information from the amygdaloid complex to these regions. Dopamine is a major neurotransmitter of the nucleus accumbens and this nucleus has a modulative function to the amygdala-basal ganglia-prefrontal cortex circuit. Together with the prefrontal cortex and amygdala, nucleus accumbens consists a part of the cerebral circuit which regulates functions associated with effort. It is anatomically located in a unique way to serve emotional and behavioral components of feelings. It is considered as a neural interface between motivation and action, having a key-role in food intake, sexual behavior, reward-motivated behavior, stress-related behavior and substance-dependence. It is involved in several cognitive, emotional and psychomotor functions, altered in some psychopathology. Moreover it is involved in some of the commonest and most severe psychiatric disorders, such as depression, schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder and other anxiety disorders, as well as in addiction, including drugs abuse, alcoholism and smoking. Nucleus accumbens has also a role in other psychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorder, attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. Because of its rich dopaminergic projections, this nucleus has been subject of many studies in animals as well as in humans, connecting its malfunction with the disturbed reward process observed in depression. Neuromodulation interventions targeting the nucleus accumbens are nowadays applied in strictly selected patients suffering from treatment

  16. Proton Nucleus Elastic Scattering Data.

    1993-08-18

    Version 00 The Proton Nucleus Elastic Scattering Data file PNESD contains the numerical data and the related bibliography for the differential elastic cross sections, polarization and integral nonelastic cross sections for elastic proton-nucleus scattering.

  17. Bilateral basal ganglia activation associated with sensorimotor adaptation.

    PubMed

    Seidler, R D; Noll, D C; Chintalapati, P

    2006-11-01

    Sensorimotor adaptation tasks can be classified into two types. When subjects adapt movements to visual feedback perturbations such as in prism lens adaptation, they perform kinematic adaptations. When subjects adapt movements to force field perturbations such as with robotic manipulanda, they perform kinetic adaptations. Neuroimaging studies have shown basal ganglia involvement in kinetic adaptations, but have found little evidence of basal ganglia involvement in kinematic adaptations, despite reports of deficits in patients with diseases of the basal ganglia, such as Parkinson's and Huntington's disease, in these. In an effort to resolve such apparent discrepancy, we used FMRI to focus on the first few minutes of practice during kinematic adaptation. Human subjects adapted to visuomotor rotations in the context of a joystick aiming task while lying supine in a 3.0 T MRI scanner. As demonstrated previously, early adaptive processes were associated with BOLD activation in the cerebellum and the sensory and motor cortical regions. A novel finding of this study was bilateral basal ganglia activation. This suggests that, at least for early learning, the neural correlates of kinematic adaptation parallel those of other types of skill learning. We observed activation in the right globus pallidus and putamen, along with the right prefrontal, premotor and parietal cortex, which may support spatial cognitive processes of adaptation. We also observed activation in the left globus pallidus and caudate nucleus, along with the left premotor and supplementary motor cortex, which may support the sensorimotor processes of adaptation. These results are the first to demonstrate a clear involvement of basal ganglia activation in this type of kinematic motor adaptation. PMID:16794848

  18. Chloral hydrate alters the organization of the ciliary basal apparatus and cell organelles in sea urchin embryos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarti, A.; Schatten, H.; Mitchell, K. D.; Crosser, M.; Taylor, M.

    1998-01-01

    The mitotic inhibitor, chloral hydrate, induces ciliary loss in the early embryo phase of Lytechinus pictus. It causes a breakdown of cilia at the junction of the cilium and the basal body known as the basal plate. This leaves the plasma membrane temporarily unsealed. The basal apparatus accessory structures, consisting of the basal body, basal foot, basal foot cap, striated side arm, and striated rootlet, are either misaligned or disintegrated by treatment with chloral hydrate. Furthermore, microtubules which are associated with the basal apparatus are disassembled. Mitochondria accumulate at the base of cilia - underneath the plasma membrane - and show alterations in their structural organization. The accumulation of mitochondria is observed in 40% of all electron micrograph sections while 60% show the areas mostly devoid of mitochondria. The microvilli surrounding a cilium and striated rootlet remain intact in the presence of chloral hydrate. These results suggest that deciliation in early sea urchin embryos by chloral hydrate is caused by combined effects on the ciliary membrane and on microtubules in the cilia. Furthermore, it is suggested that chloral hydrate can serve as a tool to explore the cytoskeletal mechanisms that are involved in cilia motility in the developing sea urchin embryo.

  19. A Critical Role for the GluA1 Accessory Protein, SAP97, in Cocaine Seeking.

    PubMed

    White, Samantha L; Ortinski, Pavel I; Friedman, Shayna H; Zhang, Lei; Neve, Rachael L; Kalb, Robert G; Schmidt, Heath D; Pierce, R Christopher

    2016-02-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that the transport of GluA1 subunit-containing calcium-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) to synapses in subregions of the nucleus accumbens promotes cocaine seeking. Consistent with these findings, the present results show that administration of the CP-AMPAR antagonist, Naspm, into the caudal lateral core or caudal medial shell of the nucleus accumbens attenuated cocaine priming-induced reinstatement of drug seeking. Moreover, viral-mediated overexpression of 'pore dead' GluA1 subunits (via herpes simplex virus (HSV) GluA1-Q582E) in the lateral core or medial shell attenuated the reinstatement of cocaine seeking. The overexpression of wild-type GluA1 subunits (via HSV GluA1-WT) in the medial shell, but not the lateral core, enhanced the reinstatement of cocaine seeking. These results indicate that activation of GluA1-containing AMPARs in subregions of the nucleus accumbens reinstates cocaine seeking. SAP97 and 4.1N are proteins involved in GluA1 trafficking to and stabilization in synapses; SAP97-GluA1 interactions also influence dendritic growth. We next examined potential roles of SAP97 and 4.1N in cocaine seeking. Viral-mediated expression of a microRNA that reduces SAP97 protein expression (HSV miSAP97) in the medial accumbens shell attenuated cocaine seeking. In contrast, a virus that overexpressed a dominant-negative form of a 4.1N C-terminal domain (HSV 4.1N-CTD), which prevents endogenous 4.1N binding to GluA1 subunits, had no effect on cocaine seeking. These results indicate that the GluA1 subunit accessory protein SAP97 may represent a novel target for pharmacotherapeutic intervention in the treatment of cocaine craving. PMID:26149358

  20. Stoma appliances and accessories: getting it right for the patient.

    PubMed

    Burch, Jennie

    This article will examine some of the appliances and accessories that can be used to care for a stoma. There are three types of stoma that can be surgically formed and each will be discussed. Furthermore, there will be brief explanations of why stomas might be formed and what the output from each stoma type will be. Complications are associated with stomas, such as sore skin, which is commonly seen within the first few months after the stoma is formed. This important topic is examined and some of the accessories that can be used to treat these issues will be explored. To aid the reader to undertake their own research on the topic, the websites from some of the stoma manufacturers are included. These websites contain more details about appliances, accessories and information for people with a stoma that can be of benefit to nurses too. PMID:25251316

  1. Accessory Pancreatic Duct Patterns and Their Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Prasanna, Lokadolalu Chandracharya; Rajagopal, KV; Thomas, Huban R

    2015-01-01

    Context and Objective: Accessory pancreatic duct (APD) designed to reduce the pressure of major pancreatic duct by forming a secondary drainage channel. Few studies have mentioned the variant types of accessory ducts and their mode of formation, some of these have a clear clinical significance. Present study is aimed to evaluate the possible variations in the APD and its terminations. Materials and Methods: Forty formalin fixed adult human pancreas with duodenum in situ specimens were studied by injecting 1% aqueous eosin, followed by piece meal dissection of the head of the pancreas from posterior surface. Formation, tributaries, relations, and the termination of the accessory pancreatic duct were noted and photographed. Results: Accessory ducts revealed 50% belonged to long type, 22.5% were of short and ansa pancreatica type each, and embryonic type of duct pattern was seen in 5% specimens. 75% of long type ducts showed positive patency with eosin dye, followed by ansa type (44.4%), and least patency was found in short type (22.2%). With regard to the patency of the accessory pancreatic ducts towards their termination, we found 52.5% of the accessory ducts and 5% of the embryonic type pancreatic ducts were patent and in 42.5% of the specimen the ducts were obliterated. In 85% of specimens the minor duodenal papillae was anterosuperior to the major papilla and superior to the major papillae in 10% of the cases, and in 5% minor papillae was absent. The average distance between the two papillae was 2.35 cm. Conclusion: The knowledge of the complex anatomical relations of the gland with its duct, duodenum and bile ducts are essential for the surgeons and sinologists to plan and perform both the diagnostic as well as therapeutic procedures effectively. PMID:25954609

  2. Accessory diaphragm associated with non-immune hydrops fetalis

    PubMed Central

    Priyadarshi, Archana; Sugo, Ella; Challis, Daniel; Bolisetty, Srinivas

    2014-01-01

    An accessory diaphragm, also known as diaphragmatic duplication, is a congenital anomaly in which there is a fibromuscular membrane on top of the normally formed diaphragm dividing the hemithorax into two compartments trapping part of the pulmonary parenchyma. It is a very rare anomaly with less than 40 cases reported in the literature, of which only five were diagnosed in the newborn period, with no reports on any clinical clues for the antenatal diagnosis of this condition. We describe a case of congenital accessory diaphragm presenting in the antenatal period as hydrops fetalis. We also describe the radiological features of this rare anomaly on the antenatal fetal ultrasound. PMID:25100808

  3. Atypical accessory intraparietal sutures mimicking complex fractures in a neonate.

    PubMed

    Eklund, Meryle J; Carver, Keith C; Stalcup, Seth T; Riemer, Ellen C; Taylor, Michael A; Hill, Jeanne G

    2016-01-01

    Partial or complete division of the parietal bones resulting in anomalous cranial sutures is a rare entity and may raise concern for fracture and potential abuse when identified on radiological examination in young children. We present a case of a 4-week-old male found to have anomalous intraparietal sutures originally interpreted as fractures during a comprehensive evaluation for nonaccidental trauma. Our goal is to raise awareness of a complex branching pattern of accessory intraparietal sutures, which has not been previously described. Additionally, we will review the characteristics that aid in the radiologic differentiation of accessory cranial sutures and fractures. PMID:27130985

  4. Activated Acinus boosts basal autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, Nilay; Tyra, Lauren K; Krämer, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Acinus (Acn) is a nuclear protein that participates in the regulation of autophagy. Loss of Acn function prevents autophagy in starving cells. Conversely, Acn activation induces basal autophagy. This enhances the quality control functions of autophagy such as the removal of misfolded proteins, thereby reducing neurodegeneration and prolonging lifespan. Acn activity is enhanced by Akt1-mediated phosphorylation, which counteracts the cleavage of Acn by a caspase-3 homolog. PMID:27308482

  5. Basal body structure in Trichonympha.

    PubMed

    Guichard, Paul; Gönczy, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Trichonympha is a symbiotic flagellate of many species of termites and of the wood-feeding cockroach. Remarkably, this unicellular organism harbors up to over ten thousand flagella on its surface, which serve to propel it through the viscous environment of the host hindgut. In the 1960s, analysis of resin-embedded Trichonympha samples by electron microscopy revealed that the basal bodies that give rise to these flagella are exceptionally long, with a proximal, cartwheel-bearing, region some 50 times longer than that of regular centrioles. In recent years, this salient feature has prompted the analysis of the 3D architecture of Trichonympha basal bodies in the native state using cryo-electron tomography. The resulting ~40 Å resolution map of the basal body proximal region revealed a number of novel features that may be conserved in centrioles of other systems. These include proximal-distal polarity of the pinhead structure that links the cartwheel to centriolar microtubules, as well as of the linker between the A and the C microtubules. Moreover, this work demonstrated that the cartwheel is made of stacked ring-like structures that likely each comprise 18 molecules of SAS-6 proteins. PMID:26937279

  6. Evidence for a glutamatergic projection from the zona incerta to the basal ganglia of rats.

    PubMed

    Heise, Claire E; Mitrofanis, John

    2004-01-19

    This study explores the organisation and neurochemical nature of the projections from the zona incerta (ZI) to the basal ganglia. Sprague-Dawley rats were anaesthetised with ketamine (100 mg/kg) and Rompun (10 mg/kg), and injections of cholera toxin subunit B were made into each of the following nuclei: the ZI, the substantia nigra (SN), the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PpT), and the entopeduncular nucleus (Ep). Brains were aldehyde fixed, sectioned, and processed using standard methods. Tracer-labelled sections were then doubly labelled with antibodies to glutamate (Glu), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), parvalbumin (Pv), or glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD; the latter two are markers for GABAergic cells); these neurochemicals characterise most types of ZI cells. After ZI injections, labelling was nonuniform across the different basal ganglia nuclei. The bulk of labelling, both anterograde and retrograde, was seen in the SN and PpT and, to a lesser extent, within the other nuclei of the basal ganglia (e.g., caudate-putamen, globus pallidus, subthalamus, Ep). In the SN, labelling was found in both major parts of the nucleus, the pars compacta and pars reticulata. Within the PpT, however, the bulk of labelling was limited to only one of the two sectors of the nucleus, namely, the pars dissipata (PpTd). The pars compacta of the PpT (PpTc) remained largely free of labelled profiles. After CTb injections into three basal ganglia nuclei (SN, PpT, Ep), most labelled cells in the ZI were glutamate+ and very few were NOS+ or gamma-aminobutyric acidergic. Overall, the results indicate that the ZI is in a position to influence preferentially the activity of the SN and PpTd of the basal ganglia via an excitatory, glutamatergic input. PMID:14689481

  7. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction.... Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of...

  8. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction.... Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of...

  9. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction.... Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of...

  10. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction.... Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of...

  11. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction.... Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of...

  12. 77 FR 15390 - Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Notice of Request for Statements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Notice of Request for Statements on... covering handbags, luggage, accessories, and packaging thereof that infringe U.S. Trademark...

  13. Parallel basal ganglia circuits for voluntary and automatic behaviour to reach rewards.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoung F; Hikosaka, Okihide

    2015-07-01

    The basal ganglia control body movements, value processing and decision-making. Many studies have shown that the inputs and outputs of each basal ganglia structure are topographically organized, which suggests that the basal ganglia consist of separate circuits that serve distinct functions. A notable example is the circuits that originate from the rostral (head) and caudal (tail) regions of the caudate nucleus, both of which target the superior colliculus. These two caudate regions encode the reward values of visual objects differently: flexible (short-term) values by the caudate head and stable (long-term) values by the caudate tail. These value signals in the caudate guide the orienting of gaze differently: voluntary saccades by the caudate head circuit and automatic saccades by the caudate tail circuit. Moreover, separate groups of dopamine neurons innervate the caudate head and tail and may selectively guide the flexible and stable learning/memory in the caudate regions. Studies focusing on manual handling of objects also suggest that rostrocaudally separated circuits in the basal ganglia control the action differently. These results suggest that the basal ganglia contain parallel circuits for two steps of goal-directed behaviour: finding valuable objects and manipulating the valuable objects. These parallel circuits may underlie voluntary behaviour and automatic skills, enabling animals (including humans) to adapt to both volatile and stable environments. This understanding of the functions and mechanisms of the basal ganglia parallel circuits may inform the differential diagnosis and treatment of basal ganglia disorders. PMID:25981958

  14. A direct GABAergic output from the basal ganglia to frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Arpiar; Oldenburg, Ian A; Berezovskii, Vladimir K; Johnson, Caroline A; Kingery, Nathan D; Elliott, Hunter L; Xie, Tiao; Gerfen, Charles R; Sabatini, Bernardo L

    2015-05-01

    The basal ganglia are phylogenetically conserved subcortical nuclei necessary for coordinated motor action and reward learning. Current models postulate that the basal ganglia modulate cerebral cortex indirectly via an inhibitory output to thalamus, bidirectionally controlled by direct- and indirect-pathway striatal projection neurons (dSPNs and iSPNs, respectively). The basal ganglia thalamic output sculpts cortical activity by interacting with signals from sensory and motor systems. Here we describe a direct projection from the globus pallidus externus (GP), a central nucleus of the basal ganglia, to frontal regions of the cerebral cortex (FC). Two cell types make up the GP-FC projection, distinguished by their electrophysiological properties, cortical projections and expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), a synthetic enzyme for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh). Despite these differences, ChAT(+) cells, which have been historically identified as an extension of the nucleus basalis, as well as ChAT(-) cells, release the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) and are inhibited by iSPNs and dSPNs of dorsal striatum. Thus, GP-FC cells comprise a direct GABAergic/cholinergic projection under the control of striatum that activates frontal cortex in vivo. Furthermore, iSPN inhibition of GP-FC cells is sensitive to dopamine 2 receptor signalling, revealing a pathway by which drugs that target dopamine receptors for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders can act in the basal ganglia to modulate frontal cortices. PMID:25739505

  15. Antidromic Atrioventricular Reciprocating Tachycardia Using a Concealed Retrograde Conducting Left Lateral Accessory Pathway.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Jaime E; Zipse, Matthew M; Nguyen, Duy T; Sauer, William H

    2016-03-01

    Atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia is a common cause of undifferentiated supraventricular tachycardia. In patients with manifest or concealed accessory pathways, it is imperative to assess for the presence of other accessory pathways. Multiple accessory pathways are present in 4% to 10% of patients and are more common in patients with structural heart disease. In rare cases, multiple accessory pathways can act as the anterograde and retrograde limbs of the tachycardia. PMID:26920167

  16. Analytic optical potentials for nucleon-nucleus nucleus-nucleus collisions involving light and medium nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bidasaria, H. B.; Townsend, L. W.

    1982-01-01

    Utilizing an optical model potential approximation to the exact nucleus-nucleus multiple-scattering series, optical potentials for nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions are analytically derived. These expressions are applicable to light and medium cosmic ray nuclei as their single-particle density distributions are analytically determined, without approximation, from their actual harmonic well charge density distributions. Pauli correlation effects are included through the use of a simple Gaussian function to replace the usual expression obtained in the infinite nuclear matter approximation.

  17. Increased R2* in the Caudate Nucleus of Asymptomatic Welders.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Young; Flynn, Michael R; Du, Guangwei; Li, Yunqing; Lewis, Mechelle M; Herring, Amy H; Van Buren, Eric; Van Buren, Scott; Kong, Lan; Fry, Rebecca C; Snyder, Amanda M; Connor, James R; Yang, Qing X; Mailman, Richard B; Huang, Xuemei

    2016-04-01

    Welding has been associated with neurobehavioral disorders. Welding fumes contain several metals including copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and iron (Fe) that may interact to influence welding-related neurotoxicity. Although welding-related airborne Fe levels are about 10-fold higher than Mn, previous studies have focused on Mn and its accumulation in the basal ganglia. This study examined differences in the apparent transverse relaxation rates [R2* (1/T2*), estimate of Fe accumulation] in the basal ganglia (caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus) between welders and controls, and the dose-response relationship between estimated Fe exposure and R2* values. Occupational questionnaires estimated recent and lifetime Fe exposure, and blood Fe levels and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were obtained. Complete exposure and MRI R2* and R1 (1/T1: measure to estimate Mn accumulation) data from 42 subjects with welding exposure and 29 controls were analyzed. Welders had significantly greater exposure metrics and higher whole-blood Fe levels compared with controls. R2* in the caudate nucleus was significantly higher in welders after controlling for age, body mass index, respirator use, caudate R1, and blood metals of Cu and Mn, whereas there was no difference in R1 values in the basal ganglia between groups. The R2* in the caudate nucleus was positively correlated with whole-blood Fe concentration. This study provides the first evidence of higher R2* in the caudate nucleus of welders, which is suggestive of increased Fe accumulation in this area. Further studies are needed to replicate the findings and determine the neurobehavioral relevance. PMID:26769335

  18. [REM sleep modulation by non-GABAergic neurons of the hypothalamus and basal forebrain].

    PubMed

    Reinoso Suárez, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    The ventral part of the oral pontine reticular nucleus (vRPO) is a demonstrated site of brainstem REM-sleep generation and maintenance. The vRPO has reciprocal connections with structures that control other states of the sleep-wakefulness cycle, many situated in the basal forebrain and the diencephalon. The aim of the present revision is to map, using the results described in previous publications of our group, the local origin of the basal forebrain and hypothalamus non-GABAergic projections to the vRPO, and specially the contribution of the hypothalamic neurons positive to hypocretin/orexin (H/O) peptides. I summarize non-GABAergic projections to the vRPO from the: ipsilateral central amygdaline nucleus and the stria terminalis bed nuclei, bilateral projections, but most abundant in the ipsilateral side, from the median preoptic nucleus, medial and lateral preoptic areas, abundant from the zona incerta and dorsal, lateral, posterior and perifornical hypothalamic areas. Very abundant bilateral projections of H/O neurons to the vRPO are described, expressive of the important modulation exerted by these neurons on the vRPO nucleus. I discuss the functional significance of the above results and the corresponding mechanisms, supported by physiological and ultrastructural results of our group. Based on the connections and action mechanisms of H/O neurons on the vRPO, which produce the decreased activity of neurons in this nucleus and, therefore, inhibition of REM sleep, I reflect briefly on narcolepsy pathophysiology. PMID:21877412

  19. Discourse Types in Canadian Basal Reading Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Sharon

    This study examined the authorship and discourse types of Canadian basal anthologies to determine whether the lingering centrality of the basal anthology in Canadian programs controls students and teachers by controlling language and reading. Each selection within five Canadian basal series (Gage Expressways II, Ginn Journeys, Holt Impressions,…

  20. The subthalamic nucleus exerts opposite control on cocaine and 'natural' rewards.

    PubMed

    Baunez, Christelle; Dias, Carine; Cador, Martine; Amalric, Marianne

    2005-04-01

    A challenge in treating drug addicts is preventing their pathological motivation for the drug without impairing their general affective state toward natural reinforcers. Here we have shown that discrete lesions of the subthalamic nucleus greatly decreased the motivation of rats for cocaine while increasing it for food reward. The subthalamic nucleus, a key structure controlling basal ganglia outputs, is therefore able to oppositely modulate the effect of 'natural' rewards and drugs of abuse on behavior. Modulating the activity of the subthalamic nucleus might prove to be a new target for the treatment of cocaine addiction. PMID:15793577

  1. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. 890.3025 Section 890.3025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices §...

  2. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. 890.3025 Section 890.3025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices §...

  3. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. 890.3025 Section 890.3025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices §...

  4. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. 890.3025 Section 890.3025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices §...

  5. 21 CFR 874.4720 - Mediastinoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mediastinoscope and accessories. 874.4720 Section 874.4720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4720 Mediastinoscope...

  6. 21 CFR 874.4720 - Mediastinoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mediastinoscope and accessories. 874.4720 Section 874.4720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4720 Mediastinoscope...

  7. 21 CFR 874.4720 - Mediastinoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mediastinoscope and accessories. 874.4720 Section 874.4720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4720 Mediastinoscope...

  8. 21 CFR 874.4720 - Mediastinoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mediastinoscope and accessories. 874.4720 Section 874.4720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4720 Mediastinoscope...

  9. 21 CFR 874.4720 - Mediastinoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mediastinoscope and accessories. 874.4720 Section 874.4720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4720 Mediastinoscope...

  10. Electrophysiological action of bepridil on atrioventricular accessory pathways.

    PubMed Central

    Touboul, P; Atallah, G; Kirkorian, G; Lavaud, P; Kieny, J R; Mathieu, M P; Dellinger, A

    1987-01-01

    The electrophysiologic properties of bepridil, a calcium channel blocker with additional effects on fast response tissues, were investigated in 10 patients with atrioventricular accessory pathways. Seven patients had Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, and three had concealed atrioventricular pre-excitation. A dose of 4 mg/kg was administered intravenously over five minutes. Bepridil increased the AH interval and the functional refractory period of the atrioventricular node. The effective refractory periods of the right atrium and right ventricle were also increased. Bepridil prolonged refractoriness in the accessory pathway both in the anterograde and retrograde direction. After bepridil administration it was impossible to induce reciprocating tachycardia electrically in two patients because of conduction block in the normal pathway. On the other hand, the zone of tachycardia was often increased after bepridil. Nevertheless, the heart rate during tachycardia was slowed by depression of conduction in both the normal and accessory pathways. The findings of this study provide a basis for the antiarrhythmic action of bepridil in patients with atrioventricular accessory pathways. PMID:3499924

  11. 21 CFR 884.2740 - Perinatal monitoring system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....2740 Section 884.2740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... appropriate displays of the well-being of the fetus during pregnancy, labor, and delivery. This generic type....2700, and 884.2720. This generic type of device may include the following accessories:...

  12. 21 CFR 884.5350 - Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. 884.5350 Section 884.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES.... This generic type of device may include an introducer. (b) Classification. Class II...

  13. 21 CFR 884.5350 - Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. 884.5350 Section 884.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES.... This generic type of device may include an introducer. (b) Classification. Class II...

  14. 21 CFR 884.2660 - Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Section 884.2660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... generic type of device may include the following accessories: signal analysis and display equipment, electronic interfaces for other equipment, patient and equipment supports, and component parts. This...

  15. 21 CFR 884.5350 - Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. 884.5350 Section 884.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES.... This generic type of device may include an introducer. (b) Classification. Class II...

  16. 21 CFR 884.2640 - Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories. 884.2640 Section 884.2640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... graphic form, and noninvasively, to ascertain fetal condition during labor. This generic type of...

  17. 21 CFR 884.2740 - Perinatal monitoring system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....2740 Section 884.2740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... appropriate displays of the well-being of the fetus during pregnancy, labor, and delivery. This generic type....2700, and 884.2720. This generic type of device may include the following accessories:...

  18. 21 CFR 884.5350 - Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. 884.5350 Section 884.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES.... This generic type of device may include an introducer. (b) Classification. Class II...

  19. 21 CFR 884.5350 - Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. 884.5350 Section 884.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES.... This generic type of device may include an introducer. (b) Classification. Class II...

  20. 21 CFR 884.2640 - Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories. 884.2640 Section 884.2640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... graphic form, and noninvasively, to ascertain fetal condition during labor. This generic type of...

  1. 21 CFR 884.2640 - Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories. 884.2640 Section 884.2640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... graphic form, and noninvasively, to ascertain fetal condition during labor. This generic type of...

  2. 21 CFR 884.2640 - Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories. 884.2640 Section 884.2640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... graphic form, and noninvasively, to ascertain fetal condition during labor. This generic type of...

  3. 21 CFR 884.2640 - Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories. 884.2640 Section 884.2640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... graphic form, and noninvasively, to ascertain fetal condition during labor. This generic type of...

  4. 21 CFR 884.2700 - Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories. 884.2700 Section 884.2700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... intensity, duration, and frequency of uterine contractions during labor. This generic type of device...

  5. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... dialysate delivery system of the peritoneal dialysis system and accessories (§ 876.5630), or the controlled... to the hemodialysis system include the unpowered dialysis chair without a scale, the powered dialysis chair without a scale, the dialyzer holder set, dialysis tie gun and ties, and hemodialysis...

  6. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. 890.3025 Section 890.3025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices §...

  7. 21 CFR 884.1600 - Transabdominal amnioscope (fetoscope) and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Classification. Class III (premarket approval). (c) Date premarket approval application (PMA) or notice of completion of a product development protocol (PDP) is required. A PMA or a notice of completion of a PDP is... transabdominal amnioscope (fetoscope) and accessories shall have an approved PMA or a declared completed PDP...

  8. 21 CFR 884.1600 - Transabdominal amnioscope (fetoscope) and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Classification. Class III (premarket approval). (c) Date premarket approval application (PMA) or notice of completion of a product development protocol (PDP) is required. A PMA or a notice of completion of a PDP is... transabdominal amnioscope (fetoscope) and accessories shall have an approved PMA or a declared completed PDP...

  9. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... attached to the patient's skin by an adhesive material and that is intended for use as a receptacle for... generic type of device and its accessories includes the ostomy pouch, ostomy adhesive, the disposable... bag, ostomy drainage bag with adhesive, stomal bag, ostomy protector, and the ostomy size...

  10. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... attached to the patient's skin by an adhesive material and that is intended for use as a receptacle for... generic type of device and its accessories includes the ostomy pouch, ostomy adhesive, the disposable... bag, ostomy drainage bag with adhesive, stomal bag, ostomy protector, and the ostomy size...

  11. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... attached to the patient's skin by an adhesive material and that is intended for use as a receptacle for... generic type of device and its accessories includes the ostomy pouch, ostomy adhesive, the disposable... bag, ostomy drainage bag with adhesive, stomal bag, ostomy protector, and the ostomy size...

  12. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. 876.5980 Section 876.5980 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5980...

  13. 21 CFR 876.5010 - Biliary catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Biliary catheter and accessories. 876.5010 Section 876.5010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5010 Biliary...

  14. 21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urological catheter and accessories. 876.5130 Section 876.5130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130...

  15. 21 CFR 876.4890 - Urological table and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urological table and accessories. 876.4890 Section 876.4890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4890 Urological table...

  16. 14 CFR 121.251 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 121.251... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.251 Engine... complies with § 121.247 must be provided on air-cooled engines to isolate the engine power section and...

  17. 19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts or tools. 10.456 Section 10.456 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile...

  18. 14 CFR 121.251 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 121.251... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.251 Engine... complies with § 121.247 must be provided on air-cooled engines to isolate the engine power section and...

  19. 14 CFR 121.251 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 121.251... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.251 Engine... complies with § 121.247 must be provided on air-cooled engines to isolate the engine power section and...

  20. 21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Speculum and accessories. 878.1800 Section 878.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and...

  1. 21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Speculum and accessories. 878.1800 Section 878.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and...

  2. 21 CFR 884.2740 - Perinatal monitoring system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Perinatal monitoring system and accessories. 884.2740 Section 884.2740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Monitoring Devices § 884.2740...

  3. 21 CFR 884.4900 - Obstetric table and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Obstetric table and accessories. 884.4900 Section 884.4900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological...

  4. 21 CFR 884.4900 - Obstetric table and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obstetric table and accessories. 884.4900 Section 884.4900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological...

  5. 21 CFR 884.4900 - Obstetric table and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Obstetric table and accessories. 884.4900 Section 884.4900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Surgical Devices § 884.4900 Obstetric table and...

  6. 21 CFR 884.4900 - Obstetric table and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Obstetric table and accessories. 884.4900 Section 884.4900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Surgical Devices § 884.4900 Obstetric table and...

  7. 21 CFR 884.4900 - Obstetric table and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Obstetric table and accessories. 884.4900 Section 884.4900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological...

  8. Catheter ablation of atrioventricular accessory pathways by radiofrequency current.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Hu, D; Ding, Y

    1993-12-15

    Tachycardias mediated by atrioventricular accessory pathways, which are refractory to antiarrhythmic drug therapy have been treated both by surgery and by catheter ablation with high energy direct current shock. These procedures have variable success rates and substantial associated morbidity and mortality. Radiofrequency ablation, a newer, low-energy technique is potentially safer and more effective. Of 110 patients with 117 accessory pathways, 101 were located on the left side and 16 on the right. Accessory pathway conduction was abolished permanently in 101 (91.8%) patients. VA conduction dissociation and VA decremental conduction were found in 88 and 13 successful patients, respectively. Four (3.9%) patients with decremental VA conduction suffered arrhythmia recurrence after a mean of 8 months follow-up. Complications developed in two patients including right femoral vein thrombosis and left ventricular insufficiency. There were no deaths from the procedure. We conclude that radiofrequency current ablation is a safe and effective interventional modality for patients with symptomatic tachycardias mediated by atrioventricular accessory pathways. PMID:8112920

  9. Uranium Series Accessory Crystal Dating of Magmatic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Axel K.

    2011-05-01

    Complex and protracted crystallization histories over geologic timescales are recorded in accessory minerals (e.g., zircon, allanite). Although magmatic crystallization was traditionally assumed to occur essentially instantaneously for the purposes of interpreting mineral geochronometers with low absolute time resolution for ancient samples, it emerged relatively recently that magmatic crystallization can occur over extended durations. This discovery arose from applying high-spatial-resolution accessory mineral dating techniques for uranium series isotopes to young volcanic and cognate plutonic rocks. The emerging pattern from these studies is that individual crystals and crystal populations record crystallization episodes lasting from <1,000 to many hundreds of thousands of years. Accessory mineral dating of volcanic rocks and cognate plutonic xenoliths opens new research avenues for crystal age fingerprinting that correlates pyroclastic deposits, lavas, and plutonic rocks by using characteristic age distributions. It also provides direct observations on magmatic accumulation and residence times, and the preeruptive configuration of subterraneous magma bodies and intrusive complexes with implications for the forecasting of volcanic eruptions. Awareness of potentially protracted crystallization in igneous rocks should guide the interpretation of accessory mineral ages.

  10. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... dialysate delivery system of the peritoneal dialysis system and accessories (§ 876.5630), or the controlled... to the hemodialysis system include the unpowered dialysis chair without a scale, the powered dialysis chair without a scale, the dialyzer holder set, dialysis tie gun and ties, and hemodialysis...

  11. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abrasive device and accessories. 872.6010 Section 872.6010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and...

  12. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abrasive device and accessories. 872.6010 Section 872.6010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and...

  13. 19 CFR 10.600 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 10.600 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.600 Accessories, spare parts,...

  14. 19 CFR 10.600 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 10.600 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.600 Accessories, spare parts,...

  15. 19 CFR 10.600 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 10.600 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.600 Accessories, spare parts,...

  16. 19 CFR 10.600 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 10.600 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.600 Accessories, spare parts,...

  17. 21 CFR 878.4370 - Surgical drape and drape accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surgical drape and drape accessories. 878.4370 Section 878.4370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4370 Surgical...

  18. 21 CFR 878.4370 - Surgical drape and drape accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Surgical drape and drape accessories. 878.4370 Section 878.4370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4370 Surgical...

  19. 21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Speculum and accessories. 878.1800 Section 878.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and...

  20. 21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Speculum and accessories. 878.1800 Section 878.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and...

  1. 21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Surgical camera and accessories. 878.4160 Section 878.4160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical...

  2. 21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Surgical camera and accessories. 878.4160 Section 878.4160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical...

  3. 21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Speculum and accessories. 878.1800 Section 878.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and...

  4. 21 CFR 878.4370 - Surgical drape and drape accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Surgical drape and drape accessories. 878.4370 Section 878.4370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4370 Surgical...

  5. 21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Surgical camera and accessories. 878.4160 Section 878.4160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical...

  6. 21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Surgical camera and accessories. 878.4160 Section 878.4160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical...

  7. 21 CFR 878.4370 - Surgical drape and drape accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Surgical drape and drape accessories. 878.4370 Section 878.4370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4370 Surgical...

  8. 21 CFR 884.1690 - Hysteroscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... direct viewing of the cervical canal and the uterine cavity by a telescopic system introduced into the... specialized instrument or device delivery system; do not have adapters, connectors, channels, or do not have portals for electrosurgical, laser, or other power sources. Such hysteroscope accessory...

  9. 21 CFR 884.1720 - Gynecologic laparoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gynecologic laparoscope and accessories. 884.1720 Section 884.1720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Diagnostic Devices § 884.1720...

  10. 21 CFR 884.1690 - Hysteroscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... direct viewing of the cervical canal and the uterine cavity by a telescopic system introduced into the... specialized instrument or device delivery system; do not have adapters, connectors, channels, or do not have portals for electrosurgical, laser, or other power sources. Such hysteroscope accessory...

  11. 21 CFR 876.5010 - Biliary catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Biliary catheter and accessories. 876.5010 Section 876.5010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5010 Biliary...

  12. 21 CFR 876.4300 - Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories. 876.4300 Section 876.4300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices §...

  13. 21 CFR 876.4890 - Urological table and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urological table and accessories. 876.4890 Section 876.4890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4890 Urological table...

  14. 21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urological catheter and accessories. 876.5130 Section 876.5130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130...

  15. New-type cable accessories for power distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Sanjo, K.; Kawano, K.; Shiraoka, K.; Yasuda, N.; Yatsuka, K.

    1982-12-01

    This paper describes new types of cable accessories for improving the reliability of power distribution cable systems. The practical development of a 25kV-class cable termination, and a waterproof sleeve for cable joints based on heat-shrinkable components made of irradiated polyolefine is discussed. Furthermore, the theoretical and practical data are given.

  16. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., and allow observation or manipulation of body cavities, hollow organs, and canals. The device consists of various rigid or flexible instruments that are inserted into body spaces and may include an optical system for conveying an image to the user's eye and their accessories may assist in gaining...

  17. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., and allow observation or manipulation of body cavities, hollow organs, and canals. The device consists of various rigid or flexible instruments that are inserted into body spaces and may include an optical system for conveying an image to the user's eye and their accessories may assist in gaining...

  18. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., and allow observation or manipulation of body cavities, hollow organs, and canals. The device consists of various rigid or flexible instruments that are inserted into body spaces and may include an optical system for conveying an image to the user's eye and their accessories may assist in gaining...

  19. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., and allow observation or manipulation of body cavities, hollow organs, and canals. The device consists of various rigid or flexible instruments that are inserted into body spaces and may include an optical system for conveying an image to the user's eye and their accessories may assist in gaining...

  20. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... attached to the patient's skin by an adhesive material and that is intended for use as a receptacle for... generic type of device and its accessories includes the ostomy pouch, ostomy adhesive, the disposable... bag, ostomy drainage bag with adhesive, stomal bag, ostomy protector, and the ostomy size...

  1. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... attached to the patient's skin by an adhesive material and that is intended for use as a receptacle for... generic type of device and its accessories includes the ostomy pouch, ostomy adhesive, the disposable... bag, ostomy drainage bag with adhesive, stomal bag, ostomy protector, and the ostomy size...

  2. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... dialysate delivery system of the peritoneal dialysis system and accessories (§ 876.5630), or the controlled... to the hemodialysis system include the unpowered dialysis chair without a scale, the powered dialysis chair without a scale, the dialyzer holder set, dialysis tie gun and ties, and hemodialysis...

  3. [Radiofrequency ablation of accessory pathways in pre-excitation syndrome].

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, D; Tebbenjohanns, J; Jung, W; Manz, M; Lüderitz, B

    1993-04-16

    Various parameters relating to the radio-frequency ablation of accessory pathways were studied in 53 patients (27 males, 26 females: mean age 38.5 [14-64] years) with a history of paroxysmal tachycardia (over 1 month to 50 years), shown to be caused by an accessory pathway (Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome). In all patients the following values were obtained: (1) number of procedures necessary to achieve permanent blockage of the accessory pathway (1-4); (2) duration of each procedure (45-420 min); (3) duration of fluoroscopy (5-102 min); (4) number of necessary radio-frequency applications (1-48); and (5) cumulative energy per procedure. To ablate left-lateral pathways (n = 10) required fewer procedures, shorter duration per procedure, shorter fluoroscopy time, fewer current applications and less total energy than coagulation of right-sided pathways (n = 10). Those various parameters were greatest for ablation of septal and para-septal pathways (n = 9). Pathways which conducted only retrogradely (n = 15) were more difficult to ablate than those with anterograde conduction (n = 38). There were two complications. In one case a tension pneumothorax occurred after faulty puncture of the subclavian vein; in the other, the left ventricle was perforated causing an acute tamponade which required pericardiocentesis with subsequent suture closure of the perforation. It is concluded that, in principle, all accessory pathways, regardless of their conduction potential and site, can be ablated by a radio-frequency current. PMID:8472633

  4. 21 CFR 884.1720 - Gynecologic laparoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gynecologic laparoscope and accessories. 884.1720 Section 884.1720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological...

  5. 21 CFR 884.1720 - Gynecologic laparoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gynecologic laparoscope and accessories. 884.1720 Section 884.1720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological...

  6. 14 CFR 121.251 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 121.251... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.251 Engine... complies with § 121.247 must be provided on air-cooled engines to isolate the engine power section and...

  7. 21 CFR 878.4820 - Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Surgical instrument motors and accessories....4820 Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments. (a) Identification. Surgical instrument motors and accessories are AC-powered, battery-powered, or air-powered devices intended for use...

  8. 49 CFR 178.255-7 - Protection of valves and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection of valves and accessories. 178.255-7... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Portable Tanks § 178.255-7 Protection of valves and accessories. (a) All valves, fittings, accessories, safety devices, gauging devices, and the like shall be...

  9. 76 FR 585 - In the Matter of Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories and Packaging Thereof; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories and Packaging Thereof; Notice of... States after importation of certain handbags. luggage, accessories and packaging thereof by reason of... certain handbags, luggage, accessories and packaging thereof that infringe the `594 trademark; the...

  10. Nucleus from string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Koji; Morita, Takeshi

    2011-08-01

    In generic holographic QCD, we find that baryons are bound to form a nucleus, and that its radius obeys the empirically-known mass-number (A) dependence r∝A1/3 for large A. Our result is robust, since we use only a generic property of D-brane actions in string theory. We also show that nucleons are bound completely in a finite volume. Furthermore, employing a concrete holographic model (derived by Hashimoto, Iizuka, and Yi, describing a multibaryon system in the Sakai-Sugimoto model), the nuclear radius is evaluated as O(1)×A1/3[fm], which is consistent with experiments.

  11. Neutrino-nucleus interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, H.; Garvey, G.; Zeller, G.P.; /Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    The study of neutrino oscillations has necessitated a new generation of neutrino experiments that are exploring neutrino-nuclear scattering processes. We focus in particular on charged-current quasi-elastic scattering, a particularly important channel that has been extensively investigated both in the bubble-chamber era and by current experiments. Recent results have led to theoretical reexamination of this process. We review the standard picture of quasi-elastic scattering as developed in electron scattering, review and discuss experimental results, and discuss additional nuclear effects such as exchange currents and short-range correlations that may play a significant role in neutrino-nucleus scattering.

  12. Controlled Speed Accessory Drive Program: Programmatic environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-14

    This document is a programmatic environmental assessment of the Department of Energy's Controlled Speed Accessory Drive (CSAD) program and alternatives. Its purpose is to evaluate CSAD alternatives to assure that environmental priorities are considered at the earliest meaningful point in the decision-making process, and to facilitate the choice of preferable options. This document accords with both the letter and the spirit of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requirements as interpreted and standardized by the Council on Environmental Quality. The major conclusions reached in this assessment are as follows: (1) controlled speed accessory drive bolted onto existing automobile designs may not provide adequate engine cooling when operated at high ambient temperatures or under heavy loading; (2) when the CSAD is adopted for production, the emissions effect of controlled speed accessory drive will not be a problem. Auto emissions are already controlled by existing regulations, and automobiles with a CSAD must meet the same emission standards as non-CSAD vehicles; (3) the nature of the impact is such that significant expansion of the market will not affect it. The one adverse environmental concern, the engine cooling problem, will probably be remedied by proper optimization of automobiles for controlled speed accessory drive, or, until the problem can be alleviated, it will delay commercialization of the drive. No safety hazard will be introduced to the American roadways. In addition, no adverse environmental concerns directly related to the Controlled Speed Accessory Drive demonstration program are anticipated. Therefore, it is recommended that a finding of no significant impact be prepared.

  13. Higgs-Boson Production in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Cross section calculations are presented for the production of intermediate-mass Higgs bosons produced in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions via two photon fusion. The calculations are performed in position space using Baur's method for folding together the Weizsacker-Williams virtual-photon spectra of the two colliding nuclei. It is found that two photon fusion in nucleus-nucleus collisions is a plausible way of finding intermediate-mass Higgs bosons at the Superconducting Super Collider or the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  14. Higgs-boson production in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, J. W.; Townsend, L. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    Cross-section calculations are presented for the production of intermediate-mass Higgs bosons produced in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions via two-photon fusion. The calculations are performed in position space using Baur's method for folding together the Weizsacker-Williams virtual-photon spectra of the two colliding nuclei. It is found that two-photon fusion in nucleus-nucleus collisions is a plausible way of finding intermediate-mass Higgs bosons at the Superconducting Super Collider or the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  15. "Basal Cell Blanche": A Diagnostic Maneuver to Increase Early Detection of Basal Cell Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Quach, Olivia Leigh; Barry, Megan; Roberts Cruse, Allison; Wilson, Barbara B

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinomas represent one of the most common skin cancers and often present initially in the primary care setting. Subtle basal cell carcinomas may be difficult to detect, and early detection of these carcinomas remains important in limiting patient morbidity. In this article, we present a simple diagnostic maneuver, "basal cell blanche," to increase early detection of basal cell carcinomas. PMID:27170799

  16. Networking the nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Rajapakse, Indika; Scalzo, David; Tapscott, Stephen J; Kosak, Steven T; Groudine, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The nuclei of differentiating cells exhibit several fundamental principles of self-organization. They are composed of many dynamical units connected physically and functionally to each other—a complex network—and the different parts of the system are mutually adapted and produce a characteristic end state. A unique cell-specific signature emerges over time from complex interactions among constituent elements that delineate coordinate gene expression and chromosome topology. Each element itself consists of many interacting components, all dynamical in nature. Self-organizing systems can be simplified while retaining complex information using approaches that examine the relationship between elements, such as spatial relationships and transcriptional information. These relationships can be represented using well-defined networks. We hypothesize that during the process of differentiation, networks within the cell nucleus rewire according to simple rules, from which a higher level of order emerges. Studying the interaction within and among networks provides a useful framework for investigating the complex organization and dynamic function of the nucleus. PMID:20664641

  17. The basal bodies of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Dutcher, Susan K; O'Toole, Eileen T

    2016-01-01

    The unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, is a biflagellated cell that can swim or glide. C. reinhardtii cells are amenable to genetic, biochemical, proteomic, and microscopic analysis of its basal bodies. The basal bodies contain triplet microtubules and a well-ordered transition zone. Both the mother and daughter basal bodies assemble flagella. Many of the proteins found in other basal body-containing organisms are present in the Chlamydomonas genome, and mutants in these genes affect the assembly of basal bodies. Electron microscopic analysis shows that basal body duplication is site-specific and this may be important for the proper duplication and spatial organization of these organelles. Chlamydomonas is an excellent model for the study of basal bodies as well as the transition zone. PMID:27252853

  18. Migraine attacks the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background With time, episodes of migraine headache afflict patients with increased frequency, longer duration and more intense pain. While episodic migraine may be defined as 1-14 attacks per month, there are no clear-cut phases defined, and those patients with low frequency may progress to high frequency episodic migraine and the latter may progress into chronic daily headache (> 15 attacks per month). The pathophysiology of this progression is completely unknown. Attempting to unravel this phenomenon, we used high field (human) brain imaging to compare functional responses, functional connectivity and brain morphology in patients whose migraine episodes did not progress (LF) to a matched (gender, age, age of onset and type of medication) group of patients whose migraine episodes progressed (HF). Results In comparison to LF patients, responses to pain in HF patients were significantly lower in the caudate, putamen and pallidum. Paradoxically, associated with these lower responses in HF patients, gray matter volume of the right and left caudate nuclei were significantly larger than in the LF patients. Functional connectivity analysis revealed additional differences between the two groups in regard to response to pain. Conclusions Supported by current understanding of basal ganglia role in pain processing, the findings suggest a significant role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of the episodic migraine. PMID:21936901

  19. Good Vibrations: Cross-Frequency Coupling in the Human Nucleus Accumbens during Reward Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Michael X.; Axmacher, Nikolai; Lenartz, Doris; Elger, Christian E.; Sturm, Volker; Schlaepfer, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens is critical for reward-guided learning and decision-making. It is thought to "gate" the flow of a diverse range of information (e.g., rewarding, aversive, and novel events) from limbic afferents to basal ganglia outputs. Gating and information encoding may be achieved via cross-frequency coupling, in which bursts of…

  20. Tractographical model of the cortico-basal ganglia and corticothalamic connections: Improving Our Understanding of Deep Brain Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Avecillas-Chasin, Josué M; Rascón-Ramírez, Fernando; Barcia, Juan A

    2016-05-01

    The cortico-basal ganglia and corticothalamic projections have been extensively studied in the context of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is known to modulate many of these pathways to produce the desired clinical effect. The aim of this work is to describe the anatomy of the main circuits of the basal ganglia using tractography in a surgical planning station. We used imaging studies of 20 patients who underwent DBS for movement and psychiatric disorders. We segmented the putamen, caudate nucleus (CN), thalamus, and subthalamic nucleus (STN), and we also segmented the cortical areas connected with these subcortical areas. We used tractography to define the subdivisions of the basal ganglia and thalamus through the generation of fibers from the cortical areas to the subcortical structures. We were able to generate the corticostriatal and corticothalamic connections involved in the motor, associative and limbic circuits. Furthermore, we were able to reconstruct the hyperdirect pathway through the corticosubthalamic connections and we found subregions in the STN. Finally, we reconstructed the cortico-subcortical connections of the ventral intermediate nucleus, the nucleus accumbens and the CN. We identified a feasible delineation of the basal ganglia and thalamus connections using tractography. These results could be potentially useful in DBS if the parcellations are used as targets during surgery. Clin. Anat. 29:481-492, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26779936

  1. Electric quadrupole excitations in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.

    1989-01-01

    Calculations are presented for electric quadrupole excitations in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. The theoretical results are compared to an extensive data set and it is found that electric quadrupole effects provide substantial corrections to cross sections, especially for heavier nuclei.

  2. Meson multiplicity versus energy in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, T. W.; Freier, P. S.

    1986-01-01

    A systematic study of meson multiplicity as a function of energy at energies up to 100 GeV/u in nucleus-nucleus collisions has been made, using cosmic-ray data in nuclear emulsion. The data are consistent with simple nucleon-nucleon superposition models. Multiplicity per interacting nucleon in AA collisions does not appear to differ significantly from pp collisions.

  3. Scaling phenomenon in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, C. Y.; Blankenbecler, R.

    1980-01-01

    New scaling variables for proton and pion production in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions are introduced which are the generalizations of the Feynmann scaling variable. They allow a simple description of the cross sections at forward and backward angles. 2 figures.

  4. Momentum loss in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, Ferdous; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    1993-01-01

    An optical model description, based on multiple scattering theory, of longitudinal momentum loss in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions is presented. The crucial role of the imaginary component of the nucleon-nucleon transition matrix in accounting for longitudinal momentum transfer is demonstrated. Results obtained with this model are compared with Intranuclear Cascade (INC) calculations, as well as with predictions from Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (VUU) and quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations. Comparisons are also made with experimental data where available. These indicate that the present model is adequate to account for longitudinal momentum transfer in both proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions over a wide range of energies.

  5. The Galactic Nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melia, Fulvio

    Exciting new broadband observations of the galactic nucleus have placed the heart of the Milky Way under intense scrutiny in recent years. This has been due in part to the growing interest from theorists motivated to study the physics of black hole accretion, magnetized gas dynamics, and unusual star formation. The center of our Galaxy is now known to harbor the most compelling supermassive black hole candidate, weighing in at 3-4 million solar masses. Its nearby environment is comprised of a molecular dusty ring, clusters of evolved and young stars, diffuse hot gas, ionized gas streamers, and several supernova remnants. This chapter will focus on the physical makeup of this dynamic region and the feasibility of actually imaging the black hole's shadow in the coming decade with mm interferometry.

  6. The deafferented reticular thalamic nucleus generates spindle rhythmicity.

    PubMed

    Steriade, M; Domich, L; Oakson, G; Deschênes, M

    1987-01-01

    The hypothesis that nucleus reticularis thalami (RE) is the generator of spindle rhythmicity during electroencephalogram (EEG) synchronization was tested in acutely prepared cats. Unit discharges and focal waves were extracellularly recorded in the rostral pole of RE nucleus, which was completely disconnected by transections from all other thalamic nuclei. In some experiments, additional transections through corona radiata created a triangular island in which the rostral RE pole survived with the caudate nucleus, putamen, basal forebrain nuclei, prepyriform area, and the adjacent cortex. Similar results were obtained in two types of experiments: brain stem-transected preparations that exhibited spontaneous spindle sequences, and animals under ketamine anesthesia in which transient spindling was repeatedly precipitated during recording by very low doses of a short-acting barbiturate. Both spindle-related rhythms (7- to 16-Hz waves grouped in sequences that recur with a rhythm of 0.1-0.3 Hz) are seen in focal recordings of the deafferented RE nucleus. The presence of spindling rhythmicity in the disconnected RE nucleus contrasts with total absence of spindles in cortical EEG leads and in thalamic recordings behind the transection. Oscillations within the same frequency range as that of spontaneous spindles can be evoked in the deafferented RE nucleus by subcortical white matter stimulation. In deafferented RE cells, the burst structure consists of an initially biphasic acceleration-deceleration pattern, eventually leading to a long-lasting tonic tail. Quantitative group data show that the burst parameters of disconnected RE cells are very similar to those of RE neurons with intact connections. In the deafferented RE nucleus, spike bursts of RE neurons recur periodically (0.1-0.3 Hz) in close time-relation with simultaneously recorded focal spindle sequences. The burst occurrence of deafferented RE cells is greatly reduced after systemic administration of bicuculline

  7. Supplementary motor area and presupplementary motor area: targets of basal ganglia and cerebellar output.

    PubMed

    Akkal, Dalila; Dum, Richard P; Strick, Peter L

    2007-10-01

    We used retrograde transneuronal transport of neurotropic viruses in Cebus monkeys to examine the organization of basal ganglia and cerebellar projections to two cortical areas on the medial wall of the hemisphere, the supplementary motor area (SMA) and the pre-SMA. We found that both of these cortical areas are the targets of disynaptic projections from the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum and from the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi). On average, the number of pallidal neurons that project to the SMA and pre-SMA is approximately three to four times greater than the number of dentate neurons that project to these cortical areas. GPi neurons that project to the pre-SMA are located in a rostral, "associative" territory of the nucleus, whereas GPi neurons that project to the SMA are located in a more caudal and ventral "sensorimotor" territory. Similarly, dentate neurons that project to the pre-SMA are located in a ventral, "nonmotor" domain of the nucleus, whereas dentate neurons that project to the SMA are located in a more dorsal, "motor" domain. The differential origin of subcortical projections to the SMA and pre-SMA suggests that these cortical areas are nodes in distinct neural systems. Although both systems are the target of outputs from the basal ganglia and the cerebellum, these two cortical areas seem to be dominated by basal ganglia input. PMID:17913900

  8. Deep Brain Stimulation for Movement Disorders of Basal Ganglia Origin: Restoring Function or Functionality?

    PubMed

    Wichmann, Thomas; DeLong, Mahlon R

    2016-04-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is highly effective for both hypo- and hyperkinetic movement disorders of basal ganglia origin. The clinical use of DBS is, in part, empiric, based on the experience with prior surgical ablative therapies for these disorders, and, in part, driven by scientific discoveries made decades ago. In this review, we consider anatomical and functional concepts of the basal ganglia relevant to our understanding of DBS mechanisms, as well as our current understanding of the pathophysiology of two of the most commonly DBS-treated conditions, Parkinson's disease and dystonia. Finally, we discuss the proposed mechanism(s) of action of DBS in restoring function in patients with movement disorders. The signs and symptoms of the various disorders appear to result from signature disordered activity in the basal ganglia output, which disrupts the activity in thalamocortical and brainstem networks. The available evidence suggests that the effects of DBS are strongly dependent on targeting sensorimotor portions of specific nodes of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical motor circuit, that is, the subthalamic nucleus and the internal segment of the globus pallidus. There is little evidence to suggest that DBS in patients with movement disorders restores normal basal ganglia functions (e.g., their role in movement or reinforcement learning). Instead, it appears that high-frequency DBS replaces the abnormal basal ganglia output with a more tolerable pattern, which helps to restore the functionality of downstream networks. PMID:26956115

  9. The Basal NPO crh Fluctuation is Sustained Under Compromised Glucocorticoid Signaling in Diurnal Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Chen-Min

    2015-01-01

    The circadian activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal/interrenal (HPA/I) axis is crucial for maintaining vertebrate homeostasis. In mammals, both the principle regulator, corticotropin-releasing hormone (crh) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and the final effector, the glucocorticoids show daily rhythmic patterns. While glucocorticoids are the main negative regulator of PVN crh under stress, whether they modulate the PVN crh rhythm under basal condition is unclear in diurnal animals. Using zebrafish larvae, a recently-established diurnal model organism suited for the HPA/I axis and homeostasis research, we ask if glucocorticoid changes are required to maintain the daily variation of PVN crh. We first characterized the development of the HPI axis overtime and showed that the basal activity of the HPI axis is robust and tightly regulated by circadian cue in 6-day old larvae. We demonstrated a negative correlation between the basal cortisol and neurosecretory preoptic area (NPO) crh variations. To test if cortisol drives NPO crh variation, we analyzed the NPO crh levels in glucorcorticoid antagonist-treated larvae and mutants lacking circadian cortisol variations. We showed that NPO crh basal fluctuation is sustained although the level was decreased without proper cortisol signaling in zebrafish. Our data indicates that glucocorticoids do not modulate the basal NPO crh variations but may be required for maintaining overall NPO crh levels. This further suggests that under basal and stress conditions the HPA/I axis activity is modulated differently by glucocorticoids. PMID:26696807

  10. Queuing of concurrent movement plans by basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Bhutani, Neha; Sureshbabu, Ramakrishnan; Farooqui, Ausaf A; Behari, Madhuri; Goyal, Vinay; Murthy, Aditya

    2013-06-12

    How the brain converts parallel representations of movement goals into sequential movements is not known. We tested the role of basal ganglia (BG) in the temporal control of movement sequences by a convergent approach involving inactivation of the BG by muscimol injections into the caudate nucleus of monkeys and assessing behavior of Parkinson's disease patients, performing a modified double-step saccade task. We tested a critical prediction of a class of competitive queuing models that explains serial behavior as the outcome of a selection of concurrently activated goals. In congruence with these models, we found that inactivation or impairment of the BG unmasked the parallel nature of goal representations such that a significantly greater extent of averaged saccades, curved saccades, and saccade sequence errors were observed. These results suggest that the BG perform a form of competitive queuing, holding the second movement plan in abeyance while the first movement is being executed, allowing the proper temporal control of movement sequences. PMID:23761894

  11. Arthroscopic Debridement of Pediatric Accessory Anterolateral Talar Facet Causing Impingement.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Julie A; Mannava, Sandeep; Gross, Christopher E; Wooster, Benjamin M; Busch, Michael T

    2016-04-01

    Symptomatic subfibular and/or lateral talocalcaneal impingement in pediatric patients may result from an accessory anterolateral talar facet (AALTF). This impingement may cause pain and disability and may limit athletic performance in high-level athletes. We report the case of a 12-year-old female competitive gymnast who had refractory, lateral-sided right ankle pain for 4 months and underwent right ankle arthroscopic resection of the AALTF causing impingement. Standard medial and anterolateral portals with the addition of an accessory anterolateral-distal portal were used in conjunction with a 30° 2.7-mm-diameter arthroscope. The AALTF was resected with a combination of a shaver and a motorized rasp. Intraoperative fluoroscopy was used to verify successful debridement of the bony facet. This case illustrates that arthroscopic debridement is a technique to treat subfibular and/or talocalcaneal impingement associated with an AALTF. PMID:27462543

  12. Perioperative Identification of an Accessory Fissure of the Right Lung

    PubMed Central

    Taverne, Yannick; Kleinrensink, Gert-Jan; de Rooij, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Anatomical variations of lungs are common in clinical practice; however, they are sometimes overlooked in routine imaging. Surgical anatomy of the lung is complex and many variations are known to occur. A defective pulmonary development gives rise to variations in lobes and fissures. Morphological presentation is of clinical importance and profound knowledge of the organogenesis and functional anatomy is imperative for the interpretation and evaluation of lung pathophysiology and subsequent surgical intervention. However, appreciating them on radiographs and CT scans is difficult and they are therefore often either not identified or completely misinterpreted. As presented in this case report, an accessory fissure separating the superior segment of the right lower lobe from its native lobe was seen perioperatively and could only retrospectively be defined on X-rays and CT scan. It is imperative to keep in mind that accessory fissures can be missed on imaging studies and thus can make the surgical procedure more challenging. PMID:26185701

  13. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of Accessory Parotid Gland: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Das, Somdipto; Nayak, Umanath K; Buggavetti, Rahul; Sekhar, Shobana

    2016-05-01

    The accessory parotid gland is salivary gland tissue separated from the main gland at a variable distance. This gland is histologically similar to the main gland, but has a higher incidence of malignant neoplasms than the main gland. Regarding the various malignant neoplasms, studies have shown higher incidences of mucoepidermoid carcinoma, with less than 2% being adenoid cystic carcinoma. We present a case of swelling in the midcheek region that, after clinical examination, was diagnosed as a case of neoplasm of the accessory parotid gland. On the basis of auxiliary investigations including intraoperative frozen section, it was concluded that it was adenoid cystic carcinoma, grade I, and after wide surgical resection, the tumor was removed without undergoing superficial parotidectomy. The patient received postoperative radiotherapy (RT) and was followed for 14 months without any recurrence or substantial facial asymmetry. PMID:26851989

  14. Case of combined paratracheal air cyst and accessory cardiac bronchus.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Tamaki; Ono, Shun; Mori, Naoko; Sekiguchi, Tatsuya; Koizumi, Jun; Imai, Yutaka

    2014-07-01

    Paratracheal air cyst (PTAC) is rather frequently detected on thoracic multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) in daily practice. Accessory cardiac bronchus (ACB) is a rare anomaly; however, the incidence rate is increasing with the use of recent high quality MDCT scanners. We report a case of combined PTAC and ACB that was incidentally detected by MDCT. Three dimensional CT images revealed anatomical details. PMID:25027253

  15. [Skull fracture or accessory suture in a child?].

    PubMed

    Burkhard, Katrin; Lange, Lena M; Plenzig, Stefanie; Verhoff, Marcel A; Kölzer, Sarah C

    2016-01-01

    Differentiation between accessory sutures and fractures in the skull of an infant can be difficult. Apart from the regular sutures there is a multitude of variations that may be mistaken for a fracture line. Such variations include for instance the intraparietal suture between the two ossification centers of the parietal bone or the mendosal suture between the supraoccipital and interparietal bone of the occipital squama. The presented case refers to an approximately 20-month-old female child. During autopsy, a discontinuity in the right paramedian posterior cranial fossa parallel to the internal occipital crest with connection to the foramen magnum was observed. The macroscopic findings suggested a fracture line because of its course. However, neither a hemorrhage in the soft tissue nor callus formation was discernible. The discontinuity was preserved with the adjacent parts of the occipital bone for further histological examination. In the report of a cranial CT, which was carried out five days before the child's death, an accessory suture paramedially in the right posterior cranial fossa was described. When the clinical CT records were re-evaluated, a similar discontinuity at the corresponding position on the other side was detected, though of noticeably shorter length. Additionally, the preserved occipital bone fragment including the discontinuity was histologically processed. In the radiological literature, precise (radiological) criteria for differential diagnosis are indicated. A zigzag pattern with sclerotic borders and a bilateral and fairly symmetric occurrence indicate a suture, whereas a sharp lucency with non-sclerotic edges and a unilateral occurrence indicate a fracture. Taking all the findings into account, the depicted discontinuity was regarded as an accessory suture. This case demonstrates that differentiation between a fracture and an accessory suture may be difficult in the autopsy of a child and underlines the importance of a postmortem CT

  16. Unusual insidious spinal accessory nerve palsy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Isolated spinal accessory nerve dysfunction has a major detrimental impact on the functional performance of the shoulder girdle, and is a well-documented complication of surgical procedures in the posterior triangle of the neck. To the best of our knowledge, the natural course and the most effective way of handling spontaneous spinal accessory nerve palsy has been described in only a few instances in the literature. Case presentation We report the case of a 36-year-old Caucasian, Greek man with spontaneous unilateral trapezius palsy with an insidious course. To the best of our knowledge, few such cases have been documented in the literature. The unusual clinical presentation and functional performance mismatch with the imaging findings were also observed. Our patient showed a deterioration that was different from the usual course of this pathology, with an early onset of irreversible trapezius muscle dysfunction two months after the first clinical signs started to manifest. A surgical reconstruction was proposed as the most efficient treatment, but our patient declined this. Although he failed to recover fully after conservative treatment for eight months, he regained moderate function and is currently virtually pain-free. Conclusion Clinicians have to be aware that due to anatomical variation and the potential for compensation by the levator scapulae, the clinical consequences of any injury to the spinal accessory nerve may vary. PMID:20507553

  17. Radiofrequency catheter ablation of accessory pathways in infants.

    PubMed Central

    Benito, F.; Sánchez, C.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the indications, results and complications of radiofrequency catheter ablation in small infants with supraventricular tachycardia due to an accessory atrioventricular pathway. METHODS: Five infants less than 9 months old underwent radiofrequency catheter ablation of accessory pathways. Ablation was done for medically refractory tachyarrhythmia associated with aborted sudden death in two patients, left ventricular dysfunction in one, failure of antiarrhythmic drugs in one, and planned cardiac surgery in one. All five patients underwent a single successful procedure. Three left free wall pathways were ablated by transseptal approach, a right posteroseptal pathway was ablated from the inferior vena cava, and a left posteroseptal pathway was approached from the inferior vena cava into the coronary sinus. A deflectable 5F bipolar electrode catheter with a 3 mm tip was used. RESULTS: A sudden increment in impedance indicative of coagulum formation was observed in two procedures. One patient developed a transient ischaemic complication after ablation of a left lateral accessory pathway by transseptal approach. This patient had mild pericardial effusion after the procedure. Moderate pericardial effusion was also noted in another patient. After a mean follow up of 18.4 months all patients are symptom free without treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Radiofrequency catheter ablation can be performed successfully in infants. Temperature monitoring in 5F ablation catheters would be desirable to prevent the development of coagulum. Echocardiography must be performed after the ablation procedure to investigate pericardial effusion. Images PMID:9326990

  18. Injuries to the spinal accessory nerve: a lesson to surgeons.

    PubMed

    Camp, S J; Birch, R

    2011-01-01

    The integrity of the spinal accessory nerve is fundamental to thoracoscapular function and essential for scapulohumeral rhythm. This nerve is vulnerable along its superficial course. This study assessed the delay in diagnosis and referral for management of damage to this nerve, clarified its anatomical course and function, and documented the results of repair. From examination of our records, 111 patients with lesions of the spinal accessory nerve were treated between 1984 and 2007. In 89 patients (80.2%) the damage was iatropathic. Recognition and referral were seldom made by the surgeon responsible for the injury, leading to a marked delay in instituting treatment. Most referrals were made for painful loss of shoulder function. The clinical diagnosis is straightforward. There is a characteristic downward and lateral displacement of the scapula, with narrowing of the inferior scapulohumeral angle and loss of function, with pain commonly present. In all, 80 nerves were explored and 65 were repaired. The course of the spinal accessory nerve in relation to the sternocleidomastoid muscle was constant, with branches from the cervical plexus rarely conveying motor fibres. Damage to the nerve was predominantly posterior to this muscle. Despite the delay, the results of repair were surprising, with early relief of pain, implying a neuropathic source, which preceded generally good recovery of muscle function. PMID:21196545

  19. Role of Accessory Proteins of HTLV-1 in Viral Replication, T Cell Activation, and Cellular Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Bindhu; Nair, Amithraj; Lairmore, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), causes adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), and initiates a variety of immune mediated disorders. The viral genome encodes common structural and enzymatic proteins characteristic of all retroviruses and utilizes alternative splicing and alternate codon usage to make several regulatory and accessory proteins encoded in the pX region (pX ORF I to IV). Recent studies indicate that the accessory proteins p12I, p27I, p13II, and p30II, encoded by pX ORF I and II, contribute to viral replication and the ability of the virus to maintain typical in vivo expression levels. Proviral clones that are mutated in either pX ORF I or II, while fully competent in cell culture, are severely limited in their replicative capacity in a rabbit model. These HTLV-1 accessory proteins are critical for establishment of viral infectivity, enhance T- lymphocyte activation and potentially alter gene transcription and mitochondrial function. HTLV-1 pX ORF I expression is critical to the viral infectivity in resting primary lymphocytes suggesting a role for the calcineurin-binding protein p12I in lymphocyte activation. The endoplasmic reticulum and cis-Golgi localizing p12I activates NFAT, a key T cell transcription factor, through calcium-mediated signaling pathways and may lower the threshold of lymphocyte activation via the JAK/STAT pathway. In contrast p30II localizes to the nucleus and represses viral promoter activity, but may regulate cellular gene expression through p300/CBP or related co-activators of transcription. The mitochondrial localizing p13II induces morphologic changes in the organelle and may influence energy metabolism infected cells. Future studies of the molecular details HTLV-1 “accessory” proteins interactions will provide important new directions for investigations of HTLV-1 and related viruses associated with lymphoproliferative diseases. Thus, the accessory proteins of HTLV-1, once thought to be dispensable for

  20. The cholinergic basal forebrain in the ferret and its inputs to the auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Bajo, Victoria M; Leach, Nicholas D; Cordery, Patricia M; Nodal, Fernando R; King, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Cholinergic inputs to the auditory cortex can modulate sensory processing and regulate stimulus-specific plasticity according to the behavioural state of the subject. In order to understand how acetylcholine achieves this, it is essential to elucidate the circuitry by which cholinergic inputs influence the cortex. In this study, we described the distribution of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain and their inputs to the auditory cortex of the ferret, a species used increasingly in studies of auditory learning and plasticity. Cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain, visualized by choline acetyltransferase and p75 neurotrophin receptor immunocytochemistry, were distributed through the medial septum, diagonal band of Broca, and nucleus basalis magnocellularis. Epipial tracer deposits and injections of the immunotoxin ME20.4-SAP (monoclonal antibody specific for the p75 neurotrophin receptor conjugated to saporin) in the auditory cortex showed that cholinergic inputs originate almost exclusively in the ipsilateral nucleus basalis. Moreover, tracer injections in the nucleus basalis revealed a pattern of labelled fibres and terminal fields that resembled acetylcholinesterase fibre staining in the auditory cortex, with the heaviest labelling in layers II/III and in the infragranular layers. Labelled fibres with small en-passant varicosities and simple terminal swellings were observed throughout all auditory cortical regions. The widespread distribution of cholinergic inputs from the nucleus basalis to both primary and higher level areas of the auditory cortex suggests that acetylcholine is likely to be involved in modulating many aspects of auditory processing. PMID:24945075

  1. Functional Neuroanatomy of the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Lanciego, José L.; Luquin, Natasha; Obeso, José A.

    2012-01-01

    The “basal ganglia” refers to a group of subcortical nuclei responsible primarily for motor control, as well as other roles such as motor learning, executive functions and behaviors, and emotions. Proposed more than two decades ago, the classical basal ganglia model shows how information flows through the basal ganglia back to the cortex through two pathways with opposing effects for the proper execution of movement. Although much of the model has remained, the model has been modified and amplified with the emergence of new data. Furthermore, parallel circuits subserve the other functions of the basal ganglia engaging associative and limbic territories. Disruption of the basal ganglia network forms the basis for several movement disorders. This article provides a comprehensive account of basal ganglia functional anatomy and chemistry and the major pathophysiological changes underlying disorders of movement. We try to answer three key questions related to the basal ganglia, as follows: What are the basal ganglia? What are they made of? How do they work? Some insight on the canonical basal ganglia model is provided, together with a selection of paradoxes and some views over the horizon in the field. PMID:23071379

  2. Striatal plasticity and basal ganglia circuit function.

    PubMed

    Kreitzer, Anatol C; Malenka, Robert C

    2008-11-26

    The dorsal striatum, which consists of the caudate and putamen, is the gateway to the basal ganglia. It receives convergent excitatory afferents from cortex and thalamus and forms the origin of the direct and indirect pathways, which are distinct basal ganglia circuits involved in motor control. It is also a major site of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Striatal plasticity alters the transfer of information throughout basal ganglia circuits and may represent a key neural substrate for adaptive motor control and procedural memory. Here, we review current understanding of synaptic plasticity in the striatum and its role in the physiology and pathophysiology of basal ganglia function. PMID:19038213

  3. Antiproton-nucleus interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cugnon, J.; Vandermeulen, J.

    The antiproton-nucleus physics is reviewed. On the experimental side, the recent results obtained at the LEAR, BNL and KEK facilities are analyzed. A brief summary of the main pp and pn experimental data is also given. The antiproton-nucleus interaction can lead to elasic, inelastic and charge exchange scattering and to annihilation. The latter is very dominant. The scattering cross-sections are usually analyzed in terms of complex potential models. The relationship between potentials, charge conjugation and Dirac phenomenology is discussed. Much emphasis is put on the dynamics of the antiproton annihilation on nuclei. The energy transfer, pion absorption and target response are analyzed within the intranuclear cascade model. Special interest is devoted to strangeness production, hypernucleus formation and possible annihilation on two nucleons. Signatures for this new process are searched in experimental data. Finally, the highly debated question of quark-gluon formation is analyzed. Cet article constitue une revue de la physique antiproton-noyau. Du point de vue expérimental, cette revue porte particulièrement sur les récents résultats obtenus à LEAR, BNL et KEK. On y a aussi inclus une mise à jour des faits expérimentaux principaux pour pp et pn. L'interaction antiproton-noyau conduit à la diffusion élastique, inélastique et d'xA9change de charge et à des processus d'annihilation. Habituellement, les expériences de diffusion sont analysées en termes de potentiels complexes. La relation entre ces potentiels, la conjugaison de charge et la phénoménologie de Dirac est discutée. On s'est particulièrement intéressé à la dynamique de l'annihilation d'antiprotons sur des noyaux. Le transfert d'énergie, l'absorption de pions et la réponse de la cible sont analysés dans le cadre du modèle de cascade intranucléaire. Certains autres points sont discutés plus en détail: la production d'étrangeté, la formation d'hypernoyaux et l'annihilation sur

  4. An Accessory Agonist Binding Site Promotes Activation of α4β2* Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingyi; Kuryatov, Alexander; Sriram, Aarati; Jin, Zhuang; Kamenecka, Theodore M.; Kenny, Paul J.; Lindstrom, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing α4, β2, and sometimes other subunits (α4β2* nAChRs) regulate addictive and other behavioral effects of nicotine. These nAChRs exist in several stoichiometries, typically with two high affinity acetylcholine (ACh) binding sites at the interface of α4 and β2 subunits and a fifth accessory subunit. A third low affinity ACh binding site is formed when this accessory subunit is α4 but not if it is β2. Agonists selective for the accessory ACh site, such as 3-[3-(3-pyridyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]benzonitrile (NS9283), cannot alone activate a nAChR but can facilitate more efficient activation in combination with agonists at the canonical α4β2 sites. We therefore suggest categorizing agonists according to their site selectivity. NS9283 binds to the accessory ACh binding site; thus it is termed an accessory site-selective agonist. We expressed (α4β2)2 concatamers in Xenopus oocytes with free accessory subunits to obtain defined nAChR stoichiometries and α4/accessory subunit interfaces. We show that α2, α3, α4, and α6 accessory subunits can form binding sites for ACh and NS9283 at interfaces with α4 subunits, but β2 and β4 accessory subunits cannot. To permit selective blockage of the accessory site, α4 threonine 126 located on the minus side of α4 that contributes to the accessory site, but not the α4β2 sites, was mutated to cysteine. Alkylation of this cysteine with a thioreactive reagent blocked activity of ACh and NS9283 at the accessory site. Accessory agonist binding sites are promising drug targets. PMID:25869137

  5. Mechanics of the Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Lammerding, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The nucleus is the distinguishing feature of eukaryotic cells. Until recently, it was often considered simply as a unique compartment containing the genetic information of the cell and associated machinery, without much attention to its structure and mechanical properties. This article provides compelling examples that illustrate how specific nuclear structures are associated with important cellular functions, and how defects in nuclear mechanics can cause a multitude of human diseases. During differentiation, embryonic stem cells modify their nuclear envelope composition and chromatin structure, resulting in stiffer nuclei that reflect decreased transcriptional plasticity. In contrast, neutrophils have evolved characteristic lobulated nuclei that increase their physical plasticity, enabling passage through narrow tissue spaces in their response to inflammation. Research on diverse cell types further demonstrates how induced nuclear deformations during cellular compression or stretch can modulate cellular function. Pathological examples of disturbed nuclear mechanics include the many diseases caused by mutations in the nuclear envelope proteins lamin A/C and associated proteins, as well as cancer cells that are often characterized by abnormal nuclear morphology. In this article, we will focus on determining the functional relationship between nuclear mechanics and cellular (dys-)function, describing the molecular changes associated with physiological and pathological examples, the resulting defects in nuclear mechanics, and the effects on cellular function. New insights into the close relationship between nuclear mechanics and cellular organization and function will yield a better understanding of normal biology and will offer new clues into therapeutic approaches to the various diseases associated with defective nuclear mechanics. PMID:23737203

  6. Chronic levodopa treatment alters basal and dopamine agonist-stimulated cerebral glucose utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Engber, T.M.; Susel, Z.; Kuo, S.; Chase, T.N. )

    1990-12-01

    The effect of chronic levodopa administration on the functional activity of the basal ganglia and its output regions was evaluated by means of the 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) autoradiographic technique in rats with a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the nigrostriatal pathway. The rates of local cerebral glucose utilization were studied under basal conditions as well as in response to challenge with a selective D1 or D2 dopamine-receptor agonist. Levodopa (100 mg/kg/d, i.p.) was administered for 19 d either continuously via infusion with an osmotic pump or intermittently by twice-daily injections. Following a 3-d washout, glucose utilization was found to be decreased by both levodopa regimens in the nucleus accumbens; intermittent levodopa also decreased glucose utilization in the entopeduncular nucleus, subthalamic nucleus, ventrolateral thalamus, ventromedial thalamus, ventroposterolateral thalamus, and lateral habenula. In control (lesioned and treated chronically with saline) rats, the D1 agonist SKF 38393 (5 mg/kg, i.v.) increased 2-DG uptake in the substantia nigra pars reticulata and entopeduncular nucleus ipsilateral to the lesion by 84% and 56%, respectively. Both continuous and intermittent levodopa blunted the SKF 38393-induced elevation in glucose metabolism in the substantia nigra pars reticulata, while intermittent levodopa also attenuated the increase in the entopeduncular nucleus. The D2 agonist quinpirole (0.4 mg/kg, i.v.) did not increase glucose utilization in any brain region in control animals; following intermittent levodopa treatment, however, quinpirole increased 2-DG uptake by 64% in the subthalamic nucleus and by 39% in the deep layers of the superior colliculus on the ipsilateral side.

  7. Dopaminergic Control of the Exploration-Exploitation Trade-Off via the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, Mark D.; Khamassi, Mehdi; Gurney, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    We continuously face the dilemma of choosing between actions that gather new information or actions that exploit existing knowledge. This “exploration-exploitation” trade-off depends on the environment: stability favors exploiting knowledge to maximize gains; volatility favors exploring new options and discovering new outcomes. Here we set out to reconcile recent evidence for dopamine’s involvement in the exploration-exploitation trade-off with the existing evidence for basal ganglia control of action selection, by testing the hypothesis that tonic dopamine in the striatum, the basal ganglia’s input nucleus, sets the current exploration-exploitation trade-off. We first advance the idea of interpreting the basal ganglia output as a probability distribution function for action selection. Using computational models of the full basal ganglia circuit, we showed that, under this interpretation, the actions of dopamine within the striatum change the basal ganglia’s output to favor the level of exploration or exploitation encoded in the probability distribution. We also found that our models predict striatal dopamine controls the exploration-exploitation trade-off if we instead read-out the probability distribution from the target nuclei of the basal ganglia, where their inhibitory input shapes the cortical input to these nuclei. Finally, by integrating the basal ganglia within a reinforcement learning model, we showed how dopamine’s effect on the exploration-exploitation trade-off could be measurable in a forced two-choice task. These simulations also showed how tonic dopamine can appear to affect learning while only directly altering the trade-off. Thus, our models support the hypothesis that changes in tonic dopamine within the striatum can alter the exploration-exploitation trade-off by modulating the output of the basal ganglia. PMID:22347155

  8. Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr’s disease)

    PubMed Central

    Mufaddel, Amir A.; Al-Hassani, Ghanem A.

    2014-01-01

    Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr’s disease) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by symmetrical and bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia. Calcifications may also occur in other brain regions such as dentate nucleus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. Both familial and non-familial cases of Fahr’s disease have been reported, predominantly with autosomal-dominant fashion. The disease has a wide range of clinical presentations, predominantly with neuropsychiatric features and movement disorders. Psychiatric features reported in the literature include: cognitive impairment, depression, hallucinations, delusions, manic symptoms, anxiety, schizophrenia-like psychosis, and personality change. Other clinical features include: Parkinsonism, ataxia, headache, seizures, vertigo, stroke-like events, orthostatic hypotension, tremor, dysarthria, and paresis. Fahr’s disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric symptoms, particularly when associated with movement disorder. The disease should be differentiated from other conditions that can cause intracranial calcification. No specific treatment is currently available. Further research is needed to bridge the gap existing in our current knowledge of the prevalence, etiology, symptoms, and treatment of Fahr’s disease. PMID:24983277

  9. Basal ganglia and thalamic morphology in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Womer, Fay Y.; Wang, Lei; Alpert, Kathryn; Smith, Matthew J.; Csernansky, John G.; Barch, Deanna; Mamah, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined the morphology of the basal ganglia and thalamus in bipolar disorder (BP), schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SCZ-S), and healthy controls (HC) with particular interest in differences related to the absence or presence of psychosis. Volumetric and shape analyses of the basal ganglia and thalamus were performed in 33 BP individuals [12 without history of psychotic features (NPBP) and 21 with history of psychotic features (PBP)], 32 SCZ-S individuals [28 with SCZ and 4 with schizoaffective disorder], and 27 HC using FreeSurfer-initiated large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping. Significant volume differences were found in the caudate and globus pallidus, with volumes smallest in the NPBP group. Shape abnormalities showing inward deformation of superior regions of the caudate were observed in BP (and especially in NPBP) compared with HC. Shape differences were also found in the globus pallidus and putamen when comparing the BP and SCZ-S groups. No significant differences were seen in the nucleus accumbens and thalamus. In summary, structural abnormalities in the caudate and globus pallidus are present in BP and SCZ-S. Differences were more apparent in the NPBP subgroup. The findings herein highlight the potential importance of separately examining BP subgroups in neuroimaging studies. PMID:24957866

  10. c-JUN-like immunoreactivity in the CNS of the adult rat: basal and transynaptically induced expression of an immediate-early gene.

    PubMed

    Herdegen, T; Leah, J D; Manisali, A; Bravo, R; Zimmermann, M

    1991-01-01

    An immunocytochemical study of dorsal root ganglia, spinal cord and medulla oblongata was performed with antisera against the c-jun proto-oncogene encoded protein. The c-JUN-like immunoreactivity was restricted to the cell nucleus. In the CNS of untreated rats a basal c-JUN-like immunoreactivity was present in the nuclei of two types of neurons: motor and autonomic. Labelled nuclei could be seen in many motoneurons of the ventral horn of the entire length of spinal cord and the lower medulla oblongata, as well as in the area of the nucleus hypoglossus, the dorsal motor nucleus of nucleus vagus, nucleus ambiguus, nucleus facialis, nucleus abducens and motor nucleus of nucleus trigeminus. Additionally, labelled nuclei were found in the preganglionic sympathetic and preganglionic parasympathetic cells of the nucleus intermediolateralis and nucleus intercalatus in the spinal cord. In the medulla oblongata we found a cluster of cells with c-JUN-like immunoreactivity in an area between the dorsomedial part of the oral nucleus spinalis trigeminalis and the lateral border of the knee of facial nerve. Additionally, a second cluster of c-JUN-like immunoreactivity cells was visible between the ventromedial part of the oral nucleus spinalis trigeminalis and the lateral border of the rostral nucleus facialis. Examination of the characteristics of all cell groups with a basal c-JUN-like immunoreactivity in the spinal cord and lower brainstem revealed an overlapping distribution with cholinergic cell groups. Basal c-JUN-like immunoreactivity was also seen in the dorsal root ganglion cells. We examined the factors which can effect the expression of the c-JUN protein. Maximal expression of c-JUN-like immunoreactivity was observed after electrical stimulation of primary afferents. Stimulation of sciatic nerve at a strength sufficient to recruit A delta- and C-fibres produced c-JUN-like immunoreactivity in many nuclei of the ipsilateral dorsal horn of the lumbar spinal cord. c

  11. sine oculis in basal Metazoa.

    PubMed

    Bebenek, Ilona G; Gates, Ruth D; Morris, Joshua; Hartenstein, Volker; Jacobs, David K

    2004-07-01

    We report the recovery of homologs of Six1/2/sine oculis (so), a homeodomain-containing member of the Six-gene family, from a diverse set of basal Metazoa, including representatives of the poriferan classes Demospongia, Calcarea and Hexactinellida, the cnidarian classes Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa and Anthozoa, as well as a ctenophore. so sequences were also recovered from a platyhelminth, an echiurid and two bivalve molluscs, members of the super-phyletic group Lophotrochozoa. In the case of the platyhelminth, multiple distinct so sequences were recovered, as well as a member of the related group Six4/5/D-Six4. Extended sequences of the so gene were recovered from the demosponge, Haliclona sp., and the scyphozoan Aurelia aurita via PCR, and 3' RACE. The affinities of all recovered sequences were assessed using a parsimony analysis based on both nucleic and amino acid sequence and using successive character weighting. Our results indicate that so is highly conserved across the animal kingdom. Preliminary expression data for Aurelia reveal that transcripts of the so homolog are present in the manubrium as well as in the rhopalia, which contain the statocyst and eyes, in the free-swimming ephyra and juvenile stages of these jellyfish. PMID:15221378

  12. Signaling mechanisms and behavioral function of the mouse basal vomeronasal neuroepithelium

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Gómez, Anabel; Stein, Benjamin; Leinders-Zufall, Trese; Chamero, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is a sensory organ that is found in most terrestrial vertebrates and that is principally implicated in the detection of pheromones. The VNO contains specialized sensory neurons organized in a pseudostratified neuroepithelium that recognize chemical signals involved in initiating innate behavioral responses. In rodents, the VNO neuroepithelium is segregated into two distinct zones, apical and basal. The molecular mechanisms involved in ligand detection by apical and basal VNO sensory neurons differ extensively. These two VNO subsystems express different subfamilies of vomeronasal receptors and signaling molecules, detect distinct chemosignals, and project to separate regions of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). The roles that these olfactory subdivisions play in the control of specific olfactory-mediated behaviors are largely unclear. However, analysis of mutant mouse lines for signal transduction components together with identification of defined chemosensory ligands has revealed a fundamental role of the basal part of the mouse VNO in mediating a wide range of instinctive behaviors, such as aggression, predator avoidance, and sexual attraction. Here we will compare the divergent functions and synergies between the olfactory subsystems and consider new insights in how higher neural circuits are defined for the initiation of instinctive behaviors. PMID:25505388

  13. Effects of Repeated Stress on Excitatory Drive of Basal Amygdala Neurons In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Padival, Mallika; Quinette, Danielle; Rosenkranz, J Amiel

    2013-01-01

    Chronic stress leads to heightened affective behaviors, and can precipitate the emergence of depression and anxiety. These disorders are associated with increased amygdala activity. In animal models, chronic stress leads to increased amygdala-dependent behaviors, as well as hyperactivity of amygdala neurons. However, it is not known whether increased excitatory synaptic drive after chronic stress contributes to hyperactivity of basolateral amygdala (BLA; comprised of basal, lateral, and accessory basal nuclei) neurons. This study tested whether repeated stress causes an increase in excitatory drive of basal amygdala (BA) neurons in vivo, and whether this is correlated with an increase in the number of dendritic spines and a shift in dendritic distribution. Using in vivo intracellular recordings, this study found that repeated restraint stress caused an increase in the frequency of spontaneous excitatory synaptic events in vivo, which correlated with the number of dendritic spines in reconstructed neurons. Furthermore, parallel changes in the kinetics of the synaptic events and the distribution of spines indicated a more prominent functional contribution of synaptic inputs from across the dendritic tree. The shift in spine distribution across the dendritic tree was further confirmed with the examination of Golgi-stained tissue. This abnormal physiological drive of BA neurons after repeated stress may contribute to heightened affective responses after chronic stress. A reduction in the impact of excitatory drive in the BA may therefore be a potential treatment for the harmful effects of chronic stress in psychiatric disorders. PMID:23535779

  14. Signaling mechanisms and behavioral function of the mouse basal vomeronasal neuroepithelium.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Gómez, Anabel; Stein, Benjamin; Leinders-Zufall, Trese; Chamero, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is a sensory organ that is found in most terrestrial vertebrates and that is principally implicated in the detection of pheromones. The VNO contains specialized sensory neurons organized in a pseudostratified neuroepithelium that recognize chemical signals involved in initiating innate behavioral responses. In rodents, the VNO neuroepithelium is segregated into two distinct zones, apical and basal. The molecular mechanisms involved in ligand detection by apical and basal VNO sensory neurons differ extensively. These two VNO subsystems express different subfamilies of vomeronasal receptors and signaling molecules, detect distinct chemosignals, and project to separate regions of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). The roles that these olfactory subdivisions play in the control of specific olfactory-mediated behaviors are largely unclear. However, analysis of mutant mouse lines for signal transduction components together with identification of defined chemosensory ligands has revealed a fundamental role of the basal part of the mouse VNO in mediating a wide range of instinctive behaviors, such as aggression, predator avoidance, and sexual attraction. Here we will compare the divergent functions and synergies between the olfactory subsystems and consider new insights in how higher neural circuits are defined for the initiation of instinctive behaviors. PMID:25505388

  15. Two Neutron Removal in Relativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Significant discrepancies between theory and experiment have previously been noted for double neutron removal via electromagnetic processes in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. The present work examines the cause of these discrepancies and systematically investigates whether the problem might be due to electromagnetic theory, nuclear contributions, or an underestimate of experimental error. Using cross section systematics from other reactions it is found that the discrepancies can be resolved in a plausible manner.

  16. Readiness in the Basal Reader: An Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Pamela

    A study examined two 1989 basal reading series' (published by McGraw Hill and Holt) readiness/priming sequences in order to ascertain the theoretical bases of each and then compared the findings with those of an earlier study. All pages of the readiness/priming sequence student texts and workbooks of both basal reading series were analyzed using…

  17. Modern basal insulin analogs: An incomplete story

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Awadhesh Kumar; Gangopadhyay, Kalyan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The currently available basal insulin does not completely mimic the endogenous insulin secretion. This has continued to promote the search for ideal basal insulin. The newer basal insulin have primarily focused on increasing the duration of action, reducing variability, and reducing the incidence of hypoglycemia, particularly nocturnal. However, the changing criteria of hypoglycemia within a short span of a few years along with the surprising introduction of major cardiac events as another outcome measure has not only clouded the assessment of basal insulin but has also polarized opinion worldwide about the utility of the newer basal insulin. A critical review of both the pre and post FDA analysis of all the basal insulin in this article attempts to clear some of the confusion surrounding the issues of hypoglycemia and glycemic control. This article also discusses all the trials and meta-analysis done on all the current basal insulin available along with their head-to-head comparison with particular attention to glycemic control and hypoglycemic events including severe and nocturnal hypoglycemia. This in-depth analysis hopes to provide a clear interpretation of the various analyses available in literature at this point of time thereby acting as an excellent guide to the readers in choosing the most appropriate basal insulin for their patient. PMID:25364672

  18. Modern basal insulin analogs: An incomplete story.

    PubMed

    Singh, Awadhesh Kumar; Gangopadhyay, Kalyan Kumar

    2014-11-01

    The currently available basal insulin does not completely mimic the endogenous insulin secretion. This has continued to promote the search for ideal basal insulin. The newer basal insulin have primarily focused on increasing the duration of action, reducing variability, and reducing the incidence of hypoglycemia, particularly nocturnal. However, the changing criteria of hypoglycemia within a short span of a few years along with the surprising introduction of major cardiac events as another outcome measure has not only clouded the assessment of basal insulin but has also polarized opinion worldwide about the utility of the newer basal insulin. A critical review of both the pre and post FDA analysis of all the basal insulin in this article attempts to clear some of the confusion surrounding the issues of hypoglycemia and glycemic control. This article also discusses all the trials and meta-analysis done on all the current basal insulin available along with their head-to-head comparison with particular attention to glycemic control and hypoglycemic events including severe and nocturnal hypoglycemia. This in-depth analysis hopes to provide a clear interpretation of the various analyses available in literature at this point of time thereby acting as an excellent guide to the readers in choosing the most appropriate basal insulin for their patient. PMID:25364672

  19. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome).

    PubMed

    Bresler, Scott C; Padwa, Bonnie L; Granter, Scott R

    2016-06-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, or basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome), is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by development of basal cell carcinomas from a young age. Other distinguishing clinical features are seen in a majority of patients, and include keratocystic odontogenic tumors (formerly odontogenic keratocysts) as well as dyskeratotic palmar and plantar pitting. A range of skeletal and other developmental abnormalities are also often seen. The disorder is caused by defects in hedgehog signaling which result in constitutive pathway activity and tumor cell proliferation. As sporadic basal cell carcinomas also commonly harbor hedgehog pathway aberrations, therapeutic agents targeting key signaling constituents have been developed and tested against advanced sporadically occurring tumors or syndromic disease, leading in 2013 to FDA approval of the first hedgehog pathway-targeted small molecule, vismodegib. The elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome has resulted in further understanding of the most common human malignancy. PMID:26971503

  20. Unexpected doubly-magic nucleus.

    SciTech Connect

    Janssens, R. V. F.; Physics

    2009-01-01

    Nuclei with a 'magic' number of both protons and neutrons, dubbed doubly magic, are particularly stable. The oxygen isotope {sup 24}O has been found to be one such nucleus - yet it lies just at the limit of stability.

  1. Accessory Scrotum With Perineal Lipoma: Pathologic Evaluation Including Androgen Receptor Expression

    PubMed Central

    Iida, Keitaro; Mizuno, Kentaro; Nishio, Hidenori; Moritoki, Yoshinobu; Kamisawa, Hideyuki; Kurokawa, Satoshi; Kohri, Kenjiro; Hayashi, Yutaro

    2014-01-01

    Accessory scrotum is an unusual developmental anomaly defined as additional scrotal tissue in addition to a normally developed scrotum. The accessory scrotum arises posterior to the normally located scrotum and does not contain a testis. We report a case of an 18-month-old boy with an accessory scrotum attached to a perineal lipoma. We resected both and determined histologically that they were of the same tissue as the scrotum, including the presence of androgen receptor expression. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case to assess androgen receptor expression in an accessory scrotum using immunostaining. PMID:26958486

  2. Role of the Accessory Parotid Gland in the Etiology of Parotitis: Statistical Analysis of Sialographic Features

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wangyong; Hu, Fengchun; Liu, Xingguang; Guo, Songcan; Tao, Qian

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to identify if the existence of the accessory parotid gland correlated with the etiology of parotitis. This may aid the development of better treatment strategies in the future. Sialographic features of cases with parotitis and healthy subjects were reviewed. The chi-square test was used to compare the incidence of accessory parotid gland between the groups. The Student’s t test was used to compare the length of Stensen’s duct, the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct, and the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen’s duct between the groups. The incidence of accessory parotid gland in patients with parotitis was 71.8% (28/39), which was significantly higher than that in healthy subjects (P = 0.005). Patients with parotitis had a longer Stensen’s duct than healthy subjects (P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct or the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen’s duct (P = 0.136 and 0.511, respectively) between the groups. The accessory parotid gland might play a role in the pathogenesis of parotitis. The existence of an accessory parotid gland is likely to interfere with salivary flow. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of salivary flow in the ductal system would be useful in future etiologic studies on parotitis. PMID:26913509

  3. A neural model of basal ganglia-thalamocortical relations in normal and parkinsonian movement.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Vidal, J L; Stelmach, G E

    1995-10-01

    Anatomical, neurophysiological, and neurochemical evidence supports the notion of parallel basal ganglia-thalamocortical motor systems. We developed a neural network model for the functioning of these systems during normal and parkinsonian movement. Parkinson's disease (PD), which results predominantly from nigrostriatal pathway damage, is used as a window to examine basal ganglia function. Simulations of dopamine depletion produce motor impairments consistent with motor deficits observed in PD that suggest the basal ganglia play a role in motor initiation and execution, and sequencing of motor programs. Stereotaxic lesions in the model's globus pallidus and subthalamic nucleus suggest that these lesions, although reducing some PD symptoms, may constrain the repertoire of available movements. It is proposed that paradoxical observations of basal ganglia responses reported in the literature may result from regional functional neuronal specialization, and the non-uniform distributions of neurochemicals in the basal ganglia. It is hypothesized that dopamine depletion produces smaller-than-normal pallidothalamic gating signals that prevent rescalability of these signals to control variable movement speed, and that in PD can produce smaller-than-normal movement amplitudes. PMID:7578481

  4. Thermomechanical milling of accessory lithics in volcanic conduits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Michelle E.; Russell, James K.; Porritt, Lucy A.

    2013-09-01

    Accessory lithic clasts recovered from pyroclastic deposits commonly result from the failure of conduit wall rocks, and represent an underutilized resource for constraining conduit processes during explosive volcanic eruptions. The morphological features of lithic clasts provide distinctive 'textural fingerprints' of processes that have reshaped them during transport in the conduit. Here, we present the first study focused on accessory lithic clast morphology and show how the shapes and surfaces of these accessory pyroclasts can inform on conduit processes. We use two main types of accessory lithic clasts from pyroclastic fallout deposits of the 2360 B.P. subplinian eruption of Mount Meager, British Columbia, as a case study: (i) rough and subangular dacite clasts, and (ii) variably rounded and smoothed monzogranite clasts. The quantitative morphological data collected on these lithics include: mass, volume, density, 2-D image analysis of convexity (C), and 3-D laser scans for sphericity (Ψ) and smoothness (S). Shaping and comminution (i.e. milling) of clasts within the conduit are ascribed to three processes: (1) disruptive fragmentation due to high-energy impacts between clasts or between clasts and conduit walls, (2) ash-blasting of clasts suspended within the volcanic flux, and (3) thermal effects. We use a simplified conduit eruption model to predict ash-blasting velocities and lithic residence times as a function of clast size and source depth, thereby constraining the lithic milling processes. The extent of shape and surface modification (i.e. rounding and honing) is directly proportional to clast residence times within the conduit prior to evacuation. We postulate that the shallow-seated dacite clasts remain subangular and rough due to short (<2 min) residence times, whereas monzogranite clasts are much more rounded and smoothed due to deeper source depths and consequently longer residence times (up to ˜1 h). Larger monzogranite clasts are smoother than

  5. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bilir, Yeliz; Gokce, Erkan; Ozturk, Banu; Deresoy, Faik Alev; Yuksekkaya, Ruken; Yaman, Emel

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts), the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome. PMID:25506011

  6. The Basal Ganglia-Circa 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehler, William R.

    1981-01-01

    Our review has shown that recent studies with the new anterograde and retrograde axon transport methods have confirmed and extended our knowledge of the projection of the basal ganglia and clarified their sites of origin. They have thrown new light on certain topographic connectional relationships and revealed several new reciprocal connections between constituent nuclei of the basal ganglia. Similarly, attention has been drawn to the fact that there have also been many new histochemical techniques introduced in recent years that are now providing regional biochemical overlays for connectional maps of the central nervous system, especially regions in, or interconnecting with, the basal ganglia. However, although these new morphological biochemical maps are very complex and technically highly advanced, our understanding of the function controlled by the basal ganglia still remains primitive. The reader who is interested in some new ideas of the functional aspects of the basal ganglia is directed to Nauta's proposed conceptual reorganization of the basal ganglia telencephalon and to Marsden's more clinically orientated appraisal of the unsolved mysteries of the basal ganglia participation in the control of movement.

  7. Sensitivity of cross sections for elastic nucleus-nucleus scattering to halo nucleus density distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Alkhazov, G. D.; Sarantsev, V. V.

    2012-12-15

    In order to clear up the sensitivity of the nucleus-nucleus scattering to the nuclear matter distributions in exotic halo nuclei, we have calculated differential cross sections for elastic scattering of the {sup 6}He and {sup 11}Li nuclei on several nuclear targets at the energy of 0.8 GeV/nucleon with different assumed nuclear density distributions in {sup 6}He and {sup 11}Li.

  8. Thermodynamic significance of human basal metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cuncheng

    1993-06-01

    The human basal state, a non-equilibrium steady state, is analysed in this paper in the light of the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics whereby the thermodynamic significance of the basal metabolic rate and its distinction to the dissipation function and exergy loss are identified. The analysis demonstrates the correct expression of the effects of the blood flow on the heat balance in a human-body bio-heat model and the relationship between the basal metabolic rate and the blood perfusion.

  9. Basal encephalocele and morning glory syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Caprioli, J; Lesser, R L

    1983-01-01

    Basal encephaloceles are often associated with other midline anomalies such as hypertelorism, broad nasal root, cleft lip, and cleft palate. Optic disc anomalies such as pallor, dysplasia, optic pit, coLoboma, and megalopapilla have been reported to occur in patients with basal encephalocele We report a case of a child with a sphenoethmoidal encephalocele and morning glory syndrome of the optic nerve. The presence of such optic nerve anomalies with facial midline anomalies should alert the clinician to the possible presence of a basal encephalocele. Images PMID:6849854

  10. Neuroanatomical Correlates of Intelligence in Healthy Young Adults: The Role of Basal Ganglia Volume

    PubMed Central

    Rhein, Cosima; Mühle, Christiane; Richter-Schmidinger, Tanja; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Doerfler, Arnd; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Background In neuropsychiatric diseases with basal ganglia involvement, higher cognitive functions are often impaired. In this exploratory study, we examined healthy young adults to gain detailed insight into the relationship between basal ganglia volume and cognitive abilities under non-pathological conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated 137 healthy adults that were between the ages of 21 and 35 years with similar educational backgrounds. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, and volumes of basal ganglia nuclei in both hemispheres were calculated using FreeSurfer software. The cognitive assessment consisted of verbal, numeric and figural aspects of intelligence for either the fluid or the crystallised intelligence factor using the intelligence test Intelligenz-Struktur-Test (I-S-T 2000 R). Our data revealed significant correlations of the caudate nucleus and pallidum volumes with figural and numeric aspects of intelligence, but not with verbal intelligence. Interestingly, figural intelligence associations were dependent on sex and intelligence factor; in females, the pallidum volumes were correlated with crystallised figural intelligence (r = 0.372, p = 0.01), whereas in males, the caudate volumes were correlated with fluid figural intelligence (r = 0.507, p = 0.01). Numeric intelligence was correlated with right-lateralised caudate nucleus volumes for both females and males, but only for crystallised intelligence (r = 0.306, p = 0.04 and r = 0.459, p = 0.04, respectively). The associations were not mediated by prefrontal cortical subfield volumes when controlling with partial correlation analyses. Conclusions/Significance The findings of our exploratory analysis indicate that figural and numeric intelligence aspects, but not verbal aspects, are strongly associated with basal ganglia volumes. Unlike numeric intelligence, the type of figural intelligence appears to be related to distinct basal ganglia

  11. Stereotaxic probabilistic maps of the magnocellular cell groups in human basal forebrain

    PubMed Central

    Zaborszky, L.; Hoemke, L.; Mohlberg, H.; Schleicher, A.; Amunts, K.; Zilles, K.

    2008-01-01

    The basal forebrain contains several interdigitating anatomical structures, including the diagonal band of Broca, the basal nucleus of Meynert, the ventral striatum, and also cell groups underneath the globus pallidus that bridge the centromedial amygdala to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Among the cell populations, the magnocellular, cholinergic corticopetal projection neurons have received particular attention due to their loss in Alzheimer’s disease. In MRI images, the precise delineation of these structures is difficult due to limited spatial resolution and contrast. Here, using microscopic delineations in ten human postmortem brains, we present stereotaxic probabilistic maps of the basal forebrain areas containing the magnocellular cell groups. Cytoarchitectonic mapping was performed in silver stained histological serial sections. The positions and the extent of the magnocellular cell groups within the septum (Ch1-2), the horizontal limb of the diagonal band (Ch3), and in the sublenticular part of the basal forebrain (Ch4) were traced in high-resolution digitized histological sections, 3D reconstructed, and warped to the reference space of the MNI single subject brain. The superposition of the cytoarchitectonic maps in the MNI brain shows the intersubject variability of the various Ch compartments and their stereotaxic position relative to other brain structures. Both the right and left Ch4 regions showed significantly smaller volumes when age was considered as a covariate. Probabilistic maps of compartments of the basal forebrain magnocellular system are now available as an open source reference for correlation with fMRI, PET, and structural MRI data of the living human brain. PMID:18585468

  12. Male accessory gland infection and sperm parameters (review).

    PubMed

    La Vignera, S; Vicari, E; Condorelli, R A; D'Agata, R; Calogero, A E

    2011-10-01

    Male accessory gland infection (MAGI) has been identified among those diagnostic categories which have a negative impact on the reproductive function and fertility in males (Rowe et al., World Health Organization Manual for the Standardised Investigation and Diagnosis of the Infertile Couple, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1993). MAGI is a hypernym which groups the following different clinical categories: prostatitis, prostate-vesiculitis and prostate-vesiculo-epididymitis. Some of the characteristics they share are: common diseases, mainly have a chronic course, rarely cause obstruction of the seminal pathways, can have an unpredictable intracanicular spread to one or more sexual accessory glands of the reproductive tract, as well as to one or both sides. In this review, we show that all components involving the inflammatory response (from the agents which first trigger it to each component of the inflammatory response dynamic) can deteriorate conventional and/or non-conventional sperm parameters arising from one or more of the following mechanisms: altered secretory function of the epididymis, seminal vesicles, and prostate which reduce the antioxidant properties or scavenging role of the seminal plasma; deterioration of spermatogenesis; and (unilateral or bilateral) organic or functional sub-obstruction of the seminal tract. PMID:21696400

  13. Effects of aging on nitrergic neurons in human striatum and subthalamic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Santos-Lobato, Bruno Lopes dos; Del-Bel, Elaine Aparecida; Pittella, José Eymard Homem; Tumas, Vitor

    2015-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a major neurotransmitter associated with motor control in basal ganglia. Movement disorders, as essential tremor and Parkinson's disease, are more prevalent on aged individuals. We investigated the effects of aging on neuronal density and diameter/area of nitrergic neurons in samples of striatum (caudate and putamen) and subthalamic nucleus of 20 human brains from normal subjects, stained by histochemistry for NADPH-diaphorase and immunohistochemistry for neuronal NO synthase. Our data showed aging does not modify the neuronal density and size of nitrergic neurons in striatum and subthalamic nucleus. These findings suggest a lack of association between aging and morphologic changes on nitrergic neurons. PMID:26352497

  14. Plant basal resistance to nematodes: an update.

    PubMed

    Holbein, Julia; Grundler, Florian M W; Siddique, Shahid

    2016-03-01

    Most plant-parasitic nematodes are obligate biotrophs feeding on the roots of their hosts. Whereas ectoparasites remain on the root surface and feed on the outer cell layers, endoparasitic nematodes enter the host to parasitize cells around or within the central cylinder. Nematode invasion and feeding causes tissue damage which may, in turn, lead to the activation of host basal defence responses. Hitherto, research interests in plant-nematode interaction have emphasized effector-triggered immunity rather than basal plant defence responses. However, some recent investigations suggest that basal defence pathways are not only activated but also play an important role in determining interaction outcomes. In this review we discuss the major findings and point out future directions to dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying plant basal defence to nematodes further. PMID:26842982

  15. Double Nucleus in M83

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mast, Damián; Díaz, Rubén J.; Agüero, M. Paz

    2006-03-01

    M83 is one of the nearest galaxies with enhanced nuclear star formation, and it presents one of the best opportunities to study the kinematics and physical properties of a circumnuclear starburst. Our three-dimensional spectroscopy data in the R band confirm the presence of a secondary nucleus or mass concentration (previously suggested by Thatte and coworkers). We determine the position of this hidden nucleus, which would be more massive than the visible one and was not detected in the optical Hubble Space Telescope images due, probably, to the strong dust extinction. Using a Keplerian approximation, we estimated for the optical nucleus a mass of (5.0+/-0.8)×106 Msolar/sini (r<1.5"), and for the hidden nucleus, located 4''+/-1'' to the northwest (position angle of 271deg+/-15deg) of the optical nucleus, a mass of (1.00+/-0.08)×107 Msolar/sini (r<1.5"). The emission-line ratio map also unveils the presence of a second circumnuclear ring structure, previously discovered by IR imaging (Elmegreen and coworkers). The data allow us to resolve the behavior of the interstellar medium inside the circumnuclear ring and around the binary mass concentration.

  16. Induction of Excessive Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in the Drosophila Male Accessory Gland Results in Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Clement Y.; Avila, Frank W.; Clark, Andrew G.; Wolfner, Mariana F.

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occurs when misfolded proteins accumulate in the lumen of the ER. A cell responds to ER stress with the unfolded protein response (UPR), a complex program of transcriptional and translational changes aimed at clearing misfolded proteins. Secretory tissues and cells are particularly well adapted to respond to ER stress because their function requires high protein production and secretory load. The insect male accessory gland (AG) is a secretory tissue involved in male fertility. The AG secretes many seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) essential for male reproduction. Among adult Drosophila tissues, we find that genes upregulated by ER stress are most highly expressed in the AG, suggesting that the AG is already undergoing high levels of ER stress due to its normal secretory functions. We hypothesized that induction of excessive ER stress in the AG above basal levels, would perturb normal function and provide a genetic tool for studying AG and SFP biology. To test this, we genetically induced excessive ER stress in the AG by conditional 1) expression of a misfolded protein or 2) knockdown of the UPR regulatory protein, BiP. Both genetic manipulations induced excessive ER stress in the AG, as indicated by the increase in Xbp1 splicing, a marker of ER stress. Both models resulted in a large decrease in or loss of SFP production and male infertility. Sperm production, motility, and transfer appeared unaffected. The induction of strong ER stress in the insect male AG may provide a simple way for studying or manipulating male fertility, as it eliminates AG function while preserving sperm production. PMID:25742606

  17. Automatic basal slice detection for cardiac analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paknezhad, Mahsa; Marchesseau, Stephanie; Brown, Michael S.

    2016-03-01

    Identification of the basal slice in cardiac imaging is a key step to measuring the ejection fraction (EF) of the left ventricle (LV). Despite research on cardiac segmentation, basal slice identification is routinely performed manually. Manual identification, however, has been shown to have high inter-observer variability, with a variation of the EF by up to 8%. Therefore, an automatic way of identifying the basal slice is still required. Prior published methods operate by automatically tracking the mitral valve points from the long-axis view of the LV. These approaches assumed that the basal slice is the first short-axis slice below the mitral valve. However, guidelines published in 2013 by the society for cardiovascular magnetic resonance indicate that the basal slice is the uppermost short-axis slice with more than 50% myocardium surrounding the blood cavity. Consequently, these existing methods are at times identifying the incorrect short-axis slice. Correct identification of the basal slice under these guidelines is challenging due to the poor image quality and blood movement during image acquisition. This paper proposes an automatic tool that focuses on the two-chamber slice to find the basal slice. To this end, an active shape model is trained to automatically segment the two-chamber view for 51 samples using the leave-one-out strategy. The basal slice was detected using temporal binary profiles created for each short-axis slice from the segmented two-chamber slice. From the 51 successfully tested samples, 92% and 84% of detection results were accurate at the end-systolic and the end-diastolic phases of the cardiac cycle, respectively.

  18. Epidemiology of basal-like breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Millikan, Robert C.; Newman, Beth; Tse, Chiu-Kit; Moorman, Patricia G.; Conway, Kathleen; Smith, Lisa V.; Labbok, Miriam H.; Geradts, Joseph; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Jackson, Susan; Nyante, Sarah; Livasy, Chad; Carey, Lisa; Earp, H. Shelton; Perou, Charles M.

    2008-01-01

    Risk factors for the newly identified “intrinsic” breast cancer subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, basal-like and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive/estrogen receptor-negative) were determined in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based, case–control study of African-American and white women. Immunohistochemical markers were used to subtype 1,424 cases of invasive and in situ breast cancer, and case subtypes were compared to 2,022 controls. Luminal A, the most common subtype, exhibited risk factors typically reported for breast cancer in previous studies, including inverse associations for increased parity and younger age at first full-term pregnancy. Basal-like cases exhibited several associations that were opposite to those observed for luminal A, including increased risk for parity and younger age at first term full-term pregnancy. Longer duration breastfeeding, increasing number of children breastfed, and increasing number of months breastfeeding per child were each associated with reduced risk of basal-like breast cancer, but not luminal A. Women with multiple live births who did not breastfeed and women who used medications to suppress lactation were at increased risk of basal-like, but not luminal A, breast cancer. Elevated waist-hip ratio was associated with increased risk of luminal A in postmenopausal women, and increased risk of basal-like breast cancer in pre- and postmenopausal women. The prevalence of basal-like breast cancer was highest among premenopausal African-American women, who also showed the highest prevalence of basal-like risk factors. Among younger African-American women, we estimate that up to 68% of basal-like breast cancer could be prevented by promoting breastfeeding and reducing abdominal adiposity. PMID:17578664

  19. β3GnT2 null mice exhibit defective accessory olfactory bulb innervation.

    PubMed

    Henion, Timothy R; Madany, Pasil A; Faden, Ashley A; Schwarting, Gerald A

    2013-01-01

    Vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs) extend axons to the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) where they form synaptic connections that relay pheromone signals to the brain. The projections of apical and basal VSNs segregate in the AOB into anterior (aAOB) and posterior (pAOB) compartments. Although some aspects of this organization exhibit fundamental similarities with the main olfactory system, the mechanisms that regulate mammalian vomeronasal targeting are not as well understood. In the olfactory epithelium (OE), the glycosyltransferase β3GnT2 maintains expression of axon guidance cues required for proper glomerular positioning and neuronal survival. We show here that β3GnT2 also regulates guidance and adhesion molecule expression in the vomeronasal system in ways that are partially distinct from the OE. In wildtype mice, ephrinA5(+) axons project to stereotypic subdomains in both the aAOB and pAOB compartments. This pattern is dramatically altered in β3GnT2(-/-) mice, where ephrinA5 is upregulated exclusively on aAOB axons. Despite this, apical and basal VSN projections remain strictly segregated in the null AOB, although some V2r1b axons that normally project to the pAOB inappropriately innervate the anterior compartment. These fibers appear to arise from ectopic expression of V2r1b receptors in a subset of apical VSNs. The homotypic adhesion molecules Kirrel2 and OCAM that facilitate axon segregation and glomerular compartmentalization in the main olfactory bulb are ablated in the β3GnT2(-/-) aAOB. This loss is accompanied by a two-fold increase in the total number of V2r1b glomeruli and a failure to form morphologically distinct glomeruli in the anterior compartment. These results identify a novel function for β3GnT2 glycosylation in maintaining expression of layer-specific vomeronasal receptors, as well as adhesion molecules required for proper AOB glomerular formation. PMID:23006775

  20. The vomeronasal cortex - afferent and efferent projections of the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala in mice.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Castellanos, Nicolás; Pardo-Bellver, Cecília; Martínez-García, Fernando; Lanuza, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Most mammals possess a vomeronasal system that detects predominantly chemical signals of biological relevance. Vomeronasal information is relayed to the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), whose unique cortical target is the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala. This cortical structure should therefore be considered the primary vomeronasal cortex. In the present work, we describe the afferent and efferent connections of the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala in female mice, using anterograde (biotinylated dextranamines) and retrograde (Fluorogold) tracers, and zinc selenite as a tracer specific for zinc-enriched (putative glutamatergic) projections. The results show that the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala is strongly interconnected not only with the rest of the vomeronasal system (AOB and its target structures in the amygdala), but also with the olfactory system (piriform cortex, olfactory-recipient nuclei of the amygdala and entorhinal cortex). Therefore, the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala probably integrates olfactory and vomeronasal information. In addition, the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala shows moderate interconnections with the associative (basomedial) amygdala and with the ventral hippocampus, which may be involved in emotional and spatial learning (respectively) induced by chemical signals. Finally, the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala gives rise to zinc-enriched projections to the ventrolateral septum and the ventromedial striatum (including the medial islands of Calleja). This pattern of intracortical connections (with the olfactory cortex and hippocampus, mainly) and cortico-striatal excitatory projections (with the olfactory tubercle and septum) is consistent with its proposed nature as the primary vomeronasal cortex. PMID:24188795

  1. 21 CFR 876.5880 - Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and....5880 Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories. (a) Identification. An isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories is a device that is used to support a donated or...

  2. 21 CFR 876.5880 - Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and....5880 Isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories. (a) Identification. An isolated kidney perfusion and transport system and accessories is a device that is used to support a donated or...

  3. 21 CFR 884.4160 - Unipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... accessories. 884.4160 Section 884.4160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... endoscopic observation. This generic type of device may include the following accessories: an electrical generator, probes and electrical cables, and a patient grounding plate. This generic type of device does...

  4. 21 CFR 884.4160 - Unipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... accessories. 884.4160 Section 884.4160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... endoscopic observation. This generic type of device may include the following accessories: an electrical generator, probes and electrical cables, and a patient grounding plate. This generic type of device does...

  5. 21 CFR 884.4160 - Unipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... accessories. 884.4160 Section 884.4160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... endoscopic observation. This generic type of device may include the following accessories: an electrical generator, probes and electrical cables, and a patient grounding plate. This generic type of device does...

  6. 21 CFR 884.4160 - Unipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... accessories. 884.4160 Section 884.4160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... endoscopic observation. This generic type of device may include the following accessories: an electrical generator, probes and electrical cables, and a patient grounding plate. This generic type of device does...

  7. 21 CFR 888.4580 - Sonic surgical instrument and accessories/attachments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sonic surgical instrument and accessories/attachments. 888.4580 Section 888.4580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4580 Sonic surgical instrument and accessories/attachments....

  8. Crystallization of accessory phases in magmas by local saturation adjacent to phenocrysts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacon, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    Accessory minerals commonly occur attached to or included in the major crystalline phases of felsic and some intermediate igneous rocks. Apatite is particularly common as inclusions, but Fe-Ti oxides, pyrrhotite, zircon, monazite, chevkinite and xenotime are also known from silicic rocks. Accessories may nucleate near the host crystal/ liquid interface as a result of local saturation owing to formation of a differentiated chemical boundary layer in which accessory mineral solubility would be lower than in the surrounding liquid. Differentiation of this boundary layer would be greatest adjacent to ferromagnesian phenocrysts, especially Fe-Ti oxides; it is with oxides that accessories are most commonly associated in rocks. A boundary layer may develop if the crystal grows more rapidly than diffusion can transport incorporated and rejected elements to and from the phenocryst. Diffusion must dominate over convection as a mode of mass transfer near the advancing crystal/liquid interface in order for a boundary layer to exist. Accumulation of essential structural constituent elements of accessory minerals owing to their slow diffusion in evolved silicate melt also may force local saturation, but this is not a process that applies to all cases. Local saturation is an attractive mechanism for enhancing fractionation during crystallization differentiation. If accessory minerals attached to or included in phenocrysts formed because of local saturation, their host phenocrysts must have grown rapidly when accessories nucleated in comparison to lifetimes of magma reservoirs. Some inconsistencies remain in a local saturation origin for accessory phases that cannot be evaluated without additional information. ?? 1989.

  9. 21 CFR 878.4400 - Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and....4400 Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. (a) Identification. An electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories is a device intended to remove tissue and...

  10. 21 CFR 878.4400 - Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and....4400 Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. (a) Identification. An electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories is a device intended to remove tissue and...

  11. 21 CFR 878.4400 - Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and....4400 Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. (a) Identification. An electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories is a device intended to remove tissue and...

  12. 21 CFR 878.4400 - Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and....4400 Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. (a) Identification. An electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories is a device intended to remove tissue and...

  13. 21 CFR 878.4400 - Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and....4400 Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. (a) Identification. An electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories is a device intended to remove tissue and...

  14. 49 CFR 178.255-7 - Protection of valves and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Protection of valves and accessories. 178.255-7 Section 178.255-7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Portable Tanks § 178.255-7 Protection of valves and accessories. (a) All...

  15. 49 CFR 178.255-7 - Protection of valves and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Protection of valves and accessories. 178.255-7 Section 178.255-7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Portable Tanks § 178.255-7 Protection of valves and accessories. (a) All...

  16. 49 CFR 178.255-7 - Protection of valves and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Protection of valves and accessories. 178.255-7 Section 178.255-7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Portable Tanks § 178.255-7 Protection of valves and accessories. (a) All...

  17. 49 CFR 178.255-7 - Protection of valves and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Protection of valves and accessories. 178.255-7 Section 178.255-7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Portable Tanks § 178.255-7 Protection of valves and accessories. (a) All...

  18. 76 FR 24522 - In the Matter of Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ...,519,828. 76 FR 585-6 (Jan. 5, 2011). The complainant named as respondents T&T Handbag Industrial Co... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Notice of... handbags, luggage, accessories, and packaging thereof by reason of infringement of certain claims of...

  19. 21 CFR 884.1300 - Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and... Gynecological Diagnostic Devices § 884.1300 Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories. (a) Identification. A uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories is a device used to test the...

  20. 21 CFR 884.1300 - Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and... Gynecological Diagnostic Devices § 884.1300 Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories. (a) Identification. A uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories is a device used to test the...

  1. 21 CFR 884.1300 - Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and... Gynecological Diagnostic Devices § 884.1300 Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories. (a) Identification. A uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories is a device used to test the...

  2. 21 CFR 884.1300 - Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and... Gynecological Diagnostic Devices § 884.1300 Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories. (a) Identification. A uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories is a device used to test the...

  3. 21 CFR 884.1300 - Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and... Gynecological Diagnostic Devices § 884.1300 Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories. (a) Identification. A uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories is a device used to test the...

  4. 21 CFR 882.4300 - Manual cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their accessories

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their... Manual cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their accessories (a) Identification. Manual cranial drills, burrs, trephines, and their accessories are bone cutting and drilling instruments that are used...

  5. 21 CFR 876.4730 - Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical... Devices § 876.4730 Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories is a device designed to...

  6. 29 CFR 1919.28 - Unit proof tests-cranes and gear accessory thereto.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unit proof tests-cranes and gear accessory thereto. 1919.28... Loads; Heat Treatment; Competent Persons § 1919.28 Unit proof tests—cranes and gear accessory thereto. (a) Except as noted in paragraph (e) of this section, cranes and other hoisting machines,...

  7. 29 CFR 1919.28 - Unit proof tests-cranes and gear accessory thereto.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unit proof tests-cranes and gear accessory thereto. 1919.28... Loads; Heat Treatment; Competent Persons § 1919.28 Unit proof tests—cranes and gear accessory thereto. (a) Except as noted in paragraph (e) of this section, cranes and other hoisting machines,...

  8. 29 CFR 1919.28 - Unit proof tests-cranes and gear accessory thereto.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unit proof tests-cranes and gear accessory thereto. 1919.28... Loads; Heat Treatment; Competent Persons § 1919.28 Unit proof tests—cranes and gear accessory thereto. (a) Except as noted in paragraph (e) of this section, cranes and other hoisting machines,...

  9. 29 CFR 1919.28 - Unit proof tests-cranes and gear accessory thereto.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unit proof tests-cranes and gear accessory thereto. 1919.28... Loads; Heat Treatment; Competent Persons § 1919.28 Unit proof tests—cranes and gear accessory thereto. (a) Except as noted in paragraph (e) of this section, cranes and other hoisting machines,...

  10. 29 CFR 1919.28 - Unit proof tests-cranes and gear accessory thereto.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unit proof tests-cranes and gear accessory thereto. 1919.28... Loads; Heat Treatment; Competent Persons § 1919.28 Unit proof tests—cranes and gear accessory thereto. (a) Except as noted in paragraph (e) of this section, cranes and other hoisting machines,...

  11. Electrical recordings from the accessory olfactory bulb in VNO-AOB ex vivo preparations.

    PubMed

    Meeks, Julian P; Holy, Timothy E

    2013-01-01

    Electrical recordings from individual accessory olfactory bulb neurons allow exploration of the functional properties of this important pheromonal processing circuit. Several approaches to performing such recordings have been used. Here, we describe ex vivo methods that we have found useful for recording from accessory olfactory bulb neurons using simple extracellular glass electrodes. PMID:24014366

  12. Nucleus management with irrigating vectis.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Aravind

    2009-01-01

    The main objective in modern cataract surgery is to achieve a better unaided visual acuity with rapid post-surgical recovery and minimal surgery-related complications. Early visual rehabilitation and better unaided vision can be achieved only by reducing the incision size. In manual small incision cataract surgery (MSICS), incision is between 5.5 to 7 mm. Once the nucleus is prolapsed into the anterior chamber, it can be extracted through the tunnel. Nucleus extraction with an irrigating vectis is a very simple technique, which combines mechanical and hydrostatic forces to express out the nucleus. This technique is time-tested with good results and more than 95% of nuclei in MSICS are extracted in this way offering all the merits of phacoemulsification with the added benefits of having wider applicability, better safety, shorter learning curve and lower cost. PMID:19075403

  13. Cometary nucleus and active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, F. L.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of the icy conglomerate model of cometary nuclei, various observations demonstrate the spotted nature of many or most nuclei, i.e., regions of unusual activity, either high or low. Rotation periods, spin axes and even precession of the axes are determined. The observational evidence for variations in activity over the surfaces of cometary nuclei are listed and discussed. On June 11 the comet IRAS-ARAKI-ALCOCK approached the Earth to a distance of 0.031 AU, the nearest since C/Lexell, 1770 I, providing a unique opportunity for near-nucleus observations. Preliminary analysis of these images establishes the spin axis of the nucleus, with an oblioquity to the orbit plane of approximately 50 deg, and a lag angle of sublimation approximately 35 deg from the solar meridian on the nucleus. Asymmetries of the inner coma suggests a crazy-quilt distribution of ices with differing volatility over the surface of the nucleus. The observations of Comet P/Homes 1892 III, exhibiting two 8-10 magnitude bursts, are carefully analyzed. The grazing encounter produced, besides the first great burst, an active area on the nucleus, which was rotating retrograde with a period of 16.3hr and inclination nearly 180 deg. After the first burst the total magnitude fell less than two magnitudes from November 7 to November 30 (barely naked eye) while the nuclear region remained diffuse or complex, rarely if ever showing a stellar appearance. The fading was much more rapid after the second burst. The grazing encounter distributed a volume of large chunks in the neighborhood of the nucleus, maintaining activity for weeks.

  14. Formin' actin in the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Baarlink, Christian; Grosse, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Many if not most proteins can, under certain conditions, change cellular compartments, such as, for example, shuttling from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Thus, many proteins may exert functions in various and very different subcellular locations, depending on the signaling context. A large amount of actin regulatory proteins has been detected in the mammalian cell nucleus, although their potential roles are much debated and are just beginning to emerge. Recently, members of the formin family of actin nucleators were also reported to dynamically localize to the nuclear environment. Here we discuss our findings that specific diaphanous-related formins can promote nuclear actin assembly in a signal-dependent manner. PMID:24637338

  15. Acridine: a versatile heterocyclic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ramesh; Kaur, Mandeep; Kumari, Meena

    2012-01-01

    Acridine is a heterocyclic nucleus. It plays an important role in various medicines. A number of therapeutic agents are based on acridine nucleus such as quinacrine (antimalarial), acriflavine and proflavine (antiseptics), ethacridine (abortifacient), amsacrine and nitracine (anticancer), and tacrine. Acridine is obtained from high boiling fraction of coal tar. It is also obtained in nature from plant and marine sources. Acridine undergoes a number of reactions such as nucleophilic addition, electrophilic substitution, oxidation, reduction, reductive alkylation and photoalkylation. The present review article summarizes the synthesis, reaction, literature review and pharmaceutical importance of acridine. PMID:22574501

  16. Health warning labelling practices on narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipe tobacco products and related accessories

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Background Waterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence is increasing around the globe despite current evidence that smoke emissions are toxic and contain carcinogenic compounds. Objective To evaluate current health warning labelling practices on waterpipe tobacco products and related accessories. Methods All waterpipe tobacco products, as well as waterpipe accessories, were purchased from Lebanon and a convenience sample was obtained from Dubai (United Arab Emirates), Palestine, Syria, Jordan, Bahrain, Canada, Germany and South Africa. Findings Of the total number of waterpipe tobacco products collected from Lebanon, the majority had textual health warning labels covering on average only 3.5% of total surface area of the package. Misleading descriptors were commonplace on waterpipe tobacco packages and related accessories. Conclusions There are no WHO FCTC compliant waterpipe-specific health warning labels on waterpipe tobacco products and related accessories. Introducing health warnings on waterpipe tobacco products and accessories will probably have worldwide public health benefits. PMID:20501497

  17. Functionalized active-nucleus complex sensor

    DOEpatents

    Pines, Alexander; Wemmer, David E.; Spence, Megan; Rubin, Seth

    2003-11-25

    A functionalized active-nucleus complex sensor that selectively associates with one or more target species, and a method for assaying and screening for one or a plurality of target species utilizing one or a plurality of functionalized active-nucleus complexes with at least two of the functionalized active-nucleus complexes having an attraction affinity to different corresponding target species. The functionalized active-nucleus complex has an active-nucleus and a targeting carrier. The method involves functionalizing an active-nucleus, for each functionalized active-nucleus complex, by incorporating the active-nucleus into a macromolucular or molecular complex that is capable of binding one of the target species and then bringing the macromolecular or molecular complexes into contact with the target species and detecting the occurrence of or change in a nuclear magnetic resonance signal from each of the active-nuclei in each of the functionalized active-nucleus complexes.

  18. Auditory Cortex Basal Activity Modulates Cochlear Responses in Chinchillas

    PubMed Central

    León, Alex; Elgueda, Diego; Silva, María A.; Hamamé, Carlos M.; Delano, Paul H.

    2012-01-01

    Background The auditory efferent system has unique neuroanatomical pathways that connect the cerebral cortex with sensory receptor cells. Pyramidal neurons located in layers V and VI of the primary auditory cortex constitute descending projections to the thalamus, inferior colliculus, and even directly to the superior olivary complex and to the cochlear nucleus. Efferent pathways are connected to the cochlear receptor by the olivocochlear system, which innervates outer hair cells and auditory nerve fibers. The functional role of the cortico-olivocochlear efferent system remains debated. We hypothesized that auditory cortex basal activity modulates cochlear and auditory-nerve afferent responses through the efferent system. Methodology/Principal Findings Cochlear microphonics (CM), auditory-nerve compound action potentials (CAP) and auditory cortex evoked potentials (ACEP) were recorded in twenty anesthetized chinchillas, before, during and after auditory cortex deactivation by two methods: lidocaine microinjections or cortical cooling with cryoloops. Auditory cortex deactivation induced a transient reduction in ACEP amplitudes in fifteen animals (deactivation experiments) and a permanent reduction in five chinchillas (lesion experiments). We found significant changes in the amplitude of CM in both types of experiments, being the most common effect a CM decrease found in fifteen animals. Concomitantly to CM amplitude changes, we found CAP increases in seven chinchillas and CAP reductions in thirteen animals. Although ACEP amplitudes were completely recovered after ninety minutes in deactivation experiments, only partial recovery was observed in the magnitudes of cochlear responses. Conclusions/Significance These results show that blocking ongoing auditory cortex activity modulates CM and CAP responses, demonstrating that cortico-olivocochlear circuits regulate auditory nerve and cochlear responses through a basal efferent tone. The diversity of the obtained effects

  19. Silicone-based stoma accessories in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Elaine

    Advanced silicone technology has transformed the treatment of wounds and peri-wound skin. Recently, there has been interest in the use of silicone-based products in stoma care. Peristomal skin issues are a common problem, and can have a negative impact on the patient's quality of life, so helping the ostomate maintain good skin health is crucial. The author, a stoma care nurse, regularly sees 3-4 patients each week in her stoma care clinic with damaged or broken peristomal skin. This article explores the 'Trio' range of silicone-based accessories, discussing how these products compare with the traditional hydrocolloid, how they are applied and used. A series of case studies illustrates the circumstances in which these products may be applied. PMID:26973010

  20. An accessory skull suture mimicking a skull fracture.

    PubMed

    Wiedijk, J E F; Soerdjbalie-Maikoe, V; Maat, G J R; Maes, A; van Rijn, R R; de Boer, H H

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes an investigation of the sudden and unexpected death of a five-and-a-half-month-old boy. As in every Dutch case of sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI), a multidisciplinary diagnostic approach was used. This included post-mortem radiography, showing a linear discontinuity of the parietal bone. Originally this was interpreted as a skull fracture, but autopsy indicated no signs of mechanical trauma. Instead the defect was defined as a unilateral accessory suture of the parietal bone. The initial erroneous diagnosis had severe adverse consequences and thus every health care professional or forensic specialist dealing with paediatric mechanical traumas should be cautious of this rare anomaly. PMID:26860068